WorldWideScience

Sample records for research problem addressed

  1. Addressing Problems of Conceptualization and Construct Validity in Researching Teachers' Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Ambiguity in the meaning of job satisfaction has caused construct validity problems in research. A series of small-scale studies of teachers suggested a distinction between job fulfillment and job comfort as well as a need for understanding how job satisfaction is interpreted by researchers. (SK)

  2. Competitive Benchmarking: An IS Research Approach to Address Wicked Problems with Big Data and Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); M. Peters (Markus); J. Collins (John); A. Gupta (Alok)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWicked problems like sustainable energy and financial market stability are societal challenges that arise from complex socio-technical systems in which numerous social, economic, political, and technical factors interact. Understanding and mitigating them requires research methods that s

  3. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  4. How GIS can help address the uncertain geographic context problem in social science research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    The uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP), first articulated by Kwan (2012; The uncertain geographic context problem. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 102 (5), 958–968), refers to the problem that findings about the effects of area-based contextual variables on individual be

  5. Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...

  6. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, Ans

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage t...

  7. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  8. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  9. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin's dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber's structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure. PMID:27345617

  10. Addressing the Curriculum Problem in Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bill

    2012-01-01

    How best to understand the curriculum problem in doctoral research education: that is the question that this paper engages. It begins by noting that curriculum as such is little referenced and inadequately theorised in higher education and certainly in doctoral education, and indeed has been described as a "missing term". The paper then reviews a…

  11. Addressing some Common Problems in Transcript Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Fahy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer conferencing is one of the more useful parts of computer-mediated communications (CMC, and is virtually ubiquitous in distance education. The temptation to analyze the resulting interaction has resulted in only partial success, however (Henri, 1992; Kanuka and Anderson, 1998; Rourke, Anderson, Garrison and Archer, 1999; Fahy, Crawford, Ally, Cookson, Keller and Prosser, 2000. Some suggest the problem is made more complex by failings of both technique and, more seriously, theory capable of guiding transcript analysis research (Gunawardena, Lowe and Anderson, 1997.We have previously described development and pilot-testing of an instrument and a process for transcript analysis, call the the TAT (Transcript Analysis Tool, based on a model originally developed by Zhu (1996. We found that the instrument and coding procedures used provided acceptable – sometimes excellent – levels of interrater reliability (varying from 70 percent to 94 percent in pilot applications, depending upon user training and practice with the instrument, and that results of pilots indicated the TAT discriminated well among the various types of statements found in online conferences (Fahy, et al., 2000.

  12. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  13. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  14. Improving ecosystem service frameworks to address wicked problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn K. Davies

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex problems often result from the multiple interactions between human activities and ecosystems. The interconnected nature of ecological and social systems should be considered if these "wicked problems" are to be addressed. Ecosystem service approaches provide an opportunity to link ecosystem function with social values, but in practice the essential role that social dynamics play in the delivery of outcomes remains largely unexplored. Social factors such as management regimes, power relationships, skills, and values, can dramatically affect the definition and delivery of ecosystem services. Input from a diverse group of stakeholders improves the capacity of ecosystem service approaches to address wicked problems by acknowledging diverse sets of values and accounting for conflicting world views. Participatory modeling can incorporate both social and ecological dynamics into decision making that involves stakeholders, but is itself a complex social undertaking that may not yield precise or predictable outcomes. We explore the efficacy of different types of participatory modeling in relation to the integration of social values into ecosystem services frameworks and the generation of four important elements of social capital needed to address wicked problems: enhancing social learning and capacity building; increasing transparency; mediating power; and building trust. Our findings indicate that mediated modeling, group mapping, and mental/conceptual modeling are likely to generate elements of social capital that can improve ecosystem service frameworks. Participatory simulation, system dynamic modeling, and Bayesian belief networks, if utilized in isolation, were found to have a low likelihood of generating the social capital needed to improve ecosystem services frameworks. Scenario planning, companion modeling, group model building, and participatory mapping all generate a moderate to high level of social capital elements that improve the

  15. Evidence-Based Practices for Addressing Classroom Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Suk Lee; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers of young children can plan proactively so that they avoid some of the serious problem behaviors in the classroom. The strategies presented in this article are part of a problem solving approach to challenging behavior based on the principles of positive behavioral support. Although these methods presented here have research-based…

  16. Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Juste, Pierre St.; Boykin, P. Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existi...

  17. Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existing peer in the overlay, remains a challenge to enabling these services for small-scale P2P systems. In large networks, the solution to the bootstrap problem has been the use of dedicated services, though creating and maintaining these systems requires expertise and resources, which constrain their usefulness and make them unappealing for small-scale systems. This paper surveys and summarizes requirements that allow peers potentially constrained by network connectivity to bootstrap small-scale overlays through the use of e...

  18. Animating Research with Counseling Values: A Training Model to Address the Research-to-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristi A.; Dewell, John A.; Holmes, Courtney M.

    2014-01-01

    The persistent research-to-practice gap poses a problem for counselor education. The gap may be caused by conflicts between the humanistic values that guide much of counseling and the values that guide research training. In this article, the authors address historical concerns regarding research training for students and the conducting of research…

  19. Beyond open big data: addressing unreliable research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Edward T; Hsu, Douglas J; Stone, David J; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2014-11-11

    The National Institute of Health invests US $30.9 billion annually in medical research. However, the subsequent impact of this research output on society and the economy is amplified dramatically as a result of the actual medical treatments, biomedical innovations, and various commercial enterprises that emanate from and depend on these findings. It is therefore a great concern to discover that much of published research is unreliable. We propose extending the open data concept to the culture of the scientific research community. By dialing down unproductive features of secrecy and competition, while ramping up cooperation and transparency, we make a case that what is published would then be less susceptible to the sometimes corrupting and confounding pressures to be first or journalistically attractive, which can compromise the more fundamental need to be robustly correct.

  20. Addressing Responsible Research and Innovation to Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghmaei, Emad

    2015-01-01

    models of corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. Drawing on these models, this study develops stages and dimensions of RRI for discussing why industry should become engaged in RRI, how industry can embed RRI principles into research and innovation processes, how companies progress from one RRI......Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is taking a role to assist all types of stakeholders including industry to move research and innovation initiatives to responsible manner for tackling grand challenges. The literature on RRI focuses little on how industry can implement RRI principles....... In solving such gap in the literature, this article constructs a solid framework that provides a conceptual starting point for future research on levels of RRI. It draws a fundamental path to align industrial activities with environmental and societal needs. The framework develops a normatively grounded...

  1. Research infrastructure support to address ecosystem dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Predicting the evolution of ecosystems to climate change or human pressures is a challenge. Even understanding past or current processes is complicated as a result of the many interactions and feedbacks that occur within and between components of the system. This talk will present an example of current research on changes in landscape evolution, hydrology, soil biogeochemical processes, zoological food webs, and plant community succession, and how these affect feedbacks to components of the systems, including the climate system. Multiple observations, experiments, and simulations provide a wealth of data, but not necessarily understanding. Model development on the coupled processes on different spatial and temporal scales is sensitive for variations in data and of parameter change. Fast high performance computing may help to visualize the effect of these changes and the potential stability (and reliability) of the models. This may than allow for iteration between data production and models towards stable models reducing uncertainty and improving the prediction of change. The role of research infrastructures becomes crucial is overcoming barriers for such research. Environmental infrastructures are covering physical site facilities, dedicated instrumentation and e-infrastructure. The LifeWatch infrastructure for biodiversity and ecosystem research will provide services for data integration, analysis and modeling. But it has to cooperate intensively with the other kinds of infrastructures in order to support the iteration between data production and model computation. The cooperation in the ENVRI project (Common operations of environmental research infrastructures) is one of the initiatives to foster such multidisciplinary research.

  2. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One Piece at a…

  3. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impact and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage their resourc...

  4. Research on the Mo del of a Lightweight Resource Addressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bingqing; SUN Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    This paper discussed the characteristics of addressing from the perspective of Internet address-ing mechanism. An Internet of things (IOT) resource ad-dressing iteration model was defined. In the model, a di-rect addressing mode for active nodes and an indirect addressing mode for passive codes were proposed, which meet the requirement for multiple encoding mode. A uni-fied IOT resource lightweight addressing scheme based on IPv6 has been proposed to implement the two addressing modes. The scheme utilized the virtual domain to solve the problem of the heterogeneous encoding. The paper imple-mented the addressing process from the Internet host to the sensor node based on IPv6 over low-power wireless personal area networks (6LoWPAN) protocol. The experi-ment results show that the scheme is performed to realize communication between wireless sensor networks and IPv6 networks.

  5. The problem of causality in cultivation research

    OpenAIRE

    Rossmann, Constanze; Brosius, Hans-Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper offers an up-to-date review of problems in determining causal relationships in cultivation research, and considers the research rationales of various approaches with special reference to causal interpretation. It describes in turn a number of methodologies for addressing the problem and resolving it as far as this is possible. The issue of causal inference arises not only in cultivation research, however, but is basic to all media effects theories and approaches primarily at the ma...

  6. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cruz, J L; Saldaña-Salazar, U J

    2016-01-01

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs--Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  7. Deep-seated Problems Haven't Yet Been Addressed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zuliu

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's capital market has changed remarkably in recent times, finally recovering after a long period of painful adjustment. In the depths of extreme market depression, people have profoundly experienced and understood some deep-seated problems confronting China's capital market in the last four years.

  8. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  9. Problems of global warming and role of micropaleontologists - Presidential Address

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    to Accu? Weather, the world's leading commercial forecaster, global air temperatures as measured by land-based weather stations show an increase of about 0.45?C over the past century. This may be no more than normal climatic variation, or the result... of Global Warming and Role of Micropaleontologists Rajiv Nigam National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa - 403004 Email : rajeev@darya.nio.org. One of the most challenging problems faced by the mankind today, is the constantly increasing mean...

  10. New R & D center to address energy problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The joint launching ceremony for the Research and Development Center for Energy Plants, the CAS Institute of Botany (IBCAS), and the R&D Laboratory for Sweet Sorghum co-established by IBCAS and the Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory (TLL) in Singapore was held on 10 December at IOB in Beijing.

  11. HYDRAFLOW : a novel approach in addressing flow assurance problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarinezhad, R.; Chapoy, A.; Anderson, R.; Tohidi, B. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. for Petroleum Engineering, Centre for Gas hydrate Research

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a new method to prevent hydrate plugs which are particularly problematic for offshore production and flow lines. The current methods of avoiding hydrate blockages are based on preventing solid formation by injecting thermodynamic or kinetic inhibitors outside the hydrate stability zone. However, these techniques are neither economical nor practical. The newly patented HYDRAFLOW cold flow assurance technology is based on allowing hydrates to form, but preventing their agglomeration and pipeline blockage. It is based on the concept of converting most or all of the gas phase into hydrates in the presence of excess water, and then transferring them in the form of hydrate slurry in the pipeline. In HYDRAFLOW, anti-agglomerants prevent hydrate crystals from agglomerating, thus eliminating the need for expensive thermal or chemical inhibition strategies. The technology involves a loop concept whereby the liquid phase plays a role of carrier fluid, collecting produced fluids from various wells and delivering them to the production unit prior to being recycled. This study addressed the issue of recycling the anti-agglomerants in the context of the loop concept. The distribution of anti-agglomerant components between different phases were measured. The performance of the residual anti-agglomerants in the free water phase and of its components absorbed in the oil or hydrate phase were also evaluated. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. What is occupational therapy's role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Natalie E; Marcione, Nicole; Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Kelkar, Kaivalya; Fogelberg, Don

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. The current scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the practice framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, multicomponent interventions, and other interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence base for occupation-centered sleep interventions to improve the health and quality of life of older adults. PMID:24844879

  13. Operations research problems statements and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Poler, Raúl; Díaz-Madroñero, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide a valuable compendium of problems as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, researchers and practitioners of operations research and management science. These problems can serve as a basis for the development or study of assignments and exams. Also, they can be useful as a guide for the first stage of the model formulation, i.e. the definition of a problem. The book is divided into 11 chapters that address the following topics: Linear programming, integer programming, non linear programming, network modeling, inventory theory, queue theory, tree decision, game theory, dynamic programming and markov processes. Readers are going to find a considerable number of statements of operations research applications for management decision-making. The solutions of these problems are provided in a concise way although all topics start with a more developed resolution. The proposed problems are based on the research experience of the authors in real-world com...

  14. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfiligoi, I.; /Fermilab; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Yocum, D.; /Fermilab; Groep, D.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

  15. Presidential Address: Culture and the Future of Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in higher education have confronted education research with a conundrum: how our traditionally multidisciplinary field can refine itself as a unified discipline. In this address I sketch out what this conundrum may mean for education research, both substantively and methodologically, in the future. I propose that one starting point…

  16. Interpreting Perceived Effectiveness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem of Mean Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, James Price; Ha, Yerheen

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown that perceived message effectiveness (PE) correlates reasonably well with indices of actual effectiveness, but little attention has been given to how to interpret mean PE. This article describes the problem of mean validity and presents a research design that can be used to address it. Participants (N = 195) viewed messages that advocated being screened for colorectal cancer. The results showed downward bias in PE among members of the non-target audience (persons younger than 50) and upward bias as the referent for the judgment became more abstract/distant (self vs. persons older than 50 vs. general). The need for more research on mean validity is discussed. For applied researchers, recommendations for preferred indices of PE are offered. PMID:27565189

  17. Editorial: Defining Interesting Research Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Shugan

    2003-01-01

    We argue that research problems are only interesting relative to some external audience. Interesting academic research should impact, at least, that external audience. Hence, we should target our research toward specific external audiences. Several foreboding trends that exacerbate the urgency of this targeting are discussed. To facilitate the targeting task, a partial list of fifteen possible audiences for academic research in marketing is identified. We discuss some of them, including pract...

  18. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  19. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  20. Coloured Petri nets and graphical animation: a proposal for a means to address problem frame concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2008-01-01

    To address a frame concern in Jackson's problem frames, we must make appropriate descriptions of (1) the problem domain; (2) the requirements; (3) the specification of the machine. Based on these descriptions, we must give a convincing argument that the given domain properties and the machine...... specification together entail that the requirements are fulfilled. In this paper, we demonstrate how to address certain frame concerns with the use of the formal modelling language coloured Petri nets (CPN). Problem domain description and machine specification are brought together in a CPN model, which...

  1. What does it mean to be responsible? Addressing the missing responsibility dimension in ethical leadership research

    OpenAIRE

    Voegtlin, C

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends research on ethical leadership by proposing a responsibility orientation for leaders. Responsible leadership is based on the concept of leaders who are not isolated from the environment, who critically evaluate prevailing norms, are forward looking, share responsibility, and aim to solve problems collectively. Adding such a responsibility orientation helps to address critical issues that persist in research on ethical leadership. The paper discusses important aspects of res...

  2. Exploring the role of Natural Helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; NIEC, LARISSA N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Aguilar, Gerardo; Vilca, Jeanette; Abbenante-Honold, Emily S.; Christian, Allison S.; Peer, Samuel O.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of natural helpers into services has been suggested as an innovative strategy to address disparities for historically underserved children with conduct problems. In order to inform incorporation efforts, this study examined the perceptions of natural helpers serving one U.S. Latina/o community regarding need for services for children with conduct problems, their reactions to a specific parent training intervention, and the training and support needed to deliver this interven...

  3. Comparative research - Persistent problems and promising solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda; van de Bunt, Gerhard G.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The enduring importance and utility of comparative research in sociology are as old as the discipline itself. Although comparative research flourishes within this discipline, methodological problems persist. After defining comparative research, this article outlines some of its central problems, inc

  4. Comparative Research : Persistent Problems and Promising Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda; Bunt, Gerhard G. van de; Bruijn, Jeanne de

    2006-01-01

    The enduring importance and utility of comparative research in sociology are as old as the discipline itself. Although comparative research flourishes within this discipline, methodological problems persist. After defining comparative research, this article outlines some of its central problems, inc

  5. Symposium Addressing Rural Drinking Water Problems and Water Safety Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2007-01-01

    <正>On September 19,a symposium addressing Rural Drinking Water Problems and Safety,jointly sponsored by the China Friendship Foundation for Peace and Development (CFFPD) and General Motors (China) Co.,Ltd.,was held in Beijing. Feng Zuoku,vice president of the CPAF-

  6. Addressing the Missing Instructional Data Problem: Using a Teacher Log to Document Tier 1 Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…

  7. Addressing food security through public policy action in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food. PMID:17728199

  8. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that

  9. Transdisciplinary weed research: new leverage on challenging weed problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transdisciplinary Weed Research (TWR) is a promising path to more effective management of challenging weed problems. We define TWR as an integrated process of inquiry and action that addresses complex weed problems in the context of broader efforts to improve economic, environmental and social aspec...

  10. No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ornelas Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

  11. The struggling reader: Identifying and addressing reading problems successfully at an early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Le Cordeur

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard of reading of learners in the intermediate phase is cause for considerable concern. In this article, the intermediate phase refers to grades 4, 5 and 6 (roughly ages 10 – 12. According to the 2008 Evaluation Assessment Tests for Reading, only 15% of learners in Grade 6 achieved the required literacy level. Clearly, reading achievement is a problem in South Africa. Although approximately 4% of any given population experience neurological reading problems, the focus of this article is on the significant number of learners in the intermediate phase who experience reading problems and the generic causes of reading problems for learners in general. The intent is to alert teachers and parents to the characteristics of a struggling reader so that the problem can be identified and addressed early. Firstly, ways in which learning problems are manifested are described. Secondly, a discussion of various types of reading problems, of which four, namely poor reading comprehension, inadequate reading fluency, a lack of vocabulary and a negative attitude towards reading, are discussed in depth. Strategies for struggling readers are presented and recommendations are made. The conclusion is that learners who experience reading problems can learn to read successfully when given the necessary support.

  12. Addressing NCDs through research and capacity building in LMICs: lessons learned from tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturke, Rachel; Vorkoper, Susan; Duncan, Kalina; Levintova, Marya; Parascondola, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting research capacity building and addressing the growing burden of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries. One program in particular, the NIH International Tobacco and Health Research and Capacity Building Program (TOBAC program), offers an important model for conducting research and building research capacity simultaneously. This article describes the lessons learned from this unique funding model and demonstrates how a relatively modest investment can make important contributions to scientific evidence and capacity building that could inform ongoing and future efforts to tackle the global burden of NCDs. PMID:27545455

  13. 2012 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address: The Value and Community of Research in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's speech during the 2012 Senior Researcher award. The author is honored and delighted to accept the award from the Society for Research in Music Education (SRME) and NAfME, an organization of which she has been a member for about forty years. In this address, the author focuses on these four topics: (1) the…

  14. Research mathematicians’ practices in selecting mathematical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    and suggest that mathematics education research could further investigate how students select and develop problems, work with multiple problems over a longer period of time, and use the solutions to problems to support the development of new problems. Furthermore, the negative emotional aspects of being stuck...... in problem solving and students’ conceptions of solvability and relevance of or interest in a mathematical problem are areas of research suggested by our study.......Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how...

  15. Advanced Knowledge of the Solution in Quantum Algorithms Addressing Structured Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Castagnoli, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In previous work, we showed that quantum correlation, between selection of the problem on the part of Bob and read out of the solution on the part of Alice, can explain the quantum speed up. All is like Alice's read out contributed to selecting the problem, which becomes Alice knowing in advance 50% of the bits of the solution. This explanation, developed for unstructured data-base search, was coarsely extended to the quantum algorithms that address structured problems. Now, thanks to a more general representation of Alice's advanced knowledge of the solution, we provide a detailed explanation of the mechanism of the speed up also for the latter algorithms. This should significantly increase the plausibility of our argument.

  16. Incorporating Natural Helpers to Address Service Disparities for Young Children with Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; NIEC, LARISSA N.; Barnet, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high levels of unmet need among historically underserved young children with conduct problems, this paper outlines some of the key issues involved in incorporating natural helpers into the delivery of parenting interventions for the treatment of conduct problems among historically underserved children. Strategies for the selection and training of natural helpers are discussed along with challenges that might be encountered in these processes. Directions for future research ...

  17. What is occupational therapy’s role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Leland, Natalie E.; Marcione, Nicole; Niemiec, Stacey L. Schepens; Don Fogelberg, Kaivalya Kelkar

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high healthcare costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. This scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research in order to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly alig...

  18. Methodological problems in Rorschach research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Jočić Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive System of Rorschach interpretation is considered as nomotetic system that makes possible using of projective method in research projects. However, research use of Rorschach method besides of appropriate knowledge of assign procedures and interpretation rules, means a knowledge of specific methodological issues. The Rorschach indicators are nor independent, as they are a part of specific net, so in some research it is necessary to control basic variables not to get artifacts in our research. This is basically relied on researches where we compare groups, as well as in normative studies where through cross-cultural we compare Rorschach indicators. .

  19. Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

  20. Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

  1. The role of architectural research centers in addressing climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carmody

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: It is clear that an urgent, major transformation needs to happen in the design of the built environment to respond to impending climate change and other environmental degradation. This paper will explain the potential role of architectural research centers in this transformation and provide examples from the Center for Sustainable Building Research (CSBR at the University of Minnesota. A research center can become a regional hub to coordinate and disseminate critical information. CSBR is leading the establishment of Architecture 2030 standards in Minnesota, assisting local governments in writing green building policy, providing design assistance to local government, developing tools to assist design decision making, providing technical assistance to the affordable housing community inMinnesota, and establishing a regional case study database that includes actual performance information. CSBR is creating a publicly accessible, credible knowledge base on new approaches, technologies and actual performance outcomes. Research centers such as CSBR can be a critical component of the necessary feedback loop often lacking in the building industry. A research center can also fill major gaps in providing in depth professional education as well as be a catalyst for demonstration projects and public education.

  2. Engaged Problem Formulation in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2016-01-01

    problems requires a more substantial engagement with the different stakeholders, especially when their problems are ill structured and situated in complex organizational settings. On this basis, we present an engaged approach to formulating IS problems with, not for, IS practitioners. We have come......“Is this the problem?”: the question that haunts many information systems (IS) researchers when they pursue work relevant to both practice and research. Nevertheless, a deliberate answer to this question requires more than simply asking the involved IS practitioners. Deliberately formulating...... to understand engaged problem formulation as joint researching and as the defining of contemporary and complex problems by researchers and those practitioners who experience and know these problems. We used this approach in investigating IS management in Danish municipalities. In this paper, we present...

  3. Addressing Research Gaps in the Intersection between Homophobia and Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Swearer, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Bullying, aggression, and peer victimization among adolescents are significant public health concerns. Recent research has demonstrated that bullying and peer victimization sometimes include homophobic epithets directed at heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. It appears that being at the receiving end of…

  4. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  5. Has research on collaborative learning technologies addressed massiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Manathunga, Kalpani; Hern??ndez Leo, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding to what extent innovative educational technologies can be used to support massive courses. Collaboration is one of the main desired elements in massive learning actions involving large communities of participants. Accumulated research in collaborative learning technologies has proposed and evaluated multiple models and implementation tools that engage learners in knowledge-intensive social interactions fostering fruitful learning. Howev...

  6. ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Q. M. Bazlur RASHID

    2009-10-01

    , Agricultural Statistics, Ag. Cooperation & Ag. Marketing, Rural Development etc. the application of ODEL has not yet been found employed in anywhere except, a few recent endeavours under a limited scope in the Asian countries like India (IGNOU. ODEL extends the learning and self-development opportunities to those beyond the access to the conventional system due to professional, familial, economic, geographical etc. restrictions. The scenario is more acute especially in case of the applied science like Agriculture in Agriculture-dependent developing country like Bangladesh where the tool may be potential alternative to address the postgraduate agricultural education, the acute problem of a vast number of target group seeking higher studies. Bangladesh is one of the most thickly populated and agriculture dependent developing countries of the world, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU established in 1962 is only the premier seat of higher agricultural education and research in the country offering Masters and Doctoral degrees through the conventional face to face class room system. Since its establishment out of the total passed out bachelors (BSc Ag. so far till July 2007 only 31.29% Masters and 0.64% PhDs have been produced. Bangladesh has recently been connected to the information super-highway through submarine cables. As a result, along with BTTB private companies already could ramify their ICT-based business orientations in different sectors like banking, transportation, administration etc. The use of computer and the long-ranged, portable electronic device with the telephone and the cell phone networks are widely used now a day. Under the circumstances, for better and progressive existence in the competitive global context it should be concentrated on its special attention to the ICT-based ODEL as a pragmatic focal issue with a view to transforming the ever increasing vast population potential into more productive force, so as to solve the higher agricultural

  7. MOTIVATION RESEARCH: THE INTERDISCIPLINARY PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    LEKEROVA GULSIM ZHANABERGENOVNA; YUNUSOV MADIYAR BAKHTIYAROVICH; RAKHIMKULOV SHAFKAT SALIMDZHANOVICH; ANARMETOV BAKHTIYAR SALIMZHANOVICH; AITKULOWA NURGUL ZHORABEKOVNA

    2015-01-01

    In the field of natural sciences and psychology, a number of special scientific disciplines and directions have been generated. They include psychophysiology, physiology of the higher nervous activity, working psychology, the engineering psychology, the object of the research, and the working person. The question on development of requirements has the major value for definition of psychological conditions of the development of a person, and its motivational sphere. The aspiration for providin...

  8. The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, David M

    2004-05-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the hands of the private sector and precluding the public's ability to monitor practices, research alternatives, and effectively address the very ethical issues that are cause for concern in the first place. With new technology being inevitable, and the potential for abuse high, government must stay involved if the public is to play a role in shaping the direction of research. In this essay, I will define levels of ethical conflict that can be delineated by the anticipated advances in technology. From the urgent need to derive new ES cell lines with existing technology, to the most far-reaching goal of deriving genetically identical tissues from an adult patients cells, technology-specific ethical dilemmas can be defined and addressed. This staged approach provides a solid ethical framework for moving forward with ES cell research. Moreover, by anticipating the moral conflicts to come, one can predict the types of scientific advances that could overcome these conflicts, and appropriately direct federal funding toward these goals to offset potentially less responsible research directives that will inevitably go forward via private or foreign funding.

  9. Addressing students' difficulties with Faraday's law: A guided problem solving approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2014-06-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article proposes an interactive teaching sequence introducing the topic of electromagnetic induction. The sequence has been designed based on contributions from physics education research. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between experimental findings (macroscopic level) and theoretical interpretation (microscopic level). An example of the activities that have been designed will also be presented, describing the implementation context and the corresponding findings. Since implementing the sequence, a considerable number of students have a more satisfactory grasp of the electromagnetic induction explicative model. However, difficulties are manifested in aspects that require a multilevel explanation, referring to deep structures where the system description is better defined.

  10. Materials management issues-addressing plant problems and preparing for future reliable and safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 600 was initially observed in pressure water reactors (PWR's) in 1971 in steam generator tubes. Since that time PWSCC occurrences have increased dramatically spreading to many more Alloy 600 components within the reactor coolant system (RCS), including upper and lower reactor vessel head penetrations, dissimilar metal butt welds, instrumentation nozzles, and pressurizer heaters and sleeves. The impact to the nuclear industry has been profound in its effects on outage time and repair/replacement costs. Other effects experienced by the plants include added scrutiny by the regulatory agencies and public concern of plant operations. Throughout this dilemma, Framatome ANP has provided engineering, inspection and repair aid to the worldwide Utilities. Inspection techniques once thought adequate required improvements in not only detection and sizing, but also in accessibility and coverage. Emergent repairs over the last several years have placed high demands on personnel training and equipment availability. Framatome ANP continues to produce innovative weld repair approaches with faster repair times, lower dose and longer component life. Repair applications combine the latest in welding techniques with advancements in tool design. In anticipation of future challenges and proactive resolution of present problems, Framatome ANP has devoted global resources toward corrective approaches to plant-wide PWSCC degradation. The issue of materials management is broader than PWSCC in Alloy 600. As plants age, continued study and surveillance will be necessary to assure safe operation without leakage. This is particularly important when considering operation for up to 60 years (US case) with license renewal. This paper summarizes Framatome ANP's role in addressing materials problems within the U.S. nuclear fleet and through other international examples and illustrates the value of proactive, preemptive mitigation strategies

  11. Problems of Research on Generations in Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Sivrikova N.V.

    2015-01-01

    Modern psychology faces many tasks that require the study of social psychological characteristics of representatives of different generations. However, there still is no single, unified concept of generations in the psychological science, which makes research into the subject even more difficult. Basing on a review of Russian and foreign works, the author describes the following three problems of research on generations in modern psychology: 1) The problem of defining the very concept of 'gen...

  12. Pondering over Several Problems in Disaster Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Xiuzheng

    2001-01-01

    Some related problems in disaster research are presented. The paper concludes that catastrophology is an extremely important natural-social science, that human calamities are even more destructive than natural disasters and that research on disasters such as highway traffic accidents, nuclear wars, population expansion, environment pollution and the like are of important practical meaning and far-reaching historic significance.

  13. Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reagon Gavin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation

  14. Addressing Substance Abuse Problems Among TANF Recipients A Guide for Program Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Provides information to help program administrators and staff understand substance abuse problems, identify welfare recipients with these problems, understand the treatment system, and integrate treatment into a work-focused welfare program.

  15. Preferred Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Anxiety Disorders, Parenting Problems, Eating Disorders, and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Laura; Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    Although the Internet offers information about psychological problems and support resources for behavioral health problems, the quality of this information varies widely. So as to offer guidance in this area, preferred sites pertaining to anxiety disorders, parenting problems, eating disorders, and chemical dependency were analyzed. A total of 365…

  16. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  17. BERA Presidential Address 2013: Educational Research--What's to Be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In his inaugural Presidential Address, given to the BERA Conference 2013 at the University of Sussex, Ian Menter addresses a number of issues concerning educational policy and the contributions that educational research might make to policy development. As BERA approaches its fortieth anniversary, he also sets out some of the responsibilities that…

  18. 76 FR 45268 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to... approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) to addressing drug shortages. This public... Benner, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire...

  19. Actual problems of research in food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandke, H

    1981-01-01

    Starting from the necessary trend towards development in the field of food production, the author outlines, on the basis of current knowledge, the problems to be solved in food science. A general research conception is deduced for the essential nutrient "protein" (as an example) which is illustrated by results from studies on protein fibre and protein gel formation.

  20. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  1. Landmine research: technology solutions looking for problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevelyan, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The global landmine problem came to the attention of researchers in the mid 1990's and by 1997 several advanced and expensive sensor research programs had started. Yet, by the end of 2003, there is little sign of a major advance in the technology available to humanitarian demining programs. Given the motivation and dedication of researchers, public goodwill to support such programs, and substantial research resources devoted to the problem, it is worth asking why these programs do not seem to have had an impact on demining costs or casualty rates. Perhaps there are factors that have been overlooked. This paper reviews several research programs to gain a deeper understanding of the problem. A possible explanation is that researchers have accepted mistaken ideas on the nature of the landmine problems that need to be solved. The paper provides several examples where the realities of minefield conditions are quite different to what researchers have been led to believe. Another explanation may lie in the political and economic realities that drive the worldwide effort to eliminate landmines. Most of the resources devoted to landmine clearance programs come from humanitarian aid budgets: landmine affected countries often contribute only a small proportion because they have different priorities based on realistic risk-based assessment of needs and political views of local people. Some aid projects have been driven by the need to find a market for demining technologies rather than by user needs. Finally, there is a common misperception that costs in less developed countries are intrinsically low, reflecting low rates paid for almost all classes of skilled labour. When actual productivity is taken into account, real costs can be higher than industrialized countries. The costs of implementing technological solutions (even using simple technologies) are often significantly under-estimated. Some political decisions may have discouraged thorough investigation of cost

  2. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  3. Addressing the Regression Test Problem with Change Impact Analysis for Ada

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrew V.

    2016-01-01

    The regression test selection problem--selecting a subset of a test-suite given a change--has been studied widely over the past two decades. However, the problem has seen little attention when constrained to high-criticality developments and where a "safe" selection of tests need to be chosen. Further, no practical approaches have been presented for the programming language Ada. In this paper, we introduce an approach to solving the selection problem given a combination of both static and dyn...

  4. Advanced Research Workshop on Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Serre, Denis; Raviart, Pierre-Arnaud

    1987-01-01

    The field of nonlinear hyperbolic problems has been expanding very fast over the past few years, and has applications - actual and potential - in aerodynamics, multifluid flows, combustion, detonics amongst other. The difficulties that arise in application are of theoretical as well as numerical nature. In fact, the papers in this volume of proceedings deal to a greater extent with theoretical problems emerging in the resolution of nonlinear hyperbolic systems than with numerical methods. The volume provides an excellent up-to-date review of the current research trends in this area.

  5. ADDRESSING COMPLEX SPATIAL DECISION PROBLEMS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS: THE INTELLIGENT SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (SDSS) APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Kostas Tolidis; Efi Dimopoulou

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of land use planning and land policy making for mountain regions, considered as regions with specific characteristics (natural, cultural, etc.), but also development constraints. Spatial decision making in such regions is characterized by complexity (semi-structured spatial decision problems) and multiplicity of problems. These indicate the need for qualitative information in support of the decision-making process, in order to improve effectiveness in decision m...

  6. On the Problems and Strategies Addressed to the Development of Local Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫昭旭

    2014-01-01

    Local colleges are the main bodies of Chinese higher education. Their proper and sound development will do good to the development of local economy and society. Compared with famous and key universities, their development is in inferior state and there are lots of problems. This article analyses the problems during their development process, then it puts forward relevant strategies so as to provide reference for the development of local colleges.

  7. Water Security Problem in North China: Research and Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun; LIU Meng-Yu; JIA Shao-Feng

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the emergence of water security problems in North China with the aim of highlighting key water resources management and water security issues for the long-term development of North China. Three key problems related to water resources and security issues in North China in the 21st century are addressed, namely 1) the water cycle under environmental change, 2) agricultural water saving, and 3) water security. Development of international research related to these issues is also reviewed. The research plan developed recently by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) is discussed and suggestions on research and development of water resources science in North China are presented.Thanks to focus on experimental catchments and dedicated research stations, a detailed knowledge of the water cycle on North China farmland has been compiled. A range of techniques that include isotope tracers has been used to acquire hydrologic data. Much research has been devoted to developing distributed hydrological models at different scales. In the well irrigation district, five different water saving irrigation regimes have been investigated, and these regimes have had widespread application, and reduced water use 60-150 mm while they increased water use efficiency (WUE) by 20%-30%.Furthermore, preventing water pollution is the most essential step to ensure North China's water security.

  8. Addressing the last mile problem - the transport impacts of collection/delivery points

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Liying; Cherrett, Tom; McLeod, Fraser; Guan, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The impacts of failed first-time home deliveries on additional carrier journeys (repeat deliveries) and customer trips (to retrieve goods from carrier depots) are of increasing concern to e-retailers and are assessed in this paper. The attended collection and delivery point (CDP) concept is one solution to first-time delivery failures, using a variety of outlets (e.g., convenience stores, petrol stations, post offices) as alternative addresses to receive deliveries. By using a database of hou...

  9. How desertification research is addressed in Argentina? Land versus Soil approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Laura; Abraham, Elena M.; Barbero, Celia; Marques, Maria J.; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams

    2013-04-01

    Recommendations are not enough to solve problems of desertification. In certain areas, soil degradation and poverty establish a vicious circle that may be broken if political, social, economic and natural visions are considered as a whole. Nevertheless, usually the scientific framework to combat land degradation is only associated with the protection of natural resources - the "soil approach"-, and weak attention is paid on the social sciences - the "land approach". The success in the adoption of mitigation measures to combat dryland degradation depends on the dialogue between research institutes, policy makers, land users and funding agencies. The structure of desertification research and its implementation in Argentina is addressed in this study. It is one part of a wider framework of analysis that is simultaneously carried out in other different regions under the umbrella of a Task Force on Land and Soil promoted by DesertNet International. The ultimate goal of this Task Force is the achievement of an informed analysis to support the need of a scientific panel to answer the needs of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The features and orientation of such a panel to be truly effective may be established from the results of the analysis of the different ways to meet the challenge of combating desertification in different regions of the world and their success or failure. The method is based on the analysis of scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science using different searching criteria with different groups of keywords. The analysis of papers addresses three main criteria: the disciplines involved, the type of study and finally the range of the study in order to know the level of applicability. In order to compute and visualise clusters of elements bibliometric methods will be used. Positive signs have been recognised in Argentina in recent years trough the increase of governmental and non governmental organisation that are involved in

  10. Hydrogen problems in reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BMFT and BMI have initiated a workshop 'Hydrogen Problems in Reactor Safety Research' that took place October 3./4., 1983. The objective of this workshop was to present the state of the art in the main areas - Hydrogen-Production - Hydrogen-Distribution - Hydrogen-Ignition - Hydrogen-Burning and Containment Behaviour - Mitigation Measures. The lectures on the different areas are compiled. The most important results of the final discussion are summarized as well. (orig.)

  11. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  12. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  13. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  14. How to Investigate Polish Clusters’ Attractiveness for Inward FDI? Addressing Ambiguity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Marta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess whether, and in what fashion, managers of Polish cluster organizations perceive the attractiveness of foreign direct investment in Polish clusters This research is exploratory and qualitative in nature. The complex nature of Polish clusters, which can benefit from and be competitively challenged by, FDI are identified and a conceptual framework for assessing that nature is proposed; specifically, research using the grounded theory method (GTM.

  15. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  16. Overcoming obstacles to implementation: addressing political,institutional and behavioral problems in earthquake hazard mitigationpolicies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This project is aimed at bridging the three planes, from basic research, through enabling processes, toengineered systems. At the basic research plane, we have been working to improve our collective understanding aboutobstacles to implementing mitigation practices, owner decision processes (in connection with other MCEER projects), andpublic policy processes. At the level of enabling processes, we have been seeking to develop an understanding of howobstacles to greater mitigation can be overcome by improved policy design and processes. At the engineered systems plane,our work is intended to result in practical guidelines for devising policies and programs with appropriate motivation andincentives for implementing policies and programs once adopted. This phase of the research has been aimed, first, at athorough, multidisciplinary review of the literature concerning obstacles to implementation. Second, the research has focusedon advancing the state of the art by developing means for integrating the insights offered by diverse perspectives on theimplementation process from the several social, behavioral, and decision sciences. The research establishes a basis for testingour understanding of these processes in the case of hospital retrofit decisions.

  17. Communication Challenges Learners Face Online: Why Addressing CMC and Language Proficiency Will Not Solve Learners' Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Ivannikova, Liubov

    2016-01-01

    Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been argued to cause (mis)communication issues. Research and practice suggest a range of tactics and strategies for educators focused on how to encourage and foster communication in a virtual learning environment (VLE) (eg, Salmon). However, while frameworks such as Salmon's support the effective…

  18. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R and D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  19. Defining Educational Research: A Perspective of/on Presidential Addresses and the Australian Association for Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Gale, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the definition of the field of educational research and the changing and developing role of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) in representing and constituting this field. The evidence for the argument is derived from AARE Presidential Addresses across its 40-year history. The paper documents…

  20. ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    . Q. M. Bazlur RASHID; Hazel JOHNSON; Clark, Norman

    2009-01-01

    A research project was carried out during 2007-08 at the Open University, UK to explore the suitable strategic policy & practices, and partnership possibilities for open, distance and e-learning (ODEL) programme for the postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. The methodology followed was based on the searches on Internet, Journal articles, books, periodicals, brochures, proceedings, reports, attending lectures workshops, seminars, symposia, conferences, contacts, and visits to ot...

  1. Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linos, Natalia

    2009-04-01

    Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women.

  2. Welcome address to the 26th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the IAEA has been a vigorous supporter of the RERTR programme since its inception. RERTR and the related fresh and spent fuel return efforts have gained new momentum with the launching of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) by U.S. Energy Secretary Abraham here in Vienna on May 25, 2004. All of the activities to be be discussed are included within the framework of the GTRI. The international programmes to qualify high density, LEU, dispersion fuels based on U-Mo alloys have run into unexpected technical difficulties that will delay qualification. A number of the presentations address the problems that have been encountered. At the same time, it is encouraging that the international resolve to reduce and eventually eliminate HEU in international commerce appears to have strengthened. In the past year, fresh HEU at research reactors in different countries have been returned to the country of origin. In all these examples, the return of the fresh fuel was accompanied by plans for conversion of existing reactors or design of new reactors to use LEU, as well as for the repatriation of spent research reactor fuel. The IAEA, particularly the Department of Technical Cooperation and my Department of Nuclear Energy has played an important role in implementing these fresh fuel return activities. In addition, several of the reactor conversion projects will be carried out under the auspices of IAEA technical cooperation projects and with important involvement of the Department of Nuclear Energy. The IAEA has also supported the repatriation of spent fuel to the country of original enrichment. The U.S. spent fuel acceptance programme has been operating for more than eight years, and was originally scheduled to terminate in 2006. Important announcements concerning the extension of the U.S. programme are expected. At the same time, the IAEA has been working hard with the U.S. and Russia to initiate the Russian research reactor spent fuel return programme. We are

  3. Addressing the too big to fail problem with baryon physics and sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lovell, Mark R; Bose, Sownak; Boyarsky, Alexey; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    N-body dark matter simulations of structure formation in the $\\Lambda$CDM model predict a population of subhalos within Galactic halos that have higher central densities than inferred for satellites of the Milky Way, a tension known as the `too big to fail' problem. Proposed solutions include baryonic effects, a smaller mass for the Milky Way halo, and warm dark matter. We test these three possibilities using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation to generate luminosity functions for Milky Way halo-analogue satellite populations, the results of which are then coupled to the Jiang & van den Bosch model of subhalo stripping to predict the subhalo $V_\\mathrm{max}$ functions for the 10 brightest satellites. We find that selecting the brightest satellites (as opposed to the most massive) and modelling the expulsion of gas by supernovae at early times increases the likelihood of generating the observed Milky Way satellite $V_\\mathrm{max}$ function. The preferred halo mass is $6\\times10^{11}M_{\\odot}$, which ...

  4. Addressing the problem of rural community engagement in healthcare service design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimegeer, Amy; Farmer, Jane; West, Christina; Currie, Margaret

    2011-07-01

    Policy suggests that health service providers should plan services with communities. In remote and rural areas this is sometimes ineffective, resulting in resistance to change. An action research project investigated best practise in rural community engagement. As a result a planning 'game' was developed that uses a number of types and levels of cards and allows community members, as part of a process of engagement, to express their priorities and designs in a form that is directly usable by health service managers. The game is a unique community engagement resource in that it combines the priorities of the community (including their experiences of using services) with existing service data. It allows community members and service managers to apply their priorities for services to a healthcare budget to identify appropriate and affordable ways of providing safe local services.

  5. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  6. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  7. Interviewing the Investigator: Strategies for Addressing Instrumentation and Researcher Bias Concerns in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation rigor and bias management are major challenges for qualitative researchers employing interviewing as a data generation method in their studies. A usual procedure for testing the quality of an interview protocol and for identifying potential researcher biases is the pilot study in which investigators try out their proposed methods…

  8. Researcher-Researched Difference: Adapting an Autoethnographic Approach for Addressing the Racial Matching Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalyn Pompper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This introspective essay was inspired by a desire to reflect on the use of qualitative research methods--where I am a Caucasian woman examining work experiences of women of color. I launched a journey backward to discover respondents' motivation for participating in my focus groups over the years, to closely examine their comfort level with a cross-ethnic dyad. The exercise enabled me to reflect on how I had negotiated power issues inherent in the research process. It contributes to the ongoing dialogue about autoethnography--where understanding of self in socio-cultural context is both the subject and object of the research enterprise. Overall, I interrogate epistemological and methodological practicalities of researching difference.

  9. Addressing NCDs through research and capacity building in LMICs: lessons learned from tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    Sturke, Rachel; Vorkoper, Susan; Duncan, Kalina; Levintova, Marya; Parascondola, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting res...

  10. Research Mathematicians' Practices in Selecting Mathematical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how mathematicians select and pose problems and discuss to…

  11. School effectiveness research: a review of criticisms and some proposals to address them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Sandoval-Hernandez

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Lakato’s notion of research programmes, the paper analyses the structure of the School Effectiveness Research (SER programme and reviews the main criticisms that have arisen, stressing those regarding its objectivity and theoretical limitations. Then, some proposals are made to address these criticisms, namely: to adopt a critical realist approach to the study of SE and an Abductive Theory of Scientific Method that lead to the development of sound theory in the field. Based on this analysis the paper concludes that, in terms of Lakatos, a movement towards a new research programme is needed in order to ensure that the main objectives originally set for SER can be eventually reached.

  12. Addressing safety issues through a joint industry programme; Traiter des problemes de securite a travers un programme industriel commun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, G.; Williams, T.P. [BG Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, A.M. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    In an increasingly fragmented gas market, the focus for national gas safety may not rest with one major utility or gas supplier but may be spread across many companies. There will also be many new organisations in a liberalized gas industry with varying views on the needs and benefits of safety related technology development but all agree there is a need to ensure that the good safety record of gas as a domestic fuel is maintained. The number of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents is not decreasing significantly despite an increased awareness of the problem. As a consequence, a two-year joint industry programme addressing issues related to carbon monoxide has been established, co-ordinated by BG Technology and supported by gas organisations, government agencies, manufacturers and suppliers across Europe and the World. The 2-year 2 pound million programme has been constructed as twelve separate projects addressing issues such as the reporting and analysis of domestic incidents, improved service or installation practice, CO alarm reliability and information dissemination. The paper gives results and achievements of the programme, through new techniques, standards, procedures or equipment and demonstrates how the gas industry can work together to meet common safety objectives. (authors)

  13. Academic Research Library as Broker in Addressing Interoperability Challenges for the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P., II

    2015-12-01

    Data capture is an important process in the research lifecycle. Complete descriptive and representative information of the data or database is necessary during data collection whether in the field or in the research lab. The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Public Access Plan (2015) mandates the need for federally funded projects to make their research data more openly available. Developing, implementing, and integrating metadata workflows into to the research process of the data lifecycle facilitates improved data access while also addressing interoperability challenges for the geosciences such as data description and representation. Lack of metadata or data curation can contribute to (1) semantic, (2) ontology, and (3) data integration issues within and across disciplinary domains and projects. Some researchers of EarthCube funded projects have identified these issues as gaps. These gaps can contribute to interoperability data access, discovery, and integration issues between domain-specific and general data repositories. Academic Research Libraries have expertise in providing long-term discovery and access through the use of metadata standards and provision of access to research data, datasets, and publications via institutional repositories. Metadata crosswalks, open archival information systems (OAIS), trusted-repositories, data seal of approval, persistent URL, linking data, objects, resources, and publications in institutional repositories and digital content management systems are common components in the library discipline. These components contribute to a library perspective on data access and discovery that can benefit the geosciences. The USGS Community for Data Integration (CDI) has developed the Science Support Framework (SSF) for data management and integration within its community of practice for contribution to improved understanding of the Earth's physical and biological systems. The USGS CDI SSF can be used as a reference model to map to Earth

  14. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women's health needs: Toward sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study-a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:27310870

  15. A strategic stakeholder approach for addressing further analysis requests in whole genome sequencing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornock, Bradley Steven O

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can be a cost-effective and efficient means of diagnosis for some children, but it also raises a number of ethical concerns. One such concern is how researchers derive and communicate results from WGS, including future requests for further analysis of stored sequences. The purpose of this paper is to think about what is at stake, and for whom, in any solution that is developed to deal with such requests. To accomplish this task, this paper will utilize stakeholder theory, a common method used in business ethics. Several scenarios that connect stakeholder concerns and WGS will also posited and analyzed. This paper concludes by developing criteria composed of a series of questions that researchers can answer in order to more effectively address requests for further analysis of stored sequences. PMID:27091475

  16. A strategic stakeholder approach for addressing further analysis requests in whole genome sequencing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornock, Bradley Steven O

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can be a cost-effective and efficient means of diagnosis for some children, but it also raises a number of ethical concerns. One such concern is how researchers derive and communicate results from WGS, including future requests for further analysis of stored sequences. The purpose of this paper is to think about what is at stake, and for whom, in any solution that is developed to deal with such requests. To accomplish this task, this paper will utilize stakeholder theory, a common method used in business ethics. Several scenarios that connect stakeholder concerns and WGS will also posited and analyzed. This paper concludes by developing criteria composed of a series of questions that researchers can answer in order to more effectively address requests for further analysis of stored sequences.

  17. Difficulties, Problems and Countermeasures in Chinese Educational Technology Researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-hong; Li, Bing; Xie, Bai-zhi

    2007-01-01

    The paper discussed the difficulties and problems in experimental researches in educational technology, such as misunderstanding in teachers' concept, disjointedness between theory and practice, inadequate understanding of dialectics in experimental educational technology researches, research project selection and theoretical hypothesis formation…

  18. NASA Space Weather Research Center: Addressing the Unique Space Weather Needs of NASA Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Muglach, K.; Evans, R. M.; Wiegand, C.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (SWRC) has been providing space weather monitoring and forecasting services to NASA's robotic missions since its establishment in 2010. Embedded within the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) (see Maddox et al. in Session IN026) and located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, SWRC has easy access to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities and proximity to space science and research expertise. By bridging space weather users and the research community, SWRC has been a catalyst for the efficient transition from research to operations and operations to research. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of SWRC's space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases (see Wiegand et al. in the same session SM004), and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  19. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate

    2003-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  20. A Global Perspective on Using Implementation Research to Address Hypertension-Associated Target Organ Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peprah, Emmanuel; Lopez-Class, Maria; Shero, Susan; John-Sowah, Joylene; Engelgau, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, imposes a significant public health burden and challenge to address it worldwide. Scaling up delivery of proven, effective interventions for hypertension could significantly advance the goal of reducing the global burden. Although significant progress has been made in many countries, some lament that large-scale initiatives focused on reducing blood pressure in global populations have not effectively addressed this challenge. Late-stage implementation research plays a critical role in determining effective and sustainable scale-up of these initiatives. In this article, we briefly discuss some of the global initiatives that have been funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the US National Institutes of Health. Intervention delivery strategies in low resource settings must have demonstrated effectiveness and consideration for the social, cultural and physical context (eg, access, affordability, and availability of medications) in which a program is being delivered in order to be sustainable nationally and globally. Hence, the use of implementation research is central to determining sustainable delivery of evidence-based and tailored interventions focused on hypertension control. The sustained control of hypertension in global populations holds tremendous potential for reducing morbidity, premature mortality, and the adverse economic impact of cardiovascular disease in all regions. PMID:27440980

  1. Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

  2. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  3. The Factors Affecting Definition of Research Problems in Educational Technology Researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahçekapili, Ekrem; Bahçekapili, Tugba; Fis Erümit, Semra; Göktas, Yüksel; Sözbilir, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Research problems in a scientific research are formed after a certain process. This process starts with defining a research topic and transforms into a specific research problem or hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the way educational technology researchers identify their research problems. To this end, sources that educational…

  4. Internet Marketing Research: Opportunities and Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furrer, O.F.G.; Sudharshan, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Internet is promised a brilliant future among the favorite tools of marketing researchers. Develops a typology of Internet marketing surveys showing the existence of eight different designs that can be used by marketers. However, researchers who plan to develop research using the Internet need t

  5. Earth-Science Research for Addressing the Water-Energy Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. W.; Alley, W. M.; Engle, M.; McMahon, P. B.; Bales, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, the United States will face two significant and sometimes competing challenges: preserving sustainable supplies of fresh water for humans and ecosystems, and ensuring available sources of energy. This presentation provides an overview of the earth-science data collection and research needed to address these challenges. Uncertainty limits our understanding of many aspects of the water-energy nexus. These aspects include availability of water, water requirements for energy development, energy requirements for treating and delivering fresh water, effects of emerging energy development technologies on water quality and quantity, and effects of future climates and land use on water and energy needs. Uncertainties can be reduced with an integrated approach that includes assessments of water availability and energy resources; monitoring of surface water and groundwater quantity and quality, water use, and energy use; research on impacts of energy waste streams, hydraulic fracturing, and other fuel-extraction processes on water quality; and research on the viability and environmental footprint of new technologies such as carbon capture and sequestration and conversion of cellulosic material to ethanol. Planning for water and energy development requires consideration of factors such as economics, population trends, human health, and societal values; however, sound resource management must be grounded on a clear understanding of the earth-science aspects of the water-energy nexus. Information gained from an earth-science data-collection and research program can improve our understanding of water and energy issues and lay the ground work for informed resource management.

  6. How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass

    2013-04-01

    This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used

  7. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  8. THE PROBLEM FIELD OF NEOSHAMANISM CULTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Yanina A. Yelinskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at considering the problems of cultural studies of neoshamanism and at defining the specificity of this phenomenon. The problem of the content and scope of the concept of «neoshamanism» is focused on; the basic types of neoshamanism are defined. The issues of religious nature of neoshamanism, shamanic ecstasy and the shamanic universe representation are analyzed in the article. The issues of neoshamanism functioning within the framework of contemporary culture and interaction with external cultural institutions are raised.

  9. Scientific English: a program for addressing linguistic barriers of international research trainees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Carrie; Chang, Shine; Pagel, Walter

    2011-03-01

    Within the international research environment, English is indisputably the lingua franca, and thus, the majority of the world's scientists must adapt to a second language. Linguistic barriers in science affect not only researchers' career paths but institutional productivity and efficiency as well. To address these barriers, we designed and piloted a specialized course, Scientific English. The pedagogical approach is based on English for specific purposes methodology in which curriculum and content are driven by the types of daily language used and interactions which occur in the participants' occupation, in this case, cancer research. The 11-week program was organized into three sections: presentation skill, meeting and discussion skills, and writing skills. Effectiveness of the course was measured by the number of participants able to produce the presentations and written products with a score of at least 75 of 100 possible points. From January to December 2008, participant scores averaged 90.4 for presentation and 86.8 for written products. The authors provide insights and recommendations on the development and delivery of the program. PMID:20623348

  10. Chinese Family Problems: Research and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangling, Wei

    1983-01-01

    Discusses family life in China, which has undergone several dramatic changes including raising of the legal marriage age, less restrictions on divorce, and official promotion of family planning. Because these policies and practices conflict with Chinese traditions, inevitable problems have arisen. (JAC)

  11. Problem Complexity Research from Energy Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Pan; Jie, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Computational complexity is a particularly important objective. The idea of Landauer principle was extended through mapping three classic problems (sorting,ordered searching and max of N unordered numbers) into Maxwell demon thought experiment in this paper. The problems'complexity is defined on the entropy basis and the minimum energy required to solve them are rigorous deduced from the perspective of energy (entropy) and the second law of thermodynamics. Then the theoretical energy consumed by real program and basic operators of classical computer are both analyzed, the time complexity lower bounds of three problems'all possible algorithms are derived in this way. The lower bound is also deduced for the two n*n matrix multiplication problem. In the end, the reason why reversible computation is impossible and the possibility of super-linear energy consumption capacity which may be the power behind quantum computation are discussed, a conjecture is proposed which may prove NP!=P. The study will bring fresh an...

  12. Methodical Problems in Organic Farming Research

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    Workshop presentation with particular focus on values, transferability and praxis relevance of organic farming research. Examples from agricultural engineering lead to the conclusion, that prototype farming, goal oriented project management, participative decision making and funding, coaching of co-operation, and coaching of conflict management may enhance long term, holistic and interdisciplinary research.

  13. Researching wicked problems in a construction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter Holm

    Finding ones way through empirical research in a construction project can be a challenging affair. Reflections about the uncertainty that relates to the researchers work when he/she is collecting data and construction knowledge in empirical studies of construction projects, is an area that could ...

  14. A Strategic Framework for Utilizing Late-Stage (T4) Translation Research to Address Health Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Peprah, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xinzhi; Kaufmann, Peter G; Engelgau, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Achieving health equity requires that every person has the opportunity to attain their full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or other socially determined circumstances. Inequity experienced by populations of lower socioeconomic status is reflected in differences in health status and mortality rates, as well as in the distribution of disease, disability and illness across these population groups. This article gives an overview of the health inequities literature associated with heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) disorders. We present an ecological framework that provides a theoretical foundation to study late-stage T4 translation research that studies implementation strategies for proven effective interventions to address health inequities. PMID:27440979

  15. Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709

  16. "Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Willmott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here. Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...

  17. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  18. Chemoradiotherapy: successes and problems in translational research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of mechanistic-based clinical regimens which combine radiation and chemotherapy to improve local control and cure in solid malignancies has proven to be a difficult problem. Studies with human and animal cell lines in culture provide valuable data on the effects and mechanisms of action of radiation and anticancer drugs. They can also suggest mechanisms of interaction between drugs and radiation that might be used to obtain therapeutic gain. Studies with syngeneic rodent tumors or human tumor cell lines xenografted into immune-deficient rodents can be used to test the effects of combined modality regimens on tumors in vivo. Studies of normal tissues in rodents can be used to evaluate potential toxicities. However, at each step in this process of preclinical evaluation there are limitations of the model systems and gaps in the knowledge obtainable from the models. There are also gaps in our understanding of the biology of malignancies in human patients both before treatment and to an even greater extent during protracted therapeutic regimens. Our knowledge of the mechanisms producing dose-limiting injuries in patients is also limited, as is our understanding of the factors which influence the risk to individual patients and the interactions of drug and radiation injury in patients. The limitations of our models and our knowledge generally preclude the direct translation of preclinical findings into rationally designed, effective clinical trials, and can lead to either unexpectedly positive or disappointing results when clinical trials are developed, performed and analyzed. Successes and problems in the translation of preclinical studies of radiation/drug combinations into effective clinical regimens will be discussed and will be illustrated using our laboratory and clinical experience with agents designed to modulate tumor oxygenation and with regimens combining radiation therapy with radiosensitizers or with the mitomycins

  19. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

  20. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-06-16

    covers a broad range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

  1. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  2. Research program with no ''measurement problem''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact

  3. Problems of information support in scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaev, V. G.; Gorshkov, A. B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on the creation of the open access Akustika portal (AKDATA.RU) designed to provide Russian-language easy-to-read and search information on acoustics and related topics. The absence of a Russian-language publication in foreign databases means that it is effectively lost for much of the scientific community. The portal has three interrelated sections: the Akustika information search system (ISS) (Acoustics), full-text archive of the Akusticheskii Zhurnal (Acoustic Journal), and 'Signal'naya informatsiya' ('Signaling information') on acoustics. The paper presents a description of the Akustika ISS, including its structure, content, interface, and information search capabilities for basic and applied research in diverse areas of science, engineering, biology, medicine, etc. The intended users of the portal are physicists, engineers, and engineering technologists interested in expanding their research activities and seeking to increase their knowledge base. Those studying current trends in the Russian-language contribution to international science may also find the portal useful.

  4. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  5. Software problems in magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main world effort in magnetic fusion research involves studying the plasma in a Tokamak device. Four large Tokamaks are under construction (TFTR in USA, JET in Europe, T15 in USSR and JT60 in Japan). To understand the physical phenomena that occur in these costly devices, it is generally necessary to carry out extensive numerical calculations. These computer simulations make use of sophisticated numerical methods and demand high power computers. As a consequence they represent a substantial investment. To reduce software costs, the computer codes are more and more often exhanged among scientists. Standardization (STANDARD FORTRAN, OLYMPUS system) and good documentation (CPC program library) are proposed to make codes exportable. Centralized computing centers would also help in the exchange of codes and ease communication between the staff at different laboratories. (orig.)

  6. Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossey Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

  7. Implementation of Solving IP Address Shorting Problem by NAT Technique%NAT技术解决IP地址短缺问题的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙中廷

    2013-01-01

    With the popularization of information technology and network, the IP address shorting has increasingly become a problem in development. By analysis of the technical principle of network address translate (NAT), the static and dynamic NAT address translation technologies are introduced briefly. In order to the translation process from private address to public address implemented by using the address translation technologies is described in detail from three aspects in order to provide three common implementation models for multiple computers sharing a public address. Aiming at the appearing problems of IP address overlapping, the solutions are presented, in order to provide the effective solutions for IP address shorting problems.%随着信息技术及网络的普及,IP地址短缺问题越来越成为发展中的一个问题。通过对网络地址转换(NAT)技术原理的分析,对静态NAT地址转换技术及动态NAT地址转换技术做了简要介绍;从3个层面详细阐述了运用地址转换技术实现私有地址向公有地址的转换的过程,为多台计算机共享一个公有地址提供3个通用实现模型,并针对出现的IP地址重叠问题给出了解决的方案,为IP地址短缺问题提供了有效的解决方法。

  8. Manipulative Experimental Approaches to Addressing Geobiological Questions in Microbial Mat and Stromatolite Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, I. Lee

    2005-01-01

    We will present a short synopsis of experimental approaches using greenhouse flume systems to address questions of biogeochemical cycling, mineral formation and 3-d structure for Guerrero Negro microbial mats and Highborne Cay Stromatolites.

  9. A Framework for Addressing Skeptics' Claims Using Evidence-Based Argumentation: Lessons Learned from Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Edwards, A.; Henderson, A.

    2012-12-01

    In science education, climate change is an issue that is especially useful for teaching concepts spanning several fields of science, as well the nature and practices of science. In response, we are developing a NASA-funded curriculum, titled Climate Science Investigations (CSI): South Florida, that teaches high school and first-year undergraduate level students how to analyze and use scientific data answer questions about climate change. To create an effective curriculum, we integrated lessons learned from our educational research conducted within our elementary science methods courses (Lambert, Lindgren, & Bleicher, 2012). For the past few years, we have been integrating climate science in our courses as a way to teach standards across several science disciplines and assessing our preservice teachers' gains in knowledge over the semesters. More recently, given the media attention and reports on the public's shift in opinion toward being more skeptical (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011), we have assessed our students' perceptions about climate change and implemented strategies to help students use evidence-based scientific argumentation to address common claims of climate skeptics. In our elementary science methods courses, we framed climate change as a crosscutting theme, as well as a core idea, in the Next Generation Science Standards. We proposed that the issue and science of climate change would help preservice teachers not only become more interested in the topic, but also be more prepared to teach core science concepts spanning several disciplines (physical, life, and earth sciences). We also thought that highlighting the "practice of scientific inquiry" by teaching students to develop evidence-based arguments would help the preservice teachers become more analytical and able to differentiate scientific evidence from opinions, which could ultimately influence their perceptions on climate change. Lessons learned from our preservice

  10. A Simulated Research Problem for Undergraduate Metamorphic Petrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, Roddy V.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a laboratory problem in metamorphic petrology designed to simulate a research experience. The problem deals with data on scales ranging from a geologic map to hand specimens to thin sections. Student analysis includes identifying metamorphic index minerals, locating their isograds on the map, and determining the folding sequence. (BC)

  11. Intermodal safety research needs report of the sixth workshop on national transportation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawer, A.J. (ed.)

    1976-04-01

    This conference brought together DOT policymakers, university principal investigators and other professionals to consider the intermodal safety research requirements of the Department of Transportation. The objectives of the conference were: (1) to highlight safety problems and needed transportation safety research identified by DOT modal safety managers and to stimulate university or university/industry teams to respond with research proposals which emphasize multi-modal applicability and a system view; and (2) to provide a forum for university research groups to inform DOT safety managers of promising new directions in transportation safety research and new tools with which to address safety related problems. The conference addressed the research requirements for safety as identified by the Statement of National Transportation Policy and by the modal safety managers in three principal contexts, each a workshop panel: I, Inter-Institutional Problems of Transportation Safety. Problems were described as: Federal-State, local; Federal-Industry; Federal-Public, Consumer groups. II, Goal Setting and Planning for Transportation Safety Programs. Issues were: modifying risk behavior, safety as a social value, and involving citizens in development of standards as a way of increasing probability of achieving program objectives. III, DOT Information, Management, and Evaluation Systems Requirements. Needs were: data requirements and analytic tools for management of safety programs.

  12. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kylan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  13. Language Teachers' Responses to Educational Research: Addressing the "Crisis" of Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2016-01-01

    While teachers are being called upon to turn to educational research and find evidence of "what works," critics argue that research often suffers from a crisis of representation. They contend that research reports fail to sufficiently capture the lived experiences of research participants. In this article, I present insights gleaned from…

  14. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugge, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed. PMID:26463258

  15. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugge, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed.

  16. The Research State and Problems Needing Study of Green Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According with the request of sustainable development for asset maintenance, in this paper the research state of China and other countries are indexed, then the contents of green maintenance were described and a system model of green maintenance was established. This paper discussed in brief the problems needing research, key techniques and adoptable methods of green maintenance.``

  17. Research funding for addressing tobacco related disease: an analysis of UK investment between 2008 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Mary; Bogdanovica, Ilze; Britton, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the UK. However research spending on tobacco related disease, and particularly smoking prevention, is thought to be low. We therefore aimed to assess the relation between tobacco-related research investment and disease burden from 2008 to 2012. Methods: We used the Health Research Classification System to classify UK government and charitable research funding by broad health category and then by tobacco prevention ...

  18. Beyond the "National Container": Addressing Methodological Nationalism in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Kezar, Adrianna J.

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that there is a need for higher education researchers to become aware of methodological nationalism (MN) and take steps to reframe their scholarship in new ways. It illuminates two characteristics of MN prevalent in higher education research and suggests that although a few researchers have attempted to move beyond MN in the…

  19. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report

  20. Practices and strategies to address climate and market risks in vulnerable ecosystems: Panel on collective action, participation and agricultural research

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne; Gilles, Jere

    2007-01-01

    A presentation about the results of a panel on collective action, participation and agricultural research within the framework of the SANREM CRSP LTR-4 project "Practices and strategies to address climate and market risks in vulnerable ecosystems". LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  1. Problems regarding the application of internet in the historical research

    OpenAIRE

    Fostikov, Aleksandra; Milenović, Nenad

    2004-01-01

    The text consists of two different parts – theoretical and practical one Theoretical part implies several problems regarding the application of Internet during the historical research: its significance and its positive sides, various problems a historian encounters during the course of such applications, its prospects in the future, etc. On the other hand, practical part of this text comprises the review of a number of various Internet sites significant for...

  2. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  3. Shifting the HIV Training and Research Paradigm to Address Disparities in HIV Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Julie H; Alegría, Margarita

    2016-09-01

    Tailored programs to diversify the pool of HIV/AIDS investigators and provide sufficient training and support for minority investigators to compete successfully are uncommon in the US and abroad. This paper encourages a shift in the HIV/AIDS training and research paradigm to effectively train and mentor Latino researchers in the US, Latin America and the Caribbean. We suggest three strategies to accomplish this: (1) coaching senior administrative and academic staff of HIV/AIDS training programs on the needs, values, and experiences unique to Latino investigators; (2) encouraging mentors to be receptive to a different set of research questions and approaches that Latino researchers offer due to their life experiences and perspectives; and (3) creating a virtual infrastructure to share resources and tackle challenges faced by minority researchers. Shifts in the research paradigm to include, retain, and promote Latino HIV/AIDS researchers will benefit the scientific process and the patients and communities who await the promise of HIV/AIDS research. PMID:27501811

  4. Mixed Methods Research Strategies with Deaf People: Linguistic and Cultural Challenges Addressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy T.; Winiarczyk, Rowena E.

    2014-01-01

    Deaf people, members of a complex global language minority, have been excluded from positions of power in the field of humanitarian aid and development assistance, as well as from playing a significant role in the conduct of research that affects their lives. Deaf people rarely lead or participate as researchers in studies about their own…

  5. Putting Principles into Practice: Addressing Historical Trauma, Mistrust, and Apprehension in Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Zuleka; Acquaye-Doyle, Lucinda A.; Waites, Shayna; Howard, Tyriesa

    2016-01-01

    The social work profession has articulated commitments to acknowledging and affirming how diversity and culture shape the human experience and to developing social workers who can competently engage in research-informed practice and practice-informed research. However, there remains a need in social work education for more widespread use of…

  6. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  7. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings.

  8. Interviewing the Interpretive Researcher: A Method for Addressing the Crises of Representation, Legitimation, and Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie PhD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors outline five types of debriefing and introduce a new type of debriefing, namely, that of debriefing the interpretive researcher. Next they present eight main areas accompanied by example questions to guide the interviewer when debriefing the researcher. They also present five authenticity criteria developed by Guba and Lincoln (1989 and include possible interview questions to document the degree to which the researcher has met these criteria. Finally, using Miles and Huberman's (1994 framework, they illustrate how displays such as matrices can be used to collect, analyze, and interpret debriefing interview data as well as leave an audit trail.

  9. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintain oral health. The research is evaluating motivational interviewing, counseling, and oral hygiene skills-building to establish which approach(es) is most effective. We are also in active discussions with NIH ...

  10. Using vignettes to assess contributions to the work of addressing child mental health problems in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Wissow, Lawrence S.; Zafar, Waleed; Fothergill, Kate; Ruble, Anne; Slade, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background To further efforts to integrate mental health and primary care, this study develops a novel approach to quantifying the amount and sources of work involved in shifting care for common mental health problems to pediatric primary care providers. Methods Email/web-based survey of a convenience sample (n = 58) of Maryland pediatricians (77 % female, 58 % at their site 10 or more years; 44 % in private practice, 52 % urban, 48 % practicing with a co-located mental health provider). Part...

  11. The Use of the Ames Test as a Tool for Addressing Problem-Based Learning in the Microbiology Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our environment is full of potential carcinogens such as UV light, industrial pollutants, pesticides, and food additives, among others. It is estimated that 90% of all carcinogens are also mutagens. The Ames test is one of the most common tests for mutagens. In this problem-based learning activity, undergraduate biology students used the Ames test to screen a substance they provided, to see if it could be considered a mutagen. The idea of surveying substances used in everyday life appealed to our students, and helped engage them in this activity.

  12. A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Lauder, William; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-03-01

    Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself. PMID:23072264

  13. Addressing Inequalities in Health: New Directions in Midwifery Education and Practice. Researching Professional Education Research Reports Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Angie; Lockey, Rachael; Henwood, Flis; Pankhurst, Francesca; Hall, Valerie; Sommerville, Fiona

    This report addresses key questions concerning the effectiveness of midwifery education in preparing midwives to meet the needs of women from minority or disadvantaged groups in England. Chapter 1 sets out the methodological context within which the work was undertaken and provides an overview of data sources and sample sizes. Chapters 3 and 4…

  14. Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web ("Web") is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation threatened sample validity: a survey study and an online intervention study. The lessons learned from these experiences generated three types of strategies researchers can use to reduce the likelihood of participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research. Examples of procedural/design strategies, technical/software strategies and data analytic strategies are provided along with the methodological strengths and limitations of specific strategies. The discussion includes a series of considerations to guide researchers in the selection of strategies that may be most appropriate given the aims, resources and target population of their studies.

  15. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stauffacher

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter

  16. On the RA research reactor fuel management problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 25 years of operation, the Soviet-origin 6.5-MW heavy water RA research reactor was shut down in 1984. Basic facts about RA reactor operation, aging, reconstruction, and spent-fuel disposal have been presented and discussed in earlier papers. The following paragraphs present recent activities and results related to important fuel management problems

  17. Student Internships Bridge Research to Real World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynie, Michaela; Jensen, Krista; Johnny, Michael; Wedlock, Jane; Phipps, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report on student perceptions of 24 graduate student internships funded in 2007-2008 by York University's Knowledge Mobilization (KMb) Unit. These internships provided opportunities for students to engage in research with community agencies around real world problems. Design/methodology/approach: The principal…

  18. Literacy: A Route to Addressing Child Poverty? National Literacy Trust Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This short document reviews research into the role of low literacy in poverty and disadvantage. It sets out evidence for the impact of parental engagement in home learning and the significance of attitudes, aspirations and literacy development. The National Literacy Trust hopes that this is a useful resource for those with responsibility for, and…

  19. 76 FR 60505 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to... notice of public workshop published in the Federal Register of July 28, 2011 (76 FR 45268). In that notice, FDA announced a public workshop regarding the approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation...

  20. Stage matters: choosing relevant model systems to address hypotheses in diet and cancer chemoprevention research.

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Jenifer I.; Hord, Norman G.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: Adult;Animals;Anticarcinogenic Agents;Cell Line;Cell Line,Tumor;Colon;diet therapy;Diet;Disease Models,Animal;Disease Progression;Epithelium;Genome;Humans;mechanisms of carcinogenesis;Mice;Mice,Inbred C57BL;Neoplasms;prevention & control;Research;Risk;therapeutic use;utilization.

  1. Incomplete Reporting: Addressing the Prevalence of Outcome-Reporting Bias in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian; Polanin, Joshua; Williams, Ryan; Pigott, Terri

    2015-01-01

    Outcome reporting bias refers to the practice of omitting from primary studies outcomes that were actually collected. When primary studies do not report on all the outcomes assessed, there is an incomplete understanding of a phenomenon that may be compounded when the study is included in a systematic review of research. Outcome reporting bias is…

  2. College Students' Views of Work-Life Balance in STEM Research Careers: Addressing Negative Preconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life…

  3. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  4. An Overview of Interdisciplinary Research at Notre Dame Addressing "Grand Challenges" in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Bolster, D.; Tank, J. L.; Hellmann, J.; Christopher, S. F.; Sharma, A.; Chiu, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midwest and Great Lakes region face a number of "Grand Challenges" associated with climate, land use, agriculture, and water resources infrastructure. These include sustainability of agricultural systems and related impacts to food security and the regional economy; sustainability of Great Lakes water levels; changing storm statistics and impacts to stormwater management and flooding; water quality in rivers and downstream receiving water bodies related to non-point source pollution on agricultural lands and combined sewer overflows in urban areas; urban impacts related to aging infrastructure and climate change, and ecosystem management and restoration. In the context of water management, groundwater resources are poorly understood in comparison with surface water resources, and regional-scale simulation models are needed to address questions of sustainability both in terms of supply and water quality. Interdisciplinary research at the University of Notre Dame is attempting to address these research challenges via 1) integrated macro-scale groundwater and surface water modeling to address issues related to sustainable water supply, ecosystem restoration, and agricultural impacts; 2) development of high-resolution regional climate models dynamically coupled to the Great Lakes to address urban impacts, changing storm statistics and to quantify precipitation and evaporation over the Great Lakes; 3) and integrated macro-scale hydrology and water quality modeling to assess the large-scale performance of innovative land management BMPs on agricultural land (such as the two-stage ditch, cover crops, and dynamic drainage control) intended to improve water quality.

  5. The Role of the African Languages Research Institute in Addressing Language of Instruction Dilemmas in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesta Masuku

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The lexicographic work of the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI has played a significant role in attempting to avoid some of the dilemmas associated with using African languages as media of instruction in the Zimbabwean education system. Monolingual Shona and Ndebele dictionaries, biomedical reference works, dictionaries of musical, literary and linguistic terms as well as children's dictionaries constitute part of ALRI's contribution towards the goal of mainstreaming African languages in the education system. This article is an evaluation of the research activities taking place at ALRI. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that if they receive adequate attention through corpus planning, African languages possess the capacity to play an important role as media of instruction across the entire spectrum of the education curricula in Zimbabwe and elsewhere. The article concludes by observing that, if the efforts of ALRI are to succeed, there is need for the co-operation of all stakeholders in language practice.

    Keywords: DICTIONARIES, LEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICOGRAPHER, LEXICOGRAPHIC RESEARCH, INDIGENOUS AFRICAN LANGUAGES, AFRICAN LANGUAGES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ALRI, EDUCATION, CURRICULUM, MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION, SHONA, NDEBELE, ZIMBABWE

    Opsomming: Die rol van die African Languages Research Institute by die hantering van onderrigtaaldilemmas in Zimbabwe. Die leksikografiese werk van die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI het 'n betekenisvolle rol gespeel om sommige van die dilemmas te probeer vermy wat gepaard gaan met die gebruik van Afrikatale as onderrigmedia in die Zimbabwiese opvoedingstelsel. Eentalige Sjona- en Ndebelewoordeboeke, biomediese naslaanwerke, woordeboeke van musiek-, letterkunde- en taalkundeterme sowel as woordeboeke vir kinders maak deel uit van ALRI se bydrae tot die doelwit om Afrikatale in die hoofstroom van die opvoedingstelsel te plaas. Hierdie artikel is 'n beoordeling van die

  6. Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

  7. Addressing gender dynamics and engaging men in HIV programs: lessons learned from Horizons research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Michaelis, Annie; Verma, Ravi; Weiss, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, there has been increasing interest in the role that gender plays in HIV and violence risk, and in successfully engaging men in the response. This article highlights findings from more than 10 studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America--conducted from 1997 through 2007 as part of the Horizons program--that have contributed to understanding the relationship between gender and men's behaviors, developing useful measurement tools for gender norms, and designing and evaluating the impact of gender-focused program strategies. Studies showed significant associations between support for inequitable norms and risk, such as more partner violence and less condom use. Programmatic lessons learned ranged from insights into appropriate media messages, to strategies to engage men in critically reflecting upon gender inequality, to the qualities of successful program facilitators. The portfolio of work reveals the potential and importance of directly addressing gender dynamics in HIV- and violence-prevention programs for both men and women. PMID:20297757

  8. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  9. Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Live Donor Kidney Transplantation: Priorities for Research and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Amy D; Rodrigue, James R.; Purnell, Tanjala S.; Ladin, Keren; Boulware, L Ebony

    2010-01-01

    One potential mechanism for reducing racial/ethnic disparities in the receipt of kidney transplants is to enhance minorities’ pursuit of living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Pursuit of LDKT is influenced by patients’ personal values, their extended social networks, the healthcare system, and the community at large. This review discusses research and interventions promoting LDKT, especially for minorities, including improving education for patients, donors, and providers, utilizing LDKT...

  10. Technology requirements to be addressed by the NASA Lewis Research Center Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydelott, J. C.; Rudland, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the planning and execution of a scientific program which will provide advance in space cryogenic fluid management technology. A number of future space missions were identified that require or could benefit from this technology. These fluid management technology needs were prioritized and a shuttle attached reuseable test bed, the cryogenic fluid management facility (CFMF), is being designed to provide the experimental data necessary for the technology development effort.

  11. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Paul R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion. However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000 experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion, higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment. In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion. Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows

  12. [The research of the idea of population problems (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, N

    1982-07-01

    Approximately 200 years have passed since Malthus pointed out various population problems. Since then, many scholars have discussed and researched the population principles attributable to Malthus. Formal demography has developed recently. However, the conception of population problems has been discussed more on an a priori level rather than on a philosophical level. We cannot conceive of man himself without introspection about what is man. This problem has also been approached by other philosophers--Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Feuerbach, Marx, Neitzche, Scheler, Heidegger, Dilthey, Pascal, Northrop, Sartre, Buber, Landmann, and others. It is possible to classify views of the human being into about 20 patterns. Until now, there have been different ideas among population researchers and students in Japan. Some have thought of population as the abstract mass of man; others thought of it as a concrete mass of man. Further inquiry into this idea would allow the author to proceed to examine man himself, population, and population problems from a philosopher's point of view. A new theory of population problems could then be established by improving the population principles of Malthus. (author's modified)

  13. [The research of the idea of population problems (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, N

    1982-07-01

    Approximately 200 years have passed since Malthus pointed out various population problems. Since then, many scholars have discussed and researched the population principles attributable to Malthus. Formal demography has developed recently. However, the conception of population problems has been discussed more on an a priori level rather than on a philosophical level. We cannot conceive of man himself without introspection about what is man. This problem has also been approached by other philosophers--Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Feuerbach, Marx, Neitzche, Scheler, Heidegger, Dilthey, Pascal, Northrop, Sartre, Buber, Landmann, and others. It is possible to classify views of the human being into about 20 patterns. Until now, there have been different ideas among population researchers and students in Japan. Some have thought of population as the abstract mass of man; others thought of it as a concrete mass of man. Further inquiry into this idea would allow the author to proceed to examine man himself, population, and population problems from a philosopher's point of view. A new theory of population problems could then be established by improving the population principles of Malthus. (author's modified) PMID:12155101

  14. Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted by three teachers in the school. Results suggest, at 95 percent confidence level, significant improvement for concept of Newtons 1st Law while not so for Newtons 3rd Law. A Focus Group Discussion revealed students confirming the usefulness of the EJS model in visualizing the 1st Law while not so much for the 3rd Law. We speculate the design ideas for constant velocity motion in the computer model coupled with the PbI worksheet did allow for making sense and experiencing of the 1st Law, where traditional pen-paper represen...

  15. Artificial intelligence and design: Opportunities, research problems and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarel, Saul

    1990-01-01

    The issues of industrial productivity and economic competitiveness are of major significance in the U.S. at present. By advancing the science of design, and by creating a broad computer-based methodology for automating the design of artifacts and of industrial processes, we can attain dramatic improvements in productivity. It is our thesis that developments in computer science, especially in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and in related areas of advanced computing, provide us with a unique opportunity to push beyond the present level of computer aided automation technology and to attain substantial advances in the understanding and mechanization of design processes. To attain these goals, we need to build on top of the present state of AI, and to accelerate research and development in areas that are especially relevant to design problems of realistic complexity. We propose an approach to the special challenges in this area, which combines 'core work' in AI with the development of systems for handling significant design tasks. We discuss the general nature of design problems, the scientific issues involved in studying them with the help of AI approaches, and the methodological/technical issues that one must face in developing AI systems for handling advanced design tasks. Looking at basic work in AI from the perspective of design automation, we identify a number of research problems that need special attention. These include finding solution methods for handling multiple interacting goals, formation problems, problem decompositions, and redesign problems; choosing representations for design problems with emphasis on the concept of a design record; and developing approaches for the acquisition and structuring of domain knowledge with emphasis on finding useful approximations to domain theories. Progress in handling these research problems will have major impact both on our understanding of design processes and their automation, and also on several fundamental questions

  16. Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site: Field-Scale Test Facility for Addressing Fundamental Questions of Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrash, W.; Routh, P. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS) is a research wellfield or field-scale test facility developed in a shallow, coarse, fluvial aquifer with the objectives of supporting (a) development of cost-effective, non- invasive methods for quantitative characterization and imaging methods in heterogeneous aquifers using hydrologic and geophysical techniques; (b) examination of fundamental relationships and processes at multiple scales; (c) testing theories and models for groundwater flow and solute transport; and (d) educating and training the next generation of professionals in multidisciplinary subsurface science and engineering. The design of the wells and the wellfield provide for a wide range of single-well, cross-hole, multiwell and multilevel hydrologic, geophysical, and combined hydrologic-geophysical experiments. Efforts have been focused largely on (a) establishing the 3D distributions of geologic, hydrologic, and geophysical parameters which can then be used as the basis for testing methods to jointly invert hard and soft data to return the "known" 3D K distribution and (b) developing subsurface measurement and imaging methods including static and time-lapse tomographic imaging methods. From this work we have developed a good understanding of the hydrostratigraphic framework of the BHRS as a hierarchical system which includes layers and lenses; this framework is recognized with geologic, hydrologic, radar, seismic, and EM methods and tracer tests. Work to date has been conducted by Boise State University with some collaboration and exchange with researchers and students from other institutions. At this point the BHRS is functioning well as a field-scale control volume and test cell in a multiscale heterogeneous aquifer so there is an opportunity to increase the range of both collaborative participation and research activities at the BHRS. In this regard, opportunities exist to investigate and monitor process and property variation in time and space

  17. 2006 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address: Observations about Music Education Research in MENC's First and Second Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Jere T.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an acceptance speech by Jere T. Humphreys, the recipient of the Music Educators National Conference (MENC) 2006 Senior Researcher Award. Humphreys discusses his observations about music education research in MENC's first and second centuries. Most of his observations focus on the present--the nexus of the two centuries: first…

  18. The Real Issues of the Middle East and the Arab Spring Addressing Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    CERN Document Server

    Djeflat, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    The wave of protests and populist uprisings in the Middle East has heightened the focus on a volatile region. But the emphasis on political issues has obscured underlying issues concerning education, infrastructure, research, innovation, entrepreneurship and sustainable environmental and social development. This volume, emerging in the aftermath of a conference and workshop on science and technology in the region, presents contributions from a range of experts from the Middle East, Europe, and the world to provide fresh new insights and perspectives on the challenges and prospects for regional development in the changing global context of our time. The authors explore such topics as: the role of information and communication technologies; mindset change in support of investment in intangible assets and risk-taking; how to approach cultural issues, institutions and governance; collaborations with other regions, and; benchmarking performance while drawing lessons of relevance for the special local context. Ulti...

  19. Addressing Underrepresentation in Sex Work Research: Reflections on Designing a Purposeful Sampling Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Oliffe, John; Atchison, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Men, transgender people, and those working in off-street locales have historically been underrepresented in sex work health research. Failure to include all sections of sex worker populations precludes comprehensive understandings about a range of population health issues, including potential variations in the manifestation of such issues within and between population subgroups, which in turn can impede the development of effective services and interventions. In this article, we describe our attempts to define, determine, and recruit a purposeful sample for a qualitative study examining the interrelationships between sex workers' health and the working conditions in the Vancouver off-street sex industry. Detailed is our application of ethnographic mapping approaches to generate information about population diversity and work settings within distinct geographical boundaries. Bearing in mind the challenges and the overwhelming discrimination sex workers experience, we scope recommendations for safe and effective purposeful sampling inclusive of sex workers' heterogeneity. PMID:26589337

  20. Addressing Underrepresentation in Sex Work Research: Reflections on Designing a Purposeful Sampling Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Oliffe, John; Atchison, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Men, transgender people, and those working in off-street locales have historically been underrepresented in sex work health research. Failure to include all sections of sex worker populations precludes comprehensive understandings about a range of population health issues, including potential variations in the manifestation of such issues within and between population subgroups, which in turn can impede the development of effective services and interventions. In this article, we describe our attempts to define, determine, and recruit a purposeful sample for a qualitative study examining the interrelationships between sex workers' health and the working conditions in the Vancouver off-street sex industry. Detailed is our application of ethnographic mapping approaches to generate information about population diversity and work settings within distinct geographical boundaries. Bearing in mind the challenges and the overwhelming discrimination sex workers experience, we scope recommendations for safe and effective purposeful sampling inclusive of sex workers' heterogeneity.

  1. Research on hydraulic-powered roof supports test problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-bo; JIANG Jin-qiu; MA Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The load-bearing characters of hydraulic-powered roof support with dual telescopic legs were analyzed. With a specific type hydraulic-powered roof support with dual telescopic legs for research object, the inside load test problems in factories was analyzed, and the correct test methods were given, which can enhance the test efficiency and make the factories away from the error design of hydraulic-powered roof supports and legs.

  2. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to 'unleash America's science and research community' to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  3. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Steven (DOE Secretary of Energy)

    2011-05-25

    Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to "unleash America's science and research community" to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  4. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  5. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a tritium labeling facility operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and ordinary citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though discovered or appreciated only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to compromise

  6. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, Robert J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Peterson, S. Ring [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-05-05

    Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a "tritium labeling facility" operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and "ordinary" citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though "discovered" or "appreciated" only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to

  7. A selection of biomechanical research problems: From modeling to experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Cyrus Omid

    The research undertakings within this manuscript illustrate the importance of biomechanics in today's science. Without doubt, biomechanics can be utilized to obtain a better understanding of many unsolved mysteries involved in the field of medicine. Moreover, biomechanics can be used to develop better prosthetic or surgical devices as well. Chapter 2 represents a medical problem, which has not been solved for more than a century. With the use of fundamental principles of biomechanics', a better insight of this problem and its possible causes were obtained. Chapter 3 investigates the mechanical interaction between the human teeth and some processed food products during mastication, which is a routine but crucial daily activity of a human being. Chapter 4 looks at a problem within the field of surgery. In this chapter the stability and reliability of two different Suturing-Techniques are explored. Chapters 5 and 6 represent new patent designs as a result of the investigations made in Chapter 4. Chapter 7 studies the impact and load transfer patterns during the collision between a child's head and the ground. All of the above mentioned chapters show the significance of biomechanics in solving a range of different medical problems that involve physical and or mechanical characters.

  8. CREATIVE CORE WITHIN THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OF EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Zagvyazinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The authors continue to explore the issue of practical methodology of research studies (Education and Science No 8, 2014. The aim of the study is to reveal theoretical and practical issues of empirical-research activity at the stages of conceptual problem understanding of pedagogical research, ideas promotion, development of the conception of their practical implementation and formation of scientifically grounded constructive hypotheses. Methods. The applied methods include theoretical analysis, synthesis, abstraction, idealization, generalization, specification, comparison, classification, extrapolation, modelling and hermeneutic interpretation. Results. Scientifically grounded description of the process of creative research of educational problems is presented in the paper. The content of such notions as «concept», «creative core», «idea», «plot», and «research hypothesis» is revealed. The creative core of scientific research is considered in close relation to the key aspects of the scientific inquiry: problematics definition, research topic and subject selection, clarification of initial facts and theoretical statements, definition of the conceptual framework, determination of essential novelty. The authors explore the mechanisms of the scientific research through the analysis of the educational situation and initial facts to the formation of a conceptual framework of research and the further working out of its instrumental component. The creative core of research is characterised as its most difficult element including the inception of idea transformation, its realisation into some conception and expansion into productive hypothesis. The authors describe the types of hypotheses, such as working and scientific (ready, functional and explanatory. The logical and gnoseological structure of a scientific hypothesis is shown in the study. The methodological requirements to the formulation of the scientific hypotheses are

  9. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women’s health needs: Toward sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A.; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study—a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:27310870

  10. Problem-centric Process for Research-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shaban

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research-based Learning (RbL extends Inquiry and Project-based Learning by facilitating an early stage exposure and training for future scientists through authentic research activities. In this paper, an iterative problem-centric RbL process is introduced, and its activities and management aspects are described. The process helps implement course-integrated research systematically and practically. Furthermore, the novel process follows constructivist methods in incorporating inquiry, scaffolding, open-ended projects, as well as a goal oriented learning approach. The RbL process is adopted in two advanced computing courses, at two different universities: a leading comprehensive Western university and a new university in a developing country. The paper summarizes new lessons learned in these rewarding experiences. In particular, the instructor should help students start their projects, by providing them with previous work or data and pre-approving the papers to review by students. He should also maintain a continuous feedback to and from students to keep the students motivated and help the instructor refine and adapt the RBL process. We note that research collaborators can help students in identifying the research topics early. The paper also shows how to alleviate difficulties that may be encountered by students who find the novel approach demanding, and consequently it also helps the instructors better manage the course contents.

  11. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  12. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  13. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  14. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  15. Research Problems in Data Curation: Outcomes from the Data Curation Education in Research Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C. L.; Mayernik, M. S.; Weber, N.; Baker, K. S.; Kelly, K.; Marlino, M. R.; Thompson, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The need for data curation is being recognized in numerous institutional settings as national research funding agencies extend data archiving mandates to cover more types of research grants. Data curation, however, is not only a practical challenge. It presents many conceptual and theoretical challenges that must be investigated to design appropriate technical systems, social practices and institutions, policies, and services. This presentation reports on outcomes from an investigation of research problems in data curation conducted as part of the Data Curation Education in Research Centers (DCERC) program. DCERC is developing a new model for educating data professionals to contribute to scientific research. The program is organized around foundational courses and field experiences in research and data centers for both master's and doctoral students. The initiative is led by the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in collaboration with the School of Information Sciences at the University of Tennessee, and library and data professionals at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). At the doctoral level DCERC is educating future faculty and researchers in data curation and establishing a research agenda to advance the field. The doctoral seminar, Research Problems in Data Curation, was developed and taught in 2012 by the DCERC principal investigator and two doctoral fellows at the University of Illinois. It was designed to define the problem space of data curation, examine relevant concepts and theories related to both technical and social perspectives, and articulate research questions that are either unexplored or under theorized in the current literature. There was a particular emphasis on the Earth and environmental sciences, with guest speakers brought in from NCAR, National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Through the assignments, students

  16. IPCC and other assessments as vehicles for integrating natural and social science research to address human dimensions of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    IPCC and other assessments address both natural and social science aspects of climate change, but this approach has historically involved relatively little integration across the two sets of disciplines. In a framing that is only slightly oversimplified, past relationships were mostly sequential. From a physical climate perspective, human behavior was a boundary condition setting the trajectory of atmospheric forcing. And from an impacts perspective, changes in the physical climate set the stage upon which humans experienced impacts and made decisions about adaptation and mitigation. Integrated assessment models have been the main locus of research on questions about bi-directional coupling, where the trajectory of the physical climate influences GHG balance related to the need for agricultural land as well as GHG emissions from other activities. In the IPCC AR4 (2007), feedbacks from the natural carbon cycle to climate were a focus, but with little discussion of the potentially important feedbacks from climate-carbon interactions in the human domain. Detailed research and modeling in this area are still in the relatively early stages. For the future, IPCC and other assessments potentially provide a vehicle for new insights about the interaction of natural and social science dimensions of climate change. Several aspects could be interesting. Some of these relate to the decisions that modulate GHG emissions. For example, how does scientific understanding of climate change influence people's interest in mitigation and adaptation? How does it influence their willingness to pay? How are these modulated by regional and global geopolitics? Other potentially interesting aspects relate to interactions between mitigation and adaptation. For example, how does local experience of climate change alter the balance of focus on adaptation and mitigation? Still others relate to the nature of impacts and the role of sustainable development. With an aggress sustainable development

  17. Population problems and population research in a market economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1994-01-01

    A market driven economy has many effects on population growth. The laws of social production were explicated by Marx and Engels, and Comrade Deng Xiaoping presents his views on China's socialist market economy and population problems in this article. Modern market economies have changed greatly over time. Before the 1960s, the focus of the interaction between population and economic change was in macro control. Since the 1960s, the focus shifted to micro control. Theories on maximum growth and neomodern population theory provide only a few useful elements. Cost-benefit analysis of child production functions, despite limitations, has universal appeal. Western theories with sound scientific evidence and Marxist theories should be examined and integrated within the Chinese experience. Two areas of concern in China are the spatial imbalance between population and economic development and an appropriate time period for any research activity. Scientific research in China will be advanced by careful integration of theory and practice, careful study of the Chinese experience, in-depth analysis, and bold, practical approaches which incorporate existing research results from the West. There are three dominant views of economic reforms. 1) Economic development plans should include a market economy. 2) Chinese population control would depend upon administrative means rather than market forces. 3) There are indirect ways in which the market affects population production. The last position is favored. The conclusions are made that family planning has been and continues to be a driving force in declining birth rates and that a focus on government population control does not discount the importance of the influence of economic factors on changes in the birth rate. Market forces are beginning to show their impact on people's choice in reproduction, and the impact is increasing. Reforms must be made appropriate to both the position and the negative influence of the market economy on

  18. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

  19. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  20. Building Partnerships and Research Collaborations to Address the Impacts of Arctic Change: The North Atlantic Climate Change Collaboration (NAC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, J.; North, L. A.; Strenecky, B.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in Arctic warming influence the various atmospheric and oceanic patterns that drive Caribbean and mid-latitude climate events, including extreme events like drought, tornadoes, and flooding in Kentucky and the surrounding region. Recently, the establishment of the North Atlantic Climate Change Collaboration (NAC3) project at Western Kentucky University (WKU) in partnership with the University of Akureyri (UNAK), Iceland Arctic Cooperation Network (IACN), and Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) provides a foundation from which to engage students in applied research from the local to global levels and more clearly understand the many tenets of climate change impacts in the Arctic within both a global and local community context. The NAC3 project encompasses many facets, including joint international courses, student internships, economic development, service learning, and applied research. In its first phase, the project has generated myriad outcomes and opportunities for bridging STEM disciplines with other fields to holistically and collaboratively address specific human-environmental issues falling under the broad umbrella of climate change. WKU and UNAK students desire interaction and exposure to other cultures and regions that are threatened by climate change and Iceland presents a unique opportunity to study influences such as oceanic processes, island economies, sustainable harvest of fisheries, and Arctic influences on climate change. The project aims to develop a model to bring partners together to conduct applied research on the complex subject of global environmental change, particularly in the Arctic, while simultaneously focusing on changing how we learn, develop community, and engage internationally to understand the impacts and find solutions.

  1. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connell Janice

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

  2. Researching and Working for Transgender Youth: Contexts, Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Jones

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In May 2016, two events epitomized the complexities of working for global transgender youth rights. First, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO hosted a ministerial event in which education ministers from around the world released a call to action for protection of students on the basis of their gender identity and expression in schools. Second, the United Nations (UN hosted an event celebrating the family, attended by conservative ministers and activists who mobilized family protectionist discourse against transgender students. This article contemplates, in light of transgender activist Raewyn Connell’s Southern Theory contributions, the complexity of global research and work for transgender youth. It considers key informant interviews with 50 stakeholders in the global push for transgender student rights in education, including members of government and non-government organisations, and academics from Northern and Southern countries. Problems in aiding transgender youth at the global level included safety concerns, the impacts of conservative advocates and media backlash (within family and national protectionist discourses, cultural complexities hampering engagement and translation, dissemination hindrances pertaining to established publishing biases, and financial and collaboration barriers. Solutions including virtual work; multi-level leadership; alliance-building; representation; visibility of transgender youth citizenship and family membership; and legal, financial and capacity-building aid are considered.

  3. Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

    2011-10-01

    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central

  4. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  5. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is encouraging to see so many experts gathered here today to discuss the important issue of environmental protection from ionizing radiation. The International Union of Radioecology (IUR) has collaborated constructively with other international organizations, notably the ICRP, the IAEA, UNSCEAR and the EU, and hope that these close links may be strengthened and developed in the future. Such international cooperation has been conducive to rapid progress on the theme of radiological protection of the environment in recent years. The IUR, as an independent scientific association, has been fighting to put environmental radioactivity in the same context as other environmental problems within regulatory and political agendas. In the early years, it could be quite embarrassing because there was little support for this initiative, but now it can give us great satisfaction that the topic appears to be receiving the international attention it deserves. However, it is imperative that any advances are built on a foundation of scientific knowledge. The IUR task group, formed in 1997, took note of a number of initiatives and ideas being developed within the radiological protection community. The IUR was the first international organization to conclude that a systematic approach was required in order to develop a framework within which various initiatives could be accommodated and, in 2000, such a system was presented and promoted. The IUR also highlighted the need to consider the broader socioeconomic context within which these ideas were beginning to evolve. I would now like to spend a few moments of your time to update you on the IUR's views and activities. A consensus conference was held in Oslo in 2001, supported by a number of representatives from NGOs, industry, academia and regulators. A surprising degree of agreement was achieved, enabling the drafting of a consensus statement - stating that the environment should receive radiological protection. Members of

  6. Efforts to Bridge the Gap between Research and Practice in Social Work: Precedents and Prospects: Keynote Address at the Bridging the Gap Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This keynote address discusses previous and ongoing efforts to reduce the persistent gap between research and practice in social work and offers recommendations for further bridging that gap. Key among those recommendations is the need to conduct descriptive outcome studies of efforts to adapt research-supported interventions in everyday practice…

  7. IP Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  8. Inaugural Address

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani

    2008-01-01

    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  9. Development and initial evaluation of a telephone-delivered, behavioral activation, and problem-solving treatment program to address functional goals of breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter A; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L; Ahles, Tim A; Kornblith, Alice B; Hegel, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment.

  10. Brains in Jars: The Problem of Language in Neuroscientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica A.; Curran, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroscience is a rapidly expanding scientific field, and its influence on our perceptions of fundamental aspects of human life is becoming widespread, particularly in the social and behavioral sciences. This influence has many philosophical implications, only one of which will be addressed in this article. For many centuries, philosophers have…

  11. TA-designed vs. research-oriented problem solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Mamudi, William; Henderson, Charles R; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2016-01-01

    In order to study graduate teaching assistants (TAs) beliefs and values about the design of instructor problem solutions, twenty-four TAs were provided with different solutions and asked to discuss their preferences for prominent solution features. TAs preferences for solution features were examined in light of the modeling of expert-like problem solving process as recommended in the literature. Results suggest that while many of the features TAs valued align with expert-like problem solving approaches, they noticed primarily "surface features" of solutions. Moreover, self-reported preferences did not match well with the solutions TAs wrote on their own.

  12. Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

    2000-03-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029

  13. The Nonprofit Research Institute: Its Origin, Operation, Problems, and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlans, Harold

    The independent, nonprofit research institute is a phenomenon of the twentieth century. These institutions now engage in research not only in industry, but also in national defense programs, public health, space exploration, atomic energy, education, economics, and public policy. The nonprofit research institutes are of particular interest because…

  14. Trees Without Fruit: The Problem with Research About Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, George

    1985-01-01

    "If the research in higher education ended, it would scarcely be missed." This is the time when excellent research and scholarship about higher learning and its institutions is needed, yet the study of this national resource is at a low ebb. The reasons for low appraisals of research are discussed. (MLW)

  15. President's address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speaker discusses some of the economic problems facing the Canadian nuclear industry. The worldwide economic slowdown has caused a fall in energy needs in Canada as well as in other nations. Consequently the demand for uranium has fallen and the market for new reactors looks bleak. However, the speaker feels that a solution can be found using creativity and innovative thinking

  16. Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

  17. Research Advances of Social Security Problems in China —Visualization Research based on Bibliometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳

    2016-01-01

    This article summarized the research progress and characteristics of Chinese social security issues from 2000 papers, which record in CNKI. We find that, the topic in the field of social security is board and dispersion. Due to the huge system and complex problem of social security, there is no central theme. Through cluster analysis, multi dimensional scaling analysis and social network analysis, we got the high frequency keywords atlas. Then, we summarized the research topic to six parts. They are rural social security, urban and rural social security co-ordination, vulnerable group social security, social security fund management, the social insurance system, and social security system and government responsibility. It summed up the theme of the module, meanwhile, combined the practice analysis.

  18. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  19. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or

  20. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supply of energy is the most important problem facing mankind today. Energy is necessary for economic development, and it is in the interests of the industrialized nations to ensure that the developing countries reach their economic potential. The need for the increased use of nuclear power is evident, and the CANDU reactor provides a simple, proven energy source; the 950 MW CANDU has potential applications in both industrialized and third world nations. The Canadian nuclear industry has an important role to play in the world, but must be rationalized in order to compete successfully in the international marketplace

  1. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  2. Integrating participatory engagement and scientific research to inform causes and solutions to water problems in the River Njoro Watershed Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M.

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.

  3. Addressing Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sosa Elízaga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.

  4. RESEARCH OF PROBLEMS ON REALIZING DIRECT ALGORITHM OF WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Direct algorithm of wavelet transform (WT) is the numerical algorithm obtained from the integral formula of WT by directly digitization.Some problems on realizing the algorithm are studied.Some conclusions on the direct algorithm of discrete wavelet transform (DWT), such as discrete convolution operation formula of wavelet coefficients and wavelet components, sampling principle and technology to wavelets, deciding method for scale range of wavelets, measures to solve edge effect problem, etc, are obtained.The realization of direct algorithm of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is also studied.The computing cost of direct algorithm and Mallat algorithm of DWT are still studied, and the computing formulae are obtained.These works are beneficial to deeply understand WT and Mallat algorithm.Examples in the end show that direct algorithm can also be applied widely.

  5. Research on Attacking a Special Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Jiang; Dou, Yunqi; Ma, Chuangui

    2016-01-01

    Cheon first proposed a novel algorithm for solving discrete logarithm problem with auxiliary inputs. Given some points P,αP,α2P,…,αdP∈G, an attacker can solve the secret key efficiently. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to solve another form of elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem with auxiliary inputs. We show that if some points P,αP,αkP,αk2P,αk3P,…,αkφ(d)-1P∈G and a multiplicative cyclic group K=〈k〉 are given, where d is a prime, φ(d) is the order of K. The secret key α∈Fp⁎ c...

  6. Research on Attacking a Special Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Weng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheon first proposed a novel algorithm for solving discrete logarithm problem with auxiliary inputs. Given some points P,αP,α2P,…,αdP∈G, an attacker can solve the secret key efficiently. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to solve another form of elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem with auxiliary inputs. We show that if some points P,αP,αkP,αk2P,αk3P,…,αkφ(d-1P∈G and a multiplicative cyclic group K=〈k〉 are given, where d is a prime, φ(d is the order of K. The secret key α∈Fp⁎ can be solved in O((p-1/d+d group operations by using O((p-1/d storage.

  7. RESEARCH ANNOUNCEMENTS Helly Type Problems for Some Special Convex Polygons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑立平; 丁仁

    2001-01-01

    @@In the combinatorial geometry of convex sets the question of how efficiently a family of convex sets can be pierced by points has led to various problems which may be regarded as extensions of the Helly-type problems. A family of sets is said to be n-pierceable (abbreviated as Пn) if there exists a set of n points such that each member of the family contains at least one of them. A family of sets is said to be Пnk if every subfamily of size k or less is Пn. The famous Helly theorem in combinatorial geometry asserts that for finite families of convex sets in the plane П13 implies П1. In a recent paper by M. Katchalski and D. Nashtir[a] the following conjecture of Griinbaum[2] was mentioned again:

  8. Workshop discusses problems African scientists have in publishing their research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Gregory S.; Diongue, Aida

    Geoscientists from developing nations often encounter multiple obstacles in disseminating the results of their research to fellow scientists in other countries. Some of these obstacles as they pertain specifically to researchers from West Africa and proposals to overcome them were discussed as a component of a recent three-day workshop. (However, these obstacles can be safely assumed to affect many geoscientists from developing countries, and from countries whose economies are in transition.)The purpose of the workshop, held in Washington, D.C. on July 27-29, was to examine scientific and social issues associated with climate variability and change in West Africa. It was attended by atmospheric scientists, and by some participants in the ocean sciences, from Algeria, Botswana, Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Zambia, and the United States, representing universities, research laboratories, and meteorological services. The common thread among them was active involvement in weather- and climate-related research in West Africa.

  9. Social Problem Solving Skill Research and Social-Skill Training

    OpenAIRE

    一前, 春子

    1996-01-01

    Reseach on the relation between social information-processing and social adjustment in childhood is reviewed and interpreted within the framework of social informationprocessing model and INS model.The review suggests that two models have different useful aspects. Then, efforts of social-skill training and their effects on children are examined.Results of social-skill training indicates that both children with problems and normal children receive benefit.

  10. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  11. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  12. Fisheye Interfaces—Research Problems and Practical Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2011-01-01

    Fisheye interfaces give access to a large information structure by providing users with both local detail and global context. Despite decades of research in fisheye interfaces, their design and use are not well understood. To foster a discussion of fisheye views and their theoretical foundations...

  13. Television in South Africa: The Research Paradox, Problem and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul

    South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…

  14. Probe into Problem-Related Nontraditional Mineral Resources Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The discovery of and research into the nontraditional mineral resources, both in theory and in practice for the next century,are commented in this paper.The nontraditional mineral resources prognostication is very important for the research into and the discovery of the history of typical deposits all over the world.The emphasis of the present research is laid on new kinds of deposits. The processes and approaches of the discovery of new kinds of deposits should be studied carefully. The research into gold ores that we have done so far concludes the following 5 points. (1) Through finding the alluvial gold, we could obtain primary gold deposits such as Tuanjiegou porphyroid gold deposit in Heilongjiang Province. (2) Through geochemical prospecting, we might discover new types of deposits such as Carlin gold deposit in USA. (3) Some deposits might be discovered around a large-scale deposit. For example, a few large-scale altered gold deposits have been discovered around Linglong in Shandong Province.

  15. Goal Setting: The Heart of the Problem in Research Assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottage, Cindy; Morse, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Presents strategies to prepare students in step two of the Independent Investigation Method, goal setting, for the research in step three: ask essential questions; ask questions using Bloom's taxonomy; create playful ways to focus questioning; create a hypothesis or preliminary thesis statement; identify a variety of likely resources before…

  16. [E-research: problems with anonymity and consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolderink, Marla; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Constant P; van Wijmen, Frans C B

    2013-01-01

    The Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) requires that participants in medical-scientific studies provide written consent. This requirement makes e-research (online research) unnecessarily difficult and sometimes impossible. Much of e-research involves online interventions that focus on sensitive issues such as sexual dysfunction, addiction and child abuse, for which anonymity is an important condition. WMO procedures, however, strictly interpret the word "written" as "on paper", and participants are not permitted to give consent by email, for example. A second requirement, which mainly makes studies among minors between the ages of 12 and 18 more difficult, is that both parents or the guardian must provide written consent. This undermines anonymity to such an extent that virtually no subjects remain. Participants in medical-scientific studies must always be identifiable to the investigator. But, apart from this, he/she should be possible to guarantee anonymity within the regulatory framework. There is good reason to adapt legal regulations to today's needs. PMID:24345359

  17. Inhaled actinides: some safety issues and some research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: limited research funds; risk coefficients for inhaled particles; the hot particle hypothesis; the Gofman-Martell contention; critical tissues for inhaled actinides inhalation hazards associated with future nuclear fuel cycles; and approach to be used by the inhalation panel

  18. INFORMATION ASPECTS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL PROBLEMS IN ELECTRODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchernykh A. G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the experimental task, the analysis of which cannot be carried out without the use of methods of calculus mathematics. It is shown that the use of modern information technology in educational research tasks to confront theory with real physical experiments lets us raise the level of quality of training future teachers of physics and computer science

  19. Multispecies networks: visualizing the psychological research of the Committee for Research in Problems of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michael; Serykh, Darya; Green, Christopher D

    2015-03-01

    In our current moment, there is considerable interest in networks, in how people and things are connected. This essay outlines one approach that brings together insights from actor-network theory, social network analysis, and digital history to interpret past scientific activity. Multispecies network analysis (MNA) is a means of understanding the historical interactions among scientists, institutions, and preferred experimental animals. A reexamination of studies of sexual behavior funded by the Committee for Research in Problems of Sex between the 1920s and the 1940s demonstrates the applicability of MNA to clarifying the relations that sustained this area of psychology. The measures of weighted degree and betweenness can highlight which nodes (whether organisms or institutions) were particularly "central" to this network. Rats featured as the animals most widely studied during this period, but the analysis also reveals distinct institutional and disciplinary cultures where different species were favored as either surrogates for humans or representatives of more general biological groups.

  20. Research-informed strategies to address educational challenges in a digitally networked world: the EDUsummIT 2013 action agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Voogt; G. Knezek; M. Searson; K.W. Lai; D. Gibson; F. Khaddage; P. Mishra; T. Laferriere; P. Resta; P. Fisser; P. Albion

    2014-01-01

    EduSummIT is a global community of policy-makers, researchers, and educators working together to move education into the digital age. EDUsummIT 2013 took place in Washington DC and resulted in an action agenda for researchers, policy makers and educators to take concrete steps to move education in t

  1. Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2011-01-01

    The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

  2. PROBLEMS AND OUTLOOK OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botagoz Turdalieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of scientific work on regional and individual levels can be achieved by the using scientometric methods of a quantitative analysis of bibliographic information available in such databases as Science Citation Index (SCI. Unfortunately, Kazakhstan scientific journals have not been included yet in the Thomson Reuters Corp. register of periodicals, that substantially distorts the actual national scientometric indexes. The analysis of Database “National Citation Reports” (Kazakhstan, which correlated with a contribution of Kazakhstan into the world science development, has shown the low level of research activities of Kazakhstan scientists on international arena. So, the share of international publications of Kazakhstan in the global flow is equal to 0,021 % (1044 doc. that corresponds to the 87th place in the general list of countries of 177 names. Subject to the ranking of countries into groups by the number of the published works, Kazakhstan is referring to the group of 46 countries having 1000-10000 publications over 5 years, of which 8,6% in  medicine. In this article the use of statistics and appropriate software by the authors of original articles in such journals as recommended by the Kazakh National Centre for Scientific & Technical Expertise (NCSTE and included in the Database еlibrary.kz was evaluated. Research was conducted according to Research Report, due to which a research design and statistical analysis methods were estimated.  In the rating of the research design, the authors of articles mostly used as follows: description of a series of cases–63,2%, description of the individual cases -27,1%, and description of specific cases–9,1%. A scope of selection in Section “Research Methods” was only calculated in 21,8% of cases, and in 63,9% of cases there was no description how the selection was carried out. Methods of analytical statistics were used in the 46,0% of cases. And there were references to

  3. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  4. Problems of integrating between innovative enterprises and a researching university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Svetlakov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems that currently face the establishments of agriculture are the following: competition with import products, regionalization of support, i.e. prevention to a single market space formation, monopolization of processing enterprises and sensitivity to investments. The technique of assessing the level of economic security of the agroindustrial complex organizations was suggested and described. It identifies the indicators of economic security, indicative markers of economic security and thresholds for performance indicators, current values of performance indicators etc. At the same time, such indicators of economic security of agroindustrial complex organizations are used: availability of arable land, labour, funds etc.; profitability, efficiency, and cost effectiveness. This technique will reduce the risks to economic security of agroindustrial complex organizations, improve quality of life and enhance food security of the state.

  5. Advances in research of stress-assisted corrosion fatigue problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhi-bo; LI Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic materials are notable for their rigidity, insulation and resistance to hostile environment. Nevertheless, if a stressed ceramic component is exposed to chemical attack, it may suffer from a form of delayed fracture known as static fatigue.From the point of view of a designer, it is clearly desirable to determine the behavior of sub-critical crack growth; the crack path and crack growth rate, as a function of material properties and loading conditions are of particular interest. This paper presents a review of advances in stress assisted corrosion problem in history and its corresponding numerical approaches in the last decades,and finally, comes up with consideration and crucial suggestions for future work.

  6. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last week we were reminded once again of the after-effects of Chernobyl. Unexpectedly high values of the radioactive substance caesium were found in moose meat from the south of Vaesterbotten County. A moose cow shot in Aengersjoe had 2000 becquerel per kilo meat, and a moose calf had almost 4000 becquerel. The caesium content in Swedish moose has varied after the 1986 reactor breakdown at Chernobyl. The explanation for this year's unusually high content appears to be that, due to the warm weather, the moose have eaten blueberries which contain more caesium than plants in wood clearings. Moose meat containing caesium reminds us of the vulnerability of our society. It reminds us that emissions cross borders and that ambitious, long term environmental policies must be adopted at the national but above all at the international level. Work on environmental objectives is an important component of Swedish efforts to overcome our environmental problems within a generation. In Sweden, our work is based on 15 environmental quality objectives. We have established subgoals, action strategies and follow-up mechanisms. In an international context it is, I venture to say, unique in its systematic structure. The Swedish Government and Riksdag have laid down that: - Human health and biological diversity shall be protected against harmful effects of radiation in the outdoor environment. - By the year 2010, the content in the environment of radioactive substances emitted from all activities and operations shall be so low that human health and biological diversity are protected. - By the year 2020 the annual number of cases of skin cancer caused by the sun shall not be higher than the figure for the year 2000. The risks involved in electromagnetic fields shall be continuously reviewed and necessary measures taken when such risks are identified. These objectives describe the quality and conditions for Sweden's environmental, natural and cultural resources that are ecologically

  7. A method for addressing research gaps in HTA, developed whilst evaluating robotic-assisted surgery: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballini Luciana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When evaluating health technologies with insufficient scientific evidence, only innovative potentials can be assessed. A Regional policy initiative linking the governance of health innovations to the development of clinical research has been launched by the Region of Emilia Romagna Healthcare Authority. This program, aimed at enhancing the research capacity of health organizations, encourages the development of adoption plans that combine use in clinical practice along with experimental use producing better knowledge. Following the launch of this program we developed and propose a method that, by evaluating and ranking scientific uncertainty, identifies the moment (during the stages of the technology's development where it would be sensible to invest in research resources and capacity to further its evaluation. The method was developed and tested during a research project evaluating robotic surgery. Methods A multidisciplinary panel carried out a 5-step evaluation process: 1 definition of the technology's evidence profile and of all relevant clinical outcomes; 2 systematic review of scientific literature and outline of the uncertainty profile differentiating research results into steady, plausible, uncertain and unknown results; 3 definition of the acceptable level of uncertainty for investing research resources; 4 analysis of local context; 5 identification of clinical indications with promising clinical return. Results Outputs for each step of the evaluation process are: 1 evidence profile of the technology and systematic review; 2 uncertainty profile for each clinical indication; 3 exclusion of clinical indications not fulfilling the criteria of maximum acceptable risk; 4 mapping of local context; 5 recommendations for research. Outputs of the evaluation process for robotic surgery are described in the paper. Conclusions This method attempts to rank levels of uncertainty in order to distinguish promising from hazardous

  8. $H_{u,d}$-messenger Couplings Address the $\\mu/B_\\mu$ \\& $A_t/m_{H_u}^2$ Problem and $(g-2)_\\mu$ Puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Zhaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Gauge mediated supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking (GMSB) furnishes the best idea to overcome the flavor problem in SSMs, supersymmetric stand models (SM). However, implemented in the minimal SSM (MSSM), a very serious fine-tuning problem arises, owing to the absence of a large $A_t$ term in the stop sector to radiatively enhance the SM-like Higgs boson mass. In the extended GMSB coupling $H_u$ to messengers can alleviate this problem but encounters the $A_t/m_{H_u}^2$ problem, i.e., at the same time a large $m_{H_u}^2$ is generated, rendering radiative electroweak spontaneously breaking (EWSB) problematic. This issue shows similarity to another long-standing problem of GMSB, the $\\mu/{B_\\mu }$ problem, and, of great interest, we find that they may admit the same solution, nonradiative EWSB. Such a solution is naturally accommodated when both $H_u$ and $H_d$ couple to messengers. As a bonus of nonradiative EWSB, the sleptons tend to be very light due to the significant renormalization group equation effect and they...

  9. The research and demonstration of some major geological problems of Three Gorges Project%The research and demonstration of some major geological problems of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Deji; Man Zuowu

    2011-01-01

    The research process, main contents, methods and conclusions for some major engineering geological problems of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) are reviewed and introduced, including dam site selection, regional tectonic stability and seismic activity, stability of reservoir bank and reservoir-induced earthquake. Meanwhile, the above mentioned engineering geological problems are evaluated according to the preliminary test results since TGP operation and impoundment in 2003.

  10. Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

  11. Connecting scientific research and classroom instruction: Developing authentic problem sets for the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.

    Reform efforts in science education have called for instructional methods and resources that mirror the practice of science. Little research and design methods have been documented in the literature for designing such materials. The purpose of this study was to develop problems sets for sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. This research adapted an instructional design methodology from the science education literature for the creation of new curricular problem sets. The first phase of this study was to establish an understanding of current curricular problems in sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. A sample of 792 problems was collected from four organic chemistry courses. These problems were assessed using three literature reported problem typologies. Two of these problem typologies have previously been used to understand general chemistry problems; comparisons between general and organic chemistry problems were thus made. Data from this phase was used to develop a set of five problems for practicing organic chemists. The second phase of this study was to explore practicing organic chemists' experiences solving problems in the context of organic synthesis research. Eight practicing organic chemists were interviewed and asked to solve two to three of the problems developed in phase one of this research. These participants spoke of three problem types: project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day. Three knowledge types (internal knowledge, knowledgeable others, and literature) were used in solving these problems in research practice and in the developed problems. A set of guiding factors and implications were derived from this data and the chemistry education literature for the conversion of the problems for practicing chemists to problems for undergraduate students. A subsequent conversion process for the five problems occurred. The third, and last phase, of this study was to explore undergraduate students' experiences solving problems in

  12. Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. During the recent past, the slowdown in nuclear power development in Canada has curtailed the demand for new nuclear professionals down to a trickle. Without exciting job opportunities in sight the interest of prospective students in nuclear education and research has plunged. Consequently, with declining enrolment in nuclear studies and higher demand from competing disciplines, most universities have found it difficult to sustain nuclear programs. As such the available pool of graduating students is small and insufficient to meet emerging industry demand. With nuclear industry employees' average age hovering around mid-forties and practically no younger cohort to back up, nuclear industry faces the risk of knowledge loss and significant difficulty in recruiting new employees to replenish its depleting workforce. It is, therefore, justifiably concerned. Also, since nuclear generation is now the purview of smaller companies, their in-house capability for mid- to longer-term research is becoming inadequate. Recognizing the above challenges, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by

  13. Opening Address [International Conference on Research Reactors: Safe Management and Effective Utilization, Rabat (Morocco), 14-18 November 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant issues still being faced by the research reactor community are primarily related to the operation, utilization, safety, ageing, decommissioning and waste management. More recently, challenges such as initiatives for creating new RR facilities, securing isotope production, human resources, infrastructure capacity building, or sustainability of RR programmes, are receiving greater attention. This conference will focus on new developments in the relevant, efficient and safe utilisation of Nuclear Research Reactors for the countries' social and economic development. It will contribute to foster the exchange of information on current and new research reactors and to provide a forum for reactor users, operators, managers, regulators, designers and suppliers to share experience and exchange opinions. It constitutes an opportunity to discuss common challenges, options and strategies and to strengthen regional and international cooperation between Research Reactors' centres from developed and developing countries with special emphasis on the transfer of knowledge and know how. In this particular context, the International Atomic Energy Agency is a central partner, playing a major role in strengthening the operation, applications and safety of Nuclear Research Reactors, thus supporting the development of civil and peaceful nuclear technologies worldwide

  14. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  15. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    threats. There is a need to continue and strengthen the multinational cooperation which involves active participation by both nuclear specialists and those with more general security and law enforcement laws. Furthermore priority has to be given to developing national capacity to evaluate security threats, ensure adequate physical protection and intervene in ongoing nuclear trafficking cases complemented by cooperation in the areas of forensic analysis of nuclear material and emergency response. Together with the Russian Federation the USA announce the completion of security upgrades at strategic weapons sites and agreement on measures to ensure the long term sustainability of physical protection improvements in the Russian Federation. The USA is also working to convert research reactors and return the high enriched uranium fuel fro locations around the world which might otherwise become a target for terrorists or thieves. In parallel with efforts to improve security at the source, the USA is building international cooperation to put in place nuclear detection at seaports, airports and land border crossings. Through collaboration with the Russian Federal Customs Service, all of the Russian Federation's official border crossings will be equipped with radiation detection equipment by 2011

  16. Mixed Methods Research: The "Thing-ness" Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary mixed methods research (MMR) veers away from a "loosely bounded" to a "bounded" concept that has important negative implications for how qualitatively driven mixed methods approaches are positioned in the field of mixed methods and overall innovation in the praxis of MMR. I deploy the concept of reification defined as taking an object/abstraction and treating it as if it were real such that it takes on the quality of "thing-ness," having a concrete independent existence. I argue that the contemporary reification of mixed methods as a "thing" is fueled by three interrelated factors: (a) the growing formalization of mixed methods as design, (b) the unexamined belief in the "synergy" of mixed methods and, (c) the deployment of a "practical pragmatism" as the "philosophical partner" for mixed methods inquiry. PMID:25888694

  17. Mathematical models of physics problems (physics research and technology)

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is intended to provide a foundation for a one-semester introductory course on the advanced mathematical methods that form the cornerstones of the hard sciences and engineering. The work is suitable for first year graduate or advanced undergraduate students in the fields of Physics, Astronomy and Engineering. This text therefore employs a condensed narrative sufficient to prepare graduate and advanced undergraduate students for the level of mathematics expected in more advanced graduate physics courses, without too much exposition on related but non-essential material. In contrast to the two semesters traditionally devoted to mathematical methods for physicists, the material in this book has been quite distilled, making it a suitable guide for a one-semester course. The assumption is that the student, once versed in the fundamentals, can master more esoteric aspects of these topics on his or her own if and when the need arises during the course of conducting research. The book focuses on two cor...

  18. Addressing the Needs of Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: The Current Status of Evidence-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Aron, Laudan; Bernstein, Jenny

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter,…

  19. Research on IP Address Hidden Technology Based on Netfilter/iptables Module%基于Netfilter/iptables的IP地址隐藏技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    摩西; 卢选民; 单长; 杨杰

    2011-01-01

    随着Internet的迅速发展,网络中因为IP地址信息泄漏而遭受的攻击日益严重.通过代理服务器来隐藏内部网络设备IP地址的传统方式,不仅影响数据传输速率,而且其本身也易成为攻击的目标.针对这一亟待解决的问题,基于Netfilter/iptables模块和IP地址替换技术,在Linux环境下通过DNAT和SNAT,以及多线程系统调用的方式实现了静态IP和DHCP动态分配IP的地址信息隐藏.通过网络实验证明,达到了预期的目的.%With the rapid development of Internet, the attacks caused by the IP address leakage become more and more serious. The traditional way to hide the IP address through a proxy server affects the data transmission rate and the proxy server could become the easily-attacked target. In response to this problem, the hiding of the static IP and DHCP dynamic IP address information is implemented with Netfilter/iptables modules and IP address substitution technique, through DNAT, SNAT and multiple threads in Linux OS. The experiment shows that it achieves the desired results.

  20. Lingua-Pedagogy as the Interdisciplinary Research Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Yakovleva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper is devoted to lingua-pedagogy – one of the modern branches of pedagogy dealing with personal socialization in the process of foreign language learning. This interdisciplinary field of knowledge is related to linguistics, pedagogic psychology, development psychology and acmeology. Lingua-pedagogy undergoes the formation process; therefore, there still are a number of open questions concerning its place among the other sciences, and the final definitions of the main concepts and terms. The author recommends the systematic approach to developing the theoretical foundation of lingua- pedagogy. The paper outlines the subject and aims of the lingua-pedagogic research, its content and affecting means. The system in question is poly- functional, its main functions being the integral pedagogic effect in foreign language teaching, stimulating self-dependent learning, and arranging the in- tercultural integration. The linguistic faculties at universities can be taken as the key elements of the lingua-pedagogic system – the development centers, nurturing the value-oriented respectful attitude to the native and foreign cul- ture, providing intercultural competence acquisition, and training pedagogic staff capable of fulfilling the poly-cultural development tasks. Identification of the conformities of intercultural socialization makes it possible to organize the system of pedagogic facilitation for students learning foreign languages; and develop the perspective methods and technologies of language competence acquisition and consolidation. 

  1. Ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research...... purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information....

  2. Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. Methods A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. Results The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8% met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies, sex (50% of studies, race (64% of studies, geographical/hospital site (93% of studies, socio-economic status (82% of studies and health status (72% of studies. Conclusion A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.

  3. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume I. Issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 12 invited issue papers and for 3 of the 13 documents received from the public at large in the preparation of an agenda for federally sponsored and conducted research into the biological effects of ionizing radiation. One issue paper previously input to the data base deals with the potential for significant human exposure from environmentally dispersed radionuclides

  4. The use of non-human primates in biomedical research: addressing the replacement impasse through the social dynamics of science

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Non-human primate experimentation provokes passionate and opposing exchanges, particularly in the UK. This disagreement contributes to an impasse which in turn has prevented the exploration of the important question, if and how primate research could be ended. This project aims to support the examination of this question of impasse presenting data on how it might be overcome by providing a novel and challenging perspective using a multi-method approach, and insights from science and technolog...

  5. Survey of the research on dynamic weapon-target assignment problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Huaiping; Liu Jingxu; Chen Yingwu; Wang Hao

    2006-01-01

    The basic concepts and models of weapon-target assignment (WTA) are introduced and the mathematical nature of the WTA models is also analyzed. A systematic survey of research on WTA problem is provided. The present research on WTA is focused on models and algorithms. In the research on models of WTA, the static WTA models are mainly studied and the dynamic WTA models are not fully studied in deed. In the research on algorithms of WTA, the intelligent algorithms are often used to solve the WTA problem. The small scale of static WTA problems has been solved very well, however, the large scale of dynamic WTA problems has not been solved effectively so far. Finally, the characteristics of dynamic WTA are analyzed and directions for the future research on dynamic WTA are discussed.

  6. A Demonstration of a Type VI Error: An Applied Research Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Roll, Steve

    1979-01-01

    A Type VI error results from inconsistency between the researchers' question of interest and the statistical procedures employed to analyze the data. An example of a research problem is analyzed to show the increase in statistical power resulting from improved research design, using multiple regression instead of analysis of variance. (CTM)

  7. Final Technical Report for "Applied Mathematics Research: Simulation Based Optimization and Application to Electromagnetic Inverse Problems"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Eldad

    2014-03-17

    The focus of research was: Developing adaptive mesh for the solution of Maxwell's equations; Developing a parallel framework for time dependent inverse Maxwell's equations; Developing multilevel methods for optimization problems with inequal- ity constraints; A new inversion code for inverse Maxwell's equations in the 0th frequency (DC resistivity); A new inversion code for inverse Maxwell's equations in low frequency regime. Although the research concentrated on electromagnetic forward and in- verse problems the results of the research was applied to the problem of image registration.

  8. Research as a guide for curriculum development: An example from introductory spectroscopy. II. Addressing student difficulties with atomic emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.

    2015-02-01

    This is the second of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. Paper I describes how several conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among university students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. This second article (Paper II) illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.

  9. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko;

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...... on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis...... of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...

  10. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    , traditional norms that may directly pertain to hyperfemininzed Asian-American women, including modesty and sexual fidelity, may protect against heavy episodic drinking (Young et al. 2005). Conversely, the risk for heavy episodic drinking may be enhanced in men who strive to demonstrate traditional notions of masculinity through risk-taking and endorsement of playboy norms (Iwamoto et al. 2010). Although this review has illustrated the contemporary state of research on alcohol use among Asian Americans, it also highlights the significant limitations in this literature. Many of the studies reviewed here have used cross-sectional data, which do not allow researchers to infer causality between the various sociocultural factors and problematic alcohol use. One way of addressing this gap in the existing literature may be to implement longitudinal designs to further understand how the temporal relationship between sociocultural factors, including acculturation and gender norms, may impact alcohol use and alcohol-related problem trajectories. There also is a pressing need to develop greater understanding of within-group differences among U.S.-born and foreign-born Asian Americans as well as among as specific ethnic groups. To date, epidemiological research has largely neglected to examine these significant discrepancies. Given the growing prevalence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among Asian-American women (Grant et al. 2004; Iwamoto et al. 2010), studies also should focus on this group and explore how the intersection of gender and culture may influence alcohol use. Finally, the majority of research on this population has been conducted in college samples; therefore, it is important to also examine community samples, including U.S.-born young adults who are not attending college and older adult Asian-American populations. PMID:27159808

  11. Presentation of a research project addressed to the realisation of a diamond-based cellular biosensing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarino, Luca; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio; Genovese, Marco; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Picollo, Federico; Traina, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    In this proceedings we will present a research project financed by Piedmont regional government (Italy; finalized to the realization and commercialization of functional devices for cellular bio-sensing based on diamond. Partners of the project are: Crisel Instruments, Torino University, Torino Polytechnic, INRIM, Politronica, Bionica Tech, Ulm University Here the main features of the final devices will be briefly summarized. We envisage an active diamond-based cellular substrate that can simultaneously stimulate and detect a variety of signals (chemical, optical, electrical) to and from neuroendocrine cells, in a fully biocompatible environment for the cellular system under test. Such a device can be realized by fully exploiting the peculiar properties of diamond: optical transparency, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, accessibility to a conductive graphite-like phase; properties that will be further explored and tested during the project.

  12. Opening Address [International Conference on Research Reactors: Safe Management and Effective Utilization, Rabat (Morocco), 14-18 November 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant issues that the RR community continues to face are primarily related to operation, utilization and safety, ageing, decommissioning, fuel and waste management. There are also more recent challenges, such as initiatives for new RR facilities, securing radioisotope production, human resource and infrastructure capacity building, as well as sustainability of RR programmes, all of which are receiving greater attention. In view of the above, it is timely to convene another in the series of international conferences to discuss the issues and foster cooperation within the worldwide RR community. For more than 60 years, RRs have been one of the locomotives of nuclear science and technology. To date, approximately 670 RRs have been built, and some 240 of these facilities continue to operate in 55 countries. It goes without saying that RRs must be safely and reliably operated, adequately utilized, refurbished when necessary, provided with adequate proliferation-resistant fuel cycle services and safely decommissioned at the end of life. In this regard, the IAEA provides assistance to Member States by developing safety standards and disseminating information on good practices for all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the planning and implementation of decommissioning. Member States look to the IAEA for coordination of the worldwide effort in this area and for help in solving specific problems. Today RR operating organizations need to overcome challenges such as effective utilization, the on-going management of ageing facilities, pressures for increased vigilance with respect to non-proliferation, and shrinking resources, both financial and human, while fulfilling an expanding role in support of nuclear technology development. The IAEA coordinates and implements an array of activities that together provide broad support for RRs. As with other aspects of nuclear technology, RR activities within the IAEA are spread among diverse groups in different

  13. Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research "Behaviour Formalization" System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Meek, Vincent Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and…

  14. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during the past three decades; however, many challenges remain in understanding the development of early conduct problems for girls, the contribution of pove...

  15. Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Sørensen, Elin

    2001-01-01

    to the collection and analysis of laddering data. However, many of these also point at problems of a more theoretical nature. In this chapter presented are some of the issues regarded as unresolved and suggested research that could help in solving these problems. The mayor part of this chapter deals...

  16. The Problem of Empirical Redundancy of Constructs in Organizational Research: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huy; Schmidt, Frank L.; Harter, James K.; Lauver, Kristy J.

    2010-01-01

    Construct empirical redundancy may be a major problem in organizational research today. In this paper, we explain and empirically illustrate a method for investigating this potential problem. We applied the method to examine the empirical redundancy of job satisfaction (JS) and organizational commitment (OC), two well-established organizational…

  17. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  18. Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems of the Belarusian State University

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Edition contains information about the history of Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems of the Belarusian State University, contact data and institute`s structure. The main developments of the institute are described also.Edition contains information about the history of Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems of the Belarusian State University, contact data and institute`s structure. The main developments of the institute are described also.

  19. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CRITICAL,CREATIVE THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING IN ACCOUNTING RESEARCHES: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Balasundaram Nimalathasan; Assoc. Prof. Ph.D Brabete Valeriu

    2010-01-01

    The paper is attempted to focus on association between critical, creative thinking and problem solving in accounting researches. The professional accountant must possess thinking skills (i.e., inquisitiveness; open-mindedness; patience, thoroughness, and perseverance) to operate in an increasingly complex environment. These skills assist accountants in problem solving and decision making in general, and in professional research activities in particular. The present study is based on the secon...

  20. Review of Problems in Research of Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fei

    2015-01-01

    Although research on individual differences became the mainstream in SLA, it still obviously lag behind research on similarities over the whole. In order to find a clear developing direction for research in this field, main problems and difficulties arose in earlier research will be discussed. Suggestions and prospects for research on individual differences of SLA will be also pro⁃posed. The ideal of modifying one’s way of teaching to suit the special requirements of each class or case should be the main trend of research on individual differences of SLA.

  1. Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery James

    2010-01-01

    By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…

  2. New paradigms for old problems: some (small) advances in laser resonator research at the CSIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we outline new approaches to old problems, namely understanding the transverse modes in Porro prism resonators, and creating methods to select Gaussian beams by phase-only intra-cavity elements. In the process we outline some of the recent research that has taken place within the Mathematical Optics research group.

  3. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  4. Subsynchronous Oscillation Problem Research in the UHVDC System of a Regional Power Grid in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qu Ying; Zhang Chao; Zheng Hui Ping; Xue Min; Zhang Ying

    2016-01-01

    Along with the grid structure being more and more complex and the rapid development of the HVDC system, studying the subsynchronous oscillation (SSO) problem on HVDC system has more engineering practice significance. The paper studies subsynchronous oscillations problem of generators near the ±800kV UHVDC converter station, and analyzes the subsynchronous oscillation possibilities through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation. At last, though the researched UHVDC thermal plants have none SSO risk but it nee...

  5. Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence: a review of psychological research

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Zhilinskaya,

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollab...

  6. Using Physics to Learn Mathematica to Do Physics: From Homework Problems to Research Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Robinett, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the development of a junior-senior level course for Physics majors designed to teach Mathematica skills in support of their undergraduate coursework, but also to introduce students to modern research level results. Standard introductory and intermediate level Physics homework-style problems are used to teach Mathematica commands and programming methods, which are then applied, in turn, to more sophisticated problems in some of the core undergraduate subjects, along with making con...

  7. Texts, Structure, and Collaboration: Reflections of a Professional Development Addressing Homophobia in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Homophobia is an incredible problem within educational settings. Therefore, we must begin examining how we can address the challenge in an effective manner. Researchers postulate professional development (PD) discussing homophobia is an appropriate method to address the problem. To date, there is little published literature that discusses how a PD…

  8. How can we improve problem-solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Knight, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Modern biological problems are complex. If students are to successfully grapple with such problems as scientists and citizens, they need to have practiced solving authentic, complex problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem-solving for the last three decades. Although the surface features and content of biology problems differ from physics problems, teachers of both sciences want students to learn to explain patterns and processes in the natural world and to make predictions about system behaviors. After surveying literature on problem-solving in physics and biology, we propose how biology education researchers could apply research-supported pedagogical techniques from physics to enhance biology students' problem-solving. First, we characterize the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve. We then describe the development of research-validated physics problem-solving curricula. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can appl...

  9. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  10. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  11. Estonia addresses its redneck problem / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Noore filmirežissööri Rasmus Merivoo bakalaureusetöö - lühimängufilm "Tulnukas ehk Valdise pääsemine 11 osas". Filmi populaarsuse fenomenist, "rullnokkade" subkultuuri tutvustus, laulja Vaiko Eplik taolise subkultuuri tekke võimalikest põhjustest ja muustki

  12. The a3 problem solving report: a 10-step scientific method to execute performance improvements in an academic research vivarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuk, James A; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up) was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner consistent with high

  13. The a3 problem solving report: a 10-step scientific method to execute performance improvements in an academic research vivarium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Bassuk

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation. The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner

  14. Enhancing continental-scale understanding of agriculture: Integrating the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) with existing research networks to address global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the sustainability of the world's food system and its contributions to feeding the world's population as well as to ensuring environmental sustainability of the planet. The elements of this grand challenge are by now well known. Analysis of agricultural sustainability is made more challenging by the fact that the local responses to these global drivers of change are extremely variable in space and time due to the biophysical and geopolitical heterogeneity across the United States, and the world. Utilizing research networks allows the scientific community to leverage existing knowledge, models and data to develop a framework for understanding the interplay between global change drivers, regional, and continental sustainability of US agriculture. For example, well-established instrumented and calibrated research networks will allow for the examination of the potential tradeoffs between: 1) crop production, 2) land use and carbon emissions and sequestration, 3) groundwater depletion, and 4) nitrogen dynamics. NEON represents a major investment in scientific infrastructure in support of ecological research at a continental scale and is intended to address multiple ecological grand challenges. NEON will collect data from automated sensors and sample organisms and ecological variables in 20 eco-climatic domains. We will provide examples of how NEON's full potential can be realized when these data are combined with long term experimental results and other sensor networks [e.g., Ameriflux, Fluxnet, the Long-term Ecological Research Program (LTER), the Long-term Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR)], Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).

  15. Opportunities and Problems of Comparative Higher Education Research: The Daily Life of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichler, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Higher education had a predominant national and institutional focus for a long time. In Europe, supra-national political activities played a major role for increasing the interest in comparative research. Comparative perspectives are important in order to deconstruct the often national perspective of causal reasoning, for proving benchmarks, for…

  16. MULTICRITERIA HYBRID FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM: LITERATURE REVIEW, ANALYSIS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Fatima Morais

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem, which is one of the most difficult problems to solve. The literature points to several studies that focus the Hybrid Flow Shop scheduling problem with monocriteria functions. Despite of the fact that, many real world problems involve several objective functions, they can often compete and conflict, leading researchers to concentrate direct their efforts on the development of methods that take consider this variant into consideration. The goal of the study is to review and analyze the methods in order to solve the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem with multicriteria functions in the literature. The analyses were performed using several papers that have been published over the years, also the parallel machines types, the approach used to develop solution methods, the type of method develop, the objective function, the performance criterion adopted, and the additional constraints considered. The results of the reviewing and analysis of 46 papers showed opportunities for future research on this topic, including the following: (i use uniform and dedicated parallel machines, (ii use exact and metaheuristics approaches, (iv develop lower and uppers bounds, relations of dominance and different search strategies to improve the computational time of the exact methods,  (v develop  other types of metaheuristic, (vi work with anticipatory setups, and (vii add constraints faced by the production systems itself.

  17. The "Human Problem" in Educational Research: Notes from the Psychoanalytic Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I theorize fantasies of idealization at work in narratives of educational research. I take as an example one of the very first psychoanalytically oriented studies in the field: Marion Milner's, "The Human Problem in Schools," published in 1938. Evidence is drawn from Milner's published book as well as from the historical…

  18. Scaffolding the Science: Problem Based Strategies for Teaching Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keebaugh, Alaine; Darrow, Lyndsey; Tan, David; Jamerson, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has highlighted the effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in multiple disciplinary settings, including medicine, teacher education, business, allied health, and the social sciences. Yet interdisciplinary educators have very little information about how to implement PBL in classrooms where multiple disciplines are…

  19. Teachers' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Problems with Existing Research Leading to New Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…

  20. Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

  1. Research Information Standardization as a Wicked Problem: Possible Consequences for the Standardization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Riechert, Mathias; Dees, Werner

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the degree to which the standardization project “Research core dataset” (CDS) qualifies as a wicked problem. The project was initiated in 2013 by the German Science Council. We suggest three solution approaches and discuss their application to standardization processes.

  2. Methodological problems of economic security research in the conditions of transformed economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goloshchapova  Zhypar  Esenbekovna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the methodological problems of research of financial and economic safety in the conditions of transformed economy. The author hypothesizes that should be divided into four zones of change of financial and economic security indicators: the zone of accumulation of critical mass; crisis zone; shear zone; fatal area.

  3. Research on the Problem of Spur Gear Teeth Contact in the Car Gear Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Skrickij

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on the problem of two gear contact in the car gearbox. Contact stiffness is evaluated for the whole period of mesh. Also, contact stresses are evaluated in the contact place. The presented method can be used for calculating spur gear.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Stakeholders' expectations on connectivity research for water and land management addressed by a survey in the collaborative EU-COST Connecteur network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Paton, Eva N.; Keesstra, Saskia

    2016-04-01

    Transfer of knowledge across the science-society interface is essential for both, ethical and economic reasons, and inevitable for successful climate change adaptation and integrated management of sustainable, resilient landscapes. The transdisciplinary research of connectivity (which is the degree to which a system facilitates the movement of matter and energy through itself. It is an emergent property of the system state, Connecteur web resources,2015) has the potential to supply monitoring, modelling and management tools to land and water managers in order to reach these goals. The research of water and sediment connectivity has received significant and increasing scientific attention across the entire realm of the environmental disciplines, and the COST Action ES 1306 Connecteur facilitates the multi-sectorial collaboration in connectivity research at EU level. In order to appropriately address the transfer of the cutting edge research developments of the Connecteur network, the collaborative research project on stakeholders' perception of connectivity was conducted by the Working Group 5 "Transition of connectivity research towards sustainable land and water management". The questionnaire survey on stakeholder perception was conducted by volunteering scientist involved in the Connecteur network together from 19 European countries. Together 84 stakeholders from all mayor sectors in water and land management were asked about the main challenges of their work, their understanding of connectivity, the desired areas of cooperation with connectivity science, and the best tools for transferring knowledge. The results showed differences between different stakeholders groups in the way they percept and work with connectivity, as well as their requirement of knowledge transfers. While farmers, and (in lower extend) the agricultural administration officers articulated no, or little need for connectivity management, the majority of stakeholders involved in land and water

  5. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  6. Active and Healthy Ageing as a Wicked Problem: The Contribution of a Multidisciplinary Research University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Graffigna, Guendalina; Baitieri, Maddalena; Amato, Alessandra; Bonanomi, Maria Grazia; Valentini, Paolo; Castelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The quest for an active and healthy ageing can be considered a "wicked problem." It is a social and cultural problem, which is difficult to solve because of incomplete, changing, and contradictory requirements. These problems are tough to manage because of their social complexity. They are a group of linked problems embedded in the structure of the communities in which they occur. First, they require the knowledge of the social and cultural context in which they occur. They can be solved only by understanding of what people do and why they do it. Second, they require a multidisciplinary approach. Wicked problems can have different solutions, so it is critical to capture the full range of possibilities and interpretations. Thus, we suggest that Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC) is well suited for accepting and managing this challenge because of its applied research orientation, multidisciplinary approach, and integrated vision. After presenting the research activity of UCSC, we describe a possible "systems thinking" strategy to consider the complexity and interdependence of active ageing and healthy living.

  7. How to ensure that the results of climate risk analysis make a difference? - Experience from applied research addressing the challenges of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Zebisch, Marc; Becker, Daniel; Pedoth, Lydia; Renner, Kathrin; Kienberger, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Changing climate conditions may have beneficial or adverse effects on the social-ecological systems we are living in. In any case, the possible effects result from complex and interlinked physical and social processes embedded in these systems. Traditional research addresses these bio-physical and societal issues in a separate way. Therefore, in general, studies on risks related to climate change are still mono-disciplinary in nature with an increasing amount of work following a multi-disciplinary approach. The quality and usefulness of the results of such research for policy or decision making in practice may further be limited by study designs that do not acknowledge appropriately the significance of integrating or at least mixing qualitative and quantitative information and knowledge. Finally, the acceptance of study results - particularly when containing some kind of assessments - is often endangered by insufficient and / or late involvement of stakeholders and users. The above mentioned limitations have often been brought up in the recent past. However, despite that a certain consensus could be achieved in the last years recognising the need to tackle these issues, little progress has been made in terms of implementation within the context of (research) studies. This paper elaborates in detail on reasons that hamper the application of - interdisciplinary (i.e. natural and social science), - trans-disciplinary (i.e. co-production of knowledge) and - integrative (i.e. combining qualitative and quantitative approaches) work. It is based on the experience gained through a number of applied climate change vulnerability studies carried out within the context of various GIZ-financed development cooperation projects, a consultancy project for the German Environment Agency as well as the workshop series INQUIMUS, which tackles particularly the issues of mixing qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Potentials and constraints of possible attempts for

  8. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  9. Technological problems in the use of research fast reactors for radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the technological problems associated with the use of fast neutrons in radiotherapy of cancer patients and outline the approaches to the solution of these problems. The state of the art is assessed. Physical and radiobiologial prerequisites for the use of fast reactors for radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumors are analyzed. Results of clinic used of BR-10 reactor at the Medical Radiology Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, are presented. Experimental and clinical findings indicate that the results of radiotherapy may be appreaciably improved if a novel perspective source of fast neutrons, a nuclear reactor, is used

  10. Subsynchronous Oscillation Problem Research in the UHVDC System of a Regional Power Grid in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the grid structure being more and more complex and the rapid development of the HVDC system, studying the subsynchronous oscillation (SSO problem on HVDC system has more engineering practice significance. The paper studies subsynchronous oscillations problem of generators near the ±800kV UHVDC converter station, and analyzes the subsynchronous oscillation possibilities through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation. At last, though the researched UHVDC thermal plants have none SSO risk but it needs other measures to make the relevant generators return on normal operation.

  11. [Research of the academician I. N. Bulankin on problems of protein chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Chernyshenko, A A

    2000-01-01

    The article presents an information about scientific researches on the problem of chemical properties and structure of proteins, which were carried out intensively by the biochemists of Kharkiv State University in 30-50 years of XX cent., headed by I. N. Bulankin, academician of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. This researches dealt with the processes of proteolysis and protein denaturation, the peculiarities of globular and fibrilliar proteins behavior in solution, the properties of complexes with proteins and nucleic acids, etc. The historic analysis of origin and development of this scientific problem at the biochemistry chair of the university and its gradual replacement by researches with other biochemical problems has been carried out. The data concerned with the general situation in the field protein structure of estimation at the world and home biochemistry are cited too. In connection with the above presented the authors give the grounded conclusions about the importance of the scientific researches carried out by I. N. Bulankin as well as about. PMID:11392777

  12. [Problems in quality standard research of new traditional Chinese medicine compound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; He, Yan-Ping

    2014-09-01

    The new traditional Chinese medicine compound is the main part of the research of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the new Chinese herbal compound reflects the characteristics of TCM theory. The new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research is one of the main content of pharmaceutical research, and is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. Although in recent years the research level of new traditional Chinese medicine compound has been greatly improved, but the author during the review found still some common problems existing in new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research data, this paper analyzed the current quality standards for new traditional Chinese medicine compound and the problems existing in the research data, respectively from measurement of the content of index selection, determine the scope of the content, and the quality standard design concept, the paper expounds developers need to concern. The quality of new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard is not only itself can be solved, but quality standards is to ensure the key and important content of product quality, improving the quality of products cannot do without quality standards. With the development of science and technology, on the basis of quality by design under the guidance of the concept, new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard system will be more scientific, systematic and perfect.

  13. Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research

  14. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  15. Excursions in classical analysis pathways to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    Excursions in Classical Analysis introduces undergraduate students to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research in two ways. Firstly, it provides a colourful tour of classical analysis which places a wide variety of problems in their historical context. Secondly, it helps students gain an understanding of mathematical discovery and proof. In demonstrating a variety of possible solutions to the same sample exercise, the reader will come to see how the connections between apparently inapplicable areas of mathematics can be exploited in problem-solving. This book will serve as excellent preparation for participation in mathematics competitions, as a valuable resource for undergraduate mathematics reading courses and seminars and as a supplement text in a course on analysis. It can also be used in independent study, since the chapters are free-standing.

  16. Interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders: Advancing a developing field of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Merkouris, S S; Lorains, F K

    2016-07-01

    Despite significant psychiatric comorbidity in problem gambling, there is little evidence on which to base treatment recommendations for subpopulations of problem gamblers with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This mini-review draws on two separate systematic searches to identify possible interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders, highlight the gaps in the currently available evidence base, and stimulate further research in this area. In this mini-review, only 21 studies that have conducted post-hoc analyses to explore the influence of psychiatric disorders or problem gambling subtypes on gambling outcomes from different types of treatment were identified. The findings of these studies suggest that most gambling treatments are not contraindicated by psychiatric disorders. Moreover, only 6 randomized studies comparing the efficacy of interventions targeted towards specific comorbidity subgroups with a control/comparison group were identified. The results of these studies provide preliminary evidence for modified dialectical behavior therapy for comorbid substance use, the addition of naltrexone to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for comorbid alcohol use problems, and the addition of N-acetylcysteine to tobacco support programs and imaginal desensitisation/motivational interviewing for comorbid nicotine dependence. They also suggest that lithium for comorbid bipolar disorder, escitalopram for comorbid anxiety disorders, and the addition of CBT to standard drug treatment for comorbid schizophrenia may be effective. Future research evaluating interventions sequenced according to disorder severity or the functional relationship between the gambling behavior and comorbid symptomatology, identifying psychiatric disorders as moderators of the efficacy of problem gambling interventions, and evaluating interventions matched to client comorbidity could advance this immature field of study. PMID:26900888

  17. A RESEARCH ON SOIL FERTILITY AND OTHER PROBLEMS AT BURHANİYE VICINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ŞAHİN

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out with aim of determining fertility and other problems in the vicinity of Burhaniye. The research soils are alluvial soils. The climate is moderate and semi humid. The vegetation are agricultural plants. The topography is almost smooth. Dominant soil farming processes are weak calcification and podsolization, eluviasyon, illuviasyon, loss, translocation and synthesis. The aspect of horizonation is weak. Hydraulic conductivity classes are moderately slow, medium and moderately speed. Drainage classes are medium and poor. Texture classes are medium, moderately fine and fine. These soils are insaline soils. Reaction classes are slightly alkali and moderately alkali. Calcareous classes are trace, few and moderately few. Organic matter classes are very few, few, medium and high. Phosphorus and potassium classes are very few, few, medium and high. In addition some fertility, soil management and other related problems are exist. For example forming of compacting and plow pan.

  18. Problems with change in R2 as applied to theory of reasoned action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafimow, David

    2004-12-01

    The paradigm of choice for theory of reasoned action research seems to depend largely on the notion of change in variance accounted for (DeltaR2) as new independent variables are added to a multiple regression equation. If adding a particular independent variable of interest increases the variance in the dependent variable that can be accounted for by the list of independent variables, then the research is deemed to be 'successful', and the researcher is considered to have made a convincing argument about the importance of the new variable. In contrast to this trend, I present arguments that suggest serious problems with the paradigm, and conclude that studies on attitude-behaviour relations would advance the field of psychology to a far greater extent if researchers abandoned it.

  19. PROBLEM OF RESEARCH OF EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN FOREIGN PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Larisa Valentinovna Shipova; Lyudmila Nikolaevna Petryaeva

    2016-01-01

    The review of psychology and pedagogical researches of the mentally retarded children devoted to studying of a problem of emotional development in foreign science and practice is presented in article. Various approaches to an assessment of the importance of violations of the emotional sphere of the personality at mentally retarded children for all mental development of the child are considered, need of the accounting of emotional frustration of mentally retarded children for their education a...

  20. The Research about the Repair and Maintenance Problem of Tourist Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Fei-Long Liu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research about the repair and maintenance problem of Tourist Hotel. The professional repair and maintenance of Tourist Hotel is a very important job. Because it can not only effectively prolong the service life of equipment and raise its utilization rate but also ensure the management service needs of the Tourist Hotel better. Therefore, the Tourist Hotel in operational process must always adhere to always clear characteristics of hotel equipment management, content a...

  1. Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moller Mark S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative exclusion of minority ethnic groups. Over the past five years the problem of unequal biological access has not received much attention from politicians, bioethicists and even many researchers in the United States, in spite of the widely held belief in the country that there is an obligation to prevent and correct ethnic disparities in access to medical care. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the problem of unequal biological access and of the need to do more than is currently being done to ensure that ethnic disparities in access to human embryonic stem cell-based therapies do not arise. Specifically, this paper explains why the problem of unequal biological access will likely arise in the United States in such a way that white Americans will disproportionately receive most of the benefits of the therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. It also argues for why there is an obligation to prevent these ethnic disparities in access from happening and outlines four steps that need to be taken towards meeting this obligation.

  2. Personal factors influence use of cervical cancer screening services: epidemiological survey and linked administrative data address the limitations of previous research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesen Sarah C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National screening programs have reduced cervical cancer mortality; however participation in these programs varies according to women's personal and social characteristics. Research into these inequalities has been limited by reliance on self-reported service use data that is potentially biased, or administrative data that lacks personal detail. We address these limitations and extend existing research by examining rates and correlates of cervical screening in a large epidemiological survey with linked administrative data. Methods The cross-sectional sample included 1685 women aged 44-48 and 64-68 years from the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan, Australia. Relative risk was assessed by logistic regression models and summary Population Attributable Risk (PAR was used to quantify the effect of inequalities on rates of cervical cancer screening. Results Overall, 60.5% of women participated in screening over the two-year period recommended by Australian guidelines. Screening participation was associated with having children, moderate or high use of health services, employment, reported lifetime history of drug use, and better physical functioning. Conversely, rates of cervical screening were lower amongst women who were older, reliant on welfare, obese, current smokers, reported childhood sexual abuse, and those with anxiety symptoms. A summary PAR showed that effective targeting of women with readily observable risk-factors (no children, no partner, receiving income support payments, not working, obese, current smoker, anxiety, poor physical health, and low overall health service use could potentially reduce overall non-participation in screening by 74%. Conclusions This study illustrates a valuable method for investigating the personal determinants of health service use by combining representative survey data with linked administrative records. Reliable knowledge about the characteristics that predict uptake of

  3. 基于PBL理论的问题设计%The Research of Problem Design in Problem-Based Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏伟

    2012-01-01

    在PBL模式中"问题"处于核心地位,问题设计是PBL教学成功的首要因素。结合教学实践和相关的文献,提出医学遗传学PBL问题设计的7项基本原则,并结合教学实例进行较为详尽的阐述。%The problem is the core in Problem-Based Learning, the problem design is the primary factor in the success of the PBL teach- ing. Combined with the teaching practice and the relevant literature, this paper proposes seven basic principles for designing problems in teaching Medical Genetics through PBL( Problem-Based Learning) ,these principles are expounded upon from our actual teaching.

  4. Two heads are better than one: Australian tobacco control experts' and mental health change champions' consensus on addressing the problem of high smoking rates among people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Della; Lawn, Sharon; Coveney, John

    2016-04-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were to explore the beliefs of Australian experts in tobacco control and change champions working in mental health and tobacco cessation, and to identify measures for addressing the problem of high smoking rates for people with mental illness. Methods Qualitative interviews were undertaken to explore participants' views, and the Delphi technique was used to achieve consensus on ways in which the problem would be best addressed. Results This consensus centred on the need for leadership within the mental health system. The problem was reconceptualised from being solely the responsibility of the mental health sector into an issue that requires the combined resources of a partnership and shared leadership between government and non-government services, public health leaders, policy makers and people with mental illness and their families. Conclusions Collaboration would raise the priority of the issue, reduce the debilitating effect of stigma and discrimination within the mental health sector and would place smoking reduction firmly on the political and public agenda. A recovery-orientated focus would increase the skill base and be inclusive of workers, families and carers of people with mental illness who face smoking issues on a daily basis. Reconceptualising this as an issue that would benefit from cooperation and partnerships would disrupt the notion that the problem is solely the responsibility of the mental health sector. What is known about the topic? Rates of smoking have remained high for people with mental illness despite population-wide public health strategies successfully reducing smoking rates in the general population. For people with mental illness, the benefits of quitting smoking for both their mental and physical health are overshadowed by concerns about the complexity of their needs. There is a lack of knowledge about how smoking cessation support can be improved to increase success rates in smokers with

  5. Rigged or rigorous? Partnerships for research and evaluation of complex social problems: Lessons from the field of violence against women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Michau, Lori; Hossain, Mazeda; Kiss, Ligia; Borland, Rosilyne; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    There is growing demand for robust evidence to address complex social phenomena such as violence against women and girls (VAWG). Research partnerships between scientists and non-governmental or international organizations (NGO/IO) are increasingly popular, but can pose challenges, including concerns about potential conflicts of interest. Drawing on our experience collaborating on VAWG research, we describe challenges and contributions that NGO/IO and academic partners can make at different stages of the research process and the effects that collaborations can have on scientific inquiry. Partners may struggle with differing priorities and misunderstandings about roles, limitations, and intentions. Benefits of partnerships include a shared vision of study goals, differing and complementary expertise, mutual respect, and a history of constructive collaboration. Our experience suggests that when investigating multi-faceted social problems, instead of 'rigging' study results, research collaborations can strengthen scientific rigor and offer the greatest potential for impact in the communities we seek to serve. PMID:27638245

  6. How can we improve problem solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, A-M; Caballero, M D; Knight, J K

    2013-06-01

    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.

  7. Globalization and the contemporary development of Marxist philosophy: precondition, problem domain and research outline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Kang

    2006-01-01

    Globalization was just emerging but did not really take shape during Karl Marx's time.In fact,both Karl Marx and Engels predicted the trend of globalization but did not really live in such a time.Therefore,globalization is still a new issue and a new research area for Marxist philosophy today.Based on the distinctions between some important concepts such as globalization and modernization,this paper probes the problems concerning the development of modernity theory,social morphology and civilization theory,and the Marxist theory of values raised in the process of globalization.The paper also explores some theoretical issues concerning the socialist modernization with Chinese characteristics in the Marxist philosophy,and contemplates possible research areas,angles and methods of Marxist philosophical research in the global era.

  8. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  9. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  10. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  11. A Glimpse of Scientific Research on Fundamental Problems of Military and Civil Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1939-01-01

    Among the outstanding accomplishments of the last century is man's conquest of the air. That conquest began in 1903 when the Wright brothers made the first successful flight of an airplane at Kitty Hawk, N. C. Five years later the United States Government purchased its first airplane for the use of the Army, and began the training of officers for military flying. During the years immediately preceding the outbreak of the World War the Government and a meager aircraft industry had made important progress, but the Government, practically the only customer, had purchased less than 100 airplanes. In the meantime, leading European nations, sensing acutely the potentialities of aircraft in warfare, had made greater progress and had begun laying the foundations for the new science of aeronautics. The World War gave a remarkable impetus to the development of aeronautics and emphasized the need for organized research on the fundamental problems of flight. By act of Congress approved March 3, 1915, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was created and charged with the duty of supervising, directing, and conducting fundamental scientific research and experiment in aeronautics. With the farsighted support of the Congress the Committee has led the world in the development of unique aeronautical research facilities in its laboratories at Langley Field, Va. The research programs include problems initiated by the Committee and its subcommittees and also investigations requested by the Army, the Navy, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority. The results of researches conducted under one control, serve without duplication of effort, the needs of all branches of aviation, civil and military, and exert a profound influence on the progress of aeronautics by improving the performance, efficiency, and safety of aircraft. A brief description of the results of some of the committee's researches and of the equipment employed will be found in the following pages.

  12. Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence: a review of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Zhilinskaya,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollability. Behavior of adolescents on the Internet depends on the social and cultural context in which they live. The emergence of the Internet makes new demands on media competence of the teenager and his environment. Adolescents face online with a variety of risks. An essential resource for successful adolescent development is the presence of a person whom he trusts, with whom he can consult in difficult situations. The research plan involves the creation of Internet resources, contributing to the solution of teenagers’ problems age, as well as the mapping of the Internet in terms of its developmental potential.

  13. A RESEARCH ON INSTITUTIONALIZATION PROBLEMS OF SECOND GENERATION IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban Esra SARAL KOBAL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available All family enterprises nowadays are trying to have competitive advantage in their market and increase the productivity and efficiency of their operations. These are mandatory factors for those companies to survive and stay competitive in their markets. Institutionalization is one of the most important elements provides enterprises better competitive advantage, productivity and efficiency. This study aims to specify the level of institutionalization at family business and the problems that second generation of the related family faces during the institutionalization process. Because of this, study emphasizes, family business, institutionalization and second generation of the family’s problems. In parallel with the goal of this study, first institutionalization and levels of institutionalization will be shortly described. After this, the details of the problems that second generations are facing shall be determined. As the last concept of this study, the fundamentals of institutionalization at family business and corporate management will be analyzed. This study consisted of 3 sections. The first section is about the analysis of literature, second section defines the corporate fundamentals of the research and definition of the basic concepts, last section is about evaluation of the research and findings.

  14. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  15. Concept redundancy and contamination in employee commitment research: Current problems and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Roodt

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that employee commitment has a significant impact on organisational performance. The primary goal of this article is to indicate that the ‘commitment/involvement’ concept did not evolve in an evolutionary and progressive fashion. Several problems in the development course of mainly three streams of research literature are indicated. Arguments are presented for indicating causes of concept contamination and even redundancy. In order to bridge these problems, a motivational approach as an integrating mechanism on a metatheoretical level is presented as a solution. The outcomes thereof should lead to better order on a theoretical level and to the parsimonious use of commitment concepts. Opsomming Dit word algemeen aanvaar dat werknemertoewyding ’n duidelike impak op organisasieprestasie het. Die primêre doel van hierdie artikel is om aan te dui dat die ontwikkeling van die ‘betrokkenheid/toewydings-’ konsep nie evolusionêr en progressief verloop het nie. Verskeie probleme in die ontwikkelingsgang van hoofsaaklik drie strome navorsingsliteratuur word aangedui. Argumente word aangevoer wat op oorsake van konsepkontaminasie en selfs -oorbodigheid dui. Ten einde hierdie probleme te oorkom, word ’n motiveringsbenadering as integrerende meganisme op ’n meta-teoretiese vlak as oplossing voorgehou. Die uitkoms daarvan behoort tot beter orde op teoretiese vlak en tot die spaarsamige gebruik van toewydingskonsepte te lei.

  16. The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L

    1998-01-01

    Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child's externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment.

  17. Being relevant: Practical guidance for early career researchers interested in solving conservation problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Chapman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a human-altered world where biodiversity is in decline and conservation problems abound, there is a dire need to ensure that the next generation of conservation scientists have the knowledge, skills, and training to address these problems. So called “early career researchers” (ECRs in conservation science have many challenges before them and it is clear that the status quo must change to bridge the knowledge–action divide. Here we identify thirteen practical strategies that ECRs can employ to become more relevant. In this context, “relevance” refers to the ability to contribute to solving conservation problems through engagement with practitioners, policy makers, and stakeholders. Conservation and career strategies outlined in this article include the following: thinking ‘big picture’ during conservation projects; embracing various forms of knowledge; maintaining positive relationships with locals familiar with the conservation issue; accepting failure as a viable (and potentially valuable outcome; daring to be creative; embracing citizen science; incorporating interdisciplinarity; promoting and practicing pro-environmental behaviours; understanding financial aspects of conservation; forming collaboration from the onset of a project; accepting the limits of technology; ongoing and effective networking; and finally, maintaining a positive outlook by focusing on and sharing conservation success stories. These strategies move beyond the generic and highlight the importance of continuing to have an open mind throughout the entire conservation process, from establishing one’s self as an asset to embracing collaboration and interdisciplinary work, and striving to push for professional and personal connections that strengthen personal career objectives.

  18. JEFC PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS IN XINJIANG UYGUR AUTONOMOUS REGION——A Report of JEFC Research in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Foreword JEFC Research is one of the ten education research items of the eighth-five- year plan in Xinjiang U. A. R. The research mainly focuses on the new syllabus, JEFC itself, the new methodology, teacher training and problems and solutions of JEFC in Xinjiang. The research has been finished with the hard work of the researchers and the help of some experts and VSO teachers. Many thanks to these kind people. The following is a report of the research into the main problems and solutions of JEFC teaching in Xinjiang.

  19. Software design as a problem in learning theory (a research overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Leona F.

    1992-01-01

    Our interest in automating software design has come out of our research in automated reasoning, inductive inference, learnability, and algebraic machine theory. We have investigated these areas extensively, in connection with specific problems of language representation, acquisition, processing, and design. In the case of formal context-free (CF) languages we established existence of finite learnable models ('behavioral realizations') and procedures for constructing them effectively. We also determined techniques for automatic construction of the models, inductively inferring them from finite examples of how they should 'behave'. These results were obtainable due to appropriate representation of domain knowledge, and constraints on the domain that the representation defined. It was when we sought to generalize our results, and adapt or apply them, that we began investigating the possibility of determining similar procedures for constructing correct software. Discussions with other researchers led us to examine testing and verification processes, as they are related to inference, and due to their considerable importance in correct software design. Motivating papers by other researchers, led us to examine these processes in some depth. Here we present our approach to those software design issues raised by other researchers, within our own theoretical context. We describe our results, relative to those of the other researchers, and conclude that they do not compare unfavorably.

  20. Research on the Optimal Parallel Algorithms of Broadcast—Class Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峰; 寿标; 等

    1998-01-01

    Speedup is considered as the criterion of determining whether a parallel algorithm is optimal.But broadcast-class problems,existing only on parallel computer system,have no sequential algorithms at all.Speedup standard becomes invalid here.Through this research on broadcast algorithms under several typical prallel computation models,a model-independent evaluation standard min C2 is developed,which can be not only used to determine an optimal broadcasting algorithm,but also normalized to apply to any parallel algorithm.As a new idea,min C2 will lead to a new way in this field.

  1. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth's surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system's data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  2. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  3. Problems and countermeasures in construction of underground research shaft and drift of Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outline of design of construction of underground research facilities in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is described. The problems and investigations of countermeasures are reported. The bedrock in and around the underground research facilities consists of sedimentary soft rock. The competence factor is low. The groundwater contains salt, methane, boron and ammonium in the deep underground. The support design under the conditions of low competence factor is explained by rock classification, establishment of characteristic values of every classified rock, and the double supporting structure. The control methods for spring water in the shallow stratum are stated by the previous boring in and around shaft, countermeasures to spring water, and verification using comparison between the analytical results and the amount of spring water. The results showed the amount of spring water in the shaft was decreased by construction of cut-off wall. Rock classification standard, physical properties of rocks, flow of shaft support design, and results of permeability tests are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  4. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  5. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  6. Problem Identification and Priority Setting in Agricultural Research: The Case of The Eastern Margin of Central Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    UZUNLU, Vedat

    1999-01-01

    Since the resources available to research institutes are scarce, and experimentation is the most costly phase of a research program, researchers must make sure that the possible solutions to identified problems have a high chance of success. Consequently, problems should be carefully prioritized for experimentation. Factors limiting increased productivity in crop production in the Eastern Margin of Central Anatolia (EMCA) along with agro-ecological factors, apart from political concern, are a...

  7. PROBLEM OF RESEARCH OF EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN FOREIGN PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Valentinovna Shipova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of psychology and pedagogical researches of the mentally retarded children devoted to studying of a problem of emotional development in foreign science and practice is presented in article. Various approaches to an assessment of the importance of violations of the emotional sphere of the personality at mentally retarded children for all mental development of the child are considered, need of the accounting of emotional frustration of mentally retarded children for their education and education, and also social adaptation and integration into sociocultural and educational space is discussed. Research of emotional development of mentally retarded children in the course of training is important for development of programs of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics and correction of emotional violations at this category of school students, formation of their self-control, development of the emotional relations.

  8. A Research Review of Crime Problems%犯罪问题研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段丽华

    2012-01-01

      犯罪问题具有普遍性,是长期困扰人类社会的难题之一。文章从宏观和微观角度阐述了国内外研究现状,并详细总结了近几年的研究方法,如数据挖掘、模糊数学、神经网络、灰色系统等。然后,指出了犯罪问题研究中存在的犯罪明数与犯罪暗数问题,最后给出了犯罪问题研究的发展趋势,对犯罪问题研究具有较强的指导意义。%  Crime problems are universal, which have long plagued human society. This article elaborates the current situation of studies both at home and abroad from macroscopic and microscopic angles respectively and summarizes the research methods in recent years in detail, such as data mining, fuzzy mathematics, neural network, gray system. Then this article points out the existing problems concerning light figure of crime and dark figure of crime in the studies on crime problems. Finally this article will play a very important role in guiding future studies by providing the development tendency.

  9. Research Progress on the Problem of Fluid, Heat and Energy Distribution near the Earthquake Source Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Rui; Jiang Changsheng; Shao Zhigang; Zhou Longquan; Li Yingchun

    2011-01-01

    As the basic problems in seismology, fluid, heat and energy distribution near earthquake sources during earthquake generation have been the leading subjects of concern to seismologists. Currently, more and more research shows fluid around earthquake source areas, which plays an important role in the process of earthquake preparation and generation. However, there is considerable controversy over the source of fluid in the deep crust. As for the problem of heat around earthquake source areas, different models have been proposed to explain the stress heat flow paradox. Among them, the dynamic weakening model has been thought to be the key to solving the heat flow paradox issue. After large earthquakes, energy distribution is directly related to friction heat. It is of timely and important practical significance to immediately implement deep drilling in-site surveying to gain understanding of fluid, friction heat and energy distribution during earthquake generation. The latest international progress in fluid, heat and energy distribution research has been reviewed in this paper which will bring important inspiration for the understanding of earthquake preparation and occurrence.

  10. EDITORIAL: Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Paul; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-06-01

    This is not the usual Editor-in-Chief letter, namely one that focuses on the accomplishments of the journal—and for ERL they have been numerous this year—but a recognition of the critical time that we are now in when it comes to addressing not only global climate change, but also the dialog between science and politics. In recognition of the many 'tipping points' that we now confront—ideally some of them positive social moments—as well as the clear scientific conclusion that environmental tipping points are points of long-lasting disruption, this paper takes a different form than I might have otherwise written. While the scientific body of knowledge around global environmental change mounts, so too, do the hopeful signs that change can happen. The election of Barack Obama is unquestionably one such sign, witnessed by the exceptional interest that his story has brought not only to US politics, but also to global views of the potential of the United States, as well as to the potential role of science and investigation in addressing pressing issues. In light of these inter-related issues, reproduced here—largely due to the efforts of Paul Baer to transcribe a remarkable conversation—is a dialog not only on the science of global warming and the potential set of means to address this issue, but also on the interaction between research, science and the political process. The dialog itself is sufficiently important that I will dispense with the usual discussion of the exciting recognition that ERL has received with an ISI rating (a factor rapidly increasing), the high levels of downloads of our papers (for some articles over 5000 and counting), and the many news and scientific publications picking up ERL articles (in recent days alone Science, Environmental Science and Technology, and The Economist). This conversation was the concluding plenary session of the 10-12 March International Association of Research Universities (IARU) Conference on Climate Change

  11. Opening Address (by A. Dulanto Rencoret) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On behalf of the Government of Chile, I wish to cordially welcome the authorities and scientists involved in the field of nuclear science and technology who have gathered today in Chile from 50 countries to discuss the use of exper- imental nuclear reactors and their contribution to scientific and technological development. Naturally, I also wish to convey to the IAEA our thanks for selecting Chile, through its Commission on Nuclear Energy, to be the host of this important international conference. I would like to begin by explaining the context in which this meeting is taking place. The Government which I have the honour of representing places great importance on scientific and technological development, referring to it in its programme as one of the fundamental pillars for national development, since it is impossible to maintain a competitive productive and exporting sector, or to raise the quality of life of our fellow citizens, without the assistance of science and technology. Conscious of this fact, President Ricardo Lagos, while addressing national business executives last week, issued a call for renewal of the effort being made in research, urging the private sector to increase investment in this area. Investment in science and technology is part of the action being taken by our Government to enable Chile to reach the status of a developed country. Another action measure has been the major increase in State and private investment in education and infrastructure, to mention only some of the priority areas for national development. In the field of education alone, public expenditure has more than tripled during the past decade. The level of investment achieved in infrastructure, on the other hand, is unparalleled in our country, thanks to private investment by major agreements with those countries in which there is greater demand for their use. Chile values the efforts of the IAEA in all fields, especially in terms of implementing safeguards to

  12. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  13. Problem Types in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Research: Implications for the Development of Curricular Problems for Second-Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the nature of science is key to the development of new curricular materials that mirror the practice of science. Three problem types (project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day) in synthetic organic chemistry emerged during a thematic content analysis of the research experiences of eight practising synthetic organic…

  14. Grand Challenge Problem 10: TELEARC an Agile and Productive Networking of TEL Small and Medium Sized Research Labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Balacheff, Nicolas; Bottino, Rosa Maria;

    2016-01-01

    settings across Europe. However, to strengthen the various research practices and to develop a common scientific language on TEL research the Grand Challenge Problem is to establish a vivid network and a community of practice among the research labs. TELEARC (Technology Enhanced Learning European Advanced...

  15. The Usefulness of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches and Methods in Researching Problem-Solving Ability in Science Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyisi, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Research in science education is to discover the truth which involves the combination of reasoning and experiences. In order to find out appropriate teaching methods that are necessary for teaching science students problem-solving skills, different research approaches are used by educational researchers based on the data collection and analysis…

  16. Review of Research for People with ID and Mental Health Problems: A View from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Colin; Deb, Shoumitro; Chaplin, Eddie; Hardy, Steve; Mukherjee, Rittick

    2013-01-01

    This review of research into mental disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) focuses on research in this field that has originated from the United Kingdom in the last 2 decades. It considers research developments into the epidemiology of mental disorders and problem behaviors, psychopharmacology, psychosocial interventions, and…

  17. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sakander, Zeeshan

    2006-01-01

    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  18. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF IDEAS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY IN SPORTS: PROBLEMS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Vladimirovna Vardanyan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. On the basis of analysis of ideas about psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form the necessity of overcoming the fragmentation and lack of system is substantiated. The authors state that one and the same sports situation can constructively or destructively affect the psychological safety of direct or indirect participants of sports events. In this context, it is important to create the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports. Great attention is paid to systematization of the content of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. The created models of words and expressions that convey ideas about this phenomenon are of particular value. In the structure of the concept the dominant meanings, expressed in the nucleus, and additional meanings, related to the periphery of the concept are distinguished.Purpose: to explore the ideas of psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form; to determine ways of overcoming the conceptual psycholinguistic problems in the process of experimental research of psychological safety in sports; to create the model of words and expressions which are used to verbalize the concept “psychological safety in sports”.Methodology: theoretical analysis of psychological and linguistic literature, creation of the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research, modeling of the conceptual ideas of psychological safety in sports.Results: psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports, the model of content and structure of the corresponding concept.Practical implications: Pedagogical Psychology, Sports Psychology, Philology, Psycholinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-11

  19. Temas e problemas nos projetos de pesquisa Thems and problems in research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Bianchi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O ponto de partida da atividade cienífica é o espanto e a admiração perante o desconhecido que provocam a imaginação científica, conduzindo o investigador à escolha de uma dada temática. Relevância para o mundo real e contribuição para um campo específico do conhecimento são, aqui, critérios de definição temática. Para o cientista, o tema de pesquisa é o terreno sobre o qual ele formulará problemas relevantes de investigação capazes de suprir lacunas em nossos conhecimentos. Tais problemas devem ser construídos de tal maneira que suas soluções não só esclareçam aspectos até então não explicados do tema, como apontem para novos problemas, ou seja, futuras investigações científicas. Constatando a crescente exigência de monografias de conclusão de curso para a obtenção de título nos cursos de graduação, o artigo procura construir um guia para a definição de temas e a formulação de pesquisa nas ciências humanas. Para tanto, procederá a uma reconstrução metodológica do caminho percorrido por C. Wright Mills em sua obra The power elite. Palavras-chave: Metodologia da pesquisa. Pesquisa cientifica. Problemas científicos. The starting point of the scientific activity is the puzzle and admiration in face of the unknown, which, certainly, will challenge the scientific imagination, leading the researcher in the choice of a certain theme. Relevance for the real world and contribution for a specific field of knowledge are the basic criteria for the thematic definition used here. For the scientist, the theme of the research is the base to formulate relevant research problems able to fill in the gaps of our knowledge. Such problems must be built in such a way that is solutions will not only clarify some aspects of the theme that remained not explained but also provide a path for new questions, i.e., for new scientifc researches to come. As there is a growing demand of under-graduate monographs for

  20. Managing Ethical Problems in Qualitative Research Involving Vulnerable Populations, Using a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk RN, PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the researcher's study was to examine the meaning that intimate partners of female rape victims attached to their lived experiences after the rape. The conduct of qualitative research concerning non-offending partners of female rape victims, however, often involves multifaceted ethical and practical challenges, which can be managed through the use of pilot studies. The pilot study described in this report had three objectives. The first was to pretest and refine the proposed method for locating, accessing, and recruiting intimate partners of female rape victims, within the first two weeks after the rape, for participation in a six-month longitudinal study. The second objective was to identify and prevent all possible risk factors in the proposed recruitment and data collection methods that could harm the participants' safety during the main study. The third objective was to determine the feasibility of the main study, in terms of the limited financial and human resources available. The pilot phase was valuable in identifying ethical and methodological problems during the recruitment of participants and collection of data. It allowed for methodological adjustments prior to the main study and confirmed the feasibility of the overall research design. A pilot, pretesting phase is therefore seen as an essential component of a qualitative study involving a vulnerable population.

  1. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD; Penny Lightfoot, MHSA; Linda Barrett, MSc; Carla Spinola, MA; Gerry Predy, MD, FRCPC

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present ...

  2. 白云鄂博矿床研究若干问题的探讨%Addressing Some Problems on Research of the Bayan Obo Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯怡; 杨奎峰; 范宏瑞; 胡芳芳; 胡辅佑

    2012-01-01

    白云鄂博巨型稀土-铌铁矿床是与火成碳酸岩(即H B)有关的矿床.在碳酸岩岩浆阶段,在其蚀变围岩(霓长岩)中以及晚期的热液阶段都有稀士、铌和铁等的富集.因此,白云鄂博矿床不是单一矿床类型,其涵盖了稀土铌铁碳酸岩岩浆型矿床、稀土-铌-铁交代蚀变岩型和热液型矿床,这种复合类型的矿床是十分罕见的,可称之为白云鄂博式矿床.根据已发表的年代数据,白云鄂博大规模碳酸岩的形成时代和伴随的稀土矿化的高峰期在1.3~1.4 Ga.加单东构造热事件对本区的影响广泛和强烈,不仅有广泛发育的大型褶皱、冲断层和韧性剪切作用,并伴有广泛的流体交代作用和局部的热液活动,某些稀土矿物的同位素体系受到重置,表现为其Sm-Nd年龄和Th-Pb年龄的不一致.本区的碱性岩在基底杂岩中即有出露,随后在白云鄂博群中和1.3~1.4 Ga白云鄂博碳酸岩形成时皆有产出.目前所获资料表明,至少1.3~1.4 Ga的碱性杂岩在成因上与碳酸岩有密切的联系.本区基底杂岩显示了白云鄂博地区在2.0 Ga左右曾经有一个弧地质体,该区在2.0~1.9 Ga间经历了从被动大陆边缘到活动大陆边缘增生碰撞的一个完整的造山过程.%The Bayan Obo giant REE-Nb-Fe deposit is the one genetically related to igneous carbonatic rock. Rare earths, niobium and iron were enriched from carbonatitic magma intrusion stage, altered country rock stage (fenite) , to late-stage hydrothermal stage. Therefore, the Bayan Obo deposit is not a unitary type of deposit, but a mixed deposit containing REE-Nb-Fe carbonatite-type mineralization, REE-Nb-Fe replacement alteration, and hydrothermal effect. The deposit of such kind is very rare, and thus can be called Bayan Obo-type deposit. Based on age data published, the formation time of larges-scale carbonatite of the Bayan Obo deposit and the peak period of associated rare earth mineralization are around 1. 3 or 1. 4 Ga. The Caledonian tectonic thermal event had wide and extensive effect on this area, resulting in the development of large folding, thrust faulting and ductile shear, and extensive fluid metasomatism and regional hydrothermal activities. Isotopic composition systems of some rare earth minerals were relocated, suggested by disagreement of Sm-Nd ages and Th-Pb ages. Alkaline rock is not only present at basement complex of this area but at subsequent 1. 3 or 1. 4 Ga carbonatite of Bayan Obo Group. Current data available at least shows a genetic relation between alkaline complex and carbonatite. The basement complex in this area indicates that there existed an arc mass at the Bayan Obo area at 2. 0 Ga, and during the Paleoproterozoic time (2. 0~1. 9 Ga) the Bayan Obo area experienced a complete orogenic process from passive continental margin to accretion collision of active continental margin.

  3. Training Interdisciplinary "Wicked Problem" Solvers: Applying Lessons from HERO in Community-Based Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Alida; DeLauer, Verna; Martin, Deborah; Rogan, John

    2015-01-01

    Management of "wicked problems", messy real-world problems that defy resolution, requires thinkers who can transcend disciplinary boundaries, work collaboratively, and handle complexity and obstacles. This paper explores how educators can train undergraduates in these skills through applied community-based research, using the example of…

  4. WebMail versus WebApp: Comparing Problem-Based Learning Methods in a Business Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams van Rooij, Shahron

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approaches on knowledge transfer, problem-solving self-efficacy, and perceived learning gains among four intact classes of adult learners engaged in a group project in an online undergraduate business research methods course. With two of the classes using a text-only PBL workbook…

  5. On multidisciplinary research on the application of remote sensing to water resources problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This research is directed toward development of a practical, operational remote sensing water quality monitoring system. To accomplish this, five fundamental aspects of the problem have been under investigation during the past three years. These are: (1) development of practical and economical methods of obtaining, handling and analyzing remote sensing data; (2) determination of the correlation between remote sensed imagery and actual water quality parameters; (3) determination of the optimum technique for monitoring specific water pollution parameters and for evaluating the reliability with which this can be accomplished; (4) determination of the extent of masking due to depth of penetration, bottom effects, film development effects, and angle falloff, and development of techniques to eliminate or minimize them; and (5) development of operational procedures which might be employed by a municipal, state or federal agency for the application of remote sensing to water quality monitoring, including space-generated data.

  6. Legal problem research on surrogacy%代孕问题法律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶

    2015-01-01

    Along with social progress and development, the application of surrogacy is increasingly frequent. It overturns original reproductive concept and way, at the same time through the existing legal system. Conduct legal research and legal problems of surrogacy regulation, is quite necessary.%随着社会的进步和发展,代孕这一人类辅助生殖技术在生活中的应用也日渐频繁.它颠覆了原有的生殖观念和方式,同时冲击着现有的法律制度.对代孕问题进行法律研究和法律规制,相当必要.

  7. Assessing Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multiple Stressors: Overview of the Problem and Research Needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Munns, Jr.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife populations are experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors including agricultural and urban land use, introduced invasive and exotic species, nutrient enrichment, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemicals directly or indirectly influence the quality and quantity of habitat used by terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Governmental agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are required to assess risks to wildlife populations, in its broadest definition, that result from exposure to these stressors, yet considerable uncertainty exists with respect to how such assessments should be conducted. This uncertainty is compounded by questions concerning the interactive effects of co-occurring stressors, appropriate spatial scales of analysis, extrapolation of response data among species and from organisms to populations, and imperfect knowledge and use of limited data sets. Further, different risk problems require varying degrees of sophistication, methodological refinement, and data quality. These issues suggest a number of research needs to improve methods for wildlife risk assessments, including continued development of population dynamics models to evaluate the effects of multiple stressors at varying spatial scales, methods for extrapolating across endpoints and species with reasonable confidence, stressor-response relations and methods for combining them in predictive and diagnostic assessments, and accessible data sets describing the ecology of terrestrial and aquatic species. Case study application of models and methods for assessing wildlife risk will help to demonstrate their strengths and limitations for solving particular risk problems.

  8. Problem solving in physics: research review, analysis, and a methodological proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Fávero

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on problem solving in Physics based on the scientific articles published in periodicals of the related field of study. The articles considered for this study were published in the period between the end of the 70`s until 1999. A categorization of the publications , according to the issue investigated, the theoretical background used, the research method adopted, the results and conclusions are considered as a starting point in order to present a research profile of the field of study. Next, this profile is discussed and analyzed , pointing out the convergent aspects that characterize the field. Taking this analysis into account, the following thesis (based on Fávero`s proposal, 2000 is defended: in order to generate tools for the teaching practice of Physics through the study of problem solving, a method that substitutes the idea of knowledge transmission in the communication processes that takes place in the classroom should be developed. This method should comprise the idea of interlocution (Vion, 2000 which focuses on social interaction as a means to reveal metacognitive regulations of the subjects, pariticipants in the process, and their development of awareness in relation to a conceptual field (Vergnaud, 1990 – Physics, in this case. The analysis of these processes considers the verbal exchanges among the subjects (Bromberg & Chabrol, 1999 developed in the situation of interaction. This thesis is supported by the articulation of concepts in Psychology, including its interface with linguistics, such as conceptual field, development of awareness and acts of speech, which are reconsidered in this study.

  9. Exploring the Use of Computer Simulations in Unraveling Research and Development Governance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Mariusz A.; Hester, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding Research and Development (R&D) enterprise relationships and processes at a governance level is not a simple task, but valuable decision-making insight and evaluation capabilities can be gained from their exploration through computer simulations. This paper discusses current Modeling and Simulation (M&S) methods, addressing their applicability to R&D enterprise governance. Specifically, the authors analyze advantages and disadvantages of the four methodologies used most often by M&S practitioners: System Dynamics (SO), Discrete Event Simulation (DES), Agent Based Modeling (ABM), and formal Analytic Methods (AM) for modeling systems at the governance level. Moreover, the paper describes nesting models using a multi-method approach. Guidance is provided to those seeking to employ modeling techniques in an R&D enterprise for the purposes of understanding enterprise governance. Further, an example is modeled and explored for potential insight. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding opportunities for concentration of future work in modeling and simulating R&D governance relationships and processes.

  10. Utilizing a logic model to identify clinical research problems: a lesson from philosophy of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins CR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia R Collins School of Nursing, College of Social Sciences, Loyola University, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Communication and decision making in the health care workplace often involve finding solutions to ill-structured problems in uncertain, dynamic environments influenced by the competing interests of multiple stakeholders. In this environment, doctoral-prepared nurses who practice as administrators, policy makers, or advanced practice practitioners are often compelled to make important decisions based upon evaluating the merit of colleagues’ proposals against some desired organizational or population outcome. Of equal importance is the nurse leader’s own capacity to construct a compelling argument or proposal that will drive the organization forward to meet the evolving needs for quality health care. Where do we learn the skills necessary to foster this kind of critical thinking in our professional communications? The author suggests that one teaching–learning approach can be found through the thoughtful application of the work of British philosopher Steven Toulmin. Toulmin defined a model for both the analysis and derivation of logical arguments or proposals that can be readily learned and applied for use in health care systems. This model posits that a substantive argument or claim can be evaluated based on the assumptions it presumes (warrants and the strength of the evidence base (backing. Several of the social science professions have adapted Toulmin’s model to generate analysis and creative solutions to complex or emergent problems. The author proposes that an application of this model be included in the pedagogy of doctoral level Philosophy of Science or Nursing Theory courses. The Toulmin process often provides the doctoral student or novice researcher with their first real learning experience in defining the scope and inherent challenges of framing a clinical issue to be the focus of their scholarly translational

  11. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  12. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: the problem of helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lustigman

    Full Text Available A disproportionate burden of helminthiases in human populations occurs in marginalised, low-income, and resource-constrained regions of the world, with over 1 billion people in developing areas of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas infected with one or more helminth species. The morbidity caused by such infections imposes a substantial burden of disease, contributing to a vicious circle of infection, poverty, decreased productivity, and inadequate socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/AIDS, and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections tend to be persistent. Hence, there is a great need to reduce morbidity caused by helminth infections. However, major deficiencies exist in diagnostics and interventions, including vector control, drugs, and vaccines. Overcoming these deficiencies is hampered by major gaps in knowledge of helminth biology and transmission dynamics, platforms from which to help develop such tools. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, we provide an overview of the forces driving the persistence of helminthiases as a public health problem despite the many control initiatives that have been put in place; identify the main obstacles that impede progress towards their control and elimination; and discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges for the understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and control of these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  13. Bioethicists Can and Should Contribute to Addressing Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Marion; Wilson, Yolonda; White, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it. To make any useful contribution, bioethicists will require preparation and should expect to play a significant role through collaborative action with others. PMID:26982911

  14. The Multiple Dimensions of Child Abuse and Neglect: New Insights into an Old Problem. Child Trends Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Rosemary; Gibbons, Alison; Scarupa, Harriet J.

    Despite persistent media headlines about extreme cases of child abuse and neglect, the public remains largely uninformed about the developmental status of children affected by this tragic problem. The research brief draws on available data and recent research to summarize what is known about these outcomes in several critical areasphysical and…

  15. Delimiting the Problem of Generalizability of Research Results: An Example from a Trend Study of a Citizenship Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, John D.; Grant, Evelyn T.

    1984-01-01

    How social studies researchers can use National Assessment of Educational Progress Public Use Data File tapes to delimit the problem of generalizability of research results is described. An example using data from a trend study of a citizenship education project is used to demonstrate the procedure. (Author/RM)

  16. The effects of child- and youth-coaching for children in multi-problem families : Research proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assen, Arjen; Grietens, Hans; Post, Wendy; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This research proposal was presented at the ISED research days 2015 at Leiden University. Children and teenagers growing up in environments with multiple stressors are at an increased risk for developing behavioural and emotional problems. In this proposal a study is presented that aims to evaluate

  17. The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

  18. Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  19. About a problem of reception of antimatter: possibility of research f properties, synthesis and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    electric charge. Thus, if the mass of a black hole is rather small, the electric field at horizon of events can reach critical values. It leads to electron-positron instability of vacuum and generation of pairs. As positrons are thrown out by electric field, and electrons are trapped, the black hole works as a factory of antimatter, transforming protons into antiparticles. Reference: 1. E.P. Svetlov-Prokop'ev // Materials of the international conference. Ed. E.I.Artamonov. M.: Institute of problems of management of the Russian Academy of Science. - 2008. P.100-101.; 2. E.P.Prokop'ev. Possible space technologies of the future and a problem of technical progress. Materials of the Third Belarus space congress. On October 23-25, 2007, Minsk, Belarus. Minsk: Publishing house of the Incorporated institute of problems of computer science NAS of Belarus, 2007. P.383-389. http://www.uiip.bas-net.by/kosmos3/sec10.html, http://www.prokopep.narod.ru; 3. Svetlov-Prokopyev / About a problem of physics and chemistry of antisubstance: opportunities of research of properties, search in the Universe, synthesis and applications // In book.: Actual problems of modern physics . Materials of the All-Russia remote scientifically-practical conference with the international participation. Russia, Krasnodar, on June, 5th, 2008. Krasnodar: KGU, 2008. P.15-30.; 4. A.L.Suvorov, E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev, T.L.Razinkova // Reception of antimatter for use in a modern science, techniques and microelectronics. The Petersburg magazine of electronics. 2007. No 2. P.4 - 16.; 5. E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev. The general principles of interaction of matter and antimatter. Not relativistic theory // Bull. Kaz. NU, ser. phys. 2007. No 1 (23). P.169 - 177.; 6. E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev, T.L.Razinkova. About a problem of physics, chemistry and technology of antimatter: opportunities of research of properties, search in the Universe, synthesis and applications // 5 International conferences Nuclear and radiating physics. 26 - 29

  20. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and

  1. Theory, Research, and Practice for Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing With Disabilities: Addressing the Challenges from Birth to Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline; Cannon, Joanna E

    2015-01-01

    Students who are deaf with a disability or disabilities (DWD) constitute nearly half of the population of K-12 learners who are deaf or hard of hearing. However, there is a dearth of information on theory, research, and practice related to these learners. The authors present an overview of (a) how the field of education of students who are D/deaf and hard of hearing might refer to this unique population in a way that represents the learner, not the disability; (b) the demographic data that further define these learners; (c) a theoretical framework within which to guide research and practice; (d) prevalence and frequency of the existing research; and (e) the practices and resources available to guide practitioners and the parents of students who are DWD. Questions are posed to the field on how to continue to improve the theory, research, and pedagogy used with these students. PMID:26497073

  2. Opening Address (by T. Taniguchi) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management. I would like to offer my sincere thanks to the Government of Chile, and the Nuclear Energy Commission of Chile, for hosting this Conference in the beautiful and historic city of Santiago de Chile. I would also like to thank you, the 180 or so registered delegates from around the world, for participating in this conference. I trust that you will have an interesting and enjoyable week. For more than 50 years, research reactors have been one of the locomotives of nuclear science and technology. To date, approximately 670 research reactors have been built, and some 270 of these reactors, in 59 countries, continue to operate today. Altogether, over 13 000 reactor years of operational experience have accumulated during this period. Just as important, however, is the fact that those reactors have operated in a remarkably safe manner. The IAEA's statutes charter it to promote the contributions that atomic energy can bring to the health and prosperity of people throughout the world. Thus, the IAEA is authorized to encourage and assist in the development and practical application of research related to the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. From its inception in 1957, there has been a broad interest at the IAEA in the benefits to be derived by Member States from the safe operation of research reactors. The multi-disciplinary research that a research reactor can support has led to the development of numerous capacities within Member States, many of which have been realized under the umbrella of the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. These benefits have been realized in a wide variety of areas within science and technology: nuclear power, radioisotope production, neutron beam research and analysis, nuclear medicine and personnel training

  3. Addressing Core Challenges for the Next Generation of Type 2 Translation Research and Systems: The Translation Science to Population Impact (TSci Impact) Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Spoth, Richard; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Greenberg, Mark; Leaf, Philip; Brown, C Hendricks; Fagan, Abigail; Catalano, Richard F.; Pentz, Mary Ann; Sloboda, Zili; Hawkins, J. David; ,

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based preventive interventions developed over the past two decades represent great potential for enhancing public health and well-being. Research confirming the limited extent to which these interventions have been broadly and effectively implemented, however, indicates much progress is needed to achieve population-level impact. In part, progress requires Type 2 translation research that investigates the complex processes and systems through which evidence-based interventions are ado...

  4. Suicide and alcohol-related disorders in the U.S. Arctic: boosting research to address a primary determinant of health disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, James; Levintova, Marya; Mohatt, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To review the existing epidemiological literature on suicide and alcohol-related disorders and their social determinants in the U.S. Arctic, as it relates to U.S. government research and evaluation efforts, and to offer recommendations to boost research capacity in the U.S. Arctic and collaborations across the circumpolar Arctic as part of global health initiatives. Study design. Synthetic literature review. Methods. Published literature; federal and state reports on suicide and a...

  5. Role of organic soils in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The following goals were addressed in the workshop: review and analysis of available data on carbon in organic soils from the past century to the present; assessment of the probable flux of carbon to and from organic soils in the near future; identification of major data inadequacies which preclude reliable analysis of the principal processes influencing carbon flux in organic soils; and proposal of research initiatives which could improve understanding of organic deposits in relation to the carbon cycle within a time frame of two to four years. The major finding of the workshop is that the organic soils are important in the overall carbon budget. Histosols and gleysols, the major organic soil deposits of the world, normally sequester organic carbon fixed by plants. They may now be releasing enough carbon to account for nearly 10% of the annual rise in atmospheric content of CO/sub 2/. Current annual release of carbon from organic soils is estimated to fall within the range of 0.03 to 0.37 x 10/sup 9/ t, a release equivalent to 1.3% to 16% of the annual increase of carbon in the atmosphere. Present annual releases of carbon from the Everglades Agricultural Area in Florida and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley in California are estimated at 0.017 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Annual sequestering of carbon by undrained organic soils has been estimated at about 0.045 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Several strategies for peatland management are available, including creation, preservation, functional designation, and use of wetlands for agriculture and energy supply.

  6. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In traditional technologies of casting moulds and core production on the basis of high-silica sands with binding agent addition, the reclamation consists mainly of a sand recovery and very seldom of a sand and bentonite recovery.Analysis of data from several countries indicates that from 600 to 1200 kg of fresh sand is used for 1 tonne of ferrous casting alloys. In Poland it is 1000 kg of sand for 1 tonne of castings [1]. Out of this amount approximately 20% of fresh sand is used for core production and the remaining amount for rebounding moulding sands. Analysis of data from 20 largest Polish foundries, performed in 2004 [2] indicates that approximately 50% of waste foundry sands is reclaimed while the rest is directed to dumping grounds. Taking into account all remaining foundries it can be estimated that approximately 250-350 000 tonnes of waste foundry sands are sent to dumping grounds annually.Important issue are costs of storage, which depend on the kind of wastes and on the ownership form of dump-sites (municipal dumpinggrounds, plant’s or own [belonging to the foundry] as well as on their relation to the costs of purchasing fresh sands. Average charges for storage of moulding sands wastes on storage yards in Europe are within the range: 12.5 to 61 Eu, which means from 85% to above 400% of purchasing costs of 1 tonne of fresh high-silica sand. The contractual price accepted for such sand in the BREF UE document [3] is 14.56 Eu. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands can be systematised according to the research fields and the actual state of knowledge - based on the analysis of scientific papers.

  7. A semantic problem solving environment for integrative parasite research: identification of intervention targets for Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti P Parikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on the biology of parasites requires a sophisticated and integrated computational platform to query and analyze large volumes of data, representing both unpublished (internal and public (external data sources. Effective analysis of an integrated data resource using knowledge discovery tools would significantly aid biologists in conducting their research, for example, through identifying various intervention targets in parasites and in deciding the future direction of ongoing as well as planned projects. A key challenge in achieving this objective is the heterogeneity between the internal lab data, usually stored as flat files, Excel spreadsheets or custom-built databases, and the external databases. Reconciling the different forms of heterogeneity and effectively integrating data from disparate sources is a nontrivial task for biologists and requires a dedicated informatics infrastructure. Thus, we developed an integrated environment using Semantic Web technologies that may provide biologists the tools for managing and analyzing their data, without the need for acquiring in-depth computer science knowledge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a semantic problem-solving environment (SPSE that uses ontologies to integrate internal lab data with external resources in a Parasite Knowledge Base (PKB, which has the ability to query across these resources in a unified manner. The SPSE includes Web Ontology Language (OWL-based ontologies, experimental data with its provenance information represented using the Resource Description Format (RDF, and a visual querying tool, Cuebee, that features integrated use of Web services. We demonstrate the use and benefit of SPSE using example queries for identifying gene knockout targets of Trypanosoma cruzi for vaccine development. Answers to these queries involve looking up multiple sources of data, linking them together and presenting the results. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The SPSE

  8. Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBanca, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

  9. Results Analysis of IP Address Auto- Configuration in Wireless Manets

    OpenAIRE

    S.Zahoor Ul Huq; S. Shabana Begum; Dr. K.E.Sreenivasa Murthy; Prof. B. Satyanaryana

    2011-01-01

    The main task of an address allocation protocol is to manage the address allocation to the nodes in the ad hoc MANETs. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a uniqueIP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. A mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. So addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, and the address configuration process should be fas...

  10. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department's environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department's environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C

  11. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation`s nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department`s environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department`s environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C.

  12. Private Data -- The Real Story: A Huge Problem with Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. James Milgram

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A very influential paper on improving math outcomes was published in 2008. The authors refused to divulge their data claiming that agreements with the schools and Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act rules (FERPA prevented it.● It turns out that this is not true.● The claimed legal foundations do not say what these authors said they do, this this is a widespread misconception among education researchers.When we found the identities of the schools by other means, serious problems with the conclusions of the article were quickly revealed.● The 2008 paper was far from unique in this respect.● There are many papers that have had enormous influences on K-12 mathematics curricula, and could not be independently verified because the authors refused to reveal their data.In this article we describe how we were able to find the real data for the 2008 paper, and point out the legal constraints that should make it very difficult for authors of such papers to withhold their data in the future.

  13. Research on earth observing satellite segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Renjie; Ruan, Qiming

    2005-10-01

    The mission of an Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) is to acquire images of specified areas on the Earth surface, in response to observation requests from customers for strategic, environmental, commercial, agricultural, and civil analysis and research. A target imaged can have one out of two shapes: a spot and a large polygonal area. A spot can be covered by a single scene of satellite sensor, while a polygonal area may require cutting-up into several contiguous strips to be completely imaged. Because of the orbit restriction, satellite can only view target during specific windows of opportunity when flying over the target. Furthermore, the satellite can only be tasked during such access time windows. Hence a scheduling method of satellite observing tasks has to be taken into account for utilizing satellite sensor efficiently. This paper intends to solve a specific segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets, which concerned with an optical observing satellite equipped with line array CCD sensor. In the paper, based on the analysis of characters of satellite sensor and observed area target, a new method of segmenting area target is given. And on the basis of segmenting results of area target, a scheduling model for multi area targets is proposed. In the paper end, experimental results and analysis are also presented.

  14. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-yun; LEI Dong-yang; TANG Wen-bang; XIAO Ying-hui

    2011-01-01

    The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed,including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification,the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production.In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines,four types,including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice),TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice),reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS,were proposed.A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed.The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones.The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer.In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines,the charecterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward.The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  15. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  16. Research on Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Špačková, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The thesis acquaints with issues and problems of research on tourism, summarizes existing knowledge and development of this theme. It also addresses the issue of institutional, legislative and financial security of research in the Czech Republic (research in general and specifically research on tourism) and the current problems with which the research on tourism meets in the Czech Republic. The thesis also maps out the research activities of some foreign institutions and organizations. Part o...

  17. Novel implementation research designs for scaling up global mental health care: overcoming translational challenges to address the world's leading cause of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Susan M; Neylan, Thomas C; Chambers, David A; Verdeli, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Despite established knowledge that Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) bear the majority of the world's burden of mental disorders, and more than a decade of efficacy research showing that the most common disorders, such as depression and anxiety, can be treated using readily available local personnel in LMICs to apply evidence-based treatments, there remains a massive mental health treatment gap, such that 75 % of those in LMICs never receive care. Here, we discuss the use of a new type of implementation science study design, the effectiveness-implementation hybrids, to speed the translation and scale up of mental health care in LMICs. We use our current study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) delivered by local personnel for depression and trauma-related disorders among HIV+ women in Kenya as an example of effectiveness-implementation hybrid design for mental health services research in LMICs. PMID:26958075

  18. Research on ASLR Bypass Technology Based on Arbitrary Function Address%基于任意函数地址的ASLR绕过技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鑫; 张松年; 胡建伟

    2016-01-01

    For many years buffer overlfow vulnerability has been the most important and harmful mean of the ifeld of network attacks. In Microsoft and other vendors did not use the DEP and ASLR on buffer overflow protection technology, the attackers use EIP to jump to the required position to complete the exploits. However, with the application of DEP and ASLR technology, during the current exploit, bypass the ASLR, Address Space Layout Randomization, protection mechanism is an essential part . Almost all of the vulnerabilities mining practitioners and attackers, both in the study through the way to bypass DEP and ASLR. From the content of ASLR protection mechanism, this paper mainly analyzes the current commonly used ASLR bypass technology of the Microsoft’s Windows system. Then, this paper puts forward a through relative offset bypass ASLR protection mechanism, and focuses on the analysis of the cve-2013-2551 vulnerabilities principles and details, and through the use of loopholes in the cve-2013-2551 demonstration in Microsoft's Windows 8 application this method successfully bypass ASLR protection mechanism of the Microsoft. The shortcoming of the method that proposed in this paper is that the attacker must be able to bypass the ASLR to read the memory, and its advantage is that the attacker can obtain the address of any function in the system.%多年来缓冲区溢出漏洞一直都是网络攻击领域最为重要、危害性最大的一种网络攻击手段。在微软等厂商采用以DEP和ASLR为代表的缓冲区溢出防护技术以前,攻击者在漏洞利用过程中只需要将系统指令寄存器(EIP)跳转到所需要的位置即可。随着DEP和ASLR技术的应用,在当前的缓冲区溢出漏洞利用过程中,绕过ASLR(内存地址空间布局随机化)保护机制是必不可少的环节。几乎所有的漏洞挖掘从业者,都在研究通过何种方式绕过DEP和ASLR。文章从微软Windows操作系统的ASLR保护机制内容

  19. Countermeasure Research on Problems Impeding Farmers’ Successful Entrepreneurship in Minority Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xiao-jin; Xu, Cong-wei

    2011-01-01

    By investigating the problem of farmers’ entrepreneurship in Gongcheng Yaozu Autonomous County, lying in Guilin, Guangxi, the thesis expounds the existing problems impacting farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in minority areas as follows: firstly, the musty idea of local cadre is obstacle to farmers’ successful entrepreneurship; secondly, the problems of scattered farmers’ entrepreneurship resources, waste and shortage of resources impact good effect of entrepreneurship; thirdly, fa...

  20. Addressing Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  1. A coordinated cross-disciplinary research initiative to address an increased incidence of narcolepsy following the 2009-2010 Pandemrix vaccination programme in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltelius, N; Persson, I; Ahlqvist-Rastad, J; Andersson, M; Arnheim-Dahlström, L; Bergman, P; Granath, F; Adori, C; Hökfelt, T; Kühlmann-Berenzon, S; Liljeström, P; Maeurer, M; Olsson, T; Örtqvist, Å; Partinen, M; Salmonson, T; Zethelius, B

    2015-10-01

    In response to the 2009-2010 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, a mass vaccination programme with the AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) vaccine Pandemrix was initiated in Sweden. Unexpectedly, there were a number of narcolepsy cases amongst vaccinated children and adolescents reported. In this review, we summarize the results of a joint cross-disciplinary national research effort to investigate the adverse reaction signal from the spontaneous reporting system and to better understand possible causative mechanisms. A three- to fourfold increased risk of narcolepsy in vaccinated children and adolescents was verified by epidemiological studies. Of importance, no risk increase was observed for the other neurological and autoimmune diseases studied. Genetic studies confirmed the association with the allele HLA-DQB1*06:02, which is known to be related to sporadic narcolepsy. Furthermore, a number of studies using cellular and molecular experimental models investigated possible links between influenza vaccination and narcolepsy. Serum analysis, using a peptide microarray platform, showed that individuals who received Pandemrix exhibited a different epitope reactivity pattern to neuraminidase and haemagglutinin, as compared to individuals who were infected with H1N1. Patients with narcolepsy were also found to have increased levels of interferon-gamma production in response to streptococcus-associated antigens. The chain of patient-related events and the study results emerging over time were subjected to intense nationwide media attention. The importance of transparent communication and collaboration with patient representatives to maintain public trust in vaccination programmes is also discussed in the review. Organizational challenges due to this unexpected event delayed the initiation of some of the research projects, still the main objectives of this joint, cross-disciplinary research effort were reached, and important insights were acquired for future, similar

  2. Novel implementation research designs for scaling up global mental health care: overcoming translational challenges to address the world’s leading cause of disability

    OpenAIRE

    Meffert, Susan M.; Thomas C. Neylan; Chambers, David A.; Verdeli, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Despite established knowledge that Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) bear the majority of the world’s burden of mental disorders, and more than a decade of efficacy research showing that the most common disorders, such as depression and anxiety, can be treated using readily available local personnel in LMICs to apply evidence-based treatments, there remains a massive mental health treatment gap, such that 75 % of those in LMICs never receive care. Here, we discuss the use of a new type ...

  3. Strategies for Addressing Problems in Silkworm Eggs Production and Management of China%我国蚕种生产与经营存在的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建琴; 顾国达; 封槐松

    2011-01-01

    蚕种是蚕桑生产最基本的生产资料,也是蚕业科技进步的重要载体.蚕种业的稳定与发展是实现蚕丝业可持续发展的重要基础之一.通过分析近20年我国蚕种生产规模及区域分布、市场供求、生产技术与效率、经营和管理体制的变化与现状,认为我国蚕种生产与经营存在着产能过剩、区域分割、经营规模小、科研与生产脱节、民营化程度低等一系列问题.促进我国蚕种业发展,应该改革和完善蚕种经营管理体制,走市场化、民营化、规模化、一体化和规范化的发展道路.%Silkworm eggs are the most basic production material for sericultural production. They are also an important carrier of sericultural scientific and technological progress. The stability and developnent of silkworm eggs industry is an important basis for implementation of sustainable development of sericulture. Through analyzing the history and current status of China's silkworm eggs production's scale and regional distribution, market supply and demand, production technology and efficeincy, management and administrative system in recent 20 years, it was found that there were a series of problems in silkworm eggs production and management including excessive productivity, regional segmentation, small business scale, research and production disconnected, and low privatization degree. It was suggested to reform and improve the management and administrative system so as to increase degrees of marketization, privatization, business scale, integration, and standardization of silkworm eggs industry.

  4. A Research on English Educational Problems among Intermediates in Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰凤英

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly centers on the neglecting parts of English intermediates in middle school and presents their existing study problems. According to intermediates' characters and learning motivation, I will reveal reasons of these problems and come up with effective strategies from two aspects of English teachers and students.

  5. Community Problem-Solving Framed as a Distributed Information Use Environment: Bridging Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrance, Joan C.; Souden, Maria; Walker, Dana; Fisher, Karen E.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This article results from a qualitative study of 1) information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2) approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method: Several approaches to data collection were…

  6. Organic propagation of seed and planting material: an overview of problems and challenges for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.; Jacobsen, E.

    2003-01-01

    By 1 January 2004, as a result of EU-regulation 2092/91 for organic farming, the organic sector needs to have developed efficient schemes to be able to use adequate quantities of organically produced seed and planting material. Market problems and agronomic problems that are related to obtaining suf

  7. The A3 Problem Solving Report: A 10-Step Scientific Method to Execute Performance Improvements in an Academic Research Vivarium

    OpenAIRE

    James A Bassuk; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponso...

  8. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  9. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program. Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems. High out-year cost environmental management project descriptions. Volume 3 of 3 - Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix C provides details about each of the Department's 82 high cost projects and lists the EMSP research awards with potential to impact each of these projects. The high cost projects listed are those having costs greater than $50 million in constant 1998 dollars from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and having costs of quantities of material associated with an environmental management problem area. The high cost project information is grouped by operations office and organized by site and project code. Each operations office section begins with a list of research needs associated with that operations office. Potentially related research awards are listed by problem area in the Index of Research Awards by Environmental Management Problem Area, which can be found at the end of appendices B and C. For projects that address high risks to the public, workers, or the environment, refer also the Health/Ecology/Risk problem area awards. Research needs are programmatic or technical challenges that may benefit from knowledge gained through basic research

  10. A survey of waterfowl problems in Alaska for the purpose of identifying research needs: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report highlights the many and varied problems facing the waterfowl resource of Alaska. Current waterfowl investigations and management programs aimed at...

  11. RESEARCH ON SOME THEORETICAL PROBLEMS OF MAP DATA HANDLING USING FRACTAL APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some theoretical problems of fractal geographical map data handling are dis cussed and some new methods about fractal dimension introducing, developing, comparing and estimating are proposed in this paper.

  12. Problems and Solutions in Human Resources Management of Family Business: A Research in Konya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa CETIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The constant progress of the socio-economic development in our time has triggered competition worldwide which makes industrial and commercial establishments divert to human resources in order to distinguish themselves and survive. Family businesses both in Turkey and other countries, therefore, apply to HRM so as to overcome such problems deriving from their structures. This study tackles the family business that faces the problems in HRM and finds the solution to these problems. Studies show that companies who efficiently benefit from the principles of human resources have made remarkable headway. Additionally the family businesses which benefit from HRM and functions can solve the structural problems and catch the successful and institutionalized line.

  13. Report on the ANSTO application for a licence to construct a Replacement Research Reactor, addressing seismic analysis and seismic design accident analysis, spent fuel and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Report of the Nuclear Safety Committee (NSC) covers specific terms of reference as requested by the Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA. The primary issue for the Working Group(WG) consideration was whether ANSTO had demonstrated: (i) that the overall approach to seismic analysis and its implementation in the design is both conservative and consistent with the international best practice; (ii) whether the full accident analysis in the Probabilistic Safety Assesment Report (PSAR) satisfies the radiation dose/frequency criteria specified in ARPANSA's regulatory assessment principle 28 and the assumptions used in the Reference Accident for the siting assessment have been accounted for in the PSAR; and (iii) the adequacy of the strategies for managing the spent fuel as proposed to be used in the Replacement Research Reactor and other radioactive waste (including emissions, taking into account the ALARA criterion) arising from the operation of the proposed replacement reactor and radioisotope production. The report includes a series of questions that were asked of the Applicant in the course of working group deliberations, to illustrate the breadth of inquiries that were made. The Committee noted that replies to some questions remain outstanding at the date of this document. The NSC makes a number of recommendations that appear in each section of the document, which has been compiled in three parts representing the work of each group. The NSC notes some lack of clarity in what was needed to be considered at this approval stage of the project, as against information that would be required at a later stage. While not in the original work plan, recent events of September 11, 2001 also necessitated some exploration of issues relating to construction security. Copyright (2002) Commonwealth of Australia

  14. A Research on the Determination of Problems Encountered by Tourist Guides During Package Tour Operations

    OpenAIRE

    KARAMUSTAFA, Kurtuluş; ÇEŞMECİ, Nihat

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the managerial problems encountered by tourist guides during package tour operations, and to make recommendations on those problems. In this context, first, the existent literature has been reviewed, and in the light of the existent literature the subject has been examined in a holistic way. Secondly, quantitative and qualitative data have been collected through the use of the questionnaires which have been applied to the tourist guides while they were at...

  15. PROBLEM SITUATION AS DIDACTIC STRATEGY IN THE CHEMICAL BOND TEACHING: RESEARCH CONTEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas dos S. Fernandes; Angela F. Campos

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the understanding of chemical bonding by students of Bachellor degree in Chemistry exposed to a situation-problem (SP) teaching approach. The methodology involved: development of a problem situation, educational tools, namely video, computer simulation and manual preparation of crystal structures from polexpan balls and sticks. After the educational intervention, groups of students recorded in writing their views on the SP. The SP strategy showed its potential for both, the...

  16. Research on multi-objective emergency logistics vehicle routing problem under constraint conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Miaomiao Du; Hua Yi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Aim at choosing a relative good vehicle routing in emergency conditions under constraint conditions when disaster happens. Rapid response and rescue can save a lot of people. Design/methodology/approach: Modeling analysis: establishing a mathematical model of multi-objective emergency logistics vehicle routing problem. And in end of the paper, we intend to use genetic algorithms to solve the problem. Findings: Considering time requirement and cost limit both while choosing vehicle ro...

  17. RESEARCH ON SOLVING TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM USING RANK BASED ANT SYSTEM ON GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Khushbu Khatri; Vinit Kumar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is meta-heuristic algorithm inspired from nature to solve many combinatorial optimization problems such as Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP). There are many versions of ACO used to solve TSP like, Ant System, Elitist Ant System, Max-Min Ant System, Rank based Ant System algorithm. For improved performance, these methods can be implemented in parallel architecture like GPU, CUDA architecture. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) provides highly parallel and fully progra...

  18. Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan C. Durrance

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

  19. Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercilia García-Álvarez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.

  20. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  1. HISTORICAL-PEDAGOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM OF DEVELOPING RESEARCH SKILLS IN STUDENTS, AS A FACTOR IN EFFECTIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Albertovna Gorodilova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A special form of the process of cognition this study, i.e. targeted and systematic study that uses the tools of science, and which results in the formation of knowledge about the studied objects. In a broad sense, research is the search for new knowledge. On the other hand (in the narrow sense research is a scientific method of studying something. Cognitive abilities of students based on the ability to «explore».The aim of our study is the problem of formation and development of research skills among students. These skills characterize many kinds of activities corresponding to different levels of professionalism. The development of research skills determines the success of the training. Methodical skill of the teacher is manifested, not only in dealing with certain tasks of teaching, but rather in how these tasks are solved. Without knowledge of historical and pedagogical heritage is impossible to solve the problem of development of research skills in the students.The article conducts historical and pedagogical analysis of literary sources on the problem of developing research skills in students. Considered certain periods in the formation process of formation and development of research abilities of students during their education. This idea existed not in isolation, but in the General system of other Sciences, especially mathematics and philosophy and relevant is not a single century. Changing pedagogical approaches to the implementation of this idea, as changing the conditions of teaching and the individual characteristics of students. But to form and develop in students the ability to think independently, implement research – one of methods of successful training.

  2. Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…

  3. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects. PMID:20825274

  4. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects.

  5. Research on problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of some variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eroğlu Başak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of different variables. 157 male and 43 female orienteering athletes, making a total of 200 athletes that joined the 3rd Level of Turkey Championship in 2015 have participated in this study which is in a survey model. The data collection tools were the Problem Solving Inventory and Personal Information Form that were formed by Heppner & Peterson (1982 and adapted into Turkish by Şahin, Şahin & Heppner (1993. In the data analysis, descriptive statics, anova, t test and Tukey test have been utilized. In the line with the findings, it has been determined that the difference between the total mean values (85.55+20.45 that the orienteering athletes got from the problem solving inventory and their age, marital status, sports age, the years of practice in orienteering sports, and the status of being national player is significant (p<0.05. It has been found that male orienteering athletes perform higher evaluating approach compared to the female athletes, and that as the age levels increase, the problem solving skill is affected more positively. Furthermore, it has been determined that the perceptions of the participants that have more experience and sports age in orienteering sports and that do orienteering sports at a national level are more positive in the matter of problem solving skills.

  6. Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of

  7. Research on multi-objective emergency logistics vehicle routing problem under constraint conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Du

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aim at choosing a relative good vehicle routing in emergency conditions under constraint conditions when disaster happens. Rapid response and rescue can save a lot of people. Design/methodology/approach: Modeling analysis: establishing a mathematical model of multi-objective emergency logistics vehicle routing problem. And in end of the paper, we intend to use genetic algorithms to solve the problem. Findings: Considering time requirement and cost limit both while choosing vehicle routing when the disasters happens is meaningful. We can get a relative good result and give a guidance to rescue teams. Originality/value: Consider cost and time objectives and kinds of realistic conditions (such as the road congestion in the model when solving the problem, having expanded the theory scope.

  8. The free-rider problem and the optimal duration of research joint ventures: theory and evidence from the Eureka program

    OpenAIRE

    Kaz Miyagiwa; Aminata Sissoko

    2013-01-01

    A research joint venture (RJV) faces a serious free-rider problem because its participants¡¯ contributions are mostly unobservable. We first present a model that shows that a RJV solves this problem by pre-committing to its termination date. Our analysis shows that there is an optimal termination date or duration, which increases with the value of the innovation per member and decreases with the R&D flow cost per member. Utilizing data from the European Eureka program, we then examine the fac...

  9. Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent

    OpenAIRE

    Eccles Martin P; Hutton Jane L; Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal de...

  10. Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Michael Conn

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and suggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

  11. Agricultural Research Problems in Small Developing Countries: Case Studies from the South Pacific Island Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaker, J. Brian; Fleming, Euan M.

    1989-01-01

    While research-based technological improvements are an important part of a successful agricultural development strategy, the small South Pacific Island Nations face special difficulties in attaining such innovations because of their particular agricultural production and marketing circumstances and because of diseconomies of small size in research. There is a need to sharpen the focus of national agricultural research efforts on adaptive work, implying both increased international and regiona...

  12. Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem

    OpenAIRE

    P. Michael Conn; RANTIN F. T.

    2010-01-01

    Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and suggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

  13. Sociological Theroires of and Research on Sexual Problems: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kew, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This review considers the literature on sexual problems, with a focus on the most prevalent sexual dysfunction among women – low sexual desire disorder. I first discuss the debates over the definition of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) and then I consider the extent and nature of low sexual desire among women. Next I provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms that are said to account for HSDD. I end the review with a discussion of avenues for future work on sexual problems by s...

  14. Trends in the history of research on the problem of violence in the Old Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Snyman

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Violence as theological problem is a relative newcomer to the scene of Old Testament studies. It was only during the 1970�s that violence was given major attention by Old Testament scholars. In a number of studies the main focus was on Yahweh and his relation to violence. By the late I970�s the theories of Rene Girard on violence were applied to the Old Testament and played an important role in the thinking of Old Testament scholars on violence. In the last part of the article proposed solutions to the problem of violence in the Old Testament are discussed.

  15. A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

  16. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegood, Diane T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems.

  17. Exploring quantum mechanics a collection of 700+ solved problems for students, lecturers, and researchers

    CERN Document Server

    Galitski, Victor; Kogan, Vladimir; Galitski, Victor Jr

    2013-01-01

    A series of seminal technological revolutions has led to a new generation of electronic devices miniaturized to such tiny scales where the strange laws of quantum physics come into play. There is no doubt that, unlike scientists and engineers of the past, technology leaders of the future will have to rely on quantum mechanics in their everyday work. This makes teaching and learning the subject of paramount importance for further progress. Mastering quantum physics is a very non-trivial task and its deep understanding can only be achieved through working out real-life problems and examples. It is notoriously difficult to come up with new quantum-mechanical problems that would be solvable with a pencil and paper, and within a finite amount of time. This book remarkably presents some 700+ original problems in quantum mechanics together with detailed solutions covering nearly 1000 pages on all aspects of quantum science. The material is largely new to the English-speaking audience. The problems have been collect...

  18. Bully/Victim Problems among Preschool Children: A Review of Current Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Maria; Andreou, Eleni; Botsoglou, Kafenia; Didaskalou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with negative short- and long-term effects on children's psychosocial adjustment (Smith 1999; Ttofi and Farrington, "Aggressive Behav" 34(4):352-368, 2008). Entering kindergarten is a crucial developmental step in many children's lives mainly because it…

  19. The Problem of Correspondence of Educational and Professional Standards (Results of Empirical Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunova, Elena; Sokolova, Irina; Kalimullin, Aydar

    2016-01-01

    In the article, the problem of correspondence of educational standards of higher pedagogical education and teacher professional standards in Russia is actualized. Modern understanding of the quality of vocational education suggests that in the process of education the student develops a set of competencies that will enable him or her to carry out…

  20. Problem-Based Learning and Action Research in Postgraduate Teaching: The Interdisciplinary Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servan, M. J.; Soto, E.; Murillo, J. F.; Sola, M.; Perez, A. I.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe innovatory online teaching carried out in the inter-university master's "Educational Innovation Policies and Practices for the Knowledge Society", with the participation of Malaga, Almeria and Internacional de Andalucia Universities. The master's focuses on the exploration of a problem-based learning…

  1. Information problem solving instruction: An overview of 21st century research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Frerejean, Jimmy; Testers, Laurent; Van Strien, Johan; Walhout, Jaap; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Information problem solving (IPS) is the process of locating, selecting, evaluating, and integrating information from various sources to fulfill an information need (Brand-Gruwel, Wopereis, & Vermetten, 2005). It is regarded an important contemporary skill, at times categorized as twenty-first centu

  2. Self-Monitoring Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; McDaniel, Sara; Kreigh, Christi

    2015-01-01

    Explicitly teaching skills associated with self-determination has been promoted to support students' independence and control over their own lives. This is especially important for students with behavior problems. One self-determination skill or behavior that has been studied widely is self-monitoring. Although multiple reviews of various…

  3. Inter- and Transdisciplinary Work: Connecting Research on Hormones with Problems of Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Watamura, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    More than ever before, leaders within the field of education are looking to research on basic processes to inform and improve educational practices. Success requires building a reciprocal relationship between the field of education and research on learning and development, similar to what exists between biology and medicine. Key to this effort is…

  4. Introduction: The Incorporation Problem in Interdisciplinary Legal Research : Part 1: Theoretical Discussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. Taekema (Sanne); W. van der Burg (Wibren)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn the past decades, there has been a rapid increase of interdisciplinary research with regard to law, exemplified in socio-legal research and law and economics. More recently, there has also been – albeit in some countries more than in others – a growing interest in the methodology of l

  5. The Problem of Data in the Cognitive Linguistic Research on Metonymy: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar-Szabo, Rita; Brdar, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The general goal of the present paper is to demonstrate how cross-linguistic (contrastive) data can broaden the perspective in cognitive linguistic research on metonymy, which may raise a host of questions calling for a revision of some widely accepted views. A more specific, methodological goal is to show how the introspection-driven research and…

  6. National Arboretum Solves Green Industry Problems with a Multi-Disciplinary Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ornamental horticulture or “green” industry continues to be one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture in the U.S., ranking behind only corn and soybeans in total cash receipts. The Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit (FNPRU), of the U.S. National Arboretum, is the largest research g...

  7. Research versus Problem Solving for the Education Leadership Doctoral Thesis: Implications for Form and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbald, Doug

    2008-01-01

    Background: A growing literature is questioning the appropriateness of a research dissertation for practitioners in education doctoral programs. Although this literature persuasively critiques the prevailing theory-research orientation of most programs and theses, it goes little beyond exhorting change and describing extant alternatives in a few…

  8. Ethical problems in health research with indigenous or originary peoples in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Gabriela; Roque, Joel

    2015-07-01

    The varied, abrupt and amazing geography of the land of Peru is home of one of the major concentrations of indigenous peoples in the world. The asymmetry of power, however, in their relationship with the rest of society and the State is still very evident in their social exclusion, their gap in social and economic development, barriers in their access to health services as well as their marginalization and exploitation as subjects of health research. In this paper, we analyse two cases of research on indigenous populations in Peru, discuss them from the point of view of bioethics and reflect on important issues for researchers, research participants and the society, such as the need to respect different cultures, the need that the research being done is relevant to the needs of the population in which it is conducted and the necessity to empower indigenous communities in participatory research, to strengthen the institutions and to protect human rights, namely through ethics committees for research and the free, informed and meaningful informed consent. This approach should foster quality research, while at the same time fully respecting human rights and bioethics. We cannot forget that advancements in genetics, throughout the world, are very much in debt to indigenous populations.

  9. Twenty Years of Cultural Imperialism Research: Some Conceptual and Methodological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrowes, Carl Patrick

    While the notion of "cultural imperialism" has received significant attention in communication studies since the early 1970s, researchers have ignored analyses of message systems and audience cultivation in favor of institutional analysis. Likewise, researchers have concentrated on the technologies, media products and processes of Western…

  10. "Ideal-Problem-Solution" (IPS) Model: A Discourse Model of Research Article Introductions (RAIS) in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Zifirdaus

    2011-01-01

    Research article introductions (RAIs) play a significant role in gaining publication, and therefore have been studied by many applied linguists. Research into RAIs published in Indonesia has begun to be developed (Adnan, 2009; Mirahayuni, 2001; Safnil, 2000), and generally conclude that Indonesian Humanities RAIs were structured differently from…

  11. A mathematical approach to research problems of science and technology theoretical basis and developments in mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ei, Shin-ichiro; Koiso, Miyuki; Ochiai, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kanzo; Saito, Shingo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with one of the most novel advances in mathematical modeling for applied scientific technology, including computer graphics, public-key encryption, data visualization, statistical data analysis, symbolic calculation, encryption, error correcting codes, and risk management. It also shows that mathematics can be used to solve problems from nature, e.g., slime mold algorithms. One of the unique features of this book is that it shows readers how to use pure and applied mathematics, especially those mathematical theory/techniques developed in the twentieth century, and developing now, to solve applied problems in several fields of industry. Each chapter includes clues on how to use "mathematics" to solve concrete problems faced in industry as well as practical applications. The target audience is not limited to researchers working in applied mathematics and includes those in engineering, material sciences, economics, and life sciences.

  12. Addressing passive smoking in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha G Hutchinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. AIM: To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS in children. METHODS: All physicians (n = 720 representing the three health professions in Limburg, The Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. RESULTS: The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11% of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, The Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed.

  13. Data-Intensive Cloud Service Provision for Research Institutes: the Network Connectivity Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cass, Tony; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    Much effort (and money) has been invested in recent years to ensure that academic and research sites are well interconnected with high-capacity networks that, in most cases, span national and continental boundaries. However, these dedicated research and education networks, whether national (NRENs) or trans-continental (RENs), frequently have Acceptable Use Policies (AUPs) that restrict their use by commercial entities, notably Cloud Service Providers (CSPs). After a brief summary of the issues involved, we describe three approaches to removing the network connectivity barrier that threatens to limit the ability of academic and research institutions to profit effectively from services offered by CSPs.

  14. The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions; Gestao de rejeitos radioativos em laboratorios de pesquisa - problemas e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos Radioativos

    2011-10-26

    The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

  15. Addressing epidemiological and public health analytic challenges in outcome and impact research: a commentary on 'Prechewing Infant Food, Consumption of Sweets and Dairy and Not Breastfeeding are Associated with Increased Diarrhea Risk of Ten Month Old Infants'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H

    2016-07-01

    Based on a paper by Conkle et al 2016, in which the authors use a descriptive epidemiological design to examine the relationship of premastication and other dietary behavioral variables to childhood diarrhea in the US, we address larger issues of "plausible causality" and the challenges involved in moving from epidemiological studies to public health policy. Drawing on examples from breastfeeding research and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) research, we discuss the following propositions: 1. Effective outcome analyses require simultaneous investigation of different, even contradictory, pathways; 2. Outcome versus impact assessments require different analytic procedures including context analysis; 3. Impact analysis requires understanding the trade-offs between detrimental and beneficial outcomes in relation to potential interventions; 4. No estimates exist for the likely detrimental and beneficial impacts of banning premastication, much less for their trade-offs. PMID:27229538

  16. Crossing Borders, Addressing Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagarajah, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a story of applied linguistics from my personal vantage point as a multilingual scholar whose career began outside the centers of research and scholarship. The article explains the assumptions and practices characterizing the foundation of the discipline in modernist discourses, and delineates the changes resulting from…

  17. Time domain analysis for discrete difference equation on discrete linear system controllable problem's research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Shu-xian; DING Yu; GE Lei

    2008-01-01

    We usually describle a comparatively more complex control system, especially a multi-inputs and multioutputs system by time domation analytical procedure. While the system's controllability means whether the system is controllable according to certain requirements. It involves not only the system's outputs' controllability but also the controllability of the system's partial or total conditions. The movement is described by difference equation in the linear discrete-time system. Therefore, the problem of controllability of the linear discrete-time system has been converted into a problem of the controllability of discrete-time difference equation. The thesis makes out the determination method of the discrete-time system's controllability and puts forward the sufficient and necessary conditions to determine it's controllability by making a study on the controllability of the linear discrete-time equation.

  18. Research on cultural algorithm for solving routing problem of mobile agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The key idea behind cultural algorithm is to explicitly acquire problem-solving knowledge from the evolving population and in return apply that knowledge to guide the search. In this article, cultural algorithm-simulated annealing is proposed to solve the routing problem of mobile agent. The optimal individual is accepted to improve the belief space's evolution of cultural algorithms by simulated annealing. The step size in search is used as situational knowledge to guide the search of optimal solution in the population space. Because of this feature, the search time is reduced. Experimental results show that the algorithm proposed in this article can ensure the quality of optimal solutions, and also has better convergence speed. The operation efficiency of the system is considerably improved.

  19. RESEARCH ON SOLVING TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM USING RANK BASED ANT SYSTEM ON GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu Khatri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is meta-heuristic algorithm inspired from nature to solve many combinatorial optimization problems such as Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP. There are many versions of ACO used to solve TSP like, Ant System, Elitist Ant System, Max-Min Ant System, Rank based Ant System algorithm. For improved performance, these methods can be implemented in parallel architecture like GPU, CUDA architecture. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU provides highly parallel and fully programmable platform. GPUs which have many processing units with an off-chip global memory can be used for general purpose parallel computation. This paper presents a parallel Rank Based Ant System algorithm to solve TSP by use of Pre Roulette Wheel Selection Method.

  20. Experiments in Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a complication of the short status reports on current experiments on intermediate energy physics and on high energy physics. The projects of new facilities and the results of radiobiological researches are presented

  1. Numerical research of the optimal control problem in the semi-Markov inventory model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshenin, Andrey K. [Institute of Informatics Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow, Russia MIREA, Faculty of Information Technology (Russian Federation); Belousov, Vasily V. [Institute of Informatics Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shnourkoff, Peter V.; Ivanov, Alexey V. [National research university Higher school of economics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-10

    This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of stochastic system for inventory management products using controlled semi-Markov process. The results of a special software for the system’s research and finding the optimal control are presented.

  2. RESEARCH ON THE LEGAL PROBLEMS OF THE PORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Koji; KASUGAI, Yasuo; Fukuda, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, port management is increasingly adopting a scheme of separatinginfrastructure and operations. In the midst of this global trend, Japan experienced the Great Hanshin andAwaji Earthquake in 1995 and the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, both of which devastated majorports, forcing Japan to face challenges related to its port management system. In addition, with majorearthquakes expected to strike again in the future, it is urgent for Japan to solve the current problems. Jap...

  3. Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy To Facilitate Problem Solving in Pharmaceutical Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangion, Ian; Liu, Yizhou; Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Welch, Christopher J

    2016-08-19

    As new chemical methodologies driven by single-electron chemistry emerge, process and analytical chemists must develop approaches to rapidly solve problems in this nontraditional arena. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been long known as a preferred technique for the study of paramagnetic species. However, it is only recently finding application in contemporary pharmaceutical development, both to study reactions and to track the presence of undesired impurities. Several case studies are presented here to illustrate its utility in modern pharmaceutical development efforts.

  4. A Research on Structural Characteristics and Problems of Goat Breeding in Nigde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Ceyhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the present status of goat farms in Nigde, to detect basic priority problems and to offer some solutions to these problems. For this purpose, a survey was conducted to the goat breeders face to face in randomly selected total 38 goat farms.The survey questions; goat farms and growing core business activities of enterprises that reveals the overall structure, and also the level of satisfaction with the priority issues of breeders are designed to measure. Analyze the results was shown that a large portion of goat breeders (85.0% were primary school graduates, 5.3%secondery school and also 5.3% high school graduates, goat farms have whole hair goat breed. Goat enterprises have rate of 44.7%, more than 500 goat, 92.1% of goat enterprises go out to highlands, also provided 73.7% of the shepherd's family. In addition, operating revenues were determined come from 50% of goat's milk. Goat breeders were evaluated only 39.5% the form of cheese production, as 60.5% of the cheese, butter, yogurt, and the sale of raw milk of the total milk yield. All business was assessed that owners a profitable goat farming as an occupation and the first five main problems were member alliance, ownership sufficient technical knowledge, serving the technical staff, buck mating and breeding presses, goat shelter, respectively. In addition, it was seen that according to Likert scale, at least the first five issues were satisfied that such as feed, labor, and electricity inputs, product marketing price, sold animals the price, market opportunities related to the sale of manufactured products and finacial supply, respectively. As a result, it could be said that the most important problem for goat enterprises in Nigde province is high production costs and low product prices.

  5. Research of the Problem of Vehicle Deviation%车辆跑偏问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓峰

    2009-01-01

    针对售后常见的车辆跑偏问题,提出两种通用的评判方法以及评判标准;同时着重分析了车辆跑偏产生原理以及解决的办法.%Two evaluation methods and standards are put forward aiming at the after - sales problem of vehicle deviation. The principle of vehiele deviation and its solution method are focused.

  6. ABOUT THE PROBLEMS OF THE RESEARCH OF ORGANISMS INTERACTION WITH THE MICROWAVE RADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    DAROVSKIH S.N.; SHISHKOVA YU.S.; VDOVINA N.V.; VODYANITSKIY E.V.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the main problems of studies of the organisms interaction with electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range is submitted. The controversial approach to assessing the role of microwave radiations of artificial origin for organisms is noted. One group of scientists considers these radiations as potentially dangerous to an organism, and the other group claims that under certain conditions they can be used in the medical purposes. The specified contradiction is eliminated by u...

  7. Solar Energy Prediction: An International Contest to Initiate Interdisciplinary Research on Compelling Meteorological Problems

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Amy; Gagne II, David John; Eustaquio, Lucas; Titericz, Gilberto; Lazorthes, Benjamin; Zhang, Owen; Louppe, Gilles; Prettenhofer, Peter; Basara, Jeffrey; Hamill, Thomas M.; Margolin, David

    2015-01-01

    As meteorological observing systems and models grow in complexity and number, the size of the data becomes overwhelming for humans to analyze using traditional techniques. Computer scientists, and specifically machine learning and data mining researchers, are developing frameworks for analyzing big data. The AMS Committee on Artificial Intelligence and its Applications to Environmental Science aims to bring AI researchers and environmental scientists together to increase the synergy between ...

  8. Countermeasure Research on Problems Impeding Farmers’ Successful Entrepreneurship in Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By investigating the problem of farmers’ entrepreneurship in Gongcheng Yaozu Autonomous County,lying in Guilin,Guangxi,the thesis expounds the existing problems impacting farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in minority areas as follows:firstly,the musty idea of local cadre is obstacle to farmers’ successful entrepreneurship;secondly,the problems of scattered farmers’ entrepreneurship resources,waste and shortage of resources impact good effect of entrepreneurship;thirdly,farmers lack awareness of characteristics and brand,influencing the market competitiveness of products;fourthly,the existence of smallholder consciousness critically hampers the marketization and internationalization of entrepreneurship accomplishments;fifthly,the government pays no attention to the construction of industrial chain,which makes farmers’ entrepreneurship lack sustainability.Based on these,corresponding countermeasures are put forward to promote farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in minority areas as follows:firstly,we should update local leaders’ ideas and emphasize the positive role of farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in county economic development;secondly,we should integrate local entrepreneurship resources and promote the efficiency of farmers’ entrepreneurship;thirdly,we should foster the consciousness of brand and characteristics and strengthen the market competitiveness of entrepreneurship accomplishments;fourthly,we should strengthen the construction of industrial chain to promote sustainable development of farmers’ entrepreneurship.

  9. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  10. Research Information Standardization as a Wicked Problem: Possible Consequences for the Standardization Process. Case Study of the Specification Project of the German Research Core Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Riechert, Mathias; Dees, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Delivered at the CRIS2014 Conference in Rome; published in Procedia Computer Science 33 (Jul 2014). Contains conference paper (6 pages) and presentation (24 slides) In this paper, we analyze the degree to which the standardization project “Research core dataset” (CDS) qualifies as a wicked problem. The project was initiated in 2013 by the German Science Council. We suggest three solution approaches and discuss their application to standardization processes.

  11. Addressing Controversies in Science Education: A Pragmatic Approach to Evolution Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, David; Bilica, Kimberly; Capps, John

    2008-01-01

    Science education controversies typically prove more intractable than those in scientific research because they involve a wider range of considerations (e.g., epistemic, social, ethical, political, and religious). How can educators acknowledge central issues in a controversy (such as evolution)? How can such problems be addressed in a way that is…

  12. Addressing the Needs of Gay and Lesbian Students: The School Counselor's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristin E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes issues facing gay and lesbian youth: isolation, family problems, violence, sexual abuse, and sexually transmitted diseases. Discusses issues of homophobia and institutional discrimination, and the need for research and practices school counselors can adopt to address the needs of gay and lesbian students. Includes 30 references and cites…

  13. Employment of Questionnaire as Tool for Effective Business Research Outcome: Problems and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADENIYI AKINGBADE WAIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Questionnaire has to do with questions designed to gather information or data for analysis. Questionnaire has to be adequate, simple, focused and related to the subject which the research is set to achieve and to test the hypotheses and questions that are formulated for the study. But many questionnaires are constructed and administered without following proper guideline which hinders there end result. This paper assesses some of the guides for constructing questionnaire as well as it uses and the extent to which it enhanced manager’s access to reliable data and information. Descriptive method is employed for the study. Findings revealed that poor or badly prepared questionnaire produce questionnaire that does not provide effective results. Managers and researchers that use such questionnaire hardly achieve their organisational and research objectives. The need for good, well prepared and adequate questionnaire is exemplified by its being the primary tool for analytical research. The study recommends that questionnaire be properly prepared for effective research outcome.

  14. Understanding the Processes that Regulate Positive Emotional Experience: Unsolved Problems and Future Directions for Theory and Research on Savoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred B. Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In this paper, we focus on unanswered questions and future directions in positive psychology, with a special emphasis on savoring processes that regulate positive emotions. To advance our understanding of the savoring processes underlying positive experience, we highlight three unresolved issues that must be addressed: (1 discriminating the distinctive neuropsychological profiles associated with different savoring processes; (2 developing viable methods of measuring and analyzing the mediational mechanisms involved in real-time savoring; and (3 clarifying the developmental processes through which people acquire different strategies to savor positive experiences across the life span. We propose several potentially fruitful lines of attack aimed at addressing these unsolved problems, each of which requires new methods of assessment to advance theory and refine our conceptual understanding of savoring.

  15. Radiobiological research for improving cancer therapy in India: rationale, problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is emerging as a very important health hazard in India. According to recent studies by the Indian Council of Medical Research, about 2.25 million patients are presently suffering from different types of cancer in India. Approximately one million new cases are diagnosed, and nearly 0.3 million deaths occur every year on account of this disease. About 2/3rd of the cancers are at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. However, the allocation of funds for healthcare in India to support the research efforts for developing more potent radio-chemotherapy protocols for cancer treatment is too little. Studies by the W.H.O. have estimated that less developed countries including India use less than 5% of world resources destined for cancer control. It follows from the above discussions that it is imperative to further encourage and diversify the radiobiological research in India. This can be achieved by creating radiobiological research facilities, mainly in all the cancer centers and post graduate medical institutions, and further expanding the upcoming laboratories in the universities such as Bikaner. Collaborative research programs between laboratories at different centers could facilitate systematic evaluation of various pharmacological agents and neutraceuticals for potential application for treatment of different cancers. Our studies on combination of radiation with temozolomide and certain adjuvants with selective effects on brain tumour cells will be very briefly discussed in this presentation. Finally the possible administrative set up and multi dimensional collaborations for cost effective utilization of existing resources to further augment radiation biology research will also be discussed

  16. A Research of the Employment Problem on Common Job-seekers and Graduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Da Qu

    2009-01-01

    A problem on the employment market swarming with both multitudinous common job-seekers and graduates was studied. The employment situation in the market was analyzed firstly. Based on the analysis, the situation was dynamically modeled. The model was properly processed and simplified. A control model corresponding to the method was deduced. As a result, a control solution for the model is obtained, and an example with Simulink demonstrates the control effect. By means of the proposed method, an optimal control for the dynamic balance between multitudinous common job-seekers and graduates can be obtained.

  17. Does terrorism work? The debates, problems, and a framework for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard English

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For both intellectual and practical reasons, the question “Does terrorism work?” is vital. And yet it has largely been eclipsed by other debates within the scholarly literature on terrorism. This article considers some of the recent contributions to the emerging discussion of the question. It then outlines some of the problems inherent in the academic debate that has taken place thus far on the subject, and sketches a framework for making future scholarship in this area more inclusive, systematic and dialogically fruitful than it has been to date.

  18. The Problem about Technology in STEM Education: Some Findings from Action Research on the Professional Development & Integrated STEM Lessons in Informal Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Saito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, the authors’ Japanese team in the Department of Science Education at Shizuoka University has held trials of STEM Education in informal fields as participatory action research (e.g., Science museum in Shizuoka, Lifelong Learning Center in Fujieda City, and STEM Summer camp for the preparation for implementing STEM education in public schools and for proposing science education reform in a Japanese context. Problems in preparing STEM lessons include numerous new instructional materials and programs and emerging specialized schools. In addition, while most of these initiatives address one or more of the STEM subjects separately, there are increasing calls for emphasizing connections between and among the subjects (Honey, Pearson and Schweingruber, 2014. Unfamiliar problems for Japanese teachers are, What is Engineering? What is Design? and How can they be implemented in lessons? While gathering STEM learning materials to implement in their STEM Summer Camp, the authors noticed a pattern with which to develop a STEM lesson and developed a template “T-SM-E” in reference to prior STEM studies. After the STEM Summer Camp, the authors introduced the model in the pre-service teacher preparation program. As a result, the authors received suggestions about how teachers can develop integrated STEM lessons, how undergraduate (UG teachers can implement it in their lessons, and how teachers can assess student learning in their STEM lessons. From standard based student assessments and reflections written by the UG teachers, the authors found that it was difficult for the UG teachers to include technology in their lessons, and their assessment also indicated that the students did not show performance proficiency in technology. The authors discuss this existing problem in the Japanese education system.

  19. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

  20. Human behavior and environmental sustainability : Problems, driving forces, and research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charles; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Social and behavioral research is crucial for securing environmental sustainability and improving human living environments. To put the following articles into broader perspective, we first give an overview of worldwide developments in environmental quality and trends in resource use. Second, five g