Sample records for research problem addressed


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ALAVI


    Full Text Available Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be theoretically related to it. Second is that concurrent approach of mixed research method to inductive and deductive research logic provides researchers with opportunity to generate theory and test hypothesis in one study simultaneously. In addition, it provides a better justification for chosen method of investigation and higher validity for obtained answers to research questions. Despite increasing popularity of mixed research methods among management scholars, there is still need for a comprehensive approach to research design typology and process in mixed research method from the perspective of management science. The authors in this paper try to explain fundamental principles of mixed research method, its typology and different steps in its design process.

  2. Competitive Benchmarking: An IS Research Approach to Address Wicked Problems with Big Data and Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); M. Peters (Markus); J. Collins (John); A. Gupta (Alok)


    textabstractWicked problems like sustainable energy and financial market stability are societal challenges that arise from complex socio-technical systems in which numerous social, economic, political, and technical factors interact. Understanding and mitigating them requires research methods that s

  3. How GIS can help address the uncertain geographic context problem in social science research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.


    The uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP), first articulated by Kwan (2012; The uncertain geographic context problem. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 102 (5), 958–968), refers to the problem that findings about the effects of area-based contextual variables on individual be

  4. Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem (United States)

    The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...

  5. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address (United States)

    Dause, Emily


    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to showcase…

  6. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk (Ans)


    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single act

  7. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems (United States)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar


    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  8. Addressing the Curriculum Problem in Doctoral Education (United States)

    Green, Bill


    How best to understand the curriculum problem in doctoral research education: that is the question that this paper engages. It begins by noting that curriculum as such is little referenced and inadequately theorised in higher education and certainly in doctoral education, and indeed has been described as a "missing term". The paper then reviews a…

  9. Time Management: Addressing and Assessing Classroom Participation Problems (United States)


    Time Management Addressing and Assessing Classroom Participation Problems Cary A. Balser Abstract While research shows that technology in...the classroom has costs, in econometrics (as in other technical courses) computer use is very nearly a necessary condition. Therefore, I used a...concepts but that effect on long term retention are unclear and require more research. Finally, this work demonstrates the usefulness of

  10. Addressing some Common Problems in Transcript Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Fahy


    Full Text Available Computer conferencing is one of the more useful parts of computer-mediated communications (CMC, and is virtually ubiquitous in distance education. The temptation to analyze the resulting interaction has resulted in only partial success, however (Henri, 1992; Kanuka and Anderson, 1998; Rourke, Anderson, Garrison and Archer, 1999; Fahy, Crawford, Ally, Cookson, Keller and Prosser, 2000. Some suggest the problem is made more complex by failings of both technique and, more seriously, theory capable of guiding transcript analysis research (Gunawardena, Lowe and Anderson, 1997.We have previously described development and pilot-testing of an instrument and a process for transcript analysis, call the the TAT (Transcript Analysis Tool, based on a model originally developed by Zhu (1996. We found that the instrument and coding procedures used provided acceptable – sometimes excellent – levels of interrater reliability (varying from 70 percent to 94 percent in pilot applications, depending upon user training and practice with the instrument, and that results of pilots indicated the TAT discriminated well among the various types of statements found in online conferences (Fahy, et al., 2000.

  11. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri


    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  12. Research on Two Problems Related to Address Resolution%地址解析的两个相关问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋广佳; 季振洲


    Given the lack of authentication mechanisms, the address resolution protocols ( ARPs) ( address resolution pro-tocol, neighbor discovery protocol, and so on) are vulnerable to attack, such as man in the middle and denial of service a-mong others. Therefore, the safety problem of the address resolution ( AR) has been significantly given focus, and, in this paper, two problems related to AR have been investigated. First, the indecisiveness of the AR is proven. Therefore, all de-cision methods adopted to ensure the AR are imperfect;second, the equivalence between the AR and the duplicate address detection ( DAD) process is proven. Thus, the AR and the DAD process can be replaced by each other, and can even be completed by the same process which will significantly simplify the design and implementation of the ARPs.%地址解析协议由于缺少认证机制而容易受到攻击,比如中间人攻击,DoS攻击等,因此其安全问题长久以来一直受到人们的关注。本文对地址解析有关的两个问题进行了研究。首先,证明了地址解析问题的不可判定性,这表明所有采用判定的方式来保障地址解析过程的方法都是不完美的;其次,证明了地址解析过程与重复地址检测过程的等价性。这个结论表明地址解析过程与重复地址检测过程可以互相替代,甚至由同一过程来完成,这将大大简化地址解析协议的设计与实现。

  13. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)


    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  14. Improving ecosystem service frameworks to address wicked problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn K. Davies


    Full Text Available Complex problems often result from the multiple interactions between human activities and ecosystems. The interconnected nature of ecological and social systems should be considered if these "wicked problems" are to be addressed. Ecosystem service approaches provide an opportunity to link ecosystem function with social values, but in practice the essential role that social dynamics play in the delivery of outcomes remains largely unexplored. Social factors such as management regimes, power relationships, skills, and values, can dramatically affect the definition and delivery of ecosystem services. Input from a diverse group of stakeholders improves the capacity of ecosystem service approaches to address wicked problems by acknowledging diverse sets of values and accounting for conflicting world views. Participatory modeling can incorporate both social and ecological dynamics into decision making that involves stakeholders, but is itself a complex social undertaking that may not yield precise or predictable outcomes. We explore the efficacy of different types of participatory modeling in relation to the integration of social values into ecosystem services frameworks and the generation of four important elements of social capital needed to address wicked problems: enhancing social learning and capacity building; increasing transparency; mediating power; and building trust. Our findings indicate that mediated modeling, group mapping, and mental/conceptual modeling are likely to generate elements of social capital that can improve ecosystem service frameworks. Participatory simulation, system dynamic modeling, and Bayesian belief networks, if utilized in isolation, were found to have a low likelihood of generating the social capital needed to improve ecosystem services frameworks. Scenario planning, companion modeling, group model building, and participatory mapping all generate a moderate to high level of social capital elements that improve the

  15. Time to address the problems at the neural interface (United States)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot


    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  16. Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato


    P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existing peer in the overlay, remains a challenge to enabling these services for small-scale P2P systems. In large networks, the solution to the bootstrap problem has been the use of dedicated services, though creating and maintaining these systems requires expertise and resources, which constrain their usefulness and make them unappealing for small-scale systems. This paper surveys and summarizes requirements that allow peers potentially constrained by network connectivity to bootstrap small-scale overlays through the use of e...

  17. The role of academic research and teaching in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability. (United States)

    Collinson, Lucie


    The key roles of academic research and teaching in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability are to better inform and better equip actors with the knowledge and skills to address health problems. The four key contributions of research are: quantifying the health problem, examining the contextual circumstances, investigating the epidemiology of health problems and evaluation of health care and humanitarian interventions. The role of teaching can complement research by distributing its' findings in addition to teaching skill sets to apply this knowledge and conduct further research. Academic research and teaching both play imperative roles in enabling more successful approaches in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability.

  18. Addressing Responsible Research and Innovation to Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghmaei, Emad


    . In solving such gap in the literature, this article constructs a solid framework that provides a conceptual starting point for future research on levels of RRI. It draws a fundamental path to align industrial activities with environmental and societal needs. The framework develops a normatively grounded......Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is taking a role to assist all types of stakeholders including industry to move research and innovation initiatives to responsible manner for tackling grand challenges. The literature on RRI focuses little on how industry can implement RRI principles...... models of corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. Drawing on these models, this study develops stages and dimensions of RRI for discussing why industry should become engaged in RRI, how industry can embed RRI principles into research and innovation processes, how companies progress from one RRI...

  19. Beyond open big data: addressing unreliable research. (United States)

    Moseley, Edward T; Hsu, Douglas J; Stone, David J; Celi, Leo Anthony


    The National Institute of Health invests US $30.9 billion annually in medical research. However, the subsequent impact of this research output on society and the economy is amplified dramatically as a result of the actual medical treatments, biomedical innovations, and various commercial enterprises that emanate from and depend on these findings. It is therefore a great concern to discover that much of published research is unreliable. We propose extending the open data concept to the culture of the scientific research community. By dialing down unproductive features of secrecy and competition, while ramping up cooperation and transparency, we make a case that what is published would then be less susceptible to the sometimes corrupting and confounding pressures to be first or journalistically attractive, which can compromise the more fundamental need to be robustly correct.

  20. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts. (United States)

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One Piece at a…

  1. Research on the Mo del of a Lightweight Resource Addressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bingqing; SUN Zhixin


    This paper discussed the characteristics of addressing from the perspective of Internet address-ing mechanism. An Internet of things (IOT) resource ad-dressing iteration model was defined. In the model, a di-rect addressing mode for active nodes and an indirect addressing mode for passive codes were proposed, which meet the requirement for multiple encoding mode. A uni-fied IOT resource lightweight addressing scheme based on IPv6 has been proposed to implement the two addressing modes. The scheme utilized the virtual domain to solve the problem of the heterogeneous encoding. The paper imple-mented the addressing process from the Internet host to the sensor node based on IPv6 over low-power wireless personal area networks (6LoWPAN) protocol. The experi-ment results show that the scheme is performed to realize communication between wireless sensor networks and IPv6 networks.

  2. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cruz, J L; Saldaña-Salazar, U J


    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs--Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  3. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Saldana-Salazar, U.J. [Benemerita Univ. Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas; Hollik, W.G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs-Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  4. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems (United States)

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.


    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  5. Deep-seated Problems Haven't Yet Been Addressed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zuliu


    @@ China's capital market has changed remarkably in recent times, finally recovering after a long period of painful adjustment. In the depths of extreme market depression, people have profoundly experienced and understood some deep-seated problems confronting China's capital market in the last four years.

  6. Does problem complexity matter for environmental policy delivery? How public authorities address problems of water governance. (United States)

    Kirschke, Sabrina; Newig, Jens; Völker, Jeanette; Borchardt, Dietrich


    Problem complexity is often assumed to hamper effective environmental policy delivery. However, this claim is hardly substantiated, given the dominance of qualitative small-n designs in environmental governance research. We studied 37 types of contemporary problems defined by German water governance to assess the impact of problem complexity on policy delivery through public authorities. The analysis is based on a unique data set related to these problems, encompassing both in-depth interview-based data on complexities and independent official data on policy delivery. Our findings show that complexity in fact tends to delay implementation at the stage of planning. However, different dimensions of complexity (goals, variables, dynamics, interconnections, and uncertainty) impact on the different stages of policy delivery (goal formulation, stages and degrees of implementation) in various ways.

  7. New R & D center to address energy problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The joint launching ceremony for the Research and Development Center for Energy Plants, the CAS Institute of Botany (IBCAS), and the R&D Laboratory for Sweet Sorghum co-established by IBCAS and the Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory (TLL) in Singapore was held on 10 December at IOB in Beijing.

  8. Operations research problems statements and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Poler, Raúl; Díaz-Madroñero, Manuel


    The objective of this book is to provide a valuable compendium of problems as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, researchers and practitioners of operations research and management science. These problems can serve as a basis for the development or study of assignments and exams. Also, they can be useful as a guide for the first stage of the model formulation, i.e. the definition of a problem. The book is divided into 11 chapters that address the following topics: Linear programming, integer programming, non linear programming, network modeling, inventory theory, queue theory, tree decision, game theory, dynamic programming and markov processes. Readers are going to find a considerable number of statements of operations research applications for management decision-making. The solutions of these problems are provided in a concise way although all topics start with a more developed resolution. The proposed problems are based on the research experience of the authors in real-world com...

  9. Address Translation Problems in IMS Based Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Godor


    Full Text Available The development of packed based multimedia networks reached a turning point when the ITU-T and the ETSIhave incorporated the IMS to the NGN. With the fast development of mobile communication more and more services andcontent are available. In contrast with fix network telephony both the services and the devices are personalized in the “mobileworld”. Services, known from the Internet - like e-mail, chat, browsing, presence, etc. – are already available via mobiledevices as well. The IMS originally wanted to exploit both the benefits of mobile networks and the fancy services of theInternet. But today it is already more than that. IMS is the core of the next generation telecommunication networks and abasis for fix-mobile convergent services. The fact however that IMS was originally a “mobile” standard, where IPv6 was notoddity generated some problems for the fix networks, where IPv4 is used. In this article I give an overview of these problemsand mention some solutions as well.

  10. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.L.


    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  11. GRACEnet: addressing policy needs through coordinated cross-location research (United States)

    Jawson, Michael D.; Walthall, Charles W.; Shafer, Steven R.; Liebig, Mark; Franzluebbers, Alan J.; Follett, Ronald F.


    GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) was conceived to build upon ongoing USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research to improve soil productivity, while addressing the challenges and opportunities of interest in C sequestration from a climate change perspective. The vision for GRACEnet was and remains: Knowledge and information used to implement scientifically based agricultural management practices from the field to national policy scales on C sequestration, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and environmental benefits. The national focus of GRACEnet uses a standardized approach by ARS laboratories and university and land manager (e.g. farmer and rancher) cooperators to assess C sequestration and GHG emission from different crop and grassland systems. Since 2002, GRACEnet has significantly expanded GHG mitigation science and delivered usable information to agricultural research and policy organizations. Recent developments suggest GRACEnet will have international impact by contributing leadership and technical guidance for the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases.

  12. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems (United States)

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.


    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  13. Coloured Petri nets and graphical animation: a proposal for a means to address problem frame concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk


    To address a frame concern in Jackson's problem frames, we must make appropriate descriptions of (1) the problem domain; (2) the requirements; (3) the specification of the machine. Based on these descriptions, we must give a convincing argument that the given domain properties and the machine...... specification together entail that the requirements are fulfilled. In this paper, we demonstrate how to address certain frame concerns with the use of the formal modelling language coloured Petri nets (CPN). Problem domain description and machine specification are brought together in a CPN model, which...

  14. Addressing the Missing Instructional Data Problem: Using a Teacher Log to Document Tier 1 Instruction (United States)

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.


    Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…

  15. Symposium Addressing Rural Drinking Water Problems and Water Safety Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter


    <正>On September 19,a symposium addressing Rural Drinking Water Problems and Safety,jointly sponsored by the China Friendship Foundation for Peace and Development (CFFPD) and General Motors (China) Co.,Ltd.,was held in Beijing. Feng Zuoku,vice president of the CPAF-

  16. Addressing the Mental Health Problems of Chinese International College Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Liu


    Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.

  17. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research (United States)

    Paytan, A.


    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  18. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research (United States)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.


    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that

  19. ASCO's Community Research Forum: addressing challenges of community-based research from the grass roots. (United States)

    Robert, Nicholas; Lilenbaum, Rogerio; Hurley, Patricia


    ASCO's Community Research Forum is a solution-oriented venue for community research sites to overcome barriers to conducting clinical trials. The key objectives of the Forum are to (1) convene community-based researchers to identify challenges to conducting research that ASCO can address, (2) develop solution-oriented projects to address these challenges to facilitate clinical trial participation in community research settings, and (3) shape ASCO programs and policies to support members engaged in community research. The Community Research Forum holds an annual in-person meeting that convenes physician investigators, research administrators, research nurses, and clinical research associates from community-based research programs and practices. To meet identified needs, the Community Research Forum has developed the ASCO Clinical Trial Workload Assessment Tool and the ASCO Research Program Quality Assessment Tool. Both of these tools will be available to the public in 2014. The Forum is currently exploring the concept and potential metrics of a research certification program to formally assess community-based research programs, and to identify gaps and areas to improve the program in order to meet quality standards. The Community Research Forum's website aims to serve as a go-to resource for community-based physician investigators and research staff. The Community Research Forum will continue to provide a forum for community-based researchers to network, share challenges, and develop initiatives that provide solutions and facilitate the conduct of clinical trials.

  20. Addressing the Cosmic Coincidence Problem in f(T) Gravity Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rudra, Prabir


    In this paper we address the well-known cosmic coincidence problem in the framework of the f(T) gravity. In order to achieve this, an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered. A constraint equation is obtained which generates the f(T) models that do not suffer from the coincidence problem. Due to the absence of a universally accepted interaction term introduced by a fundamental theory, the study is conducted over three different forms of chosen interaction terms. As an illustration two widely known models of f(T) gravity are taken into consideration and used in the setup designed to study the problem. The study reveals that there exists a perfect solution for the coincidence problem in the background of the second model while the first model remains utterly plagued by the phenomenon. This not only shows the cosmological viability but also the superiority of the second model over its counterpart.

  1. The struggling reader: Identifying and addressing reading problems successfully at an early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Le Cordeur


    Full Text Available The standard of reading of learners in the intermediate phase is cause for considerable concern. In this article, the intermediate phase refers to grades 4, 5 and 6 (roughly ages 10 – 12. According to the 2008 Evaluation Assessment Tests for Reading, only 15% of learners in Grade 6 achieved the required literacy level. Clearly, reading achievement is a problem in South Africa. Although approximately 4% of any given population experience neurological reading problems, the focus of this article is on the significant number of learners in the intermediate phase who experience reading problems and the generic causes of reading problems for learners in general. The intent is to alert teachers and parents to the characteristics of a struggling reader so that the problem can be identified and addressed early. Firstly, ways in which learning problems are manifested are described. Secondly, a discussion of various types of reading problems, of which four, namely poor reading comprehension, inadequate reading fluency, a lack of vocabulary and a negative attitude towards reading, are discussed in depth. Strategies for struggling readers are presented and recommendations are made. The conclusion is that learners who experience reading problems can learn to read successfully when given the necessary support.

  2. No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ornelas Marques


    Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

  3. Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods (United States)

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.


    At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

  4. Analytical techniques for addressing forward and inverse problems of light scattering by irregularly shaped particles. (United States)

    Li, Xu; Chen, Zhigang; Gong, Jianmin; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim


    Understanding light scattering by nonspherical particles is crucial in modeling the transport of light in realistic structures such as biological tissues. We report the application of novel analytical approaches based on modified Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and equiphase-sphere methods that facilitate accurate characterization of light scattering by a wide range of irregularly shaped dielectric particles. We also demonstrate that these approaches have the potential to address the inverse-scattering problem by means of a spectral analysis of the total scattering cross section of arbitrarily shaped particles.

  5. What is occupational therapy’s role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?


    Leland, Natalie E.; Marcione, Nicole; Niemiec, Stacey L. Schepens; Don Fogelberg, Kaivalya Kelkar


    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high healthcare costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. This scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research in order to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly alig...

  6. Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach (United States)

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro


    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

  7. The role of architectural research centers in addressing climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carmody


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: It is clear that an urgent, major transformation needs to happen in the design of the built environment to respond to impending climate change and other environmental degradation. This paper will explain the potential role of architectural research centers in this transformation and provide examples from the Center for Sustainable Building Research (CSBR at the University of Minnesota. A research center can become a regional hub to coordinate and disseminate critical information. CSBR is leading the establishment of Architecture 2030 standards in Minnesota, assisting local governments in writing green building policy, providing design assistance to local government, developing tools to assist design decision making, providing technical assistance to the affordable housing community inMinnesota, and establishing a regional case study database that includes actual performance information. CSBR is creating a publicly accessible, credible knowledge base on new approaches, technologies and actual performance outcomes. Research centers such as CSBR can be a critical component of the necessary feedback loop often lacking in the building industry. A research center can also fill major gaps in providing in depth professional education as well as be a catalyst for demonstration projects and public education.

  8. Addressing Research Gaps in the Intersection between Homophobia and Bullying (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Swearer, Susan M.


    Bullying, aggression, and peer victimization among adolescents are significant public health concerns. Recent research has demonstrated that bullying and peer victimization sometimes include homophobic epithets directed at heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. It appears that being at the receiving end of…

  9. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  10. Methodological problems in Rorschach research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Jočić Dragana


    Full Text Available Comprehensive System of Rorschach interpretation is considered as nomotetic system that makes possible using of projective method in research projects. However, research use of Rorschach method besides of appropriate knowledge of assign procedures and interpretation rules, means a knowledge of specific methodological issues. The Rorschach indicators are nor independent, as they are a part of specific net, so in some research it is necessary to control basic variables not to get artifacts in our research. This is basically relied on researches where we compare groups, as well as in normative studies where through cross-cultural we compare Rorschach indicators. .

  11. Addressing the need for research on bariatric patient. (United States)

    Galinsky, Traci; Hudock, Stephen; Streit, Jessica


    During the past 3 decades numerous studies have documented the high prevalence of patient handling-related musculoskeletal injuries among healthcare workers and evaluated ergonomic interventions using mechanized equipment for lifting and moving patients. A great deal of research-based evidence now demonstrates the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions to reduce injury risk among healthcare workers who handle patients of average weights and sizes. In contrast, there is a lack of evidence-based research that evaluates ergonomic interventions for handling bariatric patients, whose extreme weights and sizes necessitate specialized handling equipment. The obesity epidemic, along with special medical and therapeutic concerns regarding bariatric patients, exacerbates healthcare workers' patient handling demands. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is conducting a new study to evaluate bariatric patient handling hazards and interventions and identify evidence-based best practices for handling this population.

  12. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  13. A pilot study of a primary prevention curriculum to address preschool behavior problems. (United States)

    Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Reed, George


    Behavior problems among preschool children are common. They are important targets for intervention because early externalizing problems and self-regulation issues tend to persist without appropriate attention, and can affect later mental health and school achievement outcomes. However, few preschool curricula addressing social and emotional development exist, and evidence for effects are mixed. In this study, the Second Step Pre/Kindergarten Social and Emotional Learning curriculum was adapted and tested in a small cluster randomized pilot study of community preschool classrooms to determine if it could improve outcomes in: (1) individual children's teacher-rated behavior problems and prosocial skills; (2) classroom climate (classroom interactions and two measures of disruptive behavior); and (3) teacher interaction skills. Year 1 outcomes were modest and were accounted for by baseline differences. In Year 2, classroom climate, measured by independent observers, differed significantly in intervention classrooms, largely because of declines in control classrooms, and there was some evidence for better teacher interaction skills in intervention classrooms. The pattern of effects suggests important impacts on classroom quality worth investigating in a larger study. Both fidelity and implementation rates, as well as positive teacher responses to the curriculum, indicate potential for widespread adoption.

  14. Addressing selection bias in dental health services research. (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Rozier, R G; Norton, E C; Vann, W F


    When randomization is not possible, researchers must control for non-random assignment to experimental groups. One technique for statistical adjustment for non-random assignment is through the use of a two-stage analytical technique. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of this technique to control for selection bias in examining the effects of the The Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children's (WIC) on dental visits. From 5 data sources, an analysis file was constructed for 49,512 children ages 1-5 years. The two-stage technique was used to control for selection bias in WIC participation, the potentially endogenous variable. Specification tests showed that WIC participation was not random and that selection bias was present. The effects of the WIC on dental use differed by 36% after adjustment for selection bias by means of the two-stage technique. This technique can be used to control for potential selection bias in dental research when randomization is not possible.

  15. ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Q. M. Bazlur RASHID


    , Agricultural Statistics, Ag. Cooperation & Ag. Marketing, Rural Development etc. the application of ODEL has not yet been found employed in anywhere except, a few recent endeavours under a limited scope in the Asian countries like India (IGNOU. ODEL extends the learning and self-development opportunities to those beyond the access to the conventional system due to professional, familial, economic, geographical etc. restrictions. The scenario is more acute especially in case of the applied science like Agriculture in Agriculture-dependent developing country like Bangladesh where the tool may be potential alternative to address the postgraduate agricultural education, the acute problem of a vast number of target group seeking higher studies. Bangladesh is one of the most thickly populated and agriculture dependent developing countries of the world, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU established in 1962 is only the premier seat of higher agricultural education and research in the country offering Masters and Doctoral degrees through the conventional face to face class room system. Since its establishment out of the total passed out bachelors (BSc Ag. so far till July 2007 only 31.29% Masters and 0.64% PhDs have been produced. Bangladesh has recently been connected to the information super-highway through submarine cables. As a result, along with BTTB private companies already could ramify their ICT-based business orientations in different sectors like banking, transportation, administration etc. The use of computer and the long-ranged, portable electronic device with the telephone and the cell phone networks are widely used now a day. Under the circumstances, for better and progressive existence in the competitive global context it should be concentrated on its special attention to the ICT-based ODEL as a pragmatic focal issue with a view to transforming the ever increasing vast population potential into more productive force, so as to solve the higher agricultural

  16. Engaged Problem Formulation in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby


    problems requires a more substantial engagement with the different stakeholders, especially when their problems are ill structured and situated in complex organizational settings. On this basis, we present an engaged approach to formulating IS problems with, not for, IS practitioners. We have come......“Is this the problem?”: the question that haunts many information systems (IS) researchers when they pursue work relevant to both practice and research. Nevertheless, a deliberate answer to this question requires more than simply asking the involved IS practitioners. Deliberately formulating...... to understand engaged problem formulation as joint researching and as the defining of contemporary and complex problems by researchers and those practitioners who experience and know these problems. We used this approach in investigating IS management in Danish municipalities. In this paper, we present...


    Research on nonlinear problems structural dynamics is briefly summarized. Panel flutter was investigated to make a critical comparison between theory...panel flutter in aerospace vehicles, plausible simplifying assumptions are examined in the light of experimental results. Structural dynamics research

  18. The future of human embryonic stem cell research: addressing ethical conflict with responsible scientific research. (United States)

    Gilbert, David M


    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have almost unlimited regenerative capacity and can potentially generate any body tissue. Hence they hold great promise for the cure of degenerative human diseases. But their derivation and the potential for misuse have raised a number of ethical issues. These ethical issues threaten to paralyze pubic funding for ES cell research, leaving experimentation in the hands of the private sector and precluding the public's ability to monitor practices, research alternatives, and effectively address the very ethical issues that are cause for concern in the first place. With new technology being inevitable, and the potential for abuse high, government must stay involved if the public is to play a role in shaping the direction of research. In this essay, I will define levels of ethical conflict that can be delineated by the anticipated advances in technology. From the urgent need to derive new ES cell lines with existing technology, to the most far-reaching goal of deriving genetically identical tissues from an adult patients cells, technology-specific ethical dilemmas can be defined and addressed. This staged approach provides a solid ethical framework for moving forward with ES cell research. Moreover, by anticipating the moral conflicts to come, one can predict the types of scientific advances that could overcome these conflicts, and appropriately direct federal funding toward these goals to offset potentially less responsible research directives that will inevitably go forward via private or foreign funding.

  19. Engaged Problem Formulation in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby


    “Is this the problem?”: the question that haunts many information systems (IS) researchers when they pursue work relevant to both practice and research. Nevertheless, a deliberate answer to this question requires more than simply asking the involved IS practitioners. Deliberately formulating...... to understand engaged problem formulation as joint researching and as the defining of contemporary and complex problems by researchers and those practitioners who experience and know these problems. We used this approach in investigating IS management in Danish municipalities. In this paper, we present...... the approach to formulating problems in an engaged way. We discuss it in relation to ideas and assumptions that underpin engaged scholarship, and we discuss the implications for IS action research, design science research, and mixed approaches....

  20. Addressing students' difficulties with Faraday's law: A guided problem solving approach (United States)

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro


    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article proposes an interactive teaching sequence introducing the topic of electromagnetic induction. The sequence has been designed based on contributions from physics education research. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between experimental findings (macroscopic level) and theoretical interpretation (microscopic level). An example of the activities that have been designed will also be presented, describing the implementation context and the corresponding findings. Since implementing the sequence, a considerable number of students have a more satisfactory grasp of the electromagnetic induction explicative model. However, difficulties are manifested in aspects that require a multilevel explanation, referring to deep structures where the system description is better defined.

  1. Problem-Oriented Researches in Literary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. A. Razi


    Full Text Available Being familiar with research methodology causes an increase in the effectivity and efficiency in research. One of the most valuable subjects in research methodology is to discuss about principles and skill of "Problem-oriented" researches that seems to be less known in literary studies.Propagation of problem-oriented researches in the field of Persian language and literature needs serious considerations to its principles and regulations, changing the viewpoint of literary researches, reconsideration in the curriculum of higher education centers, and finally revision in methods and procedure of doing a research plan in this field.Emphasing the necessity of the further consideration of problem-oriented in literary studies, in this article the characteristics and features of this type of research is discussed. Also the methods and skills of problem-finding in the field of literature are described and types of literary problem are introduced. Moreover the different steps that must be followed by a researcher in order to solve the literary problems are stated.

  2. Addressing complex healthcare problems in diverse settings: insights from activity theory. (United States)

    Greig, Gail; Entwistle, Vikki A; Beech, Nic


    In the U.K., approaches to policy implementation, service improvement and quality assurance treat policy, management and clinical care as separate, hierarchical domains. They are often based on the central knowledge transfer (KT) theory idea that best practice solutions to complex problems can be identified and 'rolled out' across organisations. When the designated 'best practice' is not implemented, this is interpreted as local--particularly management--failure. Remedial actions include reiterating policy aims and tightening performance management of solution implementation, frequently to no avail. We propose activity theory (AT) as an alternative approach to identifying and understanding the challenges of addressing complex healthcare problems across diverse settings. AT challenges the KT conceptual separations between levels of policy, management and clinical care. It does not regard knowledge and practice as separable, and does not understand them in the commodified way that has typified some versions of KT theory. Instead, AT focuses on "objects of activity" which can be contested. It sees new practice as emerging from contradiction and understands knowledge and practice as fundamentally entwined, not separate. From an AT perspective, there can be no single best practice. The contributions of AT are that it enables us to understand the dynamics of knowledge-practice in activities rather than between levels. It shows how efforts to reduce variation from best practice may paradoxically remove a key source of practice improvement. After explaining the principles of AT we illustrate its explanatory potential through an ethnographic study of primary healthcare teams responding to a policy aim of reducing inappropriate hospital admissions of older people by the 'best practice' of rapid response teams.

  3. Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reagon Gavin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation

  4. Reducing underage and young adult drinking: how to address critical drinking problems during this developmental period. (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Zucker, Robert A


    Forty years ago, when the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded, alcoholism was considered an adult disease driven principally by physiological determinants. As NIAAA expanded its research portfolio, new data and insights were obtained that led to an increased focus on underage and young adult drinking. Fostered by interdisciplinary research, etiologic models were developed that recognized the multiplicity of relevant genetic and environmental influences. This shift in conceptualizing alcohol use disorders also was based on findings from large-scale, national studies indicating that late adolescence and early young adulthood were peak periods for the development of alcohol dependence and that early initiation of alcohol use (i.e., before age 15) was associated with a fourfold increase in the probability of subsequently developing alcohol dependence. In recent years, developmental studies and models of the initiation, escalation, and adverse consequences of underage and early young adult drinking have helped us to understand how alcohol use may influence, and be influenced by, developmental transitions or turning points. Major risk and protective factors are being identified and integrated into screening, prevention, and treatment programs to optimize interventions designed to reduce drinking problems among adolescents and young adults. In addition, regulatory policies, such as the minimum drinking age and zero-tolerance laws, are being implemented and evaluated for their impact on public health.

  5. Pondering over Several Problems in Disaster Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Xiuzheng


    Some related problems in disaster research are presented. The paper concludes that catastrophology is an extremely important natural-social science, that human calamities are even more destructive than natural disasters and that research on disasters such as highway traffic accidents, nuclear wars, population expansion, environment pollution and the like are of important practical meaning and far-reaching historic significance.

  6. BERA Presidential Address 2013: Educational Research--What's to Be Done? (United States)

    Menter, Ian


    In his inaugural Presidential Address, given to the BERA Conference 2013 at the University of Sussex, Ian Menter addresses a number of issues concerning educational policy and the contributions that educational research might make to policy development. As BERA approaches its fortieth anniversary, he also sets out some of the responsibilities that…

  7. 76 FR 45268 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to... approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) to addressing drug shortages. This public... Benner, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire...

  8. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management (United States)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.


    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  9. Conference Addresses Problems of Reproduction and Women’s Health Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    REPRODUCTION and health are important problems concerning women’s progress and development. Since the 1960s the subjects have attracted the attention of the world. Awareness of these problems has gradually increased to the extent that some concepts have generally been agreed upon. They are:

  10. 76 FR 60505 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to... notice, FDA announced a public workshop regarding the approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research to addressing drug shortages. FDA is opening a comment period in light of public interest in...

  11. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem? (United States)

    East, Martin


    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  12. Actual problems of research in food science. (United States)

    Schmandke, H


    Starting from the necessary trend towards development in the field of food production, the author outlines, on the basis of current knowledge, the problems to be solved in food science. A general research conception is deduced for the essential nutrient "protein" (as an example) which is illustrated by results from studies on protein fibre and protein gel formation.

  13. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world. (United States)

    Tucker, Lindsay


    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality.

  14. On the Problems and Strategies Addressed to the Development of Local Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Local colleges are the main bodies of Chinese higher education. Their proper and sound development will do good to the development of local economy and society. Compared with famous and key universities, their development is in inferior state and there are lots of problems. This article analyses the problems during their development process, then it puts forward relevant strategies so as to provide reference for the development of local colleges.

  15. DNA as patentable subject matter and a narrow framework for addressing the perceived problems caused by gene patents. (United States)

    Schilling, Stephen H


    Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents.

  16. Water Security Problem in North China: Research and Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun; LIU Meng-Yu; JIA Shao-Feng


    This paper addresses the emergence of water security problems in North China with the aim of highlighting key water resources management and water security issues for the long-term development of North China. Three key problems related to water resources and security issues in North China in the 21st century are addressed, namely 1) the water cycle under environmental change, 2) agricultural water saving, and 3) water security. Development of international research related to these issues is also reviewed. The research plan developed recently by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) is discussed and suggestions on research and development of water resources science in North China are presented.Thanks to focus on experimental catchments and dedicated research stations, a detailed knowledge of the water cycle on North China farmland has been compiled. A range of techniques that include isotope tracers has been used to acquire hydrologic data. Much research has been devoted to developing distributed hydrological models at different scales. In the well irrigation district, five different water saving irrigation regimes have been investigated, and these regimes have had widespread application, and reduced water use 60-150 mm while they increased water use efficiency (WUE) by 20%-30%.Furthermore, preventing water pollution is the most essential step to ensure North China's water security.

  17. Advanced Research Workshop on Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Serre, Denis; Raviart, Pierre-Arnaud


    The field of nonlinear hyperbolic problems has been expanding very fast over the past few years, and has applications - actual and potential - in aerodynamics, multifluid flows, combustion, detonics amongst other. The difficulties that arise in application are of theoretical as well as numerical nature. In fact, the papers in this volume of proceedings deal to a greater extent with theoretical problems emerging in the resolution of nonlinear hyperbolic systems than with numerical methods. The volume provides an excellent up-to-date review of the current research trends in this area.

  18. The Shortage of Roman Catholic Priests in the United States Navy Chaplain Corps: Addressing the Problem (United States)


    Doubleday Press, 1995 Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate , Statistics for Roman Catholic Priests in the United States, http...2002), iii. 15 Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate ,, accessed 30 DEC 2008

  19. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia


    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  20. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications (United States)

    Krause, Kerri-Lee


    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  1. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie


    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  2. Addressing Bullying Problems in Irish Schools and in Cyberspace: A Challenge for School Management (United States)

    Corcoran, Lucie; Mc Guckin, Conor


    Background: School management, in Ireland and also internationally, are currently faced with the problem of peer aggression among students both in a traditional school context and in a cyber context. Although Irish school principals are obliged to implement policy and procedures to counter bullying among students, there is a need for guidance that…

  3. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiek, Arnim, E-mail:; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)


    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  4. Embryonic stem cell research: an ethical problem


    Рамазанова, А.


    Embryonic stem cells offer hope for new therapies, but their use and research entail an ethical problem, which does not have a certain solution. Therefore, we can ask: What exactly are the ethical arguments? Why are they so tricky to resolve?Embryonic stem cell research poses a moral dilemma. It forces us to choose between two moral principles: The duty to prevent or alleviate suffering The duty to respect the value of human life To obtain embryonic stem cells, the early embryo has to be dest...

  5. How to Investigate Polish Clusters’ Attractiveness for Inward FDI? Addressing Ambiguity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Marta


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess whether, and in what fashion, managers of Polish cluster organizations perceive the attractiveness of foreign direct investment in Polish clusters This research is exploratory and qualitative in nature. The complex nature of Polish clusters, which can benefit from and be competitively challenged by, FDI are identified and a conceptual framework for assessing that nature is proposed; specifically, research using the grounded theory method (GTM.

  6. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet) (United States)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.


    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  7. Overcoming obstacles to implementation: addressing political,institutional and behavioral problems in earthquake hazard mitigationpolicies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This project is aimed at bridging the three planes, from basic research, through enabling processes, toengineered systems. At the basic research plane, we have been working to improve our collective understanding aboutobstacles to implementing mitigation practices, owner decision processes (in connection with other MCEER projects), andpublic policy processes. At the level of enabling processes, we have been seeking to develop an understanding of howobstacles to greater mitigation can be overcome by improved policy design and processes. At the engineered systems plane,our work is intended to result in practical guidelines for devising policies and programs with appropriate motivation andincentives for implementing policies and programs once adopted. This phase of the research has been aimed, first, at athorough, multidisciplinary review of the literature concerning obstacles to implementation. Second, the research has focusedon advancing the state of the art by developing means for integrating the insights offered by diverse perspectives on theimplementation process from the several social, behavioral, and decision sciences. The research establishes a basis for testingour understanding of these processes in the case of hospital retrofit decisions.

  8. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference 1987. Program [and] Keynote Address by Morris Tanenbaum. (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Panelists, discussants, and speakers at the 20 sessions of this three-day conference on telecommunications policy research are listed under the appropriate sessions in this conference program, as well luncheon and dinner speakers. Topics addressed by the various sessions include: federal regulatory policies and technical change in…

  9. Addressing the antibiotic resistance problem with probiotics: Reducing the risk of its double-edged sword effect


    Ivan Christian VJ Imperial; Joyce Altamarino Ibana


    Antibiotic resistance is a global public health problem that requires our attention. Indiscriminate antibiotic use is a major contributor in the introduction of selective pressures in our natural environments that have significantly contributed in the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains. The use of probiotics in lieu of antibiotic therapy to address certain health conditions in both animals and humans may alleviate these antibiotic-mediated selective pressures. Probio...

  10. Addressing the Antibiotic Resistance Problem with Probiotics: Reducing the Risk of Its Double-Edged Sword Effect


    Imperial, Ivan C. V. J.; Ibana, Joyce A.


    Antibiotic resistance is a global public health problem that requires our attention. Indiscriminate antibiotic use is a major contributor in the introduction of selective pressures in our natural environments that have significantly contributed in the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains. The use of probiotics in lieu of antibiotic therapy to address certain health conditions in both animals and humans may alleviate these antibiotic-mediated selective pressures. Probiotic...

  11. Communication Challenges Learners Face Online: Why Addressing CMC and Language Proficiency Will Not Solve Learners' Problems (United States)

    Jung-Ivannikova, Liubov


    Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been argued to cause (mis)communication issues. Research and practice suggest a range of tactics and strategies for educators focused on how to encourage and foster communication in a virtual learning environment (VLE) (eg, Salmon). However, while frameworks such as Salmon's support the effective…

  12. ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh



    A research project was carried out during 2007-08 at the Open University, UK to explore the suitable strategic policy & practices, and partnership possibilities for open, distance and e-learning (ODEL) programme for the postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. The methodology followed was based on the searches on Internet, Journal articles, books, periodicals, brochures, proceedings, reports, attending lectures workshops, seminars, symposia, conferences, contacts, and visits to ot...

  13. Using State Merging and State Pruning to Address the Path Explosion Problem Faced by Symbolic Execution (United States)


    research advisor, Dr. Gilbert Peterson, for agreeing to take on this work so late in the game and providing the necessary support and guidance. Patrick...partitioning the state, the algorithm starts the worker processes using the Java Pathfinder Framework (JPF) [29], which includes a symbolic execution...DOI: 10.1145/2090147.2094081 [29] W. Visser, C. S. Pǎsǎreanu, and S. Khurshid, “Test input generation with Java PathFinder ,” in Proceedings of the

  14. Longitudinal research strategies: advantages, problems, and prospects. (United States)

    Farrington, D P


    The single-cohort, long-term longitudinal survey has many advantages in comparison with a cross-sectional survey in advancing knowledge about offending and other types of psychopathology, notably in providing information about onset and desistance, about continuity and prediction, and about within-individual change. However, the longitudinal survey also has significant problems, notably in confounding aging and period effects, delayed results, achieving continuity in funding and research direction, and cumulative attrition. This paper suggests the use of a multiple-cohort sequential strategy (the "accelerated longitudinal design") as a way of achieving the benefits of the longitudinal method while minimizing the problems in advancing knowledge about the natural history, causes, prevention, and treatment of psychopathological disorders.

  15. Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing? (United States)

    Linos, Natalia


    Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women.

  16. Addressing the too big to fail problem with baryon physics and sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lovell, Mark R; Bose, Sownak; Boyarsky, Alexey; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S; Ruchayskiy, Oleg


    N-body dark matter simulations of structure formation in the $\\Lambda$CDM model predict a population of subhalos within Galactic halos that have higher central densities than inferred for satellites of the Milky Way, a tension known as the `too big to fail' problem. Proposed solutions include baryonic effects, a smaller mass for the Milky Way halo, and warm dark matter. We test these three possibilities using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation to generate luminosity functions for Milky Way halo-analogue satellite populations, the results of which are then coupled to the Jiang & van den Bosch model of subhalo stripping to predict the subhalo $V_\\mathrm{max}$ functions for the 10 brightest satellites. We find that selecting the brightest satellites (as opposed to the most massive) and modelling the expulsion of gas by supernovae at early times increases the likelihood of generating the observed Milky Way satellite $V_\\mathrm{max}$ function. The preferred halo mass is $6\\times10^{11}M_{\\odot}$, which ...

  17. Activity theory as a tool to address the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary school chemical education (United States)

    van Aalsvoort, Joke

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is that, while logical positivism creates a divide between science and society, activity theory offers a model of society in which science and society are related. With the use of this model, a new course for grade nine has been constructed. This results in a confirmation of the hypothesis, at least at a theoretical level. A comparison with the Salters' approach is made in order to demonstrate the relative merits of a mediated way of dealing with the problem of the lack of relevance of chemistry in chemical education.

  18. Addressing the problem of rural community engagement in healthcare service design. (United States)

    Nimegeer, Amy; Farmer, Jane; West, Christina; Currie, Margaret


    Policy suggests that health service providers should plan services with communities. In remote and rural areas this is sometimes ineffective, resulting in resistance to change. An action research project investigated best practise in rural community engagement. As a result a planning 'game' was developed that uses a number of types and levels of cards and allows community members, as part of a process of engagement, to express their priorities and designs in a form that is directly usable by health service managers. The game is a unique community engagement resource in that it combines the priorities of the community (including their experiences of using services) with existing service data. It allows community members and service managers to apply their priorities for services to a healthcare budget to identify appropriate and affordable ways of providing safe local services.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Rizwan


    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  20. Researcher-Researched Difference: Adapting an Autoethnographic Approach for Addressing the Racial Matching Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalyn Pompper


    Full Text Available This introspective essay was inspired by a desire to reflect on the use of qualitative research methods--where I am a Caucasian woman examining work experiences of women of color. I launched a journey backward to discover respondents' motivation for participating in my focus groups over the years, to closely examine their comfort level with a cross-ethnic dyad. The exercise enabled me to reflect on how I had negotiated power issues inherent in the research process. It contributes to the ongoing dialogue about autoethnography--where understanding of self in socio-cultural context is both the subject and object of the research enterprise. Overall, I interrogate epistemological and methodological practicalities of researching difference.

  1. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women's health needs: Toward sustainability. (United States)

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A; Dong, XinQi


    Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study-a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population.

  2. Trends and problems in marital and family therapy research: Possible use of action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cvetek


    Full Text Available Although research in marital and family therapy (MFT is becoming increasingly important, it continues to encounter several major problems. Studies have shown that research has very little influence on the practice of the majority of MFT practitioners. Practitioners see research as unrelated to their concerns. The practice of the majority of MFT practitioners is very individualized, as are the clinical problems and circumstances. Some have therefore started to emphasize the transferability of results instead of generalizability, and studying the practitioner's own practice instead of general concepts. Action research in the field of psychotherapy, as well as in the field of MFT, has been mainly overlooked as a potential method for solving these problems in MFT research. The paper addresses one of many possible ways to use the repeating cycles of the four basic steps in action research (observing and gathering information, reflecting, planning, and acting. The use of these four steps in action research enables therapists to study and improve their own practice in a more systematic, structured, and valid manner. This kind of research connects research and therapy. It is very individualized and oriented towards actions that create therapeutic changes.

  3. Beyond responsible conduct in research: new pedagogies to address macroethics of nanobiotechnologies. (United States)

    Vallero, Daniel Alan


    A team of engineers, scientists, ethicists, and educational specialists are enhancing Duke University's Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) program to ensure that graduate-level researchers in emerging fields are adequately prepared when confronted with macroethical issues associated with applications of new and emerging medical technologies. The focus is on nanoscale laboratory research conducted in the Center for Biologically Inspired Materials and Material Systems and the Center for Biological Tissue Engineering. Most present RCR programs address methodological ethics of the individual researcher or practitioner (i.e., microethical) issues, analogous to Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The resultant model from this project is the basis for departmental, center, and other more targeted ethical challenges stemming from research in emerging technologies, designed to provide comprehensive RCR training. The research successfully identified new ways of teaching students about macroethical issues (i.e., those that affect society). Three main dimensions of ethics in nanotechnology-related research are being stressed, namely, awareness, ethical decision making, and behavior. Workshops appear to enhance awareness of the ethical issues associated with emerging technologies. To date, attempts to affect decision making have been difficult, although in this study workshops were an effective means of identifying strategies to address ethical issues. A principal lesson learned has been the importance of providing a context for macroethical issues. For example, the workshop where an expert presented the technical aspects of environmental consequences of carbon nanotubes led to statistically significant differences between pre- and postworkshop understanding of societal risks. Conversely, in a workshop without the technical introduction, little difference was observed. This indicates that the stage of students' ethical understanding is an important determinant of

  4. Keynote address: Closing the research-to-practice gap in emergency medicine. (United States)

    Clancy, Carolyn M


    Emergency medicine in the United States is facing tremendous challenges due to recent public health emergencies, continuing threats of bioterrorism, and an increasing and unprecedented demand for emergency department services. These challenges include overcrowding; long waiting times; "boarding" of patients; ambulance diversion; a need for better, more reliable tools for triaging patients; and medical errors and other patient safety concerns. These challenges and concerns were brought to the forefront several years ago by the Institute of Medicine in several landmark reports that call for closing the research-to-practice gap in emergency medicine. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality is funding a number of projects that address many of the concerns raised in the reports, including the use of an advanced access appointment scheduling system to improve access to care; the use of an electronic medical record system to reduce waiting times and errors and improve patient and provider satisfaction; and the refinement of the Emergency Severity Index, a five-level triage scale to get patients to the right resources at the right time. The agency's Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is gathering data that will allow researchers to examine a broad range of issues affecting the use, quality, and cost of emergency services. Although progress has been made over the past few years in closing the research-to-practice gap in emergency medicine, many challenges remain. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has supported and will continue to support a broad portfolio of research to address the many challenges confronting emergency medicine, including ways to improve emergency care through the application of research findings.

  5. School effectiveness research: a review of criticisms and some proposals to address them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Sandoval-Hernandez


    Full Text Available Based on Lakato’s notion of research programmes, the paper analyses the structure of the School Effectiveness Research (SER programme and reviews the main criticisms that have arisen, stressing those regarding its objectivity and theoretical limitations. Then, some proposals are made to address these criticisms, namely: to adopt a critical realist approach to the study of SE and an Abductive Theory of Scientific Method that lead to the development of sound theory in the field. Based on this analysis the paper concludes that, in terms of Lakatos, a movement towards a new research programme is needed in order to ensure that the main objectives originally set for SER can be eventually reached.

  6. A strategic stakeholder approach for addressing further analysis requests in whole genome sequencing research. (United States)

    Thornock, Bradley Steven O


    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can be a cost-effective and efficient means of diagnosis for some children, but it also raises a number of ethical concerns. One such concern is how researchers derive and communicate results from WGS, including future requests for further analysis of stored sequences. The purpose of this paper is to think about what is at stake, and for whom, in any solution that is developed to deal with such requests. To accomplish this task, this paper will utilize stakeholder theory, a common method used in business ethics. Several scenarios that connect stakeholder concerns and WGS will also posited and analyzed. This paper concludes by developing criteria composed of a series of questions that researchers can answer in order to more effectively address requests for further analysis of stored sequences.

  7. Academic Research Library as Broker in Addressing Interoperability Challenges for the Geosciences (United States)

    Smith, P., II


    Data capture is an important process in the research lifecycle. Complete descriptive and representative information of the data or database is necessary during data collection whether in the field or in the research lab. The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Public Access Plan (2015) mandates the need for federally funded projects to make their research data more openly available. Developing, implementing, and integrating metadata workflows into to the research process of the data lifecycle facilitates improved data access while also addressing interoperability challenges for the geosciences such as data description and representation. Lack of metadata or data curation can contribute to (1) semantic, (2) ontology, and (3) data integration issues within and across disciplinary domains and projects. Some researchers of EarthCube funded projects have identified these issues as gaps. These gaps can contribute to interoperability data access, discovery, and integration issues between domain-specific and general data repositories. Academic Research Libraries have expertise in providing long-term discovery and access through the use of metadata standards and provision of access to research data, datasets, and publications via institutional repositories. Metadata crosswalks, open archival information systems (OAIS), trusted-repositories, data seal of approval, persistent URL, linking data, objects, resources, and publications in institutional repositories and digital content management systems are common components in the library discipline. These components contribute to a library perspective on data access and discovery that can benefit the geosciences. The USGS Community for Data Integration (CDI) has developed the Science Support Framework (SSF) for data management and integration within its community of practice for contribution to improved understanding of the Earth's physical and biological systems. The USGS CDI SSF can be used as a reference model to map to Earth

  8. NASA Space Weather Research Center: Addressing the Unique Space Weather Needs of NASA Robotic Missions (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Muglach, K.; Evans, R. M.; Wiegand, C.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.


    The Space Weather Research Center (SWRC) has been providing space weather monitoring and forecasting services to NASA's robotic missions since its establishment in 2010. Embedded within the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) (see Maddox et al. in Session IN026) and located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, SWRC has easy access to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities and proximity to space science and research expertise. By bridging space weather users and the research community, SWRC has been a catalyst for the efficient transition from research to operations and operations to research. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of SWRC's space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases (see Wiegand et al. in the same session SM004), and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  9. Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments (United States)

    Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.


    Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

  10. Addressing safety issues through a joint industry programme; Traiter des problemes de securite a travers un programme industriel commun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, G.; Williams, T.P. [BG Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, A.M. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)


    In an increasingly fragmented gas market, the focus for national gas safety may not rest with one major utility or gas supplier but may be spread across many companies. There will also be many new organisations in a liberalized gas industry with varying views on the needs and benefits of safety related technology development but all agree there is a need to ensure that the good safety record of gas as a domestic fuel is maintained. The number of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents is not decreasing significantly despite an increased awareness of the problem. As a consequence, a two-year joint industry programme addressing issues related to carbon monoxide has been established, co-ordinated by BG Technology and supported by gas organisations, government agencies, manufacturers and suppliers across Europe and the World. The 2-year 2 pound million programme has been constructed as twelve separate projects addressing issues such as the reporting and analysis of domestic incidents, improved service or installation practice, CO alarm reliability and information dissemination. The paper gives results and achievements of the programme, through new techniques, standards, procedures or equipment and demonstrates how the gas industry can work together to meet common safety objectives. (authors)

  11. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges. (United States)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders


    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see, which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  12. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach. (United States)

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate


    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  13. How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches (United States)

    Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass


    This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used

  14. What is the 'problem' that outreach work seeks to address and how might it be tackled? Seeking theory in a primary health prevention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Mhairi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive approaches to health are disproportionately accessed by the more affluent and recent health improvement policy advocates the use of targeted preventive primary care to reduce risk factors in poorer individuals and communities. Outreach has become part of the health service response. Outreach has a long history of engaging those who do not otherwise access services. It has, however, been described as eclectic in its purpose, clientele and mode of practice; its effectiveness is unproven. Using a primary prevention programme in the UK as a case, this paper addresses two research questions: what are the perceived problems of non-engagement that outreach aims to address; and, what specific mechanisms of outreach are hypothesised to tackle these. Methods Drawing on a wider programme evaluation, the study undertook qualitative interviews with strategically selected health-care professionals. The analysis was thematically guided by the concept of 'candidacy' which theorises the dynamic process through which services and individuals negotiate appropriate service use. Results The study identified seven types of engagement 'problem' and corresponding solutions. These 'problems' lie on a continuum of complexity in terms of the challenges they present to primary care. Reasons for non-engagement are congruent with the concept of 'candidacy' but point to ways in which it can be expanded. Conclusions The paper draws conclusions about the role of outreach in contributing to the implementation of inequalities focused primary prevention and identifies further research needed in the theoretical development of both outreach as an approach and candidacy as a conceptual framework.

  15. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole


    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  16. Researching wicked problems in a construction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter Holm

    to empirical research. I will argue that uncertainty is an important aspect of doing empirical research because the empirical research is a part of a situated learning process and that uncertain situations are a central part of conducting empirical research. I will use an example from my study of the early...

  17. The Factors Affecting Definition of Research Problems in Educational Technology Researches (United States)

    Bahçekapili, Ekrem; Bahçekapili, Tugba; Fis Erümit, Semra; Göktas, Yüksel; Sözbilir, Mustafa


    Research problems in a scientific research are formed after a certain process. This process starts with defining a research topic and transforms into a specific research problem or hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the way educational technology researchers identify their research problems. To this end, sources that educational…

  18. Research mathematicians’ practices in selecting mathematical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum


    concerning personal interest, continuity with previous work, the danger of getting stuck, and how fellow mathematicians will respond to the findings are considered when mathematicians think about whether to approach a specific problem. These results add to previous investigations of mathematicians’ practice......Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how...... mathematicians select and pose problems and discuss to what extent our results can be used to inform, criticize, and develop educational practice at various levels. Selecting and posing problems is far from simple. In fact, it is considered hard, complex, and of crucial importance. A number of criteria...

  19. Internet Marketing Research: Opportunities and Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furrer, O.F.G.; Sudharshan, D.


    The Internet is promised a brilliant future among the favorite tools of marketing researchers. Develops a typology of Internet marketing surveys showing the existence of eight different designs that can be used by marketers. However, researchers who plan to develop research using the Internet need t

  20. "Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Willmott


    Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here. Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...

  1. Medical mycology and fungal immunology: new research perspectives addressing a major world health challenge (United States)

    Gow, Neil A. R.; Netea, Mihai G.


    Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV. To address these global threats to human health, more research is urgently needed to understand the immunopathology of fungal disease and human disease susceptibility in order to augment the advances being made in fungal diagnostics and drug development. Here, we highlight some recent advances in basic research in medical mycology and fungal immunology that are beginning to inform clinical decisions and options for personalized medicine, vaccine development and adjunct immunotherapies. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience’. PMID:28080988

  2. Addressing the antibiotic resistance problem with probiotics: Reducing the risk of its double-edged sword effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Christian VJ Imperial


    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is a global public health problem that requires our attention. Indiscriminate antibiotic use is a major contributor in the introduction of selective pressures in our natural environments that have significantly contributed in the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains. The use of probiotics in lieu of antibiotic therapy to address certain health conditions in both animals and humans may alleviate these antibiotic-mediated selective pressures. Probiotic use is defined as the actual application of live beneficial microbes to obtain a desired outcome by preventing diseased state or improving general health. Multiple studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of probiotic use in the health of both livestock and humans. As such, probiotics consumption is gaining popularity worldwide. However, concerns have been raised in the use of some probiotics strains that carry antibiotic resistance genes themselves, as they have the potential to pass the antibiotic resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria through horizontal gene transfer. Therefore, with the current public health concern on antibiotic resistance globally, in this review, we underscore the need to screen probiotic strains that are used in both livestock and human applications to assure their safety and mitigate their potential in significantly contributing to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in our natural environments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Yanina A. Yelinskaya


    Full Text Available The article is aimed at considering the problems of cultural studies of neoshamanism and at defining the specificity of this phenomenon. The problem of the content and scope of the concept of «neoshamanism» is focused on; the basic types of neoshamanism are defined. The issues of religious nature of neoshamanism, shamanic ecstasy and the shamanic universe representation are analyzed in the article. The issues of neoshamanism functioning within the framework of contemporary culture and interaction with external cultural institutions are raised.

  4. Chinese Family Problems: Research and Trends. (United States)

    Zhangling, Wei


    Discusses family life in China, which has undergone several dramatic changes including raising of the legal marriage age, less restrictions on divorce, and official promotion of family planning. Because these policies and practices conflict with Chinese traditions, inevitable problems have arisen. (JAC)

  5. Problem Complexity Research from Energy Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Pan; Jie, Qi


    Computational complexity is a particularly important objective. The idea of Landauer principle was extended through mapping three classic problems (sorting,ordered searching and max of N unordered numbers) into Maxwell demon thought experiment in this paper. The problems'complexity is defined on the entropy basis and the minimum energy required to solve them are rigorous deduced from the perspective of energy (entropy) and the second law of thermodynamics. Then the theoretical energy consumed by real program and basic operators of classical computer are both analyzed, the time complexity lower bounds of three problems'all possible algorithms are derived in this way. The lower bound is also deduced for the two n*n matrix multiplication problem. In the end, the reason why reversible computation is impossible and the possibility of super-linear energy consumption capacity which may be the power behind quantum computation are discussed, a conjecture is proposed which may prove NP!=P. The study will bring fresh an...

  6. Operational Research Techniques Used for Addressing Biodiversity Objectives into Forest Management: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ezquerro


    Full Text Available The integration of biodiversity into forest management has traditionally been a challenge for many researchers and practitioners. In this paper, we have provided a survey of forest management papers that use different Operations Research (OR methods in order to integrate biodiversity objectives into their planning models. One hundred and seventy-nine references appearing in the ISI Web of Science database in the last 30 years have been categorized and evaluated according to different attributes like model components, forest management elements, or biodiversity issues. The results show that many OR methods have been applied to deal with this challenging objective. Thus, up to 18 OR techniques, divided into four large groups, which have been employed in four or more articles, have been identified. However, it has been observed how the evolution of these papers in time apparently tended to increase only until 2008. Finally, two clear trends in this set of papers should be highlighted: the incorporation of spatial analysis tools into these operational research models and, second, the setting up of hybrid models, which combine different techniques to solve this type of problem.

  7. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.


    covers a broad range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

  8. Technology, relationships, and problems: a research synthesis. (United States)

    Hertlein, Katherine M; Webster, Megan


    The advances in technology alter the ways we interact with each other. For some, the use of technology can facilitate a relationship; for others, technology can complicate aspects of a relationship. The purpose of this research synthesis is to summarize current research exploring the ways in which technology impacts relationships negatively. Eight studies were reviewed across the following areas: preoperational definitions, sample, methodology, control of extraneous variables, causal influence, generalizability, validity of statistical findings, and conclusions. Implications for authors, researchers, and therapists working with couples and families struggling with technology issues are discussed.

  9. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle


    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  10. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research (United States)

    Block, David


    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  11. Academic Freedom: Problems in Conceptualization and Research (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.


    Academic freedom is of central importance to higher education and it affects all aspects of work at universities. It symbolizes academics' acceptance of the need for openness and flexibility (Balyer, 2011) and it protects the conditions leading to the creation of good teaching and learning, sound research, and scholarship (Atkinson, 2004).…

  12. Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossey Peter


    Full Text Available The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

  13. Private property rights and selective private forest conservation: could a Nordic hybrid policy address a United States problem? (United States)

    Mortimer, Michael J


    Political and legal conflicts between the need for targeted private forest conservation and the continued assurance of private property rights in the U.S. presents a seemingly intractable resource management problem. Scandinavian use of habitat protection areas on private forests offers an additional tool that may be suitable for solving the historical and on-going tension found within U.S. efforts to reconcile desires to maintain lands in a forested condition while also respecting private property rights. This article presents a comparative cross-sectional policy analysis of Sweden, Finland, and the U.S., supported with a supplemental case example from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Similarities in all three countries among forest ownership patterns, use of public subsidies, and changing attitudes towards conservation are generally encouraging. Additionally, Virginia's current consideration and development of state-wide forest policies focused on forestland and open space conservation suggests both a need and an opportunity to systematically assess the applicability of the Nordic forest reserve approach to local private forest conservation. Future research at a high-resolution, and specifically at the state level, should focus on the social and political factors that would ultimately determine the viability of a forest reserve program.

  14. Sexual problems in gay men: an overview of empirical research. (United States)

    Sandfort, T G; de Keizer, M


    This article summarizes the findings and theoretical perspectives of 19 empirical studies of sexual problems in gay men. In order to understand these problems better, various differences between male homosexual and heterosexual functioning are discussed first. The studies included differ widely in terms of the issues explored, the populations studied, and the way data have been collected. In a few studies, researchers generally have looked at the prevalence and experience of sexual problems. In other studies, researchers have focused on the etiology and treatment of specific problems, such as sexual desire disorders, sexual aversion, excitement and arousal problems, orgasm disorders, sexual pain disorders and sexual compulsivity. Overall it is surprising how little is known about these problems in gay men. This is also true, however, for same-sex sexuality in general. Suggestions are made for studies that will enable us to obtain a better understanding of sexual problems in gay men.

  15. A Framework for Addressing Skeptics' Claims Using Evidence-Based Argumentation: Lessons Learned from Educational Research (United States)

    Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Edwards, A.; Henderson, A.


    In science education, climate change is an issue that is especially useful for teaching concepts spanning several fields of science, as well the nature and practices of science. In response, we are developing a NASA-funded curriculum, titled Climate Science Investigations (CSI): South Florida, that teaches high school and first-year undergraduate level students how to analyze and use scientific data answer questions about climate change. To create an effective curriculum, we integrated lessons learned from our educational research conducted within our elementary science methods courses (Lambert, Lindgren, & Bleicher, 2012). For the past few years, we have been integrating climate science in our courses as a way to teach standards across several science disciplines and assessing our preservice teachers' gains in knowledge over the semesters. More recently, given the media attention and reports on the public's shift in opinion toward being more skeptical (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011), we have assessed our students' perceptions about climate change and implemented strategies to help students use evidence-based scientific argumentation to address common claims of climate skeptics. In our elementary science methods courses, we framed climate change as a crosscutting theme, as well as a core idea, in the Next Generation Science Standards. We proposed that the issue and science of climate change would help preservice teachers not only become more interested in the topic, but also be more prepared to teach core science concepts spanning several disciplines (physical, life, and earth sciences). We also thought that highlighting the "practice of scientific inquiry" by teaching students to develop evidence-based arguments would help the preservice teachers become more analytical and able to differentiate scientific evidence from opinions, which could ultimately influence their perceptions on climate change. Lessons learned from our preservice

  16. The Problem of Gender Categorisation: Addressing Dilemmas Past and Present in Gender and Education Research (United States)

    Francis, Becky; Paechter, Carrie


    Developments in the field of gender theory as applied to education since the 1970s are briefly reviewed in order to highlight key challenges and debates around gender categorisation and identification in gender and education. We argue that conundrums of categorisation have haunted, and continue to haunt, the field of gender theory, and empirical…

  17. Strengthening national capacities for researching on Social Determinants of Health (SDH) towards informing and addressing health inequities in Tanzania


    Mtenga, Sally; Masanja, Irene M; Mamdani, Masuma


    Background Tanzania’s socio-economic development is challenged by sharp inequities between and within urban and rural areas, and among different socio-economic groups. This paper discusses the importance of strengthening SDH research, knowledge, relevant capacities and responsive systems towards addressing health inequities in Tanzania. Methods Based on a conceptual framework for building SDH research capacity, a mapping of existing research systems was undertaken between February and June 20...

  18. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study (United States)

    Turner, Kylan


    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  19. Language Teachers' Responses to Educational Research: Addressing the "Crisis" of Representation (United States)

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.


    While teachers are being called upon to turn to educational research and find evidence of "what works," critics argue that research often suffers from a crisis of representation. They contend that research reports fail to sufficiently capture the lived experiences of research participants. In this article, I present insights gleaned from…

  20. Problems of Translation in Cross-Cultural Research (United States)

    Sechrest, Lee; And Others


    Various types of translation problems in cross-cultural research are translation of questions or other verbal stimuli, vocabulary equivalence, equivalence in idiom, grammar, syntax, and back-translation. (Author/SB)

  1. Cognitive variables in science problem solving: a review of research


    Solaz Portolés, Joan Josep; Vicente SANJOSÉ LÓPEZ


    This paper provides an overview of research into cognitive variables that are involved in problem solving and how these variables affect the performance of problem solvers. The variables discussed are grouped together in: prior knowledge, formal reasoning ability and neo-Piagetian variables, long-term memory and working memory, knowledge base, and metacognitive variables.

  2. Esperanto and International Language Problems: A Research Bibliography. (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey R.

    This bibliography is intended both for the researcher and for the occasional student of international language problems, particularly as these relate to the international language Esperanto. The book is divided into two main sections: Part One deals with problems arising from communication across national boundaries and the search for a solution…

  3. A Methodological Problem Associated with Researching Women Entrepreneurs


    Beatrice E. Avolio


    This article highlights one of the most significant methodological problems of researching women entrepreneurs and understanding the female entrepreneurial experience, which is related to the definition of what is a women entrepreneur. The article outlines the state of research on women entrepreneurs, presents the diverse definitions used in research, conceptualizes the different aspects related to the definition of a woman entrepreneur, and proposes future directions for developing research ...

  4. Definition of Research Needs to Address Airport Pavement Distress in Cold Regions (United States)


    the crack. Cedergren and of airport pavements have been addressed in an Godfrey (i974) note that 70’ of surface runoff FAA Advisory Circular (U.S...improvements in as- neering Laboratory. phalt concrete mix performance that may be Cedergren , H.R. and Godfrey, K.A. (1974) Wa- realized. ter: Key

  5. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation? (United States)

    Brugge, Doug


    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed.

  6. From experience to definition: addressing the question 'what is qualitative research?'. (United States)

    Smythe, Liz; Giddings, Lynne S


    Most health professionals today have heard of 'qualitative research' but many remain confused as to what it is and how to go about doing it. In this paper, two experienced qualitative researchers become engaged in conversation exploring the question 'what is qualitative research?' Lynne Giddings and Liz Smythe are Associate Professors in the Faculty of Health & Environmental Sciences at the Auckland University of Technology. They engage a reader in exploring issues such as: What might draw you to qualitative research? How does qualitative research make a difference to practice? How can reading a qualitative research article inform practice? From a qualitative perspective, what is 'truth'? How many participants? What happens to the data? What about the bias of the researcher? Can qualitative findings be trusted? Stories and exemplars are used to highlight the processes and issues involved in undertaking a qualitative research study.

  7. Beyond the "National Container": Addressing Methodological Nationalism in Higher Education Research (United States)

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Kezar, Adrianna J.


    This essay argues that there is a need for higher education researchers to become aware of methodological nationalism (MN) and take steps to reframe their scholarship in new ways. It illuminates two characteristics of MN prevalent in higher education research and suggests that although a few researchers have attempted to move beyond MN in the…

  8. Understanding Acquisition Cycle Time: Focusing the Research Problem (United States)


    including requisite skills, tools, and information) exercised could many problems be averted? Alternatively, are extreme schedule and cost growth more...internal management would be less culpable or able to address program schedule and cost impacts. One useful exercise might be to assess extreme outcomes...Leon-Girard R., and Burton E. McKenzie . Lessons Learned in USAF Weapon System Acquisition Management: A Case Study Approach. MS thesis, School of

  9. The Research State and Problems Needing Study of Green Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    According with the request of sustainable development for asset maintenance, in this paper the research state of China and other countries are indexed, then the contents of green maintenance were described and a system model of green maintenance was established. This paper discussed in brief the problems needing research, key techniques and adoptable methods of green maintenance.``

  10. Researching Historical Problems. An Introduction to Basic Resources. (United States)

    Freeman, Michael Stuart

    The Dartmouth College Library has produced this slide/tape individualized instruction module to assist students in researching historical problems. The 79-slide lesson begins with methods of organizing a search and continues through collecting information and analyzing the utility of research strategy. Information sources cited include numerous…

  11. Interviewing the Interpretive Researcher: A Method for Addressing the Crises of Representation, Legitimation, and Praxis



    In this article the authors outline five types of debriefing and introduce a new type of debriefing, namely, that of debriefing the interpretive researcher. Next they present eight main areas accompanied by example questions to guide the interviewer when debriefing the researcher. They also present five authenticity criteria developed by Guba and Lincoln (1989) and include possible interview questions to document the degree to which the researcher has met these criteria. Finally, using Miles ...

  12. Research-informed strategies to address educational challenges in a digitally networked world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.; Pareja Roblin, N.


    This special issue represents the scholarly work that emerged from the EDUsummIT 2013. EDUsummIT is a growing and active community of researchers, policy makers and practitioners that is committed to promote research-informed strategies to effectively integrate ICT in educational policy and practice

  13. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.


    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  14. Putting Principles into Practice: Addressing Historical Trauma, Mistrust, and Apprehension in Research Methods Courses (United States)

    Henderson, Zuleka; Acquaye-Doyle, Lucinda A.; Waites, Shayna; Howard, Tyriesa


    The social work profession has articulated commitments to acknowledging and affirming how diversity and culture shape the human experience and to developing social workers who can competently engage in research-informed practice and practice-informed research. However, there remains a need in social work education for more widespread use of…

  15. Mixed Methods Research Strategies with Deaf People: Linguistic and Cultural Challenges Addressed (United States)

    Wilson, Amy T.; Winiarczyk, Rowena E.


    Deaf people, members of a complex global language minority, have been excluded from positions of power in the field of humanitarian aid and development assistance, as well as from playing a significant role in the conduct of research that affects their lives. Deaf people rarely lead or participate as researchers in studies about their own…

  16. Addressing Perinatal Disparities Using Community-Based Participatory Research: Data into Action (United States)

    Masho, Saba; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara; Singleton, Rose; Bradford, Judith; Chapman, Derek; Svikis, Dace


    Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers that are focused on developing…

  17. An Education Foundations Course and Teacher Research: Addressing the Impact of Local Homelessness on Education (United States)

    Smart-Morstad, Karla; Triggs, Sara; Langlie, Teri


    Homeless education is studied through qualitative teacher research. This article reports the perspectives and experiences of a school administrator, social worker, teacher, and Family Shelter school-to-shelter liaison in describing their experiences with homeless elementary students and their parents. College faculty did the research to prepare…

  18. Addressing Teen Dating Violence within a Rural Community: A Participatory Action Research Study (United States)

    Anderson, David N.


    Teen Dating Violence (TDV) has become a pervasive problem for youth in the United States, with 10% to 25% of high school students engaging in physical and sexual dating violence, and with even a greater percentage of youth experiencing some form of psychological maltreatment (Kervin & Obinna, 2010, "Youth action strategies in the primary…

  19. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting. (United States)

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B


    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings.

  20. Interviewing the Interpretive Researcher: A Method for Addressing the Crises of Representation, Legitimation, and Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie PhD


    Full Text Available In this article the authors outline five types of debriefing and introduce a new type of debriefing, namely, that of debriefing the interpretive researcher. Next they present eight main areas accompanied by example questions to guide the interviewer when debriefing the researcher. They also present five authenticity criteria developed by Guba and Lincoln (1989 and include possible interview questions to document the degree to which the researcher has met these criteria. Finally, using Miles and Huberman's (1994 framework, they illustrate how displays such as matrices can be used to collect, analyze, and interpret debriefing interview data as well as leave an audit trail.

  1. Policies and initiatives aimed at addressing research misconduct in high-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Resnik

    Full Text Available David Resnik and Zubin Master review current policies and initiatives for preventing and managing research misconduct in high-income countries, summarize some high profile cases of misconduct, and make suggestions on ways forward.

  2. [Problems in medicinal materials research of new traditional Chinese medicine]. (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Ting; He, Yan-Ping


    Medicinal materials research and development of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research is the premise and foundation of new drug research and development, it throughout the whole process of new drug research. Medicinal materials research is one of the main content of the pharmaceutical research of new drug of TCM, and it is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. This article through the analysis of the present problems existing in the development of TCM research of new drug of TCM, from medicine research concept, quality stability, quality standard, etc are expounded, including medicine research idea value medicine study should focus on the important role and from the purpose for the top-level design of new drug research problem. Medicinal materials quality stability should pay attention to the original, medicinal part, origin, processing, storage, planting (breeding), and other aspects. Aspect of quality standard of medicinal materials should pay attention to establish the quality standards of conform to the characteristics of new drug of TCM. As the instruction of TCM new drug research and development and the scientific nature of the review, and provide the basis for medicinal material standards.

  3. Addressing transportation energy and environmental impacts: technical and policy research directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenberger, S.; Pasternak, A.; Smith, J.R.; Wallman, H.


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is establishing a local chapter of the University of California Energy Institute (UCEI). In order to most effectively contribute to the Institute, LLNL sponsored a workshop on energy and environmental issues in transportation. This workshop took place in Livermore on August 10 and brought together researchers from throughout the UC systems in order to establish a joint LLNL-UC research program in transportation, with a focus on energy and environmental impacts.

  4. A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper. (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Lauder, William; Leslie, Stephen J


    Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself.

  5. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (United States)

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M


    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  6. Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation


    Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Wee, Loo Kang; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee


    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted ...

  7. College Students' Views of Work-Life Balance in STEM Research Careers: Addressing Negative Preconceptions. (United States)

    Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy


    In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life balance would be more difficult to achieve in a STEM research path than in other professions they were considering. Their views of STEM research being less family-friendly were more pronounced on issues of parental leaves and caring for children than finding a spouse/partner and landing two jobs in the same locality. To provide role models of work-life balance in STEM professions, we convened panels of dual-career couples who described how they worked together to raise their children while advancing their scientific careers. Our selection of panelists and topics of discussion were based on findings of social science research on work-life balance. On a survey with the same questions administered afterward, the changes in paired responses of male and female students with respect to all four issues showed a significant shift toward thinking that a research-based STEM career would be no more difficult than other careers they were considering.

  8. Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research. (United States)

    Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark


    Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web ("Web") is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation threatened sample validity: a survey study and an online intervention study. The lessons learned from these experiences generated three types of strategies researchers can use to reduce the likelihood of participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research. Examples of procedural/design strategies, technical/software strategies and data analytic strategies are provided along with the methodological strengths and limitations of specific strategies. The discussion includes a series of considerations to guide researchers in the selection of strategies that may be most appropriate given the aims, resources and target population of their studies.

  9. Addressing Inequalities in Health: New Directions in Midwifery Education and Practice. Researching Professional Education Research Reports Series. (United States)

    Hart, Angie; Lockey, Rachael; Henwood, Flis; Pankhurst, Francesca; Hall, Valerie; Sommerville, Fiona

    This report addresses key questions concerning the effectiveness of midwifery education in preparing midwives to meet the needs of women from minority or disadvantaged groups in England. Chapter 1 sets out the methodological context within which the work was undertaken and provides an overview of data sources and sample sizes. Chapters 3 and 4…

  10. An Overview of Interdisciplinary Research at Notre Dame Addressing "Grand Challenges" in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Bolster, D.; Tank, J. L.; Hellmann, J.; Christopher, S. F.; Sharma, A.; Chiu, C. M.


    The Midwest and Great Lakes region face a number of "Grand Challenges" associated with climate, land use, agriculture, and water resources infrastructure. These include sustainability of agricultural systems and related impacts to food security and the regional economy; sustainability of Great Lakes water levels; changing storm statistics and impacts to stormwater management and flooding; water quality in rivers and downstream receiving water bodies related to non-point source pollution on agricultural lands and combined sewer overflows in urban areas; urban impacts related to aging infrastructure and climate change, and ecosystem management and restoration. In the context of water management, groundwater resources are poorly understood in comparison with surface water resources, and regional-scale simulation models are needed to address questions of sustainability both in terms of supply and water quality. Interdisciplinary research at the University of Notre Dame is attempting to address these research challenges via 1) integrated macro-scale groundwater and surface water modeling to address issues related to sustainable water supply, ecosystem restoration, and agricultural impacts; 2) development of high-resolution regional climate models dynamically coupled to the Great Lakes to address urban impacts, changing storm statistics and to quantify precipitation and evaporation over the Great Lakes; 3) and integrated macro-scale hydrology and water quality modeling to assess the large-scale performance of innovative land management BMPs on agricultural land (such as the two-stage ditch, cover crops, and dynamic drainage control) intended to improve water quality.

  11. The Use of the Ames Test as a Tool for Addressing Problem-Based Learning in the Microbiology Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Our environment is full of potential carcinogens such as UV light, industrial pollutants, pesticides, and food additives, among others. It is estimated that 90% of all carcinogens are also mutagens. The Ames test is one of the most common tests for mutagens. In this problem-based learning activity, undergraduate biology students used the Ames test to screen a substance they provided, to see if it could be considered a mutagen. The idea of surveying substances used in everyday life appealed to our students, and helped engage them in this activity.

  12. Literacy: A Route to Addressing Child Poverty? National Literacy Trust Research Review (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2011


    This short document reviews research into the role of low literacy in poverty and disadvantage. It sets out evidence for the impact of parental engagement in home learning and the significance of attitudes, aspirations and literacy development. The National Literacy Trust hopes that this is a useful resource for those with responsibility for, and…

  13. Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms (United States)

    van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.


    One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

  14. How is desertification research addressed in Spain ? Land versus soil approaches



    This study intends to understand how desertification research is organised in Spain. We assume that a strong communication between scientific knowledge and stakeholders is needed to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose, we conducted an in-depth study at a national level in Spain. The work focused on a sample of published references on desertification in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science (WoS). The keywords were related to deserti...

  15. Military Nutrition Research: Eight Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness (United States)


    intramyocellular lipid content in women: a 1H NMR study. Am J Phys Endocrinol Metab 2002: E95-E 106. Jonge L, Bray GA. The thermic effect of food is...behavioral faculty, research interventionists and the internet intervention groups. * The original Laboratory Building has two floors and houses 20...overlooking the landscaped patio or adjacent Conference Center. Adjacent to the laboratories are 16 cubicles on each floor (total=32) to house graduate

  16. Technology requirements to be addressed by the NASA Lewis Research Center Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility program (United States)

    Aydelott, J. C.; Rudland, R. S.


    The NASA Lewis Research Center is responsible for the planning and execution of a scientific program which will provide advance in space cryogenic fluid management technology. A number of future space missions were identified that require or could benefit from this technology. These fluid management technology needs were prioritized and a shuttle attached reuseable test bed, the cryogenic fluid management facility (CFMF), is being designed to provide the experimental data necessary for the technology development effort.

  17. Research assessment in the humanities: problems and challenges


    Galimberti Paola,


    Research assessment is going to play a new role in the governance of universities and research institutions. Evaluation of results is evolving from a simple tool for resource allocation towards policy design. In this respect "measuring" implies a different approach to quantitative aspects as well as to an estimation of qualitative criteria that are difficult to define. Bibliometrics became so popular, in spite of its limits, just offering a simple solution to complex problems. The theory behi...

  18. Is epidemiology correcting its vision problem? A perspective on our perspective: 2012 presidential address for American College of Epidemiology. (United States)

    McKeown, Robert E


    Epidemiology, like all disciplines, exists within and is shaped by a culture that frames its ways of understanding. In the last 60 years epidemiology as a discipline and scientific approach has undergone major transition, but remains challenged by vestiges of the limiting frameworks of our origins which shape the way we approach questions, and even the questions we choose to investigate. A part of the current transformation is a reframing of our perspective and a broadening of our methods to encourage creativity and to encompass new types of evidence and new approaches to investigation and interpretation. Epidemiologists are developing innovative ways to approach increasingly complex problems and becoming more open to multi-disciplinary approaches to solving epidemiologic challenges.

  19. In search for the lost antibiotic: a multidisciplinary approach to address the problem of the emergence of antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Cangemi


    Full Text Available The resistance to antibiotics, appeared in the 50s, at the same time of the introduction of these drugs, has become today a public health emergency of international importance. This problem is extremely complex because it is based on many factors, including inappropriate use of antibiotics and their massive presence in the feed of farm animals. Today this problem has become a real public health priority not only for the clinical implications (increased morbidity, mortality and duration of disease, the possibility of developing complications and infections, but also for the economic impact of infections by bacteria resistant, due to the additional cost for more expensive drugs and procedures and for stretching the hospitalization. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDPC in Stockholm has recently estimated that the bacteria with multiple resistances are responsible for about half of thirty-seven thousand deaths per year in the twenty member countries of the European Union. The importance of this phenomenon has prompted several surveillance systems based on the collection of laboratory data to local or national level. To standardize and interpret the data collected and to facilitate comparison between different realities, in 1998 the EU has decided to finance a European surveillance network (EARSS: European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System, which involves several national surveillance networks. Despite the increase of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of both gram positive and gram negative, there are very few new antimicrobial agents in development. Only a multidisciplinary approach, combining various skills in medicine, can help us cope with this emergency and to use the resources available.

  20. Application of an engineering problem-solving methodology to address persistent problems in patient safety: a case study on retained surgical sponges after surgery. (United States)

    Anderson, Devon E; Watts, Bradley V


    Despite innumerable attempts to eliminate the postoperative retention of surgical sponges, the medical error persists in operating rooms worldwide and places significant burden on patient safety, quality of care, financial resources, and hospital/physician reputation. The failure of countless solutions, from new sponge counting methods to radio labeled sponges, to truly eliminate the event in the operating room requires that the emerging field of health-care delivery science find innovative ways to approach the problem. Accordingly, the VA National Center for Patient Safety formed a unique collaboration with a team at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College to evaluate the retention of surgical sponges after surgery and find a solution. The team used an engineering problem solving methodology to develop the best solution. To make the operating room a safe environment for patients, the team identified a need to make the sponge itself safe for use as opposed to resolving the relatively innocuous counting methods. In evaluation of this case study, the need for systematic engineering evaluation to resolve problems in health-care delivery becomes clear.

  1. Common statistical and research design problems in manuscripts submitted to high-impact medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Alex HS


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assist educators and researchers in improving the quality of medical research, we surveyed the editors and statistical reviewers of high-impact medical journals to ascertain the most frequent and critical statistical errors in submitted manuscripts. Findings The Editors-in-Chief and statistical reviewers of the 38 medical journals with the highest impact factor in the 2007 Science Journal Citation Report and the 2007 Social Science Journal Citation Report were invited to complete an online survey about the statistical and design problems they most frequently found in manuscripts. Content analysis of the responses identified major issues. Editors and statistical reviewers (n = 25 from 20 journals responded. Respondents described problems that we classified into two, broad themes: A. statistical and sampling issues and B. inadequate reporting clarity or completeness. Problems included in the first theme were (1 inappropriate or incomplete analysis, including violations of model assumptions and analysis errors, (2 uninformed use of propensity scores, (3 failing to account for clustering in data analysis, (4 improperly addressing missing data, and (5 power/sample size concerns. Issues subsumed under the second theme were (1 Inadequate description of the methods and analysis and (2 Misstatement of results, including undue emphasis on p-values and incorrect inferences and interpretations. Conclusions The scientific quality of submitted manuscripts would increase if researchers addressed these common design, analytical, and reporting issues. Improving the application and presentation of quantitative methods in scholarly manuscripts is essential to advancing medical research.

  2. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

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    Michael Stauffacher


    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter

  3. Data, Problems, Heuristics and Results in Cognitive Metaphor Research (United States)

    Kertesz, Andras; Rakosi, Csilla; Csatar, Peter


    Cognitive metaphor research is characterized by the diversity of rival theories. Starting from this observation, the paper focuses on the problem of how the unity and diversity of cognitive theories of metaphor can be accounted for. The first part of the paper outlines a suitable metascientific approach which emerges as a modification of B. von…

  4. To address gender equality since the preschool education: research and practices


    Piscalho, Isabel; Cardona, Maria João; Tavares, Teresa; Uva, Marta


    To study the school careers of boys and girls from pre-school is one of the objectives of a study that took place in Santarém (Portugal). With this intention, in recent years a line of research, training and organization of materials for work on gender in preschool, has been developed. In this text we analyze some guidelines of our work presenting some examples of the data collected in kindergartens on the representations of gender and age (which is to be a man, woman, boy a...

  5. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Paul R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion. However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000 experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion, higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment. In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion. Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows

  6. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs (United States)

    Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T. Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C.; Guell, Cornelia


    Background: Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. Methods: A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and ‘cascading.’ Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. Results: A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of

  7. Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee


    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted by three teachers in the school. Results suggest, at 95 percent confidence level, significant improvement for concept of Newtons 1st Law while not so for Newtons 3rd Law. A Focus Group Discussion revealed students confirming the usefulness of the EJS model in visualizing the 1st Law while not so much for the 3rd Law. We speculate the design ideas for constant velocity motion in the computer model coupled with the PbI worksheet did allow for making sense and experiencing of the 1st Law, where traditional pen-paper represen...

  8. The Real Issues of the Middle East and the Arab Spring Addressing Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    CERN Document Server

    Djeflat, Abdelkader


    The wave of protests and populist uprisings in the Middle East has heightened the focus on a volatile region. But the emphasis on political issues has obscured underlying issues concerning education, infrastructure, research, innovation, entrepreneurship and sustainable environmental and social development. This volume, emerging in the aftermath of a conference and workshop on science and technology in the region, presents contributions from a range of experts from the Middle East, Europe, and the world to provide fresh new insights and perspectives on the challenges and prospects for regional development in the changing global context of our time. The authors explore such topics as: the role of information and communication technologies; mindset change in support of investment in intangible assets and risk-taking; how to approach cultural issues, institutions and governance; collaborations with other regions, and; benchmarking performance while drawing lessons of relevance for the special local context. Ulti...

  9. Addressing Underrepresentation in Sex Work Research: Reflections on Designing a Purposeful Sampling Strategy. (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Oliffe, John; Atchison, Chris


    Men, transgender people, and those working in off-street locales have historically been underrepresented in sex work health research. Failure to include all sections of sex worker populations precludes comprehensive understandings about a range of population health issues, including potential variations in the manifestation of such issues within and between population subgroups, which in turn can impede the development of effective services and interventions. In this article, we describe our attempts to define, determine, and recruit a purposeful sample for a qualitative study examining the interrelationships between sex workers' health and the working conditions in the Vancouver off-street sex industry. Detailed is our application of ethnographic mapping approaches to generate information about population diversity and work settings within distinct geographical boundaries. Bearing in mind the challenges and the overwhelming discrimination sex workers experience, we scope recommendations for safe and effective purposeful sampling inclusive of sex workers' heterogeneity.

  10. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar


    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  11. [The research of the idea of population problems (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Shinozaki, N


    Approximately 200 years have passed since Malthus pointed out various population problems. Since then, many scholars have discussed and researched the population principles attributable to Malthus. Formal demography has developed recently. However, the conception of population problems has been discussed more on an a priori level rather than on a philosophical level. We cannot conceive of man himself without introspection about what is man. This problem has also been approached by other philosophers--Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Feuerbach, Marx, Neitzche, Scheler, Heidegger, Dilthey, Pascal, Northrop, Sartre, Buber, Landmann, and others. It is possible to classify views of the human being into about 20 patterns. Until now, there have been different ideas among population researchers and students in Japan. Some have thought of population as the abstract mass of man; others thought of it as a concrete mass of man. Further inquiry into this idea would allow the author to proceed to examine man himself, population, and population problems from a philosopher's point of view. A new theory of population problems could then be established by improving the population principles of Malthus. (author's modified)

  12. A problem with inclusion in learning disability research. (United States)

    McClimens, Alex; Allmark, Peter


    People with severe learning disability are particularly difficult to include in the research process. As a result, researchers may be tempted to focus on those with learning disability who can be included. The problem is exacerbated in this field as the political agenda of inclusion and involvement is driven by those people with learning disability who are the higher functioning. To overcome this we should first detach the notion of consent from ideas about autonomy and think instead of it as a way to avoid wronging others; this fits the original historical use of consent in research. This allows us to think in terms of including participants to the best of their abilities rather than in terms of a threshold of autonomy. Researchers could then use imaginative ways to include the least able and to ensure they are not wronged in research or by exclusion from it.

  13. Artificial intelligence and design: Opportunities, research problems and directions (United States)

    Amarel, Saul


    The issues of industrial productivity and economic competitiveness are of major significance in the U.S. at present. By advancing the science of design, and by creating a broad computer-based methodology for automating the design of artifacts and of industrial processes, we can attain dramatic improvements in productivity. It is our thesis that developments in computer science, especially in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and in related areas of advanced computing, provide us with a unique opportunity to push beyond the present level of computer aided automation technology and to attain substantial advances in the understanding and mechanization of design processes. To attain these goals, we need to build on top of the present state of AI, and to accelerate research and development in areas that are especially relevant to design problems of realistic complexity. We propose an approach to the special challenges in this area, which combines 'core work' in AI with the development of systems for handling significant design tasks. We discuss the general nature of design problems, the scientific issues involved in studying them with the help of AI approaches, and the methodological/technical issues that one must face in developing AI systems for handling advanced design tasks. Looking at basic work in AI from the perspective of design automation, we identify a number of research problems that need special attention. These include finding solution methods for handling multiple interacting goals, formation problems, problem decompositions, and redesign problems; choosing representations for design problems with emphasis on the concept of a design record; and developing approaches for the acquisition and structuring of domain knowledge with emphasis on finding useful approximations to domain theories. Progress in handling these research problems will have major impact both on our understanding of design processes and their automation, and also on several fundamental questions

  14. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Steven (DOE Secretary of Energy)


    Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to "unleash America's science and research community" to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  15. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, Robert J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Peterson, S. Ring [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a "tritium labeling facility" operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and "ordinary" citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though "discovered" or "appreciated" only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to

  16. Research on hydraulic-powered roof supports test problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-bo; JIANG Jin-qiu; MA Qiang


    The load-bearing characters of hydraulic-powered roof support with dual telescopic legs were analyzed. With a specific type hydraulic-powered roof support with dual telescopic legs for research object, the inside load test problems in factories was analyzed, and the correct test methods were given, which can enhance the test efficiency and make the factories away from the error design of hydraulic-powered roof supports and legs.

  17. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac


    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  18. Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Sørensen, Elin

    about products. Specifically, nonverbal imagery, episodic information, and procedural knowledge are not included in means-end chains. 3. A number of methodological problems can be identified in the collection of means-end chain data. Major problems, which should be addressed in research, are methods......Executive summary 1. Means-end chains are a device used to understand how consumers mentally link products to self-relevant consequences. Means-end chains are usually measured by a method called laddering. 2. Means-end chains may fall short of tapping all relevant aspects of how consumers think....... Hierarchical value maps, a major graphic device used to visualise results from laddering studies, should take care of possible non-homogeneity of respondents and of the intricacies of aggregation following from it. 6. A catalog of research topics is developed that can guide studies aimed at improving the means...

  19. University bioscientists' risk epistemologies and research problem choices (United States)

    Appuhamilage Dilshani Eranga Sarathchandra, Walakada

    Scientific discoveries take place within scientific communities that are established in legitimating organizations such as universities and research institutes. Often times, scientists undergo tensions and paradoxes as they evaluate the risks they are willing to accept in their work. The types of risk/benefit decisions scientists make to determine which research projects to engage in and how they engage in them is more important than ever, due to current restrictions on funding for scientific research. The main objective of this dissertation is to analyze the ways in which university bioscientists define, evaluate, and manage risks in science, i.e. their risk epistemologies. In the process, I examine bioscientists' risk perceptions and demographic and contextual factors that influence those perceptions. Additionally, I investigate the associations between risk perceptions and research problem choices. This dissertation followed a mix-methods approach. The data collection included twenty semi-structured in-depth interviews and a large-scale online survey of university bioscientists. Based on three theoretically driven research questions that surfaced through examining current literature, I organized the dissertation into three different essays. The first essay explores risk epistemologies of university bioscientists as they determine the best trajectories for their scientific careers. This essay analyses data gathered by conducting in-depth interviews meant to elicit university bioscientists' different understandings of the notion of risk. The second essay quantifies bioscientists' risk perceptions using data gathered from the online survey. In this essay, I investigate the influence of life-course, gender, sources of funding, research orientation, network interactions, and perceived significance of research on risk perception. In the third essay I use data gathered from the online survey to investigate the associations between university bioscientists' risk


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Zagvyazinsky


    Full Text Available Abstract. The authors continue to explore the issue of practical methodology of research studies (Education and Science No 8, 2014. The aim of the study is to reveal theoretical and practical issues of empirical-research activity at the stages of conceptual problem understanding of pedagogical research, ideas promotion, development of the conception of their practical implementation and formation of scientifically grounded constructive hypotheses. Methods. The applied methods include theoretical analysis, synthesis, abstraction, idealization, generalization, specification, comparison, classification, extrapolation, modelling and hermeneutic interpretation. Results. Scientifically grounded description of the process of creative research of educational problems is presented in the paper. The content of such notions as «concept», «creative core», «idea», «plot», and «research hypothesis» is revealed. The creative core of scientific research is considered in close relation to the key aspects of the scientific inquiry: problematics definition, research topic and subject selection, clarification of initial facts and theoretical statements, definition of the conceptual framework, determination of essential novelty. The authors explore the mechanisms of the scientific research through the analysis of the educational situation and initial facts to the formation of a conceptual framework of research and the further working out of its instrumental component. The creative core of research is characterised as its most difficult element including the inception of idea transformation, its realisation into some conception and expansion into productive hypothesis. The authors describe the types of hypotheses, such as working and scientific (ready, functional and explanatory. The logical and gnoseological structure of a scientific hypothesis is shown in the study. The methodological requirements to the formulation of the scientific hypotheses are

  1. Inaugural address (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.


    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  2. Theory Building in Qualitative Research: Reconsidering the Problem of Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. Bendassolli


    Full Text Available The problem of induction refers to the difficulties involved in the process of justifying experience-based scientific conclusions. More specifically, inductive reasoning assumes a leap from singular observational statements to general theoretical statements. It calls into question the role of empirical evidence in the theory-building process. In the philosophy of science, the validity of inductive reasoning has been severely questioned since at least the writings of David HUME. At the same time, induction has been lauded as one of the main pillars of qualitative research methods, and its identity as such has consolidated to the detriment of hypothetical-deductive methods. This article proposes reviving discussion on the problem of induction in qualitative research. It is argued that qualitative methods inherit many of the tensions intrinsic to inductive reasoning, such as those between the demands of empiricism and of formal scientific explanation, suggesting the need to reconsider the role of theory in qualitative research. URN:

  3. Development of an interinstitutional collaboration to support community-partnered research addressing the health of emerging Latino populations. (United States)

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Yaggy, Susan D; Lyn, Michelle; Green, Melissa; Ornelas, India J; Simmons, Tia; Perez, Georgina; Blumenthal, Connie


    Collaborative and participatory research approaches have received considerable attention as means to understanding and addressing disparities in health and health care. In this article, the authors describe the process of building a three-way partnership among two academic health centers-Duke University and the University of North Carolina-and members of the Latino community in North Carolina to develop and pilot test a lay health advisor program to improve Latina immigrants' mental health and coping skills. The authors applied the principles of participatory research to engage community and academic partners, to select the health topic and population, and to develop program goals and objectives. Key challenges were negotiating administrative structures and learning institutional cultures, as well as dealing with contextual issues such as mental health reform and antiimmigrant sentiment in the state.Some important lessons learned are to seek opportunities for taking advantage of existing relationships and expertise at each academic institution, to be respectful of the burden of research on vulnerable communities, and to involve community partners at all stages of the process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pasek de Pinto


    Full Text Available Language has different functions. One of them, the communication, is fundamental for the investigation, because the textualization of its process and results is the base of the diffusion of the advance and increase of the scientific knowledge. However, most students - and those who are not already so - present difficulties in using references, in breaks in cohesion, or in logical and argumentative coherence. Such difficulties limit the generation of texts, as they constitute an obstacle to translate written ideas into an argumentative discourse, typical of science and research. The latter requires the argued presentation of an idea, whose perception, description and obvious reasons make up the problem that is wanted to know, to explain, to verify, to understand or to interpret. Therefore, this short space / time has the purpose of reflecting on the discursive construction of the problem of an inquiry. Its importance lies precisely in the disadvantages of its configuration. In this sense, the reflection is developed from a vision of language and communication; The argumentative discourse and the types of reasoning involved in order to fulfill certain guidelines that underlie the construction of the problem of inquiry and its approach in terms of a positivist-quantitative and / or qualitative study.

  5. Translation of clinical problems in osteoarthritis into pathophysiological research goals. (United States)

    van der Kraan, Peter M; Berenbaum, Francis; Blanco, Francisco J; Cosimo, de Bari; Lafeber, Floris; Hauge, Ellen; Higginbottom, Adele; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Loughlin, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Moilanen, Eeva; Pitsillidou, Irene; Tsezou, Aspasia; van Meurs, Joyce; Vincent, Tonia; Wittoek, Ruth; Lories, Rik


    Osteoarthritis (OA) accounts for more disability among the elderly than any other disease and is associated with an increased mortality rate. The prevalence in Europe will rise in the future since this continent has a strongly ageing population and an obesity epidemic; obesity and age both being major risk factors for OA. No adequate therapeutic options, besides joint replacement, are available, although they are greatly needed and should be acquired by adequate research investments. However, the perspective on OA from a researcher's point of view is not always aligned with the perspective of a patient with OA. Researchers base their views on OA mainly on abnormalities in structure and function while patients consider OA as a collection of symptoms. In this viewpoint paper, we discuss the possibility of translating the most important clinical problems into pathophysiological research goals to facilitate the translation from bench to bedside and vice versa. This viewpoint is the outcome of a dialogue within the 'European League Against Rheumatism study group on OA' and People with Arthritis/Rheumatism across Europe (PARE) representatives.

  6. Conducting Community Research in Rural China -Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments. (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F K; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D


    BACKGROUND: The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country's economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. METHODS: This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16-34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. RESULTS: 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make "on-the-ground" adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity.

  7. Building Partnerships and Research Collaborations to Address the Impacts of Arctic Change: The North Atlantic Climate Change Collaboration (NAC3) (United States)

    Polk, J.; North, L. A.; Strenecky, B.


    Changes in Arctic warming influence the various atmospheric and oceanic patterns that drive Caribbean and mid-latitude climate events, including extreme events like drought, tornadoes, and flooding in Kentucky and the surrounding region. Recently, the establishment of the North Atlantic Climate Change Collaboration (NAC3) project at Western Kentucky University (WKU) in partnership with the University of Akureyri (UNAK), Iceland Arctic Cooperation Network (IACN), and Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) provides a foundation from which to engage students in applied research from the local to global levels and more clearly understand the many tenets of climate change impacts in the Arctic within both a global and local community context. The NAC3 project encompasses many facets, including joint international courses, student internships, economic development, service learning, and applied research. In its first phase, the project has generated myriad outcomes and opportunities for bridging STEM disciplines with other fields to holistically and collaboratively address specific human-environmental issues falling under the broad umbrella of climate change. WKU and UNAK students desire interaction and exposure to other cultures and regions that are threatened by climate change and Iceland presents a unique opportunity to study influences such as oceanic processes, island economies, sustainable harvest of fisheries, and Arctic influences on climate change. The project aims to develop a model to bring partners together to conduct applied research on the complex subject of global environmental change, particularly in the Arctic, while simultaneously focusing on changing how we learn, develop community, and engage internationally to understand the impacts and find solutions.

  8. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.


    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  9. Research Problems in Data Curation: Outcomes from the Data Curation Education in Research Centers Program (United States)

    Palmer, C. L.; Mayernik, M. S.; Weber, N.; Baker, K. S.; Kelly, K.; Marlino, M. R.; Thompson, C. A.


    The need for data curation is being recognized in numerous institutional settings as national research funding agencies extend data archiving mandates to cover more types of research grants. Data curation, however, is not only a practical challenge. It presents many conceptual and theoretical challenges that must be investigated to design appropriate technical systems, social practices and institutions, policies, and services. This presentation reports on outcomes from an investigation of research problems in data curation conducted as part of the Data Curation Education in Research Centers (DCERC) program. DCERC is developing a new model for educating data professionals to contribute to scientific research. The program is organized around foundational courses and field experiences in research and data centers for both master's and doctoral students. The initiative is led by the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in collaboration with the School of Information Sciences at the University of Tennessee, and library and data professionals at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). At the doctoral level DCERC is educating future faculty and researchers in data curation and establishing a research agenda to advance the field. The doctoral seminar, Research Problems in Data Curation, was developed and taught in 2012 by the DCERC principal investigator and two doctoral fellows at the University of Illinois. It was designed to define the problem space of data curation, examine relevant concepts and theories related to both technical and social perspectives, and articulate research questions that are either unexplored or under theorized in the current literature. There was a particular emphasis on the Earth and environmental sciences, with guest speakers brought in from NCAR, National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Through the assignments, students

  10. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

    CERN Document Server


    This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

  11. Population problems and population research in a market economy. (United States)

    Tian, X


    A market driven economy has many effects on population growth. The laws of social production were explicated by Marx and Engels, and Comrade Deng Xiaoping presents his views on China's socialist market economy and population problems in this article. Modern market economies have changed greatly over time. Before the 1960s, the focus of the interaction between population and economic change was in macro control. Since the 1960s, the focus shifted to micro control. Theories on maximum growth and neomodern population theory provide only a few useful elements. Cost-benefit analysis of child production functions, despite limitations, has universal appeal. Western theories with sound scientific evidence and Marxist theories should be examined and integrated within the Chinese experience. Two areas of concern in China are the spatial imbalance between population and economic development and an appropriate time period for any research activity. Scientific research in China will be advanced by careful integration of theory and practice, careful study of the Chinese experience, in-depth analysis, and bold, practical approaches which incorporate existing research results from the West. There are three dominant views of economic reforms. 1) Economic development plans should include a market economy. 2) Chinese population control would depend upon administrative means rather than market forces. 3) There are indirect ways in which the market affects population production. The last position is favored. The conclusions are made that family planning has been and continues to be a driving force in declining birth rates and that a focus on government population control does not discount the importance of the influence of economic factors on changes in the birth rate. Market forces are beginning to show their impact on people's choice in reproduction, and the impact is increasing. Reforms must be made appropriate to both the position and the negative influence of the market economy on

  12. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connell Janice


    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

  13. Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda. (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David


    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central

  14. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral de Mello Meena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for

  15. Researching and Working for Transgender Youth: Contexts, Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Jones


    Full Text Available In May 2016, two events epitomized the complexities of working for global transgender youth rights. First, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO hosted a ministerial event in which education ministers from around the world released a call to action for protection of students on the basis of their gender identity and expression in schools. Second, the United Nations (UN hosted an event celebrating the family, attended by conservative ministers and activists who mobilized family protectionist discourse against transgender students. This article contemplates, in light of transgender activist Raewyn Connell’s Southern Theory contributions, the complexity of global research and work for transgender youth. It considers key informant interviews with 50 stakeholders in the global push for transgender student rights in education, including members of government and non-government organisations, and academics from Northern and Southern countries. Problems in aiding transgender youth at the global level included safety concerns, the impacts of conservative advocates and media backlash (within family and national protectionist discourses, cultural complexities hampering engagement and translation, dissemination hindrances pertaining to established publishing biases, and financial and collaboration barriers. Solutions including virtual work; multi-level leadership; alliance-building; representation; visibility of transgender youth citizenship and family membership; and legal, financial and capacity-building aid are considered.

  16. Development and initial evaluation of a telephone-delivered, behavioral activation, and problem-solving treatment program to address functional goals of breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter A; Li, Zhongze; Seville, Janette L; Ahles, Tim A; Kornblith, Alice B; Hegel, Mark T


    The purpose of this research was to develop and pilot test an intervention to optimize functional recovery for breast cancer survivors. Over two studies, 31 women enrolled in a goal-setting program via telephone. All eligible women enrolled (37% of those screened) and 66% completed all study activities. Completers were highly satisfied with the intervention, using it to address, on average, four different challenging activities. The longitudinal analysis showed a main effect of time for overall quality of life (F(5, 43.1) = 5.1, p = 0.001) and improvements in active coping (F (3, 31.7) = 4.9, p = 0.007), planning (F (3, 36.0) = 4.1, p = 0.01), reframing (F (3, 29.3) = 8.5, p < 0.001), and decreases in self-blame (F (3,31.6) = 4.3, p = 0.01). The intervention is feasible and warrants further study to determine its efficacy in fostering recovery and maximizing activity engagement after cancer treatment.

  17. Intelligence and Creativity in Problem Solving: The Importance of Test Features in Cognition Research. (United States)

    Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas


    This paper discusses the importance of three features of psychometric tests for cognition research: construct definition, problem space, and knowledge domain. Definition of constructs, e.g., intelligence or creativity, forms the theoretical basis for test construction. Problem space, being well or ill-defined, is determined by the cognitive abilities considered to belong to the constructs, e.g., convergent thinking to intelligence, divergent thinking to creativity. Knowledge domain and the possibilities it offers cognition are reflected in test results. We argue that (a) comparing results of tests with different problem spaces is more informative when cognition operates in both tests on an identical knowledge domain, and (b) intertwining of abilities related to both constructs can only be expected in tests developed to instigate such a process. Test features should guarantee that abilities can contribute to self-generated and goal-directed processes bringing forth solutions that are both new and applicable. We propose and discuss a test example that was developed to address these issues.

  18. Intelligence and Creativity in Problem Solving: The Importance of Test Features in Cognition Research (United States)

    Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas


    This paper discusses the importance of three features of psychometric tests for cognition research: construct definition, problem space, and knowledge domain. Definition of constructs, e.g., intelligence or creativity, forms the theoretical basis for test construction. Problem space, being well or ill-defined, is determined by the cognitive abilities considered to belong to the constructs, e.g., convergent thinking to intelligence, divergent thinking to creativity. Knowledge domain and the possibilities it offers cognition are reflected in test results. We argue that (a) comparing results of tests with different problem spaces is more informative when cognition operates in both tests on an identical knowledge domain, and (b) intertwining of abilities related to both constructs can only be expected in tests developed to instigate such a process. Test features should guarantee that abilities can contribute to self-generated and goal-directed processes bringing forth solutions that are both new and applicable. We propose and discuss a test example that was developed to address these issues. PMID:28220098

  19. Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN


    Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

  20. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  1. Brains in Jars: The Problem of Language in Neuroscientific Research (United States)

    Scott, Jessica A.; Curran, Christopher M.


    Neuroscience is a rapidly expanding scientific field, and its influence on our perceptions of fundamental aspects of human life is becoming widespread, particularly in the social and behavioral sciences. This influence has many philosophical implications, only one of which will be addressed in this article. For many centuries, philosophers have…

  2. Contextual Uncertainties, Human Mobility, and Perceived Food Environment: The Uncertain Geographic Context Problem in Food Access Research. (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Kwan, Mei-Po


    We examined the uncertainty of the contextual influences on food access through an analytic framework of the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP). We first examined the compounding effects of two kinds of spatiotemporal uncertainties on people's everyday efforts to procure food and then outlined three key dimensions (food access in real time, temporality of the food environment, and perceived nutrition environment) in which research on food access must improve to better represent the contributing environmental influences that operate at the individual level. Guidelines to address the UGCoP in future food access research are provided to account for the multidimensional influences of the food environment on dietary behaviors.

  3. TA-designed vs. research-oriented problem solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Mamudi, William; Henderson, Charles R; Yerushalmi, Edit


    In order to study graduate teaching assistants (TAs) beliefs and values about the design of instructor problem solutions, twenty-four TAs were provided with different solutions and asked to discuss their preferences for prominent solution features. TAs preferences for solution features were examined in light of the modeling of expert-like problem solving process as recommended in the literature. Results suggest that while many of the features TAs valued align with expert-like problem solving approaches, they noticed primarily "surface features" of solutions. Moreover, self-reported preferences did not match well with the solutions TAs wrote on their own.

  4. Assessing and Addressing the "Testing Backlash": Practical Advice and Current Public Opinion Research for Business Coalitions and Standards Advocates. (United States)

    Business Roundtable, Washington, DC.

    As states and communities across the United States work to raise expectations for student learning, many are challenged by concerns and questions from increasingly vocal parents and teachers. This report summarizes the best advice for business coalitions and standards advocates on how to address the testing backlash. It also features an analysis…

  5. Survey of editors and reviewers of high-impact psychology journals: statistical and research design problems in submitted manuscripts. (United States)

    Harris, Alex; Reeder, Rachelle; Hyun, Jenny


    The authors surveyed 21 editors and reviewers from major psychology journals to identify and describe the statistical and design errors they encounter most often and to get their advice regarding prevention of these problems. Content analysis of the text responses revealed themes in 3 major areas: (a) problems with research design and reporting (e.g., lack of an a priori power analysis, lack of congruence between research questions and study design/analysis, failure to adequately describe statistical procedures); (b) inappropriate data analysis (e.g., improper use of analysis of variance, too many statistical tests without adjustments, inadequate strategy for addressing missing data); and (c) misinterpretation of results. If researchers attended to these common methodological and analytic issues, the scientific quality of manuscripts submitted to high-impact psychology journals might be significantly improved.

  6. Addressing Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sosa Elízaga


    Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.

  7. Trees Without Fruit: The Problem with Research About Higher Education. (United States)

    Keller, George


    "If the research in higher education ended, it would scarcely be missed." This is the time when excellent research and scholarship about higher learning and its institutions is needed, yet the study of this national resource is at a low ebb. The reasons for low appraisals of research are discussed. (MLW)

  8. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Travis LaDell


    This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or

  9. Research Advances of Social Security Problems in China —Visualization Research based on Bibliometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article summarized the research progress and characteristics of Chinese social security issues from 2000 papers, which record in CNKI. We find that, the topic in the field of social security is board and dispersion. Due to the huge system and complex problem of social security, there is no central theme. Through cluster analysis, multi dimensional scaling analysis and social network analysis, we got the high frequency keywords atlas. Then, we summarized the research topic to six parts. They are rural social security, urban and rural social security co-ordination, vulnerable group social security, social security fund management, the social insurance system, and social security system and government responsibility. It summed up the theme of the module, meanwhile, combined the practice analysis.

  10. Problems in turbidite research: A need for COMFAN (United States)

    Normark, W.R.; Mutti, E.; Bouma, A.H.


    Comparison of modern submarine fans and ancient turbidite sequences is still in its infancy, mainly because of the incompatibility of study approaches. Research on modern fan systems mainly deals with morphologic aspects and surficial sediments, while observations on ancient turbidite formations are mostly directed to vertical sequences. The lack of a common data set also results from different scales of observation. To review the current status of modern and ancient turbidite research, an international group of specialists formed COMFAN (Committee on Fans) and met in September 1982 at the Gulf Research and Development Company research facilities in Pennsylvania. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  11. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases (United States)

    Zhou, Jun


    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  12. Welcome Address (United States)

    Kiku, H.


    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  13. Using Working Agreements in Participatory Action Research: Working through Moral Problems with Malaysian Students (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Vishalache; Cornforth, Sue


    In this paper we propose that taking time before the work begins to develop agreements about how to work together in participatory action research enables researchers to directly address several ethical issues that can be problematic in this type of research: gaining fully informed consent; in-group confidentiality; cultural misconceptions; and…

  14. An exploration of knowledge integration problems in interdisciplinary research teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayerl, P.S.; Steinheider, B.


    The integration of function-specific expertise into a shared knowledge base is a crucial, but complex process for success in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents an empirically derived typology of knowledge integration problems and links their occurrence to degree of heterogeneity and presen

  15. RESEARCH ANNOUNCEMENTS On a Spectrum Problem for Analytic Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ 1 Introduction Let Ω be the unit disk {z: |z| < 1} in the complex plane C. In this paper, we consider the following boundary value problem: Find out a λ and the analytic function u(z) in the unit disk Ω such that they satisfy the boundary condition

  16. Looking within and beyond the community: lessons learned by researching, theorising and acting to address urban poverty and health. (United States)

    Hodgetts, Darrin; Chamberlain, Kerry; Tankel, Yadena; Groot, Shiloh


    Urban poverty and health inequalities are inextricably intertwined. By working in partnership with service providers and communities to address urban poverty, we can enhance the wellness of people in need. This article reflects on lessons learned from the Family100 project that explores the everyday lives, frustrations and dilemmas faced by 100 families living in poverty in Auckland. Lessons learned support the need to bring the experiences and lived realities of families to the fore in public deliberations about community and societal responses to urban poverty and health inequality.

  17. Addressing the Decline in Counseling and Supervision Process and Outcome Research in the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent


    Scheel et al. have argued convincingly that there has been a decline in counseling-related research in the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" ("JCP") and "The Counseling Psychologist" ("TCP"). This response focuses on the relatively steady 35-year decline in this type of research published in "JCP". The author conducted a new analysis based on the…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Direct algorithm of wavelet transform (WT) is the numerical algorithm obtained from the integral formula of WT by directly digitization.Some problems on realizing the algorithm are studied.Some conclusions on the direct algorithm of discrete wavelet transform (DWT), such as discrete convolution operation formula of wavelet coefficients and wavelet components, sampling principle and technology to wavelets, deciding method for scale range of wavelets, measures to solve edge effect problem, etc, are obtained.The realization of direct algorithm of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is also studied.The computing cost of direct algorithm and Mallat algorithm of DWT are still studied, and the computing formulae are obtained.These works are beneficial to deeply understand WT and Mallat algorithm.Examples in the end show that direct algorithm can also be applied widely.

  19. RESEARCH ANNOUNCEMENTS Helly Type Problems for Some Special Convex Polygons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑立平; 丁仁


    @@In the combinatorial geometry of convex sets the question of how efficiently a family of convex sets can be pierced by points has led to various problems which may be regarded as extensions of the Helly-type problems. A family of sets is said to be n-pierceable (abbreviated as Пn) if there exists a set of n points such that each member of the family contains at least one of them. A family of sets is said to be Пnk if every subfamily of size k or less is Пn. The famous Helly theorem in combinatorial geometry asserts that for finite families of convex sets in the plane П13 implies П1. In a recent paper by M. Katchalski and D. Nashtir[a] the following conjecture of Griinbaum[2] was mentioned again:

  20. For multidisciplinary research on the application of remote sensing to water resources problems. [including crop yield, watershed soils, and vegetation mapping in Wisconsin (United States)

    Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)


    Research on the application of remote sensing to problems of water resources was concentrated on sediments and associated nonpoint source pollutants in lakes. Further transfer of the technology of remote sensing and the refinement of equipment and programs for thermal scanning and the digital analysis of images were also addressed.

  1. Social Problem Solving Skill Research and Social-Skill Training


    一前, 春子


    Reseach on the relation between social information-processing and social adjustment in childhood is reviewed and interpreted within the framework of social informationprocessing model and INS model.The review suggests that two models have different useful aspects. Then, efforts of social-skill training and their effects on children are examined.Results of social-skill training indicates that both children with problems and normal children receive benefit.

  2. Problems and pitfalls in a clinical research data management system. (United States)

    Brower, R W; ten Katen, H J; Meester, G T


    The problems and pitfalls encountered in the computerized data bank for the Netherlands Coronary Surgery (NCS) study are reviewed. This study involved 848 patients seen before coronary artery surgery and at 1 and 3 yr after surgery. Nineteen data forms were used resulting in maximally 1142 variables per patient. The importance of quality control is emphasized as well as the efficient transfer of information from data bank to statistical processing.

  3. Opening address (United States)

    Castagnoli, C.


    representation of the mole. Most of you, I presume, are neo-Pythagoreans, and consequently believe that a new definition and, maybe, a new realization of the unit of mass will be based on a number of atoms of silicon, a view which will certainly lead you to cross swords with the "electrical party". The importance of NA is also linked to the considerable and far-reaching return in other scientific and industrial fields. Finally, let me add that, ethically, the work of many persons all over the world and the money and energy they spend in order to add a decimal figure, may be an example of commitment to be given to our students. Last but not least, my warm thanks to the Director of the Istituto di Metrologia "G Colonnetti", where the experiment has been in progress since 1971, and to all the researchers involved in this work. I do hope that the National Council of Research will continue to support this important project. While wishing you a pleasant stay in Turin, I express the hope that our meeting will prove a fruitful opportunity for discussion and exchange of views.

  4. Opening Address (United States)

    Abalakin, V. K.


    Dear Colleagues, It is a great pleasure and honor for me to invite you on the occasion of the IAU Colloquium International Cooperation in Dissemination of the Astronomical Data to the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This distinguished gathering of experts in the vast field of modern methods for archiving and managing almost infinite astronomical data files of everlasting value will doubtlessly make a considerable and important contribution to success in the present and future research in astronomy. All of us are witnesses of a great technological, even psychological upturn that occurs in the everyday astronomical practice. The small but the most powerful handy devices known as desktop, laptop, or even palm-top PCs, have rendered a tedious calculating work and stressing search in the card-file or book-form catalogs to a pure pleasure and raised an admiration for those brilliant minds that have invented such a kind of hard- and software. The networks of all kinds and sorts -- Internet, Bitnet, World Wide Web, etc. -- have realized ancient dreams of a Man to fly with thought all over the world communicating with other human beings. But ... don't forget that the most real and valuable communication is the live one, when one can see the face and the eyes of his (or her) partner, listen to his voice as large as life, and the only opportunity for this is to stay together. And this just occurs at the colloquium like ours! So, let me heartily welcome you to the Pulkovo Observatory.

  5. Research briefing on contemporary problems in plasma science (United States)


    An overview is presented of the broad perspective of all plasma science. Detailed discussions are given of scientific opportunities in various subdisciplines of plasma science. The first subdiscipline to be discussed is the area where the contemporary applications of plasma science are the most widespread, low temperature plasma science. Opportunities for new research and technology development that have emerged as byproducts of research in magnetic and inertial fusion are then highlighted. Then follows a discussion of new opportunities in ultrafast plasma science opened up by recent developments in laser and particle beam technology. Next, research that uses smaller scale facilities is discussed, first discussing non-neutral plasmas, and then the area of basic plasma experiments. Discussions of analytic theory and computational plasma physics and of space and astrophysical plasma physics are then presented.

  6. Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)


    The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

  7. Opening Address (United States)

    Crovini, L.


    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  8. Structural dialectical approach in psychology: problems and research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veraksa, Nikolay E.


    Full Text Available In this article dialectical thinking is regarded as one of the central cognitive processes. Because of this cognitive function we can analyze the development of processes and objects. It also determines the possibilities for the creative transformation of some content and for solving problems. The article presents a description and the results of experimental studies. This evidence proves that dialectical thinking is a specific line of cognitive development in children and adults. This line can degrade during school time if the educational program follows formal logical principles, or it can become significantly stronger if the pedagogy is based on dialectical methodology.

  9. Multispecies networks: visualizing the psychological research of the Committee for Research in Problems of Sex. (United States)

    Pettit, Michael; Serykh, Darya; Green, Christopher D


    In our current moment, there is considerable interest in networks, in how people and things are connected. This essay outlines one approach that brings together insights from actor-network theory, social network analysis, and digital history to interpret past scientific activity. Multispecies network analysis (MNA) is a means of understanding the historical interactions among scientists, institutions, and preferred experimental animals. A reexamination of studies of sexual behavior funded by the Committee for Research in Problems of Sex between the 1920s and the 1940s demonstrates the applicability of MNA to clarifying the relations that sustained this area of psychology. The measures of weighted degree and betweenness can highlight which nodes (whether organisms or institutions) were particularly "central" to this network. Rats featured as the animals most widely studied during this period, but the analysis also reveals distinct institutional and disciplinary cultures where different species were favored as either surrogates for humans or representatives of more general biological groups.

  10. $H_{u,d}$-messenger Couplings Address the $\\mu/B_\\mu$ \\& $A_t/m_{H_u}^2$ Problem and $(g-2)_\\mu$ Puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Zhaofeng


    Gauge mediated supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking (GMSB) furnishes the best idea to overcome the flavor problem in SSMs, supersymmetric stand models (SM). However, implemented in the minimal SSM (MSSM), a very serious fine-tuning problem arises, owing to the absence of a large $A_t$ term in the stop sector to radiatively enhance the SM-like Higgs boson mass. In the extended GMSB coupling $H_u$ to messengers can alleviate this problem but encounters the $A_t/m_{H_u}^2$ problem, i.e., at the same time a large $m_{H_u}^2$ is generated, rendering radiative electroweak spontaneously breaking (EWSB) problematic. This issue shows similarity to another long-standing problem of GMSB, the $\\mu/{B_\\mu }$ problem, and, of great interest, we find that they may admit the same solution, nonradiative EWSB. Such a solution is naturally accommodated when both $H_u$ and $H_d$ couple to messengers. As a bonus of nonradiative EWSB, the sleptons tend to be very light due to the significant renormalization group equation effect and they...

  11. Ufa scientific school by e. a. Mukhacheva: applied operational research problems


    Filippova, A.; Valiakhmetova, Yu; Karamova, L.


    The Ufa Scientific Group busy with the research of cutting-packing problems was founded more than 50 years ago in the Ufa Aviation Institute. The class of cutting-packing problems includes problems of various applied interpretation. They are regarded as NP-hart problems, and development and research of effective methods of their solution is actual nowadays. This paper is devoted to the review of the basic problems and the methods of their solution developed under the guidance of Prof. E. A. M...

  12. Television in South Africa: The Research Paradox, Problem and Potential. (United States)

    Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul

    South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchernykh A. G.


    Full Text Available The article discusses the experimental task, the analysis of which cannot be carried out without the use of methods of calculus mathematics. It is shown that the use of modern information technology in educational research tasks to confront theory with real physical experiments lets us raise the level of quality of training future teachers of physics and computer science

  14. Probe into Problem-Related Nontraditional Mineral Resources Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@The discovery of and research into the nontraditional mineral resources, both in theory and in practice for the next century,are commented in this paper.The nontraditional mineral resources prognostication is very important for the research into and the discovery of the history of typical deposits all over the world.The emphasis of the present research is laid on new kinds of deposits. The processes and approaches of the discovery of new kinds of deposits should be studied carefully. The research into gold ores that we have done so far concludes the following 5 points. (1) Through finding the alluvial gold, we could obtain primary gold deposits such as Tuanjiegou porphyroid gold deposit in Heilongjiang Province. (2) Through geochemical prospecting, we might discover new types of deposits such as Carlin gold deposit in USA. (3) Some deposits might be discovered around a large-scale deposit. For example, a few large-scale altered gold deposits have been discovered around Linglong in Shandong Province.

  15. Fisheye Interfaces—Research Problems and Practical Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren


    Fisheye interfaces give access to a large information structure by providing users with both local detail and global context. Despite decades of research in fisheye interfaces, their design and use are not well understood. To foster a discussion of fisheye views and their theoretical foundations,...

  16. Fisheye interfaces—research problems and practical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper


    Fisheye interfaces give access to a large information structure by providing users with both local detail and global context. Despite decades of research in fisheye interfaces, their design and use are not well understood. To foster a discussion of fisheye views and their theoretical foundations...

  17. Optical voltage sensors: principle, problem and research proposal (United States)

    Li, Changsheng


    Sensing principles and main problems to be solved for optical voltage sensors are briefly reviewed. Optical effects used for voltage sensing usually include electro-optic Pockels and Kerr effects, electro-gyration effect, elasto-optical effect, and electroluminescent effects, etc. In principle, typical optical voltage sensor is based on electro-optic Pockels crystals and closed-loop signal detection scheme. Main problems to be solved for optical voltage sensors include: how to remove influence of unwanted multiple optical effects on voltage sensing performance; how to select or develop a proper voltage sensing material and element; how to keep optical phase bias to be stable under temperature fluctuation and vibration; how to achieve dc voltage sensing, etc. In order to suppress the influence of unwanted optical effects and light beam coupling-related loss on voltage sensing signals, we may pay more attention to all-fiber and waveguide voltage sensors. Voltage sensors based on electroluminescent effects are also promising in some application fields due to their compact configuration, low cost and potential long-term reliability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botagoz Turdalieva


    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of scientific work on regional and individual levels can be achieved by the using scientometric methods of a quantitative analysis of bibliographic information available in such databases as Science Citation Index (SCI. Unfortunately, Kazakhstan scientific journals have not been included yet in the Thomson Reuters Corp. register of periodicals, that substantially distorts the actual national scientometric indexes. The analysis of Database “National Citation Reports” (Kazakhstan, which correlated with a contribution of Kazakhstan into the world science development, has shown the low level of research activities of Kazakhstan scientists on international arena. So, the share of international publications of Kazakhstan in the global flow is equal to 0,021 % (1044 doc. that corresponds to the 87th place in the general list of countries of 177 names. Subject to the ranking of countries into groups by the number of the published works, Kazakhstan is referring to the group of 46 countries having 1000-10000 publications over 5 years, of which 8,6% in  medicine. In this article the use of statistics and appropriate software by the authors of original articles in such journals as recommended by the Kazakh National Centre for Scientific & Technical Expertise (NCSTE and included in the Database е was evaluated. Research was conducted according to Research Report, due to which a research design and statistical analysis methods were estimated.  In the rating of the research design, the authors of articles mostly used as follows: description of a series of cases–63,2%, description of the individual cases -27,1%, and description of specific cases–9,1%. A scope of selection in Section “Research Methods” was only calculated in 21,8% of cases, and in 63,9% of cases there was no description how the selection was carried out. Methods of analytical statistics were used in the 46,0% of cases. And there were references to

  19. Addressing the Needs of Youth with Disabilities in the Juvenile Justice System: The Current Status of Evidence-Based Research. (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Aron, Laudan; Bernstein, Jenny

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge about children and youth with disabilities at risk of delinquency or already involved with the juvenile justice system. It reviews the existing research as well as perspectives of service providers, administrators, policy makers, and advocates. Following an executive summary and introductory chapter,…

  20. Problems of integrating between innovative enterprises and a researching university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Svetlakov


    Full Text Available The problems that currently face the establishments of agriculture are the following: competition with import products, regionalization of support, i.e. prevention to a single market space formation, monopolization of processing enterprises and sensitivity to investments. The technique of assessing the level of economic security of the agroindustrial complex organizations was suggested and described. It identifies the indicators of economic security, indicative markers of economic security and thresholds for performance indicators, current values of performance indicators etc. At the same time, such indicators of economic security of agroindustrial complex organizations are used: availability of arable land, labour, funds etc.; profitability, efficiency, and cost effectiveness. This technique will reduce the risks to economic security of agroindustrial complex organizations, improve quality of life and enhance food security of the state.

  1. Advances in research of stress-assisted corrosion fatigue problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhi-bo; LI Qiang


    Ceramic materials are notable for their rigidity, insulation and resistance to hostile environment. Nevertheless, if a stressed ceramic component is exposed to chemical attack, it may suffer from a form of delayed fracture known as static fatigue.From the point of view of a designer, it is clearly desirable to determine the behavior of sub-critical crack growth; the crack path and crack growth rate, as a function of material properties and loading conditions are of particular interest. This paper presents a review of advances in stress assisted corrosion problem in history and its corresponding numerical approaches in the last decades,and finally, comes up with consideration and crucial suggestions for future work.

  2. The research and demonstration of some major geological problems of Three Gorges Project%The research and demonstration of some major geological problems of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Deji; Man Zuowu


    The research process, main contents, methods and conclusions for some major engineering geological problems of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) are reviewed and introduced, including dam site selection, regional tectonic stability and seismic activity, stability of reservoir bank and reservoir-induced earthquake. Meanwhile, the above mentioned engineering geological problems are evaluated according to the preliminary test results since TGP operation and impoundment in 2003.

  3. Evaluation of online accessed systems: example of qualitative research of Fast Addresses of GeaBios System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Klemen


    Full Text Available An efficient online information service user interface enables independent use of these online. Designers of the GeaBios Internet information system intended to evaluate the user-friendliness of their service »Fast adresses« (»Hitri naslovi«. In December 2003, as a research project for a graduation thesis, an evaluation of »Fast adresses« was conducted. The study consisted of 10 study participants performing assigned tasks and a survey of the same individuals. During the study research questions were developed as well as list of tasks to be assigned to the participants for the observations. Each observation was performed using a qualitative research paradigm. This paradigm was enhanced with an adaptation of Shneiderman’s (1998 questionnaire. Identified difficulties participants had in using »Fast adresses« fell into four types: (1 formulation of queries, (2 display of results, (3 the influence of the operating system, Windows, and, (4 the color and design of the display background and elements of the Web page. Results indicate that the difficulties encountered were not limited to the inappropriate design of the user interface, but also are attributable to user error.

  4. Using Community-Based Participatory Research and Human-Centered Design to Address Violence-Related Health Disparities Among Latino/a Youth. (United States)

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Santacrose, Diana E; Liu, Sabrina R; Adams, Jessica

    High rates of exposure to violence and other adversities among Latino/a youth contribute to health disparities. The current article addresses the ways in which community-based participatory research (CBPR) and human-centered design (HCD) can help engage communities in dialogue and action. We present a project exemplifying how community forums, with researchers, practitioners, and key stakeholders, including youths and parents, integrated HCD strategies with a CBPR approach. Given the potential for power inequities among these groups, CBPR + HCD acted as a catalyst for reciprocal dialogue and generated potential opportunity areas for health promotion and change. Future directions are described.

  5. Dealing with misconduct in biomedical research: a review of the problems and the proposed methods for improvement. (United States)

    Kumar, Malhar N


    The increasing complexity of scientific research has been followed by increasing varieties of research misconduct. Dealing with misconduct involves the processes of detection, reporting, and investigation of misconduct. Each of these steps is associated with numerous problems which need to be addressed. Misconduct investigation should not stop with inquiries and disciplinary actions in specific episodes of misconduct. It is necessary to decrease the personal price paid by those who expose misconduct and to protect the personal and professional interests of honest researchers accused of misconduct unfairly or mistakenly. There is no dearth of suggestions to improve the objectivity and fairness of investigations. What is needed is the willingness to test the various options and implement the most suitable ones.

  6. Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana


    Developing students’ creative problem-solving skills is paramount to today’s teachers, due to the exponentially growing demand for cognitive plasticity and critical thinking in the workforce. In today’s knowledge economy, workers must be able to participate in creative dialogue and complex problem......-solving. This has prompted institutions of higher education to implement new pedagogical methods such as problem-based and case-based education. The Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education is an essential, comprehensive collection of the newest research in higher...... education, creativity, problem solving, and pedagogical design. It provides the framework for further research opportunities in these dynamic, necessary fields. Featuring work regarding problem-oriented curriculum and its applications and challenges, this book is essential for policy makers, teachers...

  7. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko


    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...... on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis...... of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...

  8. Mixed Methods Research: The "Thing-ness" Problem. (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene


    Contemporary mixed methods research (MMR) veers away from a "loosely bounded" to a "bounded" concept that has important negative implications for how qualitatively driven mixed methods approaches are positioned in the field of mixed methods and overall innovation in the praxis of MMR. I deploy the concept of reification defined as taking an object/abstraction and treating it as if it were real such that it takes on the quality of "thing-ness," having a concrete independent existence. I argue that the contemporary reification of mixed methods as a "thing" is fueled by three interrelated factors: (a) the growing formalization of mixed methods as design, (b) the unexamined belief in the "synergy" of mixed methods and, (c) the deployment of a "practical pragmatism" as the "philosophical partner" for mixed methods inquiry.

  9. Mathematical models of physics problems (physics research and technology)

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo


    This textbook is intended to provide a foundation for a one-semester introductory course on the advanced mathematical methods that form the cornerstones of the hard sciences and engineering. The work is suitable for first year graduate or advanced undergraduate students in the fields of Physics, Astronomy and Engineering. This text therefore employs a condensed narrative sufficient to prepare graduate and advanced undergraduate students for the level of mathematics expected in more advanced graduate physics courses, without too much exposition on related but non-essential material. In contrast to the two semesters traditionally devoted to mathematical methods for physicists, the material in this book has been quite distilled, making it a suitable guide for a one-semester course. The assumption is that the student, once versed in the fundamentals, can master more esoteric aspects of these topics on his or her own if and when the need arises during the course of conducting research. The book focuses on two cor...

  10. Research as a guide for curriculum development: An example from introductory spectroscopy. II. Addressing student difficulties with atomic emission spectra (United States)

    Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.


    This is the second of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. Paper I describes how several conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among university students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. This second article (Paper II) illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.

  11. Geroscience: Addressing the mismatch between its exciting research opportunities, its economic imperative and its current funding crisis. (United States)

    Martin, George M


    There is at present a huge disconnect between levels of funding for basic research on fundamental mechanisms of biological aging and, given demographic projections, the anticipated enormous social and economic impacts of a litany of chronic diseases for which aging is by far the major risk factor: One valuable approach, recently instigated by Felipe Sierra & colleagues at the US National Institute on Aging, is the development of a Geroscience Interest Group among virtually all of the NIH institutes. A complementary approach would be to seek major escalations of private funding. The American Federation for Aging Research, the Paul Glenn Foundation and the Ellison Medical Foundation pioneered efforts by the private sector to provide substantial supplements to public sources of funding. It is time for our community to organize efforts towards the enhancements of such crucial contributions, especially in support of the emerging generation of young investigators, many of whom are leaving our ranks to seek alternative employment. To do so, we must provide potential donors with strong economic, humanitarian and scientific rationales. An initial approach to such efforts is briefly outlined in this manuscript as a basis for wider discussions within our community.

  12. Ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan


    This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research...... purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information....

  13. Presentation of a research project addressed to the realisation of a diamond-based cellular biosensing device (United States)

    Boarino, Luca; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio; Genovese, Marco; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Picollo, Federico; Traina, Paolo


    In this proceedings we will present a research project financed by Piedmont regional government (Italy; finalized to the realization and commercialization of functional devices for cellular bio-sensing based on diamond. Partners of the project are: Crisel Instruments, Torino University, Torino Polytechnic, INRIM, Politronica, Bionica Tech, Ulm University Here the main features of the final devices will be briefly summarized. We envisage an active diamond-based cellular substrate that can simultaneously stimulate and detect a variety of signals (chemical, optical, electrical) to and from neuroendocrine cells, in a fully biocompatible environment for the cellular system under test. Such a device can be realized by fully exploiting the peculiar properties of diamond: optical transparency, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, accessibility to a conductive graphite-like phase; properties that will be further explored and tested during the project.

  14. Lingua-Pedagogy as the Interdisciplinary Research Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Yakovleva


    Full Text Available  The paper is devoted to lingua-pedagogy – one of the modern branches of pedagogy dealing with personal socialization in the process of foreign language learning. This interdisciplinary field of knowledge is related to linguistics, pedagogic psychology, development psychology and acmeology. Lingua-pedagogy undergoes the formation process; therefore, there still are a number of open questions concerning its place among the other sciences, and the final definitions of the main concepts and terms. The author recommends the systematic approach to developing the theoretical foundation of lingua- pedagogy. The paper outlines the subject and aims of the lingua-pedagogic research, its content and affecting means. The system in question is poly- functional, its main functions being the integral pedagogic effect in foreign language teaching, stimulating self-dependent learning, and arranging the in- tercultural integration. The linguistic faculties at universities can be taken as the key elements of the lingua-pedagogic system – the development centers, nurturing the value-oriented respectful attitude to the native and foreign cul- ture, providing intercultural competence acquisition, and training pedagogic staff capable of fulfilling the poly-cultural development tasks. Identification of the conformities of intercultural socialization makes it possible to organize the system of pedagogic facilitation for students learning foreign languages; and develop the perspective methods and technologies of language competence acquisition and consolidation. 

  15. The problem with pleasure: part II. The research. (United States)

    Migdow, Janet


    This study explores how adult survivors of chronic abuse and neglect define pleasure, the disruption of pleasure, and the repair of the capacity for pleasure in the context of the therapeutic relationship. Using narrative methodology, I interviewed 15 clinical pairs of patients and their therapists separately. Thematic analysis revealed 8 findings. All patients reported the capacity to experience pleasure throughout life prior to therapy. Subjects defined pleasure as a variety of positive affects that fell into 2 categories: pleasure in activities and interests and pleasure in relationships. All patients reported a history of traumatic disruption of pleasure in childhood. Patients reported a history of internalizing and reenacting their own disruption of pleasure. Narratives of the patients were consistent with the narratives told by the therapists. In many clinical pairs, both parties spoke positively of an important therapeutic event when the therapist stepped out of his or her usual treatment frame. Safety, consistency, reliability, predictability, and compassionate caring were spoken of throughout the sample as elements that created a pleasurable and therapeutically reparative relationship. Patients spoke repeatedly of the importance of "finding a self" to the experience of pleasure. Pleasure enhanced the ability to find a self, and finding a self enhanced patients' capacity for pleasure. This study invites further research to investigate the function of pleasure in the process of therapeutic repair for chronically traumatized populations.

  16. Survey of the research on dynamic weapon-target assignment problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Huaiping; Liu Jingxu; Chen Yingwu; Wang Hao


    The basic concepts and models of weapon-target assignment (WTA) are introduced and the mathematical nature of the WTA models is also analyzed. A systematic survey of research on WTA problem is provided. The present research on WTA is focused on models and algorithms. In the research on models of WTA, the static WTA models are mainly studied and the dynamic WTA models are not fully studied in deed. In the research on algorithms of WTA, the intelligent algorithms are often used to solve the WTA problem. The small scale of static WTA problems has been solved very well, however, the large scale of dynamic WTA problems has not been solved effectively so far. Finally, the characteristics of dynamic WTA are analyzed and directions for the future research on dynamic WTA are discussed.

  17. Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. Methods A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. Results The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8% met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies, sex (50% of studies, race (64% of studies, geographical/hospital site (93% of studies, socio-economic status (82% of studies and health status (72% of studies. Conclusion A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.

  18. Final Technical Report for "Applied Mathematics Research: Simulation Based Optimization and Application to Electromagnetic Inverse Problems"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Eldad


    The focus of research was: Developing adaptive mesh for the solution of Maxwell's equations; Developing a parallel framework for time dependent inverse Maxwell's equations; Developing multilevel methods for optimization problems with inequal- ity constraints; A new inversion code for inverse Maxwell's equations in the 0th frequency (DC resistivity); A new inversion code for inverse Maxwell's equations in low frequency regime. Although the research concentrated on electromagnetic forward and in- verse problems the results of the research was applied to the problem of image registration.

  19. Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekini Shehu


    real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.

  20. Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research "Behaviour Formalization" System (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Meek, Vincent Lynn


    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and…

  1. Requirements Engineering as Creative Problem Solving: A Research Agenda for Idea Finding


    Maiden, N.; Jones, S; Karlsen, I. K.; Neill, R.; Zachos, K.; Milne, A.


    This vision paper frames requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. Its purpose is to enable requirements researchers and practitioners to recruit relevant theories, models, techniques and tools from creative problem solving to understand and support requirements processes more effectively. It uses 4 drivers to motivate the case for requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. It then maps established requirements activities onto one of the longest-esta...

  2. The Problem of Empirical Redundancy of Constructs in Organizational Research: An Empirical Investigation (United States)

    Le, Huy; Schmidt, Frank L.; Harter, James K.; Lauver, Kristy J.


    Construct empirical redundancy may be a major problem in organizational research today. In this paper, we explain and empirically illustrate a method for investigating this potential problem. We applied the method to examine the empirical redundancy of job satisfaction (JS) and organizational commitment (OC), two well-established organizational…

  3. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects (United States)

    Labanca, Frank


    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  4. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  5. Review of Problems in Research of Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fei


    Although research on individual differences became the mainstream in SLA, it still obviously lag behind research on similarities over the whole. In order to find a clear developing direction for research in this field, main problems and difficulties arose in earlier research will be discussed. Suggestions and prospects for research on individual differences of SLA will be also pro⁃posed. The ideal of modifying one’s way of teaching to suit the special requirements of each class or case should be the main trend of research on individual differences of SLA.

  6. Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery James


    By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…

  7. Constructing Transformative Experiences through Problem Posing in a High School English Research Project (United States)

    Revelle, Carol L.


    This dissertation chronicles my search to engage high school English students in inquiry as part of a formal research process. The perspective of critical literacy theory is used to describe the four phases of the problem posing process in shaping student research and action. Grounded in Freire's approach and consistent with Dewey and others who…

  8. Building pathology in the Netherlands – main problems and results through research and practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.


    This report is dedicated to the main problems of building pathologies in the Netherlands and the main solutions through research and practice as questioned by the CIB W086 Building Pathology Commission for its 2014 meeting in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Objective is to contribute to the Research Roadmap 2014

  9. New paradigms for old problems: some (small) advances in laser resonator research at the CSIR (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew


    In this paper we outline new approaches to old problems, namely understanding the transverse modes in Porro prism resonators, and creating methods to select Gaussian beams by phase-only intra-cavity elements. In the process we outline some of the recent research that has taken place within the Mathematical Optics research group.

  10. Texts, Structure, and Collaboration: Reflections of a Professional Development Addressing Homophobia in Secondary Schools (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.


    Homophobia is an incredible problem within educational settings. Therefore, we must begin examining how we can address the challenge in an effective manner. Researchers postulate professional development (PD) discussing homophobia is an appropriate method to address the problem. To date, there is little published literature that discusses how a PD…

  11. 基于BRITE的向量地址平均长度仿真研究%A research on simulation of average length of vector address based on BRITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆阳; 赵阿群


    本文主要就向量地址平均长度问题进行建模与仿真。向量网很好地解决了IP网络地址枯竭的问题,但由于向量地址是不定长的,因此对向量地址平均长度的研究成为评价向量网效率的一个重要方面。本文利用BRITE网络拓扑生成器,分别利用Waxman随机图模型和BA无标度模型,针对不同节点和边数的网络拓扑进行仿真实验,并对不同实验结果进行对比与分析。实验结果表明,向量地址平均长度会随节点数增长而增长,但在较大规模网络拓扑中,向量地址平均长度远远小于IP地址长度。%This paper mainly describes modeling and simulation on average length of vector address. Vector network solves the problem of limited amount of address of IP network, but for the uncertainty of its length, research on average length of vector address becomes an important aspect to evaluate the efficiency of vector network. In this paper, we generate network topology with Waxman model and BA scale-free model with different amount of nodes and edges using BRITE. Then, we make comparison and analysis of the simulation. The result shows that average length of vector address increases with the amount of nodes, but its length is far shorter than the length of IP network.

  12. Mixed-Method Nursing Research: "A Public and Its Problems?" A Commentary on French Nursing Research. (United States)

    Dupin, Cécile Marie; Debout, Christophe; Rothan-Tondeur, Monique


    Nursing in France is undergoing a transition. In 2009, the preregistration nursing education program was reformed in line with the European Bologna Process, bringing nursing education to the universities. In 2010, the French Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Infirmière, the first national French nursing research funding program, was launched by the French Health Ministry. Of the 149 French research proposals submitted by registered nurses in 2010 and 2011, 13 were mixed-method proposals. The registered nurse principal investigator argued for a complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods. These trends highlight major issues regarding mixed-method and nursing research. We can reasonably assume that mixed-method research has a broad appeal for nurse scholars, particularly for the exploration of complex phenomena related to nursing. Moreover, the recent movement in the domain of nursing education and research experienced in France highlights the need for dedicated research education in the development of nursing research capacity.

  13. Language and rigour in qualitative research: problems and principles in analyzing data collected in Mandarin. (United States)

    Smith, Helen J; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyun


    In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research team is time consuming and expensive; meaning can easily be lost in translation; and validity of the data may be compromised in this process. We draw on several published examples from public health research conducted in mainland China, to highlight how language can influence rigour in the qualitative research process; for each problem we suggest potential solutions based on the methods used in one of our research projects in China. Problems we have encountered include obtaining sufficient depth and detail in qualitative data; deciding on language for data collection; managing data collected in Mandarin; and the influence of language on interpreting meaning. We have suggested methods for overcoming problems associated with collecting, analysing, and interpreting qualitative data in a local language, that we think help maintain analytical openness in collaborative qualitative research. We developed these methods specifically in research conducted in Mandarin in mainland China; but they need further testing in other countries with data collected in other languages. Examples from other researchers are needed.

  14. Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Sørensen, Elin


    to the collection and analysis of laddering data. However, many of these also point at problems of a more theoretical nature. In this chapter presented are some of the issues regarded as unresolved and suggested research that could help in solving these problems. The mayor part of this chapter deals......Laddering and means-end chains are one of the most promising developments in consumer research since the 1980s. It is an approach that takes consumers' individuality seriously but, nevertheless, comes up with quantitative results. It is rooted in a cognitive approach, and allows for emotional...... and unconscious (or, at least, semiconscious) factors. It is intuitively appealing to the practitioner but has, likewise, attracted academic research. Increased acceptance and use of a new approach inevitably leads to the detection of unresolved issues and problems. Many of these unresolved issues are related...

  15. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieger, Khara D., E-mail: [RTI International (United States); Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark); Christensen, Frans [Sustainability and Risk Management, COWI A/S, Department for Pollution Prevention (Denmark); Baun, Anders [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark); Olsen, Stig I. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark)


    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key 'lessons learned' from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: 'LC-based RA' (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and 'RA-complemented LCA' (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  16. How can we improve problem-solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Knight, Jennifer K


    Modern biological problems are complex. If students are to successfully grapple with such problems as scientists and citizens, they need to have practiced solving authentic, complex problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem-solving for the last three decades. Although the surface features and content of biology problems differ from physics problems, teachers of both sciences want students to learn to explain patterns and processes in the natural world and to make predictions about system behaviors. After surveying literature on problem-solving in physics and biology, we propose how biology education researchers could apply research-supported pedagogical techniques from physics to enhance biology students' problem-solving. First, we characterize the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve. We then describe the development of research-validated physics problem-solving curricula. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can appl...

  17. Estonia addresses its redneck problem / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel


    Noore filmirežissööri Rasmus Merivoo bakalaureusetöö - lühimängufilm "Tulnukas ehk Valdise pääsemine 11 osas". Filmi populaarsuse fenomenist, "rullnokkade" subkultuuri tutvustus, laulja Vaiko Eplik taolise subkultuuri tekke võimalikest põhjustest ja muustki

  18. Major research approaches to solve gas-dynamic problems in Donbass coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzyara, V.I.; Agaphonov, A.V. [Makeyevka State Safety in Mine Research Institute, Makeyevka (Ukraine)


    The number of gas-dynamic events per million tons of coal mined remains great though coal output from underground coal mines in Donetsk basin has dropped. This dictates enhanced research efforts to solve the following gas-dynamic problems: sudden coal, rock and gas outbursts, sudden coal, rock and gas outbursts, sudden squeezing, falls (coal spillage) sudden methane inrushes from the bottom, and bumps. New approaches to solve these problems have been based on modern concepts and ideas of natural mechanisms of the events. Current and future research needs are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Gordon Memorial Lecture. Problems and crusades: a history of poultry disease research in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Payne, L N


    1. Poultry disease research in the UK began recognisably in the 1920s, in consequence of the development of a national poultry industry of economic importance. 2. Increasing disease problems during the 1930s revealed the need for more research, resulting notably in the growth of the Poultry Department of the Central Veterinary Laboratory and the establishment of Houghton Poultry Research Station. 3. Continued growth of the egg industry and the introduction of the broiler industry in the 1950s stimulated increased disease research, much of it publicly funded, during the following two decades. 4. Changing government attitudes to agricultural research in the 1980s brought about far-reaching changes to the funding, organisation, nature and amount of disease research conducted. Arrangements for such research continue to evolve.

  20. Feasibility of Applying the Finite Element Adaptive Research Solver (FEARS) Program to the Plate Bending Problem. (United States)


    Ship Research and Program emen Development Center Task Area ZR0140201 Bethesda, Maryland 20084 Work Unit 1844-140 II . CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS...solution has singular behavior, then only the norm II .112 can be used. This approach has the following several advantages and disadvantages: 1) Advantages...34 Bollettino Unione Matematica Italiana, Bologna, Vol. 10, pp. 133-140 (1974). 14. Ciarlet, P. and P. aviart, "A Mixed Finite Element Method for the Biharmonic

  1. The a3 problem solving report: a 10-step scientific method to execute performance improvements in an academic research vivarium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Bassuk

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation. The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner

  2. Stakeholders' expectations on connectivity research for water and land management addressed by a survey in the collaborative EU-COST Connecteur network (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Paton, Eva N.; Keesstra, Saskia


    Transfer of knowledge across the science-society interface is essential for both, ethical and economic reasons, and inevitable for successful climate change adaptation and integrated management of sustainable, resilient landscapes. The transdisciplinary research of connectivity (which is the degree to which a system facilitates the movement of matter and energy through itself. It is an emergent property of the system state, Connecteur web resources,2015) has the potential to supply monitoring, modelling and management tools to land and water managers in order to reach these goals. The research of water and sediment connectivity has received significant and increasing scientific attention across the entire realm of the environmental disciplines, and the COST Action ES 1306 Connecteur facilitates the multi-sectorial collaboration in connectivity research at EU level. In order to appropriately address the transfer of the cutting edge research developments of the Connecteur network, the collaborative research project on stakeholders' perception of connectivity was conducted by the Working Group 5 "Transition of connectivity research towards sustainable land and water management". The questionnaire survey on stakeholder perception was conducted by volunteering scientist involved in the Connecteur network together from 19 European countries. Together 84 stakeholders from all mayor sectors in water and land management were asked about the main challenges of their work, their understanding of connectivity, the desired areas of cooperation with connectivity science, and the best tools for transferring knowledge. The results showed differences between different stakeholders groups in the way they percept and work with connectivity, as well as their requirement of knowledge transfers. While farmers, and (in lower extend) the agricultural administration officers articulated no, or little need for connectivity management, the majority of stakeholders involved in land and water


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Fatima Morais


    Full Text Available This research focuses on the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem, which is one of the most difficult problems to solve. The literature points to several studies that focus the Hybrid Flow Shop scheduling problem with monocriteria functions. Despite of the fact that, many real world problems involve several objective functions, they can often compete and conflict, leading researchers to concentrate direct their efforts on the development of methods that take consider this variant into consideration. The goal of the study is to review and analyze the methods in order to solve the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem with multicriteria functions in the literature. The analyses were performed using several papers that have been published over the years, also the parallel machines types, the approach used to develop solution methods, the type of method develop, the objective function, the performance criterion adopted, and the additional constraints considered. The results of the reviewing and analysis of 46 papers showed opportunities for future research on this topic, including the following: (i use uniform and dedicated parallel machines, (ii use exact and metaheuristics approaches, (iv develop lower and uppers bounds, relations of dominance and different search strategies to improve the computational time of the exact methods,  (v develop  other types of metaheuristic, (vi work with anticipatory setups, and (vii add constraints faced by the production systems itself.

  4. International Research Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling: Problems, Prospects, and Research Needs (United States)

    Parks, Bradley


    The 4th International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling (GIS/EM4) was convened in Banff, Canada, September 2-8, 2000 at The Banff Centre for Conferences. The meeting's purpose, like it's predecessors was to reformulate, each three to four years, the collaborative research agenda for integrating spatio-temporal analysis with environmental simulation modeling.

  5. The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) Network - Data and Technological Resources to Address Current and Emerging Issues in Agroecosystems. (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Wienhold, B.; Suyker, A.; Erickson, G.; Hayes, M. J.; Awada, T.


    The Platte River - High Plains Aquifer (PR-HPA) is one of 18 established Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) networks across the US. PR-HPA is a partnership between the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the USDA-ARS Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU) in Lincoln, and the USDA-ARS Environmental Management Research Unit (EMRU) in Clay Center, NE. The PR-HPA network encompasses 27,750 ha of research sites with data going back to the early 1900s. A partial list of on-going research projects include those encompassing long-term manuring and continuous corn (Est. 1912), dryland tillage plots (Est. 1970), soil nutrients and tillage (Est. 1983), biofuel feedstock studies (Est. 2001), and carbon sequestration study (Est. 2000). Affiliated partners include the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) that develops measures to improve preparedness and adaptation to climate variability and drought; the High Plains Regional Climate Center (HPRCC) that coordinates data acquisition from over 170 automated weather stations and around 50 automated soil moisture network across NE and beyond; the AMERIFLUX and NEBFLUX networks that coordinate the water vapor and carbon dioxide flux measurements across NE with emphasis on rainfed and irrigated crop lands; the ARS Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) and the Resilient Economic Agricultural Practices (REAP) project; and the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT) that assists with the use of geospatial technologies for agriculture and natural resource applications. Current emphases are on addressing present-day and emerging issues related to profitability and sustainability of agroecosystems. The poster will highlight some of the ongoing and planned efforts in research pertaining to climate variability and change, water sustainability, and ecological and agronomic challenges associated

  6. How to ensure that the results of climate risk analysis make a difference? - Experience from applied research addressing the challenges of climate change (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Zebisch, Marc; Becker, Daniel; Pedoth, Lydia; Renner, Kathrin; Kienberger, Stefan


    Changing climate conditions may have beneficial or adverse effects on the social-ecological systems we are living in. In any case, the possible effects result from complex and interlinked physical and social processes embedded in these systems. Traditional research addresses these bio-physical and societal issues in a separate way. Therefore, in general, studies on risks related to climate change are still mono-disciplinary in nature with an increasing amount of work following a multi-disciplinary approach. The quality and usefulness of the results of such research for policy or decision making in practice may further be limited by study designs that do not acknowledge appropriately the significance of integrating or at least mixing qualitative and quantitative information and knowledge. Finally, the acceptance of study results - particularly when containing some kind of assessments - is often endangered by insufficient and / or late involvement of stakeholders and users. The above mentioned limitations have often been brought up in the recent past. However, despite that a certain consensus could be achieved in the last years recognising the need to tackle these issues, little progress has been made in terms of implementation within the context of (research) studies. This paper elaborates in detail on reasons that hamper the application of - interdisciplinary (i.e. natural and social science), - trans-disciplinary (i.e. co-production of knowledge) and - integrative (i.e. combining qualitative and quantitative approaches) work. It is based on the experience gained through a number of applied climate change vulnerability studies carried out within the context of various GIZ-financed development cooperation projects, a consultancy project for the German Environment Agency as well as the workshop series INQUIMUS, which tackles particularly the issues of mixing qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Potentials and constraints of possible attempts for

  7. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research. (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid


    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  8. Research on sub-Saharan Africa's unrecorded international trade : some methodological and conceptual problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; MacGaffey, Janet


    This paper describes some of the methodological and conceptual problems in researching aspects of sub-Saharan Africa's international 'underground' trade, meaning commercial transactions which are conducted across international frontiers but which are unrecorded in official data. The authors focus in

  9. Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy (United States)

    Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle


    The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

  10. Scaffolding the Science: Problem Based Strategies for Teaching Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Research Methods (United States)

    Keebaugh, Alaine; Darrow, Lyndsey; Tan, David; Jamerson, Heather


    Previous research has highlighted the effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in multiple disciplinary settings, including medicine, teacher education, business, allied health, and the social sciences. Yet interdisciplinary educators have very little information about how to implement PBL in classrooms where multiple disciplines are…

  11. Factors Affecting the Identification of Research Problems in Educational Administration Studies (United States)

    Yalçin, Mikail; Bektas, Fatih; Öztekin, Özge; Karadag, Engin


    The purpose of this study is to reveal the factors that affect the identification of research problems in educational administration studies. The study was designed using the case study method. Criterion sampling was used to determine the work group; the criterion used to select the participants was that of having a study in the field of…

  12. Hierarchical Multiple Regression in Counseling Research: Common Problems and Possible Remedies. (United States)

    Petrocelli, John V.


    A brief content analysis was conducted on the use of hierarchical regression in counseling research published in the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" and the "Journal of Counseling & Development" during the years 1997-2001. Common problems are cited and possible remedies are described. (Contains 43 references and 3 tables.) (Author)

  13. Research on the Problem of Spur Gear Teeth Contact in the Car Gear Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Skrickij


    Full Text Available The article presents research on the problem of two gear contact in the car gearbox. Contact stiffness is evaluated for the whole period of mesh. Also, contact stresses are evaluated in the contact place. The presented method can be used for calculating spur gear.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Research Progress of Nuclear Astrophysics Physics:Study of Key Scientific Problems in Nuclear Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Bing; LIU; Wei-ping; LI; Zhi-hong; WANG; You-bao; HE; Jian-jun; SHI; Jian-rong; TANG; Xiao-dong; YAN; Sheng-quan; SU; Jun; LI; Yun-ju; ZENG; Sheng; LIAN; Gang; BAI; Xi-xiang; CHEN; Yong-shou; PANG; Dan-yang; GU; Jian-zhong; HAN; Zhi-yu; LI; Xin-yue


    1 Summary A systematic study of the key scientific problems in nuclear synthesis has been conducted.Significant research achievements from several important subjects such as direct measurement of astrophysical reaction,observation of abundances of elements,studies on decay properties of nuclei and reaction rates of primordial nucleosynthesis have been made utilizing large scientific facilities from China

  15. An Exploratory Research on Deviant Behaviors of Problem Patrons in Taiwan’s Public Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-May Sheih


    Full Text Available Patrons of public libraries are more diverse and complex than those of other types of libraries, implying potentially more unexpected and difficult situations. Negative emotions such as frustration and anxiety are generated among librarians when they must handle problem patrons, an effort that may influence the work efficiency of librarians and their physical and mental health. This study conducted a semi-structured in-depth interview, using public service librarians in Taiwan as subjects, to explore the categories of problem patrons and their behavioral characteristics. According to the results, the behavioral characteristics of problem patrons can be divided into 6 categories: interfering with others, violating library regulations, influencing library works, improperly using resources and facilities, breaking laws, and exhibiting a psychological disorder as well as violating social norms. On the basis of the research results, this study offers suggestions for future reference when public libraries must handle problem patrons.

  16. Allegheny County Address Points (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  17. Problems in Using Diagnosis in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Bickman


    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a three-part study on diagnosis of children with affective and behavior disorders. We examined the reliability, discriminant, and predictive validity of common diagnoses used in mental health services research using a research diagnostic interview. Results suggest four problems: a some diagnoses demonstrate internal consistency only slightly better than symptoms chosen at random; b diagnosis did not add appreciably to a brief global functioning screen in predicting service use; c low inter-rater reliability among informants and clinicians for six of the most common diagnoses; and d clinician diagnoses differed between sites in ways that reflect different reimbursement strategies. The study concludes that clinicians and researchers should not assume diagnosis is a useful measure of child and adolescent problems and outcomes until there is more evidence supporting the validity of diagnosis.

  18. Problem Solving (United States)

    Kinsella, John J.


    Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)

  19. Active and Healthy Ageing as a Wicked Problem: The Contribution of a Multidisciplinary Research University. (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Graffigna, Guendalina; Baitieri, Maddalena; Amato, Alessandra; Bonanomi, Maria Grazia; Valentini, Paolo; Castelli, Guido


    The quest for an active and healthy ageing can be considered a "wicked problem." It is a social and cultural problem, which is difficult to solve because of incomplete, changing, and contradictory requirements. These problems are tough to manage because of their social complexity. They are a group of linked problems embedded in the structure of the communities in which they occur. First, they require the knowledge of the social and cultural context in which they occur. They can be solved only by understanding of what people do and why they do it. Second, they require a multidisciplinary approach. Wicked problems can have different solutions, so it is critical to capture the full range of possibilities and interpretations. Thus, we suggest that Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC) is well suited for accepting and managing this challenge because of its applied research orientation, multidisciplinary approach, and integrated vision. After presenting the research activity of UCSC, we describe a possible "systems thinking" strategy to consider the complexity and interdependence of active ageing and healthy living.

  20. Fundamentalism, multiculturalism and problems of conducting research with populations in developing nations. (United States)

    Crigger, N J; Holcomb, L; Weiss, J


    A growing number of nurse researchers travel globally to conduct research in poor and underserved populations in developing nations. These researchers, while well versed in research ethics, often find it difficult to apply traditional ethical standards to populations in developing countries. The problem of applying ethical standards across cultures is explained by a long-standing debate about the nature of ethical principles. Fundamentalism is the philosophical stance that ethical principles are universal, while the anthropologically-based 'multicultural' model claims the philosophical position that principles are culturally bound. The authors explicate the two philosophical stances and advocate a morally sensitive but moderate position of 'ethical multiculturalism' rather than favouring either of the above philosophical positions. The final section suggests ways to promote ethical multiculturalism while planning and conducting nursing research.

  1. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  2. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement. (United States)

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M


    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  3. Subsynchronous Oscillation Problem Research in the UHVDC System of a Regional Power Grid in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Ying


    Full Text Available Along with the grid structure being more and more complex and the rapid development of the HVDC system, studying the subsynchronous oscillation (SSO problem on HVDC system has more engineering practice significance. The paper studies subsynchronous oscillations problem of generators near the ±800kV UHVDC converter station, and analyzes the subsynchronous oscillation possibilities through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation. At last, though the researched UHVDC thermal plants have none SSO risk but it needs other measures to make the relevant generators return on normal operation.

  4. [Problems in quality standard research of new traditional Chinese medicine compound]. (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; He, Yan-Ping


    The new traditional Chinese medicine compound is the main part of the research of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the new Chinese herbal compound reflects the characteristics of TCM theory. The new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research is one of the main content of pharmaceutical research, and is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. Although in recent years the research level of new traditional Chinese medicine compound has been greatly improved, but the author during the review found still some common problems existing in new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research data, this paper analyzed the current quality standards for new traditional Chinese medicine compound and the problems existing in the research data, respectively from measurement of the content of index selection, determine the scope of the content, and the quality standard design concept, the paper expounds developers need to concern. The quality of new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard is not only itself can be solved, but quality standards is to ensure the key and important content of product quality, improving the quality of products cannot do without quality standards. With the development of science and technology, on the basis of quality by design under the guidance of the concept, new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard system will be more scientific, systematic and perfect.

  5. Excursions in classical analysis pathways to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongwei


    Excursions in Classical Analysis introduces undergraduate students to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research in two ways. Firstly, it provides a colourful tour of classical analysis which places a wide variety of problems in their historical context. Secondly, it helps students gain an understanding of mathematical discovery and proof. In demonstrating a variety of possible solutions to the same sample exercise, the reader will come to see how the connections between apparently inapplicable areas of mathematics can be exploited in problem-solving. This book will serve as excellent preparation for participation in mathematics competitions, as a valuable resource for undergraduate mathematics reading courses and seminars and as a supplement text in a course on analysis. It can also be used in independent study, since the chapters are free-standing.

  6. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson


    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  7. Problems with change in R2 as applied to theory of reasoned action research. (United States)

    Trafimow, David


    The paradigm of choice for theory of reasoned action research seems to depend largely on the notion of change in variance accounted for (DeltaR2) as new independent variables are added to a multiple regression equation. If adding a particular independent variable of interest increases the variance in the dependent variable that can be accounted for by the list of independent variables, then the research is deemed to be 'successful', and the researcher is considered to have made a convincing argument about the importance of the new variable. In contrast to this trend, I present arguments that suggest serious problems with the paradigm, and conclude that studies on attitude-behaviour relations would advance the field of psychology to a far greater extent if researchers abandoned it.

  8. Interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders: Advancing a developing field of research. (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Merkouris, S S; Lorains, F K


    Despite significant psychiatric comorbidity in problem gambling, there is little evidence on which to base treatment recommendations for subpopulations of problem gamblers with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This mini-review draws on two separate systematic searches to identify possible interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders, highlight the gaps in the currently available evidence base, and stimulate further research in this area. In this mini-review, only 21 studies that have conducted post-hoc analyses to explore the influence of psychiatric disorders or problem gambling subtypes on gambling outcomes from different types of treatment were identified. The findings of these studies suggest that most gambling treatments are not contraindicated by psychiatric disorders. Moreover, only 6 randomized studies comparing the efficacy of interventions targeted towards specific comorbidity subgroups with a control/comparison group were identified. The results of these studies provide preliminary evidence for modified dialectical behavior therapy for comorbid substance use, the addition of naltrexone to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for comorbid alcohol use problems, and the addition of N-acetylcysteine to tobacco support programs and imaginal desensitisation/motivational interviewing for comorbid nicotine dependence. They also suggest that lithium for comorbid bipolar disorder, escitalopram for comorbid anxiety disorders, and the addition of CBT to standard drug treatment for comorbid schizophrenia may be effective. Future research evaluating interventions sequenced according to disorder severity or the functional relationship between the gambling behavior and comorbid symptomatology, identifying psychiatric disorders as moderators of the efficacy of problem gambling interventions, and evaluating interventions matched to client comorbidity could advance this immature field of study.

  9. Problem gambling worldwide: An update and systematic review of empirical research (2000-2015). (United States)

    Calado, Filipa; Griffiths, Mark D


    Background and aims Problem gambling has been identified as an emergent public health issue, and there is a need to identify gambling trends and to regularly update worldwide gambling prevalence rates. This paper aims to review recent research on adult gambling and problem gambling (since 2000) and then, in the context of a growing liberalization of the gambling market in the European Union, intends to provide a more detailed analysis of adult gambling behavior across European countries. Methods A systematic literature search was carried out using academic databases, Internet, and governmental websites. Results Following this search and utilizing exclusion criteria, 69 studies on adult gambling prevalence were identified. These studies demonstrated that there are wide variations in past-year problem gambling rates across different countries in the world (0.12-5.8%) and in Europe (0.12-3.4%). However, it is difficult to directly compare studies due to different methodological procedures, instruments, cut-offs, and time frames. Despite the variability among instruments, some consistent results with regard to demographics were found. Discussion and conclusion The findings highlight the need for continuous monitoring of problem gambling prevalence rates in order to examine the influence of cultural context on gambling patterns, assess the effectiveness of policies on gambling-related harms, and establish priorities for future research.

  10. Two heads are better than one: Australian tobacco control experts' and mental health change champions' consensus on addressing the problem of high smoking rates among people with mental illness. (United States)

    Rowley, Della; Lawn, Sharon; Coveney, John


    Objective The aims of the present study were to explore the beliefs of Australian experts in tobacco control and change champions working in mental health and tobacco cessation, and to identify measures for addressing the problem of high smoking rates for people with mental illness. Methods Qualitative interviews were undertaken to explore participants' views, and the Delphi technique was used to achieve consensus on ways in which the problem would be best addressed. Results This consensus centred on the need for leadership within the mental health system. The problem was reconceptualised from being solely the responsibility of the mental health sector into an issue that requires the combined resources of a partnership and shared leadership between government and non-government services, public health leaders, policy makers and people with mental illness and their families. Conclusions Collaboration would raise the priority of the issue, reduce the debilitating effect of stigma and discrimination within the mental health sector and would place smoking reduction firmly on the political and public agenda. A recovery-orientated focus would increase the skill base and be inclusive of workers, families and carers of people with mental illness who face smoking issues on a daily basis. Reconceptualising this as an issue that would benefit from cooperation and partnerships would disrupt the notion that the problem is solely the responsibility of the mental health sector. What is known about the topic? Rates of smoking have remained high for people with mental illness despite population-wide public health strategies successfully reducing smoking rates in the general population. For people with mental illness, the benefits of quitting smoking for both their mental and physical health are overshadowed by concerns about the complexity of their needs. There is a lack of knowledge about how smoking cessation support can be improved to increase success rates in smokers with

  11. Research priorities for non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal problems: nationally and internationally agreed recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windt Danielle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal problems such as low back pain, neck, knee and shoulder pain are leading causes of disability and activity limitation in adults and are most frequently managed within primary care. There is a clear trend towards large, high quality trials testing the effectiveness of common non-pharmacological interventions for these conditions showing, at best, small to moderate benefits. This paper summarises the main lessons learnt from recent trials of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal conditions in primary care and provides agreed research priorities for future clinical trials. Methods Consensus development using nominal group techniques through national (UK and international workshops. During a national Clinical Trials Thinktank workshop in April 2007 in the UK, a group of 30 senior researchers experienced in clinical trials for musculoskeletal conditions and 2 patient representatives debated the possible explanations for the findings of recent high quality trials of non-pharmacological interventions. Using the qualitative method of nominal group technique, these experts developed and ranked a set of priorities for future research, guided by the evidence from recent trials of treatments for common musculoskeletal problems. The recommendations from the national workshop were presented and further ranked at an international symposium (hosted in Canada in June 2007. Results 22 recommended research priorities were developed, of which 12 reached consensus as priorities for future research from the UK workshop. The 12 recommendations were reduced to 7 agreed priorities at the international symposium. These were: to increase the focus on implementation (research into practice; to develop national musculoskeletal research networks in which large trials can be sited and smaller trials supported; to use more innovative trial designs such as those based on stepped care and subgrouping for

  12. Micro-Cognitive-Processes at the Interface Research-Education-Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Caron-Pargue


    Full Text Available A first part of this paper gives a rough picture of some difficulties encountered in research, in education, and in problem solving, for integrating them to one another. One can notice a much too global characterization of cognitive processes and a lack in the characterization of semiotic aspects. A second part analyses some theoretical limits to this integration. They are mainly due to the current conception of memories unable to take into consideration the micro-cognitive-processes at work under the reorganizations of knowledge when actualized within the situation. A third part presents a way toward the integration research-education-problem solving, relying on a cognitive approach of Culioli's enunciative theory of language, and presents some of the author's data. Micro-cognitive-processes are depicted in terms of the construction of aggregates (declarative versus procedural ones, standing at different levels of internalization and externalization, and of different processes of detachment from the situation. Then several kinds of interactions allow an on-line identification of the constraints of the task. The characterization of these constraints seems basic for each of the considered areas, research, education, and problem solving.

  13. Assessing the status of research on violence-related problems among youth. (United States)

    Acosta, O M; Albus, K E; Reynolds, M W; Spriggs, D; Weist, M D


    Presents results of a systematic review of abstracts on studies related to violence and youth in an effort to identify areas that have received little attention in the psychological literature and to present recommendations for future research. A total of 1,168 empirical articles on violence-related problems in youth were identified by a PsycINFO (American Psychological Association, 1980-1999) search. These articles were then classified in a multidimensional grid, allowing for comparisons among different types of articles. A review of abstracts from these articles indicated that most of the research activity has been descriptive (e.g., reviewing correlates or predictors of violence involvement) or assessment related (e.g., evaluating specific measures). Fewer articles examined the treatment or prevention of violence-related problems among youth. Further, the majority of studies pertained to direct exposure to violence (as a victim or perpetrator), with very few studies looking at the effects of witnessing violence, knowing individuals exposed to violence, or being exposed to violence through the media. Comparing treatment and prevention articles, we found that the least empirical attention was paid to the prevention of violence-related problems in youth, and not a single study was identified through this search that sought to examine the prevention of youth witnessing violence. Implications for future research agendas are discussed.

  14. How can we improve problem solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research. (United States)

    Hoskinson, A-M; Caballero, M D; Knight, J K


    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.

  15. License Address List (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  16. Reach Address Database (RAD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  17. Globalization and the contemporary development of Marxist philosophy: precondition, problem domain and research outline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Kang


    Globalization was just emerging but did not really take shape during Karl Marx's time.In fact,both Karl Marx and Engels predicted the trend of globalization but did not really live in such a time.Therefore,globalization is still a new issue and a new research area for Marxist philosophy today.Based on the distinctions between some important concepts such as globalization and modernization,this paper probes the problems concerning the development of modernity theory,social morphology and civilization theory,and the Marxist theory of values raised in the process of globalization.The paper also explores some theoretical issues concerning the socialist modernization with Chinese characteristics in the Marxist philosophy,and contemplates possible research areas,angles and methods of Marxist philosophical research in the global era.

  18. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian


    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  19. A Glimpse of Scientific Research on Fundamental Problems of Military and Civil Aeronautics (United States)


    Among the outstanding accomplishments of the last century is man's conquest of the air. That conquest began in 1903 when the Wright brothers made the first successful flight of an airplane at Kitty Hawk, N. C. Five years later the United States Government purchased its first airplane for the use of the Army, and began the training of officers for military flying. During the years immediately preceding the outbreak of the World War the Government and a meager aircraft industry had made important progress, but the Government, practically the only customer, had purchased less than 100 airplanes. In the meantime, leading European nations, sensing acutely the potentialities of aircraft in warfare, had made greater progress and had begun laying the foundations for the new science of aeronautics. The World War gave a remarkable impetus to the development of aeronautics and emphasized the need for organized research on the fundamental problems of flight. By act of Congress approved March 3, 1915, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was created and charged with the duty of supervising, directing, and conducting fundamental scientific research and experiment in aeronautics. With the farsighted support of the Congress the Committee has led the world in the development of unique aeronautical research facilities in its laboratories at Langley Field, Va. The research programs include problems initiated by the Committee and its subcommittees and also investigations requested by the Army, the Navy, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority. The results of researches conducted under one control, serve without duplication of effort, the needs of all branches of aviation, civil and military, and exert a profound influence on the progress of aeronautics by improving the performance, efficiency, and safety of aircraft. A brief description of the results of some of the committee's researches and of the equipment employed will be found in the following pages.

  20. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James V. Taranik


    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  1. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research. (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick


    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban Esra SARAL KOBAL


    Full Text Available All family enterprises nowadays are trying to have competitive advantage in their market and increase the productivity and efficiency of their operations. These are mandatory factors for those companies to survive and stay competitive in their markets. Institutionalization is one of the most important elements provides enterprises better competitive advantage, productivity and efficiency. This study aims to specify the level of institutionalization at family business and the problems that second generation of the related family faces during the institutionalization process. Because of this, study emphasizes, family business, institutionalization and second generation of the family’s problems. In parallel with the goal of this study, first institutionalization and levels of institutionalization will be shortly described. After this, the details of the problems that second generations are facing shall be determined. As the last concept of this study, the fundamentals of institutionalization at family business and corporate management will be analyzed. This study consisted of 3 sections. The first section is about the analysis of literature, second section defines the corporate fundamentals of the research and definition of the basic concepts, last section is about evaluation of the research and findings.

  3. Being relevant: Practical guidance for early career researchers interested in solving conservation problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Chapman


    Full Text Available In a human-altered world where biodiversity is in decline and conservation problems abound, there is a dire need to ensure that the next generation of conservation scientists have the knowledge, skills, and training to address these problems. So called “early career researchers” (ECRs in conservation science have many challenges before them and it is clear that the status quo must change to bridge the knowledge–action divide. Here we identify thirteen practical strategies that ECRs can employ to become more relevant. In this context, “relevance” refers to the ability to contribute to solving conservation problems through engagement with practitioners, policy makers, and stakeholders. Conservation and career strategies outlined in this article include the following: thinking ‘big picture’ during conservation projects; embracing various forms of knowledge; maintaining positive relationships with locals familiar with the conservation issue; accepting failure as a viable (and potentially valuable outcome; daring to be creative; embracing citizen science; incorporating interdisciplinarity; promoting and practicing pro-environmental behaviours; understanding financial aspects of conservation; forming collaboration from the onset of a project; accepting the limits of technology; ongoing and effective networking; and finally, maintaining a positive outlook by focusing on and sharing conservation success stories. These strategies move beyond the generic and highlight the importance of continuing to have an open mind throughout the entire conservation process, from establishing one’s self as an asset to embracing collaboration and interdisciplinary work, and striving to push for professional and personal connections that strengthen personal career objectives.

  4. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India. (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit


    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Foreword JEFC Research is one of the ten education research items of the eighth-five- year plan in Xinjiang U. A. R. The research mainly focuses on the new syllabus, JEFC itself, the new methodology, teacher training and problems and solutions of JEFC in Xinjiang. The research has been finished with the hard work of the researchers and the help of some experts and VSO teachers. Many thanks to these kind people. The following is a report of the research into the main problems and solutions of JEFC teaching in Xinjiang.

  6. Some Problems in the Research of Cartographic Representations of Croatian Cities from the 16th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivka Kljajić


    Full Text Available Analysis of representations of Croatian cities bound into five manuscript atlases: two atlases (signature Cod. 8607 and Cod. 8609 from the Collection of Manuscripts, Documents and Heritage of the AustrianNational Library (Handschriften-, Autographen- und Nachlass-Sammlung der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Vienna, two (signature Schr. XXVI, F. 96, Nr. 6 and Schr. XXVI, F. 96, Nr. 11 from the Saxon Central State Archive (Sächsisches Hauptstaatsarchiv in Dresden and one (signature Hfk. Bd. XV from the Main Land Archive (Generallandesarchiv in Karlsruhe. Some of the problems encountered during the research are described and explained in the paper. They are: determination of more accurate data about the first discoveries about the existence of representations of Croatian cities, the titles of the atlases and the time of their production. Incorrect signature citation is stressed, as well as the problem of incomplete data. 

  7. The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L


    Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child's externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment.

  8. EDITORIAL: Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark (United States)

    Baer, Paul; Kammen, Daniel M.


    This is not the usual Editor-in-Chief letter, namely one that focuses on the accomplishments of the journal—and for ERL they have been numerous this year—but a recognition of the critical time that we are now in when it comes to addressing not only global climate change, but also the dialog between science and politics. In recognition of the many 'tipping points' that we now confront—ideally some of them positive social moments—as well as the clear scientific conclusion that environmental tipping points are points of long-lasting disruption, this paper takes a different form than I might have otherwise written. While the scientific body of knowledge around global environmental change mounts, so too, do the hopeful signs that change can happen. The election of Barack Obama is unquestionably one such sign, witnessed by the exceptional interest that his story has brought not only to US politics, but also to global views of the potential of the United States, as well as to the potential role of science and investigation in addressing pressing issues. In light of these inter-related issues, reproduced here—largely due to the efforts of Paul Baer to transcribe a remarkable conversation—is a dialog not only on the science of global warming and the potential set of means to address this issue, but also on the interaction between research, science and the political process. The dialog itself is sufficiently important that I will dispense with the usual discussion of the exciting recognition that ERL has received with an ISI rating (a factor rapidly increasing), the high levels of downloads of our papers (for some articles over 5000 and counting), and the many news and scientific publications picking up ERL articles (in recent days alone Science, Environmental Science and Technology, and The Economist). This conversation was the concluding plenary session of the 10-12 March International Association of Research Universities (IARU) Conference on Climate Change

  9. Research on the Optimal Parallel Algorithms of Broadcast—Class Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峰; 寿标; 等


    Speedup is considered as the criterion of determining whether a parallel algorithm is optimal.But broadcast-class problems,existing only on parallel computer system,have no sequential algorithms at all.Speedup standard becomes invalid here.Through this research on broadcast algorithms under several typical prallel computation models,a model-independent evaluation standard min C2 is developed,which can be not only used to determine an optimal broadcasting algorithm,but also normalized to apply to any parallel algorithm.As a new idea,min C2 will lead to a new way in this field.

  10. [Thought on several problems of clinical revaluation of post-marketing herb research]. (United States)

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan


    The revaluation of post-marketing herb is a complex research work, which concerns widely content and difficult to put it into practice. The starting of our country's revaluation post-marketing herb was comparatively late. It should profect it both in laws and regulations mechanism as well as technological specification. This article is try to focus on some attention problems in revaluation of postmarketing herb process. Such as the laws and regulations demand, the basement and the subject of revaluation of post-marketing herb.

  11. Aeroelastic problems in turbomachines (United States)

    Bendiksen, Oddvar O.


    An overview is given of aeroelastic problems in turbomachines, emphasizing recent research. Unsteady flow in cascade and turbomachinery rotors is discussed, including supersonic and transonic linearized potential flow and nonlinear flow models. Computational and modeling aspects of the flutter of fan and compressor blades are examined. The correlation of the findings with experimental data is considered. Future directions in turbomachinery aeroelasticity are addressed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Valentinovna Shipova


    Full Text Available The review of psychology and pedagogical researches of the mentally retarded children devoted to studying of a problem of emotional development in foreign science and practice is presented in article. Various approaches to an assessment of the importance of violations of the emotional sphere of the personality at mentally retarded children for all mental development of the child are considered, need of the accounting of emotional frustration of mentally retarded children for their education and education, and also social adaptation and integration into sociocultural and educational space is discussed. Research of emotional development of mentally retarded children in the course of training is important for development of programs of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics and correction of emotional violations at this category of school students, formation of their self-control, development of the emotional relations.

  13. A Research Review of Crime Problems%犯罪问题研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      犯罪问题具有普遍性,是长期困扰人类社会的难题之一。文章从宏观和微观角度阐述了国内外研究现状,并详细总结了近几年的研究方法,如数据挖掘、模糊数学、神经网络、灰色系统等。然后,指出了犯罪问题研究中存在的犯罪明数与犯罪暗数问题,最后给出了犯罪问题研究的发展趋势,对犯罪问题研究具有较强的指导意义。%  Crime problems are universal, which have long plagued human society. This article elaborates the current situation of studies both at home and abroad from macroscopic and microscopic angles respectively and summarizes the research methods in recent years in detail, such as data mining, fuzzy mathematics, neural network, gray system. Then this article points out the existing problems concerning light figure of crime and dark figure of crime in the studies on crime problems. Finally this article will play a very important role in guiding future studies by providing the development tendency.

  14. Research Progress on the Problem of Fluid, Heat and Energy Distribution near the Earthquake Source Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Rui; Jiang Changsheng; Shao Zhigang; Zhou Longquan; Li Yingchun


    As the basic problems in seismology, fluid, heat and energy distribution near earthquake sources during earthquake generation have been the leading subjects of concern to seismologists. Currently, more and more research shows fluid around earthquake source areas, which plays an important role in the process of earthquake preparation and generation. However, there is considerable controversy over the source of fluid in the deep crust. As for the problem of heat around earthquake source areas, different models have been proposed to explain the stress heat flow paradox. Among them, the dynamic weakening model has been thought to be the key to solving the heat flow paradox issue. After large earthquakes, energy distribution is directly related to friction heat. It is of timely and important practical significance to immediately implement deep drilling in-site surveying to gain understanding of fluid, friction heat and energy distribution during earthquake generation. The latest international progress in fluid, heat and energy distribution research has been reviewed in this paper which will bring important inspiration for the understanding of earthquake preparation and occurrence.

  15. The Usefulness of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches and Methods in Researching Problem-Solving Ability in Science Education Curriculum (United States)

    Eyisi, Daniel


    Research in science education is to discover the truth which involves the combination of reasoning and experiences. In order to find out appropriate teaching methods that are necessary for teaching science students problem-solving skills, different research approaches are used by educational researchers based on the data collection and analysis…

  16. Review of Research for People with ID and Mental Health Problems: A View from the United Kingdom (United States)

    Hemmings, Colin; Deb, Shoumitro; Chaplin, Eddie; Hardy, Steve; Mukherjee, Rittick


    This review of research into mental disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) focuses on research in this field that has originated from the United Kingdom in the last 2 decades. It considers research developments into the epidemiology of mental disorders and problem behaviors, psychopharmacology, psychosocial interventions, and…

  17. Problem Types in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Research: Implications for the Development of Curricular Problems for Second-Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.


    Understanding of the nature of science is key to the development of new curricular materials that mirror the practice of science. Three problem types (project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day) in synthetic organic chemistry emerged during a thematic content analysis of the research experiences of eight practising synthetic organic…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Vladimirovna Vardanyan


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. On the basis of analysis of ideas about psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form the necessity of overcoming the fragmentation and lack of system is substantiated. The authors state that one and the same sports situation can constructively or destructively affect the psychological safety of direct or indirect participants of sports events. In this context, it is important to create the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports. Great attention is paid to systematization of the content of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. The created models of words and expressions that convey ideas about this phenomenon are of particular value. In the structure of the concept the dominant meanings, expressed in the nucleus, and additional meanings, related to the periphery of the concept are distinguished.Purpose: to explore the ideas of psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form; to determine ways of overcoming the conceptual psycholinguistic problems in the process of experimental research of psychological safety in sports; to create the model of words and expressions which are used to verbalize the concept “psychological safety in sports”.Methodology: theoretical analysis of psychological and linguistic literature, creation of the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research, modeling of the conceptual ideas of psychological safety in sports.Results: psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports, the model of content and structure of the corresponding concept.Practical implications: Pedagogical Psychology, Sports Psychology, Philology, Psycholinguistics.DOI:

  19. Temas e problemas nos projetos de pesquisa Thems and problems in research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Bianchi


    Full Text Available O ponto de partida da atividade cienífica é o espanto e a admiração perante o desconhecido que provocam a imaginação científica, conduzindo o investigador à escolha de uma dada temática. Relevância para o mundo real e contribuição para um campo específico do conhecimento são, aqui, critérios de definição temática. Para o cientista, o tema de pesquisa é o terreno sobre o qual ele formulará problemas relevantes de investigação capazes de suprir lacunas em nossos conhecimentos. Tais problemas devem ser construídos de tal maneira que suas soluções não só esclareçam aspectos até então não explicados do tema, como apontem para novos problemas, ou seja, futuras investigações científicas. Constatando a crescente exigência de monografias de conclusão de curso para a obtenção de título nos cursos de graduação, o artigo procura construir um guia para a definição de temas e a formulação de pesquisa nas ciências humanas. Para tanto, procederá a uma reconstrução metodológica do caminho percorrido por C. Wright Mills em sua obra The power elite. Palavras-chave: Metodologia da pesquisa. Pesquisa cientifica. Problemas científicos. The starting point of the scientific activity is the puzzle and admiration in face of the unknown, which, certainly, will challenge the scientific imagination, leading the researcher in the choice of a certain theme. Relevance for the real world and contribution for a specific field of knowledge are the basic criteria for the thematic definition used here. For the scientist, the theme of the research is the base to formulate relevant research problems able to fill in the gaps of our knowledge. Such problems must be built in such a way that is solutions will not only clarify some aspects of the theme that remained not explained but also provide a path for new questions, i.e., for new scientifc researches to come. As there is a growing demand of under-graduate monographs for

  20. Three-Dimensional Problems of Thermoviscoplasticity: Focus on Ukrainian Research (Review) (United States)

    Shevchenko, Yu. N.; Savchenko, V. G.


    Methods and results of studying the three-dimensional viscoplastic stress-strain state of engineering structures under thermomechanical loading are presented. The following classes of thermoviscoelastic problems are considered: axisymmetric problems, nonaxisymmetric problems for bodies of revolution, three-dimensional problems for arbitrarily shaped bodies, three-dimensional problems for isotropic and anisotropic bodies of revolution

  1. Managing Ethical Problems in Qualitative Research Involving Vulnerable Populations, Using a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk RN, PhD


    Full Text Available The purpose of the researcher's study was to examine the meaning that intimate partners of female rape victims attached to their lived experiences after the rape. The conduct of qualitative research concerning non-offending partners of female rape victims, however, often involves multifaceted ethical and practical challenges, which can be managed through the use of pilot studies. The pilot study described in this report had three objectives. The first was to pretest and refine the proposed method for locating, accessing, and recruiting intimate partners of female rape victims, within the first two weeks after the rape, for participation in a six-month longitudinal study. The second objective was to identify and prevent all possible risk factors in the proposed recruitment and data collection methods that could harm the participants' safety during the main study. The third objective was to determine the feasibility of the main study, in terms of the limited financial and human resources available. The pilot phase was valuable in identifying ethical and methodological problems during the recruitment of participants and collection of data. It allowed for methodological adjustments prior to the main study and confirmed the feasibility of the overall research design. A pilot, pretesting phase is therefore seen as an essential component of a qualitative study involving a vulnerable population.

  2. Bioethicists Can and Should Contribute to Addressing Racism. (United States)

    Danis, Marion; Wilson, Yolonda; White, Amina


    The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it. To make any useful contribution, bioethicists will require preparation and should expect to play a significant role through collaborative action with others.

  3. WebMail versus WebApp: Comparing Problem-Based Learning Methods in a Business Research Methods Course (United States)

    Williams van Rooij, Shahron


    This study examined the impact of two Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approaches on knowledge transfer, problem-solving self-efficacy, and perceived learning gains among four intact classes of adult learners engaged in a group project in an online undergraduate business research methods course. With two of the classes using a text-only PBL workbook…

  4. Training Interdisciplinary "Wicked Problem" Solvers: Applying Lessons from HERO in Community-Based Research Experiences for Undergraduates (United States)

    Cantor, Alida; DeLauer, Verna; Martin, Deborah; Rogan, John


    Management of "wicked problems", messy real-world problems that defy resolution, requires thinkers who can transcend disciplinary boundaries, work collaboratively, and handle complexity and obstacles. This paper explores how educators can train undergraduates in these skills through applied community-based research, using the example of…

  5. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barthel


    Full Text Available Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2, which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have

  6. The rising tide of ocean diseases: Unsolved problems and research priorities (United States)

    Harvell, Drew; Aronson, Richard; Baron, Nancy; Connell, Joseph; Dobson, Andrew P.; Ellner, Steve; Gerber, Leah R.; Kim, Kiho; Kuris, Armand M.; McCallum, Hamish; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McKay, Bruce; Porter, James; Pascual, Mercedes; Smith, Garriett; Sutherland, Katherine; Ward, Jessica


    New studies have detected a rising number of reports of diseases in marine organisms such as corals, molluscs, turtles, mammals, and echinoderms over the past three decades. Despite the increasing disease load, microbiological, molecular, and theoretical tools for managing disease in the world's oceans are under-developed. Review of the new developments in the study of these diseases identifies five major unsolved problems and priorities for future research: (1) detecting origins and reservoirs for marine diseases and tracing the flow of some new pathogens from land to sea; (2) documenting the longevity and host range of infectious stages; (3) evaluating the effect of greater taxonomic diversity of marine relative to terrestrial hosts and pathogens; (4) pinpointing the facilitating role of anthropogenic agents as incubators and conveyors of marine pathogens; (5) adapting epidemiological models to analysis of marine disease.

  7. Assessing Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multiple Stressors: Overview of the Problem and Research Needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Munns, Jr.


    Full Text Available Wildlife populations are experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors including agricultural and urban land use, introduced invasive and exotic species, nutrient enrichment, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemicals directly or indirectly influence the quality and quantity of habitat used by terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Governmental agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are required to assess risks to wildlife populations, in its broadest definition, that result from exposure to these stressors, yet considerable uncertainty exists with respect to how such assessments should be conducted. This uncertainty is compounded by questions concerning the interactive effects of co-occurring stressors, appropriate spatial scales of analysis, extrapolation of response data among species and from organisms to populations, and imperfect knowledge and use of limited data sets. Further, different risk problems require varying degrees of sophistication, methodological refinement, and data quality. These issues suggest a number of research needs to improve methods for wildlife risk assessments, including continued development of population dynamics models to evaluate the effects of multiple stressors at varying spatial scales, methods for extrapolating across endpoints and species with reasonable confidence, stressor-response relations and methods for combining them in predictive and diagnostic assessments, and accessible data sets describing the ecology of terrestrial and aquatic species. Case study application of models and methods for assessing wildlife risk will help to demonstrate their strengths and limitations for solving particular risk problems.

  8. Problem solving in physics: research review, analysis, and a methodological proposal

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    Maria Helena Fávero


    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on problem solving in Physics based on the scientific articles published in periodicals of the related field of study. The articles considered for this study were published in the period between the end of the 70`s until 1999. A categorization of the publications , according to the issue investigated, the theoretical background used, the research method adopted, the results and conclusions are considered as a starting point in order to present a research profile of the field of study. Next, this profile is discussed and analyzed , pointing out the convergent aspects that characterize the field. Taking this analysis into account, the following thesis (based on Fávero`s proposal, 2000 is defended: in order to generate tools for the teaching practice of Physics through the study of problem solving, a method that substitutes the idea of knowledge transmission in the communication processes that takes place in the classroom should be developed. This method should comprise the idea of interlocution (Vion, 2000 which focuses on social interaction as a means to reveal metacognitive regulations of the subjects, pariticipants in the process, and their development of awareness in relation to a conceptual field (Vergnaud, 1990 – Physics, in this case. The analysis of these processes considers the verbal exchanges among the subjects (Bromberg & Chabrol, 1999 developed in the situation of interaction. This thesis is supported by the articulation of concepts in Psychology, including its interface with linguistics, such as conceptual field, development of awareness and acts of speech, which are reconsidered in this study.

  9. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  10. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling


    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  11. Exploring the Use of Computer Simulations in Unraveling Research and Development Governance Problems (United States)

    Balaban, Mariusz A.; Hester, Patrick T.


    Understanding Research and Development (R&D) enterprise relationships and processes at a governance level is not a simple task, but valuable decision-making insight and evaluation capabilities can be gained from their exploration through computer simulations. This paper discusses current Modeling and Simulation (M&S) methods, addressing their applicability to R&D enterprise governance. Specifically, the authors analyze advantages and disadvantages of the four methodologies used most often by M&S practitioners: System Dynamics (SO), Discrete Event Simulation (DES), Agent Based Modeling (ABM), and formal Analytic Methods (AM) for modeling systems at the governance level. Moreover, the paper describes nesting models using a multi-method approach. Guidance is provided to those seeking to employ modeling techniques in an R&D enterprise for the purposes of understanding enterprise governance. Further, an example is modeled and explored for potential insight. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding opportunities for concentration of future work in modeling and simulating R&D governance relationships and processes.

  12. Building a platform for translational research in chronic noncommunicable diseases to address population health: lessons from NHLBI supported CRONICAS in Peru. (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cardenas, María K; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Pesantes, M Amalia; Araya, Ricardo; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G; Montori, Victor; Pan, William; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; García, Héctor H; Gilman, Robert H


    The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognized center of excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The center's identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity-building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organization: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment are key to fostering innovation in research.

  13. Theory, Research, and Practice for Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing With Disabilities: Addressing the Challenges from Birth to Postsecondary Education. (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline; Cannon, Joanna E


    Students who are deaf with a disability or disabilities (DWD) constitute nearly half of the population of K-12 learners who are deaf or hard of hearing. However, there is a dearth of information on theory, research, and practice related to these learners. The authors present an overview of (a) how the field of education of students who are D/deaf and hard of hearing might refer to this unique population in a way that represents the learner, not the disability; (b) the demographic data that further define these learners; (c) a theoretical framework within which to guide research and practice; (d) prevalence and frequency of the existing research; and (e) the practices and resources available to guide practitioners and the parents of students who are DWD. Questions are posed to the field on how to continue to improve the theory, research, and pedagogy used with these students.

  14. Measuring Human Performance on Clustering Problems: Some Potential Objective Criteria and Experimental Research Opportunities (United States)

    Brusco, Michael J.


    The study of human performance on discrete optimization problems has a considerable history that spans various disciplines. The two most widely studied problems are the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem and the quadratic assignment problem. The purpose of this paper is to outline a program of study for the measurement of human performance on…

  15. Utilizing a logic model to identify clinical research problems: a lesson from philosophy of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins CR


    Full Text Available Cynthia R Collins School of Nursing, College of Social Sciences, Loyola University, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Communication and decision making in the health care workplace often involve finding solutions to ill-structured problems in uncertain, dynamic environments influenced by the competing interests of multiple stakeholders. In this environment, doctoral-prepared nurses who practice as administrators, policy makers, or advanced practice practitioners are often compelled to make important decisions based upon evaluating the merit of colleagues’ proposals against some desired organizational or population outcome. Of equal importance is the nurse leader’s own capacity to construct a compelling argument or proposal that will drive the organization forward to meet the evolving needs for quality health care. Where do we learn the skills necessary to foster this kind of critical thinking in our professional communications? The author suggests that one teaching–learning approach can be found through the thoughtful application of the work of British philosopher Steven Toulmin. Toulmin defined a model for both the analysis and derivation of logical arguments or proposals that can be readily learned and applied for use in health care systems. This model posits that a substantive argument or claim can be evaluated based on the assumptions it presumes (warrants and the strength of the evidence base (backing. Several of the social science professions have adapted Toulmin’s model to generate analysis and creative solutions to complex or emergent problems. The author proposes that an application of this model be included in the pedagogy of doctoral level Philosophy of Science or Nursing Theory courses. The Toulmin process often provides the doctoral student or novice researcher with their first real learning experience in defining the scope and inherent challenges of framing a clinical issue to be the focus of their scholarly translational

  16. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, C.W.


    chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  17. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity. (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L


    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  18. Research (United States)

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973


    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  19. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: the problem of helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lustigman

    Full Text Available A disproportionate burden of helminthiases in human populations occurs in marginalised, low-income, and resource-constrained regions of the world, with over 1 billion people in developing areas of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas infected with one or more helminth species. The morbidity caused by such infections imposes a substantial burden of disease, contributing to a vicious circle of infection, poverty, decreased productivity, and inadequate socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/AIDS, and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections tend to be persistent. Hence, there is a great need to reduce morbidity caused by helminth infections. However, major deficiencies exist in diagnostics and interventions, including vector control, drugs, and vaccines. Overcoming these deficiencies is hampered by major gaps in knowledge of helminth biology and transmission dynamics, platforms from which to help develop such tools. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, we provide an overview of the forces driving the persistence of helminthiases as a public health problem despite the many control initiatives that have been put in place; identify the main obstacles that impede progress towards their control and elimination; and discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges for the understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and control of these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis.

  20. One More Time: The Need for More Mathematical Problem Solving and What the Research Says about It (United States)

    Woodward, John


    This article reviews recent research in math problem solving for students with learning disabilities. Two recently published syntheses of research on mathematics by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) are used as frameworks for interpreting this body of work. A significant amount of the work in special education over the last decade is…

  1. The effects of child- and youth-coaching for children in multi-problem families : Research proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assen, Arjen; Grietens, Hans; Post, Wendy; Knot-Dickscheit, Jana


    This research proposal was presented at the ISED research days 2015 at Leiden University. Children and teenagers growing up in environments with multiple stressors are at an increased risk for developing behavioural and emotional problems. In this proposal a study is presented that aims to evaluate

  2. Identifying Opportunities for Collaborations in International Engineering Education Research on Problem-and Project-Based Learning (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey D.; Jesiek, Brent K.; Borrego, Maura


    We report on the results of a study to examine the global state of engineering education research on problem-and project-based learning (PBL). This paper has two major aims. First, we analyze a large collection of conference papers and journal articles to report on research trends in PBL, including in specific, leading countries. Second, based…

  3. GIS-based geocoding methods for area-based addresses and 3D addresses in urban areas


    Jiyeong Lee


    For more than four decades, two address-matching methods, the street-based address geocoding method and address-point-matching method, have been used to identify geographical coordinates from postal addresses. However, street-based address geocoding methods developed for the US addressing system are not universally applicable in developing a single-portal geocoding middleware for worldwide Internet-based geographic information systems applications. Problems also exist with address-point match...

  4. Internet Research: The Question of Method - A Keynote Address from the YouTube and the 2008 Election Cycle in the United States Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.


    Digital studies on culture may be distinguished from cultural studies of the digital, at least in terms of method. This lecture takes up the question of the distinctiveness of "digital methods" for researching Internet cultures. It asks, initially, should the methods of study change, however slightl

  5. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop (United States)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.


    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and

  6. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation`s nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department`s environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department`s environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C.

  7. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization. (United States)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  8. Role of organic soils in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V. (ed.)


    The following goals were addressed in the workshop: review and analysis of available data on carbon in organic soils from the past century to the present; assessment of the probable flux of carbon to and from organic soils in the near future; identification of major data inadequacies which preclude reliable analysis of the principal processes influencing carbon flux in organic soils; and proposal of research initiatives which could improve understanding of organic deposits in relation to the carbon cycle within a time frame of two to four years. The major finding of the workshop is that the organic soils are important in the overall carbon budget. Histosols and gleysols, the major organic soil deposits of the world, normally sequester organic carbon fixed by plants. They may now be releasing enough carbon to account for nearly 10% of the annual rise in atmospheric content of CO/sub 2/. Current annual release of carbon from organic soils is estimated to fall within the range of 0.03 to 0.37 x 10/sup 9/ t, a release equivalent to 1.3% to 16% of the annual increase of carbon in the atmosphere. Present annual releases of carbon from the Everglades Agricultural Area in Florida and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley in California are estimated at 0.017 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Annual sequestering of carbon by undrained organic soils has been estimated at about 0.045 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Several strategies for peatland management are available, including creation, preservation, functional designation, and use of wetlands for agriculture and energy supply.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to

  10. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko


    Full Text Available In traditional technologies of casting moulds and core production on the basis of high-silica sands with binding agent addition, the reclamation consists mainly of a sand recovery and very seldom of a sand and bentonite recovery.Analysis of data from several countries indicates that from 600 to 1200 kg of fresh sand is used for 1 tonne of ferrous casting alloys. In Poland it is 1000 kg of sand for 1 tonne of castings [1]. Out of this amount approximately 20% of fresh sand is used for core production and the remaining amount for rebounding moulding sands. Analysis of data from 20 largest Polish foundries, performed in 2004 [2] indicates that approximately 50% of waste foundry sands is reclaimed while the rest is directed to dumping grounds. Taking into account all remaining foundries it can be estimated that approximately 250-350 000 tonnes of waste foundry sands are sent to dumping grounds annually.Important issue are costs of storage, which depend on the kind of wastes and on the ownership form of dump-sites (municipal dumpinggrounds, plant’s or own [belonging to the foundry] as well as on their relation to the costs of purchasing fresh sands. Average charges for storage of moulding sands wastes on storage yards in Europe are within the range: 12.5 to 61 Eu, which means from 85% to above 400% of purchasing costs of 1 tonne of fresh high-silica sand. The contractual price accepted for such sand in the BREF UE document [3] is 14.56 Eu. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands can be systematised according to the research fields and the actual state of knowledge - based on the analysis of scientific papers.

  11. Location-routing problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporte, G.


    Location-routing problems involve simultaneously locating a number of facilities among candidate sites and establishing delivery routes to a set of users in such a way that the total system cost is minimized. This paper presents a survey of such problems. It includes some applications and examples of location-routing problems, a description of the main heuristics that have been developed for such problems, and reviews of various formulations and algorithms used in solving these problems. A more detailed review is given of exact algorithms for the vehicle routing problem, three-index vehicle flow formulations, and two-index vehicle flow formulations and algorithms for symmetrical and non-symmetrical problems. It is concluded that location-routing problem research is a fast-growing area, with most developments occurring over the past few years; however, research is relatively fragmented, often addresses problems which are too specific and contains several voids which have yet to be filled. A number of promising research areas are identified. 137 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-yun; LEI Dong-yang; TANG Wen-bang; XIAO Ying-hui


    The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed,including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification,the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production.In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines,four types,including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice),TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice),reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS,were proposed.A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed.The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones.The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer.In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines,the charecterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward.The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  13. Modifying a Research-Based Problem-Solving Intervention to Improve the Problem-Solving Performance of Fifth and Sixth Graders With and Without Learning Disabilities. (United States)

    Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia


    The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a modified cognitive strategy instructional intervention originally developed to improve the mathematical problem solving of middle and high school students with learning disabilities (LD). Fifth and sixth grade general education mathematics teachers and their students of varying ability (i.e., average-achieving [AA] students, low-achieving [LA] students, and students with LD) participated in the research study. Several features of the intervention were modified, including (a) explicitness of instruction, (b) emphasis on meta-cognition, (c) focus on problem-solving prerequisites, (d) extended duration of initial intervention, and (e) addition of visual supports. General education math teachers taught all instructional sessions to their inclusive classrooms. Curriculum-based measures (CBMs) of math problem solving were administered five times over the course of the year. A multilevel model (repeated measures nested within students and students nested within schools) was used to analyze student progress on CBMs. Though CBM scores in the intervention group were initially lower than that of the comparison group, intervention students improved significantly more in the first phase, with no differences in the second phase. Implications for instruction are discussed as well as directions for future research.

  14. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 2008


    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  15. A coordinated cross-disciplinary research initiative to address an increased incidence of narcolepsy following the 2009-2010 Pandemrix vaccination programme in Sweden. (United States)

    Feltelius, N; Persson, I; Ahlqvist-Rastad, J; Andersson, M; Arnheim-Dahlström, L; Bergman, P; Granath, F; Adori, C; Hökfelt, T; Kühlmann-Berenzon, S; Liljeström, P; Maeurer, M; Olsson, T; Örtqvist, Å; Partinen, M; Salmonson, T; Zethelius, B


    In response to the 2009-2010 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, a mass vaccination programme with the AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) vaccine Pandemrix was initiated in Sweden. Unexpectedly, there were a number of narcolepsy cases amongst vaccinated children and adolescents reported. In this review, we summarize the results of a joint cross-disciplinary national research effort to investigate the adverse reaction signal from the spontaneous reporting system and to better understand possible causative mechanisms. A three- to fourfold increased risk of narcolepsy in vaccinated children and adolescents was verified by epidemiological studies. Of importance, no risk increase was observed for the other neurological and autoimmune diseases studied. Genetic studies confirmed the association with the allele HLA-DQB1*06:02, which is known to be related to sporadic narcolepsy. Furthermore, a number of studies using cellular and molecular experimental models investigated possible links between influenza vaccination and narcolepsy. Serum analysis, using a peptide microarray platform, showed that individuals who received Pandemrix exhibited a different epitope reactivity pattern to neuraminidase and haemagglutinin, as compared to individuals who were infected with H1N1. Patients with narcolepsy were also found to have increased levels of interferon-gamma production in response to streptococcus-associated antigens. The chain of patient-related events and the study results emerging over time were subjected to intense nationwide media attention. The importance of transparent communication and collaboration with patient representatives to maintain public trust in vaccination programmes is also discussed in the review. Organizational challenges due to this unexpected event delayed the initiation of some of the research projects, still the main objectives of this joint, cross-disciplinary research effort were reached, and important insights were acquired for future, similar

  16. Quantitative and qualitative approaches in educational researchproblems and examples of controlled understanding through interpretive methods (United States)

    Neumann, Karl


    In the methodological discussion of recent years it has become apparent that many research problems, including problems relating to the theory of educational science, cannot be solved by using quantitative methods. The multifaceted aspects of human behaviour and all its environment-bound subtle nuances, especially the process of education or the development of identity, cannot fully be taken into account within a rigid neopositivist approach. In employing the paradigm of symbolic interactionism as a suitable model for the analysis of processes of education and formation, the research has generally to start out from complex reciprocal social interactions instead of unambigious connections of causes. In analysing several particular methodological problems, the article demonstrates some weaknesses of quantitative approaches and then shows the advantages in and the necessity for using qualitative research tools.

  17. Address on the Occasion of the Meeting of the Second Committee of Governmental Experts on Problems in the Field of Copyright and of the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations Raised by Transmission via Space Satellites. (United States)

    Maheu, Rene

    These opening remarks by the Director General of Unesco briefly discuss that organization's activities in the area of copyright within the field of satellite communication. They were addressed to members of a committee whose purpose is to determine whether the protection of signals transmitted by communications satellites does or does not require…

  18. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety


    Kotecha, Meena


    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  19. Strategies for Addressing Problems in Silkworm Eggs Production and Management of China%我国蚕种生产与经营存在的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建琴; 顾国达; 封槐松


    蚕种是蚕桑生产最基本的生产资料,也是蚕业科技进步的重要载体.蚕种业的稳定与发展是实现蚕丝业可持续发展的重要基础之一.通过分析近20年我国蚕种生产规模及区域分布、市场供求、生产技术与效率、经营和管理体制的变化与现状,认为我国蚕种生产与经营存在着产能过剩、区域分割、经营规模小、科研与生产脱节、民营化程度低等一系列问题.促进我国蚕种业发展,应该改革和完善蚕种经营管理体制,走市场化、民营化、规模化、一体化和规范化的发展道路.%Silkworm eggs are the most basic production material for sericultural production. They are also an important carrier of sericultural scientific and technological progress. The stability and developnent of silkworm eggs industry is an important basis for implementation of sustainable development of sericulture. Through analyzing the history and current status of China's silkworm eggs production's scale and regional distribution, market supply and demand, production technology and efficeincy, management and administrative system in recent 20 years, it was found that there were a series of problems in silkworm eggs production and management including excessive productivity, regional segmentation, small business scale, research and production disconnected, and low privatization degree. It was suggested to reform and improve the management and administrative system so as to increase degrees of marketization, privatization, business scale, integration, and standardization of silkworm eggs industry.

  20. The A3 Problem Solving Report: A 10-Step Scientific Method to Execute Performance Improvements in an Academic Research Vivarium


    Bassuk, James A.; Washington, Ida M.


    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponso...

  1. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G


    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  2. A Research on English Educational Problems among Intermediates in Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper mainly centers on the neglecting parts of English intermediates in middle school and presents their existing study problems. According to intermediates' characters and learning motivation, I will reveal reasons of these problems and come up with effective strategies from two aspects of English teachers and students.

  3. Community Problem-Solving Framed as a Distributed Information Use Environment: Bridging Research and Practice (United States)

    Durrance, Joan C.; Souden, Maria; Walker, Dana; Fisher, Karen E.


    Introduction: This article results from a qualitative study of 1) information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2) approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method: Several approaches to data collection were…

  4. Is there a role for expectation maximization imputation in addressing missing data in research using WOMAC questionnaire? Comparison to the standard mean approach and a tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutledge John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard mean imputation for missing values in the Western Ontario and Mc Master (WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index limits the use of collected data and may lead to bias. Probability model-based imputation methods overcome such limitations but were never before applied to the WOMAC. In this study, we compare imputation results for the Expectation Maximization method (EM and the mean imputation method for WOMAC in a cohort of total hip replacement patients. Methods WOMAC data on a consecutive cohort of 2062 patients scheduled for surgery were analyzed. Rates of missing values in each of the WOMAC items from this large cohort were used to create missing patterns in the subset of patients with complete data. EM and the WOMAC's method of imputation are then applied to fill the missing values. Summary score statistics for both methods are then described through box-plot and contrasted with the complete case (CC analysis and the true score (TS. This process is repeated using a smaller sample size of 200 randomly drawn patients with higher missing rate (5 times the rates of missing values observed in the 2062 patients capped at 45%. Results Rate of missing values per item ranged from 2.9% to 14.5% and 1339 patients had complete data. Probability model-based EM imputed a score for all subjects while WOMAC's imputation method did not. Mean subscale scores were very similar for both imputation methods and were similar to the true score; however, the EM method results were more consistent with the TS after simulation. This difference became more pronounced as the number of items in a subscale increased and the sample size decreased. Conclusions The EM method provides a better alternative to the WOMAC imputation method. The EM method is more accurate and imputes data to create a complete data set. These features are very valuable for patient-reported outcomes research in which resources are limited and the WOMAC score is used in a multivariate

  5. Moving beyond "It Worked": The Ongoing Evolution of Research on Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education (United States)

    Svinicki, Marilla D.


    Research on Problem-Based Learning in medical education has undergone an evolutionary process from initial proof of concept studies through critiques of the original methods and beyond. Initial studies focused on whether or not the instructional method was effective for medical students and the goals of medical education. Despite much movement…

  6. The importance of systems thinking to address obesity. (United States)

    Finegood, Diane T


    Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems.

  7. Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis (United States)

    Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.


    Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…

  8. [Impact of DSM-5: Application and Problems Based on Clinical and Research Viewpoints on Anxiety Disorders]. (United States)

    Shioiri, Toshiki


    of fears from two or more agoraphobia-related situations is now required, because this is a robust means for distinguishing agoraphobia from specific phobias. Also, the criteria for agoraphobia are now extended to be consistent with criteria sets for other anxiety disorders (e.g., a clinician's judgment of the fears as being out of proportion to the actual danger in the situation, with a typical duration of 6 months or more). From the above, these changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 in anxiety disorders make our judgments faster and more efficient in clinical practice, and DSM-5 is more useful to elucidate the pathology. In this manuscript, we discuss the application and problems based on clinical and research viewpoints regarding anxiety disorders in DSM-5.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Some theoretical problems of fractal geographical map data handling are dis cussed and some new methods about fractal dimension introducing, developing, comparing and estimating are proposed in this paper.

  10. A survey of waterfowl problems in Alaska for the purpose of identifying research needs: Preliminary draft (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report highlights the many and varied problems facing the waterfowl resource of Alaska. Current waterfowl investigations and management programs aimed at...

  11. Qualitative Research as Policy Knowledge: Framing Policy Problems and Transforming Education from the Ground Up (United States)

    Dumas, Michael J.; Anderson, Gary


    As educational research becomes privatized, commodified and commercialized, research relevance increasingly means being incorporated into neoliberal ideological and economic agendas. Within this social context, qualitative research in particular is often deemed less relevant (if not irrelevant) because it does not provide prescriptions for best…

  12. Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercilia García-Álvarez


    Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.

  13. Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan C. Durrance


    Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

  14. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills. (United States)

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul


    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Albertovna Gorodilova


    Full Text Available A special form of the process of cognition this study, i.e. targeted and systematic study that uses the tools of science, and which results in the formation of knowledge about the studied objects. In a broad sense, research is the search for new knowledge. On the other hand (in the narrow sense research is a scientific method of studying something. Cognitive abilities of students based on the ability to «explore».The aim of our study is the problem of formation and development of research skills among students. These skills characterize many kinds of activities corresponding to different levels of professionalism. The development of research skills determines the success of the training. Methodical skill of the teacher is manifested, not only in dealing with certain tasks of teaching, but rather in how these tasks are solved. Without knowledge of historical and pedagogical heritage is impossible to solve the problem of development of research skills in the students.The article conducts historical and pedagogical analysis of literary sources on the problem of developing research skills in students. Considered certain periods in the formation process of formation and development of research abilities of students during their education. This idea existed not in isolation, but in the General system of other Sciences, especially mathematics and philosophy and relevant is not a single century. Changing pedagogical approaches to the implementation of this idea, as changing the conditions of teaching and the individual characteristics of students. But to form and develop in students the ability to think independently, implement research – one of methods of successful training.

  16. An action research inquiry into a health visitor parenting programme for parents of pre-school children with behaviour problems. (United States)

    Kilgour, C; Fleming, V


    An action research inquiry into a health visitor parenting programme for parents of pre-school children with behaviour problems Parent education programmes have recently been given a high profile in this country, such provision deemed necessary because of the commonality of children's behaviour problems and because of their potentially far-reaching effects on the child, the family and society. This action research study, undertaken in Scotland, aims to explore a health visitor parenting programme for parents of pre-school children with behaviour problems. Within this study, children with behaviour problems were identified as those whose parents perceived them to have such problems, the children eliciting a wide range of behaviours and to varying degrees. Critical social science is the chosen methodology, since it allows exploration of how people comprehend their social reality. Group interactions were recorded on audio-tape and themes associated with the methodology of enlightenment, empowerment and emancipation were identified. The results of the study demonstrate how a liberating, collaborative approach to parental education can empower mothers, by increasing understanding and raising self-esteem.

  17. Addressing Test Anxiety (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.


    Research suggests that between 25% to 40% of students experience test anxiety, with students with disabilities and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds having higher prevalence rates. Since test anxiety impacts student well-being and the validity of the important educational decisions based on testing data, this article…

  18. Crossing Borders, Addressing Diversity (United States)

    Canagarajah, Suresh


    This paper presents a story of applied linguistics from my personal vantage point as a multilingual scholar whose career began outside the centers of research and scholarship. The article explains the assumptions and practices characterizing the foundation of the discipline in modernist discourses, and delineates the changes resulting from…

  19. Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of

  20. Research on problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of some variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eroğlu Başak


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of different variables. 157 male and 43 female orienteering athletes, making a total of 200 athletes that joined the 3rd Level of Turkey Championship in 2015 have participated in this study which is in a survey model. The data collection tools were the Problem Solving Inventory and Personal Information Form that were formed by Heppner & Peterson (1982 and adapted into Turkish by Şahin, Şahin & Heppner (1993. In the data analysis, descriptive statics, anova, t test and Tukey test have been utilized. In the line with the findings, it has been determined that the difference between the total mean values (85.55+20.45 that the orienteering athletes got from the problem solving inventory and their age, marital status, sports age, the years of practice in orienteering sports, and the status of being national player is significant (p<0.05. It has been found that male orienteering athletes perform higher evaluating approach compared to the female athletes, and that as the age levels increase, the problem solving skill is affected more positively. Furthermore, it has been determined that the perceptions of the participants that have more experience and sports age in orienteering sports and that do orienteering sports at a national level are more positive in the matter of problem solving skills.

  1. Addressing Controversies in Science Education: A Pragmatic Approach to Evolution Education (United States)

    Hildebrand, David; Bilica, Kimberly; Capps, John


    Science education controversies typically prove more intractable than those in scientific research because they involve a wider range of considerations (e.g., epistemic, social, ethical, political, and religious). How can educators acknowledge central issues in a controversy (such as evolution)? How can such problems be addressed in a way that is…

  2. Research on multi-objective emergency logistics vehicle routing problem under constraint conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Du


    Full Text Available Purpose: Aim at choosing a relative good vehicle routing in emergency conditions under constraint conditions when disaster happens. Rapid response and rescue can save a lot of people. Design/methodology/approach: Modeling analysis: establishing a mathematical model of multi-objective emergency logistics vehicle routing problem. And in end of the paper, we intend to use genetic algorithms to solve the problem. Findings: Considering time requirement and cost limit both while choosing vehicle routing when the disasters happens is meaningful. We can get a relative good result and give a guidance to rescue teams. Originality/value: Consider cost and time objectives and kinds of realistic conditions (such as the road congestion in the model when solving the problem, having expanded the theory scope.

  3. A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini


    Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène


    for clinical practice. Moreover, posters help the students to put into perspective complex nursing practice, problems and dilemmas so they become understandable for themselves and their audiences. Students evaluate posters as a valuable and concrete and useable tool in the development of their roles......Abstract Content: Bologna recommendations shifting the focus of nurse education away from the acquirement of formal qualifications towards the development of nurse competencies calls for a change in pedagogical approach. Posterpresentations have been successfully used when developing nursing...... students’ intellectual, professional and academic competences as well as in the development of competencies relevant for nursing practice. Working with posters forces students to organize, evaluate and reflect upon information and develops their abilities to communicate health promotion knowledge...

  5. Inter- and Transdisciplinary Work: Connecting Research on Hormones with Problems of Educational Practice (United States)

    Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Watamura, Sarah E.


    More than ever before, leaders within the field of education are looking to research on basic processes to inform and improve educational practices. Success requires building a reciprocal relationship between the field of education and research on learning and development, similar to what exists between biology and medicine. Key to this effort is…

  6. The Problem of Data in the Cognitive Linguistic Research on Metonymy: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective (United States)

    Brdar-Szabo, Rita; Brdar, Mario


    The general goal of the present paper is to demonstrate how cross-linguistic (contrastive) data can broaden the perspective in cognitive linguistic research on metonymy, which may raise a host of questions calling for a revision of some widely accepted views. A more specific, methodological goal is to show how the introspection-driven research and…

  7. Ethical problems in health research with indigenous or originary peoples in Peru. (United States)

    Minaya, Gabriela; Roque, Joel


    The varied, abrupt and amazing geography of the land of Peru is home of one of the major concentrations of indigenous peoples in the world. The asymmetry of power, however, in their relationship with the rest of society and the State is still very evident in their social exclusion, their gap in social and economic development, barriers in their access to health services as well as their marginalization and exploitation as subjects of health research. In this paper, we analyse two cases of research on indigenous populations in Peru, discuss them from the point of view of bioethics and reflect on important issues for researchers, research participants and the society, such as the need to respect different cultures, the need that the research being done is relevant to the needs of the population in which it is conducted and the necessity to empower indigenous communities in participatory research, to strengthen the institutions and to protect human rights, namely through ethics committees for research and the free, informed and meaningful informed consent. This approach should foster quality research, while at the same time fully respecting human rights and bioethics. We cannot forget that advancements in genetics, throughout the world, are very much in debt to indigenous populations.

  8. A Roadmap to Cope with Common Problems in E-Learning Research Designs (United States)

    Sarsa, Javier; Escudero, Tomás


    E-learning research is plenty of difficulties, as also research in education is. Usually, the high number of features involved in e-learning processes complicates and masks the identification and isolation of the factors which cause the expected benefits, when they exist. At the same time, a bunch of threats are ready to weaken the validity of the…

  9. Introduction: The Incorporation Problem in Interdisciplinary Legal Research : Part 1: Theoretical Discussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. Taekema (Sanne); W. van der Burg (Wibren)


    textabstractIn the past decades, there has been a rapid increase of interdisciplinary research with regard to law, exemplified in socio-legal research and law and economics. More recently, there has also been – albeit in some countries more than in others – a growing interest in the methodology of l

  10. The Rise and Fall of a Social Problem: Critical Reflections on Educational Policy and Research Issues (United States)

    Franberg, Gun-Marie; Wrethander, Marie


    This article examines a growing and distressing social phenomenon, namely, bullying, the historical development, social dimensions, and political impact of which are taken into account and subjected to reflection and critical consideration. It describes both the progress of and problems with the concept of bullying. It also reflects on the…

  11. Bully/Victim Problems among Preschool Children: A Review of Current Research Evidence (United States)

    Vlachou, Maria; Andreou, Eleni; Botsoglou, Kafenia; Didaskalou, Eleni


    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with negative short- and long-term effects on children's psychosocial adjustment (Smith 1999; Ttofi and Farrington, "Aggressive Behav" 34(4):352-368, 2008). Entering kindergarten is a crucial developmental step in many children's lives mainly because it…

  12. The Problem of Correspondence of Educational and Professional Standards (Results of Empirical Research) (United States)

    Piskunova, Elena; Sokolova, Irina; Kalimullin, Aydar


    In the article, the problem of correspondence of educational standards of higher pedagogical education and teacher professional standards in Russia is actualized. Modern understanding of the quality of vocational education suggests that in the process of education the student develops a set of competencies that will enable him or her to carry out…

  13. Microcomputers and Evaluation Research: Potential Benefits and Problems. Paper and Report Series, No. 98. (United States)

    Gray, Peter J.

    This paper deals with two questions: (1) what are the the applications that might be made of microcomputers in evaluation? and (2) what are the kinds of problems (personnel, organizational, and technical) that must be overcome if microcomputers are to be used effectively? The applications include proposals and planning, management, data…

  14. Information problem solving instruction: An overview of 21st century research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Frerejean, Jimmy; Testers, Laurent; Van Strien, Johan; Walhout, Jaap; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia


    Information problem solving (IPS) is the process of locating, selecting, evaluating, and integrating information from various sources to fulfill an information need (Brand-Gruwel, Wopereis, & Vermetten, 2005). It is regarded an important contemporary skill, at times categorized as twenty-first centu

  15. Problem-Based Learning and Action Research in Postgraduate Teaching: The Interdisciplinary Core (United States)

    Servan, M. J.; Soto, E.; Murillo, J. F.; Sola, M.; Perez, A. I.


    The purpose of this article is to describe innovatory online teaching carried out in the inter-university master's "Educational Innovation Policies and Practices for the Knowledge Society", with the participation of Malaga, Almeria and Internacional de Andalucia Universities. The master's focuses on the exploration of a problem-based…

  16. The global social problem : challenges for a Research School like CERES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.


    The text starts with a reminder of the historical roots of the debate about the social problem in early industrial England, and connects it with the current debate about social exclusion and poverty, with an example from South Africa. Poverty issues should be related to the debates about labour cond

  17. Exploring quantum mechanics a collection of 700+ solved problems for students, lecturers, and researchers

    CERN Document Server

    Galitski, Victor; Kogan, Vladimir; Galitski, Victor Jr


    A series of seminal technological revolutions has led to a new generation of electronic devices miniaturized to such tiny scales where the strange laws of quantum physics come into play. There is no doubt that, unlike scientists and engineers of the past, technology leaders of the future will have to rely on quantum mechanics in their everyday work. This makes teaching and learning the subject of paramount importance for further progress. Mastering quantum physics is a very non-trivial task and its deep understanding can only be achieved through working out real-life problems and examples. It is notoriously difficult to come up with new quantum-mechanical problems that would be solvable with a pencil and paper, and within a finite amount of time. This book remarkably presents some 700+ original problems in quantum mechanics together with detailed solutions covering nearly 1000 pages on all aspects of quantum science. The material is largely new to the English-speaking audience. The problems have been collect...

  18. Use of Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics Classroom. Research Report 176. (United States)

    Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.

    During the years 1993-96, there has existed an active discussion group entitled "Using Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics" as a part of the scientific program of the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) conference. This report contains revised versions of presentations given in the discussion group. Since the PME is an international…

  19. A mathematical approach to research problems of science and technology theoretical basis and developments in mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ei, Shin-ichiro; Koiso, Miyuki; Ochiai, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kanzo; Saito, Shingo; Shirai, Tomoyuki


    This book deals with one of the most novel advances in mathematical modeling for applied scientific technology, including computer graphics, public-key encryption, data visualization, statistical data analysis, symbolic calculation, encryption, error correcting codes, and risk management. It also shows that mathematics can be used to solve problems from nature, e.g., slime mold algorithms. One of the unique features of this book is that it shows readers how to use pure and applied mathematics, especially those mathematical theory/techniques developed in the twentieth century, and developing now, to solve applied problems in several fields of industry. Each chapter includes clues on how to use "mathematics" to solve concrete problems faced in industry as well as practical applications. The target audience is not limited to researchers working in applied mathematics and includes those in engineering, material sciences, economics, and life sciences.

  20. The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions; Gestao de rejeitos radioativos em laboratorios de pesquisa - problemas e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos Radioativos


    The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

  1. Data-Intensive Cloud Service Provision for Research Institutes: the Network Connectivity Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cass, Tony; CERN. Geneva. IT Department


    Much effort (and money) has been invested in recent years to ensure that academic and research sites are well interconnected with high-capacity networks that, in most cases, span national and continental boundaries. However, these dedicated research and education networks, whether national (NRENs) or trans-continental (RENs), frequently have Acceptable Use Policies (AUPs) that restrict their use by commercial entities, notably Cloud Service Providers (CSPs). After a brief summary of the issues involved, we describe three approaches to removing the network connectivity barrier that threatens to limit the ability of academic and research institutions to profit effectively from services offered by CSPs.

  2. Research on cultural algorithm for solving routing problem of mobile agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The key idea behind cultural algorithm is to explicitly acquire problem-solving knowledge from the evolving population and in return apply that knowledge to guide the search. In this article, cultural algorithm-simulated annealing is proposed to solve the routing problem of mobile agent. The optimal individual is accepted to improve the belief space's evolution of cultural algorithms by simulated annealing. The step size in search is used as situational knowledge to guide the search of optimal solution in the population space. Because of this feature, the search time is reduced. Experimental results show that the algorithm proposed in this article can ensure the quality of optimal solutions, and also has better convergence speed. The operation efficiency of the system is considerably improved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu Khatri


    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is meta-heuristic algorithm inspired from nature to solve many combinatorial optimization problems such as Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP. There are many versions of ACO used to solve TSP like, Ant System, Elitist Ant System, Max-Min Ant System, Rank based Ant System algorithm. For improved performance, these methods can be implemented in parallel architecture like GPU, CUDA architecture. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU provides highly parallel and fully programmable platform. GPUs which have many processing units with an off-chip global memory can be used for general purpose parallel computation. This paper presents a parallel Rank Based Ant System algorithm to solve TSP by use of Pre Roulette Wheel Selection Method.

  4. Time domain analysis for discrete difference equation on discrete linear system controllable problem's research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Shu-xian; DING Yu; GE Lei


    We usually describle a comparatively more complex control system, especially a multi-inputs and multioutputs system by time domation analytical procedure. While the system's controllability means whether the system is controllable according to certain requirements. It involves not only the system's outputs' controllability but also the controllability of the system's partial or total conditions. The movement is described by difference equation in the linear discrete-time system. Therefore, the problem of controllability of the linear discrete-time system has been converted into a problem of the controllability of discrete-time difference equation. The thesis makes out the determination method of the discrete-time system's controllability and puts forward the sufficient and necessary conditions to determine it's controllability by making a study on the controllability of the linear discrete-time equation.

  5. Black boxes on wheels: research challenges and ethical problems in MEA-based robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose


    computer technology are not very good at adapting to surprising or unusual situations, at least not when compared to biological organisms. It is also hoped that insights gained from MEA-based robotics can have applications within human enhancement and medicine. In this paper, I argue that researchers...... and that they are not likely to be solved within the field. After that, I discuss whether MEA-based robotics should be considered pop science. Finally, I investigate the ethical aspects of this research....

  6. Review : Public service motivation—practical problems, scientific evidence and the role of a research community


    Vandenabeele, Wouter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323038816; Skelcher, Chris


    This review article introduces Public Money & Management's theme papers and articles on public service motivation (PSM). PSM has proven to be a promising road in creating public performance and public value and this theme brings it to an even wider audience, ensuring that policy-makers and those responsible for delivering public services worldwide are aware of the value of PSM research. The article also presents new findings about how best to further PSM research.

  7. Problem-Solving Teams in Shipbuilding (The National Shipbuilding Research Program) (United States)


    drew up flip charts listing all the consolidated problems in a manner that w$uld allow each Steering Committee member to have his individual rating of... flip chart , while the engineer and the pipe sketcher were affixing blown-up engineering drawings on two easels in front of the classroom. The two men...changing the yard in a small way. Now that everyone was seated and the flip charts in place, the facilitator asked John to introduce himself and his

  8. A Research on Structural Characteristics and Problems of Goat Breeding in Nigde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Ceyhan


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the present status of goat farms in Nigde, to detect basic priority problems and to offer some solutions to these problems. For this purpose, a survey was conducted to the goat breeders face to face in randomly selected total 38 goat farms.The survey questions; goat farms and growing core business activities of enterprises that reveals the overall structure, and also the level of satisfaction with the priority issues of breeders are designed to measure. Analyze the results was shown that a large portion of goat breeders (85.0% were primary school graduates, 5.3%secondery school and also 5.3% high school graduates, goat farms have whole hair goat breed. Goat enterprises have rate of 44.7%, more than 500 goat, 92.1% of goat enterprises go out to highlands, also provided 73.7% of the shepherd's family. In addition, operating revenues were determined come from 50% of goat's milk. Goat breeders were evaluated only 39.5% the form of cheese production, as 60.5% of the cheese, butter, yogurt, and the sale of raw milk of the total milk yield. All business was assessed that owners a profitable goat farming as an occupation and the first five main problems were member alliance, ownership sufficient technical knowledge, serving the technical staff, buck mating and breeding presses, goat shelter, respectively. In addition, it was seen that according to Likert scale, at least the first five issues were satisfied that such as feed, labor, and electricity inputs, product marketing price, sold animals the price, market opportunities related to the sale of manufactured products and finacial supply, respectively. As a result, it could be said that the most important problem for goat enterprises in Nigde province is high production costs and low product prices.

  9. Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy To Facilitate Problem Solving in Pharmaceutical Research and Development. (United States)

    Mangion, Ian; Liu, Yizhou; Reibarkh, Mikhail; Williamson, R Thomas; Welch, Christopher J


    As new chemical methodologies driven by single-electron chemistry emerge, process and analytical chemists must develop approaches to rapidly solve problems in this nontraditional arena. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been long known as a preferred technique for the study of paramagnetic species. However, it is only recently finding application in contemporary pharmaceutical development, both to study reactions and to track the presence of undesired impurities. Several case studies are presented here to illustrate its utility in modern pharmaceutical development efforts.

  10. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.


    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  11. Countermeasure Research on Problems Impeding Farmers’ Successful Entrepreneurship in Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    By investigating the problem of farmers’ entrepreneurship in Gongcheng Yaozu Autonomous County,lying in Guilin,Guangxi,the thesis expounds the existing problems impacting farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in minority areas as follows:firstly,the musty idea of local cadre is obstacle to farmers’ successful entrepreneurship;secondly,the problems of scattered farmers’ entrepreneurship resources,waste and shortage of resources impact good effect of entrepreneurship;thirdly,farmers lack awareness of characteristics and brand,influencing the market competitiveness of products;fourthly,the existence of smallholder consciousness critically hampers the marketization and internationalization of entrepreneurship accomplishments;fifthly,the government pays no attention to the construction of industrial chain,which makes farmers’ entrepreneurship lack sustainability.Based on these,corresponding countermeasures are put forward to promote farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in minority areas as follows:firstly,we should update local leaders’ ideas and emphasize the positive role of farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in county economic development;secondly,we should integrate local entrepreneurship resources and promote the efficiency of farmers’ entrepreneurship;thirdly,we should foster the consciousness of brand and characteristics and strengthen the market competitiveness of entrepreneurship accomplishments;fourthly,we should strengthen the construction of industrial chain to promote sustainable development of farmers’ entrepreneurship.

  12. The Problem about Technology in STEM Education: Some Findings from Action Research on the Professional Development & Integrated STEM Lessons in Informal Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Saito


    Full Text Available Since 2013, the authors’ Japanese team in the Department of Science Education at Shizuoka University has held trials of STEM Education in informal fields as participatory action research (e.g., Science museum in Shizuoka, Lifelong Learning Center in Fujieda City, and STEM Summer camp for the preparation for implementing STEM education in public schools and for proposing science education reform in a Japanese context. Problems in preparing STEM lessons include numerous new instructional materials and programs and emerging specialized schools. In addition, while most of these initiatives address one or more of the STEM subjects separately, there are increasing calls for emphasizing connections between and among the subjects (Honey, Pearson and Schweingruber, 2014. Unfamiliar problems for Japanese teachers are, What is Engineering? What is Design? and How can they be implemented in lessons? While gathering STEM learning materials to implement in their STEM Summer Camp, the authors noticed a pattern with which to develop a STEM lesson and developed a template “T-SM-E” in reference to prior STEM studies. After the STEM Summer Camp, the authors introduced the model in the pre-service teacher preparation program. As a result, the authors received suggestions about how teachers can develop integrated STEM lessons, how undergraduate (UG teachers can implement it in their lessons, and how teachers can assess student learning in their STEM lessons. From standard based student assessments and reflections written by the UG teachers, the authors found that it was difficult for the UG teachers to include technology in their lessons, and their assessment also indicated that the students did not show performance proficiency in technology. The authors discuss this existing problem in the Japanese education system.

  13. Address Points, Addressing, Published in 2008, Taylor County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Addressing'. Data by this publisher are often...

  14. Employment of Questionnaire as Tool for Effective Business Research Outcome: Problems and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Questionnaire has to do with questions designed to gather information or data for analysis. Questionnaire has to be adequate, simple, focused and related to the subject which the research is set to achieve and to test the hypotheses and questions that are formulated for the study. But many questionnaires are constructed and administered without following proper guideline which hinders there end result. This paper assesses some of the guides for constructing questionnaire as well as it uses and the extent to which it enhanced manager’s access to reliable data and information. Descriptive method is employed for the study. Findings revealed that poor or badly prepared questionnaire produce questionnaire that does not provide effective results. Managers and researchers that use such questionnaire hardly achieve their organisational and research objectives. The need for good, well prepared and adequate questionnaire is exemplified by its being the primary tool for analytical research. The study recommends that questionnaire be properly prepared for effective research outcome.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Yu. Bykov


    Full Text Available In the article theoretical and methodological principles of digital humanistic pedagogy – the science about the laws of creating a positive integrated educational reality as a result of the convergence of physical and virtual (created using ICT training spaces (environments are determined. Based on the use of modern ICT learning activity (formal, nonformal and informal is at the intersection of two worlds: the real and the virtual. Methodology and research methods of classical pedagogy require review and improvement in the context of current realities of the educational process, needs and interests of all its subjects. The development of digital humanities in the international educational space is analyzed; the content of the new field of pedagogical knowledge as part of digital humanistic is outlined; research methods and directions of current scientific research are defined.

  16. A Research of the Employment Problem on Common Job-seekers and Graduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Da Qu


    A problem on the employment market swarming with both multitudinous common job-seekers and graduates was studied. The employment situation in the market was analyzed firstly. Based on the analysis, the situation was dynamically modeled. The model was properly processed and simplified. A control model corresponding to the method was deduced. As a result, a control solution for the model is obtained, and an example with Simulink demonstrates the control effect. By means of the proposed method, an optimal control for the dynamic balance between multitudinous common job-seekers and graduates can be obtained.

  17. Does terrorism work? The debates, problems, and a framework for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard English


    Full Text Available For both intellectual and practical reasons, the question “Does terrorism work?” is vital. And yet it has largely been eclipsed by other debates within the scholarly literature on terrorism. This article considers some of the recent contributions to the emerging discussion of the question. It then outlines some of the problems inherent in the academic debate that has taken place thus far on the subject, and sketches a framework for making future scholarship in this area more inclusive, systematic and dialogically fruitful than it has been to date.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dobriborsci


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of work on control system design for tiltable plate with two degrees of freedom. Designed robotic system includes technical vision system that provides an opportunity to get the position of the control object placed on the square plate. Two servomotors provide each tilting axis operation. Single-board computer transmits angle values and other design elements to the servomotors by USB interface from the workstation. The problem of the object stabilization in the given coordinates on the plate is solved.

  19. Algorithms Research for Nash Equilibrium Problems on Graphs%图上的Nash均衡问题算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔婷; 许成; 王文杰


    Graphical games are a kind of research on graph-theoretic models for multiplayer games. The key of research is the algorithm solving Nash equilibrium. The Nash equilibrium on general graph is NP-C which has been solved, so beasd on a class of special graphs, the Nash equilibrium problems of special graph models are researched, and their effective algorithms are given respectively.%图对策是一类研究多人参与某种对局而产生的图模型问题,研究的核心在于如何寻找求解Nash均衡点的算法.一般图上求解Nash均衡解是NP-C的,这里从一类特殊的图出发,研究以这类特殊图为底图的对策的Nash均衡问题,并给出了其有效算法.

  20. Children's Media Use and Sleep Problems: Issues and Unanswered Questions. Research Brief (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J.


    Research shows that most children and adolescents do not get enough high-quality sleep, and that their sleep times appear to have declined over the last two decades. Coinciding with this trend has been the rise in popularity of new media forms including the Internet, video games, cell phones and DVDs. Because of the immediacy and interactivity of…

  1. The Problem of Truth in Educational Research: The Case of the Rigoberta Menchu "Controversy" (United States)

    Clark, John A.


    In our descriptions of things, we normally think that truth plays an important part; we value true statements over false ones and we prefer people to be truthful rather than deceitful. If these two facets of truth are important in our everyday lives, they assume even more significance in educational research because of the commitment researchers…

  2. Human behavior and environmental sustainability : Problems, driving forces, and research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charles; Steg, Linda


    Social and behavioral research is crucial for securing environmental sustainability and improving human living environments. To put the following articles into broader perspective, we first give an overview of worldwide developments in environmental quality and trends in resource use. Second, five g

  3. Deconstructing the Elephant and the Flag in the Lavatory: Promises and Problems of Moral Foundations Research (United States)

    Haste, Helen


    Moral Foundations research offers rich promise, opening up key questions about how affect and cognition are integrated in moral response, and exploring how different moral discourses may supply meaning and valence to moral experience. Haidt and his colleagues also associate different discourses with different political positions. However I address…

  4. The Complexities of Participatory Action Research and the Problems of Power, Identity and Influence (United States)

    Hawkins, Karen A.


    This article highlights the complexity of participatory action research (PAR) in that the study outlined was carried out with and by, as opposed to on, participants. The project was contextualised in two prior-to-school settings in Australia, with the early childhood professionals and, to some extent, the preschoolers involved in this PAR project…

  5. Practice, Problems and Power in "Internationalisation at Home": Critical Reflections on Recent Research Evidence (United States)

    Harrison, Neil


    In a period when international flows of higher education students are rapidly increasing and diversifying, this paper reviews recent research evidence about the experiences of "home" students--those who are not mobile and study in their home nation. This is situated within the concept of "internationalisation at home", which…

  6. Opening of Dead Sea Scrolls Archive Underlines Problems That Can Complicate Access to Research Materials. (United States)

    Coughlin, Ellen K.


    The Huntington Library (California) decision to make generally accessible, for the first time, copies of photographs of the Dead Sea Scrolls, previously tightly controlled by a small group of editors, is hailed as breaking a scholarly monopoly over an important intellectual resource, reaffirming the mission of the research library and the…

  7. Internet-Mediated Technologies and Mixed Methods Research: Problems and Prospects (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; Griffin, Amy J.


    This article provides an examination of a range of mixed methods research projects that employ Internet-mediated technologies (IMT) for data collection. Using a case study approach, this article allows for the uncovering of a process by which IMT are used as a data collection medium in mixed methods praxis. Under the theoretical position of medium…

  8. Evacuation Behavior and Problems: Findings and Implications from the Research Literature. (United States)


    of disrupting everyday routines, the pyschological stress of presenting threatening information, etc. (Anderson, 1970b; Barton, 1970; Dynes, 1975...research argues that disasters do not bring about serious or long lasting pyschological consequences. Stress may be experienced, but it is not said to result

  9. Performing Arts-Based Education Research: An Epic Drama of Practice, Precursors Problems and Possibilities (United States)

    Sanders, James H., III


    Metaphorically and physically structured as a drama in seven scenes, this article characterizes the contested theories, internal tensions, and conflicts across disciplinary practices of arts-based education research (ABER). The drama contributes to the field of art education by providing an overview of ABER theories and the varied manifestations…

  10. Significant problems in FITS limit its use in modern astronomical research

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian; Economou, Frossie; Greenfield, Perry; Hirst, Paul; Berry, David S; Bray, Erik; Gray, Norman; Turner, Demitri Muna James; Borro, Miguel de Val; Vela, Juande Santander; Shupe, David; Good, John; Berriman, G Bruce


    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) standard has been a great boon to astronomy, allowing observatories, scientists and the public to exchange astronomical information easily. The FITS standard is, however, showing its age. Developed in the late 1970s the FITS authors made a number of implementation choices for the format that, while common at the time, are now seen to limit its utility with modern data. The authors of the FITS standard could not appreciate the challenges which we would be facing today in astronomical computing. Difficulties we now face include, but are not limited to, having to address the need to handle an expanded range of specialized data product types (data models), being more conducive to the networked exchange and storage of data, handling very large datasets and the need to capture significantly more complex metadata and data relationships. There are members of the community today who find some (or all) of these limitations unworkable, and have decided to move ahead with storin...

  11. Research on Multiobjective Optimization Problem%多目标优化问题的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱君; 蔡延光; 汤雅连; 杨军


    Aiming at the limitation of the traditional methods to solve the multi-objective optimization problem , this paper applies a new kind of algorithm to it .Genetic Algorithm ( GA) starts to search from the set of solution with its big coverage able to handle more than one individual at the same time , beneficial to global optimization , reducing the risk of fall into local optimum , while the minimum spanning tree has the characteristics of simple process and wide applicability .Combined with the advantages of the both algorithms , genetic algorithm is constructed on the basis of spanning tree .By finding the optimal solution by weighted goal programming method , and then solving the problem by the genetic algorithm and genetic algorithm based on spanning tree , the result shows that for small-scale multi-objective optimization problem , two algorithms can find out the optimal solution , and in terms of sol-ving time, genetic algorithm based on spanning tree is superior to genetic algorithm .%针对传统方法求解多目标优化问题的局限性,应用一种新的算法求解。遗传算法从问题解的串集开始搜索,覆盖面大,可以同时处理群体中的多个个体,利于全局择优,减少陷入局部最优的风险,而最小生成树具有过程简单清晰、适用性广泛的特点,结合两者的优点,构造了基于生成树的遗传算法。首先通过加权目标规划法求出最优解,然后通过遗传算法和基于生成树的遗传算法求解,结果表明,对于小规模的多目标优化问题,两种算法都可以求出最优解,在求解时间方面,基于生成树的遗传算法比遗传算法更优越。

  12. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation. (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R


    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  13. 车辆路径问题(VRP)算法研究%Research Algorithm on Vehicle Rrouting Problem(VRP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a graph theory of NP problems, the current algorithm for solving such problems can be divided into: Exact algorithms, classic and modem heuristic algorithm for the three types of heuristics; In this paper, analysised the scope ,the problems and occasions of these three types of algorithms, and the methods to improve the program; Finally, given the research prospects.%车辆路径问题(VRP)是图论中的NP问题,目前求解这类问题的算法可分为:精确算法、经典启发式算法和现代启发式算法三类;对这三类算法中最具代表性的几种算法进行了分析指出了其适用范围和场合、存在的问题以及改进的方案;最后,对其研究前景进行了展望.

  14. Millisecond precision psychological research in a world of commodity computers: new hardware, new problems? (United States)

    Plant, Richard R; Turner, Garry


    Since the publication of Plant, Hammond, and Turner (2004), which highlighted a pressing need for researchers to pay more attention to sources of error in computer-based experiments, the landscape has undoubtedly changed, but not necessarily for the better. Readily available hardware has improved in terms of raw speed; multi core processors abound; graphics cards now have hundreds of megabytes of RAM; main memory is measured in gigabytes; drive space is measured in terabytes; ever larger thin film transistor displays capable of single-digit response times, together with newer Digital Light Processing multimedia projectors, enable much greater graphic complexity; and new 64-bit operating systems, such as Microsoft Vista, are now commonplace. However, have millisecond-accurate presentation and response timing improved, and will they ever be available in commodity computers and peripherals? In the present article, we used a Black Box ToolKit to measure the variability in timing characteristics of hardware used commonly in psychological research.

  15. The Theoretical Research for the Rotor/Fuselage Unsteady Aerodynamic Interaction Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dawei


    Full Text Available Based on coupled unsteady panel/free-wake method, a universal analysis model was established, which provides a good prediction for the rotor/fuselage unsteady aerodynamic interaction. Considering the deficiencies of the traditional time-marching rotor free-wake algorithms, notably on stability and efficiency, the CB3D algorithm with 3rd-order accuracy is proposed. For solving the problem that part of the wake vortices may penetrate the fuselage, a “material line” rectification method with 3rd-order accuracy is proposed. An analysis for the model accuracy was then conducted to validate the accuracy of the new model, and a comparison against the available experimental data is performed. The simulated results show a good agreement with these experimental data. With the new model, several simulations are conducted for the typical rotor/fuselage aerodynamic interaction, and the results are analyzed.

  16. [On the problem of informational support of scientific research in the field of forensic (toxicological) chemistry]. (United States)

    Gorbacheva, N A; Orlova, A M


    The present work was designed for the analysis of informational support of scientific research in the field of forensic (toxicological) chemistry in this country during the period preceding the collapse of the Soviet Union and in present-day Russia. The established channels of transmission of relevant information are characterized. Recommendations for the further development of the work in this sphere and its improvement are proposed.

  17. A review of research and nursing management of mental health problems in pregnancy and motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosinski JM


    Full Text Available Judith M Jarosinski,1 Jane A Fox21Nursing Department, Henson School of Science, Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD, 2School of Nursing, College of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC, USAAbstract: In this article, the authors explore the risks pregnant women experience due to mental illness and intimate partner violence (IPV and discuss the nursing role involved in the management of their care. For many women, pregnancy is a time of hopeful anticipation, yet for others, pregnancy reflects a new or an ongoing struggle with mental illness. The sequelae of untreated mental illness can be as severe as infanticide, maternal suicide, lack of maternal attachment, and inability to parent. Newborns whose mothers misuse alcohol and drugs are at risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and neonatal addiction syndrome. Women who live with IPV risk their physical and mental well-being as well as the safety of their newborn. Implications for practice include the use of assessment tools early and during the treatment trajectory; otherwise, mental illness and IPV in pregnancy would go undetected/untreated. Identifying postpartum depression early is key toward providing timely care for both the mother and infant; yet, few obstetric practices use a depression assessment tool such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. During the initial intake assessment, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale can provide the means of early treatment through targeted assessment. Further implications include specialized services for substance-misusing pregnant women whose issues are different and separate from those of men, integration of services to address their multifaceted needs, and educating nurses to the reality of comorbidity as the norm rather than the rare occurrence, with a truly holistic approach that diminishes stigma. Keywords: intimate partner violence, mental illness, pregnancy, serious mental illness, Women

  18. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter


    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be

  19. Public health approach to address maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Rai


    Full Text Available Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women′s health.

  20. Public health approach to address maternal mortality. (United States)

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash


    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health.

  1. Problem Diagnosis in Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jakob; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Nørbjerg, Jacob


    This paper addresses software process improvement. In particular it reports on action research undertaken to understand the problems with software processes of a large Danish company. It is argued that in order to understand what the specific problems are we may, on the one hand, rely on process...... models like CMM or Bootstrap. On the other hand, we may also see the specific and unique features of software processes in this company through what we call problem diagnosis. Problem diagnosis deals with eliciting problems perceived by software project managers and with forming commitment structures...

  2. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola


    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  3. CO2 Problems and waste recycling. Research at the Institute of ferrous metallurgy


    Gudenau, H. W.; Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Fröhling, C.; Kueon, O. S.; Wang, S; Wieting, X.


    In a short introduction tests and calculations about CO2-ice-blocs in the deep sea, use of CO2 for underground-coal-gasification and tertiary processes to increase oil-production by C02-flooding are shown. New activities are presented e.g. CO2-injection into EAF combined with injection of coal, coke or directreduction-fines. After research of injection of coals, fine ores or dust into blast furnaces and other shaft furnaces ...

  4. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Earth Rotation : Solved and Unsolved Problems

    CERN Document Server


    The idea for an Advanced Research Workshop entirely devoted to the Earth rotation was born in 1983 when Professor Raymond Hide suggested this topic to the special NATO panel of global transport mechanism in the Geosciences. Such a specialized meeting did not take place since the GEOP research conference on the rotation of the Earth and polar motion which was held at the Ohio State University (USA) in 1973. In the last ten years, highly precise measurements of the Earth's rotation parameters and new global geophysical data have become available allowing major advance to be made in the under­ standing of the various irregularities affecting the Earth's rotation. The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists who have made important contributions in this field during the last decade both at the observational and geophysical interpretation levels. The confe­ rence was divided into four main topics. The first session was dedicated to the definition, implementation and maintenance of the te...

  5. Formal models in animal-metacognition research: the problem of interpreting animals' behavior. (United States)

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A


    Ongoing research explores whether animals have precursors to metacognition-that is, the capacity to monitor mental states or cognitive processes. Comparative psychologists have tested apes, monkeys, rats, pigeons, and a dolphin using perceptual, memory, foraging, and information-seeking paradigms. The consensus is that some species have a functional analog to human metacognition. Recently, though, associative modelers have used formal-mathematical models hoping to describe animals' "metacognitive" performances in associative-behaviorist ways. We evaluate these attempts to reify formal models as proof of particular explanations of animal cognition. These attempts misunderstand the content and proper application of models. They embody mistakes of scientific reasoning. They blur fundamental distinctions in understanding animal cognition. They impede theoretical development. In contrast, an energetic empirical enterprise is achieving strong success in describing the psychology underlying animals' metacognitive performances. We argue that this careful empirical work is the clear path to useful theoretical development. The issues raised here about formal modeling-in the domain of animal metacognition-potentially extend to biobehavioral research more broadly.

  6. Research on inverse, hybrid and optimization problems in engineering sciences with emphasis on turbomachine aerodynamics: Review of Chinese advances (United States)

    Liu, Gao-Lian


    Advances in inverse design and optimization theory in engineering fields in China are presented. Two original approaches, the image-space approach and the variational approach, are discussed in terms of turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design. Other areas of research in turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design include the improved mean-streamline (stream surface) method and optimization theory based on optimal control. Among the additional engineering fields discussed are the following: the inverse problem of heat conduction, free-surface flow, variational cogeneration of optimal grid and flow field, and optimal meshing theory of gears.

  7. Research on a Massive Chinese Address Conversion and Cutting Method%一种海量中文地址转化与切割的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐辉; 王宁章; 雷琳琳


    针对在传统单节点计算模式下,处理海量中文地址数据时不能直接地进行复杂空间数学计算,并且容易受节点硬件条件限制而出现内存溢出和计算速度慢的问题,文中提出了一种中文地址信息通过第三方接口转成对应的经纬度坐标数据,再运用改进后的PRBP-DI分区算法,将海量数据切分成若干子分区分别计算的方法.减少PRBP算法中,对分区数据块列或行重复进行的扫描计算和累积求和计算.真实数据集上的实验结果表明,通过该方法能将海量中文地址数据转化并切分成分布均匀的若干子分区,且算法耗时并不一直随数据点个数增加而增大,提高了海量中文地址数据并行计算的能力和准确性.并根据两种分区算法各自的耗时变化,分析了算法耗时在数据量增大到300 000个数据点时反而减小的原因.%In traditional single node calculation mode,the handling of the massive Chinese address data cannot be directly to the complex space mathematical calculations,and susceptible to node hardware conditions and problems of memory and computing speed is slow,put forward a kind of Chinese address information through third-party interface into the corresponding latitude and longitude coordinates da-ta,using the improved PRBP-DI partition algorithm,to cut the huge amounts of data into several sub partition calculation method respec-tively. Reduce scanning and cumulative sum calculation to partition data block columns or rows of repeated in PRBP algorithm. Real data sets on the experimental results show that by this method can convert massive Chinese address data and cut into uniform distribution of a number of partitions,and the algorithm is time-consuming does not always increase with increasing number of data points,improving the ability of the massive Chinese address data parallel computation and accuracy. And their respective time-consuming changes according to the two kinds of

  8. Johann Jakob Wettstein. New Sources, New Problems, and New Possibilities for Digital Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krans


    Full Text Available Johann Jakob Wettstein (1683-1754 worked almost all his life toward the publication of his landmark 1751-52 edition of the Greek New Testament. In recent years, a large number of previously unknown sources on and by Wettstein has come to light, scattered over libraries in Europe, that provide new insights into his life and his New Testament project. This paper explores the diversity of these sources, their genres, their connections, their state of conservation and accessibility and the like. Starting from the idea that the collection offers an excellent opportunity for mapping a single scholar’s projects and international networks over time and space, it envisages a project that brings together this wealth of material. It asks what challenges and possibilities for international digital research the collection entails and formulates the desiderata concerning the necessary digital infrastructure and collaboration across traditional scholarly boundaries.

  9. [German medicine of the age of romanticism (1797-1848) as research problem]. (United States)

    Płonka-Syroka, B


    In the period between 1797 and 1848, German medicine was considerably influenced by philosophy. It absorbed ideas deriving from neo-Platonism and vitalism, as well as the modern philosophy of nature (Naturphilosophie), especially the ideas of Schelling. The article presents the main tendencies in the German medicine of that period: the distinct character of German medical thought as compared to the rest of Europe, the deductive character of medical theories, the grounding of medical thought in non-materialist philosophy and its close ties with the Protestant religion. The author's aim is investigate how German medicine of the period evolved away from European standards set by the model of medicine as an empirical science, based on the inductive method of research. The article presents the state of German medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century against the background of socio-cultural factors and relates German medical theory of the period to the social awareness of that time.

  10. About the aims, objects and problems in Brazilian research on Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of scientific communications published in the IV Mathematical Modeling National Conference (CNMEM in the Brazilian abbreviation, which took place in 2005. The analysis consists of a meta-analytical and content qualitative approach, aided by the software Atlas T.i. The data collected was originated in the above mentioned conference which is the first of the three which will be analyzed in the study that aims to unveil the research on Mathematical Modeling in Brazil. The categories established in this paper and which will be interpreted are: a Meta-study on Mathematics Modeling; b Modeling application; c Articulation between Modeling and other theories, and d Modeling and teachers education.

  11. Creation of Integrated System of Cosmonauts Sanitary-Hygienic Supply: Researches, Problems and Prospects (United States)

    Shumilina, I.; Krivobok, S.; Shumilina, G.

    The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization of Sanitary - Hygienic Water (SHW) regeneration is supposed for water circulation. The researches directed on equipment creation for clothing washing and clothing drying were carried out for the purposes of goods turnover optimization on ISS The variants of possible realization of water procedures (shower-bath, face washing) are studied. New and essentially date are received for an estimation of efficiency of various ways of cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply, including results of tests for new generation regeneration SHW systems with Nanofiltration unit on various kinds real SHW. The improvement of washing-up liquids, individual selection of a complex of personal hygiene means with the man skin condition registration allows to raise of preventive measures use efficiency directed on prevention of adverse skin changes and skin diseases. The analysis of the equipment and methods for clothing washing and clothing drying for conditions of long space flight are carried out. The experimental data on textile materials drying are received. The investigations covered a wide range of issues associated with Sanitary - Hygienic Supply Integrated System including Personal Hygiene complex (items and techniques), ways of Sanitary - Hygienic Supply realization, methods of wastewater regeneration. The results of researches are especially urgent for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply System creation for long space flights, in particular, "Mars" flights at impossibility of updating of water stock, clothing stock etc.

  12. Research of a problem of qualification validation and reskilling of migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gerasimova


    Full Text Available In this article authors have analysed the questions connected with globalization of economic space and the arising problems of migration of able-bodied citizens. The need to assess the conformity of the received skills and to recognise migrants’ skills in an expanding labor markets and reducing low-skilled personnel was revealed. Authors examined the professional standards’ merits in force in the territory of Russia, and revealed their shortcomings. They have defined that questions of verification of migrants qualification depend on national peculiarities of the host country and system of preparation of professional shots. It was found out that in Europe learning results obtained by different methods are recognized after the introduction of the system of education competence approach. They studied models of different systems of training and retraining of specialists, employed in different countries, based on their personal characteristics and validation of prior learning outcomes. Authors have come to the conclusion that, taking into account the specifics of Russian companies and the differences in the education system in Russia is inappropriate to apply the existing models developed by the international community. They justify the need for the creation of information and computer support for the evaluation process of competence formation. It was expressed the view that the definition of basic competences in the construction of learning paths is need. The synthesis of elements of competence “Know” was performed as example of a description of the individual graph construction. The view was expressed, that in the learning course formation its payback must be taken into account, in this connection, the authors proposed the integrated discipline assessment criterion in a hierarchical structure. The integrated criterion unites three groups of indicators of a course: consumer value, its requirement and resource intensity.

  13. Danish translation and validation of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaires on overuse injuries and health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, J. E.; Rathleff, C. R.; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal;


    The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Overuse Injury Questionnaire (OSTRC-O) and the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaire on Health Problems (The OSTRC-H) make it possible to monitor illness and injury at regular intervals capturing prevalence and incidence of acute injury, overuse...... respondents; response rate was 89%. The OSTRC-H was distributed to 58 heterogenous respondents; response rate was 86%. No major disagreements were observed between the original and translated versions of the questionnaires. The OSTRC-O had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.80-0.93). The primary...... reliability analyses including all participants, showed reliability ICC: 0.62 (95% CI: 0.42-0.77. The secondary reliability analyses that only included subjects who did not change injury region from the test to the retest showed an ICC of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77-0.92).The questionnaires were found to be valid...

  14. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development (United States)

    Habib, Shahid


    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  15. Anonymous-address-resolution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jia SONG; Zhen-zhou JI


    Address-resolution protocol (ARP) is an important protocol of data link layers that aims to obtain the corresponding relationship between Internet Protocol (IP) and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Traditional ARPs (address-resolution and neighbor-discovery protocols) do not consider the existence of malicious nodes, which reveals destination addresses in the resolution process. Thus, these traditional protocols allow malicious nodes to easily carry out attacks, such as man-in-the-middle attack and denial-of-service attack. To overcome these weaknesses, we propose an anonymous-address-resolution (AS-AR) protocol. AS-AR does not publicize the destination address in the address-resolution process and hides the IP and MAC addresses of the source node. The malicious node cannot obtain the addresses of the destination and the node which initiates the address resolution; thus, it cannot attack. Analyses and experiments show that AS-AR has a higher security level than existing security methods, such as secure-neighbor discovery.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov


    Full Text Available Summary. In this work the general ideas of a method of V. I. Skurikhin taking into account the specified features develop and questions of the analysis and synthesis of a complex of technical means, with finishing them to the level suitable for use in engineering practice of design of information management systems are in more detail considered. In work the general system approach to the solution of questions of a choice of technical means of the information management system is created, the general technique of the sys tem analysis and synthesis of a complex of the technical means and its subsystems providing achievement of extreme value of criterion of efficiency of functioning of a technical complex of the information management system is developed. The main attention is paid to the applied party of system researches of complex technical providing, in particular, to definition of criteria of quality of functioning of a technical complex, development of methods of the analysis of information base of the information management system and definition of requirements to technical means, and also methods of structural synthesis of the main subsystems of complex technical providing. Thus, the purpose is research on the basis of system approach of complex technical providing the information management system and development of a number of methods of the analysis and the synthesis of complex technical providing suitable for use in engineering practice of design of systems. The well-known paradox of development of management information consists of that parameters of the system, and consequently, and requirements to the complex hardware, can not be strictly reasonable to development of algorithms and programs, and vice versa. The possible method of overcoming of these difficulties is prognostication of structure and parameters of complex hardware for certain management informations on the early stages of development, with subsequent clarification and

  17. Tackling the Reproducibility Problem in Systems Research with Declarative Experiment Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Ivo [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Maltzahn, Carlos [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lofstead, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Arpaci-Dusseau, Andrea [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    Validating experimental results in the field of computer systems is a challenging task, mainly due to the many changes in software and hardware that computational environments go through. Determining if an experiment is reproducible entails two separate tasks: re-executing the experiment and validating the results. Existing reproducibility efforts have focused on the former, envisioning techniques and infrastructures that make it easier to re-execute an experiment. In this work we focus on the latter by analyzing the validation workflow that an experiment re-executioner goes through. We notice that validating results is done on the basis of experiment design and high-level goals, rather than exact quantitative metrics. Based on this insight, we introduce a declarative format for specifying the high-level components of an experiment as well as describing generic, testable conditions that serve as the basis for validation. We present a use case in the area of storage systems to illustrate the usefulness of this approach. We also discuss limitations and potential benefits of using this approach in other areas of experimental systems research.

  18. Research and the problems of litter and medical wastes on the UK coastline. (United States)

    Philipp, R; Pond, K; Rees, G


    Recent research has shown that recreational water and bathing beach quality are associated with injury, infection and personal well-being. Continued surveillance is essential to audit the environmental and associated health trends. In the Coastwatch UK project and since 1989, annual surveys each autumn have been undertaken during a two-week study period, into the extent of littering of the UK coastline. The Public Health Laboratory Service also collects data on the use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin. In these studies it is now possible to examine time trends. The findings are not reassuring. They help to justify present concern about the health effects of discarded litter and medical waste and fears that environmental degradation could lead to loss of income from tourism. In response, some health and local authorities have started public education programmes, supplying litter bins on or near bathing beaches, emptying them regularly and undertaking beach cleansing during the summer months. The UK government is also introducing new legislation that will require 6 mm fine mesh wire screens on all shore-based sewage outlets around the UK coastline. Continued monitoring is needed to assess the effectiveness of these interventions. The need for greater personal responsibility is particularly identified.

  19. Research strategies in the pharmaceutical industry to cope with the problems of ageing. (United States)

    Le Fur, Gérard; Guillot, Françoise; Alexander, John; Muller, Jean-Claude


    The present research strategies for ageing are focussed around three areas. The first area is the demographic study of the present-day populations and those in the future. The analysis of the evolution of the metropolitan French population from 1950 to 2050 indicates that the proportion of subjects aged greater than 60 years will pass from 16% to 35%. In addition, the level of dependence of these subjects will vary considerably from one to another. The second area is the integration of epidemiological data of the pathologies related to the aged subject. Numerous epidemiological studies of the aged show that the elderly population is in better health, better informed about the diseases that affect them and also financially more secure, which allows them to take better care of themselves. The epidemiological studies of certain dementias show, for example, that if we reduce the delay to when the disease appears by five years, then we reduce the prevalence by a factor of 2. The third area relates to the important new progress in the understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in cellular ageing. The recent progress in the area of cellular biology has started to decode the complex mechanisms underlying cellular ageing. The important understanding of the phenomena of apoptose with the development of relevant biological models of the natural ageing process have anticipated future treatments and, eventually, the prophylactic treatment of specific pathologies of the elderly patient.

  20. The little death: Rigoni-Stern and the problem of sex and cancer in 20th-century biomedical research. (United States)

    Aviles, Natalie B


    Approaches to the organization and conduct of cancer research changed dramatically throughout the 20th century. Despite marked differences between the epidemiological approaches of the first half of the century and molecular techniques that gained dominance in the 1980s, prominent 20th-century researchers investigating the link between sexual activity and anogenital cancers continuously invoked the same 1842 treatise by Italian surgeon Domenico Rigoni-Stern, who is said to originate the problem of establishing a causal link between sex and cancer. In this article, I investigate 20th-century references to Rigoni-Stern as a case of a broader phenomenon: scientists situating their work through narratives of venerated ancestors, or originators. By explaining shifting versions of originator narratives in light of their authors' cultural context and research practices, we can reimagine as meaningful cultural symbols the references that previous scholars have treated as specious rhetorical maneuvers. In this case, references to Rigoni-Stern provide an interpretive anchor for American scientists to construct continuity between their work and a diverse historical legacy of cancer research.