WorldWideScience

Sample records for research poland spie the

  1. The first SPIE software Hack Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrew, S.; Deen, C.; Radziwill, N.; Crawford, S.; Gilbert, J.; Gully-Santiago, M.; Kubánek, P.

    2014-07-01

    We report here on the software Hack Day organised at the 2014 SPIE conference on Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation in Montréal. The first ever Hack Day to take place at an SPIE event, the aim of the day was to bring together developers to collaborate on innovative solutions to problems of their choice. Such events have proliferated in the technology community, providing opportunities to showcase, share and learn skills. In academic environments, these events are often also instrumental in building community beyond the limits of national borders, institutions and projects. We show examples of projects the participants worked on, and provide some lessons learned for future events.

  2. News from the Library: Advancing light - SPIE Digital Library accessible to CERN till 31 March 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    SPIE (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers) is a not-for-profit international society which publishes one of the largest collections of applied optics and photonics research papers in the world: the SPIE Digital Library.   This resource includes more than 300,000 technical papers from SPIE journals, e-books and conference proceedings from 1990 to the present. The SPIE Digital Library covers many areas of interest for CERN users, such as astronomy, nanotechnology, sensors, lasers, electro-optics and imaging. The CERN Library has trial access to the complete resource till 31 March 2012, don't hesitate to give it a try! Access to the SPIE Digital Library here. We welcome any comment or question at library.desk@cern.ch.

  3. Bibliographic database of PACS-related articles from the SPIE literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shile, Peter E.; Freiermuth, Jennifer

    1996-05-01

    Publications of the International Society of Optical Engineering (SPIE) contain much of the relevant literature on Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) and related topics. In fact, many PACS-related articles indexed by the National Library of Medicine contain references to articles published by SPIE. Unfortunately, SPIE publications themselves are not indexed by the National Library of Medicine and thus can not be identified through Medline. The lack of a convenient mechanism for searching the SPIE literature is problematic for researchers in medical imaging. With the recent introduction on SPIE's Internet server of their Abstracts Online service and their In-CiteTM title and author searching software, the SPIE literature has become more accessible. However, the searching process is still a cumbersome and time consuming process, and it is not possible to perform key word searches of manuscript abstracts. In this paper we present results of our work on developing a mechanism to more thoroughly search SPIE publications for PACS-related articles.

  4. The influence of educational research on education in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoń, Wincenty

    1981-06-01

    There is no need nowadays to convince people that modern education cannot function properly without the help of scientific research, and especially of pedagogical research. It is true that there still appear many pedagogical works `inflated by wind', as Comenius expressed it more than three hundred years ago, and these publications may even acquire a temporary popularity. But the general trend towards the development of pedagogy as a discipline based on research has been established for quite some time and is constantly gaining strength in the developed countries. Concurrently, pedagogical disciplines have had increasing influence on the development of education. The question of how these disciplines have developed in Poland and how they have influenced the educational system calls for a broader review, such as to allow one to draw conclusions on how to harmonise more effectively the domain of educational research with that of education. Such a review is the aim of the present paper. The following issues are considered: the functions of educational research, the kinds of educational investigations conducted in Poland, ways of disseminating their findings, and the organisation of research in Poland. The paper ends with a discussion of some of the more important conclusions reached.

  5. SPIE Smart Structures Product Implementation Award: a review of the first ten years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric H.; Sater, Janet M.

    2007-04-01

    The research field of smart materials and structures has been a distinct entity for two decades. Over the past ten years, the SPIE Industrial and Commercial Applications Conference has presented a Smart Structures Product Implementation Award at its annual symposium. This paper revisits the nine winning entries to date (1998-2007) and updates their status. The paper begins with a brief description of the original and current intent of the award and follows with a short overview of the evolution of smart structures, from research to products. The winning teams and their respective products are then described. The current status of the products is discussed based on publicly available information and input from the respective companies. Note however that it is not the purpose of the paper to rank the product winners in terms of success or sales. The paper concludes with an assessment of the larger trends in productization of smart structures technologies. The application "form" for the award as well as the evaluation criteria and suggestions for improving award application packages can be found in the appendix.

  6. Statement on the first research on digital startups in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present the results of the first study of Polish startups’ ecosystem as the first stage of a larger study of digital economy landscape in Poland. The first estimate of the number of Polish startups amounts to 2400 entities. The publication presents the first survey Polish startups that marks the beginning of cyclical studies on enterprises belonging to the digital economy in Poland. The study was conducted among 423 entities using an in-house questionnaire prepared based on the author’s own knowledge. Results are discussed. Startups most often consider themselves software producers who follow the SaaS model and operate in the following industries: mobile apps, e-commerce and Internet services. Nearly one in three startups achieve 50% annual revenue growth, while in one-fifth such growth exceeds 100%. Almost two thirds of Polish startups are financed exclusively from own funds. It is necessary to repeat and deepen the study in order to determining the significance of the digital industry in the economy of Poland and the CEE region. The originality of this work lies in taking this subject for the first time in Polish literature and in elaborating the proposition of a “startup” term’s definition.

  7. [The system of protection of scientific biomedical research participants in France and in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek; Sieczych, Alicja

    2013-07-01

    Realizing scientific biomedical research conducted on human-beings demands obeying ample ethical rules. However, states keep independence in the means of implementing deontological guidelines to legislative acts. The aim of the article is to compare rules of law relative to protection of scientific biomedical research participants in two European Union member states--France and Poland. French regulations cover more types of scientific biomedical research than those in Poland. In France almost all types of interventional scientific biomedical research including research on human biological samples and research on cosmetics are covered by the rules of law. Polish regulations are limited to interventional research conducted by doctors and dentists. In both states projects of clinical trials of medicinal products demands double acceptance - from bioethics committee and from competent state authority. In protection of scientific biomedical research participants the role of state authority competent for personal data is more vital in France than it is in Poland. In France there is also National Ethics Advisory Committee whereas in Poland there is no such institution. The systems protecting scientific biomedical research participants differs therefore in both states in many vital aspects and French measures cover more types of scientific biomedical research, hence the level of participants protection in various types of research is more equitable.

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report on the basic research on energy saving for Huta Katowice, Poland; 1998 nendo Poland Katowice seitetsusho sho energy kihon chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission by Japan- Poland joint project, research was made on the improvement plan of Huta Katowice, a typical ironworks in Poland. The applicability of energy saving facilities was studied for the coke factory, sintering factory, blast furnace and converter which are consuming the most amount of energy in Huta Katowice, from the viewpoints of the amount of energy saving and CO{sub 2} reduction, and an investment effect. Research was also made on the power plant, flow of by-product gas, generated energy and purchased energy for obtaining the total energy consumption. From the energy saving research results for every process, the priority of the improvement plan was prepared. The proposed plan showed huge reduction of energy and greenhouse effect gas emission. Although the plan is too serious for comfort because of current low energy cost in Poland, it becomes reasonable if a lower-interest fund loan is granted, from the viewpoint of an investment effect. (NEDO)

  9. Preliminary research on the glass ceiling phenomenon in accounting and financial audit practice in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Szewieczek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary research on the glass ceiling phenomenon in accounting and financial audit practice in Poland The paper analyzes the glass ceiling phenomenon in the accounting practice in Poland. The essence and characteristics of this phenomenon are presented in relation to the accounting profession and statutory auditors. Research on the ‘glass ceiling’ carried out in various countries, with a particular reference to the profession of a statutory auditor, was reviewed. The paper presents results of the research on the phenomenon conducted among a selected sample of audit firms in Poland. The results of the study confirmed the occurrence of this phenomenon in Poland with greater intensity in larger entities. The large scale of the glass ceiling phenomenon in the professional life of women in accounting is reflected by a high percentage of women in the profession of statutory auditor contrasted by the very low participation in senior managerial positions, e.g. partners in auditing companies. The paper uses the method of critical analysis of the literature and empirical data. Moreover, qualitative analysis was used for the data reported by audit firms

  10. William L. Wolfe, 1989 President of SPIE, encourages scientists from Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Joanna

    2012-10-01

    In 1990 Professor Wolfe after his SPIE presidency trekked the world, even making it as far as post-communist Poland, to see (in the visible and maybe in infrared - who knows) the work of optical scientists hidden behind the iron curtain. I am not sure if he was ready for how different that world was at this time, but for sure he was very inquisitive and eager to learn about the nuances of Poland right after the fall of communism. He met, visited with and encouraged young and old scientists from Poland, Russia, Hungary and Lithuania to add their expertise to the scientific conversations happening in the West. His mission in Poland was to invite us all, and he was ready to help us achieve our dreams. I was one of those he encouraged. This talk is my personal reflection of Professor Wolfe as an encouraging and sometimes brave SPIE pioneer - a stranger in a strange land - and as an energetic, caring SPIE president, Optical Sciences professor and human being. Disclaimer: Professor Bill Wolfe's contributions to the field of radiometry are well known and very well recognized. This conference is a tribute to him. However, my paper is not on radiometry; rather, I wish to illustrate the adventurous, caring and positive Bill Wolfe that helped me find my way to the American desert Southwest.

  11. The use of citation indicators to identify and support high-quality research in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilc, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    In large, mostly English-speaking countries, where the "critical mass" of scientists working in different subfields of science is achieved, the peer review system may be sufficient to assess the quality of scientific research. However, in smaller countries, outside the Anglo-American circle, it is important to introduce different systems to identify research of high quality. In Poland, a parametric system for assessing the quality of research has been introduced. It was largely based on the impact factor of scientific journals. While the use of this indicator to assess research quality is highly questionable, the implementation of the system in the Polish reality is even worse. Therefore it is important to change and improve the system currently used by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education to both evaluate and, more importantly, finance science in Poland. Here, a system based on three factors, i.e. the impact factor, the institutional h-index, and the institutional number of citations, is proposed. The scientific quality of institutions in Division VI: Medical Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences were evaluated and the results were compared with the existing system. Moreover, a method to identify high-quality researchers and institutions at the national level based on the quantity of highly cited papers is shown. Additionally, an attempt to identify the highest quality Polish research on an international level is proposed. This is based on the number of individual citations, the individual h-index, the number of publications, and the priority of the discovery.

  12. Projets et Resultats des Recherches sur l'Histoire des Bibliotheques en Pologne (Projects and Results of Research on the History of Libraries in Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stefan

    The history of library science in Poland and a number of Polish research projects are reviewed in this paper. It is concluded that a considerable amount of research has been done on the history of libraries in Poland, but that this research is fragmented and separated by its focus on theory or methodology. The methodology of scientific research in…

  13. Processes of concentration of wholesale trade in poland in the light of empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Strojny

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing role of trade as the integrator of distribution channels has been observed in Poland recently. Retail companies have gained a competitive advantage in relationships with both  suppliers and recipients. The natural questions are, how the situation of the wholesale trade looks at present in such a situation and what prospects it has for the future. The main aim of this paper is to identify and describe the influence of new conditions on the development of the wholesale trade as part of the supply chain. The hypothesis was assumed that this development is determined by processes related to the concentration of trade companies, which were also visiblerecently in Poland. Methods: The main concentration processes in Polish trade were identified based on a literature review and previous research. Then, based on the results of a survey and data obtained from the Central Statistical Office, the influence of these trends on the development of wholesale trade was evaluated. The further directions of changes in Polish wholesale trade were also indicated. Empirical research was conducted by the use of a direct interview with a random sample of 108 wholesale companies, both independent  and as part of chains. The research focused on wholesalers' opinions of market trends and integration processes in Polish wholesale trade and cover the  years 2014-15. Results: The results show the key market processes with regard to trade concentration. The biggest threats to the development of the wholesale trade are the processes of the horizontal concentration in retail. The concentration of retail companies leads to a shortening of the distribution channels and direct purchases from producers omitting the wholesale stage. Despite these threats, wholesalers describe their situation as good, and their opinion can be confirmed in data provided by the Central Statistical Office. Conclusions: The market processes identified must be taken into

  14. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  15. EVALUATION OF E-RECRUITMENT LEVEL AMONG THE LARGEST COMPANIES IN POLAND - PROJECT OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Buchnowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in the labor market cause that it is increasingly difficult to recruit employees with the right skills and competencies to companies. To reach the right candidates, they use modern IT solutions, such as ATS (Applicant Tracking System, which are supporting the processes of recruitment. Among others, they enable the publication of job offers on the Internet - on corporate websites, job portals and business social networking services - and apply for jobs online through these channels. This article pre-sents the evolution of the use of the Internet, and particularly the social media, in the recruitment process and presents a projekt of comprehensive research, which aims is to analyze and evaluate of the level of development of e-recruitment in Poland among largest companies.

  16. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-05-14

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Physics (the 'NPY Agreement') is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  17. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Physics (the 'NPY Agreement') is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  18. Spie, mandarini, bramini: i gesuiti e i loro travestimenti / Spies, Mandarins, Brahmins. The Jesuits and their disguises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Pavone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nella prima età moderna l’abito degli ordini religiosi rappresenta un importante fattore di identità immediatamente riconoscibile. È per questo motivo che i gesuiti vennero visti con sospetto: essi erano infatti vestiti come preti secolari. Ignazio di Loyola decise di non avere alcun segno distintivo poiché voleva vivere nel mondo, ma la sua scelta venne male interpretata e intesa come una forma di dissimulazione: la mancanza di un abito specifico fu vista come strumentale all’assunzione di ogni tipo di travestimento e presto, in determinati contesti, i gesuiti vennero considerati vere e proprie spie. Ai loro occhi infatti indossare l’abito del paese che si accingevano a evangelizzare era anche il modo migliore, certo non l’unico, per entrare in contatto con le altre culture. In questo saggio si vuole prendere in esame tanto l’uso dell’abito come elemento della pratica evangelizzatrice nelle missioni quanto la leggenda nera che dalle origini circondò i gesuiti e vide proprio nell’abito uno dei segni più importanti della loro attitudine al travestimento.   In the early modern age, the religious orders habit represent a very significant factor of identity to be immediately recognised, that’s why the Jesuits were looked with suspicion: in fact they were dressed as secular priests. Ignazio of Loyola decided not to have any distinctive sign because he wanted to live inside the world, but this choice was misinterpreted as a way of dissimulation: the lack of an habit was considered as a manner to assume any kind of disguise and soon Jesuits were considered as spies. In their opinion, to take the habit of the country they wanted to evangelize, was also the best way to be brought into contact with others cultures. In this paper I would like to consider either the Jesuits evangelisation practice in missions or the black legend that since the origins surrounded them considering also the habit one of the most important signal of their

  19. [The role of bioethics committees in the systems protecting scientific biomedical research participants in France and in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek; Sieczych, Alicja

    2013-08-01

    Bioethics committees are along with ethic regulations and rules of law one of three main pillars in the system of protection of scientific biomedical research participants. Although principal directives for bioethics committees are established by international guidelines, detailed regulations may differ in particular states. The aim of this article was to compare two bioethic committees systems: French and Polish one. Historical beginnings of the bioethics committees system in France and in Poland are briefly mentioned, Subsequently, the networks of bioethics committees in both countries are compared. Although the number of bioethics committees (Research Ethic Committees) in both countries is comparable, the procedure of their establishment varies. French committees are based on administrative division of the country and divide on regional and interregional committees. In Poland, bioethics committees are established by medical universities, medical research and development units or regional chambers of physicians and dentists. In France there is no equivalent of Appeal Bioethics Committee, however one could appeal from the negative bioethics committee's opinion. The composition of French bioethics committees is more diverse and half of the members are not related to medical professions. Members of French committees are named on indefinite term by headmaster of Regional Health Agency after having been chosen in competition for the post. In Poland members are called on three-year-term but the rotation of members is not overwhelming since there is no limit of terms for one member. French legal solutions seems more secure for scientific bioethics research participants. For this reason, a detailed research on legislation in other countries is necessary before introducing any new regulations in Polish law.

  20. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

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    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  1. Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnicki, S.; Budzinski, K.; Juda, J.; Michna, J.; Szpilewicz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Poland is an important case study in understanding the role of international cooperation in reducing the risk of global climate change. A the world's fourth largest coal producer, the nation occupies a key position in the political economy of a changing Europe. More importantly, Poland is pursuing energy policy reforms that half of the world must follow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prosper economically. Poland is undergoing profound economic and environmental change. This nation of 38 million people hopes to shift from planning to markets to allocate economic resources, and at the same time to conserve and protect environmental resources. Per capita incomes are only one-fourth of West Germany's, for example, but per capita energy use (and emissions of carbon dioxide) is just as high. High energy intensity causes much of Poland's serious air and water pollution. Economic efficiency could help reduce carbon and sulfur emissions, but the capital required to improve the energy infrastructure is scarce. The combination of these problems has reduced GNP per capita 9 percent over the last decade

  2. Human capital financial results of an enterprise – research on the best employers in poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bagieńska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a modern economy human capital is the basic resource, directly influencing production and the financial results of the enterprise. Employee involvement determines their better job performance and the achievement of better financial results. The analysed companies – winners of the contest named Best Employer in Poland demonstrated increasing effectiveness and profitability of their activities which was shown by the calculated coefficients. The human capital coefficients based on the data from financial reports do not reflect the proper analysis of changes in return on investment and human capital productivity dependent on the level of employee involvement. A proper evaluation should concern not only financial results such as sales revenues, but also non-financial results.

  3. Application of INAA to the examination of art objects. Research in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.; Walis, L.; Ligeza, M.

    2000-01-01

    Systematic studies on art objects using instrumental neutron activation analysis and neutron autoradiography have been carried out in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in collaboration with the Faculty of Art Conservation and Restoration of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow, as well as with other Academies of Fine Arts and museums in Poland. A number of essential data on the concentration of trace elements particularly in chalk grounds and pigments (such as lead white, lead-tin yellow, smalt), Chinese porcelain, Thai ceramics, as well as in the clay fillings of sarcophagi of Egyptian mummies was accumulated. The above mentioned examination of art objects prior to their conservation helps to determine precisely the materials used in the process of creating art objects, as well as to identify the approximate place of origin of particular materials. (author)

  4. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The texts of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Science, and of the Minutes of Signature thereof are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 10 April 1970.

  5. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-03-18

    The texts of the Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Norway, Poland and Yugoslavia concerning Co-operative Research in Reactor Science, and of the Minutes of Signature thereof are reproduced herein for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 10 April 1970.

  6. SPIE's School Outreach Activity Program (SOAP) by IIT Madras SPIE Student Chapter: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalikivayi, Lavanya; Kalikivayi, V.; Udayakumar, K.; Ganesan, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    One of the important aspects of SPIE is "Community Support and Outreach Education", which should raise awareness and interest in optics and photonics among the targeted communities and school children. Hence as part of SPIE IIT Madras student chapter, we carried out SPIE SOAP, a `School Outreach Activity Program'. Two types of schools were identified, one a high socio-economic status school and the other a low socio-economic status school having a majority of poor children. Optics related scientific experiments were demonstrated in these schools followed by oral quiz session to the students to assess the level of their knowledge before and after the experiments. We also clubbed this activity with "Vision Screening" and distribution of free spectacles for those children who live below poverty line. Out of the 415 children screened, 60.84% eyes were having normal vision, while 39.16% were found to have refractive errors (Myopia 35.78% and Hyperopia 3.38%) where some of them could not even read the board. Treatable eye diseases were also found in 0.72% of the children. The entire activity is been discussed and documented in this paper.

  7. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

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    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  8. The current state of research on psychiatric genetics in Poland and the world: A report covering recent years

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    Anna Grzywacz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to review the results of research carried out in recent years in relation to genetic studies in psychiatry. The authors’ focus is on the selected disorders, with particular emphasis on the reports from Poland. For this purpose, the most often mentioned studies describing genes and biomarkers involved in psychiatry were selected. Genetic polymorphisms were described in relation to schizophrenia, alcoholism, addiction to psychoactive substances, autistic spectrum, unipolar depression and bipolar disorder, eating disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Characterizing the impact of inheritance factors on the processes in the central nervous system, it can be observed that some biological mechanisms forms associations with tested genetic variants and this combination is linked with the risk of mental disorders. To understand the role of psychiatric genetics, surveys which join genotype and phenotype associations (endophenotype are essential. It seems important to study and search for associations of genes polymorphisms and biomarkers with mental and psychiatric disorders in order to better understanding the biological basis of the disease and more effective treatment of patients. In many cases, the variability analysis of selected genes sheds new light on understanding the etiology of diseases and mental disorders. Genetics is a powerful technique which allows us to study the impact of the inherited variance on changes in mental state, even without having prior knowledge about biological changes.

  9. Laser Beam Shaping XIII, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 8490

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available .1117/12.2013615 Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8490 849001-1 Downloaded From: http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 10/17/2012 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms The papers included in this volume were part of the technical conference cited on the cover and title..., Bellingham, Washington 98227-0010 USA Telephone +1 360 676 3290 (Pacific Time)? Fax +1 360 647 1445 SPIE.org Copyright ? 2012, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Copying of material in this book for internal or personal use...

  10. Work-Related Identity of Clinical Research Sector Employees in Poland Against Professional Transformation of the Industry

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    Barbara Kozierkiewicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Established professions and knowledge workers identify more with their professional groups than with their organisations. The purpose of the study was to fnd what kind of work-related identities are shown by clinical research sector employees in Poland, what is the intensity of those identities and which one is dominant. Methodology: The study started with qualitative interviews dedicated to professional changes and to work-related identity. The latter was selected for the main quantitative part of the study and its fve types were defned related to the trained profession, the practised profession, organizational, relational and task-related work identities. Intensity of these pre-defned identities was tested with a use of a questionnaire completed by 147 representatives of the sector under study. Statistical analysis of the collected data verifed the research hypotheses that assumed a certain gradation of these work-related identities. Results: Professional identity related to the practised occupation was placed on the highest level followed by task-related identity. Relational and organisational identities were classifed on the third and fourth levels. Identity related to the trained occupation achieved the lowest score. The employing organization type had no effect on the manifested professional identity. Originality value: As a developing new occupation, the study group itself was an interesting population for studying work-related identity. Combining the qualitative and quantitative methods enabled evaluation of the results against the professional changes shaping the sector, which can have an impact on building the work-related identity of its employees.

  11. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks removed from skin of people and circumstances of being bitten – research from the area of Poland, 2012–2014

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    Edyta Gałęziowska

    2018-03-01

    Infestation of ticks infected with Lyme disease spirochete in this study proved to be variable and depend on the season, the area of tick attack and the region in Poland. The results of the study clearly show that ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi inhabit all regions of Poland. The results are consistent with National Institute of Hygiene data which indicates that Lyme disease cases are recorded in all regions of Poland.

  12. A neutronics feasibility study for the LEU conversion of Poland's Maria research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretscher, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    The MARIA reactor is a high-flux multipurpose research reactor which is water-cooled and moderated with both beryllium and water. Standard HEU (80% 235 U)fuel assemblies consist of six concentric fuel tubes of a U-Al alloy clad in aluminum. Although the inventory of HEU (80%) fuel is nearly exhausted, a supply of highly-loaded 36%-enriched fuel assemblies is available at the reactor site. Neutronic equilibrium studies have been made to determine the relative performance of fuels with enrichments of 80%, 36% and 19.7%. These studies indicate that LEU (19.7%) densities of about 2.5 gU/cm 3 and 3.8 gU/cm 3 are required to match the performance of the MARIA reactor with 80%-enriched and with 36%-enriched fuels, respectively

  13. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  14. [New sector of employment--a review of data on nanoproduction, research and development in the field of nanotechnology in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popławska, Magdalena; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Bujak-Pietrek, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently one of the fastest developing areas of science, focusing on the design, manufacture and use of nanomaterials. The term "nanomaterial" means any product made of nanometer-size (1-100 nm) structures. Due to the small size and unique properties of the applied nanomaterials there is a growing interest in their aplication in various fields of industry and science. In Poland, there are very few companies that carry on nanotechnology activities. Research institutes, universities and research units of the Polish Academy of Sciences predominate in these activities. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Project and Supply Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Poland on 8 January 2007, the United States on 12 January 2007 and by the Director General of the IAEA on 16 January 2007. Pursuant to the Article XII of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 January 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Poland, the United States and the Director General of the IAEA

  16. Research on 18th Century Music in Poland. An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paczkowski Szymon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on 18th-century music has been one of the key areas of interest for musicologists ever since the beginnings of musicological studies in Poland. It initially developed along two distinct lines: general music history (with publications mostly in foreign languages and local history (mostly in Polish. In the last three decades the dominant tendency among Polish researchers has been, however, to relate problems of 18th-century Polish musical culture to the political history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and more generally – to the political history of Central Europe at large. The most important subjects taken up in research on 18th-century music include: the musical cultures of the royal court in 18th-century Warsaw (primarily in the works of Alina Żórawska-Witkowska as well as Polish aristocratic residences (e.g. studies by Szymon Paczkowski and Irena Bieńkowska, the ecclesiastical and monastic circles (publications by Alina Mądry, Paweł Podejko, Remigiusz Pośpiech and Tomasz Jeż; problems of musical style (texts by Szymon Paczkowski; research on sources containing music by European composers (e.g. by Johann Adolf Hasse; the musical culture of cities (of Gdańsk, first and foremost; studies concerning the transfer of music and music-related materials, the musical centres and peripheries, etc.

  17. Traffic safety developments in Poland : a research note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in traffic safety in Poland. There is a feeling that the rapid growth of traffic should be accompanied by additional efforts to improve traffic safety, in order to stop the corresponding increase in fatalities and serious accidents. To set realistic

  18. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks removed from skin of people and circumstances of being bitten - research from the area of Poland, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęziowska, Edyta; Rzymowska, Jolanta; Najda, Nella; Kołodziej, Przemysław; Domżał-Drzewicka, Renata; Rząca, Marcin; Muraczyńska, Bożena; Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Szadowska-Szlachetka, Zdzisława; Ślusarska, Barbara; Guty, Edyta

    2018-03-14

    During feeding, the tick sucks blood from the host along with the pathogens that are in the blood, simultaneously exchanging its own pathogens with the host. Humans can also be a host. It is important to understand the most typical circumstances in which people might become infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. This knowledge will help to prepare health education programmes aimed at the prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the percentage of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, depending on the circumstances of getting bitten. The research material consisted of ticks acquired from people who had been bitten, and questionnaires completed by these people. 510 ticks were acquired from 257 females and 253 males. Following delivery of a tick for testing, the stage of its development was determined and a molecular assay of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA performed. A positive result of the nested-PCR test was obtained in 78 ticks, which represents 15.30% of all ticks. The infected ticks were collected from male (41 ticks - 52.56%) and female subjects (37 ticks - 47.44%). The biggest number of infected ticks were collected in autumn (54 ticks - 69.23%) and from people who had been into forests (44 ticks - 56.41%). Among the people from whom the infected ticks were acquired, the dominating group included persons over 16 years of age (53 persons - 67.95%) and children aged 0-5 years (16 persons - 20.51%). One in four infected ticks were acquired from the southwestern (20 ticks - 25.64%) and eastern regions of Poland (21 ticks - 26.92%). Infestation of ticks infected with Lyme disease spirochete in this study proved to be variable and depend on the season, the area of tick attack and the region in Poland. The results of the study clearly show that ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi inhabit all regions of Poland. The results are consistent with National Institute of Hygiene data which indicates that Lyme

  19. The integration of Poland into the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    FAUCOMPRET, Erik; KONINGS, Jozef

    2001-01-01

    Poland was among the first Eastern European countries to apply for membership of the European Union. In view of Poland’s tragic history and the economic liberalisation that has taken place since 1989, we believe that the EU should adopt a generous approach toward its application. Unfortunately it looks as if the EU wants Poland to conform with all its laws before it can join. Our research suggests that the EU should pursue an open trade, labour and investment policy. Poland’s membership will ...

  20. Water Quality and Management Changes Over the History of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalinska, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries distinguished by a long and colorful past. Undergoing numerous turbulent socio-economic changes forced by the course of history, Poland is now one of the member states of the European Union. Experiencing low water quantity and high contamination levels in surface waters, Poland is following other EU countries in the effort to reach a "good" water status. Herein are presented impacts of changes in Polish history on water legislation, management, and research, as well as explanations for the perceptible split between engineering and scientific approaches to the aquatic issues. Drawbacks caused by unsatisfactory state research funding for the sciences and division of the water related contemporary scientific interests are also discussed.

  1. A Comparison of Educational Research Organizations and Methods, and Their Respective Influence on Secondary School Practices, in Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and the U.S.S.R. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William H.E.

    A study conducted in Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and the U.S.S.R. reports how these countries functioned in bridging the traditional gap between the development of theoretical research in education and the achievement of the desired reforms in school policies and practices. The choice of communist dictatorships as study subjects was based…

  2. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  3. Comparison of the availability of groundwater information sources in Poland with other European countries. Knowledge inventory for hydrogeology research - project KINDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Dendys, Marta; Tyszer, Magdalena

    2017-11-01

    Regulations of the Water Framework Directive 200/60/EC (WFD) had been applied by European Union countries into their legislation system. However, it does not guarantee that the groundwater research has the same standard and quality in EU countries. KINDRA international research project was launched to assessment of existing groundwater-related practical and scientific knowledge based on a new Hydrogeological Research Classification System (HRC-SYS). This classification is supported by a web-service - the European Inventory of Groundwater Research (EIGR). The main goal of the project is implementation policy of optimization in groundwater research in EU. The preliminary result of survey about groundwater management shows that in Poland is a good state of implementation WFD. Good level of implementation is especially related with groundwater monitoring. It is because a lot of institutions and municipal entities carry out their tasks referring to quality or quantity assessment. Results of their works are published as reports, newsletters, maps, bulletins etc. These materials are potential source of information which can be a valuable contribution to EIGR. However, a lot of information are published only in polish language, so it is impossible to spread this knowledge in Europe.

  4. Comparison of the availability of groundwater information sources in Poland with other European countries. Knowledge inventory for hydrogeology research – project KINDRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulations of the Water Framework Directive 200/60/EC (WFD had been applied by European Union countries into their legislation system. However, it does not guarantee that the groundwater research has the same standard and quality in EU countries. KINDRA international research project was launched to assessment of existing groundwater-related practical and scientific knowledge based on a new Hydrogeological Research Classification System (HRC-SYS. This classification is supported by a web-service – the European Inventory of Groundwater Research (EIGR. The main goal of the project is implementation policy of optimization in groundwater research in EU. The preliminary result of survey about groundwater management shows that in Poland is a good state of implementation WFD. Good level of implementation is especially related with groundwater monitoring. It is because a lot of institutions and municipal entities carry out their tasks referring to quality or quantity assessment. Results of their works are published as reports, newsletters, maps, bulletins etc. These materials are potential source of information which can be a valuable contribution to EIGR. However, a lot of information are published only in polish language, so it is impossible to spread this knowledge in Europe.

  5. The Development of Explosive Metalworking in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babul W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author coordinated the research in Poland by the collaboration with civil and military scientific and research centres. In result they elaborated detonation process of spraying coats designed and constructed stands equipped with detonative devices, they also elaborated the techniques of basic coating parameter measurement and built devices for commercial and scientific services. In the research the author's achievements within the range of explosive welding have been used. The experience of the scientific teams was very effective. It was observed that many phenomena that take place in the processes of detonative layer coating and explosive welding are the same. In order to obtain a required connection the plastic strain of the connected material surfaces has to be achieved and cumulative flows have to be formed. There are a similar range of the connecting process conditions and the mechanisms of plastic strain. The highest connection strength is obtained when an intermediate zone is formed. The zone has to be composed of the two connected materials. The intermediate layer is formed as a result of mechanical alloying of the materials due to large plastic strain. The plastic strain leads to forming meta-stable phases that have properties of pseudo solid solution, chemical compounds, intermetallic phases and fragmentation corresponding to nanomaterials and amorphous states.

  6. High energy physics in Poland: the first 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    High energy physics in Poland started in 1933 when Stanislaw Ziemecki and Konstanty Narkiewicz-Jodko performed measurements of the latitude effect for cosmic rays. Subsequently, experiments with cosmic rays were carried out in balloon flights in a deep salt mine. Other Polish pioneers in this field were Ignacy Adamczewski, Czeslaw Bialobrzeski, Marian Miesowicz, Szczepan Szczeniowski and Jan Wesolowski. The ambitious 'Star of Poland' project of a stratospheric balloon flight to study cosmic rays up to an altitude of 30000 meters was not successful, first because of the fire accident and then of the outbreak of World War II. The destruction of laboratories during the war has slowed down the development of high energy physics in Poland by at least twelve years. However, in the late forties Marian Miesowicz started important cosmic ray studies in Cracow. In 1952 research using nuclear emulsions was initiated in Warsaw by Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski. Two years later Marian Miesowicz and Jerzy Gierula began similar research in Cracow. In the late fifties Aleksander Zawadzki in Lodz started comprehensive studies of extensive air showers. Already in 1963 the number of experimental and theoretical papers on high energy physics published in Poland exceeded 100. Strong experimental and theoretical groups have been established in Cracow, Lodz and Warsaw. To supplement research with emulsions and bubble chambers the construction of electronic detectors for on-line experiments has been instituted. Thus, in the early eighties Polish high energy physicists were ready to participate in large projects such as DELPHI at LEP and ZEUS and H1 at HERA. The discovery of hypernuclei by Danysz and Pniewski in 1952 may be regarded as the most important achievement of physics in post-war Poland. (author). 108 refs, 26 figs, 1 tab

  7. In search for the grave of 100 Poles executed on March 20, 1942 in Zgierz, Poland - research by SIGO (Network for Genetic Identification of Victims).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, Renata; Ossowski, Andrzej; Ławrynowicz, Olgierd; Jędrzejczyk, Maciej; Prośniak, Adam; Bąbol-Pokora, Katarzyna; Diepenbroek, Marta; Szargut, Maria; Zielińska, Grażyna; Berent, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    It can be reasonably assumed that remains exhumed in 2012 and 2013 during archaeological explorations conducted in the Lućmierz Forest, an important area on the map of the German Nazi terror in the region of Lodz (Poland), are in fact the remains of a hundred Poles murdered by the Nazis in Zgierz on March 20, 1942. By virtue of a decision of the Polish Institute of National Remembrance's Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes Against the Polish Nation, the verification of this research hypothesis was entrusted to SIGO (Network for Genetic Identification of Victims) Consortium appointed by virtue of an agreement of December 11, 2015. The Consortium is an extension of the PBGOT (Polish Genetic Database of Totalitarianisms Victims). So far, the researchers have retrieved 14 DNA profiles from among the examined remains, including 12 male and 2 female profiles. Furthermore, 12 DNA profiles of the victims' family members have been collected. Due to the fact that next-of-kin relatives of the victims of the Zgierz massacre are of advanced age, it is of key importance to collect genetic material as soon as possible from the other surviving family members, identified on the basis of a list of victims that has been nearly completely compiled by the Polish Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) and is presented in this paper.

  8. Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyścin, J W; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Szkop, A; Wink, J; Czerwińska, A

    2014-11-01

    Statistical analysis of the daily course of exposures to TL-01 tube radiation for 93 psoriatic patients from the Medical University of Łódź during 20-day phototherapy shows that the dose of 1 J/cm(2) represents a unit of single exposure necessary for psoriasis healing. This value is converted to the antipsoriatic effective dose of 317.9 J/m(2) using the TL-01 lamp irradiance spectrum and the antipsoriatic action spectrum. It is proposed that the daily exposure of 317.9 J/m(2) serves as the standard antipsoriatic dose (SAPD) providing a link between the cabinet and the out-door exposures and it could be used for planning heliotherapy in Poland. A model is proposed to calculate ambient antipsoriatic doses for 3 h exposures around the local noon (9 am-12 am GMT) based on satellite measurements of ozone and cloud characteristics. The model constants are determined by a comparison with pertaining antipsoriatic doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometer in central Poland. It is found that 3 h exposures to solar radiation in the period 15 May-15 September provides the mean (2005-2013) doses in the range 2.7-3.1 SAPD over Poland. Thus, heliotherapy could be treated as an alternative to the cabinet phototherapy for almost 4 months. It seems that the most effective site for antipsoriatic heliotherapy is the south/east part of Poland (the Bieszczady Mountains). The heliotherapy could be carried out in existing national health centers equipped with the standard easy-to-use biometers for on-line monitoring of UV level and controlling duration of sunbathing to avoid erythema risks. It is even possible to control the antipsoriatic heliotherapy by a patient himself, using low-cost hand-held instruments measuring UV index. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  11. Possible consequences of severe accidents at the Lubiatowo site, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Philipp, Anne; Hofman, Radek; Gufler, Klaus; Sholly, Steven

    2014-05-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is under consideration in Poland. One of the sites under discussion is near Lubiatowo, located on the cost of the Baltic Sea northwest of Gdansk. An assessment of possible environmental consequences is carried out for 88 real meteorological cases with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. Based on literature research, three reactor designs (ABWR, EPR, AP 1000) were identified as being under discussion in Poland. For each of the designs, a set of accident scenarios was evaluated and two source terms per reactor design were selected for analysis. One of the selected source terms was a relatively large release while the second one was a severe accident with an intact containment. Considered endpoints of the calculations are ground contamination with Cs-137 and time-integrated concentrations of I-131 in air as well as committed doses. They are evaluated on a grid of ca. 3 km mesh size covering eastern Central Europe.

  12. Summary of my experiences as an undergraduate researcher in the U.S. and as a Fulbright Student Researcher at the Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelasko Susan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of my undergraduate studies in Molecular and Cellular Biology and the experiences following my graduation, I became increasingly interested in research that can directly improve patient care. My research experiences in the U.S. include studying cytochrome P450 enzymes in Nanodiscs at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and examining immune evasion by acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells at the University of Colorado Cancer Center. Beyond work in the laboratory, I also participated in a year-long project to implement a water delivery system in Honduras, leading to my interest in infectious disease research. My interest in this field grew after learning about phage therapy, a way of treating antibiotic-resistant infections, during an honors virology seminar. Only a few research groups are dedicated to studying phage therapy, which includes the Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy (IIET in Poland. I was fortunate enough to receive a U.S. Fulbright research grant to study the immune response to phage therapy under the mentorship of Prof. hab. n. med. Andrzej Górski at the IIET. In this article, I will discuss my involvement at U.S. and European institutions, the insights I have gained, and how other students can similarly get involved in research.

  13. Additions to the biota of lichenized fungi of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of five lichenized fungi from Poland are provided. Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lecanora quercicola, Rhizocarpon superficiale and Strigula ziziphi are new to Poland. Of these, Strigula ziziphi is reported also as new to Central Europe and Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta as new to the Carpathians. Additionally, Thelenella muscorum var. octospora is recorded from its second locality in Poland as new to the Polish Carpathians. Hypostictic acid chemosyndrome has been noticed for the first time in European (Poland and South American (Bolivia populations of Rhizocarpon superficiale.

  14. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.; Barszcz, J.; Greszta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)

  15. Monetary policy change of the Central bank of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraś Ireneusz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Bank of Poland is an institution which, in conjunction with the government is responsible for the implementation of country’s economic policy reinforces its democratic character. Provisions of its operation are governed by the Constitution of The Republic of Poland and by the Act on the National Bank of Poland. To this end, the objective of the present research is to analyse the proposed amendments in the Act on the NBP. The latter concerns the amendment procedures, term of office and the rotations and numbers of Monetary Policy Council. The remaining part of the analyses is dedicated to the issue of dismissal of a MPC’s member in conjunction with the prohibition of occupying other positions, the adoption of the NBP’s financial statements and the separation of instruments of monetary policy’s instruments for stability of domestic financial system. Introduced changes in the proposed draft reduce the independence of the NBP while making it more subject to the Cabinet. Following the result of further consultations on the draft of Act on the NBP, provisions which reduce the independence of the NBP shall be partially removed.

  16. Environmental and social costs of the uranium mining and milling in Poland from 1948 to 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdulski, M.; Waclawek, Z.; Kaminski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The extensive uranium exploration and mining activities were carried out in the Lower Silesia (SW Poland) in the early 1950's, under direction of Soviet Union experts. Prospecting for uranium in Poland was initiated in 1947 when a bilateral agreement between the Polish and USSR governments was concluded. According to that agreement all uranium produced in Poland was transported to the Soviet Union. A systematic exploration programme, including geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys and related research, was carried out until 1966. The extensive uranium exploration was undertaken in number of localities in the Lower Silesia

  17. THE E-HEALTH SYSTEMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław PÓLKOWSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are disruptive technologies that have caused major changes in health system in Poland. Current digital economy is driven by modern information and new IT tools, which offer hospitals, doctors and patient access to any type of information, regardless of its form of existence, storage type or geographical location. These tools encourage the development of new activities, health services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the the current state of development of e-services in Poland in the context of nowadays health system. In the first part of the paper, the authors present various programmes, which enable the access to the medical services and patients’ data online. The next part of the paper is devoted to examining the technical aspects of the said programmes and presenting their advantages as well as the areas which might be improved.The last part of the work will be focused on the websites of the selected health institutions. According to the authors, WWW services provide much information on how the process of computer systems are being implemented, what data the services include and the capacity of the equipment as well as the software, human resources and the knowledge in this sphere. Moreover this section highlights the latest trends in e-health with particular emphasis on aspects such as the use of private and public cloud computer and t heir integration with web sites of health institutions. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the change of health system in Poland behavior by using a new perspective e-health systems and IT tools above by doctors, officers and patients.

  18. British auditors in Poland in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Cieślik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of historical research on the operation of British accounting firm Whin-ney, Murray & Co in Poland before World War II. Based on our findings this was the only foreign ac-counting firm active in Poland at that time. Following their clients, British accounting firms expanded their operations abroad at the turn of the 19th century. During the 1920s and 1930s the number of audit assignments on the European continent increased rapidly, which necessitated the establishment of branches (offices in major European cities and industrial districts. Whinney, Murray & Co set up an office in Warsaw in 1932 taking into account its convenient location as a base for undertaking audit assignments throughout the Eastern European region. The Warsaw office concentrated initially on inter-national clients active in Poland but was also engaged in audits of Polish power plants and participated as financial advisor in the electrification program of Polish railways with involvement of British investors. Whinney, Murray & Co contributed to the development of Polish-British economic cooperation before World War II. Its representative was one of the founders of the Polish-British Chamber of Commerce established in Warsaw in 1933.

  19. Dimensions of health among the elderly in Poland and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knurowski, T.; Lazic, D.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the WHO definition of health, we aimed at exploring the model of health and identifying the most important dimensions of health among the elderly in two Central European countries: Poland and Croatia. Randomly chosen elderly aged 65-85 from Krakow (Poland) and from Zagreb and some

  20. The Impact of Wind Farms on the Prices of Nearby Houses in Poland: A Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torzewski Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009/10 Poland has experienced a dynamic growth of wind energy production. Currently, wind energy is the most popular resource of renewable energy in Poland. Despite the importance of wind energy for the Polish economy, there is no reliable and comprehensive research on the causal effects of wind farm facilities on property prices.

  1. Intense microwave pulses II. SPIE Volume 2154

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of this conference was to present and critically evaluate new and ongoing research on the generation and transmission of intense microwave pulses. Significant progress was reported on high-power, high-current relativistic klystron amplifier research and design. Other work presented at the conference, include research on a high-power relativistic magnetron driven by a high-current linear induction accelerator, derivation of a Pierce-type dispersion relation describing the interaction of an intense relativistic electron beam with a corrugated cylindrical slow-wave structure, experiments on an X-band backward-wave cyclotron maser oscillator, and observation of frequency chirping in a free electron laser amplifier. Other presentations included work on multiwave Cerenkov generator experiments, analysis of resonance characteristics of slow-wave structures in high-power Cerenkov devices, linear analysis and numerical simulation of Doppler-shifted cyclotron harmonics in a cyclotron autoresonance klystron, high-power virtual cathode oscillator theory and experiments, design of a sixth-harmonic gyrofrequency multiplier as a millimeter-wave source, and experiments on dielectric-loaded and multiwave slotted gyro-TWT amplifiers. A review was presented on innovative concepts which employ high-power microwaves in propulsion of space vehicles. Separate abstracts were prepared for 34 papers of this conference

  2. Proceedings of the ADPA/AIAA/ASME/SPIE Conference on Active and Adaptive Structures Held in Alexandria, Virginia on November 4 - 8, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-08

    We have been using CV to investigate the effects of redox compounds, inciluding proteins of various types, and of drugs on BLMs. Recent results...bonds Aith bridging diarylphosphates. The resultant cocrystal takes up a ribbon structure with the pyrTidinium-phosphate hydrogen bond network at its core...and vice-versa. Ideally, to obtain F.D.A. (Federal Drug Administration) approval, the smaller the current, the better. This meant the Nitinol

  3. Proceedings of SPIE - the International Society for Optical Engineering. Ocean Optics 12 Held in Bergen, Norway on 13-15 June 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-15

    International and Oregon State University Oliverio D. Soares, Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Opticas/ Universidade do V-orto (Portugal) J. Ronald V...uncorrected absorption measurements from the spectrophotometer with integrating cavity and the I cm cell (Figure 3d ) is similar to that for the poorer...through mathematical volumetric reconstruction steps. 1 2. 3D RECONSTRUCTION THEORY A three step process model serves as the foundation for the three

  4. Sol-Gel Optics: Proceedings SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering Held in San Diego, California on 11-13 July 1990. Volume 1328

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    important for optical devises used in such environment as nuclear power stations and space stations. Fig. 9 shows the y-ray dose dependence of the coupling...Bi 2 0 3 and TiO2-CeO 2 Compositions. Michel A. Aegerter, Eliane R. La Serra University of Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica e Quimica de Sao Carlos

  5. Regional development of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Salamaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Regional development includes qualitative changes in economy (e.g. in production, investments, employment as well as qualitative changes (regarding the structure of economy and society, changes in the environment. The research of regional development is important and necessary in order to make appropriate decisions at the regional and local level. The main purpose of the article is comparative analysis of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship in the area of economic, social and ecological development. Scientific aim: The scientific aims of paper are verifying the hypothesis concerning eco-development and forecasting the level of regional development in districts of Lesser Poland Voivodship. Methodology/methods: In the research of regional development the quality index of economic, social and ecological development has been proposed which has been calculated on the basis of a certain aggregation of the results of the Principal Component Analysis made on the correlation matrix of standardised variables being the components of the index. Forecasts of the regional development level in districts were calculated with the use of different econometric models as linear model, exponential model, or power model. Findings: The findings prove that the Lesser Poland Voivodship is characterised by considerable disproportions in regional development. The most favourable conditions for economic and social development are in the districts with large city agglomerations as well as extensive municipality infrastructure and transport infrastructure. The presented results demonstrate that the majority of districts have not exhibited a constant tendency to changes in the positions in successive ranking lists in terms of the economic, social and ecological development. The positions occupied by most districts are generally stable and have not changed considerably in the examined period. Conclusions: The research has confirmed the negative

  6. Discussion regarding classification of sexual disorders in DSM-5 and research trends within the area of sexual disorders in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Klasa, Katarzyna; Sobański, Jerzy A.; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The fifth version of the American Psychiatric Association’s classification, DSM, was released in May 2013. Its completion was preceded by years of intensive discussions, clinical trials and secondary data analysis, which were aimed at as best as possible reflecting of clinical reality. In the present article review of literature was presented, showing the range of work connected with the area of widely understood sexual disorders as well as the most important changes regarding it that are inc...

  7. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  8. Test of the Bank Lending Channel: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu HSING

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the bank lending channel for Poland based on a simultaneousequation model consisting of demand for and supply of bank loans. The three-stage least squares method is employed in empirical work. This paper finds support for a bank lending channel for Poland. Expansionary monetary policy through a lower money market rate or open market purchase of government bonds to increase bank reserves/deposits would increase bank loan supply.

  9. New Localities of Rare Liverworts in the Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniaszek-Kik Monika

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports new localities of four liverwort species, i.e., Fossombronia foveolata Lindb., Gymnocolea inflata (Huds. Dumort., Leiomylia anomala (Hook. J.J. Engel & Braggins and Odontoschisma denudatum (Mart. Dumort., found in Central Poland. The new sites are situated in peat bog habitats and swamp forest in the depression cone of lignite opencast mine near Bełchatów in Central Poland. All of the reported species are very rare and have only few localities in Central Poland.

  10. Road safety in Poland : a contribution to the improvement of road safety in Poland in the framework of the GAMBIT project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. Koornstra, M.J. Mulder, J.A.G. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research study. The study was commissioned: (1) to give a general opinion on the "GAMBIT" project contents; and (2) to express an expectation about the future traffic safety development in Poland. The SWOV contribution has been realized within

  11. The present status and perspectives on the development of radiation chemistry and technology in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroh, J.; Rosiak, J.; Wolszczak, M.; Bobrowski, K.; Chmielewski, A. G.; Zimek, Z.; Forys, M.; Kalecinski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Having in mind the world research trends in the field of radiation chemistry and technology, the development of this domain in Poland has been discussed in this report. The condition of apparatus and man power at the Polish scientific institutions and academic centers acting in the above mentioned scientific and technological area has been analyzed. It has been shown that the basic research achievements of national institutions are placing them among the most advanced foreign centers. As to the implemented technological elaborations it may be said that is one of the few high-tech fields in which Poland can compete with the most advanced centers in the world. (author)

  12. Academic aspects of management accounting and controlling in Poland since the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szychta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic aspects of management accounting and controlling in Poland since the 1990s Management accounting (MA systems in enterprises in Poland are shaped by numerous economic and institutional factors. Normative drivers such as teaching at the university level, academic research and publications of Polish academics (which are, in turn, influenced by the development of MA and con-trolling in Western countries are of major importance. The aim of the paper is to recognize and present the scope of the impact that the Anglo-American concept of management accounting, and the controlling concept according to the approach in German-speaking countries, have had on the academic aspects of MA in Poland since 1990. The authors answer in the paper six explorative research questions. The basis for the answers to these questions is a literature study, a review and thematic classification of articles concerning MA and controlling, published in the two main Polish journals in this area, and a survey conducted by the authors among heads of accounting departments at universities and other entities of further education in Poland. The paper provides arguments confirming that there is no uni-form perception of the relationship between MA and controlling among Polish accounting researchers, that research topics in Poland are dominated by the Anglo-American concept of MA, and that educa-tional programs on accounting at university level have a preference for the term management account-ing, although they also offer courses on controlling.

  13. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  14. Valuation of Residential Premises for the Purposes of Securing the Receivables of the Creditor in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hełdak, Maria; Stacherzak, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    The study presents an analysis of the theoretical and practical issues connected with securing the receivables of creditors, in particular the principles connected with the appraisal of real property value used for the purposes of granting loans in Poland. The scope of research included the basic elements of the functioning and organisation of the Polish banking system, legal forms of securing debt receivables and the principles of real property valuation for universal and mortgage banks. Additionally, the authors have conducted an analysis of the number and amount of loans granted in Poland in the years 2009 - 2016

  15. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska

    2015-01-01

    One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland), NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA), ...

  16. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  17. Estimation of weights for the Monetary Conditions Index in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Toroj

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we follow the econometric approach to assess relative importance of real interest rate and real exchange rate for the monetary conditions in Poland, quantified as weights for Monetary Conditions Index (MCI). We consider both single- and multiple-equation specifications proposed in the literature with an application to Poland. Although MCI is nowadays broadly considered a rather obsolete indicator in monetary policy conduct, we argue that the econometric framework used for this ...

  18. Marketing Program Standardization: The Experience of TNCs in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Sagan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the rate of standardization of marketing programs in transnational corporations in the consumer goods market in Poland, which currently is one of the fastest growing markets in the world. An important research objective was to observe how Polish consumers adopt the marketing patterns and related lifestyles from countries of Western Europe and the USA. The empirical tests and data, collected in a sample survey of 35 transnational corporations and their 140 products, and using varied methods of statistical inference, allowed to formulate the following conclusions. The analyzed TNC’s adopted a clear standardization strategy in the Polish market. Among the analyzed products, 2/3 of them have been entirely transferred from foreign markets into the Polish market. A detailed analysis has indicated that the standardization rate of product and its items in the FMCG market in Poland is high and very high, and significantly higher than the pricing and advertising strategy standardization rates. The product standardization rate in the Polish market has been slightly higher than the rate in the developed countries, yet the pricing standardization has been significantly lower. The standardization of advertising strategies showed similar features.

  19. Coal Transition in Poland. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpor, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. The restructuring of the Polish coal sector is inextricably related to the democratic transformation which began in 1989. The economic dimension of the transformation is manifested in the shift from central planning to the free market. Although this process brought economic growth, it has had severe social costs. The main goals of the coal sector restructuring were to achieve its profitability and competitiveness on the global market. However, even with a very quick down-sizing of production and employment, which positively affected the mines' productivity, these goals were not achieved. Neither the profitability of the sector nor the sustainability of the labour restructuring were achieved. There were three main reasons for lack of success in this process. Firstly, the rapid changes of governments making impossible implementation of long term strategies and ensure implementation of market rules in the sector. Secondly, the pressure from trade unions on sustaining the status quo - state owed structure of mining companies, professional privileges and increasing salaries. Thirdly, the lack of sufficient incentives for retraining the miners and revitalising the areas exposed the most on the coal sector restructuring. Content: Introduction; Historical background; Structure of the coal and energy sector; Policies for the restructuring of the coal sector: Main actors in the process, Governmental programs, Instruments for easing the restructuring processes; Conclusions and lessons learnt

  20. Environmental aspects of the geothermal energy utilisation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Drabik, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Geothermal energy is considered as a strategic and sustainable source of renewable energy that can be effectively managed in several economic sectors. In Poland, despite the abundant potential of such resources, its share in the energy mix of renewable energy sources remains insubstantial. The utilisation of geothermal resources in Poland is related to the hydrogeothermal resources, however, numerous researches related to petrogeothermal energy resources are being performed. The utilisation of each type of energy, including geothermal, has an impact on the natural environment. In case of the effective development of geothermal energy resources, many environmental benefits are pointed out. The primary one is the extraction of clean, green energy that is characterised by the zero-emission rate of pollutants into the atmosphere, what considering the current environmental pollution in many Polish cities remains the extremely important issue. On the other hand, the utilisation of geothermal energy might influence the natural environment negatively. Beginning from the phase of drilling, which strongly interferes with the local landscape or acoustic climate, to the stage of energy exploitation. It should be noted that the efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy resources is closely linked with the current law regulations at national and European level.

  1. The lichens in the agricultural landscape of Podlasie, North East Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matwiejuk, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper carries information for diagnosis lichenobiota in the agricultural landscape of Poland NE. The research led to a better understanding of the problem of occurrence of lichens in the agricultural landscape. The functional groups of lichens, which were used to characterize lichen biota taking into account the morphological forms, frequency of occurrence and habitat requirements were determined. The basis for the specification of the more interesting taxa in the study area was to analyze the species composition of lichens in relation to the data on their previous records in rural areas, the degree of recognition in Poland NE and conservation status and threats in the country. (author)

  2. Public financing of research projects in Poland – its image and consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldy Marzena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both the size of appropriation as well as their distribution have had a profound impact on the shape and activities of the science sector. The creation of a fair system of distribution of public resources to research that will also facilitate the effective implementation of the pursued scientific policy goals represents a major challenge. The issue of the determination of the right proportions of individual distribution channels remains critical. Despite this task being the responsibility of the State, establishing cooperation in this respect with the scientific community is desirable. The implementation of solutions that raise the concerns of scientists leads to system instability and reduced effectiveness which is manifest among others in a lower level of indicators of scientific excellence and innovation in the country. These observations are pertinent to Poland where the manner in which scientific institutes operate were changed under the 2009–2011 reform. A neoliberal operating model based on competitiveness and rewarding of top rated scientific establishments and scientists was implemented. In light of these facts, the initiation of research that will provide information on how the implemented changes are perceived by the scientific community seems to be appropriate. The aim of this article is in particlar presenting how the project model of financing laid down under the reform is perceived and what kind of image has been shaped among Polish scientists. In order to gain a comprehensive picture of the situation, both the rational and emotional image was subject to analysis. The conclusions regarding the perception of the project model were drawn on the basis of empirical materials collected in a qualitative study the specifics of which will be presented in the chapter on methodology. Prior to that, the author discusses the basic models for the distribution of state support for science and characterises the most salient features of the

  3. THE TRADE POSITION OF POLAND IN THE ICT SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Talar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis and assessment of trade in the ICT services performance of Poland. This study is looked at the trade position, essentially on the basis of the share in the world ICT services exports, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, and trade coverage ratio. It also identifies trends of the world trade in the ICT services. The statistics are derived from the basis of UNCTAD and Eurostat. International trade in the ICT ser-vices sector has specific characteristics and the interpretation of results of this trade is to take account of the particular nature of the ICT services. Poland is currently not revealed comparative advantage in the ICT services exports, but has had positive balance. Practically all trade indicators for Poland show very strong growth, which indicate a significant improvement in its ICT services trade position.

  4. Cultural Integration and Cross–Cultural Management Challenges in the Central European Countries:Lithuania and Poland

    OpenAIRE

    GREBLIKAITĖ, JOLITA; SROKA, WŁODZIMIERZ; DAUGĖLIENĖ, RASA; KUROWSKA–PYSZ, JOANNA

    2017-01-01

    The article focused on disclosing the situation of cultural integration in Lithuania and Poland leading to the different issues of cross–cultural management in labour market and companies activity. As the main research method, a critical analysis of scientific literature on cultural integration and cross–cultural management applied in the companies as well as secondary research data and legal documents are analysed focusing on both countries – Lithuania and Poland. Practical examples' analysi...

  5. THE ROLE OF BUSINESS INSURANCE IN NATIONAL ECONOMY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to show the role of business insurance in the Polish national economy. The fi rst part presents an overview of the insurance market. In the second part the importance of insurance in the national economy is discussed, based on calculated penetration rates, insurance density, activity monitoring, coverage ratio and solvency ratio. Finally the density and penetration rates in Poland were compared with those in other EU countries. The primary research method was descriptive method and the basic indicators of the importance of insurance in the national economy. The main source materials were data from the Central Statistical Offi ce, the Polish Financial Supervision Authority and the Polish Insurance Association. This study covers the period 2006–2014. The study confi rmed a good standing of the Polish insurance market and the fact that it systematically reduces the distance that separates the Polish insurance market from the largest European markets.

  6. Poland's Services Trade with the European Union During the Preaccession Period

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Mongiało

    2004-01-01

    The fact that, since 1 May 2004, Poland has the status of European Union member involves certain consequences for Poland's competitiveness in the international services trade market. What competitive position will Poland finally occupy among the EU countries in the postaccession period will to a large extent depend on Poland's present position in the services trade with the EU countries. So, the paper tries to present, on the basis of the most recent available statistical data published by th...

  7. Poland as a(n) (un)attractive destination for Belarusian labour migrants: CARIM-East research report

    OpenAIRE

    Brunarska, Zuzanna; Lesińska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Poland, due to its geographical and cultural proximity as well as stable economic growth in recent years, may be a natural destination country for labour migrants from Belarus. The statistics related to their residence and employment show that the numbers of Belarusians working in Poland are smaller than it could be expected, in particular, relatively smaller comparing to Ukrainians. The text analyzes the causes of the limited attractiveness of Poland as a destination country for labour migra...

  8. Photovoltaics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietruszko, Stanislaw M.

    2003-01-01

    The legislative framework and financing possibilities for photovoltaics (PV) in Poland are presented. Barriers that exist or can be encountered in implementing PV technology in Poland are identified. This paper also discusses future prospects and possibilities for developing photovoltaics in Poland. Finally, the paper suggests ways to promote, disseminate, and deploy PV technology in Poland. (Author)

  9. New evidence of Ursus minims from the territory of Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Jan; Lipecki, G.; Krawczyk, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2008), s. 78-80 ISSN 0038-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Ursus minimus * Pliocene * dentition * Rebielice Królewskie (Poland) Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  10. The Jewish psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2015-03-01

    The T4 euthanasia programme within Nazi Germany has been well researched, but much less is known about the extermination of psychiatric patients in Nazi-occupied territories during the same period. In Poland 20,000 mentally ill patients were deliberately killed during the German occupation. This paper traces the history of one psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, south-east of Warsaw. The hospital once served the Jewish population of Poland and was the largest, most prestigious neuropsychiatric centre in the country. It is now in ruins and said to be haunted by ghosts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The models evaluating courier and messenger companies in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodakowska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is a well-established, popular, and often used method for efficiency evaluation of units from all sector, both commercial and non-profit organisations, of any scale of operations. Network DEA models are a relatively recent approach used to examine the efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs having an internal structure of sub-processes. The article presents the concept of DEA network models in estimating the efficiency of courier and messenger companies with relations to their business clients. The considerations are supported by an example of data concerning leaders from the sector of couriers and messengers in Poland and one of the biggest and most popular online stores. The results are compared with the traditional DEA approach. In addition, to measure reliability for DEA scores, the jackknife procedure was performed. The author proves the usefulness of network DEA as a research and management tool.

  12. Online Political Campaigning during the 2014 Regional Elections in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baranowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the analysis and evaluation of political communication on a regional level. Without any doubt, the Internet revolution affected electoral campaigning on every level. Online campaigning before local elections is often marginalized by political scientists and other scholars researching political marketing. However, the question emerges: are the candidates aware of the possibilities that new media has brought to political communication? Content analysis of all the major online communication tools has allowed the author to analyze the patterns of using websites, official Facebook profiles and Twitter accounts of candidates during the 2014 Lower Silesian Regional assembly elections. The Lower Silesian Voivodeship is among the fastest developing regions in Poland with high Internet penetration rate. Is the Internet campaign treated as a second-class way to communicate with potential voters, or is it perceived as an opportunity to reach electorate online?

  13. How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why

  14. The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    LASTOVETSKA ROKSOLANA ORESTIVNA

    2015-01-01

    The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland is analyzed in the article. Based on historical data the vector autoregression model (VAR) was built to examine the effects of the sharp rise in the volume of remittances outflows. The model results are presented for the next macroeconomic indicators: GDP, inflation, interest rate and exchange rate.

  15. Relationships between individualism-collectivism, gender, and direct or indirect aggression: a study in China, Poland, and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Gordon; Zhang, Xiaoying; Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Haas, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Direct and indirect aggression were studied in college students from China (women n=122; men n=97), a highly collectivistic culture; the US (women n=137; men n=136), a highly individualistic culture; and Poland (women n=105; men n=119), a culture with intermediate levels of collectivism and individualism. Consistent with a hypothesis derived from national differences in relative levels of collectivism and individualism, both direct and indirect aggression were higher in the US than in Poland and higher in Poland than in China. The theoretical implication of these results and directions for future research were discussed. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The Institutional Implications of the Unfair Terms Directive in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I focus on the institutional implications of the EU Unfair Terms Directive (93/13) in Poland in the broader context of the welfare state model prevalent in that post-socialist EU Member State. I depart from the assumption that there is, in principle, a link between the intensity of the

  17. Multipurpose epithermal neutron beam on new research station at MARIA research reactor in Swierk-Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryzinski, M.A.; Maciak, M. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    MARIA reactor is an open-pool research reactor what gives the chance to install uranium fission converter on the periphery of the core. It could be installed far enough not to induce reactivity of the core but close enough to produce high flux of fast neutrons. Special design of the converter is now under construction. It is planned to set the research stand based on such uranium converter in the near future: in 2015 MARIA reactor infrastructure should be ready (preparation started in 2013), in 2016 the neutron beam starts and in 2017 opening the stand for material and biological research or for medical training concerning BNCT. Unused for many years, horizontal channel number H2 at MARIA research rector in Poland, is going to be prepared as a part of unique stand. The characteristics of the neutron beam will be significant advantage of the facility. High flux of neutrons at the level of 2x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} will be obtainable by uranium neutron converter located 90 cm far from the reactor core fuel elements (still inside reactor core basket between so called core reflectors). Due to reaction of core neutrons with converter U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} material it will produce high flux of fast neutrons. After conversion neutrons will be collimated and moderated in the channel by special set of filters and moderators. At the end of H2 channel i.e. at the entrance to the research room neutron energy will be in the epithermal energy range with neutron intensity at least at the level required for BNCT (2x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}). For other purposes density of the neutron flux could be smaller. The possibility to change type and amount of installed filters/moderators which enables getting different properties of the beam (neutron energy spectrum, neutron-gamma ratio and beam profile and shape) is taken into account. H2 channel is located in separate room which is adjacent to two other empty rooms under the preparation for research laboratories (200 m2). It is

  18. Anti-Roma Hate Speech in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belavusau, U.; Goodwin, M.; De Hert, P.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter examines the protection against anti-Romani hate speech provided by the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, in particular the legal avenues of redress available to victims. This research combines an analysis of the legal framework with its functioning in practice, and situates both in a

  19. Extreme Precipitation in Poland in the Years 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Miroslawa

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of extreme precipitation, including the dominant trends, were analysed for eight stations located in different parts of Poland for the period 1951-2010. Five indices enabling the assessment of the intensity and frequency of both extremely dry and wet conditions were applied. The indices included the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10), maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD), maximum 5-day precipitation total (R5d), simple daily intensity index (SDII), and the fraction of annual total precipitation due to events exceeding the 95th percentile calculated for the period 1961-1990. Annual trends were calculated using standard linear regression method, while the fit of the model was assessed with the F-test at the 95% confidence level. The analysed changes in extreme precipitation showed mixed patterns. A significant positive trend in the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10) was observed in central Poland, while a significant negative one, in south-eastern Poland. Based on the analysis of maximum 5-day precipitation totals (R5d), statistically significant positive trends in north-western, western and eastern parts of the country were detected, while the negative trends were found in the central and northeastern parts. Daily precipitation, expressed as single daily intensity index (SDII), increased over time in northern and central Poland. In southern Poland, the variation of SDII index showed non-significant negative tendencies. Finally, the fraction of annual total precipitation due to the events exceeding the 1961-1990 95th percentile increased at one station only, namely, in Warsaw. The indicator which refers to dry conditions, i.e. maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) displayed negative trends throughout the surveyed area, with the exception of Szczecin that is a representative of north-western Poland.

  20. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  1. The international trade in reptiles (Reptilia)--the cause of the transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) to Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Magdalena

    2010-05-11

    The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Parasitic macrofungi (Basidiomycetes on fruit shrubs and trees in the Tarnów town (S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piątek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of 6 years of research carried out in the Tarnów town, southern Poland, are presented. Total number of 27 species of Basidiomycetes were recorded on 7 species of fruit shrubs and trees. Some of them were found on hosts new for Poland, on Malus domestica - Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma australe, Meripilus giganteus, Stereum hirsutum and Volvariella bombycina; on Juglans regia - Ganoderma applanalum and Hineola auricula-judae.

  3. The State of Development of Digital Libraries in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Miroslaw; Catlow, John; Lewandowski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of development of Polish digital libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the establishment of the first digital library in Poland, the creation of the Wielkopolska Digital Library and other regional digital libraries. The organisational and technological solutions used…

  4. The Rights and Duties of Family in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation Mondiale Pour l'Education Prescolaire, Warsaw (Poland).

    This paper presented at the 1977 meeting of the World Organization of Preschool Education (OMEP), reviews legal acts concerning the family in Poland; specifically the family law, the custodial law, and the matrimonial property law. Subjects discussed include: (1) legal protection of the family; (2) social protection of the family; (3) principles…

  5. Adult Learning Development in Poland in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiarska-Khomenko, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a retrospective analysis of adult learning development in Poland in the 20th century. Based on the study and analysis of historical and pedagogical literature, normative documents of the official bodies of Polish government, the periodical press of the 20th century, several stages of adult learning development, in the…

  6. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  7. Undergraduate Medical Education in Poland: Variations on the Soviet Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missett, James R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Poland has centralized academic and administrative control over the medical academies, combined the training of medical students with that of dental and pharmacy students, equalized admission ratios for men and women, and provided relatively generous stipends for its medical students. (Editor/PG)

  8. The benefits and costs of IFRS implementation in Polandthe investors’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Klimczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of earlier studies analysed the process as well as the consequences of implementing Interna- tional Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS in Poland. Prior research concentrated mainly on the impact of IFRS implementation on the financial reporting of companies in Poland and market reaction to the application of IFRS. Not much attention has been given to the attitudes of different groups of accounting information users and other interested parties towards the change of reporting standards in Poland. The aim of this study is to determine how investors perceive IFRS adoption by firms in Poland. Do they see any advantages of financial statements being prepared under IFRS and not under the Polish Accounting Act after more than 10 years from the introduction of the mandatory application of IFRS for certain companies? Has the application of IFRS to the preparation of financial statements increased the scope of useful financial information for investors? Has the quality of the information presented in financial state- ments changed in any way? Finally, should the mandate to use IFRS in Poland be extended? A survey was used to obtain answers to the above questions. In the opinion of investors, the adoption of IFRS for firms has increased the comparability and usefulness of financial statements and also enhanced the pro- tection of their interests but it has not contributed to their investment decisions or the possibility to make profit forecasts. The switch to IFRS – in the perception of the respondents – failed to reduce the infor- mation asymmetry between the external and internal users of accounting information. The impact of chang- ing accounting standards on capital market liquidity failed to be unequivocally assessed.

  9. Mechanization of operations in underground workings in coal mines and research project trends. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, K; Skoczynski, W; Sikora, W

    1985-01-01

    Structure of black coal reserves of Poland, imported and Polish made equipment for underground mining, prospects for mechanization of selected operations in underground mines and research programs of the KOMAG Center for Mechanization of Mining are evaluated. Prospects for longwall mining with caving or stowing in thick coal seams (slice mining), thin (0.8 to 1.2 m), level or inclined coal seams and steep seams are analyzed. The following equipment for mechanization of underground mining is evaluated: integrated face systems, shearer loaders, chain conveyors, belt conveyors, coal plows, equipment for mine drivage, hoists, drive systems for mining equipment. The following research programs of the KOMAG Center are reviewed: modernization of face systems for coal seams with uncomplicated mining conditions, development of equipment for thin seam mining, development of types of mining equipment for coal seams from 1.5 to 3.0 m thick with dip angles to 25 degrees, modernization of equipment for thick seam mining, increasing efficiency of mine drivage (new types of heading machines, materials handling equipment for mine drivage), mechanization of auxiliary operations in underground coal mines, improving quality of mining equipment, development of equipment for coal preparation, increasing occupational safety in underground mining.

  10. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  11. The steps to forming a joint venture IPP in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Z.; Colligan, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    Poland represents the largest market in Central Europe with 38 million people and an installed electrical generating capacity of about 32 gigawatts. Since 1989, when the process of governmental restructuring along free market principals began, the allure to IPP developers has been evident, but is of yet unrealized. The natural model for IPP development in Poland would seem to be joint ventures with Polish generating companies. These enterprises already have sites, franchises, and a going business to contribute to a joint company. There are a number of reasons why so few deals have been concluded in Poland to date, and a number of barriers still exist that tend to hamper the realization of project finance funded power joint ventures. But, these barriers are not insurmountable. Overcoming them in the context of a joint venture relationship with a domestic partner requires patience, work, and an ability to bridge the gaps between the realities of working in a post-Communist environment and the practicalities of structuring projects that can be financed in the international capital markets. The new Energy Law in Poland establishes a framework for a viable private sector power generation business. But the enabling regulations are yet to be published or approved. There is still effective political risk on account of the uncertainty this creates. Pressure is mounting on the Polish Government, especially due to its expressed interest in joining the EU, to get the power sector to operate on private sector terms, if not in private hands. The trends are pointing in the direction of increased market driven policies and practices. The conclusion is that, despite the delays of the past, independent power projects will start to happen in Poland on a joint venture basis, with increasing frequency in the next years.

  12. The Roman Catholic parish in Poland as the local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariański Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman Catholic Church a parish is the smallest legal unit and it is the milieu for religious, social, and cultural activities for a group of people joined together in a geographical area. The purpose of this article is a sociological study examining the Catholic parish in Poland as a local community. Today a parish along with its community is exposed to social change and to myriad forces characteristic of the postmodern culture. In Poland two opposite forces characterize the life of a parish community: on the one side, secularization and individualization, and on the other side, socialization and evangelization. The subjective dimension of a local community, which is related to identification of people with a local parish, along with social bonds with the parish as a local community, are discussed in the first two sections of the article. In subsequent sections some issues related to common activities, membership in movements, religious communities, and Catholic associations within the parish will be presented. While the agency of people in the parish community is theoretically acknowledged, it is still not fully implemented. The discussion is based on the data obtained from major public opinion institutes in Poland.

  13. The Sexuality of Adults with Intellectual Disability in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijak, Remigiusz

    2013-06-01

    Sexuality is one of the most important aspects of human life that relates to sex, one's identification, sexual role, sexual preferences, eroticism, pleasure and intimacy. It fulfils such functions as procreative, hedonistic and relationship-building as well as constitutes an integral part of human's personality. The sexuality of people with intellectual disability is a special case - both from medical, pedagogical, psychological and ethical point of view. Little available research shows that it may become a significant factor that modifies their psychological and sexual functioning. The basic poll involved altogether 133 people with mild intellectual disability. The work was carried out in 11 schools and special institutions of three provinces in Poland: kujawsko - pomorskie, wielkopolskie and dolnośląskie (provinces of Kujavy and Pomerania, Great Poland and Lower Silesia) The respondents qualified to take part in the poll constituted a very uniform group - homogenous as regards their age of 18-25 as well as IQ level that was average for the people with higher degree of intellectual disability (HDID). Their age was of importance as in that life period one can observe the formation of first partner relationships with the clear aim of establishing a family. It is accompanied by a quick development of sexual desire and taking up various forms of sexual activity. People with intellectual disability don't form a homogenous group as regards their psychological and sexual development. In this group, one can observe both different forms of clinical mental handicap which definitely affects the whole process of sexual development. The sexual development is delayed by an average period of 3 years. The people with intellectual disability take up mostly autoerotic behaviour whereas partner relationships wthin that group are more seldom. The phenomenon of sexuality of people with higher degree of intellectual disability is an issue that needs further constant analysis. The

  14. Oncological organizations and institutions in Poland before the second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supady, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    During the first four decades of the 20th century many oncological organizations and institutions were established in Poland. On 6 June, 1906 the Committee for Cancer Research and Control was founded. After the year 1918 when Poland regained its independence many more cancer control organizations came into being. The organizations created at that time were: the Polish Committee for Cancer Control (Warsaw 1921), the Cancer Control Society of Lódź (Lódź 1927), the Vilnius Committee for Cancer Control (Vilnius 1931), the Polish Cancer Control Institute Association in Lviv (Lviv 1929), the Polish Cancer Control Association (Warsaw 1938). These cancer control organizations undertook multiphase activities (prophylactic, educational, organizational, scientific and research) by creating outpatient and inpatient oncological care institutions, on which base numerous scientific and research papers were produced. The effect of that work was the creation of the Radium Treatment Institute in Lódź and the Research and Therapeutic Institute for Cancer Control in Vilnius, as well as founding oncological hospital wards and clinics. The most important achievement was building and opening the very modern Radium Institute in Warsaw. The initiator of the Institute, which in 1939 had 90 beds on its disposal, was Maria Skłodowska-Curie herself. Cancer control organizations members and activists conducted many propaganda actions on malignant diseases, shared they observations and research findings during meetings, conferences and assemblies in Poland and abroad.

  15. [Poland's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, R; Sasiadek, M

    2000-08-01

    Poland's syndrome consists of the variable clinical features, but always includes unilateral aplasia of the chest wall muscles and ipsilateral anomalies of upper extremity. The incidence of Poland's syndrome, reported by different authors ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 and is observed more frequently in males than in females with the right side of the body affected more often than the left. The etiology of this syndrome is still discussed. However most of described cases were sporadic, rare familial incidence of Poland's syndrome were also presented. Therefore different etiologic factors of the Poland's syndrome are taken into account: genetic, vascular compromise during early stages of embriogenesis but also teratogenic effect of environmental xenobiotics (e.g. cigarette smoking by pregnant women). The authors present also the case of 20-years old man with inherited bilateral syndactyly with the right side aplasia of major pectoralis muscle and face asymmetry. The familial history was negative in respect to the features, associated with Poland's syndrome.

  16. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatonski, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic. The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation.

  17. The Electronic Spatial Information System – tools for the monitoring of asbestos in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krówczyńska Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On January 1, 2005 the use of asbestos-containing products was banned in the European Union. According to the Act of 19 June 1997 banning the use of these products, their usage in Poland should be abated by the end of 2032. The whole process is being monitored by the Electronic Spatial Information System for the Monitoring of Asbestos Products Removal. The system design was based on a geodatabase. The research area of the study is the whole territory of Poland at the national, provincial and local level of detail. The monitoring process embraces spatial analysis through the preparation and interpretation of a range of maps. The results obtained from the deployed methods proved that the system has been useful for decision making purposes during the monitoring process. The proposed solutions were appreciated by the EU.

  18. Physical Investment Financing: The Cases of Poland and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and compare the major sources of financing of physical investments in Poland and Latvia and to attempt to identify their determinants. The subject of the diagnosis is the corporate sector in Poland and i Latvia in the years 2005-2015.The article uses methodology, developed by C. Mayer, J. Corbett and T. Jenkinson, that is based on the net sources of finance. The financial data analysed in the article come from the capital and financial accounts, constituting the element of the integrated system of national accounts. Assuming that in a given period of time, the sources of finance (revenue are equal to their use (expenditure, it is possible to estimate the structure of financing of physical investments in the corporate sector. The practical dimension of the analysis should be viewed as an indication for identifying changes in the area of financing of physical investments in enterprises in the two countries.

  19. Doubly Disadvantaged? The Relative Age Effect in Poland's Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubajczyk, Krystian; Świerzko, Kamil; Rokita, Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relative age effect (RAE) in young Polish male (n = 3849) and female (n = 3419) basketball players aged 14 to 22 years competing in the elite games of the Polish Youth Championships. The distribution of birth dates, body height, players' match statistics, and the results of teams participating in championships were identified. The RAE was observed in male and female group, regardless of players age. Nevertheless, the greatest disproportion in the distribution of dates of birth was found in U16 group of boys (V = 0.25, p born in the first half of a calendar year. The research results show the impact of the RAE on the success of youth basketball teams in Poland. The month of birth, body height and sex may determine sporting achievements in youth basketball. Coaches should consider the chronological age and pubertal growth acceleration (APHV-age at peak height velocity) of players to optimize the process of identifying gifted basketball players, especially among boys of 14 years of age.

  20. The present status and prospects for the development of radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narbutt, J.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The report deals with a short history, achievements and trends of development of radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry in the world. It also presents the main achievements and short programmes of fundamental and applied research, as well as works on technology, as delivered by more than thirty research institutes and universities in Poland. The related teaching activities of Polish academic centers has been briefly discussed. The documents enclosed [list of publications (1997-2000; list of research groups; list of apparatus] bring a more detailed representation of the Polish research centers' activity in this field. (author)

  1. The sex reform movement and eugenics in interwar Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawin, Magdalena

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.

  2. Big Words, Little Results: the Chinese Investments in Poland from the Political Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lubina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017 statistics showed that Chinese Foreign Direct Investments (FDI in Poland for 2016 amounted to a more than half of all Chinese FDI in Poland for the 2000–2016. Yet the overall amount of Chinese FDI remains modest in comparison with Western Europe or even with Hungary. Despite much proclaimed Sino-Polish rapprochement in 2015–2016 and high hopes for OBOR/BRI initiative in Poland, cooperation with China has not been a breakthrough for Poland in terms of economic results. There have not been ground-breaking Sino-Polish projects and Polish government’s desire to strengthen ties with China loosened in late 2016/early 2017 (though it may revive now.There are several reasons for that, from the perception of Poland as non-attractive for majority Chinese investments, via lack of overall Polish strategy of attracting these investors to discrepancies of economic interests between Poland and China.

  3. The consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Przekota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Each region in Poland has a different economic potential due to its own specific features. Taking account of the specific nature of individual regions is important for the management of the country as a whole and of its particular regions. Existing disparities in the economic development may lead to many negative phenomena, such as internal migration or regional marginalization. Excessive price and income inequalities may weaken economic growth throughout the country. It is important for the coherence of the whole country that the disparities between regions are not too big. The study determines the consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland. The analysis was conducted using the coefficient of variation, correlation coefficient, regression coefficient and medium pace. The regions differ in terms of development, dynamic growth and wages. However, prices are much less diverse.

  4. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE COMPETITIVENESS OF FARMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nowak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the competitiveness of the regional diversity of farms in Poland. The study was conducted on a sample of commodity holdings participating in the Polish FADN in 16 voivodeships for the years 2010–2012. The study was based on indicators of competitiveness in terms of production factors and results. Research shows that labour resources and the eff ectiveness of their use are important aspects of regional diversity of competitiveness of farms. In regions where this factor is present in excess (Małopolskie, Świętokrzyskie, Mazowieckie, Łódzkie and Lubelskie voivodeships, labor productivity was relatively low. These regions are also characterized by lower production potential expressed by the agricultural area of an average farm. The greatest competitive advantages in terms of production profi tability were achieved by farms in Dolnośląskie voivodeship, where there were also some of the highest rates of profi tability of assets.

  5. Erysiphales of the Drawski Landscape Park (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the presentation of results of a 3-year investigation on the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales in the Drawski Landscape Park (north-western Poland. The list of occurrence of members of Erysiphales presented includes 31 next species and 15 species found on plants not mentioned in the previous paper. Additionally, the occurrence of the powdery mildew fungi in 12 permanent plots with nine plant associations was presented and compared.

  6. Volvariella surrecta - a new species in the mycoflora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Celka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Volvariella surrecta (Knapp Sing. (Pluteaceae in Poland. Its fruit bodies were found on 20 October 2000 in an oak-hornbeam wood in the southern part of Pomań. The parasitic V. surrecta grew on decaying sporophores of Lepista nebularis and Melanoleuca brevipes. The article also describes the macroscopic and microscpic characteristics of the discovered specimens.

  7. Implementing inflation targeting regimes: The case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Jan; Moore, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper assesses the prospects for the new Polish monetary policy strategy of inflation targeting. Regarding the general requirements for implementing an inflation targeting strategy it appears that Poland has made sufficient progress in reducing fiscal dominance and hardening budget constraints. The paper also finds that the exchange rate has played a dominant role as a policy instrument, with the linkages between the short-term interest rate and inflation remaining unclear. Given this un...

  8. Present state of the telecommunications market in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Andrzej

    2003-10-01

    This statement shortly describes the changes in the telecommunication market that have taken place in the last 12 years, during the socio-economical transformation in Poland. It concerns economical, legal and technical problems related to the development of the telecommunications in Poland based on the principles of the market economy. Especially it is related to the commercialization of this sector, what has been a result of the changes of the principal law ruling the national economy including changes ot the telecommunication law. Changes of the law enabled the creation of the commercial company Polish Telecom and opened the way to the privatization of this company. Due to the changed law the way to the step-by-step liberalization and de-monopolization process has been also opened in Poland. It has caused fully digital modernization of telecommunication network, introduction new services such as cellular communications and Internet services, as well as rapid development of the market, what has expressed in multiplication of number of subscribers of stationary telephony, creation of the big cellular market and new increasing Internet market. The statemnet also refers to present difficulties in development of this market and as well as to the prospects for the future developments.

  9. First steps of Poland in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.

    2010-01-01

    Poland appears as a new-comer in the domain of nuclear power but in fact previous projects of nuclear power plants existed but were abruptly stopped in the afterwards of Chernobyl. Today almost 90% of the electricity produced in Poland comes from the combustion of coal and lignite. In january 2009 the Polish government decided to include nuclear power in the energy mix with an aim of a 15% share of the electricity production in 2030 and with the first nuclear plant operating in 2020. The path toward this aim is marked out as following. 2009-2010: drawing up of the legal frame, creation of the nuclear safety authority, drawing up of the list of potential sites, and launching of the public debate. 2011-2013: selection of the first site, of the pool of investors, of the reactor technology and the signature of the contract for the first plant. 2014-2015: obtention of the administrative agreements, elaboration of the technical project. 2016-2020: construction of the plant. The polish public opinion favours nuclear energy and there is a kind of competition between different regions to home nuclear power plants. In 2010 Poland signed various collaboration agreements with the Usa, France and South-Korea. Polish authorities are studying the pros and cons of the EPR (EDF - Areva), ABWR (GE/Hitachi) and AP1000 (Westinghouse) reactors. (A.C.)

  10. Radioecological analysis of the north-eastern region of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewski, M.; Mnich, Z.; Kapala, J.; Karpinska, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of natural radioactivity of K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 in building material as well as radon concentrations and dose rates in houses and outdoors. The mean absorbed rate in air outdoors from natural gamma radiation was found to be 40.2 nGyh -1 . Doses inside houses made from particular materials were (nGyh -1 ): brick - 102, prefabricate - 89, wood - 88. The mean equivalent per one statistical inhabitant of ''Poland Green Lungs'' is 1.61 mSv/year. The doses absorbed by the population in the north-eastern region of Poland from natural sources of ionizing radiation are lower than the population-weighted world averages. (author)

  11. Geographical analysis of the Uredinales flora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Polish flora of the order Uredinales is based on a simultaneously published descriptive elaboration (M a j e w s k i 1977, ms. The information on the Uredinales flora of Poland has been compared as far as possible with the data obtained from the analysis of the flora of sever al other countries in Europe with a different type of vegetations. In a chapter devoted to the statistics of the flora of Polish rust fungi the number of genera and species of these fungi in Poland is discussed, as well as their life cycles and host plants. The distribution of Uredinales in Poland is analysed on the basis of the A r w i d s s o n - D u r r i e u classification modified by the author, and particular attention is paid to the depedence of the range of the fungus on its life cycle and the occurrence of the host. Changes in the flora a result of its synantropization are also considered. The Polish Uredinales are divided into several groups on the basis of range, and example of their distribution involving historical factors are discussed.

  12. The Ability to Assimilate Technology as a Source of Competitive Advantage of Financial Companies in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Glabiszewski Waldemar; Zastempowski Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This article is empirical in nature and attempts to assess the impact of ability to assimilate newly acquired technologies by financial companies operating in Poland gaining market competitive advantages. The outcome of the research conducted proved the existence of this relationship and found it be strong. This means that the development of these abilities within the absorptive potential of financial companies should trigger a significant increase in the market competitive advantages held by...

  13. The 50 Years of Safeguards and Non-Proliferation in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak, A.; Jurkowski, M.; Zagrajek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Milestones of safeguards and non-proliferation activities are presented. Poland has declared its compliance with non-proliferation regime by ratification of Treaty of Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1969. Poland concluded in 1972 Agreement with IAEA for application of safeguards — INFCIRC/153. Next steps in implementation of international safeguards were: ratification of Additional Protocol and introduction of Integrated Safeguards. After accession to European Union, Poland fulfils its safeguards obligations according to following international legal instruments: Treaty establishing Euratom, Agreement between Poland, European Commission and International Atomic Energy Agency in connection with implementation of Article III of Treaty of Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons — INFCIRC/193 and Additional Protocol to this Agreement — INFCIRC/193 Add.8. Detailed safeguards requirements are established by domestic Act of Parliament of 29th November 2000 — Atomic law and European Union's Regulations of Commission (Euratom) No 302/2005 on application of Euratom safeguards and the Commission Recommendation on guidelines for the application of Regulation (Euratom) No 302/2005. SSAC was established in 1972 as required by CSA. Activities related to accounting for and control of nuclear material were conducted from 1970s till 1990s by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection and National Inspectorate for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Currently, NAEA is responsible for collecting and maintenance of accounting data and safeguards inspections at all MBAs. Around 30 routine inspections/year are performed by the NAEA, Euratom and IAEA. In addition, usually 2 unannounced inspections/year under framework of Integrated Safeguards are conducted. In accordance with implementation of Global Threat Reduction Initiative seven shipments of high enriched nuclear fuel from research reactor to Russian Federation under supervision of safeguards inspectors from NAEA

  14. Market Report : The high-voltage transmission market in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    In order to meet the accession requirements for membership to the European Union, Poland is currently restructuring its energy sector, and the initiative to privatise the electric power industry to full competition by 2005 is on course. This report describes the opportunities for foreign investors and suppliers of electrical equipment and services, particularly at this time when power demand is growing, the power grid infrastructure is ageing and obsolete components must be replaced. The total installed capacity in Poland is about 33,000 megawatts. This includes all installations of power plants and combined heat and power plants. An investment of $23 billion is anticipated by 2010 in order to modernize the electricity power industry and to meet the growing energy demand. Polski Siece Elektroenergetyczne, S.A. (PSE) is the state-owned company which controls Poland's high-voltage transmission grid. It operates a 220 kilovolt and 40 kV grid and holds the monopoly on acquiring and transmitting electricity in the country. Poland maintains grid interconnections with several other European countries and is looking to expand its network. Opportunities for Canadian suppliers lie in the areas of high-voltage power transmission equipment and services. Other opportunities lie in commercial prospects in sales of equipment and services. The report includes a section on international competition, and the Canadian position for both private- and public-sector companies. A section on market logistics describes distribution channels, market-entry considerations, import regulations, and export credit risks. A list of key contacts and support services is included with this report. refs., tabs.

  15. Manga/anime Conventions in Poland : The Example of Japanicon 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Jaworowicz-Zimny, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Events organised for fans of Japanese culture are enjoying growing popularity all over the world. This research note examines the organisation of conventions in Poland, where the scale of such events is considerably smaller than in Western Europe. It focuses on the example of Japanicon 6 – a convention that took place in Poznań in October 2015 and the general activities of its organising company. A participants’ survey reveals who the convention’s visitors are, what aspects of Japanese cultur...

  16. Radon-enriched spring waters in the South of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Hetman, A.; Dorda, J.; Zipper, W.

    2001-01-01

    A method for determination of 222 Rn in natural water samples which involves a Wallac 1414 Win Spectral α/β liquid scintillation counter is described. Samples were collected from springs in health resorts in the Sudety Mountains in Poland. Half of the studied water samples were radon enriched with an activity concentration higher then 74 Bq/l. Seasonal variations of 222 Rn in these waters are under investigation. The method introduced is very convenient and elegant for radon activity measurements.

  17. Nuclear Poland? The second approach after 20 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, L.; Gołębiewski, T.; Fornalski, K.W.; Gadja, D.

    2015-07-01

    Poland’s plan for reorganization of its energy mix is to construct several nuclear reactors (2 NPPs with number of units depending on reactor type) of total capacity 6000 MW. It is assumed that energy from NPPs will provide up to 19% of the electricity production in Poland after 2035. Currently there is no nuclear power plant in operation. The previous nuclear programme was canceled in 1990. Almost 20 years later Polish government has undertaken second attempt to construct first NPP by adoption of The Polish Nuclear Power Program in January 2014. Since that moment were started intensive preparations to implement many legal regulations related to future nuclear industry in Poland e.g. Atomic Law amendment. In the same year the Owner’s Engineer was chosen by the main investor PGE S.A. Following “nuclear” a lot of Polish Universities launched studies connected with the subject to ensure employees for deployment and sustaining of nuclear technologies in Poland. This paper describes the rationale staying behind the government decision, present situation of Polish energy market and current work status. (Author)

  18. Local innovation systems in Poland - the beginning of the road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziemianowicz Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local innovation systems (LIS constitute a relatively new term as usually the discussion about the systemic approach to innovation has focused on the level of countries, and most of all - regions. In this article an attempt was made to assess Polish municipalities from the perspective of their potential for development of local innovative systems. The performed factor analysis allowed characterization of five types of institution networks which may impact creation and development of LIS. The study was completed with case studies in selected voivodeship cities as centres of the highest concentration of institutions usually building local innovation systems, three of which were capitals of the poorest regions in Poland.

  19. Social attitudes towards atomic energy in Poland in the period of 1989-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, S.

    1996-01-01

    The public opinion on the atomic energy and its future development in Poland have been discussed on the base of four inquiring actions results carried out in Poland in 1989, 1991, 1994 and 1996. The general conclusion was that public acceptance for nuclear power generation in Poland was rather low however the attitudes towards the subject differed very much between groups of people with selected features being investigated e.g. age, sex, education. 4 figs, 2 tabs

  20. The Politics and Policy of U.S. Bases in Poland: A Political-Military Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    After its short-lived existence in the years 1918 -1939, Poland once more fell victim to the machinations of its powerful neighbors. The German and...Polish sovereignty on November 11, 1918 , Poland enjoyed its independence for period of 21 years.22 The new Poland was integrated within the French...Czech Republic as well as adding additional SM-3 interceptor site in Romania and an additional radar site in Turkey.81 However, “By wishing to avoid

  1. Nuclear Physics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This will be a short presentation of low and high energy nuclear physics in Poland, its history, essential results, and the present status. Nuclear physics in Poland has a tradition of hundred years. Research started just after the discovery of radium and polonium by Polish-born Maria Sklodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Maria Sklodowska-Curie employed numerous Polish assistants in her Paris laboratory and supported radioactivity studies in Warsaw, her birth place, then under the occupation of tsarist Russia. In the first decades of the XXth century Poland was one of the leading countries in radioactivity studies. In the late 1930-ies a cyclotron was constructed in Warsaw and an ambitious 'Star of Poland' project was launched to study the cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the Second World War stopped all scientific activity in Poland. A large fraction of Polish physicists perished in the period 1939-1945. After the World War nuclear physics of low and high energy was rebuilt in Warsaw and Krakow. Already in 1952 Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski discovered the first hypernucleus. This important discovery was essential to understand the properties of numerous new particles found in cosmic rays. Polish physicists entered intensive collaboration with both CERN and Dubna and took part also in research at other centers in Europe (DESY, GSI, GANIL, Julich, SACLAY) and the United States (Fermilab). At present the research is concentrated in Warsaw and Krakow (the two largest centers), and smaller teams, mostly theorists, are also in Bialystok, Katowice, Kielce, Lublin, Lodz and Wroclaw. Several years ago a heavy ion cyclotron was built in Warsaw. Among the important discoveries made by Polish nuclear physicists one may mention the theoretical works on superheavy elements and the recent discovery of the two-proton radioactivity

  2. Preliminary studies of fungi in the Biebrza National Park (NE Poland. II. Macromycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kujawa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the second part of the results of the first short-term inventory of fungi species occurring in the Biebrza National Park and is focused on a survey of macrofungi. The total number of macrofungi found during the survey in late August 2012 was 289 taxa: 17 ascomycetes and 272 basidiomycetes, inhabiting diverse ecological niches. The identified fungi belonged to ectomycorrhizal symbionts and saprobionts decomposing wood, plant litter and animal remnants. The identity of 25 mycorrhizal fungi species has been confirmed using molecular techniques. Five species are newly reported for Poland (Amanita olivaceogrisea, Lepiota lepida, Stropharia alcis, Xerocomus fennicus, X. cisalpinus and 225 taxa (79 % were not known in the Biebrza National Park. Fifty species are endangered in Poland, of which nine species are protected by law. Data on species richness and the taxonomic diversity of the identified fungi are briefly commented in terms of their significance for nature conservation and future research.

  3. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  4. Attempt of the evaluation of the food security in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Batko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The food security belongs to the group of needs which are perceptible by the man. It can be analyzed at the household, national, regional and global levels. In our times it is contending with different threats resulting among others from the population increase in the world, demand for the food, reducing aquatic resources, climate change, soaring prices and wasting food products. According to the FAO about 805 million people are undernourished. The study focused on determining the physical, economic availability and appropriate food quality on the Polish market from 2011 to 2013. The conducted examinations shows that Poland was self‑sufficient in supplying agri-food commodity, food expenditure of households remained stable and least failings stated in national and EU food available on our territory. The value engineering of the Global Index Food Security in 2014 was allowed to say that Poland is among a thirty of the best states ensuring the appropriate availability, the accessibility and the food quality in the country.

  5. Energy (in)security in Poland the case of shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Corey; Boersma, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The large scale extraction of natural gas from shale rock layers in North America using hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking”, has prompted geologists, economists and politicians in various parts of the world to ask whether there are new reserves of this precious resource to be found under their soils. It has also raised a host of questions about the potential environmental impacts of extracting it. Drawing on research on both sides of the Atlantic, this paper assesses the most pressing issues for research and policy makers related to shale gas extraction. The paper first provides a survey of environmental and economic issues related to shale gas. It then turns to a case study of Poland, whose policy makers have been among the most fervent proponents of shale gas development in the European Union. We examine the status of shale gas extraction in that country and what the barriers are to overcome before commercial extraction can in fact take place, if at all. - Highlights: ► We examine geologic, economic, environmental and political issues of shale gas. ► Poland is used to assess prospects for shale gas development in Europe. ► Debate in Poland has largely been framed as an energy security issue. ► A number of significant hurdles may prevent large scale development there.

  6. Summer school in Kabardino-Balkaria by BMSTU SPIE Student Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Gavdush, Arsenii A.; Fokina, Irina N.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2014-09-01

    This summer BMSTU SPIE Student Chapter have decided to visit Kabardino-Balkaria Republic of Caucasus (Russia) and spent there a week with children in a camp. It was called Summer school. We decided to organize it in order to engage talented and curious children in Optics and to show them how science could be funny. Education and entertainment program included such activities as lectures, optical demonstrations, laser games, hiking in the forest, and others. As a result children had a good time outdoors, learned interesting facts about optics and lasers, and of course found new friends who are keen to know more too. Four Chapter members and about 70 children of age 10-16 took part in this event.

  7. Flora and vegetation of walls in the town of Krosno Odrzanskie (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratynskji, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The flora and vegctation of walls in Krosno Odrzanskie (West Poland is described based on field research conducted in 1999 and 2000. The vascular flora consists of 96 species from 35 families. Predomination of apophytes and plants capable of vegetation propagation was obscrved. i> Asplenietum trichomano-rutae-murariae and Cymbalarietum murales are reported for the first time from this region of Poland.

    A partir del trabajo de campo realizado entre 1999 y el 2000 se describe la flora y la vegetación de las paredes en Krosno Odazanskie (Polonia Occidental. 96 especies de 35 familias constituyen la flora vascular. Predominan los apófilos y plantas capaces de reproducirse vegetativamente. Las asociaciones Asplenietum trichomano-rutae-murariae y Cymbalarietum murales se citan por vez primera para esta región de Polonia.

  8. Development of Science and Technology Parks in Poland: Opportunities for New Modes of Cooperation in the Biopharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Staszkow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to verify the development of science and technology parks in Poland as well as the opportunities of development of new forms of cooperation with the use of science and technology parks in the bio pharmaceutical industry in Poland. The first section reviews the origins and definitions of science and technology parks in order to clarify and systematize the concepts used in existing research and practice. Subsequently, the ensuing sections discuss the evolution of science and technology parks and different organizational models of STPS. Further, the analysis centres on science and technology parks in Poland. Then the importance of science and technology parks for the development of new modes of cooperation in the bio pharmaceutical industry is elaborated upon. The paper ends with a set of implications and conclusions.

  9. Grand Illusion? The Phenomenon of Jewish Life in Poland after the Holocaust in Lower Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ilwicka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish Life in Poland inLower Silesia began with the end of World War II. Survivors from the local concentration camp in Gross Rosen created the first Jewish committee and, with German Jewish survivors, started a new chapter in the post war history of Lower Silesia. The fact that only 10% of the Jews from the whole population overcame the extermination should be borne in mind. There is a related branch of research that seeks to determine how long Jewish life continued in Europe, where and under what conditions. In the last few years, we have become aware of the extent to which Jews actually built new possibilities after World War II in Poland, 1945–1968. In fact, the prevailing popular image of post–war Jewry is a simplistic one that divides the Jewish population into basic groups: the assimilated Jews of Russia; the “Jewish Jews” of Poland and other western areas, annexed to the Soviet Union, who sought to preserve at least some aspects of Yiddishkayt (Jewishness; and the traditional Jews, who remained devout. In the period of 1945–1950, the Jews created the most important center of Jewish Life in Europe, in terms of culture, industry, education and intellectual life. A stabilization period of the Jewish settlement began with the autumn of 1946. The softening of emigration rules and the closure of the Polish borders in the winter of 1947 helped Jews fully concentrate on the Jewish life in Poland. At that time, political, social, economic and cultural activities continued to be carried out on a large scale. In 1946, 16,960 Jews were registered in Wrocław. With the change of the policy towards the Jewish community by the communist government of Poland, the Jewish settlement in Wrocław slowed down and eventually, at the beginning of the 70’s, Jewish life in the Lower Silesia disappeared from the cultural map of the local landscapes. Even though some of the Jewish settlers remained in the Lower Silesia to continue Jewish life in

  10. The Aeronautical Monument from Michałowice, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif RUS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After World War I Romania was sized with contradictory feelings: on the one hand: a general euphoria, stimulating many ambitions, on the other hand, the fear that everything that had been obtained through the sacrifice of half a million Romanian soldiers could have been lost.The insecurity of its borders and the fear of the revisionist forces counterattack determined Romania to conclude a treaty of alliance with Poland (March 3, 1921, then to join the countries that were part of the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It was followed by France, terrified by its inability to stop the expansion of Germany.

  11. The gender pay gap in informal employment in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Rokicka, Magdalena; Ruzik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the gender pay gap in the formal and informal labour markets in Poland. The authors verify the hypothesis of the existence of a gender pay gap in informal work and compare this gap with the one observed in the formal (registered) labour market. Various analyses of available data show that size and characteristics of gender pay gap differ depending on the level of earnings. The inequality of earnings among unregistered women and men is more pronounced at the b...

  12. PRODUCT RETURNS MANAGEMENT IN THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jeszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to identify and define on the basis of the literature the principal external and organizational factors and check to what extent they affect the efficiency of returns management as well as any resultant savings. The author proposes a conceptual model which correlates the results of returns management as well as savings with the main determinants identified on the basis of the literature. Then, in the operationalisation phase of the model, the dependent and independent variables were defined in the form of constructs. In accordance with the adopted model, individual constructs were measured based on standardised interviews. Materials and methods:  The results of returns management and any savings generated by this process are affected by certain determinants which are described in the literature. The adopted model included external factors, such as the cooperation of retailers with logistics operators and suppliers, the exchange of information in the supply chain, and organizational behaviour (experience of employees; as well as organizational factors related to the flow of information and IT systems. Due to financial and organisational restrictions, the originally planned representative sample of retail chains was limited to the regions of Wielkopolska and Lubuskie. In the end, 105 interviews were analysed. Results:  The results obtained in the research sample confirm assumptions about the possible potential savings that can be achieved as a result of appropriately conducted corporate policies in the area of reverse logistics. A correlation was also revealed between the experience and competencies of staff and the efficiency of returns management. Conclusions: Research into the factors affecting the efficiency of returns management and any savings resulting from returns management policies have not been conducted in Poland to date. The present study contributes to the growing trend of research into the

  13. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies: The Case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish economy has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products this country exports to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of this country may...... therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  14. Greening of Industry in the Baltic States and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2003-01-01

    The industries in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland struggle to adapt to European standards of energy and environment. The Norwegian Energy Efficiency Group (NEEG) is establishing a network for the food processing industries in these four countries. The goal is to make this sector more energy efficient and friendly to the environment before the countries join the EU in 2004. The four countries have defined five strategic goals for the industry: (1) Improved environment, (2) Energy efficiency, (3) Reduced consumption of natural resources, (4) Production of ''safe food'' and (5) Competitive power on the EU market and at home

  15. Directions in the development of business tourism in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Abram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Business tourism in Poland has been developing since the 1990s, when the political regime changed. It is one of the many areas that has been subject to change after the historic year of 1989. However, it gained greater importance in the 21st century. Special attention was to this type of tourism and the product, as, compared to typical tourism oriented towards sightseeing and leisure, business tourists spend more money on travel, as well as in the destination itself, they are the target market for many business entities, and business travel movement takes place throughout the year, fending off the effects of seasonality.

  16. The Bologna Process in Portugal and Poland: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tomé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the consequences of the introduction of the EU directed Bologna Process in Portuguese and Polish Universities. Specifically, we study how the Bologna Process has impacted in the employment situations of graduates in Portugal and Poland. Concerning methodology, we use available official data on the implementation of the Bologna Process in Poland and Portugal. We have found that the investment in Higher Education (HE stalled in both countries in the years since the implementation of the Bologna Process due to massive budgetary restrictions. Nevertheless, the stock of HE graduates increased massively, seemingly because the authorities thought that the free market should lead the HE market in the two countries. Employment prospects, unemployment prospects and wages of graduates continued to be much higher than those of non-graduates. But an unexpected divide appeared between graduates and Masters/PhDs, with important social consequences. While the first “saved” themselves and prospered going into high skilled jobs, the later had to endure minimum wage and underskilled occupations. The low payment for these youngsters was also justified because the supply of HE with Bologna increased but the demand by companies did not match. In fact, both Portugal and Poland have stronger needs in the demand side of the market than in the supply side. Finally, both markets continue to be essentially public and the experiences of privatization did not succeed to much. In terms of social implications, the Bologna Process faces in both countries the massive and decisive challenge of eliminating youth unemployment and emigration but this can only be done with the cooperation of companies that should create high paid and high skilled jobs. Only when this occurs the Bologna Process will achieve its ultimate goal of transforming Portugal and Poland in high skilled equibriuns. Let us hope it happens, for the good of the two countries and particularly for the

  17. Lead in the blood of children living close to industrial point sources in Bulgaria and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeke-Wetstein, C.; Bainova, A.; Georgieva, R.; Huzior-Balajewicz, A.; Bacon, J. R.

    2003-05-01

    ln Eastern European countries some industrial point sources are still suspected to have unacceptable emission rates of lead that pose a major health risk in particular to children. An interdisciplinary research project under the auspices of the EU had the aims (I) to monitor the current contamination of two industrial zones in Bulgaria and Poland, (2) to relate the Pb levels in ecological strata to the internal exposure of children, (3) to develop public health strategies in order to reduce the health risk by heavy metals. The human monitoring of Pb in Poland did not show increased health risks for the children living in an industrial zone close to Krakow. Bulgarian children, however, exceeded the WHO limit of 100 μg lead per litre blood by over one hundred percent (240 μg/1). Samples of soil, fodder and livestock organs showed elevated concentrations of lead. Recent literature results are compared with the findings in Bulgaria and Poland. The sources of the high internal exposure of children are discussed. Public health strategies to prevent mental dysfunction in Bulgarian children at risk include awareness building and social masures.

  18. Exploratory wine consumer behavior in a transitional market: The case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Schaefer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates exploratory behavior among wine consumers in Poland where the country's wine culture is in a state of rapid change. This study investigates the extent to which demographics, values, and wine preferences relate to exploratory behavior.Data obtained from 198 Polish wine consumers was used in the analysis. Exploratory behavior was measured using the VARSEEK scale adapted to wine. Other measures included the Schwartz Value Inventory, wine knowledge and involvement, and measures relevant for wine purchasing behavior. Demographic variables were also used to profile consumers.The findings show that Polish wine consumers’ level of exploratory behavior is not related to demographics, but is influenced by personal values. The consumers who were most likely to engage in exploratory behavior valued creativity, fun, and risk taking and were less concerned about behaving properly. They also had more global outlook as they were more likely to purchase wine in other countries and desired more wines from regions outside Poland.The findings are useful for wine marketers when developing strategies for wine consumers in transitional markets based on their unique needs and expectations.This is the first known research conducted in Poland focusing on wine consumers’ exploratory behavior and subsequent wine preferences. Keywords: Polish wine market, Consumer behavior, Exploratory behavior, Consumer segmentation

  19. Hybrid corporate governance: a choice for Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Samól, Katarzyna A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research investigation is to consider the potential opportunities through which corporate governance may be developed to better suit the developing commercial culture within Poland. In order to do this, I formulate the following research questions: ‘What are the weaknesses of the Polish corporate governance system?’, ‘What changes should be made to corporate governance in Poland?’, and ‘Is a hybrid corporate governance model a choice for Poland?’ The concept of hybridisatio...

  20. Ground deposition of long-lived gamma emitters in Poland from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Kubala, M.; Sciezor, T.

    1986-12-01

    Activity composition was measured for the soil contaminated with the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Soil samples were collected at various areas of Poland. A map showing the 137 Cs deposit distribution was drawn for the most contaminated southern part of Poland. 9 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  1. Ownership, intra-industry trade and factor intensities: the case of Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between intra-industry trade (IIT) for foreign, private domestic and public domestic companies in Poland and the size of multinational activity measured by the stock of FDI. Using a unique database on imports and exports from companies in Poland 1993...

  2. Additional effective dose equivalent for adults and children in Poland as the result of mushroom consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium radioactivity in samples of various mushrooms collected all over Poland from 1986 to 1989 are presented. Nearly 80 samples from Poland and a few samples from Austria and USSR were analysed. The effective dose equivalents for adults and children caused by the consumption of one mass unit of dried mushrooms for each sample were estimated. (author)

  3. Economic Effects of Migration from Poland to the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering that large numbers of the EU-8 immigrants was a strong argument for the Brexit, the objective of this paper is to assess some economic effects of migration from Poland to the UK for both countries. Intensive emigration of the Poles to the UK since 2004 negatively affected Poland’s economic growth in the long run, but it also reduced tensions at the labour market by decreasing the unemployment rate. On the other hand, the increase in Polish immigrants in the UK did not significantly affect economic growth and unemployment rate in the destination country in the short run in the period 2004-2015. A significance influence was observed only in the long run, when the UK economic growth decreased, but the pressures on the labour market significantly reduced. From these empirical findings, some policy recommendations are required for both countries: for Poland, migration policies to promote the return of migrants and more efficient utilization of labour force, while for the UK – shaping a more flexible labour market.

  4. Innovations in Tourism Policy: the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek W. Kozak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness depends to a large extent on innovation. This is true about tourism also. This article focuses on the differences in innovations implemented in the field of tourism policy. The main aim of this article is to evaluate the differences in innovations in tourism policy. The key hypothesis suggests that in the countries undergoing the process of transformation, introduction of innovations is difficult and depends to a large extent on the capability to adopt the new post-industrial tourism paradigm. Poland serves here only as an exemplification of this phenomenon. An additional hypothesis suggests that public policy employs in practice more often “goal substitution” (instead of complex and demanding goals; for instance modernization or renovation instead of urban regeneration or culture or tourism, whereas the business sector is more product-oriented (in line with the new post-industrial paradigm. The article analyses public 2007-2013 strategies (and, to some extent, projects for 2014-2020, but first of all it compares the implementation of the strategy within the operational programs and in private sector activities. Finally, referring to Poland as part of the European Union, the paper proposes that new EU regulations may bring a change in non-product approach to tourism development policy.

  5. PLASMA-2013: International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas (Warsaw, Poland, 2-6 September 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Marek J.

    2014-05-01

    The PLASMA-2013 International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas was held in Warsaw (Poland) from 2 to 6 September 2013. The conference was organized by the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, under the auspices of the Polish Physical Society. The scope of the PLASMA conferences, which have been organized every two years since 1993, covers almost all issues of plasma physics and fusion research as well as selected problems of plasma technology. The PLASMA-2013 conference topics included: •Elementary processes and general plasma physics. •Plasmas in tokamaks and stellarators (magnetic confinement fusion). •Plasmas generated by laser beams and inertial confinement fusion. •Plasmas produced by Z-pinch and plasma-focus discharges. •Low-temperature plasma physics. •Space plasmas and laboratory astrophysics. •Plasma diagnostic methods and applications of plasmas. This conference was designed not only for plasma researchers and engineers, but also for students from all over the world, in particular for those from Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 140 participants had the opportunity to hear 9 general lectures, 11 topical talks and 26 oral presentations, as well as to see and discuss around 120 posters. From about 140 contributions, after the preparation of about 100 papers and the peer review process, only 74 papers have been accepted for publication in this topical issue. Acknowledgments Acting on behalf of the International Scientific Committee I would like to express our thanks to all the invited speakers and all the participants of the PLASMA-2013 conference for their numerous contributions. In particular, I wish to thank all of the authors of papers submitted for publication in this topical issue of Physica Scripta . Particular thanks are due to all of the reviewers for their valuable reports and comments, which helped to improve the quality of many of the papers. International Scientific Committee Marek J Sadowski, NCBJ

  6. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zysk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M. [AGH University of Science & Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Energy & Fuels

    2011-01-15

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  7. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  8. The analysis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lewandowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is defined in literature similarly as a sudden and unexpected death of an infant occurring during sleep and, at the same time, causes of which cannot be explained based on anamnesis, circumstances of death or comprehensive post-mortem examinations. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is considered to be the most frequent cause of death among infants in the developed countries. Incidence of SIDS in the whole world ranges from about 0.1 to 6.0/1,000 live births. As much as 90% concerns deaths in the first year of life of a child, whereas 70% stands for deaths for which the cause remains unknown. In SIDS, about 90% of cases concern children under 1 year old and, in particular, at the age of between 2 and 4 months. The aim: The aim of the study was to present the most significant aspects of SIDS as well as description and analysis of risk factors for occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome based on statistical data. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the study, the secondary data analysis and desk research technique have been applied. The analysis is based on statistical data from the time period 2009-2014 released by the Central Statistical Office of Poland. Results: In 2009-2014, the highest number of deaths of infants and new-borns was reported in 2009 with the number being as high as 2,327. In the following years, the number of deaths of new-borns and infants systematically decreased. In 2010 it was 2,057 and in 2011 – 1,836, in 2012 – 1,791, in 2013 – 1,684, and in 2014 – 1,583. The highest number of deaths of boys was reported in 2009 – 1,298, while the number of deaths of girls in that year, although it was the highest in the analysed period, was lower – 1,029. Conclusions: cases of death were more frequent among boys rather than girls. The highest number of deaths was reported among infants under the age of one month and the number decreased with an increasing infants’ age. More

  9. The mechanism for migration in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykiel, Z

    1988-01-01

    The author reviews neoclassical theories and models of migration. The mobility theory, which concerns the impact of local labor markets on migration, is discussed in the Polish context. A general model of the regional labor market and a multicausal model are developed to explain the patterns of internal migration. The period of a managed economy (1949-1980) is contrasted with the period since the implementation of a new economic system in 1983.

  10. Why did Poland Choose the F-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    tax” on all ministries meant an approximate PLZ1.1 billion ($374 million) cut for the Defense Ministry. Additionally, a debt of some PLZ400 million... debt , once the Offset Agreement was signed on Good Friday, April 18, 2003. For the Poles the deal of the century threatened Lockheed Martin...free central Europe from Russian bondage , as well as finance the initial years of post-communist transition. This resulted in a feeling of gratitude

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ERP PACKAGE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEM – AUTHOR’S OWN RESEARCH INTO ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Zarzycka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The systems have revolutionized practically all aspects of business processes in enterprises. They improve the processes by ensuring their integration. Data are entered into an ERP system only once and immediately afterwards they can be accessed through any of its modules, which makes them a valuable source of information on the enterprise. Integrating the financial and non-financial data, an ERP package gives new quality to the management of enterprise value. These features make ERPs particularly useful for management accounting processes and for specialists providing management information. This article seeks to answer whether following the implementation of an ERP package the enterprise’s management accounting system becomes more innovative and whether new, modern management accounting tools and methods are introduced. The ERP impacts on management accounting and its practices will be evaluated using six case studies involving enterprises owned by multinational corporations.

  12. Ethics in the profession of management accountants in literature and education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sobańska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to verify how the scientific community supports the management account-ants in emphasizing high ethical requirements expected of the profession. The article presents issues relating to ethics in the profession of management accountants in the light of research and international standards as well as the results of and conclusions from the study of Polish academic textbooks and educational programs. The study allowed for positive verification of the hypothesis stating that ethicalaspects of the management accounting profession are only scantily covered in academic education in Poland. In addition, the results provide guidance to improve educational programs in Polish universities.

  13. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  14. TAX OPTIMIZATION AS A DECISIVE FACTOR OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (THE CASE OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Andriyash

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to compare the system of taxation and tax optimization in Poland with solutions in the selected EU Member States and its influence on economic development. The paper presents the system of taxation in Poland compared with fiscal solutions in selected EU countries. It also discusses the typology of tax solutions referring to tax optimization in Europe. Methodology. The author used the primary and secondary data from the Central Statistics Office (GUS, Pricewaterhouse Coopers’ research and the Eurostat. The research methods used for the purpose of data analysis included economic analysis of legal acts, descriptive statistics, and comparative analysis. Results showed that the level of tax loading in Poland is more moderate than in other developed countries of the world while the mechanism of administration of taxes and collections is much more successful. The share of receipts collected by the decentralized administration has been increasing steadily since the major administrative reform of 1999 and the local finance law enacted in 2004. Eliminating the category of special sections of industrial production and inclusion of revenues/income to the proposed form of income tax would be very desirable. This would indicate the practical implementation of Smith’s tax principles concerning tax equity and an ability of taxpayer to pay levies. Practical implications. Tax optimization is to balance the tax loading level through offering benefits and preferences which would stimulate the economy of the country and will not cause aggravation of the problem of relocating tax loading from one tax payer to another. Many national states, noticing the phenomena of tax evasion and tax avoidance are implementing or going to implement specific reforms which help to improve the system of tax control with the aim of creating conditions which make tax and collections evasion impossible. Value/originality. The results of the conducted

  15. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missfeldt, F.; Hauff, J.

    2000-09-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO 2 emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector is thought to be a realistic option in the near future. A comprehensive upstream approach would require permits for the carbon contained in fossil fuels produced or imported in Poland. It is ruled out due to the perceived difficulties of the inclusion of the coal sector in such a system. While inclusion of the gas sector, and especially of the oil sector, seems possible within a relatively short time, relying on an upstream approach without the coal sector is not advisable. Once the restructuring of the coal sector as well as the privatization of the gas and oil sector is advanced, an upstream approach might become an option again. A comprehensive downstream approach would regulate CO 2 emissions at their source, that is mostly at point of combustion of fossil fuels. A system which includes industry, households and transport can be assumed to be infeasible. Instead, a 'core program' was examined, which would focus on power and heat generation as well as energy intensive industries. Such an approach was found feasible in principle. Currently, however, only the largest emitters could be easily integrated in a reliable system. Drawing the line between those included and those excluded from such a partial system requires careful analysis. Including all enterprises in the relevant sectors would require significant improvements in monitoring and reporting reliability. A pilot emissions permit trading system could be introduced in the professional power and heat sector. Here, awareness concerning the instrument was found to be high and the system could be based on monitoring requirements already required by law. Gradual inclusion of more relevant sectors and eventual combination with an upstream component to include oil

  16. Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Pisarek, Marcin; Buriak, Jerzy; Oniszk-Poplawska, Anna; Bucko, Pawel; Ericsson, Karin; Jaworski, Lukasz

    2006-01-01

    Poland, as many other countries, has ambitions to increase the use of renewable energy sources. In this paper, we review the current status of bioenergy in Poland and make a critical assessment of the prospects for increasing the share of bioenergy in energy supply, including policy implications. Bioenergy use was about 4% (165 PJ) of primary energy use (3900 PJ) and 95% of renewable energy use (174 PJ) in 2003, mainly as firewood in the domestic sector. Targets have been set to increase the contribution of renewable energy to 7.5% in 2010, in accordance with the EU accession treaty, and to 14% in 2020. Bioenergy is expected to be the main contributor to reaching those targets. From a resource perspective, the use of bioenergy could at least double in the near term if straw, forestry residues, wood-waste, energy crops, biogas, and used wood were used for energy purposes. The long-term potential, assuming short rotation forestry on potentially available agricultural land is about one-third, or 1400 PJ, of current total primary energy use. However, in the near term, Poland is lacking fundamental driving forces for increasing the use of bioenergy (e.g., for meeting demand increases, improving supply security, or further reducing sulphur or greenhouse gas emissions). There is yet no coherent policy or strategy for supporting bioenergy. Co-firing with coal in large plants is an interesting option for creating demand and facilitating the development of a market for bioenergy. The renewable electricity quota obligation is likely to promote such co-firing but promising applications of bioenergy are also found in small- and medium-scale applications for heat production. Carbon taxes and, or, other financial support schemes targeted also at the heating sector are necessary in the near term in order to reach the 7.5% target. In addition, there is a need to support the development of supply infrastructure, change certain practices in forestry, coordinate RD and D efforts, and

  17. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Danish Ministry of Energy has granted financial aid to the preparation of a feasibility study necessary for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora.The overall objectives of the Feasibility Study are to: establish new efficient power capacity in the south-west region of Poland, increase the energy efficiency, reduce the impact on the environment, utilise the local natural gas available which cannot be used in the national gas grid and reduce the costs of energy supply.The specific objective of this feasibility study is to obtain the best possible financing of the erection of a new CPH plant in Zielona Gora. The plant shall be designed to utilise the local resources of natural gas and to supply heat to the district heating grid in accordance with long-term planning strategies. (EHS)

  18. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Alwasiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  19. The knowledge of the inhabitants of Lesser Poland about the profession of an occupational therapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żmudzińska Urszula Ż

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A contemporary model of occupational therapy differs from the previous model which was common in Poland in previous years. Therefore, the opinions of the society concerning the profession of an occupational therapist are constantly changing. Material and methods: The research included 244 inhabitants of Lesser Poland aged between 25 and 65 employed in various professions. A questionnaire regarding occupational therapy and the profession and competences of occupational therapists was applied in the study. Results: The presented results show that the job of an occupational therapist is perceived as a needed profession both by individuals who underwent such therapy and those who did not use such services. Responses regarding competences and activities in the profession of an occupational therapist revealed differences in the opinions of the study participants. Conclusions: Taking into account only competences and activities of an occupational therapist, associations of the study participants reflected the knowledge of the model of therapy that existed before and was mainly devoted to occupational therapy workshops. The respondents would trust an occupational therapist both in adapting the house to their needs and in performing exercises connected with activities of daily living.

  20. The expected model of a cadastre in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Ciak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cadastre is a based on a cadastral map official register of land, property and other utilities that constitute subjects of taxation as well as the source of information on cadastral objects. As indicated in the reference books, it constitutes an institution of law, which in the social perception is seen as providing legal order in the scope of establishing the range of laws, of the sense of security resulting from the fact of the entering of the subjects of taxation and the possibility to exert one’s rights under the registration proceedings. However, the current shape of the register does not meet social expectations. The suggested reform of the taxation of property in Poland (cadastre meets numerous obstacles such as a formal and legal, political, financial or social barrier.

  1. The lichen-forming fungi of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies of Xanthoparmelia pulla group in Poland. The morphological and chemical analysis of herbarium materials confirmed the presence of four species of this group reported from Poland before. The study however, revealed considerable changes it the partiuclular species distribution. X. verruculifera, so far considered the most endangered species in the country, turned out to be the most frequent taxon. X. loxodes, regarded as common, has much less known localities than previously thought. This species was usually confused with X. verruculifera. Xanthoparmelia pulla is the rarest species and should be considered critically endangered in Poland. Most specimens of X. pulla collected in the country belong to X. delisei, which so far had only two historical records in Poland. All these taxa are characterized in terms of morphology, the content of secondary metabolites, ecology and distribution.

  2. The fight against unfair competition in Poland in the years 1918-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Dolata

    2012-01-01

    The most important aspects concerning the combating of unfair competition in pre-war Poland are analysed in this study: factors determining the necessity of introducing a uniform, common legal regime binding across the whole territory of Poland are discussed, the genesis of the Polish law combating unfair competition of 2.08.1926 are examined, certain shortcomings of the law, which led to the revision of the act, in 1927, are characterized, attention is paid to the positive acceptance o...

  3. Studies of the Prefabricated Housing Construction Market in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewska-Zielina, Elżbieta; Gleń, Monika

    2014-11-01

    The directions of development of the construction market are not only related to the need to own one's own home but also to increasing functional and economic requirements and conditions of sustainable development. The perception and understanding of prefabrication in housing construction are undoubtedly starting to change. Sustainable construction criteria may constitute a significant turning point and support for the development of new prefabricated housing construction technologies. Entrepreneurs are slowly perceiving an opportunity for the development of prefabrication in the construction market. The implementation and popularisation of ready-made homes will undoubtedly constitute a favourable change in the Polish construction market; however, this will require a modification of habits. This article presents an historical analysis of the development of the prefabricated housing construction market as well as an attempt to answer questions concerning the future of prefabrication in housing construction in Poland based on the conducted studies.

  4. Long-run interest rate convergence in Poland and the EMU

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Goczek; Dagmara Mycielska

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine the degree of the long-run interest rate convergence in the context of Poland's joining the EMU. In this perspective, it is frequently argued that the expectations of Poland's participation in the EMU should manifest themselves in long-run interest rate convergence. This should be visible in the long-run fall of interest rate risk premium in Poland. In contrast, the paper raises the question of the actual speed of such convergence and questions the existen...

  5. Thyroid dose from 131 iodine of the population in Poland following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzesniak, J.W.

    1987-11-01

    The following studies were carried out in the period from 28 April to 20 June 1986 in the Central Laboratory of radiological Protection (C.L.O.R.) in Poland: atmosphere monitoring in the period from 28 April to 22 May evaluating 131 I environmental concentration with the percentage of iodine in elementary, aerosol and organic compound form; determination of thyroid dose in 1049 persons from mine regions in Poland [fr

  6. The calcareous mires in South-East Poland are home to two rare Anthracoidea species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piątek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The new collections of Anthracoidea buxbaumii Kukkonen on Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb. and Anthracoidea hostianae B.Lindeb. ex Nannf. on Carex lepidocarpa Tausch recorded in the calcareous mires in South-East Poland are described, illustrated and discussed. The holotype of the latter smut is also re-examined, described and illustrated in detail. Anthracoidea buxbaumii is reported for the second time from Poland on a new host plant. Anthracoidea hostianae is new to Poland. The variability of spore sizes of both species is discussed. The conspecificity of Anthracoidea buxbaumii and A. hostianae suggested in the literature is analyzed.

  7. Benefts of Corporate Social Responsibility Engagement in Companies: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigates the benefts of being perceived as a socially responsible company. The main purpose of the research was to fnd out whether company managers consider that certain aspects of company activity may beneft from being perceived as socially responsible. Research limitations: The primary source of data used in this study was a survey of respondents’ views and opinions rather than an analysis of extensive numerical data. Methodology: The research methods included a literature review and a survey conducted in several Polish companies regarded as socially responsible. The so-called RESPECT Index, including socially responsible companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange Main List, as well as annual rankings of responsible companies were used as a kind of reputation database for choosing survey respondents. Findings: The most important benefts indicated by the respondents included better frm image/reputation, improved relations with stakeholders, increased employee motivation, better communication inside the company, as well as more effective management and control over new aspects not considered before. Additionally, the identifed benefts were analyzed using different criteria, such as the size of the company or its feld of activity. Originality: The problem analyzed in this study is important, yet it is still not a suffciently examined issue in many emerging markets including Poland. As benefts taken into consideration in the survey are also valid for other fnancial markets, the results can be used for comparative studies of Poland and other countries.

  8. Typha laxmannii Lepech. the new, expansive kenophyte in Poland: Distribution and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Nikel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides data on a new antropophyte species - Typha laxmannii Lepech. which spreads throughout Poland as a hemiagriophyte. Its present distribution in Poland is given on a cartogramme map in a 10×10 km square grid and its geographic element, population numbers and notes on habitats are provided. An identification key to 5 species of the Typha genus, two native, one new which is the topic of this paper, and two which can be expected to be discovered in Poland.

  9. Governance of Public Service Media in Poland: The Role of the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Glowacki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of the public in governance processes in public service media (PSM in Poland in the post mass-media era, characterized by participatory culture and network practices. Referencing the findings of the “Democratization of media policy in the digital ecosystems” (2014–2015 research project, the study aims to map the effectiveness of existing tools, practices and attitudes toward opening-up Polish public media enterprises to the public. Examination of media regulation, grey literature (corporate documentation, strategies, reports and civil society initiatives are likely to indicate the ways and extent to which members of the public might currently participate in the decision-making and control. On the basis of hypotheses that public media enterprises in Poland are not fully prepared for the multi-stakeholder and advanced model of PSM, the study takes into account potential systemic/regulatory, organizational and social barriers for change. The salient questions to be addressed are: What are the strategies and practices through which members of civil society might get involved? At what stages are the publics able to engage? How can PSM take advantage of the development of online tools offering space for interaction and collaboration? How is it possible to make the public more active and interested in governance and participation?

  10. The condition of the poultry industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kozioł

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry in Poland is characterized by high dynamics of development and in this regard was placed at the forefront of European Union countries. The main reason for the acceleration and modernization of the industry was the Polish accession to the European Union. Sanitary and veterinary requirements, and rules on the placing of poultry products in the trade, which our country was obliged to fulfill, led to the sector producing products with a high level of security. Rapidly growing domestic demand and foreign markets for Polish products affectes the growth of poultry production. Consumers are attracted primarily by the high quality products and reasonable price, as well as the relatively low cost of production. The industry has become an example of what can grow even in a crisis. As a result of changes occurring in the Polish market, meat and aspecially poultry meat is becoming increasingly important, becoming an essential part of the economy. Forecasts for the poultry industry in 2014 are positive, sae to an anticipated decline in grain prices and a limited supply of pork and beef. This will increase the global and the European Union demand for white meat, due to its nutritional properties and competitive prices.

  11. Punk and Anarchist Squats in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Donaghey, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Squats are of notable importance in the punk scene in Poland, and these spaces are a key aspect of the relationship between anarchism and punk. However, the overlap of squatting, punk, and anarchism is not without its tensions. This article, drawn from ethnographic research carried out between 2013 and 2014, explores the issues around punk and anarchist squats in Poland, looking at: criticisms levelled at punk squats by ‘non-punk’ squatting activists (e.g. Przychodnia in Warsaw); instances of...

  12. The use of network analysis in the process of delimitation as exemplifi ed by the administrative division of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska-Stefańska, Marta; Wiśniewski, Szymon

    2017-12-01

    The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplifi ed by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland's current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifi able to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifi cations in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.

  13. Project 'Installation of a stand at the horizontal channel of the MARIA Research Reactor, Otwock-Swierk, Poland, for the research of transmutation of minor actinides and fission products'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuta, M.

    2006-01-01

    As a long range objective we would like to focus on management of the fuel economy in the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system (ADS) in terms of long lived fission products (LLFP) and minor actinides (MA) transmutation. Transmutation of the radioactive waste (RW) is an important element within the technical objective of the optimal management of the fuel economy in the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system (ADS). Analysis of possible ways of reduction of radioactive wastes by transmutation of radioactive long-lived fission products such as 99 Tc, 129 I and 135 Cs and by burning up of transuranic nuclides implies that the sub-critical assembly of the accelerator driven system should consist of three zones. The requirement of three zones comes out of the fact that each radioactive isotope to be reduced is to be located in a different spectrum of thermal, epithermal and high energy neutron fluxes. High flux thermal neutron environment (≥10 16 n/cm 3 ·s) is expected as the best way for the transmutation of most of the radioactive waste to stable or short-lived nuclides and for increasing the probability for fission such actinides as 237 Np and 238 Np. The concept of ADS system for energy production and for transmutation is quite new to some extent and from this reason it requires many theoretical and experimental studies. The research of transmutation is a very large area of study requiring a significant experimental and financial support, so it can be performed only within the international cooperation. Specifically, the proposed research within this CRP requires important means, in terms of high-energy proton beams, spallation targets, sub-critical assembly, measurement instrumentation, post-irradiation characterisation and its testing and, of course, manpower for the interpretation of results, modelling observed phenomena, and programme management. The personal involved in the research is to be a skilled personal of

  14. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  15. Challenging Marginalization at the Universities of the Third Age in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C Robbins-Ruszkowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Older people in Poland often describe and experience old age as a time in the life course marked by discrimination and marginalization. In this postsocialist context, a still-dominant Cold-War logic links older people to the devalued socialist past and younger people to the present and future of the Polish nation-state. Contemporary media portray old age as defined by physical and mental decline and social isolation. The most visible challenge to such temporal, bodily, and social exclusion occurs through Universities of the Third Age, where older people learn new skills, cultivate hobbies, and explicitly theorize growing old as a positive phase of life. Drawing on twenty months of ethnographic research, this article traces key sociocultural, political-economic, and historical factors that contribute to discrimination against and empowerment of older people in Poland. By analyzing national politics and media representations of old age together with ethnographic data from Universities of the Third Age, this article highlights the practices through which older Poles feel themselves to be transformed in old age—and asks who may be excluded from such practices—thus contributing to gerontological discussions of “active aging” and anthropological understandings of sociality in late life.

  16. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2012 compared to the previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews contained in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2012" (NIZP-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2013), reports from investigations obtained from the sanitary epidemiological stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2012 and earlier years is based on the data from the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were classified according to the case definition. In Poland in 2012, it was reported a total of 8 444 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis including 8 267 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 177 of extraintestinal one. The incidence was 21.9/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case met more than 94% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in 2011, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (69.4%) hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella remains. In outbreaks proportion of hospitalizations accounted for one third of the cases. Predominated children under the age of 5 years. Seven people died of salmonellosis. In 2012, it was reported 181 outbreaks caused by Salmonella in which 1 511 people still. They were mostly small family outbreaks. The most common etiological agent of salmonellosis in Poland is S. enteritidis, but slightly increases the percentage cases, for which no serologic type was determined. In 2012 it stood at 14%. This proportion was highest in the Pomorskie province and amounted to 58%. Keeping up for more than 10 years in the percentage of salmonellosis hospitalization rate at 70%, indicates underreporting of the disease in the country and mostly detection of the cases requiring hospital treatment. Growing proportion of

  17. History of the development of rocket technology and astronautics in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of rocket technology in Poland is outlined. The history cites 13th century use of war rockets in combating Tartars as well as 20th century studies of the future and reality of space flights.

  18. Fair Trade in Sustainable Development. The Potential for Fair Trade Market Growth in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of Fair Trade, which is considered an alternative to conventional trade, and becomes increasingly popular in the Western countries. In addition, some results of empirical research, conveyed in Poland and aimed at diagnosis and assessment of Fairtrade products market, are provided. Fair trade is analysed not only in the broad theoretical context which shows its contribution to sustainable development and relation to corporate social responsibility, but also in the framework of supply chains management. The benefits from the Fairtrade label, including transaction costs reduction are indicated. The assumption is that to achieve them, consumer acceptance of the idea and willingness to buy Fairtrade products are necessary. The empirical research was focused on answering the question whether a market niche for Fairtrade goods exists in Poland and how to develop it by the means of communication tools. The market niche, although very small, has been identified and described. It is apparent that, in order to develop it, a public policy, aimed at raising the awareness of Fair Trade idea, is necessary as well as marketing activities like social marketing Internet campaigns and better and more prominently products display.

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EU NOISE DIRECTIVE IN PROCESS OF URBAN PLANNING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kwiecień

    2013-05-01

    The main aim of this article is to introduce the influence of acoustic climate on the urban space planning in Poland through the implementation of the provisions of Directive 2002/49/WE of the European Parliament and the Council of Europe from 25 June 2002. Moreover, in the stages of an LLUP implementations have been suggested the use of a Strategic Noise Map, being a tool for assisting the process of environmental noise level assessment in Poland.

  20. Macroeconomic surroundings of transport and logistics sector in Poland during the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last quarter of 2009, Poland has entered a phase of economic growth. Presently, despite the emerging financial problems in the EU zone, positive market sig-nals can still be observed in Poland, for example increase in domestic and external de-mand, incoming orders in the industry sector and production capacity in companies. The-se changes enhance growth of production in the industry and construction sectors, which are perceived as key sectors for generating demand for transport services. Therefore the lack of market signals that indicate economic slowdown means that the conditions for transport and logistics sector development in Poland are not expected to deteriorate. The key threat to the stability of economic growth in Poland, and in consequence to transport and logistics companies, is the excess debt of public finance sector.

  1. Radioactive materials and nuclear fuel transport requirements in Poland in the light of international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musialowicz, T.

    1977-01-01

    National regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and nuclear fuel in Poland are discussed. Basic transport requirements and regulations, transport experience including transport accidents and emergency service are described. The comparison with international regulations is given

  2. OBTAINING INCOME FROM THE PLANT BREEDER’S RIGHT IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Uciechowski

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the legal aspects of the usage, trade, and production of certified seed in Poland. It does not exhaust the subject, but merely presents formal organization of seed market in Poland. These issues are important for Polish agriculture because of the strategic importance of the seeds. Seed market understand as a breeding varieties, production and distribution of seeds is the core of modern rural production. Indirectly is also important for non rural sectors. ...

  3. Making a Home in Poland: The Jewish Sightseeing Movement and Its Photographic Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Pasternak, Gil; Ziętkiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We delivered this paper at the conference 'Discovering “Peripheries”: Photographic Histories in Central and Eastern Europe'. Institute of Art, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, 31 May - 1 June 2016 (organised by Society “Liber pro arte” in collaboration with the Polish Association of Photography Historians and the peer-reviewed journal “Dagerotyp”). Our paper focused on the photographic practices the Poland-based Jewish sightseeing movement employed between the two World Wars, to...

  4. An Empirical Assessment of the Risk of Carbon Leakage in Poland - Working Paper No. 08/13,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Spencer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a particularly carbon intensive economy. This has created concern that it may be particularly exposed to carbon leakage. However, there is an absence of robust and transparent empirical research on carbon leakage risks in Poland. This study aims at filling this gap by assessing the impact of EU climate policy, in particular the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, on Polish industry. With no mitigating measures, a small number of Polish industrial sectors would face significant carbon costs. However, with free allocation, banked surplus allowances and a carbon price of euros 30/ton, only one sector would face direct carbon costs in excess of 5% of operating profits. Three sectors face direct carbon costs in the order of 1-3% of operating profits; three face no direct carbon costs. With direct compensation for indirect carbon costs (electricity price increases), the two most affected sectors would face indirect costs of 3.5 to 5.5% of gross value added with a carbon price of euros 30/ ton. The vast majority of Poland's trade in energy intensive sectors occurs within the EU. It is important to maintain a harmonized climate policy to avoid internal market distortions. There is thus a negligible risk of carbon leakage in Poland under current policy. The mitigating measures in the EU Directive remove the vast majority of direct and indirect carbon costs for Polish industry. EU climate policy can be made more stringent without inducing risks of significant carbon leakage. The current benchmarking system appears to be reasonably effective at not structurally disadvantaging less carbon efficient Member States like Poland. And it is vital to maintaining a harmonized climate policy. Finding a harmonized way to address indirect carbon costs may unlock Polish support for future policy. (authors)

  5. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    The Poland's anomaly was first described in 1841 by Sir Alfred Poland as a syndrome presenting with absence or underdevelopment of pectoralis ... He was the second child in a family of four. There was no familial history of similar .... hypoplasia: a middle degree of Poland syndrome. Acta Radiologica 1996; 37: 759-762. 8.

  6. [In the 100 birth anniversary of the pioneer of stereotactic brain surgery in Poland professor Oskar Liszka. Functional neurosurgery in Poland and in Krakow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachura, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This article is the report from the meeting of the Medical Society of Cracow, that has been devoted to the 100 birth anniversary of Oskar Liszka, Assoc. Prof., MD. In the course of the meeting Professor Oskar Liszka's figure has been reminded and his work as a pioneer of stereotactic surgery in Poland has been discussed. In the next two sections, the development of functional neurosurgery in Poland and achievements in this field in the Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology of Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum in Krakow have been presented.

  7. The concept of CSR in accounting theory and practice in Poland: an empirical study 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Macuda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Right now, the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR lies within the scope of interest of various fields of social science and practice, including the science and practice of accounting. Numerous research works stress how accounting, particularly in terms of corporate reporting, is closely connected to the concept of CSR. The number of studies concerning especially CSR reporting has increased in recent years all over the world, but in Poland CSR reporting is a new field not yet covered by many current research papers. The main purpose of this work is to present the concept of CSR in the theory and practice of accounting. Design/methodology/approach. The research paper comprises a literature review and a content analysis. The literature review was conducted in the first part of the work, which was devoted to the presentation of the idea of corporate social responsibility in the context of accounting and corporate reporting, and also in the second part, which contains an overview of the most well-known and comprehensive global standards related to CSR reporting. The content analysis was used in the final part of the work to examine the disclosures of CSR in annual reports and separate reports (Management commentary, communications on a population of Polish stock exchange companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE Main Market as of 31 October 2013, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index and the RESPECT Index –the first Polish, and one of the few European indexes of socially responsible companies. Findings. It has been determined that among Polish public companies listed on the WSE, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index, only 6% operate in a socially responsible manner according to the RESPECT criteria, and less than 4.6% of all companies listed in the WIG-Poland and 70% of RESPECT index companies prepare separate CSR reports. Out of all the companies that prepare separate CSR reports, 93% prepare ESG

  8. The concept of CSR in accounting theory and practice in Poland: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Macuda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Right now, the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR lies within the scope of interest of various fields of social science and practice, including the science and practice of accounting. Numerous research works stress how accounting, particularly in terms of corporate reporting, is closely connected to the concept of CSR. The number of studies concerning especially CSR reporting has increased in recent years all over the world, but in Poland CSR reporting is a new field not yet covered by many current research papers. The main purpose of this work is to present the concept of CSR in the theory and practice of accounting. Design/methodology/approach. The research paper comprises a literature review and a content analysis. The literature review was conducted in the first part of the work, which was devoted to the presentation of the idea of corporate social responsibility in the context of accounting and corporate reporting, and also in the second part, which contains an overview of the most well-known and comprehensive global standards related to CSR reporting. The content analysis was used in the final part of the work to examine the disclosures of CSR in annual reports and separate reports (Management commentary, communications on a population of Polish stock exchange companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE Main Market as of 31 October 2013, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index and the RESPECT Index –the first Polish, and one of the few European indexes of socially responsible companies. Findings. It has been determined that among Polish public companies listed on the WSE, which are also listed in the WIG-Poland index, only 6% operate in a socially responsible manner according to the RESPECT criteria, and less than 4.6% of all companies listed in the WIG-Poland and 70% of RESPECT index companies prepare separate CSR reports. Out of all the companies that prepare separate CSR reports, 93% prepare ESG

  9. Lignite mining and electricity generation in Poland: The current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widera, Marek; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Ptak, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    This opinion paper presents the current state and future scenarios of Polish lignite mining. For many years, over 1/3 of domestic electricity, that is about 53–55 TWh, has been generated by lignite-fired power plants. Currently, with 63–66 million tons of extraction, Poland is the fourth lignite producer worldwide and the second in the European Union. There are three possible scenarios for the development of lignite mining in Poland by 2050. Unfortunately, despite the huge lignite resources, amounting to more than 23.5 billion tons, and great potential of the mining industry, the future of Polish lignite mining does not look optimistic from the economic point of view. This is associated with social and environmental problems, including the European Union's climate and energy policy. However, this may change in the event of a global economic crisis and unstable geopolitical conditions. Therefore, a new energy doctrine for Poland at least by 2050 is urgently needed. - Highlights: •Poland is one of the leaders in lignite production in the European Union. •Energy policy in Poland assumes a key role of lignite in energy mix. •Almost one-third of Polish electricity is currently generated from lignite. •For Polish lignite mining exist pessimistic, realistic and optimistic scenarios. •Extraction of lignite in Poland will gradually decrease in the coming decades.

  10. New and noteworthy species of lichens from the Augustów Forest (northeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matwiejuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Augustów Forest is one of the biggest forest complex in Poland. In this paper, 13 rare species of lichens from Augustów Forest are presented. Four of these species are new to Augustów Forest: Bacidina egenula, Lecanora persimilis, Rhizocarpon reductum, Scoliciosporum pruinosum and one species, Rhizocarpon hochstetteri, is new to northeastern Poland. Short notes on their features and distributions are provided.

  11. Costs of Urbanisation in Poland, Based on the Example of Wrocław

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hełdak, Maria; Płuciennik, Monika

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the issue of charging communes with the costs of realisation of the provisions contained in local spatial development plans. When such local spatial development plan enters into force, it leads to economic consequences. In Poland, these consequences are specified in the forecast of the financial impact, which contains a prognosis of own revenues as well as of costs incurred by the budget of the commune. The research consisted in the analysis of the costs of urbanisation of land located in Wrocław, in the southern part of the Krzyki district (Poland). This area is undeveloped to a major extent, consisting mainly of agricultural land, and its development requires the construction of technological and social infrastructure facilities. The expected costs of the realisation of local spatial development plans that are binding for the southern part of Wrocław demonstrate significant costs of the construction of sewage network and municipal roads. The planned development of residential districts is not supported by the existing infrastructure. Additionally, the development of new areas will require the city of Wrocław to take over the real properties on which public goals are planned to be realised. The estimated costs of land acquisition for the realisation of public goals amount to EUR 3 728 500.

  12. Preferences and attitudes of older adults of Bialystok, Poland toward the use of over-the-counter drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Cybulski,Mateusz; Cybulski,Lukasz; Krajewska-Kulak,Elzbieta; Orzechowska,Magda; Cwalina,Urszula

    2018-01-01

    Mateusz Cybulski,1 Lukasz Cybulski,2 Elzbieta Krajewska-Kulak,1 Magda Orzechowska,1 Urszula Cwalina3 1Department of Integrated Medical Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland; 2National Security Student, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland; 3Department of Statistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland Purpose: The aim of the stu...

  13. The debt management in time of crisis: survey evidence from Poland and Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Błach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of the article is to present partial results of the research project conducted in Poland and Silesia aiming at analyzing changes in the financial condition of non-financial companies in time of financial crisis. This article presents the results of the project’s part which was related to the analysis of debt management and capital structure decisions. Methodology/methods: The research findings are based on the authors’ research method with the application of financial ratio analysis and financial statements as basic tools. The observations are conducted with regard to Poland and are a subject for the comparative analysis of the pre- and post-crisis state. The analyzed period covers years 2006–2010. Scientific aim: The paper aims at revealing the consequences of debt management and capital structure decisions in time of global financial crisis with regard to companies as the representatives of the real sphere of the economy. Findings: In general, the result of the researches indicate that in 2007 and 2008 as a crisis observation and in 2009–2010 as the post-crisis observation there were no significant changes of the debt management reflected in the capital structure and the level of financial risk. The differences were observed only with regard to the level of long-term debt implementation. Conclusions: The research findings bring a valuable and original perspective for analysing the impact of financial crisis on the debt management decisions reflected in the changes of companies’ capital structure. These results might be applied in the cross-country comparative studies aiming at analysing changes in the financial situation of the companies operating in different countries and regions, finding similarities and explaining differences.

  14. Shale gas in Poland, in the United Kingdom and in Denmark: towards a European model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Based on a research on the development of shale gas in Denmark, Poland and the UK, this report first describes and discusses the heterogeneous situations of these countries regarding energy and gases while outlining a more global European trend with an increasing dependence on foreign gas supply sources. It outlines that, while being still not well known, shale gas resources are differing from one country to the other. The exploration of shale gas in the three studied countries is presented. The next part of the report addresses other related issues like: adaptation of the legal, regulatory and taxing framework, social acceptance (importance of two key factors: involvement of local population and information transparency). The conclusion outlines the differences between the studied cases. Appendices propose: a table of data describing the energy and shale gas markets in the three studied countries, a map indicating concession locations in Poland, a map indicating areas of search for oil gases in the UK, a map indicating locations to Total's concessions in Denmark, and a diagram describing the British procedure aimed at determining whether an environmental impact study is necessary

  15. A cultural trauma: Outcomes of the system change in post-socialist Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabzinska Iwona

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the outcomes of the system change in post-socialist Poland. The author discusses various important and inter-related issues in the Polish societal sphere: shock therapy accompanied by the changes since the 1990's, unemployment, uncontrolled privatization, cultural trauma and cultural plaint. Theoretically, the paper belongs to anthropology of transformation, and it is based on sociological literature for the most part. The paper also discusses 'societal diagnosis', its creators, crisis in confidence as a consequence of social and cultural traumas, the weakness of political elite and criteria used to measure poverty levels. Lately, there has been a change in mythical representation about easy life in Poland related to the state' affiliation with EU. The change includes a lack of global crisis influence, resistance of the Polish society toward media influence, a rise in optimism and decrease of cultural plaint. Is this change in attitude due to cyclical alteration between phases of depression and euphoria? What will happen if depression returns? Did the Polish handle the trauma of transformation exceptionally well? Possible answers to these and other relevant questions are sought by the author in this paper, who uses, as additional sources for research, a world of local communities and individual accounts.

  16. Car industry enterprises in Poland: strategic priorities in the circumstances of depression on the market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is in the recent years that the automotive branch has been remarkably affected by the global economic crisis. The companies located in Poland make up a significant element of the global system. The paper analyses the most important data that describe the activities of these companies in the years of the crisis (the research covered the period from 2005 through 2012. It is possible to formulate the thesis that this is the group of entities that coped relatively well with the difficult situation encountered in the environment. Thanks to the conducted analysis it was possible to point to the regularities that increased the possibility success in this kind of circumstances.

  17. Children's perceptions of the nursing profession in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusarska, Barbara; Krajewska-Kułak, Elzbieta; Zarzycka, Danuta

    2004-10-01

    The drawing, as a kind of artistic language, used by the child-artist to express his or her thoughts and opinions concerning their environment is an immensely interesting form of cognition for the viewers of such artistic creations. The aim of the study was the analysis of the presentation of the image of the nursing profession created by children and the application of these experiences in vocational education of nurses. The objects of the analysis, were 182 artistic creations of children living in eastern Poland. The detailed analysis of the works was carried out by three independent competent judges who grouped the works according to the accepted indicators of evaluation. The young artists created the image of the nurse that presents a detailed range of professional duties, the quality of the child-nurse relationship and the prognostic vision of the new activities that will be put into practice in the future. The rich content of the drawings was complemented by the high artistic value of the composition. The study material collected should be used not only by nurses participating in care of children, but also in vocational education of nurses for more complete preparation of candidates to perform their future profession.

  18. Investigating Theoretical PV Energy Generation Patterns with Their Relation to the Power Load Curve in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Jurasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish energy sector is (almost from its origin dominated by fossil fuel feed power. This situation results from an abundance of relatively cheap coal (hard and lignite. Brown coal due to its nature is the cheapest energy source in Poland. However, hard coal which fuels 60% of polish power plants is picking up on prices and is susceptible to the coal imported from neighboring countries. Forced by the European Union (EU regulations, Poland is struggling at achieving its goal of reaching 15% of energy consumption from renewable energy sources (RES by 2020. Over the year 2015, RES covered 11.3% of gross energy consumption but this generation was dominated by solid biomass (over 80%. The aim of this paper was to answer the following research questions: What is the relation of irradiation values to the power load on a yearly and daily basis? and how should photovoltaics (PV be integrated in the polish power system? Conducted analysis allowed us to state that there exists a negative correlation between power demand and irradiation values on a yearly basis, but this is likely to change in the future. Secondly, on average, daily values of irradiation tend to follow power load curve over the first hours of the day.

  19. Aphids of the genus Diuraphis caught by Johnson suction trap in Poznań, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strażyński Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1973-2011 in Poznań, aphid catches were carried out using Johnson’s suction trap. Since then the suction trap located at the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute in Poznań has continuously recorded the daily and seasonal dynamics of aphid flights. The collected results has been used to establish one of the largest databases of this type in Europe. The data also allow tracking changes in aphid biodiversity under the changing climatic conditions. Three aphid species of Diuraphis spp. were identified: D. muehlei (Börner, 1950 - in 1974, D. bromicola (Hille Ris Lambers, 1959 - in 1988, D. noxia (Kurdjumov, 1913 - in 2003 as a result of systematic and long-term aphid collections. The occurrence of D. noxia presents a particular risk to cereal crops in Poland. This expansive aphid species that originates from Asia and the Mediterranean is a vector of Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV, and has become one of the most important pest of wheat and barley in the world. Changes in climatic conditions that have been observed in recent years in Poland such as hot summer, long and warm autumn, mild winter seem to be optimal for occurrence and development of aphid species from warmer parts of Europe.

  20. FINANCIAL EXCLUSION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to assess the extent of fi nancial exclusion of the rural population in Poland. One of the most basic measures of fi nancial exclusion is percentage of adult residents lacking a bank account. This and other measures verifying the population’s use of fundamental banking services and the statistical data on development of banking infrastructure in the territorial context were then employed to conduct an assessment of the extent and causes of fi nancial exclusion with a particular emphasis on the rural areas. The fi ndings show that, like in many other countries, the extent of provision of fi nancial services among the rural population is more limited compared to the urban population. The fi nancial exclusion, has much deeper roots going beyond the geographical factors. The real causes of the fi nancial exclusion lie not only in access to banking services but also in their price, the population’s income, as well as being strongly aff ected by information and behaviour.

  1. Diversity of agrocoenoses in the Lublin region, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Staniak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lublin region, one of the main agricultural regions in Poland, has very favorable conditions for agricultural production but the development of the agricultural sector has been very slow there. This is due, among other factors, to the extensive farming used on large areas and the fragmentation of fields with numerous fragments of natural ecosystems. In Lublin Province, cereals comprise the highest proportion of the crop structure, especially wheat, but farmers also often cultivate maize, oilseed rape, sugar beet, and legumes for consumption. The biological diversity of agricultural areas is enhanced by growing traditional plant species and varieties. Crop species are accompanied by segetal weeds, sometimes very expansive, sometimes rare and endangered by extinction. In recent years, the following have been the dominant weed species in the region’s crop fields: Galium aparine, Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Viola arvensis, and Veronica persica. However, there are several locations of occurrence of Muscari comosum (a strictly protected species and the following unique species: Adonis aestivalis, Anthemis tinctoria, Caucalis platycarpos, Galium tricornutum, and Thymelaea passerina. In Lublin Province, there are many organic farms which contribute to the significant diversity of agricultural plant communities. In this review, we also indicate the biocoenotic role of weeds and their importance in the proper maintenance of agroecosystems and ecosystem services.

  2. The Elements of Water Balance in the Changing Climate in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szwed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong global warming has been observed in the last three decades. Central Europe, including Poland, is not an exception. Moreover, climate projections for Poland foresee further warming as well as changes in the spatial and seasonal distribution and quantity of precipitation. However, climate models do not agree on the sign of change of precipitation. In Poland precipitation is projected to decrease in summer (this finding is not robust, being model-dependent and to increase in winter. Therefore, there is still considerable uncertainty regarding likely climate change impacts on water resources in Poland. However, there is no doubt that changes in the thermal characteristics as well as in precipitation will influence changes in the water balance of the country. In this study, the components of climatic water balance, that is, precipitation, evaporation, and runoff, are calculated for the average conditions in the control period of 1961–1990 and in the future (2071–2100 in Poland. The changes of the water balance components for the present and for the future are compared and analysed. Due to insufficient consistency between climate models a possible range of changes should be presented; hence the multimodel projections from ENSEMBLES Project of the European Union are used in this study.

  3. EGNOS Based APV Procedures Development Possibilities In The South-Eastern Part Of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleta Wojciech Z.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On 14th and 15th March 2011 for the first time approach with vertical guidance (APV-I was conducted on Polish territory in Katowice, Kraków and Mielec. This was the milestone for GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System and Area Navigation (RNAV use as a new instrument approach chance for NPA (Non-Precision Approach and PA (Precision Approach in Poland. The paper presents the experiment study of EGNOS SIS (Signal in Space due to APV (Approach with Vertical Guidance procedures development possibilities in the south-eastern part of Poland. Researches were conducted from January 2014 till June 2014 in three Polish cities: Warszawa, Kraków and Rzeszów. EGNOS as SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System in according with ICAO's Annex 10 has to meet restrictive requirements for three dimensional accuracy, system integrity, availability and continuity of SIS. Because of ECAC (European Civil Aviation Conference states to EGNOS coverage in the eastern part of Europe, location of mention above stations, shows real usefulness for SIS tests and evaluation of the results [EUROCONTROL, 2008].

  4. Exposure to the ionizing radiation in Poland in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschke, J.; Biernacka, M.; Florowska, K.; Sosinska, A.

    2002-01-01

    The population of Poland is at present subject to ionizing radiation from natural and artificial sources at levels not much different from those in other European countries. Natural sources of radiation such as cosmic rays, terrestrial radiation, radon gas in homes and other natural radionuclides entering human body with air, water and food contributed ca. 2.5 mSv to the total annual radiation dose of 3.36 mSv received in 2001 by average inhabitant of our country. The irradiation from artificial sources, such as X-ray machines, cyclotrons and radionuclides used in medical diagnostics and in industry and science, the fallout from nuclear explosions and from the Chernobyl accident, now contribute 0.87 mSv, or about 36% to the total radiation dose; most of the men-made dose is from medical irradiation which contributes 0.85 mSv, or ca. 25% to the total dose. The Chernobyl fallout is now responsible for only 0.012 mSv per year, or 0.4% of the total radiation dose received currently by the Polish population. (author)

  5. Promotion of breastfeeding in Poland: the current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królak-Olejnik, Barbara; Błasiak, Ilona; Szczygieł, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Objective Exclusive breastfeeding is safe and beneficial for healthy infants; it is the optimal feeding method during the first 6 months of life. Infants should be complementary fed in conjunction with breastfeeding until 12 months of age or longer. The aim of the present study was to analyse the duration of breastfeeding through 12 months of age. Methods Participants were 1679 women from 42 randomly selected hospitals in Poland. The data were obtained from surveys, including a paper and pencil interview that was conducted after mothers delivered in the hospital and before discharge. Computer aided telephone interviews were administered at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Results There was a high rate of initiating breastfeeding after birth (97%), a rapid abandonment of exclusive breastfeeding (43.5% at 2 months, 28.9% at 4 months and 4% at 6 months) and an onset of formula feeding during the first days of life, which is contrary to current recommendations. Conclusions It is necessary re-educate mothers, medical staff who care for mothers and children during the perinatal period, and other specialists.

  6. Art as an investment in Poland - the first 20 years after the collapse of the central planning economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Potocki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at answering the following research question: is the Polish art market mature enough to look at art investment as an important element of portfolio diversification? To provide an answer, the Authors analyzed auctions in Poland from the period 1991-2010, which were published by Art&Business magazine. The number of the analyzed records amounted to 28951. The conclusions may be valuable for researchers specializing in art economics, investors dealing with wealth transfer, financial advisors offering financial products as well as for policy makers responsible for providing institutional infrastructure essential for development of the Polish art market.

  7. Comparison of the entrepreneurial intent of master’s business students in developing countries: South Africa and Poland

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    Cecile Nieuwenhuizen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem investigated: The objective of this study was to assess the differences in the levels of entrepreneurial intent and its antecedents of the master’s business students who had no exposure to entrepreneurial education from two culturally different countries, South Africa and Poland. A validated entrepreneurial intent instrument was administered to final-year master’s business management students from a university in South Africa and a university in Poland. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey design with two samples, one from each country, was used. A previously validated questionnaire developed from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour model was administered. The results were factor analysed and new scales extracted. These refined scales were used to assess the differences between the two countries. A total of 182 questionnaires were collected from the two universities, University of Johannesburg in South Africa and Krakow Business School in Poland. Findings/implications: From the t-tests statistically significant differences between the two groups were found on 10 of the newly defined scales. Except on one scale, the South African students scored higher than the Polish students. Originality/value of research: This is the first study comparing differences between master’s business management students from two culturally diverse countries, South Africa and Poland, in terms of entrepreneurial intent and its antecedents. Conclusion: Possible reasons for the differences were offered as gleaned from other research, but further research is required to identify the determining factors for the differences.

  8. Selected problems of coal mining mechanization in the coal industry of Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniak, J; Sikora, W [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland)

    1987-01-01

    Discusses conditions for underground coal mining in Poland, types of equipment for coal cutting, mine haulage and strata control and development trends of mining technologies. In 1985, black coal output was 191.6 Mt; 85.3% came from longwall faces mined by sets of mining equipment (coal cutters, chain conveyors and powered supports). The average coal output per longwall face was 881 t/d, output per face mined by sets for mining equipment was 1,134 t/d. In 1985, 653 shearer loaders and 77 coal plows were used in Polish coal mines. Number of shearer loaders is increasing. Shearer loaders with chainless haulage system were safest and most economic. The shearer loaders were equipped with the POLTRAK chainless haulage system developed in Poland. Research programs concentrate on development of new mining equipment for thin seam mining, steep seam mining, longwall mining with hydraulic stowing, efficient strata control by powered or shield supports under conditions of increased stresses or rock burst hazards. 4 refs.

  9. Clean air for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Coal power generation produces gases which pollute the environment and cause damage to vegetation and human health. Where alternative sources of energy are not economically viable, the only solution is to ensure that gas emissions are reduced to a minimum. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Department of Research and Isotopes to demonstrate a technology which will show Poland, and possibly other countries, a way to attain European emission standards without the need to compromise industrial growth. (IAEA)

  10. Associations and foundations in the field of health care and their role in the health system of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, Maria; Cianciara, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The article presents data on associations and foundations active in health care field in Poland, on the basis of a review of research done by Klon/Jawor Association and the Central Statistical Office. The article also applies to the issue of cooperation between NGOs and governmental adminstration in the health area and identifies lacking information that is necessary for better planning of national health policy. In Poland there are about three thousand associations and foundations whose main focus is the health care. In 2010, they accounted for about 7% of all non-governmental organizations. Results of representative nationwide surveys from 2008 and 2010 indicate that the NGO's active in the field of health care have, in most cases, legal form of associations. Almost half of the organizations declared national or international scope of action. Headquarters of most organizations were mainly in the cities, and only, one in twenty in the village. Most organizations were located in the mazowieckie province and a significant fraction of them was in Warsaw itself. Organizations were stood out by a relatively large number of personnel on the background of the entire NGO sector. Half of the organizations employed paid workers, the majority also collaborated with volunteers who were not members of the organization. More than a third of organizations dealt with the rehabilitation, therapy and long-term care, and about 1/3 dealt with prevention, health promotion and education, and blood donations. World Health Organization indicates the need for systematic collection of data about the role of the nongovernmental sector in health. In Poland, legal regulations require the public institutions and organizations to cooperate with NGOs to achieve health objectives. In spite of relevant data on NGOs in the field of health care in Poland, the necessary information to assess their potential are still lacking. Recognition of the capacity and limitations ofNGOs could enable better

  11. Progress in semiconductor laser diodes: SPIE volume 723

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichen, E.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains proceedings arranged under the following session headings: High power diode lasers; single emitters and arrays; Ultrahigh speed modulation of semiconductor diode lasers; Coherence and linewidth stabilized semiconductor lasers; and Growth, fabrication, and evaluation of laser diodes

  12. Optical techniques in pulmonary medicine. SPIE photonics West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Melissa J; Lam, Stephen; Brenner, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    There is ongoing interest in the emerging field of pulmonary photonic-based diagnostics. Potential clinical need areas that are being actively investigated at this time include airway and peripheral lung cancer diagnostics, pulmonary parenchymal and interstitial disorders, alveolar structure function, inhalation injury, ciliary function analysis, asthma and obstructive lung diseases.

  13. The distribution and habitat requirements of the genus Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae in SE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the genus Orobanche in SE Poland is presented. The study area stretches between the Vistula and the Bug rivers, and comprises the Polish areas of the Lublin-Lwów Upland, the Wołyń Upland and the southern part of Polesie. Eight species of the genus Orobanche: O. alba, O. alsatica, O. arenaria, O. caryophyllacea, O. elatior, O. lutea, O. pallidiflora, O. picridis, were collected during floristic investigations conducted between 1999 and 2010. The hosts, abundance and habitat preferences at the localities are given and a supplemented map of the distribution in SE Poland is included.

  14. New model of the vertical crustal movements in the area of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Kamil

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 the fourth levelling campaign has been finished in Poland. This campaign, together with the previous one carried out in 1974–1982, gave a very good opportunity to determine the land uplift in the area of Poland. The paper describes shortly the third and fourth campaigns, the computation of the relative land uplift, computation of land uplift referred to the mean sea level and modeling the land uplift by the least-squares collocation method. Obtained results are compared with the compu...

  15. The first record of Molineus patens (Dujardin, 1845) (Nematoda, Molineidae) in the ermine (Mustela erminea L.) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiołek, Marcin; Jarnecki, Hubert; Łuczyński, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    A single specimen of the nematode Molineus patens (Dujardin, 1845) was isolated from the intestine of the ermine (Mustela erminea L.) found dead on a road in Lubuskie voivodeship (Western Poland) in July 2008. Since this is the first record of the parasite in the ermine from Poland, description, biometrical data and figures are given.

  16. The fight against unfair competition in Poland in the years 1918-1939

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    Tomasz Dolata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important aspects concerning the combating of unfair competition in pre-war Poland are analysed in this study: factors determining the necessity of introducing a uniform, common legal regime binding across the whole territory of Poland are discussed, the genesis of the Polish law combating unfair competition of 2.08.1926 are examined, certain shortcomings of the law, which led to the revision of the act, in 1927, are characterized, attention is paid to the positive acceptance of the law by Polish and foreign doctrine (French and German.

  17. The Moravian Gate as route of migration of thermophilous bee species to Poland: fact or myth? A case study in the “Góra Gipsowa” steppe reserve and other habitats near Kietrz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study complements earlier research on wild bees (Apiformes in the “Góra Gipsowa” steppe reserve and other habitats near the town of Kietrz (SW Poland, close to the Czech border. It also attempts to reassess the opinion of some researchers about the Moravian Gate as a migration route of southern species to Poland. 109 bee species were recorded at the study sites, including 10 red-listed ones; southern species accounted for 16.5% of this number. The hypothetical route of migration of thermophilous bees through the Moravian Gate to Poland was analysed and the species composition of southern species at either side of the Moravian Gate compared. The results of this study indicate that at present the Moravian Gate plays no part in the migration of southern bee species to Poland.

  18. Evaluation of phosphorus and nitrogen balances as an indicator for the impact of agriculture on environment a comparison of case studies from Poland and the Mississippi US

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the research was to quantify the changes of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balances in Poland and Mississippi (MS). Nutrient balances were calculated as difference between input and output in the agricultural system according to Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development...

  19. Analysis and characterization of the security systems of the Republic of Poland and the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wałek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication was devoted to issues of safety systems of Poland and Slovakia. Article aims to discuss and description of the major elements, principles of operation of safety systems and identify the differences and similarities between the various systems. Article summary are the conclusions and observations about prescriptions for common actions in the field to ensure a high level of security.

  20. The prospects of hard and brown coal in Poland and in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Majchrzak, Henryk; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja

    2010-09-15

    Poland possess significant reserves of hard and brown coal and is an important producer of these fuels, for that reason coal has a dominant position in Polish energy balance. The government document describing energy policy of Poland up to the year 2030 treats Polish coal as an stabilizer of national energy safety. The progress in clean coal technologies development is a key element to determine the role of Polish coal both in Polish and EU economy. The possibilities of prospective use of coal pointing at the main direction of clean technology development has also been discussed in the paper.

  1. Museums of Poland: ways of exploiting the National Heritage

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    Violeta Tipa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the fellowship Thesaurus Poloniae provided by the Ministry of Culture and Heritage of Poland and the International Cultural Centre Krakow I was able to visit a number of museums in the cities of Warsaw, Krakow, Lodz, and Poznan. The innovative method of using audiovisual media has especially attracted my attention. Visiting Polish museums, I concluded that the country's history, its past hasn't remained in archives, in documents hidden from the public eye and accessible only to specialists in the field. By possibilities of museums upgraded the past comes alive as a page in the life of Poles. The national heritage, studied and carefully preserved, is passed on to the younger generation through the most advanced methods. Today, digital techniques increasingly penetrate into all spheres of art and culture. Museums also look for non-trivial ways to demonstrate the most valuable objects from their collections through the latest information methods. The use of audiovisual media in various forms is an ideal opportunity to immerse visitors in the distant past, help them survive dramatic historical events in a dynamic, penetrate the spirit of patriotism. The screen (monitor has become a traditional element in Polish museums and exhibition halls equipped with touch screens allowing guests to browse and receive a variety of available information in international communication languages (English, French, German and, of course, Polish. On the screens placed in the exhibition halls, documents are displayed non-stop either completely or in fragments, a visual picture sends visitors to real museum exhibits. Museums opened after 2000 are equipped with cinema halls (National Museum, The Warsaw Rising Museum and POLIN Museum, Rynek Underground Museum and Oscar Schindler’s Enamel Factory in Krakowб etc., some of them are equipped for films in 3D, with panoramic projection. Expressive audiovisual entourage is created by playing light and shadow

  2. Sediments of Biśnik Cave (Poland): Lithology and stratigraphy of the Middle Palaeolithic site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajcarz, M. T.; Bosák, Pavel; Šlechta, Stanislav; Pruner, Petr; Komar, M.; Dresler, J.; Madeyska, T.

    326/327, April (2014), s. 6-19 ISSN 1040-6182 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : karsology * caves * Biśnik Cave (Poland) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.062, year: 2014

  3. Activities in the field of nuclear reactor instrumentation and control in Poland - 1991 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulski, A.T.

    1992-01-01

    The report gives a condensed overview of activity in the field of nuclear reactor instrumentation and control in Poland over the last few years. The work was performed parallel in two directions related to the construction of the first Nuclear Power Plant at Zarnowlec and to the changes made for two research reactors at Swierk. The first direction, according to government decision, was cancelled at the end of 1990 and the results obtained up to now are briefly summarized. The second one is in progress, some minor changes in I and C for the EWA reactor and significant improvements for the MARIA reactor are under way. The results of this activity are presented. (author). 6 refs

  4. Realities of the prophylactic health care of workers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Kopias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Polish occupational health system (OHS, existing over the past 17 years, has recently been contested as never before. Critical voices pertain to both legislative and executive aspects of the system, in which key roles are played by employers and occupational medicine service. There are some reasons for making a hypothesis that relevant norms are not always respected by the main actors. Material and methods: The data on the observance of norms by entities responsible for providing workers with prophylactic health care were analyzed. They were obtained from the existing external resources and materials collected during the implementation of tasks assigned by the Ministry of Health. Results: Legal norms, which constitute OHS in Poland are generally neither respected by the employers, nor by the representatives of occupational medicine service. Nearly half (45–47% of employers infringe provisions relating to medical examinations of workers. Such a degree of non-observance of respective laws would have not been the case if it was not for the attitudes and “silent approval” of many (but not all occupational physicians. Laws defining the responsibilities of occupational medicine service units on one hand, and of employers on the other, are for many reasons infringed by both groups. Conclusions: The data analyses indicate that the Polish OHS is, to a large extent, not acceptable and should be replaced with another one founded on other assumptions and responsive to contemporary occupational health challenges. New provisions should be formulated on the basis of merit and guided by socially accepted norms. Med Pr 2015;66(6:815–825

  5. [Realities of the prophylactic health care of workers in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopias, Jerzy A

    2015-01-01

    The Polish occupational health system (OHS), existing over the past 17 years, has recently been contested as never before. Critical voices pertain to both legislative and executive aspects of the system, in which key roles are played by employers and occupational medicine service. There are some reasons for making a hypothesis that relevant norms are not always respected by the main actors. The data on the observance of norms by entities responsible for providing workers with prophylactic health care were analyzed. They were obtained from the existing external resources and materials collected during the implementation of tasks assigned by the Ministry of Health. Legal norms, which constitute OHS in Poland are generally neither respected by the employers, nor by the representatives of occupational medicine service. Nearly half (45-47%) of employers infringe provisions relating to medical examinations of workers. Such a degree of non-observance of respective laws would have not been the case if it was not for the attitudes and "silent approval" of many (but not all) occupational physicians. Laws defining the responsibilities of occupational medicine service units on one hand, and of employers on the other, are for many reasons infringed by both groups. The data analyses indicate that the Polish OHS is, to a large extent, not acceptable and should be replaced with another one founded on other assumptions and responsive to contemporary occupational health challenges. New provisions should be formulated on the basis of merit and guided by socially accepted norms. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. The Ability to Assimilate Technology as a Source of Competitive Advantage of Financial Companies in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glabiszewski Waldemar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is empirical in nature and attempts to assess the impact of ability to assimilate newly acquired technologies by financial companies operating in Poland gaining market competitive advantages. The outcome of the research conducted proved the existence of this relationship and found it be strong. This means that the development of these abilities within the absorptive potential of financial companies should trigger a significant increase in the market competitive advantages held by them. The strong impact was identified both in the total of the analyzed personnel and general-organizational components of the assimilation abilities. As regards elementary components of the analyzed potential, the obtained results are definitely more diverse.

  7. Determining ash content in flotation wastes by means of the MPOF optical ash meter. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, T; Sliwa, J

    1982-03-01

    The paper evaluates an experimental unit of the MPOF optical ash meter, developed by the EMAG Research and Production Center for Electrical Engineering and Mining Automation. The MPOF, which is being tested at the coal preparation plant of the 30 lecia PRL mine, is the first system for continuous determination of ash content in flotation tailings developed in Poland. A block scheme of the system is given. It consists of a measuring head and electronic system which processes data supplied by the measuring head and calculates ash content. System operation is based on the principle of determining ash content in a mixture of coal and mineral wastes by measuring mixture reflectivity. Determining ash content in the mixture is possible as reflectivity coefficients for coal and ash are constant. Performance of the MPOF optical ash meter is evaluated; the results are shown in a table and a scheme. Measurement accuracy is satisfactory.

  8. From Batu to Janybek: Military Conflicts of the Ulus of Jochi with Poland and Hungary (2 »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hautala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: The author of this article examines a number of military conflicts between the ulus of Jochi and both Hungary and Poland followed the first invasion of the Tatars in these lands in 1241. Research materials: For the most part, the author’s analysis is based on information of synchronous Latin sources in comparison with information contained in Russian and Mamluk chronicles. In addition to the Hungarian, Polish, and German chronicles, the author resorts to the use of the contents of the papal letters to Eastern Europe, which provide both the most reliable information about military conflicts and information on the Papal Curia’s measures to improve the defense of eastern borders of the Latin world from the Tatar raids. Research results and novelty: During the reign of Batu, Latin sources indicate extreme concern about the possible resumption of the western expansion of the Tatars in spite of the fact that, in reality, Tatar military activity on the eastern borders of Catholic Europe had an extremely minor character. On the contrary, during the reign of Berke, Tatars carried a very destructive raid on Lesser Poland. However, further Tatar expansion was interrupted by an unexpected collapse of the Mongol Empire. The subsequent reign of khan Mengu-Timur was distinguished with relative tension with the Catholic Europe. However, the actual attack on Hungary and Poland took place only under the khans Tuda-Mengu and Tula-Buga. Later, under the khans Tokhta and Uzbek, the tension between the Golden Horde and Catholic Europe weakened considerably, which, in particular, allowed the beginning of the Hungarian territorial expansion into Moldova. However, the end of the reign of khan Uzbek was characterized by a sharp deterioration of relations between the Golden Horde and Poland, which was associated with the beginning of the war of Galician succession. Analysis of the course of this war shows the apparent weakening of the influence of

  9. Health inequalities among rural and urban population of Eastern Poland in the context of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2017-09-21

    The primary goals of the study were a critical analysis of the concepts associated with health from the perspective of sustainable development, and empirical analysis of health and health- related issues among the rural and urban residents of Eastern Poland in the context of the sustainable development of the region. The study was based on the following research methods: a systemic approach, selection and analysis of the literature and statistical data, developing a special questionnaire concerning socio-economic and health inequalities among the population in the studied area, field research with an interview questionnaire conducted on randomly-selected respondents (N=1,103) in randomly selected areas of the Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie and eastern part of Mazowieckie Provinces (with the division between provincial capital cities - county capital cities - other cities - rural areas). The results of statistical surveys in the studied area with the use of chi-square test and contingence quotients indicated a correlation between the state of health and the following independent variables: age, life quality, social position and financial situation (C-Pearson's coefficient over 0,300); a statistically significant yet weak correlation was recorded for gender, household size, place of residence and amount of free time. The conducted analysis proved the existence of a huge gap between state of health of the population in urban and rural areas. In order to eliminate unfavourable differences in the state iof health among the residents of Eastern Poland, and provide equal sustainable development in urban and rural areas of the examined areas, special preventive programmes aimed at the residents of peripheral, marginalized rural areas should be implemented. In these programmes, attention should be paid to preventive measures, early diagnosis of basic civilization and social diseases, and better accessibility to medical services for the residents.

  10. Role of the Health Promotion Foundation in tobacco control and capacity building among healthcare professionals in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Janik-Koncewicz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the first summit of world tobacco control leaders in Central and Eastern Europe, held in 1990 in Kazimierz in Poland, the inadequate engagement of medical professionals in helping people to quit smoking was identified as one of the main problems of the region. The Health Promotion Foundation was established in 1992 to co-ordinate the anti-tobacco movement in Poland and to implement the resolutions of Kazimierz. The Foundation initiated actions to introduce anti-tobacco legislation in Poland passed by the Polish Parliament in 1995. It was one of the first legislative acts in the world to recommend tobacco dependence treatment. The Foundation also took active part in the preparation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and was one of the contributing authors of Article 14. The Foundation has also engaged in competence building among healthcare providers. It has trained thousands of Polish doctors and nurses using a core, nation-wide tool: the Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Tobacco Dependence. Finally, the Foundation engaged in activities to increase cessation drug availability, e.g. by conducting research, disseminating knowledge on, and promoting cytisine. Since the 1990s millions of Poles quit smoking, also thanks to the Foundation’s comprehensive activities. Further work is now focused on developing effective ways to engage greater numbers of medical doctors in the treatment of tobacco dependence and building innovative technologies supporting them and people who want to quit smoking.

  11. Q and A. Poland's progress on the road to new nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    Conflicting reports have emerged from Poland about plans for its first reactors. Professor Grzegorz Wrochna of the Polish National Centre for Nuclear Research says the programme is on track and a business model is expected soon. The previous government's programme calls for 6 GW in two locations. The government recently published a strategy for responsible development which calls for the nuclear programme to be sped up. However, no capacity figures were included. The industry should not be bound by a rigid number. In time, maybe we will speak of 4 GW or 12 GW, but it will depend on market needs and financial possibilities. The biggest risks do not come from cancellation or public opinion. They come from delays.

  12. Oyster-bioimmured ammonites from the Upper Albian of Annopol, Poland: stratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalski, Marcin; Kennedy, William J.

    2013-12-01

    Machalski, M. and Kennedy, W.J. 2013. Oyster-bioimmured ammonites from the Upper Albian of Annopol, Poland: stratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic implications. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 545-554. Warszawa. Ammonites Mortoniceras (Subschloenbachia) sp. are preserved as attachment scars on the oyster shells from the topmost portion of the Albian succession at Annopol, Poland. These oyster-bioimmured ammonites show a closest affinity to the representatives of Mortoniceras (Subschloenbachia) characteristic of the upper Upper Albian Mortoniceras perinflatum Zone. No ammonites indicative of the uppermost Albian-lowermost Cenomanian Praeschloenbachia briacensis Zone are recorded. Thus, the hiatus at the Albian-Cenomanian boundary at Annopol embraces the latter zone. The presence (and dominance) of Mortoniceras in the upper Upper Albian ammonite assemblage of Annopol suggests that the representatives of this Tethyan genus could migrate into the epicratonic areas of Poland directly from the Tethyan Realm, via the Lwow (Lviv) region.

  13. New locality of Hymenochaete cruenta in the Olbina nature reserve and revisiting of distribution of this fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brygida Kujawska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hymenochaete cruenta is a saprotrophic fungus, grown mainly on the bark of dead branches and trunks of Abies trees and thus the distribution of this fungus in Poland and other European countries is closely connected with natural range of silver fir. Despite its wide range, H. cruenta is considered as rare in the whole area of its occurrence. In this paper, we present a new locality of H. cruenta, discovered in May and September 2016 in the Olbina nature reserve (southern Wielkopolska Lowland, Kalisz Forest District. Ecological notes and macro- and microscopic feature of basidiocarps of this fungus are presented. Additionally, the current distribution of H. cruenta in Poland comprising 78 localities is provided. The rank of H. cruenta among threatened species categories in different European countries is discussed. It seems that the species is rare and threatened in Poland, and it should be still classified as “vulnerable” on the red list of macrofungi. The significance of H. cruenta for diversity of mycobiota and the necessity of further research on the dynamic of occurrence of H. cruenta inside and outside of the natural range of A. alba is underlined.

  14. Physical activity and associated socio-demographic factors in adolescents from the eastern region of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Małgorzata; Bergier, Józef

    The introduction and maintenance of healthy habits in the field of physical activity at the early stage of life is particularly important for public health. With increasing of public awareness in physical activity, researchers are increasingly questioning its determinants in different age groups. In this paper we focus on variables such as age, sex and place of residence. To determine what selected socio-demographic factors influence the level of physical activity of school youth from the eastern region of Poland in different domains of daily life. A random sample of 916 Polish school youth from Secondary Schools from Eastern Region of Poland aged 16-18 was interviewed in spring 2016 by diagnostic survey method with the use of the official Polish long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Analysing the relationship between gender and the level of physical activity statistically significant differences were found in all domains in favour of boys. The level of total physical activity in girls was 5345.5 MET-min./week, whereas in boys – 6556.6 MET-min./week. In the area of total physical activity, the highest values were observed in pupils from small towns and villages, with lower values in the youth living in large and medium-sized cities. When the relationship of age with the level of physical activity in particular domains was examined, only the activity in the work/ school domain (p = 0.0129) spoke in favour of the youngest pupils (2578.7 MET-min./week) when compared to the oldest ones (2226.4 MET-min./week). The level of physical activity in young people from the Eastern region of Poland is decreasing with age, both in girls and boys. It is therefore important, especially for the group emerging adulthood, to offer a wide variety of updated, involving, age and gender-oriented school physical activity classes that could be easily practised outside the school environment to improve the level of physical activity in leisure domain

  15. Processes of decision making on energy issues: micro and macro analysis (the case of Poland 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Iwińska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article tackles the idea of environmental and participatory democracy in Poland. Due to Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters known as the Aarhus Convention people should be involved in decisions concerning environment and energy issues in the country. All large investments, and those are certainly investments in energy infrastructure, are associated with a variety of interest groups and organizations. The main goal of this article is to show the decision making processes do not come across the knowledge and public information on nuclear energy in Poland. We present the context and background for the structural model of energy decisions using and reinterpreting survey data from 2014 and 2015 from the opinion polls on various sources of energy in Poland. From this point of departure we distinguish the micro-, meso- and macro- level of energy decisions.

  16. Entrepreneurial Management Education Needs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabic, Marina; Vlajcic, Davor; Novak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to take the emergence of the knowledge mobilization as an opportunity to develop an understanding of needs for catching up appropriate knowledge application in SMEs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the UK. It draws upon the "frame mobilization" literature, which illuminates the role that acts…

  17. Resolving Bad Loans in Central and Eastern Europe: The Cases of Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Chul Han

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of transformation in old socialist country in Eastern Europe in 1989, a large scale insolvent debenture emerges. Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic which drove Eastern Europe's economy, use insolvent loan to solve this insolvent debenture and these three countries also make the government bonds as money supply funding patterns. But Hungary and Poland use decentralized solution and leading banks to deal with the bad creditor. On the contrary, Czech has no special way of dealing with that, but let some certain bank mainly focusing on the bad creditor which is called centralized solution. Now, Korean government is using the similar method like Czech. In this point of view, in order avoid insolvent debenture becoming the burden of economy, Korea has to work out the same plan to deal with insolvent debenture with Poland.

  18. Influence of the nuclear energetics on the environment and population in Poland - methods, survey, opinions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During the conference 14 lectures were presented which describe all possible aspects of the nuclear power plants influence on the environment and population in Poland. They were delivered by the outstanding polish scientists from ten institutions. The supervisor of the conference is National Atomic Energy Agency

  19. How Was the Bologna Process in Poland, the Netherlands and Flanders Implemented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicka, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The Bologna Process is an important factor which has had an impact on higher education in Europe. In this paper the implementation of the Bologna Process in Poland, the Netherlands and Flanders is discussed, to show how the different contexts influenced its realization. In order to study the transformation of higher education, new institutionalism…

  20. Selected Problems of Applying the Law in Adaptation and Modernization of Buildings in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    Chosen problems of law implementation in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland. One of the major problems in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland is the pluralism of different interpretations of chosen legal terms, existing in the contemporary building code. Incorrect interpretation, results in the incorrect application to the authorities for the proper building permit and as the effect, it causes the lost of time and money. The article tries to identify some of these problems and seeks the solution to solve them, through the evolutionary method of building law creation.

  1. Herbert Hoover and the Organization of the American Relief Effort in Poland (1919-1923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lloyd Adams

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Poland, recreated after the armistice of 1918, was confronted at its rebirth with four very severe challenges: welding together the separate sections of the dissected country, which for many decades had been under the rule of Prussia-Germany, Austria and Russia; creating a functioning administration and military force for the country; ensuring the recovery of agriculture, which, during World War I, had seriously declined; and restarting industries destroyed or closed during foreign military occupation. Even under the valuable leadership of the first Prime Minister of the new Polish Republic Ignacy Paderewski and Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, the Poles could not accomplish the goal of rebuilding a strong Poland without outside help. The American Relief Administration (ARA, founded and led by Herbert Hoover, offered their help. The ARA, with its food aid and provision of economic assistance and expertise, played an important role in bringing about stability in the newly independent state of Poland. This paper examines the many steps Herbert Hoover had to take to arrange food relief in Poland and will outline the organization of the ARA, including the establishment of the Polish relief organization and the introduction of young Polish-American women, called the Grey Samaritans, into the field.

  2. PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS SECTOR IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zubrzycka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the legal regulations relating to Renewable Energy Sources, including the biogas sector. It discusses biogas production technologies, the current state and perspectives of agricultural biogas production in Poland, the production capabilities of Polish biogas plants and factors contributing to the attractiveness of the biogas sector. The following economic and ecological aspects of biogas production were considered in the study: profitability and environmental impacts, including reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Despite numerous problems, the Renewable Energy Sources Act provides an opportunity for the growth and development of the biogas industry in Poland.

  3. Orchidaceae in the anthropogenic landscape of central Poland: Diversity, extinction and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewicz Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae are considered one of the largest and most endangered plant families worldwide. We analyzed the status of conservation of orchid sites in Central Poland, which serves as a model area for heavily transformed environments in moderate climate. In the area under study, 26 orchid species from 54 taxa existing in Poland were reported, 17 of them with fewer than 20 localities, 59% of which have not been confirmed since 2000. Spatial analysis of all localities has shown that Central Poland exhibits considerable diversity as regards the incidence of Orchidaceae. It has been shown that contemporary protection methods have failed to prevent the demise of these species in forest, meadow and bog habitats, which incidentally comprised most of those whose localities have been unconfirmed since 2000.

  4. Collaborative Advantage in Public and Social Services: the Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Janina SZYMANKIEWICZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyse the relationships between the third and the public sector, with a particular focus on relations with local government units (LGUs on the example of Poland. The article characterises the essence and rules of collaboration between the social and public sectors in Poland, and determines the meaning of the cooperative development of strategy of collaborative advantage. It also presents a useful tool which facilitates the realisation of such a task – a model of strategic cross-sector collaboration.

  5. The First 25 Years of Computers in Education in Poland: 1965 – 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Sysło , Maciej ,

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The first regular informatics lessons in schools were organised in Poland in the second half of the 1960s. Some of the lessons in Wrocław were devoted to programming a mainframe computer located at the university, and school students in Warsaw had a chance to learn theoretical models of computers and foundations of computations.In the mid-1970s, the government of Poland recognised the importance of computers in the state economy and also in preparing the society for ne...

  6. Analysis of radioactive contaminations and radiological hazard in Poland after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnowiecki, K.

    1988-01-01

    It is a report on radiological impact in Poland following the Chernobyl reactor accident prepared in the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The results of measurement and its analysis are presented. Isotopic composition of the contamined air and the concentration of radionuclides are determined. The trajectories of the airborne radioactive material movement from Chernobyl to Poland at the last days of April 1986 are presented. Assessment of the radiological risk of the population is done. 38 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs. (M.F.W.)

  7. To Teach the Holocaust in Poland: Understanding Teachers' Motivations to Engage the Painful Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Magdalena H.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the role of teachers in confronting traumatic, hidden wartime histories in communities traumatized by them. The study illuminates patterns based on field observations, emails, and surveys of 60 teachers who participated in a Holocaust teacher preparation program in Poland during the summer of 2010. The teachers surveyed…

  8. Lichens of the Holy Hill orthodox sanctuary in Grabarka (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matwiejuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Hill Grabarka is one of the most important orthodox sanctuaries in Poland. The sanctuary is situated in Podlasie region between Bug and Narew rivers. It grew in the shade of well developing (in the first centuries of the second millennium towns Mielnik and Drohiczyn. The most striking thing is that the church is surrounded by a forest of thousands of crosses brought by pilgrims. The study present 64 species of epiphytic, epixylic, epilythic and epigeic lichens. Among 64 lichen species 11 are considered to be threatened in Poland.

  9. Effect of the Road Environment on Road Safety in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences

  10. The future of logistical education in Poland and Ukraine: comparative analysis of students\\' opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ryzhkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A professional future is the next logical step after a student completes their chosen degree course. More frequently, even during their studies, young people seek opportunities to participate in various conferences, training courses, internships, work placements, and to travel abroad, etc. All of this has one main goal - to increase the student's attractiveness as a potential employee on the labour market. Thus, it becomes very important to ask relevant and timely questions to students about the knowledge they gain during their studies, the skills they possess and how they perceive their future work. Methods: This paper presents the views of students of logistics and related disciplines regarding their future careers. The aim of this study was to investigate the expectations, skills and visions of the future of the young generation who stand at the threshold of their careers, in two countries - Poland and Ukraine. The test method used for collecting opinions was a questionnaire. Results: This paper recognises key elements of young people's perception of the labour market. They present a brief theoretical discussion on the issue in question. The authors present the results of the comparison of attitudes of students from two universities in  Poland and in Ukraine, in four areas: Participant's Profiles; Professional Attractiveness; Obtained Knowledge and Skills; Employment. Conclusions: Contemporary logistics requires professionals of the highest calibre, which is confirmed by many respected authorities. The research results show a preview of the preferences of students of logistics and related disciplines in terms of future work, and give information about the knowledge they gained during their studies. Comparison of the two groups of participants from different countries gives the opportunity to observe the aspirations and visions of each , as well as propose recommendations aimed at signalling the possibility of improving the

  11. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  12. Silicate melt metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puziewicz, Jacek; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The xenoliths of peridotites representing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath SW Poland and adjacent parts of Germany occur in the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks. Our study is based on detailed characterization of xenoliths occurring in 7 locations (Steinberg in Upper Lusatia, Księginki, Pilchowice, Krzeniów, Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Lutynia in Lower Silesia). One of the two major lithologies occurring in the xenoliths, which we call the "B" lithology, comprises peridotites (typically harzburgites) with olivine containing from 90.5 to 84.0 mole % of forsterite. The harzburgites contain no clinopyroxene or are poor in that mineral (eg. in Krzeniów the group "B" harzburgites contain pfu in ortho-, and pfu in clinopyroxene). The exception are xenoliths from Księginki, which contain pyroxenes characterised by negative correlation between mg# and Al. The REE patterns of both ortho- and clinopyroxene in the group "B" peridotites suggest equilibration with silicate melt. The rocks of "B" lithology were formed due to alkaline silicate melt percolation in the depleted peridotitic protolith. The basaltic melts formed at high pressure are usually undersaturated in both ortho- and clinopyroxene at lower pressures (Kelemen et al. 1992). Because of cooling and dissolution of ortho- and clinopyroxene the melts change their composition and become saturated in one or both of those phases. Experimental results (e.g. Tursack & Liang 2012 and references therein) show that the same refers to alkaline basaltic silicate melts and that its reactive percolation in the peridotitic host leads to decrease of Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of olivine and pyroxenes. Thus, the variation of relative volumes of olivine and orthopyroxene as well as the decrease of mg# of rock-forming silicates is well explained by reactive melt percolation in the peridotitic protolith consisting of high mg# olivine and pyroxenes (in the area studied by us that protolith was characterised by olivine

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEAT PUMP MARKET IN POLAND IN RELATION TO NEW LEGAL REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wachowicz-Pyzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat pump market in Poland is one of the most dynamically developing branches of renewable energy sources (RES. Installations using different types of low-temperature heat pumps are becoming more and more popular especially among owners of detached houses. The article presents the characteristics of the heat pump market in Poland in recent years. Most important changes introduced on 20 February 2015 in the Act on Renewable Energy Sources (Journal of Laws 2015 pos. 478, were discussed. Also future prospects associated with increased use of heat pumps installations in the face of new regulations were analyzed.

  14. Go East: Differences between Poland and Western European countries in the motivational structures underlying seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    in the Netherlands. Despite the variation between Western European countries, a common finding was a much higher consistency between intentions and actual consumption behavior as compared to Poland. The differences are discussed in terms of their implications for supply chain management, product supply...... a deeper understanding of the preferences, motives and usage patterns of Polish seafood consumers. The aim of the study was to fill this gap. Representative consumer samples from Poland (N = 1000) and four Western European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain; total N = 3800) were surveyed...

  15. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation, etc. (conversion of old coal-fired thermoelectric power plants in Poland into combined cycle plants); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Poland sekitan karyoku hatsudensho (kyushiki) combined cycle eno tenkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A project is discussed for modernization for energy efficiency enhancement and greenhouse gas reduction. The most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas in Poland is to totally replace the existing coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants. Under this project, however, natural gas-fired power generation and integrated coal/brown coal gasification combined cycle power generation are both subjected to study. This is because the power plant modernization project is closely related to the fate of coal/brown coal industries which constitute the important industrial department of Poland. As for the earning rate of the project in case of natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation, the rate will be 13.2% even at the Kaweczyn station which is the highest in earning rate, and this fails to satisfy the project conditions. If integrated coal/brown gasification combined cycle power generation is chosen, the rate will be still lower. When the cost for greenhouse gas reduction is taken up, the Konin station exhibits the lowest of 9 dollars/tCO2, and the others 15-17 dollars/tCO2. When coal gas combined cycle is employed, the cost will be 3-4 times higher. (NEDO)

  16. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for…

  17. Adaptation of the generic RODOS system for operational use in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Potempski, S.; Zelazny, R.

    1998-01-01

    In Poland the intention is to use RODOS as the software framework for Integrated Emergency Data Management and Decision Support System (EDMDSS), whose structure will account for existence of specialised centres, with responsibilities relating to: meteorological fields diagnoses and predictions, measured radiological data collection and examining feasibility of countermeasures to work out rational decisions. The system will be distributed and functionally integrated in order to take best advantage of current organisational arrangements in Poland. A parallel workstation platform and dedicated package will be used for downscaling coarse data from national meteorological services and special emergency mode operation for weather predictions. (orig.)

  18. Assessing the performance of the construction sectors in the Baltic states and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podvezko Valentinas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the evaluation of the construction market performance in three Baltic States, including Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, based on using structural statistical criteria. The evaluation covers various periods of time, embracing the time before the economic crisis, in 2007, during the economic crisis, in 2009, and after the economic crisis, in 2013. For assessing the efficiency of their construction sectors’ performance, the investigated countries are arranged in the order of preference according to this indicator by using three multiple-criteria decision making methods (MCDM, such as SAW, TOPSIS and COPRAS. These evaluation methods are based on determining the weights of the structural criteria used. For this purpose, three various methods, including the entropy, the method of the criteria impact loss (CILOS and a new method of determining the objective criteria weights (IDOCRIW suggested by the authors. The results obtained allowed the researchers to assess the construction market performance in the considered states in various periods of time, to compare them with other countries and to rank them based on this parameter. Therefore, the suggested method of market performance evaluation may be used as an effective supplementary aid for determining the priorities in the future business development, as well as for studying the competitive markets or directing the cash flows of an enterprise to the appropriate areas.

  19. The use of network analysis in the process of delimitation as exemplifi ed by the administrative division of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowska-Stefańska Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplifi ed by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland’s current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifi able to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifi cations in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.

  20. Evolution of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland in the years 1944-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L. Grabowski

    2017-11-01

    The pre-accession preparation to the European Union (EU strongly accelerated the development of sanitary-epidemiological services in Poland. Polish accession to the European Union has promoted the implementation of the WHO document “Health for All in the 21st Century” and the reduction of “health inequalities”.

  1. Problems of the adoption of the Euro in Poland and the Baltic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Davulis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of Poland, Latvia and Lithuania to adopt the euro, which is one of most important task of the economic policy in these countries is analyzed in the article. The international importance of the euro, the advantages and disadvantages of the single currency are discussed. Experience of Germany in adopting of the euro is analyzed. The strategy of the adoption of the euro in Lithuania is presented. The analysis based on the data of Eurostat database shows that Poland is the country with most possibilities to adopt the euro. However both Lithuania and Latvia may become the euro zone member states, too, if they firstly will cope with financial problems of the government and will revitalise and develop their internal market.

  2. Project on School Staff Health Promotion in Poland: The First Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynarowska-Soldan, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the concept, methods of implementation, results and experiences from the first stage of the three-year project on school staff health promotion carried out within the framework of the health-promoting school (HPS) network in Poland. Design/methodology/approach: The project was implemented in 2012 in…

  3. THE FINANCIAL LIQUIDITY OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES IN POLAND IN THE SYSTEM SIZE OF ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bieniasz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the diversification of financial liquidity of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009-2011 and indicates the main factors shaping liquidity. The study used unpublished data of Central Statistical Office, allowing for the analysis of liquidity in the system classes the food industry and the system enterprise size (small, medium, large. The analyses show, that the food industry in Poland in 2009-2011, regardless of their size and adopted ratios, have the ability to regulate the current liabilities, but kept at a low level. Analysis of the factors influencing liquidity showed, that the primary importance was turnover ratio of current liabilities, as well as ratio of financing of income through equity.

  4. Visit to the PMS-stations in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim; Andersen, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Danish build automatic gamma-ray monitoring stations have been installed in the Baltic countries, Poland and Russia (Sct. Petersbourg region). The stations are designed for continously measure the gamma-radiation from the surroundings. The stations use the Windows NT 3.51 as operating system. Eac...

  5. Proposing changes in legislative and institutional conditions for private equity and venture capital financing in the Czech Republic – a comparative study with Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Rajchlová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the conditions of private equity and venture capital financing in the Czech Republic and Poland. Especially the related legislation, taxes and support of this type of financing are discussed in detail. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the conditions, to find factors that have positive influence and to formulate recommendations that would improve the conditions for both PE/VC investors and firms with new business ideas. Improving the conditions for PE/VC financing helps small businesses get the needed capital that cannot be obtained from banks and other institutions. This form of financing has a proven positive effect on whole economy. Identifying and removing obstacles is therefore important and helps the government to promote economic growth. This form of financing is used frequently in other European countries. In the central and eastern Europe it is not used as frequently but the situation is improving according to (Zinecker & Rajchlová, 2010. According to the study made by EVCA an array of legislative shortcoming were identified in the Czech Republic. Poland and Hungary have better conditions for PE/VC financing. According to EVCA studies made in 2004 and 2006 Poland shows that the conditions improve each year. Therefore Poland was chosen in this research for a comparative study with the Czech Republic.

  6. The efficiency of the agricultural sector in Poland in the light output-input model1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyżewski Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study turns attention to the use of the input-output model (account of interbranch flows in macroeconomic assessments of the effectiveness of the agricultural sector. In the introductory part the essence of the account of interbranch flows has been specified, pointing to its historical origin and place in the economic theory, and the morphological structure of the individual parts (quarters of the model has been presented. Then the study discusses the application of the account of interbranch flows in macroeconomic assessments of the effectiveness of the agricultural sector, defining and characterizing a number of indicators which allow to conclude on the effectiveness of the agricultural sector on the basis of the account of interbranch flows. The last, empirical part of the study assesses the effectiveness of the agricultural sector in Poland on the basis of interbranch flows statistics for the years 2000 and 2005. The analyses allowed to demonstrate increased efficiency of the agricultural sector in Poland after Poland joined the EU, and also to say that the account of interbranch flows is an important tool enabling comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of the agricultural sector in the macro-scale, through the prism of the effect - disbursement, which accounts for its exceptional suitability in this kind of analyses.

  7. Noteworthy lichen species in Poland collected in the Świętokrzyski National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łubek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 25 species of the lichens new to the Świętokrzyski National Park are presented on the basis of recent collection and revision of the herbarial material from this arc. Some of these species are new to the Świętokrzykie Mountains and one have not been recorded in Poland so far.

  8. The Meaning of Working among Professional Employees in Germany, Poland and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Ardichvili, Alexandre; Borchert, Margret; Rozanski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an empirical study of the meaning of working, individual level work outcomes, and job and career satisfaction, among professional level employees in business organizations in Russia, Poland, and Germany. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework for the study was based on…

  9. The economics of environmental policy in Poland: implications for countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, M.L.; Bochniarz, Z.; Bolan, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to generate insights into the problems and opportunities faced by countries in transition in implementing environmental policy based on the recent experience of Poland. There is much to be learned from the experience of the country that arguably took the riskiest and boldest path of environmental and economic institutional change. The experience of Poland can be enlightening in terms of the problems and opportunities in establishing an institutional framework that can validate the long term legitimacy of sustainable development as a national goal. From the unique set of circumstances facing Poland, lessons can be derived for other countries in transition. The paper begins by introducing the basic welfare economics of institutional choice. The theoretical arguments are presented in terms general to institutional design and specific to environmental policy. Subsequently, the recent experience of Poland in terms of the problems faced and key environmental policy innovations are documented. The concluding section presents policy implications that can be drawn from the Polish experience and speculates about their applicability to other countries in transition. 28 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  10. The distribution of dairy farm size in Poland: a markov approach based on information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonini, A.; Jongeneel, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article sets out to analyse the evolution of the dairy farm structure of Poland during the post-socialist period. After focusing on how the farm structure has changed over time, an instrumental variable generalized cross entropy estimator is used to develop and estimate a Markov model in order

  11. Entrepreneurship in the Area of Activity of Key ICT Clusters in Poland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Key words- cluster organization, entrepreneurship, ICT clusters, ICT sector ... In the next part of the article on the basis of own studies based on data from public .... pointed to the lack of such structures in Poland [17], while in. 2006 as many as 43 .... Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment. 2630.

  12. From Totalitarianism to Democracy: The Case of Poland, Controversies and Heritage of Communism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    transformation, paying high price of devotions and recantations. The agreement created a Poland in which egoism , greed, and connections with the...content could be restricted . In the first group were the president, members of Parliament, important state functionaries, presidents and mayors of

  13. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  14. Foreign Direct Investments in Poland and the Quality Catch-Up of Polish Foreign Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    The concept of unit value is shown to be a useful tool in analysing changes in the price-quality competitiveness of the export of Poland, which, until 1996 has shown signs of a quality "catching-up" for products surviving international competition. However, the quality level of export products is...

  15. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews included in annual bulletin "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2013", information from sanitary station laboratories as well as forms of outbreak investigations obtained from the sanitary stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2013 and earlier years is based on the data of the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were qualified according to the current definition. In Poland in 2013, a total of 7 578 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis were reported including 7 407 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 171 of parenteral one. The incidence was 19,7/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case were met by more than 96% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in previous year, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (more than 72%) of hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella continues. In the outbreaks the proportion of hospitalizations accounted only for 35% of all cases. Predominantly children below 5 years of age suffer from the illness. Salmonellosis was an indicated cause of death only in 10 of the cases. In 2013 179 outbreaks were reported, in which Salmonella was found to be the etiological agent. Majority of them were small household outbreaks and they cumulated for a total number of cases of 1 218. The most common species of Salmonella responsible for infection in Poland is S. Enteritidis. For many years, up to date a slight increase is observed in reported cases of the disease, but without known serotype of Salmonella. In 2013 it was 16% and (as in previous year) it was the highest in pomorskie voivodeship (58%). High percentage of

  16. The unwanted heroes: war invalids in Poland after World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowska, Anita

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland.

  17. Education Policy in Poland: The Impact of PISA (and Other International Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialecki, Ireneusz; Jakubowski, Maciej; Wisniewski, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the PISA study on Polish education policy has been significant, but probably different from any other country. Poland has not experienced the so-called "PISA shock," but its education system has been benefiting considerably from PISA. For experts and policy makers, it has been a useful and reliable instrument that has made…

  18. Ownership, Intra-industry trade and factor Intensities: The Case of Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Using a unique database on imports and exports from public, private domestic and foreign-owned companies in Poland 1993-2002, this paper presents an analysis of the relation between intra-industry trade (IIT, measured by the Grubel-Lloyd index) and the ownership structure of Poland. Using a poole...... companies and a small positive growth for foreign-owned companies in science-based industries indicate that advanced technological spill-over effects to the Polish economy are still in their infancy.......Using a unique database on imports and exports from public, private domestic and foreign-owned companies in Poland 1993-2002, this paper presents an analysis of the relation between intra-industry trade (IIT, measured by the Grubel-Lloyd index) and the ownership structure of Poland. Using a pooled...... regression model we find a positive association between the stock of FDI and the level of IIT for foreign-owned companies but no significant spill-over effects from foreign presence to the level and development of IIT for private and public domestic companies. A negative IIT growth for private and public...

  19. Ownership, intra-industry trade and factor intensities: the case of Poland 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    Using a unique database on imports and exports from public, private domestic and foreign-owned companies in Poland 1993-2002, this paper presents an analysis of the relation between intra-industry trade (IIT, measured by the Grubel-Lloyd index) and the ownership structure of Poland. Using a poole...... companies and a small positive growth for foreign-owned companies in science-based industries indicate that advanced technological spill-over effects to the Polish economy are still in their infancy.......Using a unique database on imports and exports from public, private domestic and foreign-owned companies in Poland 1993-2002, this paper presents an analysis of the relation between intra-industry trade (IIT, measured by the Grubel-Lloyd index) and the ownership structure of Poland. Using a pooled...... regression model we find a positive association between the stock of FDI and the level of IIT for foreign-owned companies but no significant spill-over effects from foreign presence to the level and development of IIT for private and public domestic companies. A negative IIT growth for private and public...

  20. Revision of Nymphaea candida range - new data on the distribution and habitat preferences of the species in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Nowak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of geobotanical and taxonomic studies on the distribution and habitat requirements of Nymphaea candida in southern Poland. The researches were conducted in southern Poland in 2003-2009, in the provinces of Lower Silesia, Lublin, Małopolska, Opole, Silesian province as well as, in southern parts of Mazowieckie and Lubuskie. Flowers, leaves and fruits of Nymphaea species were collected from 27 locations. Altogether pollens from 73 populations of N. candida and 18 of N. alba from all the researched area were measured. The trophic level of an ecosystem was evaluated according to the results of the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, transparency and biological parameters. As the result of the studies of more than 200 water bodies, 57 localities of N. candida were documented within the investigation area. The populations of N. candida occupy mid-forest water bodies and river ox-bow lakes. A significant number of populations was also found in artificial reservoirs - fish ponds. The most suitable habitat conditions for N. candida occur in shallow waters in the shore zone with the amplitude of the water column vary from 0.5 to 2 m. Regarding the trophy level, N. candida occupies different habitats, mainly mesotrophic and also eutrophic with high content of organic matters. Considering the 15 checked morphological parameters, especially the stigma diameter, the number of carpellary teeth, flower and pollen diameters, the found and collected specimens of N. candida significantly differ from N. alba. The study confirms that N. candida ocurrs in whole lowland Poland without any regional distribution gaps. According to the IUCN guidelines to species assessment the data gathered during the presented study do not allow to classify N. candida as a vulnerable species in Poland. Still existing populations for more than 150 years, numerous stable locations, abundant populations, a habitat accessibility, a biotope extent, an

  1. R&D in Poland: Is the Country Close to a Knowledge-Driven Economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-06-01

    Poland has a strong ambition to evolve rapidly into a knowledge-driven economy. Since 2004, it has been the largest beneficiary of European Union cohesion policy funds among all member states. Between 2007 and 2013, Poland was allocated approximately EUR 67 billion, whereas for 2014-2020 the EU budget earmarked EUR 82.5 billion for Polish cohesion policy. This means that in the coming years, Poland's R&D intensity will grow. But the question remains: is 27 years of free market economy enough to enable a country's economy to become knowledge-based ? This paper offers an analysis of Polish R&D expenditures and investments in terms of their sources (business, government or higher education sectors), types (European Union or state aid) and areas of support (infrastructure, education or innovation). It also characterises the Polish R&D market with its strengths and weaknesses. Then, it examines the process of technology transfer in Poland, comparing it to best practice. Finally, the paper lays out the barriers to effective commercialisation that need to be overcome, and attempts to answer the question raised in its title.

  2. Safety of oral ibuprofen--analysis of data from the spontaneous reporting system in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchari, Ernest; Han, Stanisław; Karłowicz-Bodalska, Katarzyna; Miśkiewicz, Katarzyna; Kutycka, Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Ibuprofen is a popular over-the-counter, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, frequently used for the relief of fever, headaches, menstrual and other minor pains as well as a major active ingredient in numerous cold preparations. We analyzed sales volume and data obtained from the monitoring of spontaneous reports on the adverse effects of IBUM soft capsules, IBUM Forte soft capsules, and IBUM oral suspension 100 mg/5 mL collected by the manufacturer (PPF HASCO-LEK S.A. Wroclaw, Poland) and National Monitoring Center in Warszawa in the period between October 2002 and June 2012. A total of 19,644,797 units of IBUM soft capsules 200 mg, 5,678,164 units of IBUM Forte soft capsules 400 mg and 4,333,325 units of IBUM oral suspension 100 mg/5 mL (29,656,286 units altogether) produced by PPF HASCO-LEK S.A. Wrodcaw, P'oland were marketed during the period analyzed. There were 5 spontaneous reports regarding these medications registered in Poland in the period analyzed. Forms of oral ibuprofen are very safe medication rarely causing adverse effects; nevertheless, the existing spontaneous monitoring system of adverse effects in Poland is not sensitive enough to detect all adverse effects and needs improvement.

  3. Building and destroying social capital: The case of cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chloupkova, Jarka; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    linking social capital to rural development and comparing the cases of agricultural cooperative movements in Denmark and Poland, this paper identifies possible roots of building social capital and suggests that social capital was built through a lengthy process in both countries during the 19th century...

  4. Three new species of the genus Acanthomastix Manunka, 1972 from United States and Poland (Acari: Dolichocybidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciech L. Magowski; John C. Moser

    1993-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Mahunka, 1972 are described and figured: A. and A. elegans spp. n. phoretic on Hylobius pales (Herbst) (Insecta: Curculionidae) from USA and A. minor sp. n. from rotten fir bark in Poland. The genus Acanthomastix...

  5. Ophrys apifera Huds. (Orchidaceae, a new orchid species to the flora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osiadacz Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides data on the first locality of Ophrys apifera Huds. s. str. in Poland. Information about its geographical distribution and ecological features is given. A newly discovered population, found in a worked-out dolomite quarry near Imielin (Silesian Upland, is described and illustrated, as also, O. apifera is compared with O. insectifera L.

  6. The assessment of selected factors influencing intent to get pregnant in the Greater Poland Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wojciechowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction and objective. Nowadays, people decide to have a baby by first analysing their financial situation. Tradition is no longer a factor which determines the decision whether or not to have a baby. A prognosis of the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS shows that the population of Poland will fall from 38 to 36 million by 2035. The aim of this study is to assess the procreation behaviour of women in Greater Poland Region. materials and methods. For the research purpose, 3,120 women of reproductive age were examined by using an author designed questionnaire and a synthetic Family Financial Standard Index. results: 74.6% of the respondents lived in an urban area, 25.4% of women come from a rural area. 49% of examined women did not want to have a bigger family, 45% would like to have another child. Analysis of the reasons why women did not want to have another baby revealed that predominance of the financial factor – 67%, living conditions – 18.4% and health– 13.2%. Only 11.9% of the women declared their high financial status, 4.8% of families received family allowance from the government; 88.4% of the examined families did not receive any social benefits. Bad housing situation was declared by 5% of the respondents, 26.7% of the interviewees lived with family members, i.e. parents or grandparents. Analysis of the data concerning religious bonds showed that 67.6% of women declared their indifference to religion. conclusions. The economic factor was an important reason limiting procreation. The bad situation on the real estate market combined with an insufficient range of social welfare led to a decrease in the birth-rate in the Greater Poland region. The impact of religion on family planning was less important. The influence of the analysed socio-economic factors on family planning was similar in rural and urban areas.

  7. Challenges for developing national climate services – Poland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the challenges for developing national climate services in two countries with high fossil fuel production – Poland (coal and Norway (oil and gas. Both countries, Poland and Norway, have highly developed weather services, but largely differ on climate services. Since empirical and dynamical downscaling of climate models started in Norway over 20 years ago and meteorological and hydrological institutions in Oslo and Bergen have been collaborating on tailoring and disseminating downscaled climate projections to the Norwegian society, climate services are now well developed in Norway. The Norwegian Centre for Climate Services (NCCS was established in 2011. In contrast, climate services in Poland, in the international understanding, do not exist. Actually, Poland is not an exception, as compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, many of which neither have their national climate services, nor are really interested in European climate services disseminated via common EU initiatives. It is worth posing a question – can Poland learn from Norway as regards climate services? This contribution is based on results of the CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland project, carried out in the framework of the Polish – Norwegian Research Programme. The information generated within the Polish-Norwegian CHASE-PL project that is being broadly disseminated in Poland can be considered as a substitute for information delivered in other countries by climate services.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Facultative Methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens TK 0001 Isolated from Soil in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhelfa, Sophia; Labadie, Karine; Cruaud, Corinne; Aury, Jean-Marc; Roche, David; Bouzon, Madeleine; Salanoubat, Marcel; Döring, Volker

    2018-02-22

    Methylobacterium extorquens TK 0001 (DSM 1337, ATCC 43645) is an aerobic pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic alphaproteobacterium isolated from soil in Poland. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence and annotation of this organism, which consists of a single 5.71-Mb chromosome. Copyright © 2018 Belkhelfa et al.

  9. The World of Journalism – The World of Public Relations Assessment of Changes in Relations Between Journalists and PR Managers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawroński Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative look at the results of similar studies relating to the diagnosis of cooperation between the journalists and representatives of the PR industry in Poland. Comparable subjects, arising from the similarity of used research tools, as well as comparable attempts of the research on both environments provide good opportunities of drawing overlapping conclusions from the two research projects. Although standardization of the cooperation between journalists and PR professionals is very difficult and its description is limited by a number of variables and differentiating factors, comparing both studies makes it possible to draw conclusions about some changes or elements that have remained unchanged in relations PR managers - journalists in Poland over the last 11 years.

  10. Conservation genetics of the capercaillie in Poland - Delineation of conservation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Robert; Zawadzka, Dorota; Suchecka, Ewa; Merta, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    The capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is one of Poland's most endangered bird species, with an estimated population of 380-500 individuals in four isolated areas. To study these natural populations in Poland further, more than 900 non-invasive genetic samples were collected, along with samples from 59 birds representing large, continuous populations in Sweden and Russia; and from two centres in Poland breeding capercaillie. Microsatellite polymorphism at nine loci was then analysed to estimate within-population genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among populations. The results confirmed that isolation of populations and recent decreases in their sizes have reduced genetic diversity among capercaillie in Poland, with all the country's natural populations found to be experiencing the genetic after-effects of demographic bottlenecks. The results of analyses of genetic differentiation and structure further suggest the presence of a 'lowland' cluster (encompassing birds of the Augustowska and Solska Primaeval Forests in Poland, and of Sweden and Russia), and a Carpathian cluster. Capercaillie from Sweden and Russia are also found to differ markedly. The Polish lowland populations seem more closely related to birds from Scandinavia. Our genetic analysis also indicates that the stocks at breeding centres are of a high genetic diversity effectively reflecting the origins of founder individuals, though identification of ancestry requires further study in the case of some birds. Overall, the results sustain the conclusion that the Polish populations of capercaillie from the Carpathians and the lowlands should be treated as independent Management Units (MUs). This is to say that the breeding lines associated with these two sources should be maintained separately at breeding centres. The high level of genetic differentiation of birds from the Solska Primaeval Forest suggests that this population should also be assigned the status of independent MU.

  11. Conservation genetics of the capercaillie in Poland - Delineation of conservation units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rutkowski

    Full Text Available The capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus is one of Poland's most endangered bird species, with an estimated population of 380-500 individuals in four isolated areas. To study these natural populations in Poland further, more than 900 non-invasive genetic samples were collected, along with samples from 59 birds representing large, continuous populations in Sweden and Russia; and from two centres in Poland breeding capercaillie. Microsatellite polymorphism at nine loci was then analysed to estimate within-population genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among populations. The results confirmed that isolation of populations and recent decreases in their sizes have reduced genetic diversity among capercaillie in Poland, with all the country's natural populations found to be experiencing the genetic after-effects of demographic bottlenecks. The results of analyses of genetic differentiation and structure further suggest the presence of a 'lowland' cluster (encompassing birds of the Augustowska and Solska Primaeval Forests in Poland, and of Sweden and Russia, and a Carpathian cluster. Capercaillie from Sweden and Russia are also found to differ markedly. The Polish lowland populations seem more closely related to birds from Scandinavia. Our genetic analysis also indicates that the stocks at breeding centres are of a high genetic diversity effectively reflecting the origins of founder individuals, though identification of ancestry requires further study in the case of some birds. Overall, the results sustain the conclusion that the Polish populations of capercaillie from the Carpathians and the lowlands should be treated as independent Management Units (MUs. This is to say that the breeding lines associated with these two sources should be maintained separately at breeding centres. The high level of genetic differentiation of birds from the Solska Primaeval Forest suggests that this population should also be assigned the status of independent MU.

  12. The need of developing the educational standards to stimulate entrepreneurial orientation of university students in Ukraine and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulgina Liudmila Mykhailivna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurial orientation (EO can be defined as a person’s natural tendency or attitude towards entrepreneurship. Educational support has been perceived as a determinant of EO intensification, because of equipping the students with necessary knowledge about entrepreneurship. The university education is one of the crucial determinants of EO playing a relevant role in identifying and shaping entrepreneurial features. The main aim of this article is to indicate the need of educational standards development in the area of entrepreneurship education, in order to stimulate the entrepreneurial orientation among students in Ukraine and Poland. In order to determine the current state of the issue the authors conducted a questionnaire survey among 212 students in Ukraine and Poland in 2016. The results of the research clearly research show that Ukrainian students present higher level of entrepreneurial orientation as an intent to setting up and development of the company in the future, than Polish students, and at the same time they expect less support from the university.

  13. Cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sroka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland. The starting point is the presentation of the concept of business models, which is defined as a way of doing business based on cooperation between enterprises. This paper presents two collaborative business models, namely outsourcing and alliance networks, comparing the theoretical assumptions with the results of research carried out in steel enterprises in Poland.

  14. The Impact of E-Commerce Development on the Warehouse Space Market in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembińska Izabela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of discussion in the article is the impact of e-commerce sector on the warehouse space market. On the basis of available reports, the development of e-commerce has been characterized in Poland, showing the dynamics and the type of change. The needs of e-commerce sector in the field of logistics, in particular in the area of storage, have been presented in the paper. These needs have been characterized and at the same time, how representatives of the warehouse space market are prepared to support companies in the e-commerce sector is also discussed. The considerations are illustrated by the changes that occur as a result of the development of e-commerce on the warehouse space market in Poland.

  15. China’s Trade Policy Towards Central and Eastern Europe in the 21St Century, Example of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drelich-Skulska Bogusława

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present China’s economic model and discuss, in this context, bilateral trade and investment relations between China and Poland. The analysis presented herein is based on the strategy of cooperation with countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as presented by China’s Prime Minister, and on the growing importance of Poland as a main partner of China in the Central and Eastern Europe region. The paper describes main premises of the Chinese economic model, followed by a diagnosis of Chinese economy. The authors analyze the main directions of China’s foreign cooperation, placing the emphasis on relations with Poland.

  16. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the ´Poland at CERNª exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, building 33, - the exhi...

  17. Fruits contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, M.; Michalczuk, L.; Dzieciol, U.; Bem, H.; Kusmierek, E.

    1996-01-01

    The content of Cs 137, Cs 134 and Ru 106 have been measured in samples of different fruits, mushrooms and honey taken from many farms selected at whole territory of Poland. The research has been carried out during the period of 1986-1991. The soils contamination in farms and forests area has been also done. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  18. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, b...

  19. POLAND AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, bu...

  20. The systems of automatic weight control of vehicles in the road and rail transport in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . Condition of roads in Poland, despite the on-going modernisation works is still unsatisfactory. One reason is the excessive wear caused by overloaded vehicles. This problem also applies to rail transport, although to a much lesser extent. One solution may be the system of automatic weight control of road and rail vehicles. The article describes the legal and organizational conditions of oversize vehicles inspection in Poland. Characterized current practices weighing road vehicles, based on measurements of static technology. The article includes the description of the existing applications of the automatic dynamic weighing technology, known as systems WIM (Weigh in Motion. Additionally, the weighing technology and construction of weighing stands in road and rail are characterized. The article ends with authors' conclusions indicating the direction and ways of improving the weighing control systems for vehicles.

  1. Pain symptoms of the spine and work ergonomics of people in south-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysada, Grzegorz; Leszczak, Justyna; Czenczek-Lewandowska, Ewelina; Podgórska-Bednarz, Justyna; Rykała, Justyna; Glista, Joanna; Weres, Aneta; Drużbicki, Mariusz; Michalak, Barbara; Mazur, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Pain disorders of the spine are the most common causes of appointments with physiotherapists. It has been estimated that nine out of ten adults at least once in their lifetime experience spine pains and five out of ten working people have this kind of ailments a minimum once a year. The evaluation of the occurrence of spine pains in people who are professionally active with regards to obeying the rules of work ergonomics. The research group has been composed of 100 people professionally active from south-eastern Poland. Their ages have been from 20 to 50 years (average age has been 35 years). In the research the authors' own survey and VAS scale have been used on which the surveyed person has marked the intensity of pain experience in the area of the spine. Greater pain in the spine has been experienced by people who have never obeyed the rules of, among others, manual lifting and/or carrying the maximum load, lifting and carrying heavy objects, in their work. The lowest degree of pain has been experienced by those who obeyed the above-mentioned rules. Assuming the incorrect body posture during the everyday activities and disobeying the rules of ergonomics resulting from lack of knowledge are crucial factors in the occurrence of spine pains. People who disobey rules of ergonomics experienced spine pain to a higher degree.

  2. PAYMENT INNOVATIONS IN POLAND: THE ROLE OF PAYMENT SERVICES IN THE STRATEGIES OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Polasik, Michał; Piotrowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of innovations in the area of payment services for strategies implemented by commercial banks in Poland. We propose a definition of payment innovations and present the evolution of their introduction in the Polish market, indicating the impact of legal regulations and the critical character of the new FinTech phenomenon. The analysis that we conducted was based on the results of a survey which obtained responses from 24 commercial banks representing almost...

  3. The problems of gender inequality in the printed media of Ukraine, Poland and Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Demnyk, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The problem of gender inequality have been existed during centuries and nowadays it is not less important. It becomes one of the values that are of top priority for many developed countries. The main role in decreasing the level of gender inequality plays awareness of society, that can not be achieved without the help of mass media. The paper describes the situation concerning the gender inequality problem in the printed media of Ukraine and its neighborhoods – Poland and Hungary.

  4. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Anisiewicz Renata; Palmowski Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew stea...

  5. The trace fossil Lepidenteron lewesiensis (Mantell, 1822) from the Upper Cretaceous of southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowska, Agata; Uchman, Alfred

    2013-12-01

    Jurkowska, A. and Uchman, A. 2013. The trace fossil Lepidenteron lewesiensis (Mantell, 1822) from the Upper Cretaceous of southern Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63(4), 611-623. Warszawa. Lepidenteron lewesiensis (Mantell, 1822) is an unbranched trace fossil lined with small fish scales and bones, without a constructed wall. It is characteristic of the Upper Cretaceous epicontinental, mostly marly sediments in Europe. In the Miechow Segment of the Szczecin-Miechow Synclinorium in southern Poland, it occurs in the Upper Campanian-Lower Maastrichtian deeper shelf sediments, which were deposited below wave base and are characterized by total bioturbation and a trace fossil assemblage comprising Planolites, Palaeophycus, Thalassinoides , Trichichnus, Phycosiphon, Zoophycos and Helicodromites that is typical of the transition from the distal Cruziana to the Zoophycos ichnofacies. L. lewesiensis was produced by a burrowing predator or scavenger of fishes. The tracemaker candidates could be eunicid polychaetes or anguillid fishes.

  6. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features

  7. The integration of rural regions of Ireland and Poland into the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienaber Birte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the enlargement of the European Union, Ireland is often mentioned as a key example for the Central and Eastern European countries of a successful European integration process. Thereby, the development of the complete Republic of Ireland since the EU accession in 1973 is analyzed. If you survey separately the economic and social development of urban and rural regions, it emerges that the rural regions could hardly participate in the economic success of Ireland and that disparities have increased. Many farmers are dependent on public welfare to make a living, as the Irish living costs have increased during the last years. Consequently today about one third of the Irish households live - in spite of the economic success of the Celtic Tiger - under the relative poverty line. Against the background of this depletion process, the question comes up whether Ireland can act as a paradigm for the European integration process of Poland. Looking at the initial situation of Ireland in 1973 and the current situation in Poland, several parallels exist, however, also strong distinctions. While major similarities can be determined with the agricultural structures as well as with the social value system, developments in Poland are still subject to the not yet completed transformation process from a socialist to a democratic and capitalist system.

  8. Sewage Management Changes in the North-eastern Poland After Accession to the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarżyński, Szymon; Bartkowska, Izabela

    2018-02-01

    Poland's accession to the European Union contributed to the infrastructure development of the whole country. One of the elements of the modernized infrastructure is the sewage network and facilities on this network, as well as facilities for waste water treatment and disposal of sludge. A wide stream of funds flowing to the country, and consequently also to the north-eastern polish voivodeships (Podlaskie, Warmian-Masurian, Lublin), allowed modernization, organize, and sometimes to build a new sewage management of this part of the country. The main factors and parameters that allow us to evaluate the development of the sewage management in north-eastern Poland are included: percentage of population using sewage treatment plants, number of municipal sewage plants with the division of their type, number of industrial plants, number of septic tanks, amount of sewage purified in a year, amount of sludge produced in the year, design capacity of sewage treatment plant, size of plant in population equivalent (PE). From a number of investments in the field of wastewater management carried out in the discussed area in the period after Poland's accession to the European Union, 9 investments were considered the most important, 3 from each of the voivodeships.

  9. Sewage Management Changes in the North-eastern Poland After Accession to the European Union

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    Skarżyński Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland's accession to the European Union contributed to the infrastructure development of the whole country. One of the elements of the modernized infrastructure is the sewage network and facilities on this network, as well as facilities for waste water treatment and disposal of sludge. A wide stream of funds flowing to the country, and consequently also to the north-eastern polish voivodeships (Podlaskie, Warmian-Masurian, Lublin, allowed modernization, organize, and sometimes to build a new sewage management of this part of the country. The main factors and parameters that allow us to evaluate the development of the sewage management in north-eastern Poland are included: percentage of population using sewage treatment plants, number of municipal sewage plants with the division of their type, number of industrial plants, number of septic tanks, amount of sewage purified in a year, amount of sludge produced in the year, design capacity of sewage treatment plant, size of plant in population equivalent (PE. From a number of investments in the field of wastewater management carried out in the discussed area in the period after Poland's accession to the European Union, 9 investments were considered the most important, 3 from each of the voivodeships.

  10. Possibilities for the Growth of Social Housing with the Participation of Developers in Poland

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    Antczak-Stępniak Agata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Development activity, understood as an economic activity consisting of transforming a property so as to induce an increase in value, has been expanding in Poland since the early nineties of the twentieth century. However, in this country, it is an activity associated mainly with the profit which a developer can make from the sale or rental of the transformed property. In the West, however, non-profit development activity, providing mainly housing for rent for people with limited financial resources, has become increasingly popular. Under the current institutional conditions, the growth of this type of activity in Poland seems impossible. In this situation, Social Housing Associations could play a similar role, subject to the extension of the scope of their activities and funding opportunities. Therefore, it is reasonable to put forward the thesis that, in order to make the growth of social housing in Poland more dynamic, it is necessary to expand for the range of SHA activities as well as to initiate non - profit development activity based on the model of Western countries. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the legitimacy of the presented thesis by analyzing the available literature, statistical data and case studies.

  11. EU grants in the years 2007-2013 and the health care system in Poland

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    Martyna Warchoł

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Poland has been a member of the European Union since 1 May 2004 under the Accession Treaty signed on 16 April 2003 in Athens, the legal basis for Poland's accession to the European Union. Thanks to this move we get help in the form of EU grants to improve our economy. Since then we have seen the effects of this help, such as motorways, stadiums. And what contribution does the EU have for the health of Poland? Thanks to participation in the European Union, our health care has improved. Thanks to numerous subsidies, the conditions in hospitals and outpatient clinics have improved and new medical equipment has become available. The modernization of medical rescue services, including the purchase of new emergency ambulances, the construction, reconstruction or repair of provincial emergency notification centers, will result in the reduction of mortality in emergency situations in the near future. Thanks to subsidies from the European Union, there have been many positive changes in the Polish health service. Thanks to the good use of funds, people are tested with state-of-the-art equipment by qualified medical personnel, brought by specialized ambulances to an appropriately-organized and well-equipped healthcare facility.

  12. Variability of thermal and precipitation conditions in the growing season in Poland in the years 1966-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Arkadiusz M.; Szyga-Pluta, Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the thermal and precipitation conditions and their changes in the growing season in Poland in the years 1966-2015. Data on average daily air temperature and daily precipitation totals for 30 stations from the period of 1966-2015 were used. The data were obtained from the collections of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management—National Research Institute. The growing season was defined as the period of average daily air temperature ≥ 5 °C. The mathematical formulas proposed by Gumiński (1948) were used to determine its start and end dates. In the growing season in Poland in the years 1966-2015, there were more significant changes in the thermal conditions than there were in the precipitation conditions. In terms of long-term trends over the study period, thermal conditions during the growing season are characterised by an increase in mean air temperature, an increase in the sum of air temperatures and an increasing occurrence of seasons classified as above-normal seasons. Precipitation conditions of the growing season show large temporal and spatial variations in precipitation and a predominance of normal conditions. The changes in precipitation were not statistically significant, except for Świnoujście.

  13. The PONS study and its place in the strategy of health gain in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years (1960-1990) of adult health decline, since the beginning of the political and economic transformation in the early 1990s.a dramatic reversal of health trends is being observed in Poland, In contrast, in the countries of Western Europe, a significant, steady health gain has been observed already since the end of World War II. At the beginning of the 21 st century one in three men in Poland still do not reach the age of 65, which dramatically contrasts with the one-digit premature mortality in Western Europe (EU15). In Poland very high proportion of this mortality (men ~30%, women ~15%) occur in working age population hampering social and economic development. Non-communicable diseases and risk factors (smoking, drinking, obesity) are major cause of heath inequality and contribute to poverty. This health gap, leading to an over-proportional loss of human capital in Eastern Europe, is one of the most crucial challenges for the European Union during the period of economic crisis.

  14. A hand in salvation or cool calculation? The role of the US humanitarian aid in shaping the American policy towards Poland (1956 -1965

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    Maciej STANECKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article will present the role of the humanitarian aid in the process of creating the US foreign policy. The study will examine two interesting case studies: the Polish Medical Aid Project and the creation of the American Research Hospital for Children in Poland. The work will show the most important aspects of the planning and implementation of those initiatives. This approach will be aimed at answering the title question and will try to define the extent to which the humanitarian aid offered to Poland within a certain period was a political calculation. The final analysis of the congressional hearings conducted in 1962 presents and confirms the complexity of the process of helping the “Captive Nations” in Central Eastern Europe.

  15. Poland- Ukraine Relations

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    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  16. Roles of Municipal Councils in Poland and in the Czech Republic: Factors Shaping the Roles and the Dynamic of Change

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    Katarzyna Radzik-Maruszak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Research Question (RQ: After many years of not being in vogue, the issue of representative democracy at the local level has yet again caught the scholars’ attention. The interest is related both to falling turnout in local elections, disappointment in party politics as well as to the impact of the new trends such as the strengthening of the executive power or citizens’ more direct involvement in the decision-making process. Quite often the afore-mentioned trends force local councils to redefine their roles. Purpose: The main objective of the article is to investigate the factors that shape the roles of municipal councils in two CEE countries, Poland and the Czech Republic, and to track the possible dynamic of their change. Method: The analysis conducted in the paper is grounded mainly in institutional theory. The study is based on available statistic data, examination of legal regulations, documents and information included in the corpus of selected articles and books. Results: The outcome of the analysis conducted indicates that in both countries the basic roles of councils – representative, decision - making and administrative one – are being diminished. Nevertheless, the existing institutional framework as well as reforms implemented in recent years provide potential for the development of new roles, such as the facilitator of the governing process or a network coordinator. Organization: The paper may contribute to better organisation of local administration at the municipal level. Society: The study has an impact on the understanding of representative democracy in local self-governments. Originality: The paper elaborates on representative democracy at the municipal level in Poland and the Czech Republic, countries where the discussion over this issue is still much less visible than in Western Europe. Limitations / further research: The paper should be mainly perceived as a kind of theoretical introduction to further

  17. Presentation of the Polish family in primers used in the Second Republic of Poland (in Poland between the two World Wars

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    KATARZYNA KOCHAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interwar period was a time of great significance in the history of the Polish nation. It was characterised by immense enthusiasm because of Poland's newly regained independence, however, the country wrestled with many post-partition problems. One of them was, for instance, a lack of a cohesive administration system resulting from regional administrative differences among the Polish partitioned territories. The main task for education, also in need of adjustment to the new circumstances, was to standardise its system because of the dissimilar educational procedures available in the Second Republic. The new social, political and economic situation also required up-to-date syllabuses and corresponding textbooks. Hence, 31 primers were published in the interwar period. Their reading texts dealt with various thematic fields; they were, for example, associated with the subject of the family as being close to the children's experience and feelings.The present paper aims at comparing if, and to what extent, the portraits of families presented in the primers were adequate to real models of families in the interwar Poland.

  18. Directions of development for areas with unfavourable conditions for agricultural production, an example of the podlaskie voivodeship (Poland

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    Kazimierz Niewiadomski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the directions of development of rural areas, primarily agricultural areas of the Podlaskie voivodeship, which in light of current criteria has been qualified almost entirely as problem area (ONW. Results presented are culmination of research related to issues of problem areas primarily in the area of the Podlaskie voivodeship by the author of the herewith paper during last few years. In conclusion to the results of the research it can be said that the primary direction of the development of rural areas in the Podlaskie voivodeship will be modern, large-scale farms able to adjust to current conditions, in particular environmental and soil conditions. In problem areas these will be mostly farms focusing on production of cattle and milk, developing production based on very high share of grassland areas. Complementary role in relation to conventional agriculture will be fulfilled by farms developing organic farming and agro-touristic farms. More intensive development of conventional tourism in rural areas can be expected once new tourism products and services have been developed. Assessment of the current economic development parameters of the Podlaskie voivodeship does not point at the convergence with other regions and possibility of decreasing the distance between the Podlaskie voivodeship and average results for Poland in the near future. However, some positive trends in terms of convergence with other regions in Poland can be observed in agriculture, primarily due to relatively good results in production of cattle and milk.

  19. Seismic Azimuthal Anisotropy of the Lower Paleozoic Shales in Northern Poland: can we reliably detect it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyz, Marta; Malinowski, Michał

    2017-04-01

    /condensate window. Promising results of the synthetic modelling allowed us to perform analysis on the real data: a subset (52.8 km2) of a large modern wide-azimuth 3D seismic survey from northern Poland. The seismic data were pre-stack depth migrated using full-azimuth non-sectored type migration algorithm, providing excellent input for AVAz. We perform both the classical Ruger and Fourier Coefficients AVAz. Results of the AVAz analysis of the real data correlate to some extent with the earlier VVAz results, both in terms of the anisotropy magnitude and orientation. Despite the weak anisotropy, obtained orientations are more or less consistent with the available image (XRMI) logs from the vertical wells. This work has been funded by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development within the Blue Gas project (No BG2/SHALEMECH/14). Data were provided by the PGNiG SA. We thank CGG GeoSoftware for the donation of the Hampson-Russell ProAZ software.

  20. Evaluation of the level of depression among medical students from Poland, Portugal and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seweryn, Mariusz; Tyrała, Kinga; Kolarczyk-Haczyk, Aleksandra; Bonk, Magdalena; Bulska, Weronika; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a serious illness affecting health, family and professional life of many people of all sectors of society. It also concerns students, regardless of their geographical location. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a proper tool to brief check of the level of depression because it has high correlation with depression. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the level of depression among medical students from Poland, Portugal and Germany. Students from different countries were asked to fill in an electronic form containing the BDI. The form was created separately for each country, using official translation of the BDI, approved by the competent psychiatric association. Google Drive software was used for the electronic form, and Stat soft Statistica v10 software for statistical analysis. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in terms of average score of the BDI and of the proportion of the scores more than 10 points of medical and technology students among kinds of studies and countries. The average score of the BDI of medical students: Poland: 13.76±9.99 points; Germany: 8.49±7.64 points; Portugal: 7.37±7.67 points. The average score of the BDI of technology students: Poland: 12.42±9.66 points; Germany: 10.51±8.49 points; Portugal: 9.25±8.97 points. The proportion of the scores more than 10 points of medical students: Poland 56.32% (285/506) Germany 34.92% (154/441) Portugal 26.03% (82/315). The proportion of the scores more than 10 points of technology students: Poland 55.01% (368/669) Germany 43.82% (156/356) Portugal 37.57% (136/362). The highest depression score among medical and technology students according the BDI was found in Poland. A proper monitoring of depression is required, as well as rapid and appropriate help for those who suffer from it.

  1. SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF THE SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT. AN EXAMPLE OF COASTAL DISTRICTS OF ZACHODNIOPOMORSKIE VOIVODESHIP IN POLAND

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    Maria Klonowska-Matynia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to analyse and asses spatial diversity and seasonality of unemployment rate on labour market in selected seaside districts (rural, urban and rural-urban in the Zachodniopomorskie voivodeship in Poland. The following thesis was formulated: the location of the examined districts in the coastal zone determines their nature tourism and similar behaviour in the observed seasonal unemployment changes. Seasonal changes of the monthly unemployment rate were studied in the period 2001--2012. Data from the Central Statistical Office, Regional Data Bank and the Regional Labour Office in Szczecin were used in research process. The results confirm the authors’ assumptions about a relatively high sensitivity of the surveyed markets to seasonal changes, which is determined by the tourist nature of the area of the surveyed districts. There is no reason to assess that all the coastal districts react in a similar way. It has been observed that rural markets are more sensitive to seasonal unemployment changes in relation to the urban markets.

  2. Electromagnetic study of lithospheric structure in the marginal zone of East European Craton in NW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak, Waldemar

    2013-10-01

    The marginal zone of the East European Platform, an area of key importance for our understanding of the geotectonic history of Europe, has been a challenge for geophysicists for many years. The basic research method is seismic survey, but many important data on physical properties and structure of the lithosphere may also be provided by the electromagnetic methods. In this paper, results of deep basement study by electromagnetic methods performed in Poland since the mid-1960s are presented. Over this time, several hundred long-period soundings have been executed providing an assessment of the electric conductivity distribution in the crust and upper mantle. Numerous 1D, 2D, and pseudo-3D electric conductivity models were constructed, and a new interpretation method based on Horizontal Magnetic Tensor analysis has been applied recently. The results show that the contact zone is of lithospheric discontinuity character and there are distinct differences in geoelectric structures between the Precambrian Platform, transitional zone (TESZ), and the Paleozoic Platform. The wide-spread conducting complexes in the crust with integral conductivity values reaching 10 000 S at 20-30 km depths are most spectacular. They are most likely consequences of geological processes related to Caledonian and Variscan orogenesis. The upper mantle conductivity is also variable, the thickness of high-resistive lithospheric plates ranging from 120-140 km under the Paleozoic Platform to 220-240 km under the East European Platform.

  3. Water Management in Poland

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    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  4. Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990–2012

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    Nalej Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land covers more than half the area of metropolitan areas in Poland, and is therefore particularly prone to the influences of the processes associated with their development. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in agricultural land cover within the metropolitan areas of Poland for the years 1990–2012; and to capture their dynamics, types and directions. The percentage share of the total study area, for each of the forms of agricultural land cover and their changes were traced, with the spatial distribution of the changes also being determined. The results of the study show that in metropolitan areas, agricultural land cover is undergoing transformations that do not result in the loss of agricultural lands, or that involve a decrease in surface area due to their change into anthropogenic forms of land cover. The greatest transitions occurred between 2000 and 2006 and were observed in the outer zones of metropolitan areas.

  5. Local Factors Influencing The Increase In Development Activity In Selected Cities Of Poland

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    Antczak-Stępniak Agata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development activity in Poland began to increase in the 1990's as a result of market-oriented reforms, with the process continuing to this day. The beginnings were, however, not easy due to, among others, the absence of many important legal regulations and the lack of commercial financing. The situation changed in the second half of the 1990's, positively affecting residential development activity. The years 2008 - 2009 were particularly relevant in the course of the studied trend as a sharp increase in the number of completed developer-built residential dwelling units was recorded at this time. After this period, a decline in the number of dwelling units completed by developers was recorded, which indicates its strong dependence on changes in the economic environment. Fluctuations in the number of dwelling units completed by developers were also visible before Poland's accession to the European Union. This means that the diversity of development activity is influenced by many factors.

  6. The Strongylidae belonging to Strongylus genus in horses from southeastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Studzińska, M. B.; Tomczuk, K.; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, M.; Szczepaniak, K.

    2012-01-01

    Postmortem parasitic examinations of the large intestines of 725 slaughtered horses from individual farmers in southeastern Poland were carried out. The examinations were carried out monthly since February 2006 until January 2007 (except for August 2007 because of a technological stoppage in the slaughterhouse). The examinations included the intensiveness and extensiveness of the infestation of the Strongylidae belonging to the Strongylus genus. The Strongylidae were found in 26.5 % of the ex...

  7. The Welfare of Bears in Zoos: A Case Study of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślak, Robert; Sergiel, Agnieszka; Bowles, David; Paśko, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of captive bears became a big issue of concern in Poland when a case of a bear being ill-treated became a high-profile case in the media. This case created a challenge to verify, study, and understand the main problems associated with bear keeping so that zoos could significantly improve the conditions in which they keep bears or ensure they keep bears at the minimum required standards. The results presented here are from 1 of the few countrywide studies of captive bear conditions conducted in all the captive institutions in Poland that keep bears. Thirteen institutions kept bears at the time of the study (2007-2009), including 54 individuals of 5 species. Major welfare problems were identified, and the results have been used to challenge zoos to address the changes required and focus the government's attention on areas that require legislative improvement.

  8. Recent Nitrogen Deposition In Poland Monitored With The Moss Pleurozium Schreberi

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    Kapusta Paweł

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen was determined for Poland by moss biomonitoring. Nitrogen content was measured in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid. Mitt. sampled in 2010 from 320 sites evenly distributed throughout the country. Mosses (green parts contained an average 1.56% nitrogen. The result places Poland among the European countries most polluted by airborne nitrogen. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found in mosses from the central and southern parts of the country, and the lowest in samples from some eastern and northern regions. Multiple regression showed that this variability was due mostly to nitrogen emissions from agricultural and industrial areas (moss nitrogen was positively associated with the consumption of mineral nitrogen fertilizers and the magnitude of particulate pollution. Some details of the spatial variability of the nitrogen data indicate that local and regional point sources of pollution (e.g., chemical plants played an important role in shaping the nitrogen deposition pattern

  9. Quality management system in radiotherapy in the light of regulations applicable in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The need to establish conditions for safe irradiation was noted in Poland back in 1986 in the Atomic Law, but for over 16 years no regulations regarding this aspect were passed. The radiological incident in Bialystok (Poland) in 2001 undeniably accelerated the implementation of new legal regulations. Nevertheless, in the absence of national guidelines until 2002, most health care institutions resorted to the quality management system (QMS) model proposed by the ISO norm 9001:2000. Eventually, practice proved the theory and the aforementioned model was also implemented into Polish acts of law defining basic requirements for QMS in radiotherapy. The aim of this work is to review current national regulations regarding QMS in radiotherapy, in particular those referring to standard procedures, the establishment of a commission for procedures and performance of external and internal clinical audits in oncological radiotherapy, as well as to present the process of their implementation into the practice of health care institutions. PMID:23788867

  10. Mercury in precipitation at an urbanized coastal zone of the Baltic Sea (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniewska, Dominika; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bełdowski, Jacek; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2014-11-01

    Wet deposition is an important source of metals to the sea. The temporal variability of Hg concentrations in precipitation, and the impact of air masses of different origins over the Polish coastal zone were assessed. Samples of precipitation were collected (August 2008-May 2009) at an urbanized coastal station in Poland. Hg analyses were conducted using CVAFS. These were the first measurements of Hg concentration in precipitation obtained in the Polish coastal zone. Since Poland was identified as the biggest emitter of Hg to the Baltic, these data are very important. In the heating and non-heating season, Hg concentrations in precipitation were similar. Hg wet deposition flux dominated in summer, when the production of biomass in the aquatic system was able to actively adsorb Hg. Input of metal to the sea was attributed to regional and distant sources. Maritime air masses, through transformation of Hg(0), were an essential vector of mercury in precipitation.

  11. Future industrial and municipal waste management in poland the polish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowskl, J.; Sorum, L.; Hustad, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Poland now face a very interesting discussion on modern waste treatment methods, although the waste problems are very oil. This paper presents a total waste management view from the formation process to recycling, utilisation and land filling. The average municipal solid waste (MSW) annual per capita generation in poland is 250 kg per person, which is half of the waste amount generated in norway and one third of the amount in Usa. The present low per capita generation, large variations in MSW properties and an expected growth in the standard of living make the decisions regarding future polish waste management systems very important. Waste management must be handled carefully to prevent a rapid growth of waste generation - this is the p olish challenge , both mow and for the future. Three different possibilities for future waste management systems for rural areas, small cities and larger cities are discussed in the paper. 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Institutional Change and Governance Indexes in Transition Economies: the case of Poland

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    Pasquale Tridico

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the former communist countries, institutional change, i.e. transition towards market economy, is affected not only by introduction of law and formal institutions (change "by design", but also by social norms, old values and habits (informal institutions. I present an empirical paper focusing on transition of the Polish Economy. I used a questionnaire which was administered to a sample of about 1000 Polish firms in order to verify the impact of economic institutions on the "residual productivity". Throughout the questionnaire I built six governance indexes. Then I tested the impact of the governance indexes on the productivity of firms. I observed that the economic performance of the eastern regions of Poland, where governance indexes are worse than western, are poorer than that of the western regions of Poland

  13. Scenarios for ITS telecommunications technologies development in Poland for the years 2007-2013

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    Kazimierz BARTCZAK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows four scenarios for the development of ITS communications technologies in Poland for the years 2007-2013. Global Business Network methodology is used to make up the scenarios. The basic dimensions of the scenarios are (a type of sectors in the national economy (public vs. private, (b type of communications technology (wireline vs. wireless. The scenarios present possible futures.

  14. The concept of intermodal network development in Poland using multi-agent systems

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    Leszek MINDUR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The market share and the development of intermodal haulages, they are still at a very low level. It amounts in total goods transported by rail to 2,5% - 3%. The major reason for this situation is lack of coherent method for intermodal network designing. Such method should take into consideration strong relations between transport users, transport service providers, so the micro scale, as well as the regions where they are operating, so the meta scale.The aim of this paper is to present method which makes possible elimination of existing barriers in intermodal transport. The proposed method, for the sake of relations between actors involved in intermodal transport organisation, refers to multi-agent system concept. This system assumes coordinated actions in favour of concrete problem solution with support of cooperating agents, that is, in described paper, actors connected with intermodal transport.Paper presents results of the research project N509 398536, called: „Intermodal logistics network in Poland – concept of model solutions and implementation aspects” carried out by the Institute of Logistics and Warehousing under scientific leadership of professor Leszek Mindur.

  15. Why Do Some Denizens Reject Naturalisation? The Case of Long-term Immigrants in Poland

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    Katarzyna Andrejuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses reasons and context of the decision not to naturalise, made by long-term immigrants in Poland. The text encompasses description of the legal context of naturalisation in Poland, statistical data about long-term residents from various diasporas and number of citizenship acquisitions. The article focuses on four case studies of migrants from the United Kingdom, Lithuania, Vietnam and India in order to examine and interpret the declared reasons of the lack of naturalisation. In general, three types of reasons are distinguished: psychological (lack of sufficient sense of belonging, bureaucratic (costs, length and complicated character of the procedure and legal-political (prohibition of dual citizenship in the country of origin, possession of a status of a permanent resident.

  16. Chrysophycean stomatocysts from Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko lakes in the Tatra National Park, Poland

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    Jolanta Cabała

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen chrysophycean stomatocysts are reported from the lakes Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko in the Tatra National Park, Poland. Of these, six morphotypes are new to Poland, and two morphotypes plus one forma are new to science. These stomatocysts are illustrated with SEM micrographs and described according to International Statospore Working Group (ISWG guidelines. The comparison of stomatocyst community between Morskie Oko and Żabie Oko lakes is given.

  17. Impact of FDI on the Economic Development of Serbia and Poland

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    Ranka Mitrovic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Investments are crucial for economic growth. In the contemporary environment of intensive international financial connections and with the expansion of transnational companies a substantial part of investments are made by foreign companies. Beneficial factors for foreign direct investments are natural resources, geographical position, specifics of the labour force, the technology level and other specifics for certain country conditions. The intensive globalisation process in recent decades contributed to an easier movement of capital by cutting restrictions. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of FDIs in Serbia and Poland and their role in economic growth, as well as the effects they create in local economies. This paper will show a comparative analysis between Serbia and Poland regarding the impact of FDIs on the economic development of both countries.

  18. Lichens of fruit trees in the selected locations in Podlaskie Voivodeship [North-Eastern Poland

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    Matwiejuk Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the diversity of the lichen species on fruit trees (Malus sp., Pyrus sp., Prunus sp. and Cerasus sp. growing in orchards in selected villages and towns in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Fifty-six species of lichens were found. These were dominated by common lichens found on the bark of trees growing in built-up areas with prevailing heliophilous and nitrophilous species of the genera Physcia and Phaeophyscia. A richer lichen biota is characteristic of apple trees (52 species and pear trees (36. Lichens of the apple trees constitute 78% of the biota of this phorophyte growing in the fruit orchards in Poland. Of the recorded species, only two (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea hirta are covered by partial protection in Poland.

  19. Gender Pay Gap In The Micro Level – Case Of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ryczkowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes the size of the GPG in enterprises located in Poland and with at least 10 employees. For this purpose a linear model is constructed for individual data that allows to distinguish the influence of sex, occupation and education on the earnings. That allows to explain the size of income discrepancies caused by external, objective factors and assess the magnitude of sex discrimination.

  20. Economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The World Bank is analyzing the role of economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland, in cooperation with Polish and international experts. The first stage, covering Poland as a whole, was recently completed, jointly financed with the U.S. E.P.A. and the Government of the Netherlands. The second stage, now under way, will extend the analysis into a specific regional framework. Stage 2 is financed by the World Bank, the Polish Government, and the U.K. Environment Know-How Fund. Air Pollution in Poland is overwhelmingly caused by energy production and uses, due to the fact that the Polish economy depends heavily on coal and lignite. At present, vehicles contribute less to total emissions than do coal burning and industrial processes, although they account for 25-35% of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and lead; and the concentrated in areas of high population density. The paper shows how economic, technical and meteorological modelling can be used, to reach conclusions about cost-effective strategies for the control of emissions and the improvement of ambient air quality. A simulation approach is presented, to compare alternative policy instruments, in terms of their impact on emissions and control costs for Poland as a whole. The main instruments considered are open-quotes command-and-controlclose quotes regimes (C ampersand C) and economic incentives, namely fuel taxes, emissions taxes and emissions trading. Next, the paper describes how the analysis is being extended, to link emissions with ambient air quality, using air dispersion modelling, based on a case study for Krakow. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the importance of sound economic policies for air quality management, the costs of alternative standards, C ampersand C approaches versus economic incentives, a practical strategy to develop an effective role for emissions taxes and trading, and the regional differentiation of policy instruments

  1. A betterment levy in Poland and a „fee payable to development” in the Slovak Republic – differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Król

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to compare two public levies calculated by units of territorial government in order to collect resources for infrastructure investments – a betterment levy in Poland and “a fee payable to development” (in Slovak: poplatek za rozvoj in the Slovak Republic was made in the paper. It was assumed that the pursued research objective will be realized by means of the desk research analysis as well as the descriptive and logical one. Legal acts that govern issues of calculating a betterment levy in Poland and also selected legal acts which are obligatory in the Slovak Republic were subject to the detailed analysis. In conclusion, it was revealed that in spite of the fact that both fees are single levies collected for infrastructure investments, their calculating way as well as legal construction are radically different.

  2. Determinants influencing the amount of asbestos-cement roofing in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its harmfulness to human health, asbestos has been banned in 55 countries, including the EU. In Poland, the use and production of asbestos and asbestos-containing products has been forbidden since 1997. However, there is no precise data about the amount of asbestos-containing products to be eliminated from the territory of Poland. This survey aims to identify characteristics that have a significant impact on the estimation of asbestos-containing products used in Poland. Statistical correlation between the results of the physical inventory count done in 155 municipalities was examined. As a result of the survey it was found that the amount of asbestos-cement roofing depends on the following factors: the number of individual farms in the village, the distance from the asbestos manufacturing plants, the age of the buildings and the economic situation of municipality. The results obtained may contribute to the ability to predict the amount of asbestos-containing products used in other municipalities.

  3. DNA locus HLA-DQ alpha polymorphism in human population of the north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiński, W; Skawrońska, M; Janica, J

    1996-01-01

    Investigations on DNA polymorphism locus HLA-DQ alpha were carried out on a sample of 117 adult unrelated inhabitants from the north-eastern Poland. The polymerase chain reaction and the reverse dot-blot hybridisation were employed to detect 6 different HLA-DQ alpha alleles. Population data on 20 different genotypes served as a basis for statistic evaluation. The results of genotype analysis were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Other population data were compared.

  4. Grass pollen seasons in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions

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    Dorota Myszkowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the estimation of Poaceae pollen seasons in Poland in selected areas. The aim of the study was to present the long-term variability of the start, end and duration of grass pollen seasons and the seasonal pollen index (SPI in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions over pollen seasons. The study was performed in eight Polish cities in 1992–2014 (the common seasons were 2003–2012. Pollen season start was relatively stable in the studied period, the seasons began about the 10th of May, a bit earlier in the south part of Poland. Pollen season ends were more changeable in comparison to the season start and fluctuated from the middle of July to the middle of September. SPI clearly depended on temperature and precipitation in April–August. Daily maximum pollen concentrations were achieved between the end of May and the first decade of July and no evident relationship between this day and weather conditions was found, apart from 2004.

  5. Recent upgrades and new scientific infrastructure of MARIA research reactor, Otwock-Swierk, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The MARIA reactor is open-pool type, water and beryllium moderated. It has two independent primary cooling systems: fuel and pool cooling system. Each fuel assembly is cooled down separately in pressurized channels with individual performances characterization. The fuel assemblies consist of five layers of bent plates or six concentric tubes. Currently it is one of the most powerful research reactors in Europe with operation availability at least up to 2030. Its nominal thermal power is 30 MW. It is characterized by high neutron flux density: up to 3x10 14 n cm -2 s -1 in case of thermal neutrons, and up to 2x10 13 n cm -2 s -1 in case of fast neutrons. The reactor is operated for ca. 4000 h per year. The reactor facility is equipped with fully equipped three hot cells with shielding up to 10 15 Bq. Adjacent to the reactor facility, the radio-pharmaceutics plant (POLATOM) and Material Research Laboratory are located. They are equipped with a number of hot cells with instrumentation. The transport system of radioactive materials from reactor facility to Material Research Laboratory is available. During 2014 the MARIA reactor has been operated with three different types of fuel the same time: previous 36% enriched fuel, and two types of new LEU fuels. In the meantime, molybdenum irradiation programme has been developed. Maria is a multifunctional research tool, with a notable application in production of radioisotopes, radio-pharmaceutics manufacturing (ca. 600 TBq/y), 99 Mo for medical scintigraphy (ca. 6000 TBq/y), neutron transmutation doping of silicon single crystals, wide scientific research based on neutron beams utilization. From the beginning MARIA reactor was intended for loop and fuel testing research activities. Currently it is used mostly as material testing and irradiation facility and for that reason it has wide experimental capabilities. There are eight horizontal irradiation channels from among whom six of them are equipped with instrumentation for

  6. Recent upgrades and new scientific infrastructure of MARIA research reactor, Otwock-Swierk, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The MARIA reactor is open-pool type, water and beryllium moderated. It has two independent primary cooling systems: fuel and pool cooling system. Each fuel assembly is cooled down separately in pressurized channels with individual performances characterization. The fuel assemblies consist of five layers of bent plates or six concentric tubes. Currently it is one of the most powerful research reactors in Europe with operation availability at least up to 2030. Its nominal thermal power is 30 MW. It is characterized by high neutron flux density: up to 3x10{sup 14} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in case of thermal neutrons, and up to 2x10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in case of fast neutrons. The reactor is operated for ca. 4000 h per year. The reactor facility is equipped with fully equipped three hot cells with shielding up to 10{sup 15} Bq. Adjacent to the reactor facility, the radio-pharmaceutics plant (POLATOM) and Material Research Laboratory are located. They are equipped with a number of hot cells with instrumentation. The transport system of radioactive materials from reactor facility to Material Research Laboratory is available. During 2014 the MARIA reactor has been operated with three different types of fuel the same time: previous 36% enriched fuel, and two types of new LEU fuels. In the meantime, molybdenum irradiation programme has been developed. Maria is a multifunctional research tool, with a notable application in production of radioisotopes, radio-pharmaceutics manufacturing (ca. 600 TBq/y), {sup 99}Mo for medical scintigraphy (ca. 6000 TBq/y), neutron transmutation doping of silicon single crystals, wide scientific research based on neutron beams utilization. From the beginning MARIA reactor was intended for loop and fuel testing research activities. Currently it is used mostly as material testing and irradiation facility and for that reason it has wide experimental capabilities. There are eight horizontal irradiation channels from among whom six of them

  7. Distribution, habitat affinities and phenology of the Micrargus herbigradus-species group (Araneae: Linyphiidae) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Konrad; Rozwałka, Robert; Wesołowska, Wanda

    2018-01-01

    We review the known information on the distribution and habitat affinities of the Micrargus herbigradus -species group in Poland. The analysis is based on a thorough literature survey, our own materials, and verification of some older collections. We give new diagnostic drawings and review the characters that are useful in identification of species within the group. Three species are present in Poland: M. herbigradus (Blackwall, 1854), M. apertus (O.-P. Cambridge, 1870) and M. georgescuae Millidge, 1976. The latter is recorded for the first time in the country, and we add numerous new localities for the two former species. Micrargus herbigradus is common and widespread in Poland, living in various habitats, with only a slight preference to forests. In contrast, M. apertus is widely distributed but rarely found, while its affinity to forests is the highest within the group. The records of this species are most numerous in lowland forests (up to c. 300 m a.s.l), but it can also be found at higher altitudes. M. georgescuae is found only in montane habitats, both in the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains, from above 650 m a.s.l. The adults of all three species occur the whole year round, but seem to be most abundant in May and June.

  8. Analysis of frequency and efficiency of using dribble in the European basketball championship in Poland in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was primarily aimed at detecting dribbling techniques, used in the European Championship in Poland, their frequency and efficiency. Secondary goal of the research was to explain the game of basketball in offense in a more exact way according to the analyzed technical and tactical dribbling activities. In the sample of eight games four variables were observed: time of using dribble, different starts of dribble, dribble course and dribble finish. Observation protocol was applied on each game and on each player separately. According to the acquired data it can be concluded that eight games at the 2009 European Championship in Poland were dominated by the dribbling technique which was characterized by crossover step, in which cross over dribble was most used and most frequent finish was in passing after stop. When it comes to the time of using dribble, it is evident that all the observed teams had almost the same time of using dribble, but that also the time of using dribble partly affected final placement, because the teams which used it the least played in the finals , Spain 31.28 minutes and Serbia 32.28 minutes. The team that used dribbling the least became the champion, and that was the team of Spain.

  9. The prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in SW Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Czułowska, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Ticks constitute important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides the Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis, other pathogens such as Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, are of increasing public health interest. In Poland, as in other European countries, Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species responsible for the majority of tick bites in humans, is the main vector of A. phagocytophilum. The aim of the study was to estimate the infection level of I. ricinus with A. phagocytophilum in selected districts, not previously surveyed for the presence of this agent. Sampling of questing ticks was performed in 12 forested sites, located in four districts (Legnica, Milicz, Lubań, and Oława) in SW Poland. Altogether, 792 ticks (151 females, 101 males, and 540 nymphs) representing I. ricinus were checked for the presence of A. phagocytophilum. The average infection level was 4.3%, with higher rate reported for adult ticks. The highest percentage of infected adults was observed in Milicz (17.4%) and the lowest in Oława (6.8%). The abundance of questing I. ricinus in all examined sites as well as the infection with A. phagocytophilum indicate for the first time the risk for HGA transmission in SW Poland.

  10. Implementing the Espoo Convention in transboundary EIA between Germany and Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Eike

    2008-01-01

    Poland and Germany have a long common border which leads to the necessity to cooperate and consult each other in the case of large-scale projects or infrastructure measures likely to cause negative transboundary effects on the environment. There are already binding provisions for transboundary EIA. In the area of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), transboundary EIA is intended to be legally binding for the Member States by the Espoo Convention which was ratified by Germany 8.8.2002 and by Poland 12.6.1997. Due to corresponding directives, the same is applicable in the context of the European Union. In German legislation, this issue is regulated by Art. 8 of the Federal EIA Act in regard to transboundary participation of administration and by Art. 9a in respect of transboundary public participation. However, these EIA regulations on transboundary participation do not surpass a certain detail level, as they have to be applied between Germany and all neighbouring states. Therefore both countries decided to agree on more detailed provisions in particular regarding procedural questions. During the 12th German-Polish Environmental Council, Germany and Poland reached an agreement on 11.4.2006 in Neuhardenberg/Brandenburg an agreement upon the implementation of the Espoo Convention, the so called Neuhardenberg Agreement. This article assesses the agreement under consideration of already existing law and discusses major improvements and problems

  11. External costs as a measure of environmental impact in the generation of electricity in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cel, W.; Czechowska-Kosacka, A.; Kujawska, Justyna; Wasąg, H.

    2018-05-01

    The depletion of natural resources, rising fossil fuel prices and growing environmental awareness, are leading to an increase in the popularity of renewable energy sources. In Poland, the share of energy derived from renewable sources continues to grow and now stands at 12.9% of the country’s gross electricity consumption. Energy from renewable sources in Poland is 60€ more expensive per MWh than energy from conventional sources. According to the European Climate and Energy Package, Poland is committed to increasing its share of renewable energy to 15% in 2020, and a further 5% by 2030. It is very important to ensure that the increase in the share of renewable energy will increase the price of energy for the end users. To convince the public of the need to incur greater costs in the purchase of “green” power, we should put forward arguments showing the benefits of its use. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the viability of support through a system of certification for renewable energy sources and also to estimate the potential increase in energy prices caused by raising RES contribution.

  12. Republic of Poland; Technical Note on Stress Testing the Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Technical Note discusses results of stress testing of the banking sector in Poland. The Polish banking system is well capitalized and liquid, as confirmed by stress tests results. Polish banks are, in aggregate, resilient even under severe adverse scenarios. Some small banks could fail to meet minimum regulatory capital and liquidity requirements in these scenarios, but with little impact on the overall banking system. Tests showed that only small banks, together representing up to 30 pe...

  13. Corruption in schools? The scale and sources of corruption perceptions in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Wysmułek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the scale and sources of views on the prevalence of corruption in the education sector in Poland. Through the use of public opinion surveys, I answer questions on how the corruption level in Polish educational institutions has changed over time and how it compares to other public institutions (such as the health care sector and police and to the situation in other European countries. My goal is to investigate the effect of individual-level predictors of perceiving schools as corrupt in Poland, with special attention given to structural determinants and previous bribe-giving experiences of respondents. The results reveal that in Poland relatively few respondents have experienced recent acts of giving bribes in schools or perceive educational institutions as corrupt. However, there is a structural pattern behind the sources of negative opinions. The effect of socio-economic determinants on views relating to corruption in Polish schools is strongly pronounced and trends in the opposite direction compared to the effects reported in other European countries.

  14. The collaborative economy in Poland and Europe: A tool for boosting female employment?

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    The collaborative economy is a relatively new economic approach based on peer-to-peer transactions. It includes the shared creation, production and consumption of goods and services accessible for all through online platforms and smartphone applications. It is a burgeoning business model that is experiencing increased interest in all European countries. Statistics show that Poland already has an above-average number of women who are interested in self-employment. Furthermore, formal female em...

  15. The Relationship between Organizational Learning and SME Performance in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and define dimensions of organizational learning and the way it affects small- or medium-size enterprise (SME) performance. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical research is carried out in Polish SMEs (the sample size is 211 enterprises). In order to test the constructed hypotheses we use…

  16. On the occurrence and toxicity of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in Poland

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    Rzymski Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii which belongs to the order of Nostocales has continuously been at the centre of interest of various research groups owing to its great ecological plasticity, wide distribution and potential to produce different metabolites known to be harmful for humans and animals. Over recent decades, Polish strains of C. raciborskii have also been studied with regard to these issues. The present paper is a brief review of the present state of knowledge respecting the occurrence and toxicity of this species with emphasis on Polish strains, and indicates potential directions for future research.

  17. Orphanages run by nuns in Druga Rzeczpospolita (The Second Republic of PolandPoland between 1918-1939. An outline of the history of foster care (outside the family in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDYTA BARTKOWIAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available : Child foster care organized by nuns and meant for children deprived of infamily upbringing dates back as far as the 13 century. The prototypes of orphanages run by nuns were medieval hospitals, that is care institutions for all those in need. The beginnings of care/educational work with orphaned and abandoned children are connected with the activity of The Holy Spirit de Saxia male congregation, whose members were called “duchaki” in Poland. Since the 16 century the members of the Sisters of Mercy and Sisters of Charity congregations have specialized in institutional foster care. In nationally sovereign Druga Rzeczpospolita orphanages run by nuns were numerous and they were characterized by relative financial stability, the continuity of educational processes and creativity in finding new solutions to be used in the work with the children who were cared for

  18. The system of physical education of children and youth in educational institutions of Ukraine and Poland the second half of XIX - early XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakh R.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems of development and becoming of physical education of children and young people open up in educational establishments of Ukraine and Poland. Historiography of physical culture of Ukraine and Poland is analysed. Physical education in a pedagogical idea arises up as an independent object. Physical education is examined as an inalienable constituent of harmonic development of personality. Short comparative description over of development of physical education of Ukraine is brought and to Poland in an indicated period. The state of physical education of Poland is characterized westering and east of country.

  19. LITERATURE REVIEW ON SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN POLAND

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    Agnieszka Otreba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article depicts the most important aspects of social dialogue in Poland: definitions and dimensions of the term, basic research questions, dialogue partners and factors influencing the quality of social dialogue. The potential of subsequent research issues are advocated: institutionalized forms and bottom-up models of social dialogue, public policies aiming at enhancement of the analyzed process. Moreover, the social dialogue can be treated as a public policy itself.

  20. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Jacek [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences, Energy and Environmental Policy Division, Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry, but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers. (author)

  1. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacek Kaminski [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Energy and Environmental Policy Division

    2009-03-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers. 42 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs., 1 app.

  2. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  3. The impact of liberalisation of the electricity market on the hard coal mining sector in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity market changed the conditions of operation not only for the power industry, but also for related sectors. One of the particularly sensitive industries in Poland is coal mining, which is the result of coal-based structure of electricity generation. As it is more difficult, in the liberalised market, to burden consumers with all the costs, electricity producers are eager to transfer the risk of operation to the suppliers. That increases uncertainty about the future of the hard coal industry. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively estimate the impact that liberalisation of the electricity markets may have on the coal mining sector in Poland. First of all, the possible areas of that impact were identified. Then the model, which involved detailed relations in the impact areas identified, was developed and employed to evaluate the performance of the mining sector. The comparison of scenarios of a monopolistic electricity sector with a liberalised one enabled an estimation of the scale of the impact on the mining sector to be made. The results showed that liberalisation causes decreased coal consumption and decreased operating profits in coal companies. However, some savings in electricity costs are possible for coal producers. (author)

  4. Risk factors for diseases of the cardiovascular system among Catholics living in areas of southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Majda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are the most frequent cause of mortality of Polish residents. In Poland, there are few publications regarding research on the influence of people’s religiosity on their health. Aim of the research : To determine some factors of cardiovascular risk and the risk of cardiovascular events among Catholics. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 134 randomly selected Catholics and based on the results of: questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, physical examination, the SCORE scale, laboratory tests (CRP, homocysteine. glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides and assessing the risk of cardiovascular events based on the SCORE scale. Statistical analysis was based on the χ 2 test. Founded significance level was 0.05. Results: More than half of the respondents were diagnosed delevated homocysteine level and gluteal-femoral obesity. A little more than half of those surveyed had elevated total cholesterol levels and increased blood pressure, a little more than one-quarter of the respondents had raised triglyceride levels, and one-tenth had heightened glucose and C-reactive protein levels. The higher the age of the respondents, the more often the results of their biochemical exceed standards. Over half of those examined were diagnosed with overweight or obesity. Among examined gynoid obesity prevailed over android obesity. The risk assessment of CVD Catholics revealed that among the modifiable factors, biochemical levels of homocysteine proved to be the most important new risk factor, but among the classic factors it was blood pressure value. More than half of the respondents had moderate risk of cardiovascular events in the study group. Conclusions : Nurses should promote pro-health attitudes, and should encourage the elimination of risk factors and biochemical testing and measurement among Catholics, who are a religious group at higher risk of cardiovascular

  5. Economic condition of the transport, freight forwarding and logistics sector in Poland in the situation of the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently trends of macroeconomic indicators show that economy in Poland, despite the general recession in the EU, is in the stage of economic development. The question is 20 Ryszard Rolbiecki whether these positive signals in the Polish economy in relation to domestic demand, external investment, volume of industrial production and construction are reflected also in the improvement of economic situation in Transport, Freight Forwarding and Logistics (TFL sector in Poland. Hence the goal of the article is to analyze the economic condition of the TFL sector, which is recognized as one of the most important barometers of the economic growth.

  6. On environmental problems in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, H.; Kenez, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains articles by five authors on the following subjects: General literature in German and Polish language on environmental problems in Poland; legal issues of environmental protection - laws for the protection and development of the environment; environmental health hazards - hazards at work; protection of the sea environment in the region of the Baltic Sea - pollution of the Baltic Sea; the water situation in Poland - the large-scale project 'Weichsel 2000'; the ecological situation of the lakes of Masovia; air pollution and its effects - the dying of Silesian forests; Chernobyl and the Polish reaction; the 27 ecologically endangered areas in Poland. (HSCH) [de

  7. POLAND IN AND OUTSIDE THE EURO ZONE – RISKS AND BENEFITS IN THE LIGHT OF NEW POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dobrowolski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the benefits and risks of Poland adopting the euro in the light of current political and economic conditions. For this purpose, the following research methods were used: literature research, intuitive method and descriptive statistics. Poland has fulfilled the criteria for nominal convergence for two years, apart from participating in the ERM II mechanism, but the political situation in the country precludes the adoption of measures leading to the euro zone. The future shape of this zone is yet unknown, as its closer integration is planned. Theoretical analysis indicates that the process of globalization makes it difficult for medium-sized, open-economy countries to pursue autonomous monetary and exchange rate policy, so the loss of these instruments after the adoption of the euro should not jeopardize long-term economic growth, even in the case of asymmetric shocks. The market mechanisms of restoring the balance and fiscal policy may then be used. The economy will also benefit from the elimination of transaction costs and exchange rate risks in the euro zone. The analysis shows that it is possible to use the opportunity for faster GDP growth associated with the adoption of the common currency if the right economic policy is pursued. Adopting the euro may also incur costs. For banks it can be the loss of foreign exchange earnings and commissions on FX hedge transactions. For the economy it can be the possibility of speculative bubbles, as a result of excessive consumption growth, caused by possibly too low interest rates. Expected benefits should, however, outweigh any losses.

  8. Floristic Diversity of Lakes Subjected to Long Term Changes in the Water Network of the West Polesie (Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sender Joanna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Wieprz-Krzna Canal, built in 1961, is one of the longest in Poland (142 km. Although the drainage construction was intended to revitalize the region of wetlands and peat-bogs of the West Polesie, it caused large hydrological changes. Research on catchments of three natural lakes and three retention reservoirs involved cartographic analysis using photointerpretation, as well as the Braun-Blanquet method. In the studied area, between 1939 and 2016 the length of rivers and ditches increased more than three times. Macrophytes covered about 20-27% of the natural lakes water surface, whereas in retention reservoirs the coverage was 12-15.5%. Also a greater diversity of macrophytes occurred in natural lakes. In retention reservoirs it was restricted to only emerged macrophytes.

  9. Trends in the Production of Castings in the World and in Poland in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soiński M.S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data concerning the total production of castings over the 2000-2014 period, both on a global scale, and in Poland. The basic types of casting alloys were taken into account. Changes in the production volume and structure over the period of the analysed 15 years were pointed out with respect to countries leading in foundry production. The topmost position in the world foundry industry is held by China for several years (with almost 45% share in the foundry market, the second place is taken by India (with almost 9% share. A distinct reduction in the shares of the once significant producers of castings, such as USA, Japan, Germany, Russia, Italy, or France, was observed over the 2000-2014 period. Poland had a share of 1.16% in 2000, and of 1.02% in 2014. Comparing the detailed data concerning the years 2000 and 2014, one can see that the fractions of castings made of ductile iron, cast steel, aluminium alloys, or magnesium alloys increase on a global scale, while such alloys as grey cast iron or malleable are in decline.

  10. Sulphate sulphur concentration in vegetable crops, soil and ground water in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from Plock oil refinery (central Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikula, W.

    1995-01-01

    Research was carried out in 1984-1990 in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from one of the greatest oil refineries in Europe (Plock, central Poland). The sulphate sulphur concentration in the vegetable crops (red beet, carrot, parsley, bean, cabbage and dill), the soil and in ground water was defined in selected allotment gardens of Plock city and in a household garden located in the rural area about 25 km from the town. The highest amount of sulphur was found in the vegetable crops cultivated in the garden situated in the closest vicinity of the refinery. Sulphate sulphur contents harmful for plants (above 0.50 per cent d.m.) were noted in cabbage and carrot leaves in almost all the gardens (except one). The soil in all examined gardens was characterised by high sulphate sulphur concentration, which considerably exceeds the maximum amount admissible for light soil in Poland, i.e. 0.004 per cent d.m. The sulphate sulphur concentration in ground water in all the gardens exceeded the highest permissible content in drinking water in Poland. The sulphate sulphur content in the soil and ground water was not significantly dependent on the garden's distance from the refinery. Generally, the above normal sulphate sulphur concentrations occurred quite universally in the examined region and they concerned all the considered environmental components (vegetable crops, soil, ground water) and all the gardens. 22 refs., 6 tabs

  11. The influence of brown coal exploitation in Poland on the groundwater pollution as determined by isotopic analyses of sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halas, S.; Trembaczowski, A.; Soltyk, W.

    1998-01-01

    This research deals with pollution impact on natural water resources in the industrial area of Belchatow, central Poland, where a large brown coal deposit is exploited and the coal is burned in an electric power plant. To trace the sources of groundwater pollutants the stable isotope analysis of oxygen and sulphur in sulphates was applied. The mass-spectrometric analysis was performed on SO 4 2- samples from numerous wells and piezometres in the excavation area. By repetitive sampling performed in November 1994, May 1995 and December 1996 significant changes of SO 4 2- concentration and sulphur and oxygen isotopic ratios in several sites were recorded. The interpretation of isotope ratios allowed us to recognize three groups of sulphates: (1) from the leaching of Permian salt dome, (2) produced by the leaching of soluble sulphates from an ash pool and (3) produced by oxidation of natural sulphides in water-bearing rocks. (author)

  12. Measurements of radioactivity in Warsaw, Poland, during the year 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepke, R; Gorberg, Z; Deszczak, T; Dabrowska, K; Klimaszewska, E

    1960-03-01

    The report deals with regular surveys that have been carried out on air, fall-out, rain-, ground-, tap-, river-, and waste-water in the Institute of Nuclear Research. In addition, strontium-90 in a number of samples of fall-out and milk has been determined. The results, 1027, are given in tables and plotted against time. 10 references, 3 figures, 20 tables.

  13. The Corporate Real Estate Market in Public Statistics in Poland

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    Konowalczuk Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical considerations regarding the needs and criteria of creating ownership divisions of real estate markets for the purpose of public surveys and research. The scope of necessary changes to the collection of information in public registers and institutional conditions is indicated, as a necessary aspect towards enabling separate studies for corporate real estate to be conducted. Study results comparing the basic parameters of the real estate market in the Silesian voivodeship (Silesia province in 2004-2012, as per the Central Statistical Office (CSO annual reports, are also presented, as are the results of an analysis of data collected from a database of appraisers and valuers. The market parameters adopted for comparison have in both cases been developed based on the same source data obtained from public documents of the Registers of Real Estate Prices and Values (RREPV. The article presents the detailed results of own research on the real estate market in the Silesian voivodeship for 2012, with regards to the amount of real estate, the transaction values, the area of properties, and selected averages with regards to property type in line with those used in CSO studies. Also included is an assessment of the completeness of the market data presented by the CSO, taking into account the selected types of real estate. This paper also indicates the results of a pilot survey study of office workers of the RREPV in poviat (district council offices. The comparison of the regional real estate market forms a basis for the critical evaluation of the categories of real estate used in official statistics and selected forms of real estate turnover. Proposals regarding the needs and conditions that must be met in order to enable research on the corporate real estate market have also been formulated.

  14. The radiocarbon dating of the neolithic flint mines at Krzemionki in central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babel, J.; Braziewicz, J.; JaskoIa, M.; Kretschmer, W.; Pajek, M.; Semaniak, J.; Scharf, A.; Uhl, T.

    2005-01-01

    Ten samples taken from wooden torches and small fireplaces discovered at the Krzemionki neolithic flint mine localized in central Poland were dated using the AMS facility at Erlangen University. The radiocarbon results points two main periods of exploitation of studied mines, i.e. approximately to 3500-3100 BC and to 3100-2900 BC. The results are discussed in the aspect of the mine chronology. The new radiocarbon dates confirm the previous radiocarbon data obtained from other mine units in this part of the Krzemionki mine complex

  15. Pollution problems plague Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsarowicz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Poland's environmental problems are said to stem from investments in heavy industries that require enormous quantities of power and from the exploitation of two key natural resources: coal and sulfur. Air and water pollution problems and related public health problems are discussed

  16. Developing the Model for the GIS Applications in National Hydro-Meteorological Service in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubacka, D.; Barszczynska, M.; Madej, P.

    2003-04-01

    Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) manages the national hydrological-meteorological service, the task of which is to maintain the network of stations, process data, as well issue warnings, reports and announcements. There are 5 divisions of IMWM scattered all over Poland. Each division includes numerous stations and the scientific-research departments. The data gathered, processed and analysed in IMWM are space-related, therefore spatial information systems are indispensable for its processing and visualisation. The project of GIS application in (IMWM) will be discussed in the presentation. With the divisions being so dispersed, numerous and heterogeneous in structure, GIS implementation is very complicated. On the one hand GIS should enable advanced spatial analyses to be carried out by the research, as well as data processing departments. On the other hand, it should provide passive access to a limited scope of information (e.g. for outside customers). Need analysis was carried out first. It resulted in proposals concerning the content of shared resources of geometrical data and connections with attribute data, as well as in proposals of GIS use in routine works. A model was prepared using various types of GIS software depending on the requirements of each division. It is based on standard solutions involving professional GIS, desktop GIS and simple tools for data presentation. In some departments the specialised software had to be taken into account (e.g. satellite data processing). It is necessary to develop and implement dedicated research methods for some individual tasks. The analysis of mapping requirements showed that there is a need to prepare thematic maps at least at two levels of detail. Presently, the works are concentrated on assembling thematic layers for a general map (at 1: 500000 scale) sufficient for many applications, including data visualisation in the Internet and IMWM publications, as well as the tool for measurements and

  17. Innovativeness of Enterprises in Poland in the Regional Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Golejewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The artcle examines the innovatveness of enterprises in 69 Polish NUTS3 sub-regions in 2014. The analysis is based on unpublished regional data from the Polish Central Statstcal Ofce covering the following variables: the share of enterprises which have incurred outlays for innovatve actvites, the share of enterprises implementng process or product innovatons, the share of companies collaboratng in the feld of innovaton, and the share of new or modernized products in total producton sold in industrial companies. The analysis focuses on building rankings and cluster analysis of NUTS3 regions. As research methods, the author uses selected methods of multdimensional comparatve analysis, principal component analysis and the hierarchical Ward’s method. The results show that there are substantal differences among NUTS3 sub-regions as regards innovatveness of enterprises. The low level of cooperaton does not foster innovaton. Innovaton outputs of enterprises are also unsatsfactory. The highest variaton is seen in the share of new or modernized products in total producton sold in industrial companies. The fnal effect of the cluster analysis is the division of regions into 7 groups. In the case of units where innovaton inputs are not reflected in innovaton outputs, it would be useful to explore regional and local factors influencing those relatons. Further research is stll needed.

  18. AGRICULTURAL TAX SYSTEM IN POLAND AND DIRECTIONS OF THE CHANGES

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    Marzena Malewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A research problem taken in the article is a question, whether legal solutions applied in the Polish system of the taxation of agriculture have an appropriate shape and whether this system is optimal? If not, what are possible options of changes and whether the in-come tax is good for agricultural activities. A method of analysis of secondary sources was used in order to solve the research problem. Required data was taken from the base of the Główny Urząd Statystyczny and scientific publications of the publishing universi-ty. In the article were formulated the following hypotheses: 1.\tThe system of the taxation of agriculture is different than other existing Polish law and it is regarded as unfair in relation to other social groups. 2.\tChanging the tax system in agriculture is necessary and would lead to positive chang-es in the structure of agriculture. 3.\tThe reform of the taxation system of agricultural production is in many aspects neces-sary and beneficial, but it should nevertheless take into account the specificities of the agricultural activity. 4.\tThe introduction of the income tax has its bad side and carries the disadvantages for both farmers and municipalities.

  19. The prospects for limiting emissions from road transport: a case study for the Middle Odra and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, Maciej; Dzikuć, Maria

    2018-02-01

    The article presents selected aspects related to emissions that arise during road transport. These impurities are an important component of low emission, which is generated at a height of up to 40 m from the ground level. Low emission in the Middle Odra Region and throughout Poland is a serious problem. Low emission has a significant share in total emissions in Poland, where the air is one of the worst in the EU. The problem of low emission concerns not only highly urbanized areas, but also places where the industry is less developed and the number of inhabitants falling on average per square kilometre is less than in the rest of Poland. An example of such an area is the Middle Odra, which additionally features the highest forest cover in the country (more than 50%). The paper highlights the main causes of road transport emissions and points out the need to take action that can significantly help reduce this phenomenon.

  20. The current state of the creation and modernization of national geodetic and cartographic resources in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doskocz Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All official data are currently integrated and harmonized in a spatial reference system. This paper outlines a national geodetic and cartographic resources in Poland. The national geodetic and cartographic resources are an important part of the spatial information infrastructure in the European Community. They also provide reference data for other resources of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI, including: main and detailed geodetic control networks, base maps, land and buildings registries, geodetic registries of utilities and topographic maps. This paper presents methods of producing digital map data and technical standards for field surveys, and in addition paper also presents some aspects of building Global and Regional SDI.

  1. Classification of labour markets in the Silesian Province (Poland

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    Sitek Sławomir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to try to classify labour markets of the Silesian Province on the municipality level. The proposed solution of grouping labour markets is based on three criteria: the size of the labour market measured by a number of jobs, the weight of the labour market expressed with a proportion of the number of jobs to the size of the population and that scale of the impact that is a proportion of the commuters to the ones leaving for work. As a result of the assumed criteria the municipalities have been grouped according to their meaning on the labour market, at the same time identifying weaker and stronger labour markets. The first stage of the research was to divide the municipal labour markets according to the number of the employed. As a result territorial units were grouped into 4 classes (small, medium, big and huge including in total 9 subclasses. Then the municipal labour markets were sorted according to their weight and the scale of their impact, verifying their position in this way. The research pointed out that a lot of labour markets in the Katowice conurbation showed lower levels than the assumptions. Consequently, it suggests polarization of the labour market of this urban unit that is mainly focused on Katowice and Gliwice. Higher parameters than the assumed ones were reached by several municipalities that are small or medium labour markets. In many cases these are municipalities where there are huge businesses connected with coal mining. A beneficial situation was noted in the southern part of the province that has a relatively steady situation on the labour market. The presented classification of labour markets can support the management process of local and regional development.

  2. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part II. Science, research, development, higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    Electronics is under development in this country in an organized and institutional way since the beginning of 30-ties of the previous century. It grew up from electrical engineering of weak currents and its first name used popularly was communications. It was time when television was born and the radio was maturing. Electronics is a branch of research and technology which deals with generation and processing of electrical and electromagnetic signals. A subject of telecommunications is signal transmission for a distance. Electronics and telecommunications (ET) includes or is combined with other branches like: microelectronics, radioelectronics, optoelectronics, photonics, acoustoelectronics, magnetronics, bioelectronics, energoelectronics, material engineering, semiconductor physics, automation and robotics, mechatronics and microsystems, informatics, teleinformatics, software engineering and other. Devices and functional systems of ET such as computers, data warehouses, cell phones, TV sets, Internet, GPS are build of electronic components and circuits. ET is a branch which belongs to hi-tech area, where the products gather a large load of knowledge of value overcoming frequently the price of work and material. ET has recently turned to an active participant of the processes of generation, storing, processing, transportation, distribution and usage of knowledge in the society. ET started to create artificial intelligence, co-creates intellectual property, searches for knowledge in big data sets, aids medicine, extends virtual/augmented reality, builds Internet of persons and things, strengthens security, protects natural environment, facilitates our life, aids our decisions, activates individuals, equalizes chances, provides convenient personal communications and access to data, starts building a penetrating ubiquitous infrastructure, ceases to be only a branch of technology, grows into the social space, touches culture, sociology, psychology and art. Such an

  3. Pregnant and active – suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland

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    Justyna Krzepota

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background . The issue of physical activity of pregnant women, including determining proper recommendations, has been a broadly discussed topic in international circles. Objectives. The aim of this paper is to present the suitability of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ for measuring the physical activity of pregnant women in Poland. Material and methods . The study included 162 questionnaires, which were filled in correctly by pregnant women (third trimester who took part in childbirth classes organized by a childbirth school. As a research method, the PPAQ was chosen. The PPAQ allows pregnant women to self-assess their physical activity in the current trimester. The questions investigated time devoted to various types of activity related to household/caregiving, transportation, sports/exercise in their free time, occupational activity and inactivity. Based on the average weekly energy expenditure, each of these activities is classified by intensity: sedentary activity, light-intensity activity, moderate-intensity activity, vigorous-intensity activity. Results . While using the PPAQ in Poland, it is recommended to reduce the number of questions from 36 to 35, by removing question 18 (time of mowing lawn while on a riding mower. It is also advisable to convert American units of measurement into metric units, which are used in Poland. Conclusions . The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire in Poland may fill the gap in studies devoted to the physical activity of pregnant Polish women. With this questionnaire, it is possible to determine energy expenditure in terms of intensity and type of physical activity. It also serves as a reliable tool that can be used for international comparisons.

  4. Neutronic feasibility studies using U-Mo dispersion fuel (9 Wt % Mo, 5.0 gU/cm3) for LEU conversion of the MARIA (Poland), IR-8 (Russia), and WWR-SM (Uzbekistan) research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Deen, J.R.; Hanan, N.A.; Matos, E.

    2000-01-01

    U-Mo alloys dispersed in an Al matrix offer the potential for high-density uranium fuels needed for the LEU conversion of many research reactors. On-going fuel qualification tests by the US RERTR Program show good irradiation properties of U-Mo alloy dispersion fuel containing 7-10 weight percent molybdenum. For the neutronic studies in this paper the alloy was assumed to contain 9 wt % Mo (U-9Mo) with a uranium density in the fuel meat of 5.00 gU/cm 3 which corresponds to 32.5 volume % U-9Mo. Fuels containing U-9Mo have been used in Russian reactors since the 1950's. For the three research reactors analyzed here, LEU fuel element thicknesses are the same as those for the Russian-fabricated HEU reference fuel elements. Relative to the reference fuels containing 80-90% enriched uranium, LEU U-9Mo Al-dispersion fuel with 5.00 gU/cm 3 doubles the cycle length of the MARIA reactor and increases the IR-8 cycle length by about 11%. For the WWR-SM reactor, the cycle length, and thus the number of fuel assemblies used per year, is nearly unchanged. To match the cycle length of the 36% enriched fuel currently used in the WWR-SM reactor will require a uranium density in the LEU U-9Mo Al-dispersion fuel of about 5.4 gU/cm 3 . The 5.00 gU/cm 3 LEU fuel causes thermal neutron fluxes in water holes near the edge of the core to decrease by (6-8)% for all three reactors. (author)

  5. Contribution to the lichen biota of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its adjacent area (Lower Silesia, southwestern Poland

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    Edyta Kaźmierska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of lichenological investigations conducted in the eastern part of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its buffer zone (Barycz Valley, southwestern Poland. The study area is a famous waterfowl refuge, consisting of several fishpond complexes, together with adjacent forests, meadows, and villages. In total 72 lichen taxa were recorded, growing on bark and branches of trees and shrubs, stumps, wood, soil, and anthropogenic rock substrates (mortar, concrete, bricks, etc.. Six species, namely Evernia prunastri, Flavoparmelia caperata, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia distorta, and Pleurosticta acetabulum, are threatened in Poland. As represented by single young thalli, they indicate the recent improvement of environmental conditions. The lichen biota of the study area is typical for the lowland regions of western and southwestern Poland.

  6. Bio-monitoring of the most industrialized area in Poland: Trees' response to climate and anthropogenic environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Piotrowska, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    rhythm between the studied populations of incremental growth of pines. The carbon isotope discrimination has been proposed as a method for evaluating a decrease in the total amount of atmospheric 13C and 14C that has been caused by fossil-fuel burning (Suess effect) and the ratio between CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance (water use efficiency). In the period of time from 1975 and 2012, Δ14C indicates the presence of local Suess effect. In the period of time prior to 2000, a decrease in conductivity of stomata was associated with a minor changes in photosynthesis net and that elevated CO2 increased intrinsic water use efficiency (approx. by 40%). The usage of carbon isotopes data provides historical records of anthropogenic impact on the environment and allows to identify the behaviour adaptation to the contamination. This project was funded by the National Science Centre allocated on the basis of the decision number DEC-2011/03/D/ST10/05251. This publication is supported under the grant rector in research and development. Silesian University of Technology, grant number 14/990/RGJ17/0077. References: B. Sensula 2016.δ13C and water use efficiency in the glucose of annual pine tree rings as ecological indicators of the forests in the most industrialized part of Poland. Water Air Soil Pollut. B. Sensula 2016.The impact of climate, sulfur dioxide, and industrial dust on δ18O and δ13C in glucose from pine tree rings growing in an industrialized area in the southern part of Poland Water Air Soil Pollut. B. Sensuła, S. Wilczyński, M. Opała. 2015. Tree growth and climate relationship: dynamics of scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) growing in the near-source region of the combined heat and power plant during the development of the pro-ecological strategy in Poland. Water Air Soil Pollut. B. Sensula 2015. Spatial and short-temporal variability of δ13C and δ15N and water-use efficiency in pine needles of the three forests along the most industrialized part of Poland

  7. Productivity and efficiency of economic activity of the Lower Silesia's large area farms in comparison with other large area farms in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Minta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows economical and financial situation of the agricultural companies which have most of the grounds in lease. Analysed objects were settled on Lower Silesia (the province in the south – west Poland. The main part of the results of research was about productivity and efficiency of economic resources in these objects. The research was made in years 2000-2002. The results of research in analyzed Lower Silesia’s companies were compared with the best Polish large area farms in order of law and organisation forms: leased farms, private farms and partnerships of Polish public agency AWRSP.

  8. THE SCIENCE OF SCIENCE (NAUKOZNAWSTWO) IN POLAND: THE CHANGING THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS--A HISTORICAL SKETCH FROM THE 1910S TO 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokowski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The article sketches the history of naukoznawstwo (literally meaning the science connoisseurship or the science of science or science studies) in Poland from the 1910s to the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. It outlines the changing research perspectives of this interdisciplinary field of knowledge in Poland against a background of changing political conditions caused by the reconfigurations of the political order. The first part of the article concerns the period from the 1910s, when Poland was occupied by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, through the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918, the reconstruction of the state in 1918-1939; the second part--World War II; the third part--the period from the initial period of Soviet dominance (1944-1954) in Poland and simultaneously the beginnings of the Cold War (1947-1954), the period 1955-1956 (when the Polish state was liberated from Sovietization), through the different political crises in October 1956, March 1968, December 1970, and June 1976, to the emergence of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity in September 1980, the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. The article outlines the fundamental achievements of prominent Polish scholars (among others K. Twardowski, M. Ossowska, S. Ossowski, T. Kotarbiński, K. Ajdukiewicz, S. Michalski, F. Znaniecki, B. Suchodolski, L. Fleck, M. Choynowski, Z. Modzelewski, S. Amsterdamski), politicians (among others B. Bierut, E. Krasowska), politicians and scholars (H. Jabłoński, S. Kulczyński), as well as committees (among others the Academic Section of the Józef Mianowski Fund, The Science of Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences), schools of thought (among others the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy), and academic units (among others the Science of Science Seminar in Kraków, the Department for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish

  9. Financial Dilemmas Associated with the Afforestation of Low-Productivity Farmland in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Źróbek-Różańska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, 82% of forests are State-owned, and only 17% of forests constitute private property. Each year, forests are converted to other land-use types, mainly for road construction. The afforestation rate on privately-owned low-productivity land is decreasing steadily. The owners and perpetual usufructuaries of this kind of land are eligible to government subsidies to cover establishment expenditures in whole or in part, provided that the afforestation scheme complies with the local zoning plan or an outline planning permission. The above creates a dilemma for farmers—is this a profitable option of managing low-productivity land? Owners of small farms particularly often face such dilemmas. Owners of small farms, which consist of low-yield agricultural land, can be regarded as investors operating on the real estate market, but those investors have features characteristic of agricultural producers. This study relied on the net present value (NPV criterion, which is popularly used to assess the effectiveness of investments on the real estate market. A financial feasibility assessment performed with the use of such method in view of afforestation statistics and the 5% discount rate on the Polish forest market revealed the highest increase in net cumulative cash flows in the first five years, followed by a gradual decrease in successive years. The first negative cash flow was reported in year 20. NPV would remain negative because farmers would be charged with periodic maintenance expenditures until the stand reaches harvestable age at approximately 40 years. The longer the investment period, the lower the profits, even if discount rate is excluded. Investments of the type are difficult to terminate because forests younger than 20 years are difficult to sell at a price that covers growing outflows. Afforestation projects are also influenced by other economic and non-economic factors. The paper validates the research hypothesis that afforestation

  10. An Internationally Competitive Economy: a Comparison of Poland and the Visegrad Group Countries in the Post‑Accession Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molendowski Edward

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an analysis comparing the competitive position of Poland and other countries of the Visegrad Group (V4 in the post‑accession period (2004-2015. The assumption is that among the V4 countries, Poland has joined those countries where the diverse effects of EU membership are clearly visible. In the study, analysis was applied to secondary data pertaining to pillars of economic competitiveness, as determined by the ‘Global Competitiveness Reports’ prepared by the World Economic Forum. The article ends with a list of vital conclusions based on the presented analysis.

  11. Air protection programmes in Poland in the context of the low emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Janusz; Piwowar, Arkadiusz; Dzikuć, Maciej

    2017-07-01

    The protection of the air against pollutants from individual boiler plants is a big challenge in Poland. It results mainly from the preference for coal, the national energy carrier, the use of old low-efficiency boilers and the location of Poland in a temperate climate where the heating period lasts at least 5 months. This article presents a wide range of activities aimed at the reduction of the environmental impact of the emissions of pollutants from individual heat sources-the so-called low emission. The article presents the extent of the national legislation resulting from the European Union regulations. It discusses the assumptions of the air protection programmes (APPs) and the low emission reduction programmes (LERPs). The assumptions mentioned above are analysed as part of a life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis and a multi-criterion analysis. An important result of these analyses (in the Polish conditions) is the conclusion that a boiler fired with large pieces of wood is an optimal solution from the economic and ecological points of view. The article proposes systemic, organisational and legislative solutions whose implementation could contribute to raising the effectiveness of the protection of the atmosphere.

  12. How much energy in energy policy? The media on energy problems in developing countries (with the example of Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Świątkiewicz-Mośny, Maria; Wagner, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the media discussion of the energy crisis with a focus on presentation of energy policy in Poland. The results of the research presented in the paper illustrate how the media in developing countries legitimate energy policy and the activities of politicians and other decision makers in the energy sector. The topic of environmental impact or renewable resources is hardly presented in the analysed media coverage, and information about national energy pricing is spread widely. At the same time, the nationwide mass media do not refer to the domestic sector presenting energy problems at an abstract macro social level. Instead of shaping social knowledge, and conscious of such issues as energy supply and efficiency potential in households, the media construct self-referential communication in each of the fields (politics, technology, the economy). Based on Habermas’s distinction between the system and lifeworld, and the assumption that the media both construct and reproduce knowledge about the world, we have attempted to reconstruct the media discourse in the chosen area. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Polish press allowed us to reconstruct the narrative on the subject of the energy crisis. The results could be the basis for critical revision of communication strategies in the energy sector, especially questioning the problem of its efficiency and mutual understanding between different actors. - Highlights: ► We present the results of media discourse analyses on energy crisis in Poland. ► We find supremacy of political and economical perspectives.► Nationwide mass media present energy problem on abstractive macro- social level. ► There are no reference to domestic sector and renewable energy topic is hardly presented. ► Self- referential discourse generates risk of mutual misunderstanding between different actors of social life.

  13. Commercial Function as a Treat to the Monument - 25 Years of Experience in the Commercialization of Monuments in Gdansk, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczyk – Piatkowska, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    The principles of the market economy adopted in Poland in the nineties have significantly touched the resources of immovable monuments. As a result, monuments have become a product of culture subject to the rules of the free market; and state ownership, patronage and decision-making practice has now been replaced by private interest. Practical monument use has also changed with the shift in ownership of objects after privatization and further advances in technology and the economy. Accordingly, the subject of this research addresses the issue of ensuring protection as well as the profitability of monumental objects of heritage under private investment in association with municipal and state ownership. The nineties of the twentieth century in Poland marked a period of rapid revival in trade based on market principles and openness to contemporary global trends in the design of commercial facilities. Thus, commercial function as a new use has been used for the commercialization of the monument. After 25 years of experience, it turns out that this new use may pose a threat to the conditions of monument preservation. The spatial and location specifics of the monument are poorly matched to the organizational form of trade and product range, despite the huge variety of these forms; the result is bankruptcy of the commercial operation and the consequent loss of use for the monument. Unused objects will eventually be destroyed. Studies have shown that functions supporting the creation of culture, especially museums, are optimal for the use of monuments. The museum function provides sufficiently high prestige and spatial stability, and allows for the maximum preservation of authentic elements, thus performing an additional role as museum piece.

  14. Notes on some noteworthy lichens and allied fungi found in the Białowieza primeval forest in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukwa, M.; Schiefelbein, U.; Czarnota, P.; Halda, J.; Kubiak, D.; Palice, Zdeněk; Naczk, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2008), s. 1-11 ISSN 0862-8904 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600050635 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : lichen diversity * Bialovieza NP * NE Poland Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  15. The costs and risk of introduction of the euro in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Kozakiewicz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On the 1st of May 2004, Poland became a member state of the European Union. At the moment, it doesn’t fulfill the convergence criteria required for the introduction of the euro, but will have to adapt in the future. The aim of this article is to identify potential risks and economic costs that could occur due to Poland’s integration with the eurozone. The joining country loses the ability to run an autonomous monetary policy. The scale of adverse effects depends, among other factors, on decisions made by the European Central Bank, effectiveness of adjustment mechanisms and types of shocks. Economic costs may occur on a long time scale, which is related to the fact that economic structure of Polish economy is not exactly similar to the EU and there is low flexibility of wages in Poland. Most countries of the eurozone do not fulfill the fiscal criteria, creating a threat to the economy. The article sums up possible consequences of introducing the single currency that are expected and should be taken into consideration before joining the eurozone.

  16. Hydrogeological investigations of river bed clogging at a river bank filtration site along the River Warta, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybyłek Jan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available River bank filtration (RBF is a system that enriches groundwater resources by induced infiltration of river water to an aquifer. Problematic during operation of RBF systems is the deterioration of infiltration effectiveness caused by river bed clogging. This situation was observed in the Krajkowo well field which supplies fresh water to the city of Poznań (Poland during and after the long hydrological drought between the years 1989 and 1992. The present note discusses results of specific hydrogeological research which included drilling of a net of boreholes to a depth of 10 m below river bottom (for sediment sampling as well as for hydrogeological measurements, analyses of grain size distribution and relative density studies. The results obtained have allowed the recognition of the origin of the clogging processes, as well as the documentation of the clogged parts of the river bottom designated for unclogging activities.

  17. Reproductive rights in Poland: when politicians fear the wrath of the Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Jacqueline; Portet, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    The historical prestige of the Polish Catholic Church is the result of its presence as a national symbol of resistance, both under foreign occupation and during the communist regime. In the post-communist era the power of the Church within the political arena has significantly increased, through the Concordat that was signed with the state as well as through formal and informal ties with political parties. Catholicism is the de facto religion of the state, even if Poland remains a nominally secular country. This was illustrated by the adoption, in 1993, of a total abortion ban. Although the relation of Poles to the Catholic dogma on sexuality and reproductive rights tends to be weak, fearing criticism from Church authorities, most politicians avoid controversial topics and express their commitment to Catholic dogma. Thus women's groups have encountered serious difficulties in their efforts to defend women's rights to sexual and reproductive autonomy. Although accession to the European Union has put Poland in an awkward position with respect to equality of rights between women and men, it has not fundamentally altered the real situation with respect to the controversial topic of abortion.

  18. Students’ perception of attributes of independent colleges of business profile in the market of higher education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejnaka Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the general attributes which are in use by clients (students in the process of evaluation of non-public colleges of business profile in Poland. The evaluations are presented in comparison with other academic institutions having the same profile, both independent and public ones. In the research part, the method of factor analysis was used with the aim of distinguishing the general values which are in students’ use. The most important conclusion resulting from the work is that students of non-public colleges perceive two basic types of attributes regarding a business school, that is practical and academic assets, yet they are most clearly governed by a more pragmatic than academic system of values and choose colleges which – beyond any doubt – offer the model of vocational teaching supported by practice.

  19. Geospatial clustering of gastroschisis in Poland: Data from the Polish Registry of Congenital Malformations (PRCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Materna-Kiryluk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study were: to evaluate the prevalence of abdominal wall defects in the Polish population, to analyze temporal trends in the prevalence, to identify areas (clusters of high risk of abdominal wall defects, and to characterize, with respect to epidemiology, children with abdominal wall defects and their mothers in the area defined as a cluster. Material and Methods: We used isolated congenital malformations (gastroschisis Q79.3 and omphalocele Q79.2 according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10, the extended version data reported to the Polish Registry of Congenital Malformations (PRCM over the years 1998– 2008 based on the population of 2 362 502 live births. We analyzed 11 administrative regions of Poland with complete epidemiologic data. Results: Of 11 regions, 2 had a significantly higher standardized prevalence of isolated gastroschisis: Dolnośląskie (1.7/10 000 live births, p = 0.0052 and Śląskie (1.9/10 000 live births, p < 0.0001. Furthermore, within the region of Dolnośląskie, we defined a clear prevalence of the isolated gastroschisis cluster (p = 0.023. We comprehensively examined demographic and socio-economic risk factors for abdominal wall defects in this area, and we found that these factors failed to account for the cluster. Conclusions: We identified a distinct prevalence cluster for isolated gastroschisis, although a precise reason for the disease clustering in this region remains unknown. Cluster identification enables more focused research aimed at identification of specific factors with teratogenic effects.

  20. Radiation emergency planning in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewodniczanski, J [National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    The paper presents a schematic outline of the radiation emergency policy in Poland, rather from the point of view of logistics of the problem than discussing details of existing or proposed procedures. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig.

  1. Indirect costs of diabetes and its impact on the public finance: the case of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torój, Andrzej; Mela, Aneta

    2018-02-01

    Growing public and private expenditure on healthcare results i.a. from the spreading of chronic diseases. Diabetes belongs to the most frequent ones, beyond neoplasms and cardiological diseases, and hence generates a significant burden for the public finance in terms of the direct costs. However, the economy suffers also from the indirect cost of diabetes that manifests itself in the loss in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and general government revenues. This paper aims to measure this indirect cost, both in terms of GDP drop (social perspective) and public revenue drop (public finance perspective), in the case of Poland in 2012-2014. We use a modified human capital approach and unique dataset provided by the Social Security institution in Poland and the Polish Central Statistical Office. Diabetes is a substantial and growing burden for the Polish economy. In the years 2012, 2013 and 2014 the indirect cost (output loss) amounted to 1.85 bn USD, 1.94 bn USD and 2.00 bn USD respectively. Estimated indirect cost of diabetes can be a useful input for health technology analyses of drugs or economic impact assessments of public health programmes.

  2. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  3. [The phenomenon of alcoholism in Poland as a legal issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielska-Burduk, Alicja; Jagielska, Iwona; Janicki, Radosław; Grabiec, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism is a problem of a social value. About 140 million people worldwide suffer from alcoholism. Research has demonstrated adverse effects of alcohol. In the scientific project were confirmed: increased risk of cancer, liver disease, abnormal course of pregnancy and development of fetus. Among alcoholics are frequent phenomena of criminal behavior, accidents and trauma. The Polish Constitution granted the right to health citizens. The consequence of the above mentioned constitutional guarantee is the duty of the state that consists in caring for the functioning of a society free from addictions and alcohol problems. The basic legal act in this field is the Act on Upbringing in Sobriety and Counteracting Alcoholism. The state policy in the fight against alcoholism is implemented at various levels of both government and local government. The established National Agency for Solving Alcohol Problems drafts a National Programme for Prevention and Solving Alcohol Problems every year. Also important are public awareness campaigns conducted to raise awareness about the negative effects of alcohol.

  4. Exploring the use of Option Grid™ patient decision aids in a sample of clinics in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Peter; Elwyn, Glyn; Barr, Paul; Song, Julia; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Lesniak, Monika; Mullin, Sarah; Kurek, Krzysztof; Bushell, Matt; Durand, Marie-Anne

    2018-05-29

    Research on the implementation of patient decision aids to facilitate shared decision making in clinical settings has steadily increased across Western countries. A study which implements decision aids and measures their impact on shared decision making has yet to be conducted in the Eastern part of Europe. To study the use of Option Grid TM patient decision aids in a sample of Grupa LUX MED clinics in Warsaw, Poland, and measure their impact on shared decision making. We conducted a pre-post interventional study. Following a three-month period of usual care, clinicians from three Grupa LUX MED clinics received a one-hour training session on how to use three Option Grid TM decision aids and were provided with copies for use for four months. Throughout the study, all eligible patients were asked to complete the three-item CollaboRATE patient-reported measure of shared decision making after their clinical encounter. CollaboRATE enables patients to assess the efforts clinicians make to: (i) inform them about their health issues; (ii) listen to 'what matters most'; (iii) integrate their treatment preference in future plans. A Hierarchical Logistic Regression model was performed to understand which variables had an effect on CollaboRATE. 2,048 patients participated in the baseline phase; 1,889 patients participated in the intervention phase. Five of the thirteen study clinicians had a statistically significant increase in their CollaboRATE scores (pOption Grid TM helped some clinicians practice shared decision making as reflected in CollaboRATE scores, but most clinicians did not have a significant increase in their scores. Our study indicates that the effect of these interventions may be dependent on clinic contexts and clinician engagement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Estimating the value of public construction works in Poland and Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Plebankiewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the legislation concerning the methodology of estimating the value of works in Poland and the Czech Republic. In both countries it is necessary for the public investor to respect the law governing public procurement, which defines the structure of compulsory documents needed for the tender documentation, but not directly the way of their preparation. In both countries, though, there exist model proceeding schedules for the calculation of the value of a public procurement for construction works. To illustrate and compare the calculation methods a sample calculation of the procurement value is presented for a selected thermal efficiency improvement project.

  6. Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland The paper addresses the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting. The concept of CSR reporting is increasingly being discussed among practitioners and academics. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the trends of CSR reporting in Poland and to try to implement them in WIG 30 companies. The research confirmed the existing information chaos in these disclosures of socially responsible issues in various reports. An analysis of domestic and foreign literature has been performed which pointed to the multidimensionality of actions taken by companies in the context of CSR reporting. The research points to the need to apply standards regarding the disclosure of non-financial information in the form of reports for public limited companies.

  7. The Text of the Agreement between Poland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-04-17

    The text of the Agreement between Poland and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  8. The Text of the Agreement between Poland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between Poland and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  9. 2011 - the Year of Maria Sklodowska-Curie; Resolution of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    On 3 rd December 2010, the Sejm of the Republic of Poland adopted a resolution on establishing 2011 the Year of Maria Sklodowska-Curie. Translated from the Monitor Polski no. 96, item 1091, page 5131 (15 December 2010) full text of the resolution is given.

  10. Holocen history of vegetation at “Uroczysko Mokradła” (SW Poland – paleobotanical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Tomaszewska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two peat bogs were studied in the Bory Dolnośląskie, the forest complex in Lower Silesia (Poland. An Instorf drill was used to collect two peat profiles from the deepest places. The macroremains analysis showed that after the initiation of peat-forming processes phytocoenoses responsible for the deposition of transition sphagnum peat were developed at both locations. Later on, the development of both peat bogs differed. The smaller peat bog continued to develop, whereas the big bog was shifted to ombrotrophic water regime. Therefore, phytocoenoses accumulated 1.3 m of Sphagnum peat. The peat-forming process was initiated at different times in both sites. For the smaller peat bog, it took place during the Atlantic period, while in the case of the larger peat bog – several thousand years later. The first identified forest phytocoenoses in the Atlantic period are mesophilic multi-species deciduous forests. Dry coniferous forests and mixed birch-pine forests grew in dry habitats. Riparian forests occupied lower grounds. In the Subboreal period, the oak–hazel communities initially developed and mixed coniferous forests were partially replaced by light oak forests. The encroachment of spruce, fir, hornbeam, and beech resulted in the development of dry ground forests, including beech–fir woods. The importance of riparian forests increased, whereas in dry grounds pine and mixed coniferous forests continued to occur. In the Subatlantic period, the transformations in forest communities were associated with the spread of hornbeam, beech, and fir and thereby vast fertile habitats were colonized by dry ground communities and beech woods. Pine and mixed forests as well as riparian forests were of lesser importance. Pollen records from the last 500 years showed the clear presence of humans. It was evident from the presence of cereal and weed pollen and from the disturbances in the pollen records caused by peat extraction in the Middle Ages.

  11. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  12. Variations in the Spatial Distribution of Areas of Economic Growth and Stagnation in Poland: Determinants and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churski Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to identify the spatial distribution of and changes in areas of economic growth and stagnation in Poland resulting from spatial differences in the process of the country’s socio-economic advancement. The research covered two spatial systems, NUTS 2 and NUTS 4, and embraced the following steps: (1 identification of the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its determinants; (2 analysis of variations in the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its consequences; and (3 conclusions from the development trajectories identified and recommendations for intervention measures to be taken under cohesion policy.

  13. The conception of the LNG implementation in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarczynski, S.; Zola, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main issues concerning world LNG market, technical applications and the potential growth of the market have been described in the article. The conception of introducing LNG on Polish gas market assumes that a LNG terminal will be built on the Baltic Sea shore along with the infrastructure necessary to store and transmit gas to the national gas pipeline grid. (authors)

  14. Codification of patients' rights in Poland--the Patients' Rights Act 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosek, Leszek; Pawliczak, Jakub

    2010-09-01

    The Act of 6 November 2008 on Patients' Rights and the Commissioner for Patients' Rights collect and safeguard patients' basic rights as well as provide, for the first time in Poland, an original concept for patients' collective rights. In addition, the new Act stipulates the specific mechanism for protecting patients' rights by the newly established body called the Commissioner for Patients' Rights. Polish reform of medical law will undoubtedly contribute to the expected ratification of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine. However, the nature of codified rights is relatively abstract, and the Act cannot be read without reference to legislation related to physicians and health care institutions.

  15. Car Theft in Poland as a Part of the Risk in Auto Accident and Theft Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Wieteska, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The problem of car theft has been observed for many years. The largest scale of this phenomenon occurred in the 1990’s. In this paper, the issue is discussed in social, ethical and economic aspects. We present the scale of the phenomenon of the theft of passenger vehicles in Poland in the years 2001–2012 in terms of the number of vehicles, type of stolen vehicles and the accident areas. In addition, we present the cause of theft and selected ways to protect cars from it. We als...

  16. Funding Innovation in Poland through Crowdfunding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozioł-Nadolna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding innovative projects is one of the most serious problems faced by business owners in Poland. Therefore, due to the difficulties of obtaining external sources of financing, crowdfunding may constitute a new source of fundraising for innovative ventures. Therefore, crowdfunding – as a way of raising capital for projects – is the subject of the discussion in this article. The research aim of the article is to identify and evaluate crowdfunding platforms as well as the innovative projects carried out by these platforms in Poland in 2014-2016. The first part characterizes crowdfunding as a source of funding innovation and presents the nature of crowdfunding, its characteristics and models. The empirical part is based on inductive-deductive inference, desk research, i.e. the analysis of crowdfunding market in Poland in two research periods and a case study analysis. The article shows the results of the research on the Polish crowdfunding market in 2014-2016. The author also presents a case study of funding innovation on the Kickstarter.com platform by a Polish company Sher.ly.

  17. Distribution and ecology of the lichen Fellhanera gyrophorica in the Pojezierze Olsztyńskie Lakeland and its status in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents recent data on the distribution of Fellhanera gyrophorica (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycota in Poland, a rare lichen with a crustose, usually sterile thallus. Both previous and new localities of the species are presented with data on its eco­logy and general distribution. Furthermore, this paper provides detailed results on floristic investigations of the species in the forest areas of the Pojezierze Olsztyńskie Lakeland (Northern Poland. Fertile specimens of F. gyrophorica have been observed in Poland for the second time and in the world – for the third time. Also, a new substrate for this species has been found: Acer platanoides. In addition, Carpinus betulus and Populus tremula were also found to be the species' substrates in Poland. Based on this study and previous reports, F. gyrophorica seems to be a relatively common species in north-eastern Poland.

  18. Stepwise multiple regression method of greenhouse gas emission modeling in the energy sector in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa-Wiecek, Alicja

    2015-04-01

    The energy sector in Poland is the source of 81% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Poland, among other European Union countries, occupies a leading position with regard to coal consumption. Polish energy sector actively participates in efforts to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere, through a gradual decrease of the share of coal in the fuel mix and development of renewable energy sources. All evidence which completes the knowledge about issues related to GHG emissions is a valuable source of information. The article presents the results of modeling of GHG emissions which are generated by the energy sector in Poland. For a better understanding of the quantitative relationship between total consumption of primary energy and greenhouse gas emission, multiple stepwise regression model was applied. The modeling results of CO2 emissions demonstrate a high relationship (0.97) with the hard coal consumption variable. Adjustment coefficient of the model to actual data is high and equal to 95%. The backward step regression model, in the case of CH4 emission, indicated the presence of hard coal (0.66), peat and fuel wood (0.34), solid waste fuels, as well as other sources (-0.64) as the most important variables. The adjusted coefficient is suitable and equals R2=0.90. For N2O emission modeling the obtained coefficient of determination is low and equal to 43%. A significant variable influencing the amount of N2O emission is the peat and wood fuel consumption. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Management of packaging waste in Poland--development agenda and accession to the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzińska-Jurczak, Małgorzata; Zakowska, Hanna; Read, Adam

    2004-06-01

    In recent years the issue of the municipal waste in Poland has become increasingly topical, with a considerable rise in the waste generation, much of which can be attributed to a boom in product packaging (mainly plastic). The annual production of plastics packaging has been constantly increasing over the last 20 to 30 years, and now exceeds 3.7 million tons. Due to a lack of processing technologies and poorly developed selective segregation system, packaging waste is still treated as a part of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, most of which is landfilled. As a result of Poland's access to the European Union, previous legal regulations governing municipal waste management have been harmonized with those binding on the member countries. One of the main changes, the most revolutionary one, is to make entrepreneurs liable for environmental risks resulting from the introduction of packaging to the market, and for its recycling. In practice, all entrepreneurs are to ensure recovery, and recycling, of used packaging from products introduced to the market at the required level. In recent year, the required recycling levels were fulfilled for all types of materials but mainly by large institutions using grouped and transport packaging waste for that matter. Household packaging gathered in the selective segregation system at the municipalities was practically left alone. This paper is an attempt to describe the system and assess the first year of functioning of the new, revamped system of packaging waste management in Poland. Recommendations are made relating to those features that need to be included in packaging waste management systems in order to maximize their sustainability and harmonization with the EU legal system.

  20. Dynamic International Competitiveness of Transition Economies. What do trade figures tell us? The case of Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    This paper shows that the reform on the structures of the Polish economy has had an impressively fast effect on the numbers of different products this country exports to Western countries. The time path may well be described by a logistic curve. The change in the exports of this country may...... therefore be characterised by a widening, instead of a deepening in specialisation. The paper introduces a new empirical methodology to evaluate the dynamic changes in export activities of a country. The result of this new methodology is that quality competition is becoming increasingly important for Poland...

  1. The morphology and morphodynamics of sand-gravel subaquatic dunes: the Raba River estuary, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur RADECKI-PAWLIK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the outlet of the Raba River to the Vistula, the biggest river in Poland, the morphology and morphodynamics of sand and fine-gravel subaquatic dunes were investigated. The site is situated in highland region just about the entrance to Polish Carpathians. The dunes formed on the Raba River bed estuary are composed of sand and fine gravel (d50 up to 11 mm. Systematic observation (within the 2000-2005 were made of geometry, sediment composition and hydraulic climate under which the dunes grew and decomposed. The investigation focuses here mostly on the geometrical parameters of these bed forms such as height, length, as well as granulometric characteristics of the sediment. Based on in-site measurements different hydraulic parameters were calculated such as shear stresses, resistant coefficient, Froude and Reynolds numbers and roughness coefficient. It was found that the relation between height (H and length (L of the Raba estuary dunes describes the formula: H = 0.05L0.35. Also these dunes are steeper and flatter then classical H/L index is: H/L = 0.0518L0.622. During the field campaign, when the foot access to the estuary was possible and dunes were spotted on the river bed the range of measured water velocity was from v = 0.39 m∙s-1 to v = 0.81 m∙s-1 with the highest velocity over the dune crest. At the same time the measured range of shear stresses within the dune field formation were from t = 0.115 N×m-2 to t = 1.59 N×m-2. On the field investigations the CCHE2D - two-dimensional unsteady flow and sediment transport model for non-equilibrium transport of non-uniform sediment mixtures – was applied. The model was used to simulate the morphodynamic changes along the outlet of the Raba River basing on field observations of the 2005 summer flood as well as calculate hydraulics parameters. It was also used to test and confirm the range of morphodynamic changes, which take place along the research reach where the dunes are being developed

  2. The Well-Being of Service Members and Veterans in the Light of Life-Quality Surveys in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    04-141 Warszawa POLAND E-mail: ilnickis@wim.mil.pl hdziewulski@gmail.com ABSTRACT The paper refers to the vast field of human effectiveness...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Military Medical Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Combat Stress ul.Szaserów 128 04-141 Warszawa POLAND...REFERENCES [1] Krzysztof Zagórski, Jak się nam żyje?, Raport z badań Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej – CBOS, Warszawa 2008. [2] System of

  3. A language that forgot itself (Essay on the curious non-existence of German as a recognized minority language in today’s Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kamusella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A language that forgot itself  (Essay on the curious non-existence of German as a recognized minority language in today’s Poland This essay draws on my almost three decades worth of research on the multiethnic and multilingual history of Upper Silesia during the last two centuries, when various ethnolinguistic nationalisms have radically altered the ethnic, political, demographic and linguistic shape of the region. I focus on the German minority that was recognized in Poland in the early 1990s. This recognition was extended to the German language. However, though in official statistics there are hundreds of schools with German, and bilingual signage amply dots the Upper Silesian landscape, neither in the region nor elsewhere in Poland is there a single, however small, locality where German would be the language of everyday communication. With this essay I attempt to explicate this irony of official recognition on the one hand, and the tacitly enforced non-existence on the ground, on the other hand.

  4. Fansubbers. The case of the Czech Republic and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Luczaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of Czech and Polish “fansubbers.” Fansubbers (also referred to as subtitlers is a general term, which describes people who create subtitles for foreign language movies and TV series for free. The similarities between the Polish and Czech cultures, due to the current geopolitical situation and a shared history of being behind the Iron Curtain after 1945 (despite the obvious differences, led us to investigate whether the profiles of typical fansubbers would be congruent. The premium was put on: a the socio-economic status of the subtitlers, b their motivations for doing subtitles, and c the tools they use during the process. The obtained results indicated that Polish and Czech subtitlers are similar in many respects. Our study showed that the age, economic status, worldview, and distribution of other basic socio-economic characteristics were similar in both populations. Both groups of respondents revealed similar patterns of participation in culture. Both also consisted of tech-savvy members. Yet, there are some differences. The most obvious one lays in motivations. While the Czech respondents have altruistic motivations to create subtitles, their Polish counterparts seem to be more self-centered motivated, indicating that they do it mainly to improve their language skills.

  5. The analysis of production and trade patterns in cocoa market worldwide and in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejuk, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa belongs to the group of one of the most valuable commodities in the world. Most production of cocoa beans takes place in the African countries in the Equatorial “Cocoa Belt”. However, most processing of raw products is made in Western European countries. Poland is a substantial producer of confectionery chocolate products, therefore the country imports cocoa butter and cocoa paste, which gives it 8th and 6th place in the world in terms of quantity imported. This paper presents an analys...

  6. Model of the electric energy market in Poland. Assumptions, structure and operation principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagowski, W.

    1994-01-01

    Present state of works on model of electric energy market in Poland with special consideration of bulk energy market is presented. The designed model based on progressive, evolutionary changes is so elastic, that when keeping general structure and fundamentals the particular solutions can be verified or corrected. The changes in the electric energy market are considered as an integral part of existing restructuring process of Polish electric energy sector. The rate of those changes and the mode of their introduction influence on introduction speed of the new solutions. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs

  7. Macromycetes in forest communities of the Ińsko Landscape Park (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stasińska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results a 8-year mycocoenological study carried out on 34 permanent plots marked in the Melico-Fagetum Lohm. ap. Seibert 1954, the Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum W. Mat. et A. Mat. 1973, the Fago-Quercetum petraeae Tx. 1955 and the Galio sylvatici-Carpinetum 0berd. 1957 associations are presented and several ecological groups of funi are discussed. The total number of 267 macromycetes species was noted. Some species rarely found in Poland, such as: Hericium erinaceus, Neobulgaria pura and Polyporus tuberaster were noted.

  8. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  9. A critique of massification of higher education in Poland and the United States: Mass-media discourse analysis

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    Łukasz Stankiewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nearly universal access to higher education (HE in developed countries was once praised as a great democratic achievement, and a basis for both economic development and social mobility. After the onset of the 2008 recession, the narratives changed considerably. The most radical critics of HE propose a partial “deschooling” of society by reversing the process of massification. This paper aims to present a critical discourse analysis (CAD of the “don’t go to college” discourse that became popular in Poland and the United States. I trace the differences in the way the decision to go to college is conceptualized in Poland and the U.S to the differences in dominant political ideologies – democratic and egalitarian in the U.S., paternalistic and conservative in Poland. I also show how recent changes in the actual HE systems put those ideologies at odds with the educational realities of both countries.

  10. Relationships between selenium and mercury in the fruiting bodies of some mushrooms growing in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Kubotal, R.; Kunito, T.; Bielawski, L.; Brzostowski, A.; Gucia, M.; Jedrusiak, A.; Lipka, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-05-01

    The relationships between concentrations of total selenium and mercury were investigated for the whole fruiting bodies, caps and/or stalks of King bolete (Boletus edulis), Brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), Poison pax (Paxillus involutus) and Fly agaric (Amatiita niuscaria) collected from the various sites in Poland. The mushroom species examined varied largely due to the contents and proportions between the total selenium and mercury concentrations, what seems to indicate on species-dependent strategy of co-uptake and accumulation of these elements.

  11. Effects of Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy on the Stock Market in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hsing

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to examine potential impacts of fiscal and monetary policies on stock market performance in Poland. Applying the GARCH model and based on a sample during 1999.Q2 to 2012.Q4, this paper finds that Poland’s stock market index is not affected by the ratio of government deficits or debt to GDP and is negatively influenced by the money market rate. The stock index and the ratio of M3 to GDP show a quadratic relationship with a critical value of 46.03%, suggesting that th...

  12. The Government Response to the Private Sector Expansion in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonowicz, Dominik; Kwiek, Marek; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Boer, Harry; File, Jon; Huisman, Jeroen; Seeber, Marco; Vukasovic, Martina; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2017-01-01

    One of the trademarks of transformation of Polish higher education is its tumultuous and inconsistent path of development driven by the rapid growth of private sector higher education. Such an expansion has been often described as a ‘sudden, shocking and unplanned’ phenomenon which revolutionized

  13. An Exemplary Environmental Education Progam in Poland - Walks on the Bolimov Nature Preserve Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Teacher Training Centre in Skierniewice is one of 49 public, accredited institutions in Poland carrying out it statutory goals at the regional level. It has been operating since 1989 and is responsible for organizing of support of schools, institutions, networks of teachers and school managers for cooperation and self-education, organizing and conducting various forms of in-service training, giving methodological councils and disseminating examples of good practice. I present one example of how Environmental Education has been imparted to school students and their teachers through outdoor activities as part of the learning process. An Environmental Education Program, 'On Bolimov Nature Preserve Trails' has been organized regularly since 2001. The Bolimov Nature Preserve is a protected area in central Poland, situated between two agglomerations: capital city Warsaw to the East and industrial city Lodz to the West, covering an area of 231,3 sq kilometers. It was established in 1986 to protect an unique ecosystem on the Rawka River banks from human activity and harmful external factors. Pine tree forests cover more than 60% of the landscape park. Small streams, sloughs, glades are another elements of the park scenery. Walks on the trails in this park are a great opportunity to see many unique species of flora (more than 40 protected species and many endangered species on verge of extinction) and fauna. For teachers and students the Bolimov Nature Preserve offers educational lessons and events in cooperation with other institutions e.g. Regional Teacher Training Centre in Skierniewice. The main activity of the walks is participation of students and teachers in group walk along trails of the park using various tools of orientation: maps, compasses and nowadays GPS. Along the paths they learn recognition of forms of terrain, identification of species of plants and animals (using flora & fauna guides and keys, magnifying glasses), measuring and identification

  14. Housing Conditions and the Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Households of Senior Citizens in Poland

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    Tomasz Zalega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The article aims to show the housing situation, satisfaction with housing conditions and place of residence, and the use of renewable energy sources in urban households of Polish seniors. Design/methodology/approach - Direct research in the form of a survey questionnaire was carried out on a sample of 2537 households in 2014-2015 in ten Polish cities of various populations and sizes. In accordance with the research assumptions, the sample included persons over 65 years of age who took independent purchasing decisions in the market. In order to select the sample, the selective quota sampling procedure was used. The survey was conducted among participants of the University of the Third Age at state universities in: Warsaw, Kraków, Łódź, Poznań, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Białystok, Toruń and Wrocław, as well as among members of parochial clubs in parishes located in the Archdioceses of Warsaw, Kraków, Łódź, Białystok, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Poznań, Wrocław and the Dioceses of Warsaw-Praga and Toruń. Findings - The survey reveals that more than half of seniors' households are satisfied with both the place of residence and housing conditions. The use of RES in seniors' households looks slightly worse. Only 1.5% of all the surveyed households of persons aged 65+ invest in alternative energy sources to produce electricity and heat. Financial problems are the key barrier to the development of RES-related projects in their households. Research implications/limitations - Given the limited financial capacities, the study of housing conditions and the use of RES among people aged 65+ was confined solely to seniors' households in the largest Polish cities. In those households, a relatively low share of RES often results from inadequate technical conditions for the connection of RES installations. Rural households generate slightly more electricity and heat from RES Originality/value/contribution - This is one of the first

  15. SUBURBAN VS. URBAN FRINGES ENTITIES’ WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR AMENITIES: EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN CRACOW CITY, POLAND

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    Piotr LITYŃSKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the value of selected amenities of infrastructure, space and public services on both sides of the cities’ administrative borders and its territorial implications. The used method is the estimation of WTP. The method was addressed to households and companies located in the district adjoining areas which are administratively not part of the city, and that are judged to be strongly characterized by the processes of suburbanization. The conclusions of the study indicate that the administrative border of the city is polarized in terms of a household economic profile. Residents of both regions express their needs for amenities and suburban residents generally estimate their value higher. While firms from both areas are not interested in improvements, the administrative border of the city does not really differentiate businesses (size, employment, wages

  16. Education of geodesy and cartography at the School of Higher Education In National Economy In Kutno, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzinski, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    School of Higher (university degree) Education in National Economy in Kutno is one of the rather younger university schools in Poland that were established in the last years of the XX century. It was founded in 1998, but the convenient location of Kutno in Central Poland seems to be a good opportunity for students coming from all parts of Poland. The School is continuously developed, number of faculties and new study directions and specialisations are steadily growing. The offer of the School include studies in the stationary, extra-mural and post-graduate systems in two Engineering (or licenciate) and M.Sc. levels. At the moment the geodesy and cartography is a part of the Faculty of Technical Sciences; students can chose one of three specialisations: 1.Economic geodesy, property and estate management, 2. Rural (agriculture) geodesy and property engineering and 3. Geoinformatic sciences.

  17. The risk of internal contamination of workers employed in radioisotope laboratories in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J.; Domanski, T.; Doniec, J.

    1981-01-01

    It was established that in Poland 247 radioisotope laboratories use open radiation sources. These laboratories have not yet been covered by the internal system of control of inner contamination. The number of workers having contact with radioisotopes amounts to 1987. Frequently this is work in contact with several radioisotopes (from 1 to 17). Most workers are exposed to tritium (over 500 workers), 14 C (over 500), 125 I and 131 I, 32 P, 51 Cr, 99mTc (over 100), isotopes belonging to radiotoxicity groups 2, 3 and 4. In the radiotoxicity group 1 the most workers were exposed to 226 Ra (52). (author)

  18. Ecological studies in the Ratanica catchment (Carpathian foothills, southern Poland) - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinska, K.; Szarek, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of ecological studies conducted since 1986 in the Ratanica pine-beech forested catchment located in the polluted, high populated southern part of Poland. General characteristics of the catchment (including soil and vegetation, air pollution, input/output of nutrients and pollutants, element budget data and forest health assessment) are presented. Based on biogeochemical and bioindication results, the Ratanica catchment has been classified as a moderately to heavily deteriorated area. Predictions for this forested catchment for various deposition of anthropogenic pollutants, are also discussed. 22 refs., 1 fig

  19. Speleomycological research in underground Osówka complex in Sowie Mountains (Lower Silesia, Poland

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    Wojciech Pusz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osówka (Germ. Säuferhöhen, is one of the elements of the unfinished Nazi military complex called “Riese”. The total length of corridors of Osówka complex is about 1,700 m and its capacity amounts to 30,000 m3. As described geologically, Osówka is situated within the Sowie Mts. Massif which consists mostly of various gneisses with different structural characteristics, but with a constant mineral composition. The rock-forming minerals are feldspar (oligoclase, quartz, biotite and light micas, accesory minerals are garnet, sillimanite and dysten. Fine-grained shallow-sea deposits were probably a protolith of these rocks. The study aimed at first mycological evaluation of the air and the rocks in Osówka adit. The air samples were taken from one location outside the adit and from four locations inside of it. Mycological evaluation of the rocks inside the adit was performed using three different methods. Fifteen taxa of filamentous fungi were isolated from the internal air sampled, and several taxa - from the outside of the adit, whereas only eleven species were isolated from the rocks. Cladosporium spp. were the fungi most frequently isolated from internal atmosphere of the underground Osówka complex, and from the external air. On the other hand, the fungi most frequently isolated from the rocks were Aspergillus niger group (when using swab sampling procedure and Mucor spp. (from debris and rinse sampling procedure.

  20. [Impact Reimbursement Act on the pharmaceutical market in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giermaziak, Wojciech

    2014-04-01

    According to 12 may 2011 Reimbursement Act, the new regulations were introduced related to changes in so far in force rules on refunds of official prices and margins for drugs, foodstuffs of special purpose and medical products. After year of functioning of this regulation, in evaluation of the government, law gave measurable financial effects for public payer, sometimes through drastic actions, connected the of reduction of existing profits of manufacturers sector and importers drugs, as well wholesale and retail, both in treatment open and closed. Parallel to research and analysis of effects introduction in life act refund, conducted by government, to target current regulation possible negative phenomena can to be after-effects to regulation, systematically there are conducted analogous study to reputable companies specialized in evaluation and updating market Polish pharmaceutical, such as IMS Health Polska, Pharma Expert, Kamsoft, WHO and European a law firm. In their opinion to reimbursement act is the most serious regulation control system to introduced into Polish order legal, and first time for many years on such a large scale. Thoroughly changed policy of drugs State have important influence for all participants Polish pharmaceutical market, both those directly related to the drug trade, as the functioning doctors and health condition and financial Polish patient. Change in the way prices of drugs is determined as flexible to price formation mechanism, combining drugs similar profile pharmacological in so group limits and dependence of the level of refunds from application drug accordingly characteristics medicinal product, adaptation solutions to new law refund to the existing law about health services, gave measurable financial effect for the public payer. Rationalization expenses to NFZ, as main premise introduction refund act, created to broader than so far possibility to use new molecules of drugs, and the latest medical technology, even if in the

  1. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Poland 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Poland carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  2. Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Myxogastrea in Poland

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    Salamaga Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Berk. ex Torrend Nann.-Bremek. is rare in Poland, known previously from only one locality. Sixty years after the original report, this paper presents two new localities of it in separate regions of Poland. Although S. trechisporus is recorded mostly on Sphagnum sp., the taxon does not seem to be attached to a specific substrate; rather it is associated with acidic habitats.

  3. The Minister Council decree about conditions for to bring on the territory of Poland, to take away from the territory of Poland, and to transit through this territory nuclear materials, radioactive sources and devices containing such sources of 27 April 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.

    2004-01-01

    The decree refers to conditions for to bring on the territory of Poland, to take away from the territory of Poland, and to transit through this territory nuclear materials, radioactive sources and devices containing such sources. They be bring to, take away and transit through Poland with documents and procedures determined in regulations. The decree replaces the decree of 5 November 2002 (Dz.U. no. 207, item 1754)

  4. MOOCs--Theoretical and Practical Aspects: Comparison of Selected Research Results: Poland, Russia, Ukraine, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Ogrodzka-Mazur, Ewa; Szafranska-Gajdzica, Anna; Morze, Nataliia; Makhachashvili, Rusudan; Noskova, Tatiana; Pavlova, Tatiana; Yakovleva, Olga; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    Many higher education students are interested in MOOCs. At the same time, numerous questions are still without answers: formal aspects of participation in MOOCs, the type of motivation on the part of students for participation in MOOCs, quality of MOOCs, students' opinions about type, structure, contents, communication in MOOCs and other aspects.…

  5. Multicultural Leadership Strategies : case: Company X, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Khanh Ye Le, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims at studying multicultural leadership strategies which are used by the team leaders in Company X, Poland. Furthermore, this thesis examines how these strategies are implemented in daily management to prevent cultural conflicts. The study used deductive approach with the assistance of qualitative research method. Secondary data was collected from reliable books, articles and Internet while primary data was collected through observations and interviews. The literature f...

  6. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  7. Common Legacy, Different Paths: The Transformation of Educational Systems in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Wojciuk, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to better understand the institutional changes in the educational systems of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. We demonstrate that the educational reforms implemented during the transformation introduced very different institutional arrangements in the four countries, despite the fact that their systems…

  8. The seals of Adam Sędziwój Czarnkowski, the general starost of Grand Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Hlebionek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adam Sędziwój Czarnkowski descended from an old noble family with origins in Grand Poland that can be traced back to at least the first half of the fourteenth century. He belonged to the younger family line started by Sędziwój Czarnkowski, the castellan of Przemęt (his brother, Maciej, is considered to be the progenitor of the older line, a son of Sędziwój, the voivode of the Poznań, and a grandson of Jan, the castellan of Gniezno. Adam was a grandson of Sędziwój and a son of Wojciech Sędziwój Czarnkowski, the general starost of Grand Poland, and Jadwiga Sierpska from Gulczewo of the Prawdzic coat-of-arms, the daughter of the voivode of Rawa. As a reward for his contribution to the wars with Russia, he was appointed the starost of Pyzdry by King Stefan Batory in 1579. At the same time, he inherited the title of the commander of the Knights of Saint John in Poznań (komandor poznańskich joannitów from his father. During the reign of king Sigismunt III, he was a supporter of the king. It was during that time that his career proceeded quickly: in 1593 he became the general starost of Grand Poland, and in 1606 he was appointed the voivode of Łęczyca. Not all of Adam Sędziwój Czarnkowski's seals survived to this day, but those remaining allow the analysis of the sigillographic collection of one of the oligarchs of Grand Poland. This collection, however, is specific. It seems to be unusually numerous when compared to the seal collections that belonged to other, even the richest, noblemen. That is because Czarnkowski's collection included official seals necessary to carry out the duties of the general starost and other, lower posts, e.g. those related to governing a castle court and office (urząd grodzki, as well as personal seals, which can be divided into several sub-categories. The collection grew mostly because Czarnkowski held the office of the general starost of Grand Poland and this required using seven, out of nine, known

  9. Medical, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of aging in Poland: assumptions and objectives of the PolSenior project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledowski, Piotr; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Chudek, Jerzy; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szybalska, Aleksandra; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna; Wiecek, Andrzej; Bartoszek, Adam; Dabrowski, Andrzej; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2011-12-01

    Both descriptive and longitudinal studies of aging are nowadays a subject of growing interest in different countries worldwide. However, in Poland and other Central-Eastern European countries, such comprehensive, nationally representative, multidimensional studies were never performed in the past in elderly population. The present paper describes the PolSenior project including its objectives, sample selection and structure, methods, fieldwork procedures and study flow. The aim of the project was to examine medical, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of aging in Poland. The research sample included 5695 respondents (2899 males and 2796 females) split into six equally sized age groups of elderly individuals (65-69 years, 70-74 years, 75-79 years, 80-84 years, 85-89 years, 90+years) and one group of subjects just about to enter old age (55-59 years). Subjects were recruited using three stage stratified, proportional draw. The response rate was 42% and ranged from 32% to 61% between provinces. The study consisted of three visits performed by trained nurses including questionnaire survey, comprehensive geriatric assessment and blood and urine sampling. The questionnaire consisted of medical and specific socioeconomic questions. The comprehensive geriatric assessment included blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, as well as selected scales and tests routinely used in the examination of elderly subjects. Blood and urine samples were collected from 4737 and 4526 individuals, respectively. More than 50 biochemical parameters were measured, and DNA was isolated and banked. In a selected group of 1018 subjects, a medical examination by a physician was performed. The self-rated health was lower in females than in males in age groups 70-84, but similar in individuals of both sexes aged 65-69 and 85 years. Besides providing data on health and functioning of elderly population, the PolSenior project aims to analyze interrelationships between different elements of

  10. Geography of Electoral Volatility in the Warmia and Mazury Voivodeship of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasov Ilya N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the impact of administrative reforms on the electoral volatility in the Warmia and Mazury voivodeship of Poland. The administrative reforms resulted in the formation of a new territorial organization of power. Using three large administrative units of Poland as an example, the authors analyse the experience of the formation of a geographic region by merging several politically diverse territories. The merger took place in a changing political environment. It inevitably affected the strategy and tactics of the development of local self-governance. The formation of the region has been going on in such a manner that differences in the electoral preferences and political behaviour of the urban population (the regional metropolis and the periphery remain unchanged. Having performed the index analysis and a comparative analysis of the electoral data, the authors conclude that the consistency of administrative decisions on the formation of the region and the electoral performance have been weakening over time. During the initial phase, the electoral volatility was mainly due to the sluggishness and inertia of the previous territorial organization. After the phase of stabilization, the electoral volatility indices in different geographical areas changed due to a combination of social and political factors. The authors show that the ‘looseness’ of the Polish party system affect the electoral volatility in the region more than institutional decisions of the administrative reforms.

  11. The myth of market dominance : telecommunication manufacturing in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of Western manufacturers on competition and innovation in the telecommunication sector in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. It examines the issue of market dominance by shedding some light on the industrial history, the current evolution and market structure of

  12. The Report and Analysis of the First U21 European Deaf Football Championship Men, Wroclaw, Poland 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Adam Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The First U21 European Deaf Football Championship Men was played in August 2016 in Wroclaw, Poland. No studies have documented or analysed sporting events for deaf players at the elite level. The aim of the study was to bring deaf football closer to the reader and analyse selected offensive actions recorded during the U21 Championship.

  13. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  14. Growth dynamics variation of different larch provenances under the mountain conditions in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulej, M. [Univ. of Agriculture, Cracow (Poland). Section of Seed Production and Selection

    1995-12-31

    The results of 25-year investigations based on measurements and statistical analysis concerning the growth dynamics variation of larch provenances from the entire area of Poland are reported in this paper. This is the first larch provenance experiment in Poland under mountain conditions. The results obtained showed a significant variability among the provenances tested as regards the basic growth characters (height, d.b.h., growth index) at the age of 5, 8, 11, 15, 20 and 25 years. The larch from Klodzko and Proszkow turned out to be the best in respect of growth during the entire 25-years period. Decidedly bad were provenances from Marcule, Grojec, Rawa mazowiecka and Kroscienko. We cannot forecast the future growth of larch when trees are 5-years old since such prognosis may carry an error. However, on the basis of the results obtained it may be concluded that when trees are about 8 years old the stabilization of the position of individual provenances as regards growth takes place. The height growth curves for the individual provenances during the 25-years period (with exception of the provenance from Marcule) fall within the interval {+-} 0,5S from the compensated curve for the entire population studied. All larch provenances in the experiment had reached the height growth culmination. A greatest differentiation in respect of this character occurred in case of the provenances from Sudetes. 27 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  15. Growth dynamics variation of different larch provenances under the mountain conditions in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulej, M [Univ. of Agriculture, Cracow (Poland). Section of Seed Production and Selection

    1996-12-31

    The results of 25-year investigations based on measurements and statistical analysis concerning the growth dynamics variation of larch provenances from the entire area of Poland are reported in this paper. This is the first larch provenance experiment in Poland under mountain conditions. The results obtained showed a significant variability among the provenances tested as regards the basic growth characters (height, d.b.h., growth index) at the age of 5, 8, 11, 15, 20 and 25 years. The larch from Klodzko and Proszkow turned out to be the best in respect of growth during the entire 25-years period. Decidedly bad were provenances from Marcule, Grojec, Rawa mazowiecka and Kroscienko. We cannot forecast the future growth of larch when trees are 5-years old since such prognosis may carry an error. However, on the basis of the results obtained it may be concluded that when trees are about 8 years old the stabilization of the position of individual provenances as regards growth takes place. The height growth curves for the individual provenances during the 25-years period (with exception of the provenance from Marcule) fall within the interval {+-} 0,5S from the compensated curve for the entire population studied. All larch provenances in the experiment had reached the height growth culmination. A greatest differentiation in respect of this character occurred in case of the provenances from Sudetes. 27 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  16. The history of Poland as reflected in written versions of the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmund Pietkiewicz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the connection between selected Polish biblical translations and the national and personal history of Polish people (14th–18th century. The history of Florian Psalter (14th/15th century and that of Queen Sophia’s Bible (15th century are related to the beginning of the Jagiellonian dynasty. The first printed biblical text in Polish (Prologue to the Gospel according to St. John, 1518/1519 and editions of the New Testament translated by Stanisław Murzynowski (1551–1553 testify to the development of Polish orthography. Both, the woodcuts of the Leopolita’s Bible (1561, 1575/1577 and the notes to the commentary on the Acts of the Apostles by Tomas Falconius (1566 give an account of the tumultuous history of Polish Reformation. The dedication in the second edition of Leopolita’s Bible (1975 and its alteration in 1577 attest to the failur