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Sample records for research papers oral

  1. Research Paper:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shanu

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... Forty years in capsaicin research for sensory pharmacology and physiology. Neuropeptides 38:377-384. Thomas E (2002). Tissue culture studies in Arachis hypogea L. and. Vignaunguiculata (L.) Walp. for micropropagation and cell line selection for amino acid overproduction, Ph.D. Thesis, University of.

  2. The Mock Research Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Carlton

    2008-01-01

    The mock research paper combines creative writing with academic writing and, in the process, breaks down that binary. This article describes a writing assignment that offers an introduction to the college research paper genre. This assignment helps students focus on crafting an argument and learning genre conventions while postponing until the…

  3. Original Research Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Allahverdi, Novruz

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the survey of studies that include design processes of some fuzzy expert systems for applications in some medical area. Recent studies of us that include fuzzy expert systems that make use of fuzzy logic method were described. Some of fuzzy expert systems mentioned in this paper have been developed as first time. Followings were investigated; the risk of prostate cancer, risk of coronary heart disease, degree of child anemia, determination the level of iron deficiency anemia, di...

  4. Summer Research Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana

    2011-01-01

    Certain populations such as chemotherapy patients and atomic bomb survivors have been exposed to ionizing radiation and experience tissue damage and cancer initiation and progression. One cancer that can be initiated from radiation is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), an epithelial cancer that has a survival rate as low as 20%. Researchers have found that when protein tyrosine kinase receptors (RPTK) activate oncogenes, they can create epithelial tumors and cause deadly cancers like ESCC. The RPTK family has one group, MET, that has only two receptors, MET and RON, present in the human body. MET s ligand is the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and RON's ligand is the macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP-1). Both HGF and MSP-1 have been shown to activate their receptors and are implicated in certain processes. Since radiation damages cells throughout the biological system, researchers are investigating whether or not HGF and MSP-1 protects or kills certain normal and cancerous cells by being part of cell recovery processes. One research group recently reviewed that the HGF-MET pathway has an important role in the embryonic development in the liver, migration of myogenic precursor cells, regulation of epithelial morphogenesis and growth, and regeneration and protection in tissues. In addition, since the RON receptor is more commonly expressed in cells of epithelial origin, and when activated is part of epithelial cell matrix invasion, dissociation, and migration processes, scientists conclude that RON might be one of the factors causing epithelial cancer initiation in the biological system. In order to examine HGF and MSP-1 s effect on cancer initiation and progression we used two immortalized esophageal epithelial cell lines. One is a normal human cell line (EPC2-hTERT), while the other had a p53 mutation at the 175th amino acid position (EPC2-hTERT-p53(sup R175H)). For this investigation, we used 0(control), 2, and 4 Gray doses of gamma (Cs137) radiation and

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (16th, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, November 5-8, 1994). Volume 2: Research Papers, Oral Reports, and Posters (Continued).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, David, Ed.

    This PME-NA proceedings volume contains the full text of 41 research papers. In addition, brief usually one-page reports, are provided for 11 oral presentations and 13 poster sessions. The full research reports are as follows: "Cognitive Analysis of Chinese Students' Mathematical Problem Solving" (J. Cai and E. A. Silver); (2)…

  6. Branding Malaysia in Research Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharum Ramli; Usang, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Malaysian research results are world class and its research papers are read all over the world. With this visibility, some elements in the papers should be localized so that the readers know that this is the work of Malaysians. This paper discusses two elements for example statement of authors name and preparation of diagrams. (author)

  7. English for writing research papers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallwork, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    ... points when you write more papers in the future. The useful phrases in Chap. 19 will help you to structure your paper and give you an indication of the typical coverage of each section. I have written many papers before. Will I still learn something from this book? If you have ever had a paper rejected due to poor English, poor structure or poor readability, then this book will certainly help you. What are the three most important things I will learn from this book? This book is based on three fund...

  8. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  9. Reading for Pleasure: The Research Paper Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Janet

    1989-01-01

    Describes a research paper assignment in which students choose a controversial news event reported by six to eight newspapers and arrive at a thesis by comparing the accounts. Notes that students become truly engaged with the assignment and that engagement shows itself strongly in the intelligence and life of the papers. (RS)

  10. The Fail-Safe Micro Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Mary Anne

    A key element in a research paper writing assignment modified for students of English as a second language to assure their success is teacher control over most of the process. A chronological plan for action for the micro research project includes these steps: creating an awareness of current events and controversial issues, practicing necessary…

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (16th, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, November 5-8, 1994). Volume 1: Plenary Sessions, Technology Focus Groups, Discussion Groups and Research Papers, Oral Reports and Posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, David, Ed.

    This volume contains the full text of 2 plenary papers and 26 research reports. In addition, brief, usually one-page, reports are provided for 6 discussion groups, 10 technology focus groups, 7 symposiums, 7 oral presentations, and 17 position sessions. The two full plenary reports are: (1) "Problems of Reification: Representations and…

  12. Avoiding Plagiarism in Writing a Research Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Wajdi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how to avoid plagiarism in a research paper. Avoiding plagiarism is part of a scientific writing ethic that always stated in any publication. Every writer should pay attention to their papers submitted to a journal or a scientific forum that they are free from unethical conduct. Writing a research paper needs overall accuracy especially in avoiding plagiarism in the paper that is to be published in a journal or to be presented at a certain scientific meeting, seminar or symposium. It is based on writers’ experience as a paper writer as well as a journal reviewer. The first application that the writers use is ‘checker’, a Mac computer application, used to check spelling and grammar. It assists the writers to check how misspelling and an ungrammatical inaccuracy in the writers’ papers. The second free application is ‘plagiarism checker’. Checking originality of a paper is essential and it is not too difficult to do today. It is freely accessible that plagiarism checker can be used to check how original the paper is. By visiting “Google” then write down ‘plagiarism checker’, it will appear ‘smallseatools’ and then the writers could choose and check how original the paper is. This application is freely accessed and helps immensely to check how original a paper is and how far a paper is free from plagiarism. The unoriginal phrase will be underlined and marked red and finally will be shown how inimitable the paper is. Plagiarism scan report which consists of the date of the report, plagiarism status, total words and total characters can be downloaded.

  13. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Resensies / Reviews. 309 ... and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers from the International ... "Cambridge, Trinity College Library MS 0.5.4: A Fifteenth-century ... There are among others ten types of manuscript collections that need attention, ..... The collection is rounded off by a selective index, supplementing the Table.

  14. How to write your first research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallestinova, Elena D

    2011-09-01

    Writing a research manuscript is an intimidating process for many novice writers in the sciences. One of the stumbling blocks is the beginning of the process and creating the first draft. This paper presents guidelines on how to initiate the writing process and draft each section of a research manuscript. The paper discusses seven rules that allow the writer to prepare a well-structured and comprehensive manuscript for a publication submission. In addition, the author lists different strategies for successful revision. Each of those strategies represents a step in the revision process and should help the writer improve the quality of the manuscript. The paper could be considered a brief manual for publication. Copyright © 2011.

  15. Modern referencing trends in philosophical research papers

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Alonso López, Gemma

    2006-01-01

    El artículo propone unificar los criterios para citar y elaborar bibliografías en la investigación en filosofía y en ciencias humanas. Se analizan las ventajas y los inconvenientes del sistema tradicional y del sistema Harvard.The paper attempts to unify criteria for referencing documents and elaborating bibliographies in philosophy and human sciences research. The advantages and disadvantages of the Harvard system are confronted with more traditional methods.

  16. Oral History as Educational Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rebecca P.

    2008-01-01

    Oral history is a significant type of historical research. Its use in retaining records of the early days of educational technology provides another way to look at the history of this field. The remembrances of its founders inform everyone today of, not only of what went on before, but also of how current and future technologies evolve. There are…

  17. Scientific research attitude and paper writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeon Ho; Shin, Dae Sun; Lee, Gyeong Ja

    1982-08-01

    This book introduces meanings and kinds of paper, structures and characteristics of paper, preparation of writing paper, writing paper, comments and footnotes, how to collect materials, and list of reference and appendix. It explains composition of chapters and paragraphs and development of contents, how to use library materials, writing draft, usage of quotations and comments, mathematical tables and charts, completing draft, basic principle of footnotes and how to fill up them, survey method, survey design, experimental methods, and real examples of comments and references.

  18. Scientific projection paper for space radiobiological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinograd, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    A nationale for the radiobiological research requirements for space is rooted in a national commitment to the exploration of space, mandated in the form of the National Space Act. This research is almost entirely centered on man; more specifically, on the effects of the space radiation environment on man and his protection from them. The research needs discussed in this presentation include the space radiation environment; dosimetry; radiation biology-high LET particles (dose/response); and operational countermeasures

  19. WDM Research Series: Working Paper No. 2

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    The other three papers of the Series focus on the issues of institutional structures ... Any approach that relates WDM to poverty and equity requires a set of working ..... If local irrigation system operation and maintenance investments and.

  20. Abstracts of Research Papers 1977 AAHPER Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, George H., Ed.

    This volume of abstracts describes papers written on the following topics: (1) Strength Physiology; (2) Learning Disabilities (motor); (3) Physiology - General; (4) Work Capacity; (5) Measurement and Recreation; (6) Biomechanics; (7) Professional Preparation (physical education); (8) Muscle Performance; (9) Sociology of Sport; (10) History of…

  1. Twitter Conversation Patterns Related to Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelhans, Gustaf; Lorentzen, David Gunnarsson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper deals with what academic texts and datasets are referred to and discussed on Twitter. We used document object identifiers as references to these items. Method: We streamed tweets from the Twitter application programming interface including the strings "dx" and "doi" while simultaneously streaming tweets…

  2. How to Read a Research Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... processes can effect disease or ensure good health. Biomedical research seeks to define biological processes and to understand how they operate in both the presence or absence of disease. Defining the process allows for intervention through drugs and therapies that can reset the body to its normal ...

  3. Palestinian Refugee Research Policy Papers | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    EASF closed in March 2008, although IDRC has continued to finance some key follow-up activities and is fundraising for continued programming in this area. Over its 15 years of ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South.

  4. Identifying subgroups of CERME affect research papers

    OpenAIRE

    Hannula, Markku S.; Garcia Moreno-Esteva, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Research in mathematics related affect uses a variety of theoretical frameworks. Three different dimensions have been suggested as significant to characterize concepts in this area: (1) emotional, motivational, and cognitive aspects of affect, (2) state and trait aspects of affect, and (3) physiological, psychological, and sociological level of theorizing affect. In this study, we used the information in reference lists and graph theory to identify Graph Communities (coherent clusters) of res...

  5. Current status of oral health research in Africa: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoute, Aïda; Faye, Daouda; Bourgeois, Denis

    2012-12-01

    Research in oral health contributes effectively to decisions and strategies aimed at improving the oral health of populations. Further contributions to enhance current knowledge of oral health in Africa are required. The principal objective of this study was to produce an analysis of oral health research published from different subregions of Africa and to estimate bilateral and multilateral international cooperation in oral health research during the period 2005-2010. The PubMed database was searched for published articles on topics related to oral health in Africa. A total of 935 oral health-related articles were retrieved during April and May 2011. Publications emanating from Nigeria and South Africa accounted for a striking 68% of all oral health-related material published from Africa during the study period. Researchers from 30 different countries had participated in collaboration on at least one published article. A total of 262 journals had published at least one item examining oral health in Africa, but only 29 journals had published more than seven articles. These 29 journals accounted for 66% of all published material and induced non-African reviews (26%) and African reviews (40%). This study shows strong variation among countries in the production of articles on oral health whereby rich countries produce greater quantities of published research and poorer nations more frequently develop research partnerships with other countries. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  6. Review of orthognathic surgery and related papers published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Alexander M C; Payne, Karl F B; Tahim, Arpan; Colbert, Serryth; Brennan, Peter A

    2015-04-01

    This review summarises all orthognathic and related papers published between January 2011 and December 2012 in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS). A total of 36 articles were published, a high proportion of which (78%) were full-length papers. The remainder consisted of short communications and technical notes. The topics included operative planning and postoperative outcomes, and there was a strong focus on distraction osteogenesis. There were fewer orthognathic articles published in BJOMS than articles on other subspecialties such as trauma or head and neck oncology. Only 8 (29%) of the full-length articles were prospective studies or randomised trials, which highlights a need for well-designed clinical studies in orthognathic research. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Building oral health research infrastructure: the first national oral health survey of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John P; Isyagi, Moses; Ntaganira, Joseph; Gatarayiha, Agnes; Pagni, Sarah E; Roomian, Tamar C; Finkelman, Matthew; Steffensen, Jane E M; Barrow, Jane R; Mumena, Chrispinus H; Hackley, Donna M

    2018-01-01

    Oral health affects quality of life and is linked to overall health. Enhanced oral health research is needed in low- and middle-income countries to develop strategies that reduce the burden of oral disease, improve oral health and inform oral health workforce and infrastructure development decisions. To implement the first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda to assess the oral disease burden and inform oral health promotion strategies. In this cross-sectional study, sample size and site selection were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Surveys Pathfinder stratified cluster methodologies. Randomly selected 15 sites included 2 in the capital city, 2 other urban centers and 11 rural locations representing all provinces and rural/urban population distribution. A minimum of 125 individuals from each of 5 age groups were included at each site. A Computer Assisted Personal Instrument (CAPI) was developed to administer the study instrument. Nearly two-thirds (64.9%) of the 2097 participants had caries experience and 54.3% had untreated caries. Among adults 20 years of age and older, 32.4% had substantial oral debris and 60.0% had calculus. A majority (70.6%) had never visited an oral health provider. Quality-of-life challenges due to oral diseases/conditions including pain, difficulty chewing, self-consciousness, and difficulty participating in usual activities was reported at 63.9%, 42.2% 36.2%, 35.4% respectively. The first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda was a collaboration of the Ministry of Health of Rwanda, the University of Rwanda Schools of Dentistry and Public Health, the Rwanda Dental Surgeons and Dental (Therapists) Associations, and Tufts University and Harvard University Schools of Dental Medicine. The international effort contributed to building oral health research capacity and resulted in a national oral health database of oral disease burden. This information is essential for developing oral disease prevention and management

  8. Global oral health inequalities: the view from a research funder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I; Tabak, L A

    2011-05-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be "at the table" with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions.

  9. SERS internship fall 1995 abstracts and research papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Beverly

    1996-05-01

    This report is a compilation of twenty abstracts and their corresponding full papers of research projects done under the US Department of Energy Science and Engineering Research Semester (SERS) program. Papers cover a broad range of topics, for example, environmental transport, supercomputers, databases, biology. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion the the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Researching Oral Production Skills of Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpotowicz, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of young learners' ability to communicate in a foreign language. An empirical study was carried out to determine whether, after four years of learning English as a compulsory school subject, children are ready to engage in oral interaction in a semi-controlled task and produce answers and questions in…

  11. Improving children's oral health: an interdisciplinary research framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamassimo, P S; Lee, J Y; Marazita, M L; Milgrom, P; Chi, D L; Divaris, K

    2014-10-01

    Despite the concerted efforts of research and professional and advocacy stakeholders, recent evidence suggests that improvements in the oral health of young children in the United States has not followed the prevailing trend of oral health improvement in other age groups. In fact, oral health disparities in the youngest children may be widening, yet efforts to translate advances in science and technology into meaningful improvements in populations' health have had limited success. Nevertheless, the great strides in genomics, biological, behavioral, social, and health services research in the past decade have strengthened the evidence base available to support initiatives and translational efforts. Concerted actions to accelerate this translation and implementation process are warranted; at the same time, policies that can help tackle the upstream determinants of oral health disparities are imperative. This article summarizes the proceedings from the symposium on the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health that was held during the 43rd annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. This report showcases the latest contributions across the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health research and provides insights into future research priorities and necessary intersectoral synergies. Issues are discussed as related to the overwhelming dominance of social determinants on oral disease and the difficulty of translating science into action. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  12. Advances in the prevention of oral disease; the role of the International Association for Dental Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Helen; Fox, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1920, prevention of oral disease has been a priority for the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) and the commitment of the organisation to the subject area is clearly expressed in its mission to improve oral health worldwide. The IADR has a current global membership of almost 11,000 people who share an interest in oral and craniofacial research. This paper provides an overview of the contribution of IADR to supporting research and associated activities in disease prevention, in disseminating knowledge and in advocating for better oral health for all citizens of the world. It looks back over time and summarises current supports. Two more recent initiatives in disease prevention are described in more detail, the Global Oral Health Inequalities Research Agenda (GOHIRA) and the proceedings at the 2013 World Conference on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD, 2013), a joint initiative between IADR and WHO. Through organisational structure, meetings, publications, scientific groups and networks and external relations, IADR has been at the forefront of advancing research for the prevention of oral diseases. IADR is committed to ensuring research advances get disseminated and implemented and at the same time encourages and advocates for basic, clinical and translational research across disciplines so that we may uncover the major breakthrough in prevention of oral disease.

  13. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Special issue call for papers from Business Systems Research Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Pejić Bach, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    A special issue oft he Business Systems Research Journal with extended versions of selected papers from the 11th International Symposium on Operations Research in Slovenia (SOR’11) will be published under the journal ‘s publishing standards.

  15. Researching Oral Production Skills of Young Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szpotowicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter focuses on the development of young learners’ ability to communicate in a foreign language. An empirical study was carried out to determine whether, after four years of learning English as a compulsory school subject, children are ready to engage in oral interaction in a semicontrolled task and produce answers and questions in English. A convenience sample of ten-year-old children was selected from 180 participants in ELLiE2 in Poland. Six learners from one class of each of seven schools were selected on the basis of teachers’ reports to ensure equal proportions of learners with low, medium and high ability. Schools were chosen to represent different socio-economic milieux. The results of the Year Four oral test (an interactive task showed that almost all the participating childrencould respond to questions but only half were able to ask questions.Considering generally positive attitudes to speaking activities, the results suggest that ten-year-old children are already developing their interactive skills and could benefit from more interaction-focused classroom activities. Further experimental classroom-based studies are necessary to gain better insight into potential oral achievements in this age group. The results are discussed in the context of national curriculum requirements, drawing on the Common European Framework of Reference level descriptors.

  16. Framing Young Childrens Oral Health: A Participatory Action Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Chimere C; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sams, Lattice D; Zeldin, Leslie P; Divaris, Kimon

    2016-01-01

    Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community. This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: "What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?" Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software. Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children's oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children's oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources. Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral health and care. Financial constraints are pervasive, but parents

  17. Microbiomics of Oral Biofilms: Driving The Future of Dental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral infectious diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, endodontic infections, oral candidiasis and peri-implantitis cause major health problems worldwide. All of these infectious diseases are associated with the biofilm growth mode of the oral pathogens. In the past, researchers often attempted to examine the association of single pathogens with particular dental diseases such as in the case of Streptococcus mutans acting as an aetiological agent for dental caries and the so-called “red-complex” bacteria for periodontal disease. However, with the recent advent of OMICS biology techniques such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, it is possible to gain new insights into the host-microbial interaction, microbial community structure and composition in the oral cavity. The new studies on oral microbiomics can unravel the facets of the aetiopathology of oral diseases as never seen before. This mini-review will provide an history and overview of some of the existing DNA sequencing platforms employed to study the microbiomics of oral biofilms and the exciting future ahead for dental research.

  18. A collaborative approach for research paper recommender system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Khalid; Akmar Ismail, Maizatul; Damiasih, Damiasih; Sutopo, Joko; Herawan, Tutut

    2017-01-01

    Research paper recommenders emerged over the last decade to ease finding publications relating to researchers' area of interest. The challenge was not just to provide researchers with very rich publications at any time, any place and in any form but to also offer the right publication to the right researcher in the right way. Several approaches exist in handling paper recommender systems. However, these approaches assumed the availability of the whole contents of the recommending papers to be freely accessible, which is not always true due to factors such as copyright restrictions. This paper presents a collaborative approach for research paper recommender system. By leveraging the advantages of collaborative filtering approach, we utilize the publicly available contextual metadata to infer the hidden associations that exist between research papers in order to personalize recommendations. The novelty of our proposed approach is that it provides personalized recommendations regardless of the research field and regardless of the user's expertise. Using a publicly available dataset, our proposed approach has recorded a significant improvement over other baseline methods in measuring both the overall performance and the ability to return relevant and useful publications at the top of the recommendation list.

  19. Research Paper An exploratory study of psychological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Paper An exploratory study of psychological and developmental issues facing HIV and AIDS affected adolescents living in a residential care facility. Myrthe Van Vilsteren, Sadiyya Haffejee, Rabia Patel, Brett Bowman ...

  20. SERS internship Fall 1992--Spring 1993: Abstract and research papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-05

    This report contains the abstracts and research papers by students on a variety of topics in engineering, genetics, solid state physics, thermonuclear energy, astrophysics, and other science related topics.

  1. SERS internship Fall 1992--Spring 1993: Abstract and research papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the abstracts and research papers by students on a variety of topics in engineering, genetics, solid state physics, thermonuclear energy, astrophysics, and other science related topics

  2. Paper use in research ethics applications and study conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakladar, Abhijoy; Eckstein, Sue; White, Stuart M

    2011-02-01

    Application for Research Ethics Committee (REC) approval and the conduct of medical research is paper intensive. This retrospective study examined all applications to a single REC in the south of England over one year. It estimated the mass of paper used, comparing the proportional paper consumption of different trial types and during different stages of the research process, quantifying the consumption in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. In 2009, 68 trials were submitted to the REC. Total paper consumption for the REC process and study conduct was 176,150 sheets of A4 paper (879 kg), equivalent to an estimated 11.5 million sheets (88 tonnes, 2100 trees) a year for the U.K.; the REC process accounted for 26.4%. REC applications and the conduct of approved trials generate considerable environmental impact through paper consumption contributing to the NHS's carbon footprint. Paper use might be reduced through the implementation of digital technologies and revised research methods, namely changing attitudes in both researchers and ethics committees.

  3. The Oral Proficiency Interview: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Fulcher, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    Many researchers and practitioners maintain that ACTFL's efforts to improve instructional practices and promote proficiency assessments tied to descriptors of what learners can do in real life have contributed significantly to second language teaching and testing. Similar endeavors in the area of research, however, are critically needed. Focusing…

  4. Challenges in conducting qualitative research in health: A conceptual paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankeh, Hamidreza; Ranjbar, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Qualitative research focuses on social world and provides the tools to study health phenomena from the perspective of those experiencing them. Identifying the problem, forming the question, and selecting an appropriate methodology and design are some of the initial challenges that researchers encounter in the early stages of any research project. These problems are particularly common for novices. Materials and Methods: This article describes the practical challenges of using qualitative inquiry in the field of health and the challenges of performing an interpretive research based on professional experience as a qualitative researcher and on available literature. Results: One of the main topics discussed is the nature of qualitative research, its inherent challenges, and how to overcome them. Some of those highlighted here include: identification of the research problem, formation of the research question/aim, and selecting an appropriate methodology and research design, which are the main concerns of qualitative researchers and need to be handled properly. Insights from real-life experiences in conducting qualitative research in health reveal these issues. Conclusions: The paper provides personal comments on the experiences of a researcher in conducting pure qualitative research in the field of health. It offers insights into the practical difficulties encountered when performing qualitative studies and offers solutions and alternatives applied by these authors, which may be of use to others. PMID:26793245

  5. Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    The chapters in this Volume 7 of a series of PAPERS are based on papers published in the period 2004 - 2008 authored/co-authored by Palle Thoft-Christensen......The chapters in this Volume 7 of a series of PAPERS are based on papers published in the period 2004 - 2008 authored/co-authored by Palle Thoft-Christensen...

  6. The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance: updated case definitions of oral disease endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiboski, C H; Patton, L L; Webster-Cyriaque, J Y; Greenspan, D; Traboulsi, R S; Ghannoum, M; Jurevic, R; Phelan, J A; Reznik, D; Greenspan, J S

    2009-07-01

    The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance (OHARA) is part of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG), the largest HIV clinical trials organization in the world. Its main objective is to investigate oral complications associated with HIV/AIDS as the epidemic is evolving, in particular, the effects of antiretrovirals on oral mucosal lesion development and associated fungal and viral pathogens. The OHARA infrastructure comprises: the Epidemiologic Research Unit (at the University of California San Francisco), the Medical Mycology Unit (at Case Western Reserve University) and the Virology/Specimen Banking Unit (at the University of North Carolina). The team includes dentists, physicians, virologists, mycologists, immunologists, epidemiologists and statisticians. Observational studies and clinical trials are being implemented at ACTG-affiliated sites in the US and resource-poor countries. Many studies have shared end-points, which include oral diseases known to be associated with HIV/AIDS measured by trained and calibrated ACTG study nurses. In preparation for future protocols, we have updated existing diagnostic criteria of the oral manifestations of HIV published in 1992 and 1993. The proposed case definitions are designed to be used in large-scale epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, in both US and resource-poor settings, where diagnoses may be made by non-dental healthcare providers. The objective of this article is to present updated case definitions for HIV-related oral diseases that will be used to measure standardized clinical end-points in OHARA studies, and that can be used by any investigator outside of OHARA/ACTG conducting clinical research that pertains to these end-points.

  7. Framing Young Childrens Oral Health: A Participatory Action Research Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimere C Collins

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community.This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: "What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?" Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software.Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children's oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children's oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources.Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral health and care. Financial constraints are

  8. Evaluation of FTA ® paper for storage of oral meta-genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foitzik, Magdalena; Stumpp, Sascha N; Grischke, Jasmin; Eberhard, Jörg; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the short-term storage of meta-genomic DNA from native oral biofilms on FTA(®) paper. Thirteen volunteers of both sexes received an acrylic splint for intraoral biofilm formation over a period of 48 hours. The biofilms were collected, resuspended in phosphate-buffered saline, and either stored on FTA(®) paper or directly processed by standard laboratory DNA extraction. The nucleic acid extraction efficiencies were evaluated by 16S rDNA targeted SSCP fingerprinting. The acquired banding pattern of FTA-derived meta-genomic DNA was compared to a standard DNA preparation protocol. Sensitivity and positive predictive values were calculated. The volunteers showed inter-individual differences in their bacterial species composition. A total of 200 bands were found for both methods and 85% of the banding patterns were equal, representing a sensitivity of 0.941 and a false-negative predictive value of 0.059. Meta-genomic DNA sampling, extraction, and adhesion using FTA(®) paper is a reliable method for storage of microbial DNA for a short period of time.

  9. Spatial support of knowledge production in higher education : Research paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sprang, H; Groen, BH; van der Voordt, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the physical and social dimensions of the work environment on satisfaction and perceived productivity of knowledge workers in Dutch universities of applied sciences. The approach took the form of a literature review, multiple case study of six research centres using

  10. Tourism researcher wins Best Paper Award at international conference

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2010-01-01

    Nancy McGehee, associate professor of hospitality and tourism management research at the Pamplin College of Business at Virginia Tech, received a 2010 Best Paper Award at the recent ATLAS (Association for Tourism and Leisure Education) International Conference on Sustainable Tourism.

  11. SCORE A: A Student Research Paper Writing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Lori; Bulls, Jill A.

    1996-01-01

    A mnemonic strategy for writing a research paper is explained. "SCORE A" reminds the student to select a subject, create categories, obtain sources, read and take notes, evenly organize the information, and apply process writing steps. Implementation of the strategy with five eighth graders with learning disabilities is reported. (DB)

  12. Going to the Source: Research Paper Writing Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Theresa

    2000-01-01

    First years students' experiences and knowledge about research paper writing were studied to investigate how strongly the process writing movement has influenced instructional practice, and how appropriately students have been prepared for their college experience. Finds that many of the students arrived at college without the experience of…

  13. Research Paper Writing Strategies of Professional Japanese EFL Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuko

    1995-01-01

    Four Japanese university professors were interviewed on their strategies for writing a research paper in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Results indicate that these writers use strategies similar to those used by skilled native English writers and proficient writers of English as a Second Language. (35 references) (Author/CK)

  14. Position paper: Web tutorials and Information Literacy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2011-01-01

    Position paper on future research challenges regarding web tutorials with the aim of supporting and facilitating Information Literacy in an academic context. Presented and discussed at the workshop: Social media & Information Practices, track on Information literacy practices, University of Borås...

  15. Writing Clinical Research Papers for Publication | Arotiba | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential minefields of academic research and writing such as authorship, plagiarism, duplicate publication and 'salami-slicing' were highlighted. Recommendation: Education in the 'art' of writing and presentation of scientific papers and the critical appraisal of scientific literature need to be included in our undergraduate ...

  16. Paper in architecture: Research by design, engineering and prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy F. Latka

    2017-11-01

    in terms of architecture, its material properties were researched on a micro, meso and macro level. This research of the possible applications of paper in architecture was informed by two main research questions: What is paper and to what extent can it be used in architecture? What is the most suitable way to use paper in emergency architecture? To answer the first research question, fundamental and material research on paper and paper products had to be conducted. The composition of the material, production methods and properties of paper were researched. Then paper products with the potential to be used in architecture were examined. The history of the development of paper and its influence on civilisation helped the author gain a better understanding of the nature of this material, which we encounter in our lives every day. Research on objects for everyday use, furniture, pavilions and architecture realised in the last 150 years allowed the author to distinguish various types of paper design and paper architecture. Analysis of realised buildings in which paper products were used as structural elements and parts of the building envelope resulted in a wide array of possible solutions. Structural systems, types of connections between the various elements, impregnation methods and the functionalities and lifespan of different types of buildings were systematised. The knowledge thus collected allowed the author to conduct a further exploration of paper architecture in the form of designs and prototypes. To answer the second research question, the analysed case studies were translated into designs and prototypes of emergency shelters. During the research-by-design, engineering and prototyping phases, more than a dozen prototypes were built. The prototypes differed in terms of structural systems, used materials, connections between structural elements, impregnation methods, functionality and types of building. The three versions of the Transportable Emergency Cardboard

  17. Citation practices in Slovak and English linguistic research papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walková Milada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Citation in research articles is an important gateway to acceptance by academic community. When citing others, scholars follow the conventions of the genre, of the academic discipline, and of their culture. This paper focuses on the cultural aspects of citation by comparing and contrasting a corpus of linguistic papers written in English and in Slovak. The results show that while English native writers prefer making their papers more objective through a higher incidence of generalisations and reporting verbs denoting the process of research, Slovak native writers opt for making the cited authors more visible by a greater amount of integral citations and reporting verbs denoting mental states and processes. A higher number of quotations, including floating quotations, suggests that Slovak scholars have a high regard for the work of others.

  18. Spatial support of knowledge production in higher education: Research paper

    OpenAIRE

    van Sprang, H; Groen, BH; van der Voordt, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the physical and social dimensions of the work environment on satisfaction and perceived productivity of knowledge workers in Dutch universities of applied sciences. The approach took the form of a literature review, multiple case study of six research centres using interviews and logbook analysis, and web-based survey (N = 188). Optimally facilitating knowledge production requires both space for concentration (to support internalisation of knowledge) and spa...

  19. Which Academic Papers Do Researchers Tend to Feature on ResearchGate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan Zhen; Fang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The academic social network site ResearchGate (www.researchgate.net) enables researchers to feature up to five of their research products (including papers, datasets and chapters) in a 'Featured research' section on their ResearchGate home page. This provides an opportunity to discover how researchers view their own publications.…

  20. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: Utilization of Oral Medicine-specific software for support of clinical care, research, and education: current status and strategy for broader implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailo, Vlaho; Firriolo, Francis John; Tanaka, Takako Imai; Varoni, Elena; Sykes, Rosemary; McCullough, Michael; Hua, Hong; Sklavounou, Alexandra; Jensen, Siri Beier; Lockhart, Peter B; Mattsson, Ulf; Jontell, Mats

    2015-08-01

    To assess the current scope and status of Oral Medicine-specific software (OMSS) utilized to support clinical care, research, and education in Oral Medicine and to propose a strategy for broader implementation of OMSS within the global Oral Medicine community. An invitation letter explaining the objectives was sent to the global Oral Medicine community. Respondents were interviewed to obtain information about different aspects of OMSS functionality. Ten OMSS tools were identified. Four were being used for clinical care, one was being used for research, two were being used for education, and three were multipurpose. Clinical software was being utilized as databases developed to integrate of different type of clinical information. Research software was designed to facilitate multicenter research. Educational software represented interactive, case-orientated technology designed for clinical training in Oral Medicine. Easy access to patient data was the most commonly reported advantage. Difficulty of use and poor integration with other software was the most commonly reported disadvantage. The OMSS presented in this paper demonstrate how information technology (IT) can have an impact on the quality of patient care, research, and education in the field of Oral Medicine. A strategy for broader implementation of OMSS is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Conducting Research: Literature Search to Writing Review Paper, Part 4: Paper submission & dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    Research Tools” can be defined as vehicles that broadly facilitate research and related activities. “Research Tools” enable researchers to collect, organize, analyze, visualize and publicized research  outputs. Dr. Nader has collected over 700 tools that enable students to follow the correct path in research and to ultimately produce high-quality research outputs with more accuracy and efficiency. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled “Research Tools”, which is updated...

  2. Research Progress on the Relationship Between Oral Microbial Community and Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shujun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress was observed in studies of the relationship between oral Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer and tumors. Based on three distinct and close relationships, namely, the relationship between oral H. pylori and gastric cancer, between oral microbial communities and oral squamous cell carcinoma, and between oral microbial communities of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and tumors, this work reviews the relationship between oral microbial communities and tumors. This research also provides reference for further analysis of the relationship between oral microorganisms and tumors to realize early diagnosis of tumor patients through detecting oral microorganisms under adjuvant therapy.

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (17th, Columbus, Ohio, October 21-24, 1995). Volumes 1 and 2: Plenary Lectures, Discussion Groups, Research Papers, Oral Reports, and Poster Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Douglas T., Ed.; And Others

    In this conference proceedings the overarching theme of research on teaching and learning mathematics in diverse settings and the subthemes of diversity, constructivism and algebra are achieved in the plenary papers. The plenary papers and authors include "Constructivist, Emergent, and Sociocultural Perspectives in the Context of Developmental…

  4. Safety of research reactors. Topical issues paper no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala-Ruiz, F.; Ferraz-Bastos, J.L.; Kim, S.C.; Voth, M.; Boeck, H.; Dimeglio, F.; Litai, D.

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) missions. The prime objective of these missions has been to conduct a comprehensive operational safety review of the research reactor facility and to verify compliance with the IAEA Safety Standards. The methods used during an INSARR mission have been collected and analysed. Some of the important issues identified are the following: general ageing of the facility; uncertain status of many research reactors (in extended shutdown); indefinite deferral of return to operation or decommissioning; inadequate regulatory supervision; insufficient systematic (periodic) reassessment of safety; lack of quality assurance (QA) programmes; lack of an international safety convention or arrangement; lack of financial support for safety measures (e.g. safety reassessment, safety upgrading, decommissioning) and utilization; lack of clear utilization programmes; inadequate emergency preparedness; inadequate safety documentation (e.g. safety analysis report, operating rules and procedures, emergency plan); inadequate funding of shutdown reactors; weak safety culture; loss of expertise and corporate memory; loss of information concerning radioactive materials contained in retired experimental devices stored in the facility indefinitely; obsolescence of equipment and lack of spare parts; inadequate training and qualifications of regulators and operators; safety implications of new fuel types. These issues have been addressed by the IAEA Secretariat and the chairman of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG). INSAG has identified three major safety issues that are: the increasing age of research reactors, the number of research reactors that are not operating anymore but have not been decommissioned, and the number of research reactors in countries that do not have appropriate regulatory authorities. This issue paper discusses the concerns generated by an analysis of the results of INSARR missions and those expressed by INSAG. The

  5. Art for the Smart: Paper and oral presentation assignments for an Earth Materials course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    A letter from the fictional Art for the Smart company addresses students in the Earth Materials course: "You might be wondering why an artist needs a geology consultant. I am creating a sculpture garden filled with mythical beings. I would like each student to recommend two unique minerals for one of these sculptures..." For this project students randomly select a mythical being, two mineral groups, and a mineral characteristic. For example, a student might be assigned the goddess Freya, a sulfate, a vanadate, and twinning. Students then choose a specific mineral from each group, describe their physical and chemical characteristics, and recommend how the minerals could be incorporated into the sculpture. Reports are presented in short oral presentations and two-page business letters with accompanying bibliography and illustrations. The letter format provides a concise way to communicate results to the Art for the Smart "client" while preparing students for their job-hunting days ahead. The oral presentations are structured as features for a news program. Talks are limited to three to five minutes and four slides: title page, mineral #1, mineral #2, and mythical being. The strict limits help students concentrate on scientific content and smooth delivery rather than flashy visual aids. The student audience and the professor evaluate each in-class presentation. This has become a popular assignment because it engages student imaginations to relate minerals to mythical beings and creatively design a sculpture. Each project is unique and therefore more interesting for both students and faculty to evaluate. The projects are nearly impossible to plagiarize from previous years or from internet sources. Earth Materials is a sophomore level course for Geoscience and Marine Science majors at Eckerd College. The Art for the Smart project leads into an assignment for the second half of the semester featuring building stones. A new "client" sends a letter to the class explaining

  6. Writing scientific papers for publication: "Without publication research is sterile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzon, M E J; Cleaton-Jones, P E

    2012-02-01

    The publication of basic science and clinical research findings, as well as new clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques, is widely disseminated. These days there is considerable competition to publish so the selection process is even more competitive. To present advice as to how to enhance the chances of being published and more importantly how to prepare a paper for submission. Instructions are presented as to the steps to be taken in writing a scientific manuscript. This covers Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion. Guidance is given as to what should be included and also what should be left out. The precision of writing is paramount and scientific text needs to be simple, easily read and translated by those whose day-to-day language is not English. Advice is given on journal selection and how to ensure the best chance of manuscript acceptance.

  7. Students’ Problems in Writing Paraphrases in Research Paper Writing Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdiansari Hayuningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraphrase is one of the techniques of incorporating sources in which every writer is allowed to borrow the author’s ideas and restate them into their own words. Based on the previous study, it was found that English Language Education Study Program (ELESP students, Sanata Dharma University, were unable to paraphrase properly since they tended to copy the author’s words directly. If this problem was continuously ignored, it would be dangerous for the students because they could be charged with inadvertent plagiarism. This study was intended to investigate ELESP students’ problems in writing paraphrases and the reasons why they produce unacceptable paraphrases by conducting document analysis and interview in Research Paper Writing class. From the findings, it could be identified that the most frequent type of problem encountered by the students was word-for-word plagiarism.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150101

  8. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The bibliography lists the titles of a total of 75 papers published by members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in 1986 (three of them published in 1985). The papers cover; 'The central nervous system and in utero exposure to ionizing radiation', 'Future directions for biostatistics and cancer epidemiology in Japan', 'Passive smoking and lung cancer among Japanese women', 'Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune response', 'Delayed effects of atomic bomb radiation to human cellular immune competence', 'Characterization of three electrophoretic variants of human erythrocyte triosephosphate isomerase found in Japanese', 'A follow-up study of clonal T-lymphocytes with chromosome aberrations in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors', 'Comments on recent cytogenetic findings at RERF', 'Cytogenetic 'rogue' cells; What is their frequency, origin, and evolutionary sinificance?', 'A parallel analysis of cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors and patients with ankylosing spondylitis given X-ray therapy', 'Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands', 'Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors using monoclonal antibodies', 'Celluar immune competence of patients with lung cancer and other lung diseases. I. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets using monoclonal antibodies', etc. (N.K.) 75 refs

  9. SERS internship: Fall 1994 abstracts and research papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, B.

    1994-12-01

    This publication is a collection of articles generated as a result of the fall 1994 Science and Engineering Research Semester program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Research titles include: electrochemical cells in the reduction of hexavalent chromium; an automated system for studying the power distribution of electron beams; the mapping of novel genes to human chromosome 19; bolometer analysis comparisons; design and implementation of the LLNL Gigabit Testbed; in vitro synthesis and purification of PhIP-Deoxyguanosine and PhIP-DNA Covalent Complexes; pre-thymic somatic mutation leads to high mutant frequency hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene; characterization of thin film multi-layers with magnetization curves and modeling of low angle X-ray diffraction data; total least squares; determining the water content of the Geysers Graywacke of northern California; a general approach to sharing data between scientific representations; nanomechanical properties of SiC thin films grown from C 60 precursors; advanced information technology, a tool set for building clean database applications; the design of an automated electrolytic enrichment procedure for tritium; fluvial terrace dating using in-situ cosmogenic 21 Ne; computer- aided mapping of stream channels beneath the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA; X-ray spectroscopic technique for energetic electron transport studies in short-pulse laser/plasma interactions. Separate entries have been put in the energy data base for articles from this report. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  10. SERS internship: Fall 1994 abstracts and research papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, B.

    1994-12-01

    This publication is a collection of articles generated as a result of the fall 1994 Science and Engineering Research Semester program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Research titles include: electrochemical cells in the reduction of hexavalent chromium; an automated system for studying the power distribution of electron beams; the mapping of novel genes to human chromosome 19; bolometer analysis comparisons; design and implementation of the LLNL Gigabit Testbed; in vitro synthesis and purification of PhIP-Deoxyguanosine and PhIP-DNA Covalent Complexes; pre-thymic somatic mutation leads to high mutant frequency hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene; characterization of thin film multi-layers with magnetization curves and modeling of low angle X-ray diffraction data; total least squares; determining the water content of the Geysers Graywacke of northern California; a general approach to sharing data between scientific representations; nanomechanical properties of SiC thin films grown from C{sub 60} precursors; advanced information technology, a tool set for building clean database applications; the design of an automated electrolytic enrichment procedure for tritium; fluvial terrace dating using in-situ cosmogenic {sup 21}Ne; computer- aided mapping of stream channels beneath the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA; X-ray spectroscopic technique for energetic electron transport studies in short-pulse laser/plasma interactions. Separate entries have been put in the energy data base for articles from this report. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. General Education Oral Communication Assessment and Student Preferences for Learning: E-Textbook versus Paper Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Karen Kangas; Davidson, Marlina M.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a yearly university mandated assessment of a large basic communication course that fulfills the oral communication general education requirement, this study examined student preferences for textbooks, reading, and learning. Specifically, basic course students ("N"=321) at a large state university in the Midwest were asked to…

  12. 78 FR 57005 - Paper and Paper-Based Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... by recycling recovered paper and paper-based packaging products. The separated, moist fibers are then... and other nondurable consumer products such as pharmaceuticals, clothing, footwear and cosmetics... have declined over the past decade.\\11\\ Paperboard is mainly facing competition from plastics, but also...

  13. 78 FR 187 - Paper and Paper-Based Packaging Promotion, Research and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... separating fibers from wood or by recycling recovered paper and paper-based packaging products. The separated... other nondurable consumer products such as pharmaceuticals, clothing, footwear and cosmetics. Nondurable... plastics, but also from foils and, to a lesser extent, glass. Between 2000 and 2010, U.S. paperboard...

  14. Annual tendency of research papers used ICR mice as experimental animals in biomedical research fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, Jung Hoon; Cho, Joon Young; Kim, Kil Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-01-01

    Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice have been widely used in various research fields including toxicology, oncology, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical product safety testing for decades. However, annual tendency of research papers involving ICR mice in various biomedical fields has not been previously analyzed. In this study, we examined the numbers of papers that used ICR mice as experimental animals in the social science, natural science, engineering, medicine-pharmacy, marine agricultur...

  15. Conversation and Narrative in Collaborative Research. Occasional Paper No. 102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio-Ruane, Susan

    A group of teachers and researchers organized the Written Literacy Forum (WLF) to investigate how research on writing instruction could be made more practical for educators. WLF examined common research assumptions and their effects on formal research presentations, highlighting the surprising lack of effort by researchers to talk with teachers…

  16. Paper in architecture : Research by design, engineering and prototyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latka, J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Paper is a fascinating material that we encounter every day in different variants: tissues, paper towels, packaging material, wall paper or even fillers of doors. Despite radical changes in production technology, the material, which has been known to mankind for almost two thousand years, still has

  17. Paper Spray Tandem Mass Spectrometry Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Substrate for Cocaine Analysis in Oral Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ludmyla S.; Carvalho, Thays C.; Romão, Wanderson; Vaz, Boniek G.; Chaves, Andréa R.

    2018-03-01

    This study proposes a new direct and fast method of analysis employing paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS). The paper used in the proposed method was modified with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) to create a specific site for cocaine analysis in oral fluid. MIP membrane was successfully synthetized and employed. The developed method showed to be linear in a concentration range from LOQ to 100 ng mL-1. The experimental value of LOQ obtained was 1 ng mL-1. The inter-day and intra-day precision and accuracy of the PS-MS method presented values lower than 15%. The total recoveries were also evaluated. The PS-MS method for the analysis of cocaine in oral fluid showed to be very promising and the validation parameters showed a good correlation with the literature. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. A multi-centre evaluation of oral cancer in Southern and Western Nigeria: an African oral pathology research consortium initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omitola, Olufemi Gbenga; Soyele, Olujide Oladele; Sigbeku, Opeyemi; Okoh, Dickson; Akinshipo, Abdulwarith Olaitan; Butali, Azeez; Adeola, Henry Ademola

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths among African populations. Lack of standard cancer registries and under-reporting has inaccurately depicted its magnitude in Nigeria. Development of multi-centre collaborative oral pathology networks such as the African Oral Pathology Research Consortium (AOPRC) facilitates skill and expertise exchange and fosters a robust and systematic investigation of oral diseases across Africa. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we have leveraged the auspices of the AOPRC to examine the burden of oral cancer in Nigeria, using a multi-centre approach. Data from 4 major tertiary health institutions in Western and Southern Nigeria was generated using a standardized data extraction format and analysed using the SPSS data analysis software (version 20.0; SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Of the 162 cases examined across the 4 centres, we observed that oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) occurred mostly in the 6 th and 7 th decades of life and maxillary were more frequent than mandibular OSCC lesions. Regional variations were observed both for location, age group and gender distribution. Significant regional differences was found between poorly, moderately and well differentiated OSCC (p value = 0.0071). A multi-centre collaborative oral pathology research approach is an effective way to achieve better insight into the patterns and distribution of various oral diseases in men of African descent. The wider outlook for AOPRC is to employ similar approaches to drive intensive oral pathology research targeted at addressing the current morbidity and mortality of various oral diseases across Africa.

  19. A Brief History of Publishing Papers on Astronomy Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    While some research had been done on K-12 and planetarium astronomy teaching from the 1930's to the 1980's, the growth of research on college physics education offered astronomy education researchers a model for examining techniques for teaching introductory college astronomy survey "Astronomy 101" courses as well. This early research…

  20. Rocky Mountain Research Station invasive species visionary white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Pearson; M. Kim; J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species represent one of the single greatest threats to natural ecosystems and the services they provide. Effectively addressing the invasive species problem requires management that is based on sound research. We provide an overview of recent and ongoing invasive species research conducted by Rocky Mountain Research Station scientists in the Intermountain...

  1. Barter System for Researchers: A Proposal. Opinion Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbutt, Arthur V.

    1970-01-01

    The barter system for researchers consists of two parts: a list linking various research areas with researchers willing to entertain collegial inquiriies, and a clerk to note the number of hours that participants give and receive in the information exchange. (MF)

  2. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Subsidies in Telephone Pricing Section. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Three papers consider the provision of telephone service to rural and/or low income customers. The first paper, "An Analysis of Telephone Penetration" (Alexander Belinfante), analyzes the relationship between telephone penetration (the proportion of households with phone service) and prices, household income, and other factors. This…

  3. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. International Comparisons I (Europe) Section. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Three papers consider telecommunications policy in Great Britain and Germany specifically, and the nations of the European Economic Community generally. The first paper, "German Telecommunications Law and Policies" (Ernst-Joachim Mestamacker) outlines the present structure of telecommunications in West Germany, and discusses deregulation…

  4. Annual tendency of research papers used ICR mice as experimental animals in biomedical research fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, Jung Hoon; Cho, Joon Young; Kim, Kil Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-06-01

    Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice have been widely used in various research fields including toxicology, oncology, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical product safety testing for decades. However, annual tendency of research papers involving ICR mice in various biomedical fields has not been previously analyzed. In this study, we examined the numbers of papers that used ICR mice as experimental animals in the social science, natural science, engineering, medicine-pharmacy, marine agriculture-fishery, and art-kinesiology fields by analyzing big data. Numbers of ICR mouse-used papers gradually increased from 1961 to 2014, but small decreases were observed in 2015 and 2016. The largest number of ICR-used papers were published in the medicine-pharmacy field, followed by natural science and art-kinesiology fields. There were no ICR mouse-used papers in other fields. Furthermore, ICR mice have been widely employed in cell biology studies within the natural science field as well as in biochemistry and pathology in the medicine-pharmacy field. Few ICR mouse-used papers were published in exercise biochemistry and exercise nutrition in the art-kinesiology field. Regardless in most fields, the total numbers of published papers involving ICR mice were higher in 2014 than in other years, although the numbers in some fields including dentistry, veterinary science, and dermatology were high in 2016. Taken together, the present study shows that various ICR stocks, including Korl:ICR mice, are widely employed as experimental animals in various biomedical research fields.

  5. Information on research in progress in Japan publication of 'Nuclear Science Information of Japan-Oral Presentation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Keizo; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Yokoo, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    The new journal, 'Nuclear Science Information of Japan-Oral Presentation', which was entirely revised from the previous abstract journal called 'Nuclear Science Information of Japan' was introduced. This is to be published quaterly in principle and compiled information by oral presentation presented at main conferences, symposia and other kind of formal meetings in the field of nuclear science and technology in Japan. Not all of the oral presentation is always contributed later to a proceeding or a journal as a full paper in Japan. In some cases, the pre-conference paper might be a only publication of the oral presentation. In this meaning, this journal could be used as a search tool for the subjects and the projects of nuclear research and development in progress. (author)

  6. Oral Health Research and Scholarship in 2040: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverini, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    This executive summary for Section 6 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project provides an overview of five background articles that address the role of research and scholarship in dental education in the year 2040. Beginning with a historical account of research and discovery science in dentistry's evolution as a profession, the article then reviews the role of early thought leaders and organized dentistry in establishing research as a cornerstone of dental education and dental practice. The dental research workforce faces an uncertain future fueled by a volatile funding environment and inadequate mentoring and training of research faculty. Dental schools must forge stronger academic and scientific ties to their university and academic health centers and will be challenged to develop sustainable research and patient care collaborations with other health professions. The changing health care environment will create new opportunities for oral health care providers to expand their scope of practice and focus on prevention and screening for non-communicable chronic diseases. Dental practitioners in the future are likely to place greater emphasis on managing the overall health of their patients while promoting closer integration with other health professionals. All dental schools must develop a sustainable research mission if they hope to graduate dentists who function effectively in a collaborative health care environment. The changing scientific and health care landscape will dramatically alter dental education and dental practice. Dental schools need to reconsider their research and educational priorities and clinical practice objectives. Until dental schools and the practicing community come to grips with these challenges, a persistent attitude of complacency will likely be at the dental profession's peril.

  7. Conducting research literature reviews from the internet to the paper

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    Providing readers with an accessible, in-depth look at how to synthesize research literature, Conducting Research Literature Reviews is perfect for students, researchers, marketers, planners, and policymakers who design and manage public and private agencies, conduct research studies, and prepare strategic plans and grant proposals. Bestselling author Arlene Fink shows readers how to explain the need for and significance of research, as well as how to explain a study’s findings. Offering a step-by-step approach to conducting literature reviews, the Fourth Edition features updated examples and covers: how to select databases and evaluate their quality; selecting and organizing key words and other terms in order to effectively search databases and the Web; setting standards for evaluating the quality of research and other literature; extracting and recording information from articles and studies; synthesizing what the reader finds either descriptively or via a meta-analysis; recording and storing the results ...

  8. [Qualitative research in health services research - discussion paper, Part 2: Qualitative research in health services research in Germany - an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, U; Stamer, M; Holmberg, C; Güthlin, C; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2012-08-01

    This is the second part of a 3-part discussion paper by the working group on "Qualitative Methods" in the German network of health services research (DNVF) that shall contribute to the development of a memorandum concerning qualitative health services research. It aims to depict the different types of qualitative research that are conducted in health services research in Germany. In addition, the authors present a specific set of qualitative data collection and analysis tools to demonstrate the potential of qualitative research for health services research. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH - AN OVERVIEW: To give an overview of the types of qualitative research conducted in German health services research, the abstracts of the 8th German Conference on Health Services Research were filtered to identify qualitative or mixed-methods studies. These were then analysed by looking at the context which was studied, who was studied, the aims of the studies, and what type of methods were used. Those methods that were mentioned most often for data collection and analysis are described in detail. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AT THE CONFERENCE FOR HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH 2009: Approximately a fifth of all abstracts (n=74) had a qualitative (n=47) or a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods (n=27). Research aims included needs assessment (41%), survey development (36%), evaluation (22%), and theorizing (1%). Data collection mostly consisted of one-on-one interviews (n=45) and group discussions (n=29). Qualitative content analysis was named in 35 abstracts, 30 abstracts did not reference their method of analysis. In addition to a quantitative summary of the abstract findings, the diversity of fields addressed by qualitative methods is highlighted. Although drawing conclusions on the use of qualitative methods in German health services research from the analysis of conference abstracts is not possible, the overview we present demonstrates the

  9. Reflective Practice: Eight Stages of Publishing a Scientific Research Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K. Donovan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a methodology of academic paper classification for the scientist intending to contribute to peer-reviewed scientific literature. This will enable the progress of the typescript through the publication system to be accurately determined at any stage. The publication process is split into eight subdivisions of differing worth and import: in navel contemplation; in preparation; submitted; in review; revision, revised, and resubmitted; accepted; in press; and publication. Papers in navel contemplation are referred to as in preparation by many, which can be an embarrassment when asked exactly what has been prepared. Rather than listing papers as in preparation in academic submissions, it is better to list them as unpublished data until published. Efficient authors keep a close watch on their papers between submission and the proof stage. They must be sufficiently organized to manage their publications and to be aware when things slow down. The methodology is flexible and, if it does not work for some authors, then they have a simple framework to adapt to their own preferences. In short, scientists need to show care and not be overly optimistic about the progress of any paper.

  10. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This issue is the bibliography of the publication by the staffs of the Radiation Effects Research Institute (RERF) in 1989. Titles in original and English language with author names are enumerated. Indexes by research areas and by author name are also attached. (J.P.N.) 62 refs

  11. SERS internship: Spring 1994 abstracts and research papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, B.

    1994-05-06

    This document contains abstracts from the science and engineering research semester from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Projects cover many areas in the fields of contaminant removal from the environment, physics, and genetics research. Individual projects were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  12. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue is the bibliography of the publication by the staffs of the Radiation Effects Research Institute (RERF) in 1988. Titles in original and English language with author names are enumerated. Indeces by research areas and by author name are also attached. (J.P.N.) 99 refs

  13. Research on Mechanism of Paper Burning by Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Da; HAN Xingzhou; WANG Xiaoguang; QI Fengliang; WANG Zijie; GUO Zihan; HAO Hongguang

    2015-01-01

    The examination of charred document is a challenge and usually requires a careful application of certain scientific techniques due to its unstable property. To address this issue, the mechanism of paper burning was studied in this paper. Here thermal-gravimetry (TG) was applied to investigate five kinds of paper, along with their TG and derivative thermogravimetric curve (DTG) observed at different atmospheric conditions. The results showed that the shape of curves, albeit similar, varied with the physical and chemical composition of paper. In the burning process, dehydration and de-polymerization are the two main pathways for cellulose, the major ingredient of paper. The heating rate indicated little influence on the curves while the sort of atmosphere worked strongly. The reason is due to the lack of tar oxidation when nitrogen used as the atmospheric environment. At moderate temperature, de-polymerization prevails and the tar can be observed. With temperature increasing, the tar and cellulose are further decomposed, leading to products of high boiling-point. According to the results, the charred document can be classified as one of the dehydrated, tarred, charred and ashed. Except the ashed stage, the other three can be handled and the writing whereon can be deciphered. The results exposed hereof may provide a fundamental for examining and deciphering charred document.

  14. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    The hamsters were maintained as per the principles and guidelines of the ..... Financial support from Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi to Mr. K. Panjamurthy, in the form of Senior .... Principles and management of cancer.

  15. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Ghana, was assessed for its ... The study design was based on an open, prospective, non-comparative clinical trial in .... Medicine, 4th Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford pp 572, 644.

  16. SERS internship Spring 1995 abstracts and research papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.

    1995-11-01

    Presented topics varied over many fields in science and engineering. Botany on grasses in California, real time face recognition technology, thermogravimetric studies on corrosion and finite element modeling of the human pelvis are examples of discussed subjects. Further fields of study are carcinogenics, waste management, radar imaging, automobile accessories, document searching on the internet, and shooting stars. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  17. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Capital Recovery Section. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Two papers consider the capital recovery difficulties of telephone companies in the current deregulatory environment. The first, "Capital Recovery in the Transition Period" (Gail Garfield Schwartz, New York State Public Service Commission) describes the process determining depreciation in both regulated and deregulated environments, and…

  18. National Libraries Section. General Research Libraries Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on national library services and activities, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "The National Library of China in its Gradual Application of Modern Technology," a discussion by Zhu Nan and Zhu Yan (China) of microform usage and library automation; (2)…

  19. Symposium on refractory organic substances in the environment - Rose II. Abstracts of oral and poster papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frimmel, F H; Abbt-Braun, G [eds.

    2000-07-01

    Again the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft has generously supported the 25 research projects working together on Refractory Organic Substances in the Environment (ROSE). Numerous researchers from universities and research institutes all over Germany focused upon the characterization of refractory organic material from brown water, soil seepage water as well as treated and untreated waste water through the compilation of analytical and biochemical data on the genesis and transformation of the isolated organic material and its interactions with other water constituents. (orig.)

  20. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African J. TradCAM

    ... as a resource for research and development programmes in the pursuit of ..... Schultes R.E (1978) The Kingdom of plants In: W.A.R. Thomson (ed.) ... Tschesche R (1970) Advances in the chemistry of antibiotic substances from higher plants ...

  1. ANALYSIS METHOD OF RESEARCH PAPERS PUBLISHED FOR AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREAVU-ȘERBAN VALERICĂ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Representing a strong instrument of control and feedback used by top management executives, regulators institutions or independent bodies, the audit, its methods and techniques incite the interest of specialists, professionals, professors and researchers from all socio-economic activities. The way domain experts write about audit itself is often reflected in the manner in which they choose the keywords for the title and for the article. This study is a detailed analysis of assignment to the specific thematic areas of articles published in "Financial Audit" journal, for all public appearances in electronic format from the period 2003-2015. The study is different from other similar researches by the methodology and the type of information extracted addressed. The main purpose is to identify the most used keywords in the title and content of articles published over time and insight traceability to future research directions. The conclusions of the analysis from this article give a comprehensive picture of audit multidisciplinary, thus providing researchers, on several economic fields, an image about the content of the publication, quality information for readers, authors and future authors.

  2. Research Paper Prevalence of enuresis in a community sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research suggests a higher prevalence of coexisting behavioural disorders, particularly Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), among children with enuresis in comparison to the general population. Studies generally have consisted of participants attending general paediatric medical clinics as opposed to ...

  3. Research Paper ISSN 0189-6016©2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African J. TradCAM

    It is also used for dry coughs and gastric ulcers (Winston, 2004). Recent research indicates Shatavari enhances immune function, increases corticosteroid production, and promotes cell regeneration (Rege et al., 1999). In Thailand the root is claimed as a galactagogue, antidysenteric, antipeptic, antipruritic, antirheumatic,.

  4. Writing a Research Paper for Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Joshi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural research findings are required to reach soon to the farmers, extensionists, media, researchers, policy makers, businessperson, students, teachers and so many other stakeholders. Among different types of publications, research paper is generally published in journal considered as standard type of publication in term of quality and recognition. Most of the journals follow similar pattern and framework; however, the style, format and process may be different with each other. A research (scientific paper is a written describing original research result using standard methods and materials. The major sections in a journal paper are abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusion, and references. Accordingly Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council has its own style and format. Author needs to follow guidelines strictly on the use of punctuation marks such as comma (,, period (., space, justification etc; otherwise submitted manuscripts could be immediately return to author without considering in review process. In general, we received manuscripts with many errors on citation and references, poor elaboration of results of experiments, weak discussion, missing to acknowledge funding agencies, submitting non-editable figures, very few numbers of citations of Nepalese researchers, statements not in logical order, etc. In general, the scientific papers should be written in simple way with new but sufficient justification backed up by data in the form of tables, graphs, flow diagrams etc so that readers can understand easily with high readability. The submitted manuscript in the journal office are sent to two to three reviewers for specific recommendation on the originality of the work, appropriateness of the approach and experimental design, adequacy of experimental techniques, soundness of conclusions and interpretations, relevance of discussion and importance of the research. The language clarity and

  5. Working Papers in Acquisition of Knowledge for Image Understanding Research,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-15

    Rmvt 112,7,P IM Y. K3p ’Of’ z4-" odK zw Mw; OW, ev 6 "ONO T;I 11; "VI lip, IA wo 44 jo . ... . ...... I I WORKING PAPERS IN ACQUISITION OF...paradigm than any other. They have collected protocolt on subjects verbally describing scenes, after examining them visually. The control variable they... collection of Elements of Control Flow (ECF). To avoid creation of either file, the user presses the return key without typing a name to the respective

  6. ARL Summer Student Research Symposium. Volume 1: Select Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    deploying Android smart phones and tablets on the battlefield, which may be a target for malware. In our research, we attempt to improve static...network. (a) The T1 and MRI images are (b) segmented into different material components. The segmented geometry is then used to create (c) a finite element...towards finding a method to detect mTBI non-invasively. One method in particular includes the use of a magnetic resonance image ( MRI )-based imaging

  7. Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Betty Kay [ORNL; Alton, Anita Jean [ORNL; Andrews, Shirley H [ORNL; Bownas, Jennifer Lynn [ORNL; Casey, Denise [ORNL; Martin, Sheryl A [ORNL; Mills, Marissa [ORNL; Nylander, Kim [ORNL; Wyrick, Judy M [ORNL; Drell, Dr. Daniel [Office of Science, Department of Energy; Weatherwax, Sharlene [U.S. Department of Energy; Carruthers, Julie [U.S. Department of Energy

    2006-08-01

    In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new

  8. How Research Training Will Shape the Future of Dental, Oral, and Craniofacial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Rena N; Colombo, John S

    2017-09-01

    This is a critical time in the history of the dental profession for it to fully embrace the responsibility to safeguard its reputation as a learned profession. In this golden era of scientific and technological advances, opportunities abound to create new diagnostics, preventions, treatments, and cures to improve oral health. Dental schools are the largest national resource entrusted with the responsibility to educate, train, and retain oral health researchers who can leverage such technologies and research opportunities that will benefit the profession at large as well as patients. This article reemphasizes the theme that research training and scholarship must be inextricably woven into the environment and culture in dental schools to ensure the future standing of the profession. An overview of the history of support provided by the National Institutes of Health and National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research for the training and career development of dentist-scientists is presented. In addition, new data on the outcomes of such investments are presented along with a comparison with other health professions. This overview underscores the need to expand the capacity of a well-trained cadre of oral health researchers through the reengineering of training programs. Such strategies will best prepare future graduates for team science, clinical trials, and translational research as well as other emerging opportunities. The urgent need for national organizations like the American Dental Association, American Dental Education Association, and American Association for Dental Research to create new alliances and novel initiatives to assist dental schools and universities in fulfilling their research mission is emphasized. To ignore such calls for action is to disavow a valuable legacy inherited by the dental profession. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  9. Developing a Research Agenda on the Political Economy of Immigrants' Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvasina, Paola; Gastaldo, Denise; Quiñonez, Carlos; Muntaner, Carles

    2018-06-01

    Acculturation has been widely used in health research to explain oral health disparities between immigrants and their native born counterparts. However, immigrants' oral health studies have not clearly defined the acculturation construct. Also, a narrow focus on cultural oral health behaviours is likely to be inadequate for explaining immigrants' oral health inequities, which are also rooted in societal, political and economic factors produced across the globe. In this brief report, we discuss the use of the acculturation framework in the dental public health literature, note gaps in this approach, and argue for the need to incorporate the political economy lens to help better understand the complexities of immigrants' oral health.

  10. Building partnership in oral cancer research in a developing country: processes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Latifah, Raja Jallaludin Raja; Samsuddin, Abdul Rani; Cheong, Sok Ching; Abdullah, Norlida; Ismail, Abdul Rashid; Hussaini, Haizal Bin; Talib, Norain Abu; Jallaludin, Amin

    2009-01-01

    The rising burden of cancer in the developing world calls for a re-evaluation of the treatment strategies employed to improve patient management, early detection and understanding of the disease. There is thus an increasing demand for interdisciplinary research that integrates two or more disciplines of what may seemed to be highly unrelated and yet very much needed as strategies for success in research. This paper presents the processes and barriers faced in building partnerships in oral cancer research in a developing country. A case study was undertaken in a developing country (Malaysia) to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the situation leading to the formation of a multidisciplinary research partnership in oral cancer. Following the formalization of the partnership, further evaluation was undertaken to identify measures that can assist in sustaining the partnership. The group identifies its strength as the existence of academia, research-intensive NGOs and good networking of clinicians via the existence of the government's network of healthcare provider system who are the policy makers. The major weaknesses identified are the competing interest between academia and NGOs to justify their existence due to the lack of funding sources and well trained human resources. With the growing partnership, the collaborative group recognizes the need to develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) and guidelines for the sharing and usage of resources in order to safeguard the interest of the original partners while also attending to the needs of the new partners.

  11. Researching the impact of oral health on diet and nutritional status: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula; Thomason, Mark; Walls, Angus; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Morais, Jose A; Ghanem, Henry; Wollin, Stephanie; Ellis, Janice; Steele, Jimmy; Lund, James; Feine, Jocelyne

    2009-04-01

    Assessment of the impact of dental function on diet and nutritional status requires robust methodologies and a standardised approach to increase accuracy of results and to facilitate cross study comparisons. The objectives of this paper are: to report the outcomes of a consensus workshop that critically reviewed publications reporting on dietary methodologies in relation to the impact of oral health on nutrition; to highlight future directions for research and; to make recommendations for appropriate use of methodologies for future research. Data relevant to nutrition and dental status published from 1980 to 2005 in English were presented at the consensus workshop for discussion and appraisal. Relevant papers were retrieved through PubMed. Relevant texts were obtained from the library at Newcastle University, UK. A purposive sample of original articles that illustrated the application of a range of nutritional methodologies to the study of oral health impacts was identified. Original flagship texts on nutritional methodologies were reviewed. Numerous studies have shown an association between loss of teeth and inferior diet. Further research is required to elucidate the impact of novel approaches to prosthetic rehabilitation and the impact of contemporaneous dietary and dental intervention on diet, nutritional status, disease progression and quality of life. The recommendation of the consensus workshop was that future studies should adopt a comprehensive approach to the assessment of nutrition that encompasses measurement of diet, body composition, biochemical indices of intake and levels of nutrients, and functional biomarkers of disease.

  12. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The report lists the titles and authors of the reports of studies made under the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The list include 87 studies, which cover 'immunological diagnosis of lung cancer', 'electrophoretic variants of haptoglobin found in the children of atomic bomb survivors', 'rogue cells in the general human population', 'host variation of X-ray sensitivity among atomic bomb survivors with or without breast cancer', 'disorders in the endocrine gland and gonad of A-bomb survivors', 'incidence of vertebral compression fractures among atomic bomb survivors', 'measurement of the frequency of in vivo somatic mutation in atomic bomb survivors by T-cell cloning', 'mechanism of carcinogenesis in A-bomb survivors', 'effects of aging on blood pressure', 'expediting factors of blood sedimentation of heavily exposed survivors', 'record linkage between local cancer registry and tumor and tissue registries', 'reclassification of diagnosis and types of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima', 'cytogenetic study in utero exposed individuals', 'estimation of indoor and outdoor A-bomb gamma-ray doses by thermoluminescence measurement', and many other studies. (N.K.) 87 refs

  13. Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS in Asia: Systematic review and future research guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Oberoi, Sukhvinder-Singh; Vohra, Puneeta; Nagpal, Archna

    2015-07-01

    The authors have conducted a systematic review of oral manifestations of HIV from studies conducted in Asia to establish the characteristics and prevalence of individual oral manifestations in Asia, and to assess the direction of future research studies on oral manifestations of HIV in Asia. The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE], EBSCO, and EMBASE. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period January 1995 to August 2014. The authors reached a final overall sample of 39 studies that were conducted in Asia. The median population size among all studies was 312.7 patients. Oral candidiasis [OC] was the most common oral manifestation [37.7%] in studies conducted in Asia. The overall prevalence of oral hairy leukoplakia and melanotic hyperpigmentation was computed to be 10.1% and 22.8% respectively. Thailand and India are primarily countries with maximum research on oral manifestations. The research on oral manifestations of HIV in Asia has to upgrade to more interventional and therapeutic studies rather than the contemporary cross- sectional epidemiological descriptive studies. The authors have given suggestions and future directions for the implementation of clinical research of oral manifestations in HIV patients. Key words:Oral manifestations, HIV/AIDS, Asia, Systematic review.

  14. Abstract of technical and scientific papers for oral and poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The National Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) organized the holding of the 4th national social science congress that coincide with the 20th annual scientific meeting on the 'The Philippine social sciences in the life of the nation' as the overall theme. It highlights the significant developments and technical and scientific researches on social, agricultural, mathematical, physical, and engineering, biological and health sciences that contributes to the nation building

  15. Overview and research agenda arising from the 7th World Workshop on Oral Health and Disease in AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappuni, A R; Shiboski, C

    2016-04-01

    The Research Agenda generated by the 7th World Workshop on Oral Health and Disease in AIDS (WW7) is delivered in this paper. Panels of international experts presided over nine workshops that constituted the conference held in November 2014 in Hyderabad, India. The main goal of the Workshop was to bring together clinician and scientists interested in the subject to debate with world-wide perspectives current issues related to the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS. The workshops were structured around three themes; basic science, clinical/translational science and social science and were attended by 135 participants from 31 countries. The research questions debated at the workshops are presented in nine consensus papers published in this issue and are summarised in this paper along with an outline of the identified research needs in the field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Research and Practice Communications Between Oral Health Providers and Prenatal Health Providers: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvoretz, John; Dyer, Karen; Daley, Ellen; Debate, Rita; Vamos, Cheryl; Kline, Nolan; Thompson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine scholarly collaboration between oral health and prenatal providers. Oral disease is a silent epidemic with significant public health implications for pregnant women. Evidence linking poor oral health during pregnancy to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes requires oral health and prenatal providers to communicate on the prevention, treatment and co-management matters pertaining to oral health issues among their pregnant patients. The need for inter-professional collaboration is highlighted by guidelines co-endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Dental Association, stressing the importance of oral health care during pregnancy. Methods To assess if interdisciplinary communication occurs between oral health and prenatal disciplines, we conducted a network analysis of research on pregnancy-related periodontal disease. Results Social Network analysis allowed us to identify communication patterns between communities of oral health and prenatal professionals via scientific journals. Analysis of networks of citations linking journals in different fields reveals a core-periphery pattern dominated by oral health journals with some participation from medicine journals. However, an analysis of dyadic ties of citation reveals statistically significant "inbreeding" tendencies in the citation patterns: both medical and oral health journals tend to cite their own kind at greater-than-chance levels. Conclusions Despite evidence suggesting that professional collaboration benefits patients' overall health, findings from this research imply that little collaboration occurs between these two professional groups. More collaboration may be useful in addressing women's oral-systemic health concerns that result in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  17. A guide to critiquing a research paper. Methodological appraisal of a paper on nurses in abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Allyson; Fothergill, Anne

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we have taken a previously published article on nurses' judgements in abortion care performing a systematic critique of the merits of this research using a recognised critiquing framework. The qualitative paper chosen for the critique is a grounded theory design and the research terms and terminology associated with this method such as symbolic interactionism are defined. The published paper reported on findings from a study exploring the characteristics of nurses in abortion care. A published critiquing tool has been applied. It was chosen because it is pragmatic, clearly laid out and accessible as full text to the people likely to need it. It comprises two stages, the first of which centres on the believability of the research. The second stage is more detailed and examines the research process and establishes the credibility of the research in its application to practice. Develop critical and analytical skills through methodically appraising the merits of published research. Nursing as an evidence-based profession requires nurses at both pre- and post-registration levels to be able to understand, synthesise and critique research, this being a fundamental part of many nursing curricula. These have become core skills to acquire since implementing up to date evidence is the cornerstone of contemporary nursing practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Smartphone-based enzymatic biosensor for oral fluid L-lactate detection in one minute using confined multilayer paper reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Donato; Caliceti, Cristiana; Zangheri, Martina; Mirasoli, Mara; Simoni, Patrizia; Roda, Aldo

    2017-08-15

    The development of smartphone-based biosensors for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications allows realizing "all in one" instruments, with large potential distribution among the general population. With this respect, paper color-based detection performed by reflectance measurement is the most popular, simple, inexpensive and straightforward method. Despite the large number of scientific publications related to these biosensors, they still suffer from a poor detectability and reproducibility related to inhomogeneity of color development, which leads to low assay reproducibility. To overcome these problems, we propose a smartphone paper-based biosensor, in which all the reagents necessary to complete the analysis are co-entrapped on paper in a "wafer"-like bilayer film of polyelectrolytes (Poly (allyl amine hydrochloride/poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate)). Using a 3D printing low-cost technology we fabricated the smartphone-based device that consists in a cover accessory attached to the smartphone and incorporating a light diffuser over the flash to improve the image quality, a mini dark box and a disposable analytical cartridge containing all the reagents necessary for the complete analysis. The biosensor was developed exploiting coupled enzyme reactions for quantifying L-lactate in oral fluid, which is considered a biomarker of poor tissue perfusion, a key element in the management of severe sepsis, septic shock and in sports performance evaluation. The developed method is sensitive, rapid, and it allows detecting L-lactate in oral fluid in the relevant physiological range, with a limit of detection of 0.1mmolL -1 . The extreme simplicity of assay execution (no reagents need to be added) and flexibility of fabrication of the device, together with the high assay versatility (any oxidase can be coupled with HRP-based color change reaction) make our approach suitable for the realization of smartphone-based biosensors able to non-invasively detect a large variety of

  19. Research Paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    microbial consortium utilize the hydrocarbon component of atrazine and thereby mineralize the somewhat recalcitrant .... Table 1: Physico - chemical properties of soil samples. Description .... atrazine in soil and Aquifer Solids. J. of Environ.

  20. Research Paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    The funnel of the membrane filtration unit has a capacity of 50ml and the funnel was mounted one receptacle fixed to the vacuum pump which allows the water to flow over the porous sterile membrane filter (0.45µm). Aseptically, the membrane filters were placed on each microbial growth medium using sterile forceps after ...

  1. Research Paper:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shanu

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... fruits of capsicum have a variety of names like chilli pepper, red or green .... healthy plants for direct regeneration after 4 weeks of seed inoculation. ... it was observed that the cytokinins alone did not have a significant effect on.

  2. Research Paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    control, and management of stress are all helpful factors in controlling ..... (slow) release of the plant juice in to the microbe swabbed medium. ... daily in our food or in other forms customarily, even without knowing their medicinal benefits.

  3. Research Paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    (India). A total of 150 healthcare-associated (HA) sources (doctors mobiles ... including endocarditis, osteomyelitis, toxic-shock syndrome, pneumonia, ... These infections can occur in wounds or skin, burns and IV or other sites where tubes.

  4. Research Paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    of microbial contaminants in the herbal remedies suggests that they may serve as source of infection to end users. Key words: Microbial, load, antibacterial, herbal, remedies. Introduction. The use of herbal medicine has always been part of human culture, as some plants possess important therapeutic properties, which can ...

  5. [Overview of researches for Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity and stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaiyu; Li, Yuqing; Zhou, Xuedong

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogens in human and it is closely related to gastrointestinal diseases. It is essential for us to understand the transmission process of H. pylori to prevent its spreading. The oral cavity has been proposed as a reservoir for gastric H. pylori, which has been detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in both dental plaque and saliva. Some researchers have proposed H. pylori in oral cavity may play an important role in its transmission and reinfection. Oral-oral or fecal-oral transmission are thought to be the most possible transmit way. This review will discuss the evidence for the role of the oral cavity in the transmission of H. pylori, the difficulties encountered in addressing this topic and possible directions for future research. Oral H. pylori may also play a role in the diagnosis and prevention of deceases related to H. pylori such as gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma. The recent progresses in this area are also reviewed. Moreover, we also discussed the relationship between oral H. pylori and oral deceases like periodontal disease and oral ulcer.

  6. Building Bridges: The Use of Reflective Oral Diaries as a Qualitative Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The article is a reflection on the use of an oral diary as a qualitative research tool, the role that it played during fieldwork and the methodological issues that emerged. It draws on a small-scale empirical study into primary school teachers' use of group discussion, during which oral diaries were used to explore and document teacher reflective…

  7. Priorities for research for oral health in the 21st century--the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    research in the developed and developing world to reduce risk factors and the burden of oral disease, and to improve oral health systems and the effectiveness of community oral health programmes. Building and strengthening research capacity in public health are highly recommended by WHO for effective......The World Health Organization (WHO) "World Oral Health Report 2003" emphasized that despite great improvements in the oral health status of populations across the world, problems persist. The major challenges of the future will be to translate existing knowledge and sound experiences of disease...... prevention and health promotion into action programmes, this is particularly the case with developing countries that have not yet benefited from advances in oral health science to the fullest extent possible. The WHO Oral Health programme gives priority to research helping correct the so called 10/90 gap...

  8. A review of research papers in the Tropical Journals of Obstetrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of research papers in the Tropical Journals of Obstetrics ... Promotion of relevant research in reproductive health and dissemination of research findings are ... Objective: To evaluate the pattern of study designs and range of scientific ...

  9. Dentistry in the future--on the role and goal of basic research in oral biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, K K

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the state of affairs of oral biology cannot be endeavoured without considering the mutual interactions and interdependencies of sciences, and without considering the impact human acts will exert on these developments. Oral biology deals with the biochemical, chemical, molecular biologic, general biologic and physical aspects of all processes that take place in the oral cavity, in the masticatory organ, and in tissues and body fluids that are associated with the above processes. Oral biology also reaps the harvest sown by (other) basic sciences. From the methodological point of view, oral biology is indistinguishable from basic sciences; it is the anatomical object that makes it specific. Oral biology cannot be regarded as "big science" (i.e. compared with the human genome project, space research, AIDS research etc.). This fact may preserve the attractiveness of oral biology. Important science--this concerns oral biology as well--still emerges in smaller settings, although there are omens that large research cartels will swallow larger and larger portions of research appropriations. A key to staying competitive is to use new science sources and--in some cases--to join bigger groups. Once upon a time oral biologists--or scientists in general--assumed that a record of solid accomplishments was sufficient to maintain research support. Today, in several countries, politics and public visibility unfortunately determine the funding privileges. Provided that human operations on earth will render future development of sciences possible, the future of oral biology will depend 1) on concomitant development in the above basic fields, and 2) on innovations in the individual psyches. This combination will unravel the structure of genes involved in the development and metabolism of oral processes, clone important salivary and connective tissue proteins, and control most important oral diseases. To achieve these goals, oral biology must attract young talent and

  10. Reconfiguring the Role of the Research Paper: Collaborative Writing To Teach Basic Academic Research and Writing Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Michelle M.

    Each year that the author of this paper, an English instructor at Moorhead College (Minnesota), teaches the first-year "research paper," one instructor turns more and more to collaborative writing work. And she admits that some of her motives in reshaping the research paper in collaborative ways can seem to be based in assisting herself…

  11. The Content Analysis of the Research Papers on Foreign Language Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trends of recent research papers in foreign language teaching in Turkish context and to give ideas to researchers and policy makers for future studies. Content Analysis method was used in this study. The focus of the study was 189 research papers published between 2009-2013 years in journals indexed…

  12. What Can Pakeha Learn from Engaging in Kaupapa Maori Educational Research? Working Paper 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This working paper focuses on how Pakeha have become involved in Maori-determined and controlled educational research, and what issues inhibit and facilitate their work. This paper focuses on the experiences of four Pakeha educational researchers who have been engaged in different forms of kaupapa Maori research since the early 1990s. Placing…

  13. Brief description of research papers accepted for publication during 1979. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    Brief descriptions of research papers in radiobiology, biochemistry, metabolism, and biophysics published during 1979 are presented. The research was conducted by investigators in the Dept. of Radiation Biology and Biophysics

  14. Brief description of research papers accepted for publication during 1979. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, D.B

    1980-06-16

    Brief descriptions of research papers in radiobiology, biochemistry, metabolism, and biophysics published during 1979 are presented. The research was conducted by investigators in the Dept. of Radiation Biology and Biophysics. (ACR)

  15. THE USE OF RESEARCH PAPER WRITING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALSTO IMPROVE STUDENTS‟ACADEMIC WRITING: A CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Ghufron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of students in English Education Department of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro frequently consider that academic writing, in term of writing scientific paper, is not easy task to do. The result of their academic writing performance at preliminary research indicated that they achieved low scores in writing a scientific article. Consequently, they are not motivated in academic writing. For this case, I used Research Paper Writing Instructional Materials as sources in teaching and learning. This research investigatedwhether the use of Research Paper Writing Instructional Materials can improve students‘ academic writing andhow class situation is when Research Paper Writing Instructional Materials are used as a source of teaching and learning process. This is a Classroom Action Research (CAR which is conducted at the fourth semester students of English Education Department of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro in the academic year of 2014/2015. This research was done in two cycles. Each cycle consisted of four steps: Planning, Acting, Observing, and Reflecting. The qualitative data were collected through observation and interview. The quantitative data were collected through test. The research findings revealed that the use of Research Paper Writing Instructional Materialscan improve students‘ academic writing and improve students‘ motivation in academic writing class.Derived from the findings, it can be concluded that the use of Research Paper Writing Instructional Materialscan improve students‘ academic writing and class situation. Therefore, it is recommended for the lecturers to use Research Paper Writing Instructional Materialsas it can improve students‘ academic writing as well as class situation.

  16. A re-appraisal of publication rates of scientific papers presented at the Otorhinolaryngology Research Society meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A S; Krishnan, M; Williams, S P; Mamais, C; Sweed, A; Bhat, J; Somashekar, S; Leong, S C

    2016-12-01

    To review the rate of publication of papers in peer-reviewed journals after oral presentations at the Otorhinolaryngology Research Society meetings between 1996 and 2013 and to compare trends with the previous review (1979-1995). Literature review. Merseyside ENT Research Collaborative. The abstracts of presentations at Otorhinolaryngology Research Society meetings are published in Clinical Otolaryngology. A structured search of PubMed was undertaken to identify published Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations. Publication rates. A total of 460 abstracts were identified. The interobserver reliability among reviewers was 98%. Of the total, 259 (56.3%) abstracts were published in peer-reviewed journals. The average time from Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentation to publication was 27.7 months (median 23), which was not significantly different from the previous review. Publication by subspeciality was as follows: head and neck (45.6%), otology (30.5%), rhinology (22%) and others (1.9%). Most published Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations were published in Clinical Otolaryngology (22.4%), followed by the Journal of Laryngology and Otology (8.1%) and the Laryngoscope (7.3%). Clinical research was the most common category of abstracts being presented at Otorhinolaryngology Research Society meetings, followed by laboratory-based research. Over half (56.5%) of laboratory research presented were head and neck themed, while otology and rhinology predominated clinical research presentations. Over half (52.1%) of Otorhinolaryngology Research Society abstracts originated from units in the North of England. Bristol presented the most abstracts (30.1%), followed by Newcastle (25.1%). The publication rate of Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations remains high and many are subsequently published in high-impact factor otolaryngology journals. More Otorhinolaryngology Research Society presentations are now published in American and

  17. The Research Paper as an Object of Communication in Industrial Design Educations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Botin, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of papers provides students at industrial design education´s an opportunity to gain experience with design research and papers as an object of communication. Design research is an interdisciplinary field that is both relatively new and with a blurred borderline to the professional...

  18. Move Analysis of the Conclusion Sections of Research Papers in Persian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Gerannaz; Ebadi, Saman

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the conclusion sections in Research Papers (RPs) is of significance in academic writing. The conclusion section in spite of providing an outline of the article, states other essential components, such as recommendations, implications and statements of possible lines of future research. This paper analyses the conclusion parts of…

  19. Facilitating the Research Paper Process: A Guide for the Social Science Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Suzanne L.

    This paper describes the approach used successfully at California State University, Dominguez Hills, to instruct college students in the research paper writing process. To achieve the results, the instructor followed a specific set of steps during a class meeting set aside for this specialized training. This paper details each step in the…

  20. Use and misuse of mixed methods in population oral health research: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Keuskamp, D

    2018-05-30

    Despite the known benefits of a mixed methods approach in health research, little is known of its use in the field of population oral health. To map the extent of literature using a mixed methods approach to examine population oral health outcomes. For a comprehensive search of all the available literature published in the English language, databases including PubMed, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source (DOSS), CINAHL, Web of Science and EMBASE (including Medline) were searched using a range of keywords from inception to October 2017. Only peer-reviewed, population-based studies of oral health outcomes conducted among non-institutionalised participants and using mixed methods were considered eligible for inclusion. Only nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The most frequent oral health outcome investigated was caries experience. However, most studies lacked a theoretical rationale or framework for using mixed methods, or supporting the use of qualitative data. Concurrent triangulation with a convergent design was the most commonly used mixed methods typology for integrating quantitative and qualitative data. The tools used to collect quantitative and qualitative data were mostly limited to surveys and interviews. With growing complexity recognised in the determinants of oral disease, future studies addressing population oral health outcomes are likely to benefit from the use of mixed methods. Explicit consideration of theoretical framework and methodology will strengthen those investigations. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  1. Review of research institute library activity through the contributed papers. The case of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Habara, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Masashi; Itabashi, Keizo; Yonezawa, Minoru

    2007-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Library had contributed 312 papers through the library activities in half-century. We made the bibliography of these papers as well as categorized them into general', 'library functions', 'management and promotion of research results' and 'international exchange of information' and explained them under the four categories. A subject index, an author index of these papers and chronology of JAERI library activities were also compiled for reference. (author)

  2. Back to business: a next step in the field of oral history: the usefulness of oral history for leadership and organizational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, S.; Kroeze, R.

    2012-01-01

    Business organizations and elites are often neglected in oral history as a result of the dominant assumption that elites have ample opportunity to be heard. We argue, however, that researching corporations and elites is very interesting for oral historians. This contention is supported by the four

  3. Information on research in progress in Japan publication of 'Nuclear Science Information of Japan-Oral Presentation'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itabashi, Keizo; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Yokoo, Hiroshi

    1988-03-01

    The new journal, 'Nuclear Science Information of Japan-Oral Presentation', which was entirely revised from the previous abstract journal called 'Nuclear Science Information of Japan' was introduced. This is to be published quaterly in principle and compiled information by oral presentation presented at main conferences, symposia and other kind of formal meetings in the field of nuclear science and technology in Japan. Not all of the oral presentation is always contributed later to a proceeding or a journal as a full paper in Japan. In some cases, the pre-conference paper might be a only publication of the oral presentation. In this meaning, this journal could be used as a search tool for the subjects and the projects of nuclear research and development in progress.

  4. Clinical and Research Perspectives on Nonspeech Oral Motor Treatments and Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttiah, Nimisha; Georges, Katie; Brackenbury, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence-based practice (EBP) involves the incorporation of research evidence, clinical expertise, and client values in clinical decision making. One case in which these factors conflict is the use of nonspeech oral motor treatments (NSOMTs) for children with developmental speech sound disorders. Critical reviews of the research evidence…

  5. Talking With Scholars: Developing a Research Environment for Oral History Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemman, Max; Scagliola, Stef; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.

    Scholars are yet to make optimal use of Oral History collections. For the uptake of digital research tools in the daily working practice of researchers, practices and conventions commonly adhered to in the subfields of the humanities should be taken into account during development, in order to

  6. Dissemination or publication? Some consequences from smudging the boundaries between research data and research papers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Project StORe’s repository middleware will enable researchers to move seamlessly between the research data environment and its outputs, passing directly from an electronic article to the data from which it was developed, or linking instantly to all the publications that have resulted from a particular research dataset. Originally conceived as a means of improving information discovery and data curation, it may also be claimed that this enhancement to the functionality of repositories has significantly broadened the meaning of the terms publish and publication. By publishing data that may not have been through a process of peer review, and by making data public before a scholarly article is approved and printed, are we introducing new risks? Is the scholarly article invalidated as a first publication of research results? The process is regulated, including a mechanism for access control and user authentication, and may not therefore be described as open access in the truest sense, but by making source or...

  7. Response to “Oral health in the elderly patient and its impact on general well-being: a nonsystematic review” paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muc-Wierzgoń M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń, Teresa Kokot, Ewa Nowakowska-Zajdel, Adam Błażelonis, Edyta Fatyga Department of Internal Medicine, Silesian Medical University, Bytom, PolandDear editorGil-Montoya et al has recently published an interesting article in Clinical Interventions in Aging entitled: “Oral health in the elderly patient and its impact on general well-being: a nonsystematic review”.1 Authors presented a non-systematic review of the published data regarding the oral health status of the elderly and its main repercussions, including its impact on general health and nutrition.View original paper by Gil-Montoya and colleagues.

  8. Papers of the PTAC Air Issues Research Forum : research priorities, discussion, and networking reception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This meeting was open to representatives from the petroleum industry, regulators, researchers, and service and supply providers. The presenters described technologies that can effectively improve the environmental performance of energy industries. The conference provided an opportunity to learn where research dollars are being spent to improve economic performance while minimizing environmental impacts. It also revealed information on emission reduction regulations and targets and provided an opportunity to learn about the most recent advances in modeling, simulation and expert systems. The meeting featured 10 presentations, of which 4 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  9. Are research papers reporting results from nutrigenetics clinical research a potential source of biohype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenne, R; Hurlimann, T; Godard, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Nutrigenetics is a promising field, but the achievability of expected benefits is challenged by the methodological limitations that are associated with clinical research in that field. The mere existence of these limitations suggests that promises about potential outcomes may be premature. Thus, benefits claimed in scientific journal articles in which these limitations are not acknowledged might stimulate biohype. This article aims to examine whether nutrigenetics clinical research articles are a potential source of biohype. Of the 173 articles identified, 16 contained claims in which clinical applications were extrapolated from study results. The methodological limitations being incompletely acknowledged, these articles could potentially be a source of biohype.

  10. Index of Oral Histories Relating to Naval Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Navy research and development that are available in major U. S. repositories. In a sense, it is a companion to the broader U. S. Naval History Sources...Director, his work with the FAA, and his hobbies, including old cars and a penchant for Shakespeare . Repositories: NWC, DTNSRDC, NHC Individuals

  11. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Grohmann, K. [US Citrus and Subtropical Products Lab., Winter Haven, FL (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  12. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, A.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Grohmann, K. (US Citrus and Subtropical Products Lab., Winter Haven, FL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  13. Progress of Space Charge Research on Oil-Paper Insulation Using Pulsed Electroacoustic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the space charge behavior in oil-paper insulation systems used in power transformers. It begins with the importance of understanding the space charge behavior in oil-paper insulation systems, followed by the introduction of the pulsed electrostatic technique (PEA. After that, the research progress on the space charge behavior of oil-paper insulation during the recent twenty years is critically reviewed. Some important aspects such as the environmental conditions and the acoustic wave recovery need to be addressed to acquire more accurate space charge measurement results. Some breakthroughs on the space charge behavior of oil-paper insulation materials by the research team at the University of Southampton are presented. Finally, future work on space charge measurement of oil-paper insulation materials is proposed.

  14. A Hybrid Model Ranking Search Result for Research Paper Searching on Social Bookmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pijitra jomsri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social bookmarking and publication sharing systems are essential tools for web resource discovery. The performance and capabilities of search results from research paper bookmarking system are vital. Many researchers use social bookmarking for searching papers related to their topics of interest. This paper proposes a combination of similarity based indexing “tag title and abstract” and static ranking to improve search results. In this particular study, the year of the published paper and type of research paper publication are combined with similarity ranking called (HybridRank. Different weighting scores are employed. The retrieval performance of these weighted combination rankings are evaluated using mean values of NDCG. The results suggest that HybridRank and similarity rank with weight 75:25 has the highest NDCG scores. From the preliminary result of experiment, the combination ranking technique provide more relevant research paper search results. Furthermore the chosen heuristic ranking can improve the efficiency of research paper searching on social bookmarking websites.

  15. Text mining scientific papers: a survey on FCA-based information retrieval research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Ignatov, D.I.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Kuznetsov, S.O.

    2012-01-01

    Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is an unsupervised clustering technique and many scientific papers are devoted to applying FCA in Information Retrieval (IR) research. We collected 103 papers published between 2003-2009 which mention FCA and information retrieval in the abstract, title or keywords.

  16. Some opinions on the review process of research papers destined for publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Ehsan; Mahian, Omid

    2015-06-01

    The current paper discusses the peer review process in journals that publish research papers purveying new science and understandings (scientific journals). Different aspects of peer review including the selection of reviewers, the review process and the decision policy of editor are discussed in details. Here, the pros and cons of different conventional methods of review processes are mentioned. Finally, a suggestion is presented for the review process of scientific papers.

  17. Designing Internet Learning for Novice Users -Paper Based on a Action Research Project In India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    The paper centre on an Action Research project undertaken in India for enabling the female students empowered through Internet use. The paper will discuss the design elements of Internet training for the first time users with limited Internet access based on Blooms Digital Taxonomy of Learning...... Domains.The paper also illustrates the identity formation of students, through learning to use Internet, using wengers social theory of learning with the empirical data....

  18. Developing Research Paper Writing Programs for EFL/ESL Undergraduate Students Using Process Genre Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, Kim Thanh; Bin Osman, Shuki; Dan, Thai Cong; Ahmad, Nor Shafrin Binti

    2016-01-01

    Research Paper Writing (RPW) plays a key role in completing all research work. Poor writing could lead to the postponement of publications. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a program of (RPW) to improve RPW ability for EFL/ESL writers, especially for undergraduate students in Higher Education (HE) institutions, which has caught less attention…

  19. A New Kind of Research Paper: Bridging the Gap between Reader Response and Formal Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Johnson, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    Explores how two-year college students may be assisted in the transition from reader response criticism to literary analysis and research paper writing. Proposes a heuristic that requires student researchers to draw on previous student essays on their topic. (TB)

  20. NASA Ames Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program: 1986 research papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Engineering enrollments are rising in universities; however the graduate engineering shortage continues. Particularly, women and minorities will be underrepresented for many years. As one means of solving this shortage, Federal agencies facing future scientific and technological challenges were asked to participate in the Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP). This program was created to provide an engineering experience for gifted female and minority high school students at an age when they could still make career and education decisions. The SHARP program is designed for high school juniors who are U.S. citizens, are 16 years old, and who have very high promise in math and science through outstanding academic performance in high school. Students who are accepted into this summer program will earn as they learn by working 8 hr days in a 5-day work week. Reports from SHARP students are presented.

  1. A View of Oral Communication Activities in Food Science from the Perspective of a Communication Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrchota, Denise Ann

    2015-01-01

    Food science researchers have pronounced the Institute of Food Technologists Success Skills to be the most important competency mastered by graduates entering the work force. Much of the content and outcomes of the Success Skills pertains to oral communication skills of public speaking and interpersonal and group communication. This qualitative…

  2. Reporting of ethical protection in recent oral and maxillofacial surgery research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Sader, R; Hervé, C; Dhanuthai, K; Bertrand, J-Ch; Hemprich, A

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective observational study investigated the frequency of reporting ethical approval and informed consent in recently published oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) research involving human subjects. All research involving human subjects published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery during January to June 2005-2007 were analysed for disclosure of ethical approval by a local ethical committee and obtaining informed consent from the subjects. 534 articles were identified; ethical approval was documented in 118 (22%) and individual patient consent in 135 (25%). 355 reports (67%) did not include a statement on ethical approval or informed consent and only 74 reports (14%) disclosed statements of both. Ethical documentation in retrospective and observational studies was scant; 12% of randomised controlled trials and 38% of non-random trials did not report both of ethical protections. Most recent OMS publications involving humans failed to mention ethical review or subjects' consent. Authors must adhere to the international research ethics guidelines and journal instructions, while editors should play a gatekeeper role to protect research participants, uphold scientific integrity and maintain public trust in the experimental process and OMS profession.

  3. The Role of Modal Verbs in Research Papers in the Field of Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vičič

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research papers, an essential vehicle for disseminating new knowledge and findings, have long been valued for their linguistic objectivity and impersonality. However, more recent approaches to research paper writing suggest that authors should also take an “argumentative position” (White, 2003 by projecting their stance and encouraging the readers to actively engage in the process of reading and evaluating the text (Hyland, 2005; Scollon, 1994. An important linguistic feature, frequently employed for both objective and subjective presentation of claims, is modality and within it modal verbs, which through their modal meanings express different communicative functions. In recognition of genre- and discipline-specific norms, the present paper will focus on quantitative and qualitative analysis of modal verbs and their meanings and functions in logistics research papers, whereby the ultimate goal is to show what practical implications the study’s results may have for the teaching of English to students of logistics.

  4. Studies in Teaching. 1995 Research Digest. Papers Presented at the Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    This is a collection of papers reporting student research projects at the Annual Research Forum, Department of Education, Wake Forest University (North Carolina). They include: "Student Interest in Studying World History in Relation to Current Events" (Conan Arthur); "Perceptions of High School Student Athletes and Athletics"…

  5. Counting Highly Cited Papers for University Research Assessment: Conceptual and Technical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso

    2012-01-01

    A Kuhnian approach to research assessment requires us to consider that the important scientific breakthroughs that drive scientific progress are infrequent and that the progress of science does not depend on normal research. Consequently, indicators of research performance based on the total number of papers do not accurately measure scientific progress. Similarly, those universities with the best reputations in terms of scientific progress differ widely from other universities in terms of the scale of investments made in research and in the higher concentrations of outstanding scientists present, but less so in terms of the total number of papers or citations. This study argues that indicators for the 1% high-citation tail of the citation distribution reveal the contribution of universities to the progress of science and provide quantifiable justification for the large investments in research made by elite research universities. In this tail, which follows a power low, the number of the less frequent and highly cited important breakthroughs can be predicted from the frequencies of papers in the upper part of the tail. This study quantifies the false impression of excellence produced by multinational papers, and by other types of papers that do not contribute to the progress of science. Many of these papers are concentrated in and dominate lists of highly cited papers, especially in lower-ranked universities. The h-index obscures the differences between higher- and lower-ranked universities because the proportion of h-core papers in the 1% high-citation tail is not proportional to the value of the h-index. PMID:23071759

  6. NASA Ames summary high school apprenticeship research program, 1983 research papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P.

    1984-01-01

    Engineering enrollments are rising in universities; however, the graduate engineer shortage continues. Particularly, women and minorities will be underrepresented for years to come. As one means of solving this shortage, Federal agencies facing future scientific and technological challenges were asked to participate in the Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP). This program was created 4 years ago to provide an engineering experience for gifted female and minority high school students at an age when they could still make career and education decisions. The SHARP Program is designed for high school juniors (women and minorities) who are U.S. citizens, are 16 years old, and who have unusually high promise in mathematics and science through outstanding academic performance in high school. Students who are accepted into this summer program will earn as they learn by working 8 hours a day in a 5-day work week. This work-study program features weekly field trips, lectures and written reports, and job experience related to the student's career interests.

  7. Perceptions of scientific research literature and strategies for reading papers depend on academic career stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katharine E; Dunbar, Sonja D

    2017-01-01

    Reading primary research literature is an essential skill for all scientists and students on science degree programmes, however little is known about how researchers at different career stages interact with and interpret scientific papers. To explore this, we conducted a survey of 260 undergraduate students and researchers in Biological Sciences at a research intensive UK university. Responses to Likert scale questions demonstrated increases in confidence and skill with reading the literature between individuals at each career stage, including between postdoctoral researchers and faculty academics. The survey indicated that individuals at different career stages valued different sections of scientific papers, and skill in reading the results section develops slowly over the course of an academic career. Inexperienced readers found the methods and results sections of research papers the most difficult to read, and undervalued the importance of the results section and critical interpretation of data. These data highlight a need for structured support with reading scientific literature at multiple career stages, and for senior academics to be aware that junior colleagues may prioritise their reading differently. We propose a model for the development of literature processing skills, and consider the need for training strategies to help inexperienced readers engage with primary literature, and therefore develop important skills that underpin scientific careers. We also encourage researchers to be mindful of language used when writing papers, and to be more inclusive of diverse audiences when disseminating their work.

  8. Position paper by Canadian dental sleep medicine professionals regarding the role of different health care professionals in managing obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Luc; Almeida, Fernanda; Arcache, Patrick; Ashton-McGregor, Catherine; Côté, David; Driver, Helen; Ferguson, Kathleen; Lavigne, Gilles; Martin, Philippe; Masse, Jean-François; Morisson, Florence; Pancer, Jeffrey; Samuels, Charles; Schachter, Maurice; Sériès, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs) as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for severe O...

  9. Development of research paper writing skills of poultry science undergraduate students studying food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Z R; Donalson, L M; Kim, W K; Li, X; Zabala Díaz, I; Landers, K L; Maciorowski, K G; Ricke, S C

    2006-02-01

    Because food and poultry industries are demanding an improvement in written communication skills among graduates, research paper writing should be an integral part of a senior undergraduate class. However, scientific writing assignments are often treated as secondary to developing the technical skills of the students. Scientific research paper writing has been emphasized in an undergraduate course on advanced food microbiology taught in the Poultry Science Department at Texas A& M University (College Station, TX). Students' opinions suggest that research paper writing as part of a senior course in Poultry Science provides students with scientific communication skills and useful training for their career, but more emphasis on reading and understanding scientific literature may be required.

  10. On-power fuelling machine of Dhruva research reactor: An indigenous effort (Paper No. 043)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.K.; Andhansare, M.G.

    1987-02-01

    On-power fuelling machine of Dhruva Research Reactor has been indigenously designed, manufactured, installed and commissioned. This is being used for fuelling of Dhruva Research reactor regularly since June 1985. This paper deals with the developmental efforts made during design and manufacture for meeting the functional requirements of the fuelling machine. This paper also highlights the special features of the components like servo valves, hydraulic motors, S.S. bellows, bearings, roller chains, solenoid valves etc. needed for reliable operation and maintenance of the fuelling machine whose down time should be minimum to achieve maximum reactor availability. (author). 17 figs

  11. Champion comparison of prestigious nuclear research institutes by thirty-year research papers written in nuclear advanced countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki

    2010-08-01

    A champion of research paper at JAERI and those of foreign prestigious nuclear research institutes (5 from the U.S., 3 from the France and 2 from the Germany) was studied taking the timeframe as long as 30 years (1978-2007) Tools for this bibliometric study were INIS, ECD, WOS and SCOPUS. The former two were general database collected all papers related to nuclear, while the latter two were specified database collected research papers submitted to journals for natural, social sciences and human learning. (1) INIS for the world-wide general tool focused on nuclear judged that JAERI (32,859 papers) was the champion and ORNL (32,395 papers) was the second position. (2) ECD for the US-oriented energy database judged that the ranking was of the order of ORNL(36,608 papers), ANL(26,530) and SNL(24,687). (3) The trend observed in the WOS for the US-oriented database roughly coincided with that of ECD, where ORNL(34,331 papers) was the champion, where JAERI was the 7th position. (4) SCOPUS, basically originated from the Europe judged that that ORNL (32,728 papers) was the champion, where JAERI (16,860) was the 7th position. (5) Different characteristics exhibited by individual databases can sometimes generate conflicting bibliometric results. This was true among INIS, ECD, WOS and SCOPUS when looking at trends between 5-year periods. It implies that results from analytical tools used in bibliometric studies should be viewed with careful consideration to learn of any influencing factors. (6) Use of INIS has predominance in Japan, and use of ECD has predominance in the U.S. Users from developed and developing countries assigned as the Member State of IAEA would be better served using INIS and ECD as the intellectual data source. As the recent trend, WOS and SCOPUS are used as the evaluation tools. (author)

  12. The Teacher as Colleague in Classroom Research. Occasional Paper No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Susan; Walsh, Martha

    This paper traces the evolving relationship of a teacher and a researcher who shared life in a kindergarten/first-grade classroom for an academic year. Their relationship became the basis for new ways of thinking about the social and academic competencies of children in the classroom, and for new ways of thinking about the aims and conduct of…

  13. Changes in Institutional Research in Germany. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Gerstein, Hans-G.

    This paper recounts the legal, political, and educational changes in former East Germany as the nation has become reunified, and considers the implications of reunification for institutional research at East German universities. After a brief sketch of legal, geographic, and demographic highlights, the decrepit conditions of East German university…

  14. Information Sources on Scientific Research Related to the Preservation of Books, Paper, and Adhesives. Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission on Preservation and Access, Washington, DC.

    Produced as part of an effort by the Commission on Preservation and Access to assist with the formation of a preservation research agenda, this report contains: (1) a directory of laboratories and organizations working in the four specific areas of concern in preservation--books, paper, adhesives, and mold; (2) directories of indexes, abstracts,…

  15. Developments in Social Impact Assessment : An introduction to a collection of seminal research papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This Edward Elgar research collection comprises 50 of the key journal articles in the field of social impact assessment (SIA) as it has developed over time. As discussed in more detail below and in the papers in this collection, the general understanding of SIA has changed over time, and will likely

  16. Internet Administration of Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaires Used in Couple Research: Assessing Psychometric Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L.; Barry, Robin A.; Lawrence, Erika; Dey, Jodi; Rolffs, Jaci

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet formats of key questionnaires used in couple research. Self-report questionnaires assessing interpersonal constructs (relationship satisfaction, communication/conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy) and intrapersonal constructs (individual traits,…

  17. Research Advances: Paper Batteries, Phototriggered Microcapsules, and Oil-Free Plastic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemists continue to work at the forefront of materials science research. Recent advances include application of bioengineering to produce plastics from renewable biomass instead of petroleum, generation of paper-based batteries, and development of phototriggerable microcapsules for chemical delivery. In this article, the author provides summaries…

  18. The Use of Radar Imagery in Climatological Research. Resource Paper No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Aaron, Jr.

    Intended to supplement undergraduate college geography courses, this resource paper investigates the need and use of radar in weather phenomena research. Radar can be used to study weather phenomena over a wide area, thus improving the results of statistical analyses previously limited by inadequate data. Radar techniques are also useful for…

  19. Writing: The Research Paper. Postsecondary Intervention Model for Learning Disabilities. Study Manual #3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Brenda G.; And Others

    The manual is intended to help students with language learning disabilities master the academic task of research paper writing. A seven-step procedure is advocated for students and their tutors: (1) select a workable topic, then limit and focus it; (2) use library references to identify sources from which to prepare a working bibliography; (3)…

  20. Towards systematic planning of small-scale hydrological intervention-based research (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramana, K.E.R.; Ertsen, M.W.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    Many small-scale water development initiatives are accompanied by hydrological research to study either the shape of the intervention or its impacts. Humans influence both, and thus one needs to take human agency into account. This paper focuses on the effects of human actions in the intervention

  1. Do Quantitative Measures of Research Productivity Correlate with Academic Rank in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Dodson, Thomas B; Lopez, Joseph; Swanson, Edward W; Calotta, Nicholas; Peacock, Zachary S

    2015-08-01

    Academic promotion is linked to research productivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between quantitative measures of academic productivity and academic rank among academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons. This was a cross-sectional study of full-time academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the United States. The predictor variables were categorized as demographic (gender, medical degree, research doctorate, other advanced degree) and quantitative measures of academic productivity (total number of publications, total number of citations, maximum number of citations for a single article, I-10 index [number of publications with ≥ 10 citations], and h-index [number of publications h with ≥ h citations each]). The outcome variable was current academic rank (instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, professor, or endowed professor). Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression statistics were computed to evaluate associations between the predictors and academic rank. Receiver-operator characteristic curves were computed to identify thresholds for academic promotion. The sample consisted of 324 academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons, of whom 11.7% were female, 40% had medical degrees, and 8% had research doctorates. The h-index was the most strongly correlated with academic rank (ρ = 0.62, p research activity.

  2. Research on teaching and learning in Physics and Chemistry in NorDiNa Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Kinnunen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of teaching and learning processes in research on physics and chemistry education published in NorDiNa 2005–2013. Using the didactic triangle as our theoretical framework we developed a typology to analyse the data and used this to categorise 89 related research papers, from all levels of education (primary, secondary and tertiary. The results suggest that students’ characteristics, their understanding of the content and learning outcomes are studied frequently. In contrast, science teachers are studied much less. Most papers reported studies that had been done at the teaching organisation level. Course level studies and society level studies were also frequent. However, international level studies were few in this data pool. We conclude by discussing less popular research topics in the science education field.

  3. Consortium for oral health-related informatics: improving dental research, education, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Paul C; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; White, Joel M; Walji, Muhammad F; Stewart, Denice C L; Kimmes, Nicole; Meng, Thomas R; Willis, George P; DeVries, Ted; Chapman, Robert J

    2010-10-01

    Advances in informatics, particularly the implementation of electronic health records (EHR), in dentistry have facilitated the exchange of information. The majority of dental schools in North America use the same EHR system, providing an unprecedented opportunity to integrate these data into a repository that can be used for oral health education and research. In 2007, fourteen dental schools formed the Consortium for Oral Health-Related Informatics (COHRI). Since its inception, COHRI has established structural and operational processes, governance and bylaws, and a number of work groups organized in two divisions: one focused on research (data standardization, integration, and analysis), and one focused on education (performance evaluations, virtual standardized patients, and objective structured clinical examinations). To date, COHRI (which now includes twenty dental schools) has been successful in developing a data repository, pilot-testing data integration, and sharing EHR enhancements among the group. This consortium has collaborated on standardizing medical and dental histories, developing diagnostic terminology, and promoting the utilization of informatics in dental education. The consortium is in the process of assembling the largest oral health database ever created. This will be an invaluable resource for research and provide a foundation for evidence-based dentistry for years to come.

  4. Spare parts management for nuclear research reactors [Paper No.: I-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kini, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the equipment installed at CIRUS and other reactors are imported units. CIRUS reactor is 20 years old and with present problems for obtaining spare parts for this equipment, indigenous effort in procurement has become imperative. In the absence of specifications and drawings for most of the components, the task of indigenous procurement has become quite demanding. The efforts put by Reactor Operations Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay in locating local manufacturers who are willing to fabricate in small quantities of spare parts to specifications and the difficulties involved is the theme of this paper. The paper also covers the efforts on equipment replacement, its success and failures. (author)

  5. Realizing the Living Paper using the ProvONE Model for Reproducible Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Jones, C. S.; Ludäscher, B.; Missier, P.; Walker, L.; Slaughter, P.; Schildhauer, M.; Cuevas-Vicenttín, V.

    2015-12-01

    Science has advanced through traditional publications that codify research results as a permenant part of the scientific record. But because publications are static and atomic, researchers can only cite and reference a whole work when building on prior work of colleagues. The open source software model has demonstrated a new approach in which strong version control in an open environment can nurture an open ecosystem of software. Developers now commonly fork and extend software giving proper credit, with less repetition, and with confidence in the relationship to original software. Through initiatives like 'Beyond the PDF', an analogous model has been imagined for open science, in which software, data, analyses, and derived products become first class objects within a publishing ecosystem that has evolved to be finer-grained and is realized through a web of linked open data. We have prototyped a Living Paper concept by developing the ProvONE provenance model for scientific workflows, with prototype deployments in DataONE. ProvONE promotes transparency and openness by describing the authenticity, origin, structure, and processing history of research artifacts and by detailing the steps in computational workflows that produce derived products. To realize the Living Paper, we decompose scientific papers into their constituent products and publish these as compound objects in the DataONE federation of archival repositories. Each individual finding and sub-product of a reseach project (such as a derived data table, a workflow or script, a figure, an image, or a finding) can be independently stored, versioned, and cited. ProvONE provenance traces link these fine-grained products within and across versions of a paper, and across related papers that extend an original analysis. This allows for open scientific publishing in which researchers extend and modify findings, creating a dynamic, evolving web of results that collectively represent the scientific enterprise. The

  6. ELT RESEARCH PAPERS AS AUTHENTIC MATERIALS IN TEACHING RESEARCH-BASED ARTICLE WRITING: A CASE IN INDONESIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Ghufron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are strong shreds of evidence that the choice of instructional materials has large effects on students’ achievement. This study was to assess the efficacy of using ELT research papers as authentic materials in teaching research-based article writing. This study was aimed at revealing whether or not there is a significant difference in students’ writing skill in terms of ELT research paper writing between the students who were taught by using ELT research papers as authentic materials and those who were taught by using textbook materials provided by the faculty. This study belongs to a quasi-experimental study with an experimental and control group pretest-posttest design. The population of this study was 75 students from the fourth semester of English Education Study Program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, East Java, Indonesia. The sample was selected through cluster random sampling and consisted of 50 students that were divided into two groups. The instrument used to collect the data was a writing test. Consequently, normality and homogeneity of the data were tested. A t-test was used to compare the mean of the two groups. The hypothesis was designed and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results revealed that there is a significant difference in students’ academic writing skill between the students who were taught by using the ELT research papers as authentic materials and those who were taught by using textbook materials. The t-test revealed that t-value is higher than t-table (6.07>2.01. Therefore it is concluded that the authentic instructional materials could significantly improve students’ academic writing skill.

  7. Misrepresenting random sampling? A systematic review of research papers in the Journal of Advanced Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Graham R

    2003-11-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical limitations of the use of random sampling and probability theory in the production of a significance level (or P-value) in nursing research. Potential alternatives, in the form of randomization tests, are proposed. Research papers in nursing, medicine and psychology frequently misrepresent their statistical findings, as the P-values reported assume random sampling. In this systematic review of studies published between January 1995 and June 2002 in the Journal of Advanced Nursing, 89 (68%) studies broke this assumption because they used convenience samples or entire populations. As a result, some of the findings may be questionable. The key ideas of random sampling and probability theory for statistical testing (for generating a P-value) are outlined. The result of a systematic review of research papers published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing is then presented, showing how frequently random sampling appears to have been misrepresented. Useful alternative techniques that might overcome these limitations are then discussed. REVIEW LIMITATIONS: This review is limited in scope because it is applied to one journal, and so the findings cannot be generalized to other nursing journals or to nursing research in general. However, it is possible that other nursing journals are also publishing research articles based on the misrepresentation of random sampling. The review is also limited because in several of the articles the sampling method was not completely clearly stated, and in this circumstance a judgment has been made as to the sampling method employed, based on the indications given by author(s). Quantitative researchers in nursing should be very careful that the statistical techniques they use are appropriate for the design and sampling methods of their studies. If the techniques they employ are not appropriate, they run the risk of misinterpreting findings by using inappropriate, unrepresentative and biased samples.

  8. Distributed Access to Oral History collections: Fitting Access Technology to the needs of Collection Owners and Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with the large amounts of potential interesting research material in digital multimedia repositories, the opportunities to unveil the gems therein are still very limited. The Oral History project ‘Verteld Verleden’ (Dutch literal translation of Oral History) that is currently running in

  9. Beyond communication - research as communicating: making user and audience studies matter - paper 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Dervin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is the written version of the keynote address (Making user studies matter: Thank you Mister Feynman and Monsieur Foucault delivered by senior author Dervin. The paper is linked to the Invited Paper in this issue and like that paper, reports on a project involving a dialogue between researchers and practitioners in library and information science, human computer interaction, and communication focusing on gaps in our understandings of users and audiences as well as in our efforts to collaborate with each other to conduct and apply research to the design and implementation of information, library, communication, and media systems. Argument. Our main conclusion in Paper 1 was that the traditional modes used for communication in social science research are not doing the job for user and audience studies. We set out five propositions relating to this conclusion: (1 the traditional modes of communicating in the research enterprise are not working; (2 Do the social sciences matter? Some serious and fundamental attacks; (3 a call to focus on the special problematics of the social sciences: agency, structure, power and the good; (4 eschewing scientific recipes and scholarly creeds and bringing back the joys of adventuring and muddling; (5 the paradox of communicating—freedom is another word for nothing left to lose. Conclusion. We argue for shared dialogue in communicating across the three fields studied here: this will introduce uncertainty, but, rather than relying upon 'authority', the individual will be encouraged through the exploration of that uncertainty, to make their own sense of the offerings of others.

  10. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper): Data protection, a guide for health researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Agius-Muscat, Hugo

    2018-05-02

    Data protection (DP) protects crucial and humane fundamentals - the respect of human rights, particularly protecting aspects of privacy and confidentiality for living and identifiable persons. DP is enshrined in legislation, and this paper will outline the duties of potential data controllers (researchers) when applying for access to data, when processing said data, and what to do with it at the end of the study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Perception of the importance of chemistry research papers and comparison to citation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Rachel; Moran, Cullen; Cantrill, Stuart; Chemjobber; Oh, See Arr; Hartings, Matthew R

    2018-01-01

    Chemistry researchers are frequently evaluated on the perceived significance of their work with the citation count as the most commonly-used metric for gauging this property. Recent studies have called for a broader evaluation of significance that includes more nuanced bibliometrics as well as altmetrics to more completely evaluate scientific research. To better understand the relationship between metrics and peer judgements of significance in chemistry, we have conducted a survey of chemists to investigate their perceptions of previously published research. Focusing on a specific issue of the Journal of the American Chemical Society published in 2003, respondents were asked to select which articles they thought best matched importance and significance given several contexts: highest number of citations, most significant (subjectively defined), most likely to share among chemists, and most likely to share with a broader audience. The answers to the survey can be summed up in several observations. The ability of respondents to predict the citation counts of established research is markedly lower than the ability of those counts to be predicted by the h-index of the corresponding author of each article. This observation is conserved even when only considering responses from chemists whose expertise falls within the subdiscipline that best describes the work performed in an article. Respondents view both cited papers and significant papers differently than papers that should be shared with chemists. We conclude from our results that peer judgements of importance and significance differ from metrics-based measurements, and that chemists should work with bibliometricians to develop metrics that better capture the nuance of opinions on the importance of a given piece of research.

  12. [Establishment of simultaneous measurement method of 8 salivary components using urinary test paper and clinical evaluation of oral environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuuki, Kenji; Tsukasaki, Hiroaki; Kawawa, Tadaharu; Shiba, Akihiko; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2008-07-01

    Clinical findings were compared with glucose, protein, albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, pH, occult blood, ketone body, nitrite, and white blood cells contained in whole saliva to investigate the components that most markedly reflect the periodontal condition. The subjects were staff of the Prosthodontics Department, Showa University, and patients who visited for dental treatments (57 subjects in total). At the first time, saliva samples were gargled with 1.5 ml of distilled water for 15 seconds and collected by spitting out into a paper cup. At the second time, saliva samples were collected by the same method. At the third time, saliva samples after chewing paraffin gum for 60 seconds were collected by spitting out into a paper cup. Thus whole saliva collecting that was divided on three times. After sampling, 8 mul of the saliva sample was dripped in reagent sticks for the 10 items of urinary test paper and the reflectance was measured using a specific reflectometer. In the periodontal tissue evaluation, the degree of alveolar bone resorption, probing value, and tooth mobility and the presence or absence of lesions in the root furcation were examined and classified into 4 ranks. The mean values in each periodontal disease rank and correlation between the periodontal disease ranks and the components were statistically analyzed. Bilirubin and ketone body were not measurable. The components density of the 8 items was increased as the periodontal disease rank increased. Regarding the correlation between the periodontal disease ranks and the components, high correlations were noted for protein, albumin, creatinine, pH, and white blood cells. The simultaneous measurement method of 8 salivary components using test paper may be very useful for the diagnosis of periodontal disease of abutment teeth.

  13. Conventional versus asset approaches: comparative appraisal of socioeconomic indicators for oral health research among adolescents in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Irosha; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the value of different indicators of socioeconomic status for oral health research among Sri Lankan adolescents. Six indicators of socioeconomic status were assessed in terms of their relationship to 2 oral health outcomes. The sample consisted of 15-year-old students (n = 1218) selected from 48 schools in the Colombo district using a stratified cluster sampling technique. Data collection included oral examinations of students and questionnaires to both students and their parents. The correlations between the 6 indicators were low to moderate. The indicators of household material assets and parental educational status emerged as significant predictors of the 2 oral health outcomes. Therefore, it is concluded that indicators of material assets-namely, the family affluence scale and the asset index-could be used as optimal measures of socioeconomic status in oral health research among adolescents in Sri Lanka.

  14. International Trends in Biology Education Research from 1997 to 2014: A Content Analysis of Papers in Selected Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive content analysis of biology education research papers published in eight major academic journals indexed in Social Science Citation Index [SSCI] of Thomson Reuters® from 1997 to 2014. Total of 1376 biology education research [BER] papers were examined. The findings indicated that most of the papers were published…

  15. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. A new framework for the documentation and interpretation of oral food challenges in population-based and clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabenhenrich, L. B.; Reich, Andreas; Bellach, J.; Trendelenburg, V.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Roberts, G.; Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Sigurdardottir, S; Kowalski, M. L.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Quirce, S.; Dubakiene, R.; Niggemann, B.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; van Ree, R.; Schnadt, S.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Keil, T.; Beyer, K.

    Background: The conduct of oral food challenges as the preferred diagnostic standard for food allergy (FA) was harmonized over the last years. However, documentation and interpretation of challenge results, particularly in research settings, are not sufficiently standardized to allow valid

  17. Enhance the Value of a Research Paper: Choosing the Right References and Writing them Accurately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdekar, Sandeep B

    2016-03-01

    References help readers identify and locate sources used for justifying the need for conducting the research study, verify methods employed in the study and for discussing the interpretation of results and implications of the study. It is extremely essential that references are accurate and complete. This article provides suggestions regarding choosing references and writing reference list. References are a list of sources that are selected by authors to represent the best documents concerning the research study.1 They constitute the foundation of any research paper. Although generally written towards the end of the article-writing process, they are nevertheless extremely important. They provide the context for the hypothesis and help justify the need for conducting the research study. Authors use references to inform readers about the techniques used for conducting the study and convince them about the appropriateness of methodology used. References help provide appropriate perspective in which the research findings should be seen and interpreted. This communication will discuss the purpose of citations, how to select quality sources for citing and the importance of accuracy while writing the reference list. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  18. Open Access Publishing: A Study of Current Practice in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahim, Arpan; Bansal, Hitesh; Goodson, Alexander M C; Payne, Karl F B; Sabharwal, Sanjeeve

    2016-12-01

    Open access (OA) publication has become an increasingly common route for dissemination of scientific research findings. However, it remains a contentious issue with continued debate as to its impact on the peer-review process and a potential change in the quality of subsequent evidence published. There is little research that looks into OA in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We investigated the OA policy in the 30 relevant journals listed in the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge journal citation report, comparing bibliometric data and quality of evidence produced in journals offering OA and those with subscription-only policies. 3474 articles were graded for evidence level and the results correlated to journal OA status. 76.7 % of journals offered authors OA services. There was no difference between impact factor, self-citation rate, total citations or quality of evidence between OA and subscription journals. These findings should send clear messages to both clinicians and researchers and should re- assure readers that scientific findings that are disseminated in open access form do not differ in quality to those in subscription-only format. It should reinforce that open access formats are a credible way to display research findings in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  19. ASAS Centennial Paper: Future needs of research and extension in forage utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, F M; Redmon, L A; Aiken, G E; Hill, G M; Sollenberger, L E; Andrae, J

    2009-01-01

    Forage-animal production agriculture is implementing infrastructure changes and management strategies to adjust to increased energy-related costs of fuel, feed grains, fertilizers, and seeds. The primary objectives of this position paper are to assess future research and extension scientific needs in forage utilization, financial support for the discipline, and changing status and number of scientists. A survey questionnaire returned from 25 land-grant universities in the eastern half of the United States rated the top 4 research needs as 1) pasture systems and efficiency of production; 2) interfacing with energy concerns; 3) forage cultivar evaluations and persistence; and 4) environment impacts. Plant-animal future research needs at 11 USDA-ARS regional locations are targeted at sustainable management and improved livestock performance, ecophysiology and ecology of grasslands, environment impacts, and improved technologies for nutritive value assessments. Extension scientists from 17 southern and northeastern states listed the top 3 needs as forage persistence, soil fertility and nutrient management, and pasture systems and efficiency of production. Grant funds currently provide more than 40% of land-grant university research and extension efforts in forage utilization, and scientists estimate that this support base will increase to 55 to 60% of the funding total by 2013. Reduced allocation of state and federal funding has contributed to a reduction in the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) scientists engaged in forage utilization research and extension activities. The current 25 state FTE conducting research number about 2.8 per state. This includes 10 states with >3, 11 states with research Extension programming, and technology transfer methods will change to accommodate reduced funding but with increasing numbers of novice, recreation-oriented landowners.

  20. Text Linguistics in Research Papers Prepared by University Students: Teaching through Lesson Plans and Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Albarrán-Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project revolves around the properties of text linguistics under a qualitative approach.  The author analyzed drafts of a research paper by two university students as well as lesson plans and textbooks of high school Spanish Language and Literature courses and lesson plans of courses from the Licentiate degree in Education.  According to the information from the drafts, students struggle with coherence and cohesion in writing; however, they succeed in choosing the correct language for the type of writing.  Difficulties are most likely due to fact that this topic is not included in secondary education plans and is not commonly addressed in textbooks or university classes.  In conclusion, teachers should include the properties of text linguistics in their lesson plans in order to help students overcome these difficulties.

  1. Geothermal industry position paper: EPA regulatory options and research and development information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, G.

    1977-08-01

    The environmental impact of geothermal energy development may be less intense or widespread than that of some other energy sources; however, it is the first example of a number of emerging energy technologies that must be dealt with by EPA. EPA may consider a spectrum of options ranging from a posutre of business as usual to one of immediate setting of standards, as favored by ERDA. The paper discusses the regulatory approaches and the potential problems that geothermal energy may present in the areas of air quality, water quality, and other impacts. It is recommended that a coordinated program of research be drawn up, comprised of specific research projects, the types of geothermal resource to which they apply, and the date by which the information is required.

  2. Geothermal Industry Position Paper: EPA Regulatory Options and Research and Development Information Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swetnam, G.F.

    1976-11-01

    The environmental impact of geothermal energy development may be less intense or widespread than that of some other energy sources; however, it is the first example of a number of emerging energy technologies that must be dealt with by EPA. EPA may consider a spectrum of options ranging from a posture of business as usual to one of immediate setting of standards, as favored by ERDA. The paper discusses the regulatory approaches and the potential problems that geothermal energy may present in the areas of air quality, water quality, and other impacts. It is recommended that a coordinated program of research be drawn up, comprised of specific research projects, the types of geothermal resource to which they apply, and the date by which the information is required.

  3. Ten years of high temperature materials research at PSI - An overview paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchon, Manuel A.; Chen Jiachao

    2014-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute high temperature materials research for advanced nuclear systems is performed since a decade, formerly by the HT-Mat group and today the advanced nuclear materials (ANM) group. In this paper the activities being conducted in this time are summarized. This includes the study of three major materials classes, intermetallics with a titanium alluminide, nanostructured steel with different ODS candidates, and ceramics with silicon carbide composites. The studies being performed include experimental work, studying the mechanical behavior as function of irradiation exposure and temperature, including also in situ studies such as the creep under ion beam irradiation plus miniaturized samples such as pillars. The microstructure changes as function of these exposures, using electron microscopy on one hand and advanced beamline techniques on the other hand. Part of the finding lead to the development of new damage mechanism models. Complementary to the experimental approach, modelling activities were conducted to understand the basics of the damage mechanisms. The research lead to a consolidation of the candidate materials to the most promising ones, namely the oxide dispersion strengthened steels (ODS) and the silicon carbide based composite materials. The research lead to new, relevant data such as the creep behavior of material under extreme reactor conditions, the embitterment mechanism in advanced materials, and much more. A sketch of the research philosophy and an outline of the main results will be given. (author)

  4. 3rd ICTs and Society Meeting; Paper Session - Theorizing the Internet; Paper 1: Toward Trust as Result. A Transdisciplinary Research Agenda for the ‘Future Internet’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Paoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trust has emerged as one of the key challenges for the Future Internet and as a key theme of European research. We are convinced that a transdisciplinary research agenda - that we define to as Trust as Result - shared by Sociology and Computer Science, is of paramount importance for devising sustainable Trust solutions for the (Future Internet stakeholders. The scope of this paper is to present some elements we consider important for building such an agenda.

  5. [From oral history to the research film: the audiovisual as a tool of the historian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Hebe; Abreu, Martha; Castro, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    An analytical essay of the process of image production, audiovisual archive formation, analysis of sources, and creation of the filmic narrative of the four historiographic films that form the DVD set Passados presentes (Present pasts) from the Oral History and Image Laboratory of Universidade Federal Fluminense (Labhoi/UFF). From excerpts from the audiovisual archive of Labhoi and the films made, the article analyzes: how the problem of research (the memory of slavery, and the legacy of the slave song in the agrofluminense region) led us to the production of images in a research situation; the analytical shift in relation to the cinematographic documentary and the ethnographic film; the specificities of revisiting the audiovisual collection constituted by the formulation of new research problems.

  6. Today's threat is tomorrow's crisis: advocating for dental education, dental and biomedical research, and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresch, Jack E; Luke, Gina G; McKinnon, Monette D; Moss, Myla J; Pritchard, Daryl; Valachovic, Richard W

    2006-06-01

    The current political environment in the nation's capital threatens federal support for programs vital to the academic dental community. To develop a strong cadre of advocates who can deliver an effective and unified message to members of Congress on behalf of dental education and dental research, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) created a new organizational structure: the National Oral Health Advocacy Committee (NOHAC) and the National Advocacy Network (NAN). The basic skills and knowledge required to function as an effective advocate include an understanding of the political environment, a working knowledge of the legislative processes and the political players, and the ability to build and work with grassroots networks and coalitions. NOHAC and NAN are designed to provide leadership in these areas to support effective advocacy for dental education and dental research.

  7. The use of research questionnaires with hearing impaired adults: online vs. paper-and-pencil administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorén Elisabet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When evaluating hearing rehabilitation, it is reasonable to use self-report questionnaires as outcome measure. Questionnaires used in audiological research are developed and validated for the paper-and-pencil format. As computer and Internet use is increasing, standardized questionnaires used in the audiological context should be evaluated to determine the viability of the online administration format. The aim of this study was to compare administration of questionnaires online versus paper- and pencil of four standardised questionnaires used in hearing research and clinic. We included the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE, the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA, Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Methods A cross-over design was used by randomly letting the participants complete the questionnaires either online or on paper. After 3 weeks the participants filled out the same questionnaires again but in the other format. A total of 65 hearing-aid users were recruited from a hearing clinic to participate on a voluntary basis and of these 53 completed both versions of the questionnaires. Results A significant main effect of format was found on the HHIE (p Conclusions For three of the four included questionnaires the participants’ scores remained consistent across administrations and formats. For the fourth included questionnaire (HHIE a significant difference of format with a small effect size was found. The relevance of the difference in scores between the formats depends on which context the questionnaire is used in. On balance, it is recommended that the administration format remain stable across assessment points.

  8. Ethical Decision-Making in College: Choosing between Right, Wrong, and the Space in between. A SERU Project Research Paper. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.2.09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Fanny P.F.; Keup, Jennifer R.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand how students' changing belief structures influence their values and behaviors, including their ethical beliefs and decision-making patterns. As such, this study will address the following research questions: 1) what are students' ethical beliefs and their perceptions of students' ethical behaviors; and 2) how do…

  9. Recent Trends in Oral Cavity Cancer Research Support in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fribley, A M; Svider, P F; Warner, B M; Garshott, D M; Raza, S N; Kirkwood, K L

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to characterize oral cavity cancer (OCC) funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) with a secondary aim of comparing NIH support provided to OCC and other malignancies. NIH awards supporting OCC inquiry from 2000 to 2014 were accessed from the NIH RePORTER database. These data were used to evaluate temporal trends and the role of human papilloma virus and to determine the academic training and professional profiles of the principal investigators. Comparison of 2014 funding levels with other malignancies was also performed, controlling for incidence. Overall funding totals decreased considerably after 2009. Funding administered through the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) was 6.5 times greater than dollars awarded by the National Cancer Institute in 2000. During the period evaluated, NIDCR support decreased in most years, while National Cancer Institute support increased and approached NIDCR funding levels. Funding for human papilloma virus-related projects gradually rose, from 3.4% of dollars in 2000 to 2004 to 6.2% from 2010 to 2014 ( P < 0.05). A majority of principal investigators had a PhD omnia solus (57%), and 13% possessed dual PhD/clinical degrees. Among clinicians with specialty training, otolaryngologists and oral/maxillofacial pathologists garnered the most funding. OCC had a 2014 funding:incidence ratio of $785, much lower than for other malignancies. There has been increased volatility in funding support in recent years possibly due to budget cuts and sequestration. The National Cancer Institute has played an increasingly important role in supporting OCC research, concomitant with decreasing NIDCR support. Our findings suggest that OCC is underfunded relative to other non-oral cavity malignancies, indicating a need to increase the focus on rectifying the disparity.

  10. Trends in female authorship in research papers on eating disorders: 20-year bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Mattias; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2018-03-01

    There is a clear gender gap in scientific authorship. Although the proportions of female authors in medicine and psychiatry have increased over the past decades, women are still underrepresented. Aims To analyse authorship gender trends in eating disorder research. First and last author gender in research articles on eating disorders during the period 1997-2016 were assessed in eating disorder specialty journals, high-impact psychiatry journals and high-impact clinical psychology journals. The total number of papers on eating disorders increased substantially over the observation period, although a decrease was observed in high-impact psychiatry journals. Female authorship increased in both specialty journals and high-impact psychiatry journals. Authors were significantly less likely to be female in high-impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals than in speciality journals. Eating disorder research has been increasingly allocated to specialty journals over the past 20 years. A consistent gender gap between specialty and high-impact journals exists. Declaration of interest C.M.B is a grant recipient from Shire Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and has participated as a member of their scientific advisory board. These positions are unrelated to the content of this article.

  11. Position paper on main areas of nuclear chemistry research and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear chemistry, with its specialized areas of nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, and radiation chemistry, mainly covers these fields: basic research in nuclear chemistry; actinide chemistry; radioanalysis; nuclear chemistry in the life sciences, geosciences, and cosmic chemistry; radiotracers in technology; nuclear power technology; nuclear waste management; tritium chemistry in fusion technology, and radiation protection and radioecology. In the more than one hundred years of history of this branch of science and technology, which was opened up by the discovery of radioactivity and of the radioelements, pioneering discoveries and developments have been made in many sectors. Far beyond the confines of this area of work, they have achieved overriding importance in applications in many fields of technology and industry and in the life sciences. Research and application in nuclear chemistry continue to be highly relevant to society, ecology, and the economy, and the potential of science and technology in this field in Germany is acknowledged internationally. In the light of this vast area of activity, and against the need to maintain competence in nuclear chemistry for the use of nuclear power, irrespective of the status of this continued use in Germany, nuclear chemistry is indispensable to the solution of future problems. The Nuclear Chemistry Group of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker therefore uses this position paper to draw attention to the urgent need to keep up and further advance nuclear chemistry applications in a variety of areas of science and technology, also as a public duty of thorough education and research. (orig.) [de

  12. submitter CERN openlab white paper on future ICT challenges in scientific research

    CERN Document Server

    Di Meglio, Alberto; Purcell, Andrew; Rademakers, Fons

    Throughout its 16-year history, CERN openlab has worked to develop and test new ICT technologies and techniques that help to make the ground-breaking physics discoveries at CERN possible. CERN openlab runs in three-year phases, with around 20 projects — addressing a wide range of IT topics — being run in its current, fifth phase. With CERN openlab’s sixth three-year phase set to begin at the start of 2018, work has been carried out throughout the first half of 2017 to identify key areas for future collaboration. A series of workshops and discussions was held to discuss the ICT challenges faced by the LHC research community — and other ‘big science’ projects over the coming years. This white paper is the culmination of these investigations, and sets out specific challenges that are ripe for tackling through collaborative R&D; projects.

  13. Papers presented at the fourteenth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the contributions of the CIEMAT's Fusion Unit to the 14th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research that was held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Wurzburg, Germany from 30 September to 7 October 1992. Three papers were presented that summarized the main lines of work done in the Unit during the previous two years: The first one on the theoretical advances in the understanding of the Flexible Heliac TJ-II under construction, the second on the confinement studies performed in the operating TJ-I Tokamak and the third one on the description of the physical properties of the soon to be started TJ-IU Torsatron. (Author) 25 refs

  14. Effect of feeding on the pharmacokinetics of oral minocycline in healthy research dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnot, Melanie L; Cole, Lynette K; Lorch, Gwendolen; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi J; Papich, Mark G

    2015-12-01

    The effect of food on minocycline oral absorption in dogs is unknown. The objective was to determine the pharmacokinetics of minocycline after administration of a single oral dose in fed and fasted dogs. Ten research hounds were administered oral minocycline (approximately 5 mg/kg) with and without food, in a crossover study, with a one-week wash-out between treatments. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to minocycline administration and over 24 h. Minocycline plasma drug concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection and were analysed with compartmental modelling to determine primary pharmacokinetic parameters. Each dog was analysed independently, followed by calculation of means and variation of the dogs. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test [analysing secondary pharmacokinetic parameters - peak concentration (CMAX ), area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC)] was used to compare the two groups. A population pharmacokinetic modelling approach was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling of primary parameters for the population as fixed effects and the difference between subjects as a random effect. Covariate analysis was used to identify the source of variability in the population. No significant difference was found between treatments for AUC (P = 0.0645), although AUC was higher in fasted dogs. A significant difference was found for CMAX (P = 0.0059), with fasted dogs attaining a higher CMAX . The covariate of fed versus fasted accounted for a significant variation in the pharmacokinetics. Because feeding was a significant source of variation for the population's primary pharmacokinetic parameters and fasted dogs had higher minocycline concentrations, we recommend administering minocycline without food. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Archive of oral tradition of the Centre for Asia Minor Studies: its formation and its contribution to research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Kapoli

    2008-08-01

    life, ethnic relations and religious practices of their native homelands, as well as provide information about their settlement in Greece after the “Asia Minor Catastrophe”. With the outcome of this research the Center for Asia Minor Studies (CAMS formed an archive of the oral testimonies of approximately 5,000 refugees, consisting of over 300,000 hand-written pages. The refugees were interviewed between the early 1930s and the early 1970s. This “Archive of Oral Tradition”, as it is called, bears the mark of three different types of people: Melpo Merlier, the researchers of the center and, last but not least, the refugee informants themselves. This paper will examine how this unusual archive reflects the way that the refugees and a part of Greek society experienced the transition to a new way of life and how they preserved the memory of their past.

  16. Conducting Research: Literature Search to Writing Review Paper, Part 3: Writing Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    : “Research Tools” can be defined as vehicles that broadly facilitate research and related activities. “Research Tools” enable researchers to collect, organize, analyze, visualize and publicized research  outputs. Dr. Nader has collected over 700 tools that enable students to follow the correct path in research and to ultimately produce high-quality research outputs with more accuracy and efficiency. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled “Research Tools”, which is updat...

  17. Conducting Research: Literature Search to Writing Review Paper, Part 1: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    Research Tools” can be defined as vehicles that broadly facilitate research and related activities. “Research Tools” enable researchers to collect, organize, analyze, visualize and publicized research  outputs. Dr. Nader has collected over 700 tools that enable students to follow the correct path in research and to ultimately produce high-quality research outputs with more accuracy and efficiency. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled “Research Tools”, which is updated...

  18. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  19. NIH Research Addresses Aging Issues and Disparities in Oral Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect oral health. Poor blood glucose control in diabetes, for example, can put you at risk for periodontal (gum) disease. Cancer treatments can cause a host of oral problems. Medications can damage oral tissues and/or decrease salivary flow, causing dry mouth. It’s also important to know ...

  20. Position paper by Canadian dental sleep medicine professionals on the role of different health care professionals in managing obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Luc; Almeida, Fernanda; Arcache, Jean-Patrick; Ashton-McGregor, Catherine; Coté, David; Driver, Helen S; Ferguson, Kathleen A; Lavigne, Gilles J; Martin, Philippe; Masse, Jean-François; Morisson, Florence; Pancer, Jeffrey; Samuels, Charles Harry; Schachter, Maurice; Sériès, Frédéric; Sullivan, Glendon Edward

    2012-01-01

    The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs) as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for severe OSA patients who cannot tolerate CPAP, are inappropriate candidates for CPAP or who have failed CPAP treatment attempts. The purpose of the present position paper is to guide interdisciplinary teamwork (sleep physicians and sleep dentists) and to clarify the role of each professional in the management of OA therapy. The diagnosis of OSA should always be made by a physician, and OAs should be fitted by a qualified dentist who is trained and experienced in dental sleep medicine. Follow-up assessment by the referring physician and polysomnography or sleep studies are required to verify treatment efficacy. The present article emphasizes the need for a team approach to OA therapy and provides treatment guidelines for dentists trained in dental sleep medicine. Many of the dentists and sleep physicians who contributed to the preparation of the present article are members of the Canadian Sleep Society and the authors reached a consensus based on the current literature.

  1. African Journal of Oral Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Oral Health Sciences is devoted to research into oral diseases and encourages a multidisciplinary approach. Emphasis is on oral pathology, oral microbiology, oral medicine, oral physiology and biochemistry and related clinical sciences.

  2. Research needs in allergy: an EAACI position paper, in collaboration with EFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos Nikolaos G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health systems. More disturbingly, its prevalence and impact are on the rise, a development that has been associated with environmental and lifestyle changes accompanying the continuous process of urbanization and globalization. Therefore, there is an urgent need to prioritize and concert research efforts in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients’ Associations (EFA is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD patients’ organizations. In support of their missions, the present EAACI Position Paper, in collaboration with EFA, highlights the most important research needs in the field of allergy to serve as key recommendations for future research funding at the national and European levels. Although allergies may involve almost every organ of the body and an array of diverse external factors act as triggers, there are several common themes that need to be prioritized in research efforts. As in many other chronic diseases, effective prevention, curative treatment and accurate, rapid diagnosis represent major unmet needs. Detailed phenotyping/endotyping stands out as widely required in order to arrange or re-categorize clinical syndromes into

  3. Evaluation of the informatician perspective: determining types of research papers preferred by clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Boshu; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yao, Lixia

    2017-07-05

    To deliver evidence-based medicine, clinicians often reference resources that are useful to their respective medical practices. Owing to their busy schedules, however, clinicians typically find it challenging to locate these relevant resources out of the rapidly growing number of journals and articles currently being published. The literature-recommender system may provide a possible solution to this issue if the individual needs of clinicians can be identified and applied. We thus collected from the CiteULike website a sample of 96 clinicians and 6,221 scientific articles that they read. We examined the journal distributions, publication types, reading times, and geographic locations. We then compared the distributions of MeSH terms associated with these articles with those of randomly sampled MEDLINE articles using two-sample Z-test and multiple comparison correction, in order to identify the important topics relevant to clinicians. We determined that the sampled clinicians followed the latest literature in a timely manner and read papers that are considered landmarks in medical research history. They preferred to read scientific discoveries from human experiments instead of molecular-, cellular- or animal-model-based experiments. Furthermore, the country of publication may impact reading preferences, particularly for clinicians from Egypt, India, Norway, Senegal, and South Africa. These findings provide useful guidance for developing personalized literature-recommender systems for clinicians.

  4. Identifying potentially eligible subjects for research: paper-based logs versus the hospital administrative database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, L A; Massey, K; von Dadelszen, P; Fazio, M; Payne, B; Liston, R

    2011-12-01

    The Canadian Perinatal Network (CPN) is a national database focused on threatened very pre-term birth. Women with one or more conditions most commonly associated with very pre-term birth are included if admitted to a participating tertiary perinatal unit at 22 weeks and 0 days to 28 weeks and 6 days. At BC Women's Hospital and Health Centre, we compared traditional paper-based ward logs and a search of the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) electronic database of inpatient discharges to identify patients. The study identified 244 women potentially eligible for inclusion in the CPN admitted between April and December 2007. Of the 155 eligible women entered into the CPN database, each method identified a similar number of unique records (142 and 147) not ascertained by the other: 10 (6.4%) by CIHI search and 5 (3.2%) by ward log review. However, CIHI search achieved these results after reviewing fewer records (206 vs. 223) in less time (0.67 vs. 13.6 hours for ward logs). Either method is appropriate for identification of potential research subjects using gestational age criteria. Although electronic methods are less time-consuming, they cannot be performed until after the patient is discharged and records and charts are reviewed. Each method's advantages and disadvantages will dictate use for a specific project.

  5. Funding research data management and related infrastructures : Knowledge Exchange and Science Europe briefing paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, Magchiel; Duca, Daniela; Katerbow, Matthias; Kupiainen, Irina; Dillo, Ingrid; Doorn, P.K.; Enke, Harry; de Lucas, Jesus Eugenio Marco

    2016-01-01

    Research Funding Organisations (RFO) and Research Performing Organisations (RPO) throughout Europe are well aware that science and scholarship increasingly depend on infrastructures supporting sustainable Research Data Management (RDM). In two complementary surveys, the Science Europe Working Group

  6. Information Technology in Education Research Programme, 1988-93. Occasional Paper InTER/1/88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R.

    This paper describes the new phase of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) initiative in Information Technology in Education for the period 1988-93. The first sections of the paper discuss the rationale and framework of the program as a whole, followed by outlines of the initial programs of research started in autumn 1988 to investigate…

  7. A Survey of the Institution of Zakah: Issues, Theories and Administration (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeq, Abu al Hasan

    1994-01-01

    The paper focuses on the theoretical and administrative aspects of Zakah and examines its major Fiqhi issues. The paper further more reviews the administrative issues related to Contemporary Application of Zakah.

  8. Uses of oral history and digital storytelling in public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, E K; Starecheski, A

    2018-01-01

    Oral history (OH) and digital storytelling (DST) have been used in a range of ways in public health, including educating populations about health-protecting practices, advocating for improved clinical care and reflecting on public health efforts to combat infectious disease. Yet, these methods are rarely recognized for their potential to contribute to public health research and practice. The aim of this article is to assess how OH and DST have been used in the health fields and to provide examples of ways that these methods have contributed to work in several domains of public health. Narrative review. We conducted a narrative review of articles gathered from PubMed using the search terms 'oral history' and 'digital storytelling', which resulted in 102 articles relevant to public health. We then conducted a thematic analysis to create a typology of article topics and to examine cross-cutting themes. OH and DST have been used for both research and interventions in public health. Specifically, they have been used to 1) examine health risks and experiences; 2) engage and educate populations; 3) educate clinical professionals and organizations; and 4) inform public health practice. Despite the time, resources, and training required to do OH and DST well, we argue that these methods have substantial potential for supplementing public health activities, allowing the field to glean additional lessons from its experiences, to educate its practitioners further, and to better learn from the experiences of communities affected by public health problems. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does Self-Citation Influence Quantitative Measures of Research Productivity Among Academic Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Swanson, Edward W; Lopez, Joseph; Peacock, Zachary S; Dodson, Thomas B

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative measures of research productivity depend on the citation frequency of a publication. Citation-based metrics, such as the h-index (total number of publications h that have at least h citations), can be susceptible to self-citation, resulting in an inflated measure of research productivity. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the effect of self-citation on the h-index among academic oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs). The present study was a cross-sectional study of full-time academic OMSs in the United States. The predictor variable was the frequency of self-citation. The primary outcome of interest was the h-index. Other study variables included demographic factors and citation metrics. Descriptive, bivariate, and regression statistics were computed. The study sample consisted of 325 full-time academic OMSs. Most surgeons were men (88.3%); approximately 40% had medical degrees. The study subjects had an average of 23.5 ± 37.1 publications. The mean number of self-citations was 15 + 56. The sample's mean h-index was 6.6 ± 7.6 and was associated with self-citation (r = 0.71, P citations. After adjusting for PhD degree, total number of publications, and academic rank, an increasing self-citation rate influenced the h-index (r = 0.006, P citations were more likely to have their h-index influenced by self-citation. Self-citation among full-time academic OMSs does not substantially affect the h-index. Surgeons in the top quartile of self-citation rates are more likely to influence their h-index. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Research studies on in vitro and ex vivo yield of the miconazole nitrate from oral biomucoadhesive tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birsan, Magdalena; Cojocaru, Ileana; Scutariu, Mihaela Monica; Popovici, Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Among the various routes of drug administration, the oral mucosa is perhaps the most often preferred by patients and medical staff. However, oral administration of drugs has disadvantages, which may limit or prevent oral administration of some drugs, especially peptides and proteins, little when they are inserted in special administration systems for the colon. The disaggregation of some oral biomucoadhesive tablets and the in vitro yield of the miconazole nitrate was evaluated and in parallel with this, the evaluation of the in vivo yield of the antifungal from the pharmaceutical form. Thus, for a clear determination of the oral mucobioadhesive tablets' disintegration with miconazole nitrate, it was necessary to implement a method to simulate the conditions of the oral cavity at a flow of solution (artificial saliva) similar to that of the human one. miconazole nitrate. The determination of disintegration time according to method A (FRX); the disaggregation of oral biomucoadhesive tablets with miconazole nitrate by means of simulation methods of in vitro conditions; the quantitative determination of the miconazole nitrate by means of HPLC method, after the in vitro dissolution test; the study of miconazole nitrate's yield in dynamic condition from biomucoadhesive tablets in the presence of artificial saliva (AFNOR). The yield profile of the miconazole nitrate in the disintegration solutions by means of classical method from FR X, by HPLC dosage was researched. The release of miconazole nitrate from the oral mucobioadhesive tablets was determined, that varies in time, depending on the type and relation of matrix forming polymers; a low yield speed of the miconazole nitrate from the tablets was determined; the yield profile of miconazole nitrate in disintegration solutions by means of the new suggested method was researched. The release of miconazole nitrate from the formulated biomucoadhesive tablets is of swelling and erosion.

  11. Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (Pi test): a review of its development and methodological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Menon, R.G.; Chien, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Iron oxide impregnated filter paper (FeO paper) has been used to study the availability of phosphorus (P) to plants and algae, P desorption kinetics and P dynamics in the field. Since its initial development a number of differences in the method of preparation of the paper and its application have

  12. Differences in citation frequency of clinical and basic science papers in cardiovascular research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opthof, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a critical analysis is performed on differences in citation frequency of basic and clinical cardiovascular papers. It appears that the latter papers are cited at about 40% higher frequency. The differences between the largest number of citations of the most cited papers are even

  13. Differences in citation frequency of clinical and basic science papers in cardiovascular research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opthof, Tobias

    In this article, a critical analysis is performed on differences in citation frequency of basic and clinical cardiovascular papers. It appears that the latter papers are cited at about 40% higher frequency. The differences between the largest number of citations of the most cited papers are even

  14. Is there a relationship between research sponsorship and publication impact? An analysis of funding acknowledgments in nanotechnology papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    Full Text Available This study analyzes funding acknowledgments in scientific papers to investigate relationships between research sponsorship and publication impacts. We identify acknowledgments to research sponsors for nanotechnology papers published in the Web of Science during a one-year sample period. We examine the citations accrued by these papers and the journal impact factors of their publication titles. The results show that publications from grant sponsored research exhibit higher impacts in terms of both journal ranking and citation counts than research that is not grant sponsored. We discuss the method and models used, and the insights provided by this approach as well as it limitations.

  15. Research Universities: Producers of Economic Development or Luxury Goods? ASHE 1985 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Maureen W.

    Research that occurs in universities under conditions of patronage is distinguished from research that occurs under less distorted market conditions. It is claimed that academic research is shifting from an area of patronage consumption to one of economic development investment. In addition to considering the markets for academic research and…

  16. How authors did it - a methodological analysis of recent engineering education research papers in the European Journal of Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmi, Lauri; Adawi, Tom; Curmi, Ronald; de Graaff, Erik; Duffy, Gavin; Kautz, Christian; Kinnunen, Päivi; Williams, Bill

    2018-03-01

    We investigated research processes applied in recent publications in the European Journal of Engineering Education (EJEE), exploring how papers link to theoretical work and how research processes have been designed and reported. We analysed all 155 papers published in EJEE in 2009, 2010 and 2013, classifying the papers using a taxonomy of research processes in engineering education research (EER) (Malmi et al. 2012). The majority of the papers presented either empirical work (59%) or were case reports (27%). Our main findings are as follows: (1) EJEE papers build moderately on a wide selection of theoretical work; (2) a great majority of papers have a clear research strategy, but data analysis methods are mostly simple descriptive statistics or simple/undocumented qualitative research methods; and (3) there are significant shortcomings in reporting research questions, methodology and limitations of studies. Our findings are consistent with and extend analyses of EER papers in other publishing venues; they help to build a clearer picture of the research currently published in EJEE and allow us to make recommendations for consideration by the editorial team of the journal. Our employed procedure also provides a framework that can be applied to monitor future global evolution of this and other EER journals.

  17. Data on the descriptive overview and the quality assessment details of 12 qualitative research papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabishvili, Maia; Ulrichs, Timo; Waldherr, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    This data article presents the supplementary material for the review paper "Role of acceptability barriers in delayed diagnosis of Tuberculosis: Literature review from high burden countries" (Barnabishvili et al., in press) [1]. General overview of 12 qualitative papers, including the details about authors, years of publication, data source locations, study objectives, overview of methods, study population characteristics, as well as the details of intervention and the outcome parameters of the papers are summarized in the first two tables included to the article. Quality assessment process of the methodological strength of 12 papers and the results of the critical appraisal are further described and summarized in the second part of the article.

  18. Differences in citation frequency of clinical and basic science papers in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opthof, Tobias

    2011-06-01

    In this article, a critical analysis is performed on differences in citation frequency of basic and clinical cardiovascular papers. It appears that the latter papers are cited at about 40% higher frequency. The differences between the largest number of citations of the most cited papers are even larger. It is also demonstrated that the groups of clinical and basic cardiovascular papers are also heterogeneous concerning citation frequency. It is concluded that none of the existing citation indicators appreciates these differences. At this moment these indicators should not be used for quality assessment of individual scientists and scientific niches with small numbers of scientists.

  19. Retrospective study on risk habits among oral cancer patients in Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, D S; Prasad, K V V; Shavi, Girish R; Ariga, Jitendra; Rajesh, G; Krishna, Madhusudan

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective studies on oral cancer patient profiles related to risk habits could provide etiologic clues for prevention in specific geographic areas. To study risk habit characteristics of oral cancer patients. A cross sectional retrospective case record study of oral cancer patients who reported during 1991-2000 to Karnataka Cancer Therapy and Research Institute, Hubli, India was conducted. Data on socio-demography, histopathology, site of cancer and risk habit profiles of the patients were recorded in a predesigned Performa by one calibrated examiner with internal validity checks. The 1,472 oral cancer patients constituted 11% of total cancer patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years, ranging from 12-88, with a male: female ratio of 2:1. 1,110 (75%) oral cancer patients had risk habits, 55% were habituated for >10 years and 25% were habit free. 751(51%) patients had individual and 359(24%) had combined risk habits. Majority 59% were chewers of betel quid alone (17%)/betel quid with tobacco (42%); smokers were (31%) and alcohol users were (14%) of patients. Chewers of gutkha, khaini were more in 40 years. Risk habituates were highest (87%) in patients with cancer of buccal mucosa, commonly affected site attributed to chewing habit in (51%) of patients. The prevalence of oral cancer was higher among elderly males predominantly with risk habits of betel quid/tobacco chewing and smoking for more than 10 years.

  20. Research progress on berberine with a special focus on its oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Shun; Zheng, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Ying-Feng; Long, Xiao-Ying

    2016-03-01

    The natural product berberine (BBR) has become a potential drug in the treatment of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cancer. However, the oral delivery of BBR is challenged by its poor bioavailability. It is necessary to improve the oral bioavailability of BBR before it can be used in many clinical applications. Understanding the pharmacokinetic characteristics of BBR will enable the development of suitable formulas that have improved oral bioavailability. The key considerations for BBR are how to enhance the drug absorption and to avoid the intestinal first-pass effect. This review summarizes the pharmacological activities of BBR and analyzes the factors that lead to its poor oral bioavailability. In particular, the therapeutic potential of BBR in new indications from the aspect of oral bioavailability is discussed. In conclusion, BBR is a promising drug candidate for metabolic disorders and cancer but faces considerable challenges due to its poor oral bioavailability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Research in Progress--Update April 1990. Occasional Paper InTER/14/90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Maureen, Comp.

    This document contains abstracts of 29 research projects in progress in Great Britain divided into six sections: (1) the current phase of Information Technology in Education Research (InTER) programs on groupwork with computers, tools for exploratory learning, conceptual change in science, and bubble dialogue as an ethnographic research tool; (2)…

  2. Mass Media in Society: The Need of Research. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    More and better research should be undertaken, nationally and internationally, on the effect of mass media upon society. Prior to such research, there needs to be an awareness of the realities of society today and of broadcasting structure. There should also be an understanding of the research that has already been done and of the gaps in that…

  3. The Impact of the Protection of Human Subjects on Research. Working Paper No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrew S.

    The author discusses the experimenter's responsibility for the protection of human subjects (such as the handicapped) in research and the impact of this responsibility on methods of doing research. Considered are the types of human rights that are most frequently in need of protection within a research setting (such as the right to privacy); the…

  4. THE NARRATIVE OF A CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE CLIENT: ORAL HISTORY AS RESEARCH STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Schleder Gonçalves Kobus

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to understand the meanings of the failure kidney for a client whofor twelve years is in hemodialisys treatment. The study was developed from November, 2002 through March,2003.The Oral History as a research strategy showed the following categories: The failure kidney sick diagnosticdiscovery and the routine with it; The hemodialisy treatment and its limitation; The concerns about self image; Thehopeness for a kidney transplant; The relationship with health professionals team; The family support; Newprojects of life; Attempts to feel itself useful. The patient’s narrative showed how difficult is the treatment, dealingchallenges daily, discoveries and hopes, a constant effort to fight against the limits, but demonstrating capacity toexceed the suffering. It was evident the positive and trustful relationship established with the health professionalteam, strengthening its social and ethical commitment in co-responsibility relationship, involvement, cooperation,consensus, dialogue and participative feelings. This study presents how important is to perceive each person as asingular one and the way that this person lives and deals with illness situation.

  5. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  6. The promotion of oral health within the Healthy School context in England: a qualitative research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Rebecca V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy Schools programmes may assist schools in improving the oral health of children through advocating a common risk factor approach to health promotion and by more explicit consideration of oral health. The objectives of this study were to gain a broad contextual understanding of issues around the delivery of oral health promotion as part of Healthy Schools programmes and to investigate the barriers and drivers to the incorporation of oral health promoting activities in schools taking this holistic approach to health promotion. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with coordinators of Healthy Schools programmes in the Northwest of England. Interview transcripts were coded using a framework derived from themes in the interview schedule. Results All 22 Healthy Schools coordinators participated and all reported some engagement of their Healthy Schools scheme with oral health promotion. The degree of this engagement depended on factors such as historical patterns of working, partnerships, resources and priorities. Primary schools were reported to have engaged more fully with both Healthy Schools programmes and aspects of oral health promotion than secondary schools. Participants identified healthy eating interventions as the most appropriate means to promote oral health in schools. Partners with expertise in oral health were key in supporting Healthy Schools programmes to promote oral health. Conclusion Healthy Schools programmes are supporting the promotion of oral health although the extent to which this is happening is variable. Structures should be put in place to ensure that the engagement of Healthy Schools with oral health is fully supported.

  7. Data on the descriptive overview and the quality assessment details of 12 qualitative research papers

    OpenAIRE

    Barnabishvili, Maia; Ulrichs, Timo; Waldherr, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This data article presents the supplementary material for the review paper “Role of acceptability barriers in delayed diagnosis of Tuberculosis: Literature review from high burden countries” (Barnabishvili et al., in press) [1]. General overview of 12 qualitative papers, including the details about authors, years of publication, data source locations, study objectives, overview of methods, study population characteristics, as well as the details of intervention and the outcome parameters of t...

  8. Global policy for improvement of oral health in the 21st century--implications to oral health research of World Health Assembly 2007, World Health Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme has worked hard over the past 5 years to increase the awareness of oral health worldwide as oral health is important component of general health and quality of life. Meanwhile, oral disease is still a major public health problem...... in high income countries and the burden of oral disease is growing in many low- and middle income countries. In the World Oral Health Report 2003, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme formulated the policies and necessary actions to the continuous improvement of oral health. The strategy is that oral...... disease prevention and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years...

  9. Public libraries, as an infrastructure for a sustainable public sphere: A systematic review of research: A preliminary paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audunson, Ragnar; Svandhild, Aabø,; Blomgren, Roger

    of the major findings are: Research on libraries as public sphere institutions cover a wide range of topics the dominating being freedom of access to information, often related to social inclusion, empowerment and justice. Contributions are often normative and non-empirical, but the proportion of empirically...... based research is increasing. This paper focuses on contributions related to public libraries.......This paper is based on a systematic literature search aiming at identifying research on the role of libraries as institutions underpinning a sustainable public sphere in a digital age. The major research questions are: 1. Is systematic literature search a fruitful method when it comes to a social...

  10. Global Trends and Research Aims for English Academic Oral Presentations: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities for Learning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Neil E.; Liu, Gi-Zen

    2016-01-01

    English has become the de facto language for communication in academia in many parts of the world, but English language learners often lack the language resources to make effective oral academic presentations. However, English for academic purposes (EAP) research is beginning to provide valuable insights into this emerging field. This literature…

  11. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  12. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mutational Profile in Taiwanese Population | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major oral cancer subtype that is the fourth most common cancer affecting Taiwanese men. Despite known risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel nut chewing often indulged by Taiwanese men, the genetic contribution to the incidence or progression of OSCC has yet been elucidated in the Taiwanese population.

  13. Stating the Case for Nursing Research Ethics Committees: A Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Theresa; Fletcher, Ian

    1998-01-01

    Nurse-led research ethics committees are generally more tolerant of diversity in research proposals than are medical committees steeped in empirical traditions. However, national trends in nursing in Britain may influence a preference for multidisciplinary over nurse-led committees. (SK)

  14. The State of Group Support System Research through a Survey of Papers 1980 to 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    and Beauclair (1990) develop the second point even further by introducing a scheme for codifying the "distance" between experiments based on their...repeatability. That is the apparent strength of the taxonomy proposed by Gray, Vogel and Beauclair (1990) in their Assessing GDSS Empirical Research... BEAUCLAIR RESEARCH MODEL (reproduced from Gray, et al., 1990) METAVARIABLES VARIABLES INDICATORS PERSONAL FACTORS (group member attitudes

  15. Nursing Research and Practice with Refugees. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies. Bibliography. Occasional Papers, Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, Marjorie A.

    This 99-item bibliography gathers the widely dispersed nursing literature on refugees, including unpublished master's degree theses and conference proceedings. Nurse researchers, more than researchers in other health care fields, have undertaken exploratory studies to document and interpret the health beliefs and health care practices of various…

  16. Policy Analysis: The New Reality for Institutional Research. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John D.; Fenske, Robert H.

    The problems and opportunities for institutional research in academe as it becomes increasingly policy analytic in activity and orientation are explored. It is suggested that for the 1980s the most viable and dynamic role for institutional research will be in providing leaders in higher education institutions with policy-relevant knowledge in…

  17. The role of research in global food and nutrition security - Discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischler, F.; Wilkinson, D.; Benton, T.; Daniel, H.; Darcy-Vrillon, B.; Hedlund, K.; Heffernan, P.; Kok, E.J.; Saarela, M.; Jakubczyk, E.; Sorlini, C.; Swinnen, J.; Braun, von J.; Ash, K.; Rojas Briales, E.; Buckwell, A.; Frewen, M.; Karlsson, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present discussion document gives an overview of where European research can add the most value in relation to tackling food and nutrition security challenges and points to areas where we can expand our research potential. Moreover, it highlights the need to develop a governance structure that

  18. Researching Classroom Interaction in the light of social justice. : [paper presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolina Montesano-Montessori; Prof.Dr. Petra Ponte

    2010-01-01

    A research into classroom interaction (behaviour and communication) between teachers and pupils in the light of social justice. The research is based on the concern that educational praxis, defined as 'practice which implies a conscious awareness of the practitioners that their actions are morally

  19. A Text Book of Research Papers On 4G & 5G Technologies and its Applications on Online Learning and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad K

    2018-01-01

    This book contains research articles related to Mobile Wireless Communication Technologies 4G and 5G Technologies. This book also contains applications of 4G and 5G Technologies in Online Banking and Online Learning. These papers published already in peer-reviewed International Journals. This Book has written with an intention to get all papers together under one roof, which will benefit all the researchers of related areas.

  20. Interdisciplinary perspectives on dose limits in radioactive waste management : A research paper developed within the ENTRIA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmbach, K.; Röhlig, K.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Within the ENTRIA project, an interdisciplinary group of scientists developed a research paper aiming at a synthesis of the technical, sociology of knowledge, legal, societal, and political aspects of dose limits within the field of radioactive waste management. In this paper, the ENTRIA project is

  1. Reading Research in the Socialist Countries. Abridged Papers and Minutes of a Conference (Budapest, Hungary, October 15-18, 1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrinina, Natalia Y., Ed.; And Others

    These papers on reading research in the socialist countries were delivered at a conference held in Budapest, Hungary, in October of 1974. Included are the text of the introductory address and papers on the following topics: (1) the library and society; (2) the library as it relates to students, teachers, and engineers; (3) the role and…

  2. White paper on geothermal sustainability; Grundlagenpapier 'Geothermal sustainability - A review with identified research needs'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybach, L.; Megel, T.

    2006-12-15

    This comprehensive appendix contained in a comprehensive annual report 2006 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews research needs identified in connection with the topic of geothermal sustainability. It is noted that excessive production often pursued - mostly for economical reasons - can lead to the depletion of heat reservoirs. Sustainable production can be achieved with lower production rates and still provide similar total energy yields. The regeneration of geothermal resources following exploitation is discussed. The need for further research into geothermal production sustainability is noted. A doublet system realised in Riehen, Switzerland, is discussed, as is an Enhanced Geothermal System EGS using circulation in fractured rock layers. Research still needed is noted.

  3. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  4. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research ph...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  5. U.S. Department of Energy's Genomics: GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-08-01

    The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission and goals.

  6. Research Paper: Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Behavioral Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Nesayan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This research showed that social skills training were not significantly effective on behavioral problems in adolescents with intellectual disability. Although our results were not effective, research evidence shows that people with cognitive delays (such as intellectual disability require social skill training programs that include all of their academic, career, daily life, and social skills. As social skills learning plays a role in personal and social adjustment, it is necessary to pay more attention to these skills.

  7. Econometric Methods for Research in Education. NBER Working Paper No. 16003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghir, Costas; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the econometric methods that have been used in the economics of education. The focus is on understanding how the assumptions made to justify and implement such methods relate to the underlying economic model and the interpretation of the results. We start by considering the estimation of the returns to education both…

  8. A Proposal for Integrating Research and Teacher Professional Preparation: Innovation and Induction Corridors. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, M. Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    In this white paper, the author addresses the current issues faced by policy makers for improving the K-12 education system in the United States. Reliance had been on: (1) incentives; and (2) accountability standards. These two policy levers promised a quick, easily understood response for a relatively small investment. While the logic of these…

  9. Child Labor, Income Shocks, and Access to Credit. Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev H.; Gatti, Roberta

    Although a growing theoretical literature points to credit constraints as an important source of inefficiently high child labor, little work has been done to assess its empirical relevance. This paper examines the direct effect of a transitory income shock on household child labor choices, as well as the extent to which access to credit helps…

  10. Data Linkage in VET Research: Opportunities, Challenges and Principles. Discussion Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Kristen; Fowler, Craig; Circelli, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    This discussion paper explores the possibilities and risks that data linkage presents for the vocational education and training (VET) sector. Along with a broad overview of the nature of data linkage, it highlights possible applications for data linkage in the VET sector and examines the key challenges associated with its use. A number of case…

  11. Developmental Theories and Instructional Strategies: A Summary Paper. SIDRU Research Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Beeke

    This paper provides curriculum makers with an overview of developmental theory and relates the theory to instructional strategies. The section on socioemotional development addresses Erikson's eight ages of man, Kohlberg's stages of moral development, motivation and Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Taylor's stage model of creative development, and…

  12. The Effects of Education on Occupational Status and Earnings. Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.

    This paper investigated the effects of educational attainment on occupational status and earnings among men. Drawing on nine data sets, it attempted to assess the effects of schooling that persist after measured and unmeasured aspects of family background, and measured cognitive skill were controlled. It also examined differences in the effects of…

  13. Learning Outcomes and School Cost-Effectiveness in Mexico: The PARE Program. Policy Research Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Gladys Lopez

    This paper examines the impact on student learning of the Programa para Abatir el Rezago Educativo (PARE), which aimed to improve the quality and efficiency of primary education in four Mexican states by increasing school resources. PARE was implemented in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, Chiapas, and Hidalgo, which have the highest incidence of…

  14. Alaska Native Languages: Past, Present, and Future. Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Michael E.

    Three papers (1978-80) written for the non-linguistic public about Alaska Native languages are combined here. The first is an introduction to the prehistory, history, present status, and future prospects of all Alaska Native languages, both Eskimo-Aleut and Athabaskan Indian. The second and third, presented as appendixes to the first, deal in…

  15. The Frames of Training. Research, Evaluation and Development Paper Series No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druian, M. Gregory

    In this paper, several issues related to the problem of transfer of training are set forth. The technique of frame analysis, developed by Erving Goffman, is presented as a way of bringing coherence to the formulation of problems related to transfer of training. Key concepts in Goffman's argument are explained, showing how those concepts pertain to…

  16. Influence of proceedings papers on citation impact in seven sub-fields of sustainable energy research 2005–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Larsen, Birger; Garcia-Zorita, J. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    and Wave Energy, Geo-thermal, Bio-fuel and Bio-mass energy ub-fields. The analyses cover peer reviewed research and review articles as well as two kinds of proceeding papers from conferences published 2005–2009 in (a) book series or volumes and (b) special journal issues excluding meeting abstracts cited......This paper analyses the following seven sub-fields of Sustainable Energy Research with respect to the influence of proceedings papers on citation patterns across citing and cited document types, overall sub-field and document type impacts and citedness: the Wind Power, Renewable Energy, Solar...

  17. 10. national conference of Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society. Abstract of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The 10. national conference of M. Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society has given the opportunity to present novel Polish advisement in all fields of radiation research, e.g. radiation chemistry and biology, radiation processing, environmental study, mathematical modeling and simulation as well as different theoretical study. As a whole it may be treated as a review of actual state of art. The scientific progress since 1992 when the 9. national conference place up to now can be easy assessed on the base of presented material

  18. Ophthalmology and vision science research: Part 3: avoiding writer's block--understanding the ABCs of a good research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Charles N J; Gilhotra, Amardeep K

    2005-12-01

    Completion of a scientific manuscript for submission to a peer-reviewed journal is a daunting task for clinicians and scientists early in their careers. In an ongoing series, this third article is the first of 2 related articles that deal with the basics of producing a high-quality research manuscript. Although ophthalmology and vision science are the principal focus of this series, the general concepts essential to producing a quality manuscript are applicable to diverse fields of research. This article highlights the exponential growth in the scientific literature over the past 40 years, considers why it is important to publish completed research, and discusses the necessity of identifying the key messages of the research, and their context, in relation to the published literature. The ethics of publishing biomedical research and scientific misconduct, such as duplicate publication or plagiarism, are outlined. To avoid later conflict, there is a critical need for coworkers to carefully address authorship order and inclusion early in the manuscript process. Internationally agreed guidelines are identified to guide this process. The importance of choosing the correct journal for a specific article and the nature of basic citation indices are discussed. The article concludes by elaborating and contrasting different scientific writing styles and emphasizing the considerable importance of developing a representative title and applying clarity and appropriate structure to the abstract.

  19. Investigation of DBMS for Use in a Research Environment. Rand Paper Series 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Pilar N.

    This investigation of the use of database management systems (DBMS) in a research environment used the Rand Corporation as a case study. After a general introduction in section 1, eight sections present the major components of the study. Section 2 contains an overview of DBMS terminology and concepts, followed in section 3 by a general dsecription…

  20. Research on Employment in the Rural Nonfarm Sector in Africa. African Rural Employment Paper No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedholm, Carl

    Within the context of the role of rural employment in overall economic development, the objectives were to summarize existing knowledge of the rural African nonfarm sector and to develop an analytical framework for examing utilization of labor in this sector, using a descriptive profile, a theoretical model, and a research approach to rural…

  1. Macroeconomic Benefits of Vocational Education and Training. Research Paper No 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in workforce skills are essential for European countries to attain higher economic growth and to compete effectively on product markets. Literature indicates a positive relationship between levels of education and productivity growth. This report builds on and expands this body of research in two ways: (1) It investigates the…

  2. 77 FR 13656 - Call for Papers: National Symposium on Moving Target Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... a dynamic attack surface to an adversary, increasing the work factor necessary to successfully attack and exploit a cyber target. Throughout the federal government, research related to MT has been... improvement in the defense of cyber systems (a game changer),'' including how to develop better measures of...

  3. Organizational Models and Mythologies of the American Research University. ASHE 1986 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Daniel

    Features of the matrix model of the research university and myths about the academic enterprise are described, along with serious dissonances in the U.S. university system. The linear model, from which the matrix model evolved, describes the university's structure, perceived mission, and organizational behavior. A matrix model portrays in concise,…

  4. 2nd symposium on materials research 1991. Papers and posters. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierkorn-Rudolph, B.; Lillack, D.; Clar, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the '2nd symposium on materials research' the technological status of the Federal Republic was to be documented and balanced in the area of the new materials. Through overview lectures and subject-related lectures, results of fundamental research up to practical material developments are introduced. In the first volume, the polymers and metals topic circles are discussed; in the second volume, the ceramic materials, composites as well as the measurement technology, the testing method and analysis engineering; and in the third volume thin film technology and tribology. This was followed by a poster presentation (286 posters) on the subject of ceramic materials, powder metallurgy, high temperature and special materials, composites and new polymers. (MM) [de

  5. 2nd symposium on materials research 1991. Papers and posters. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierkorn-Rudolph, B.; Lillack, D.; Clar, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    With the '2nd symposium on materials research' the technological status of the Federal Republic was to be documented and balanced in the area of the new materials. Through overview lectures and subject-related lectures, results of fundamental research up to practical material developments are introduced. In the first volume, the polymers and metals topic circles are discussed; in the second volume, the ceramic materials, composites as well as the measurement technology, the testing method and analysis engineering; and in the third volume thin film technology and tribology. This was followed by a poster presentation (286 posters) on the subject of ceramic materials, powder metallurgy, high temperature and special materials, composites and new polymers. (MM) [de

  6. Compilation of Abstracts of Dissertations, Theses, and Research Papers Submitted by Candidates for Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    restricted Line Officer Financial Management Subspecialists Van Haaren, C. G., The AGOR-21 Class Oceanographic 78 LCDR, Supply Research Ships: An...Center, and thie UnIversity of Dayton Researchi instituite . Good - aqreement among -thle results is obtained for this- pllane of the A study...Commandcf, United States Nav-" B.S., United States Naval Academy, 1968 The ability to measure the utilization of Unrestricted Line Officer Financial

  7. Research Paper: Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Ajilchi

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 48: Valuing information in an interactive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinberg, Herbert R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration effort has been devoted over the past 30 years to developing methods and means of assessing the value of information. Two approaches - value in exchange and value in use - dominate; however, neither approach enjoys much practical application because validation schema for decision-making is missing. The approaches fail to measure objectively the real costs of acquiring information and the real benefits that information will yield. Moreover, these approaches collectively fail to provide economic justification to build and/or continue to support an information product or service. In addition, the impact of Cyberspace adds a new dimension to the problem. A new paradigm is required to make economic sense in this revolutionary information environment. In previous work, the authors explored the various approaches to measuring the value of information and concluded that, in large measure, these methods were unworkable concepts and constructs. Instead, they proposed several axioms for valuing information. Most particularly they concluded that the 'value of information cannot be measured in the absence of a specific task, objective, or goal.' This paper builds on those axioms and describes under which circumstances information can be measured in objective and actionable terms. This paper also proposes a methodology for undertaking such measures and validating the results.

  9. Microsatellite analysis of cryopreserved stallion semen stored on FTA(R paper : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Schulman

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish and validate a method to permit microsatellite analysis of DNA profiles obtained from frozen-thawed stallion sperm cells. This would provide reliable and accurate verification of the identification of a semen donor. Ejaculates from 5 pony stallions were collected, processed and frozen in 0.5 m plastic straws. Aliquots of 100 m of the frozen-thawed semen thus obtained were either placed directly, or diluted (1 : 10 ; 1 : 100 ; and 1 : 1000 and placed on slides of FTA(R paper. Similarly, blood samples obtained from each of the stallions were placed onto slides of FTA(R paper. A punch was removed from each sample after drying. Each sample was mixed with FTA(R purification reagent, Dithiothreitol and Proteinase K before incubation and processing. All samples were processed with a set of 13 microsatellite markers. Further analysis permitted a comparison of the DNA profiles of the frozen-thawed semen and the blood samples. A full profile of markers was obtained from the 1 : 10 and 1 : 100 dilutions of the frozen-thawed semen samples as well as from the blood samples. The DNA profiles from the frozen-thawed semen and blood samples obtained from the stallions matched in all cases.

  10. Longitudinal research on the oral environment of elderly wearing fixed or removable prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Junko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Kawazoe, Takayoshi

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate oral environmental risk factors involved in caries incidence in the elderly. We investigated the relationship between the oral environment factors of the elderly with both fixed prostheses and removable prostheses at baseline and at follow-up and examined time-course changes of each oral environmental factor by prosthesis type. The subject group consisted 11 elderly patients with fixed prostheses and 11 who wore removable prostheses. We examined oral environmental factors by saliva tests. Five oral environmental factors were examined: the stimulated salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, and the counts of mutans streptococci (SM), lactobacilli (LB), and Candida (CA). We compared these factors for subjects with fixed prostheses and those wearing removable prostheses at baseline and at follow-up. Furthermore, 3-year changes in the factors of each oral environment were compared and evaluated. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in the salivary microbial counts of SM and LB at baseline and at follow-up. The LB counts increased in the Denture group during the 3-year period and significant differences were noted. We found that fixed prostheses are less cariogenic, and removable prostheses cause an increase in the cariogenic bacterial count. Regarding time-course changes by the type of prosthesis, the LB count tended to increase in the subjects with removable prostheses. The risk of caries due to a fixed prosthesis may be lower than that of removable prostheses.

  11. A guide to writing a scientific paper: a focus on high school through graduate level student research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbach, Renee A; Petering, David H; Berg, Craig A; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Weber, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a detailed guide for high school through graduate level instructors that leads students to write effective and well-organized scientific papers. Interesting research emerges from the ability to ask questions, define problems, design experiments, analyze and interpret data, and make critical connections. This process is incomplete, unless new results are communicated to others because science fundamentally requires peer review and criticism to validate or discard proposed new knowledge. Thus, a concise and clearly written research paper is a critical step in the scientific process and is important for young researchers as they are mastering how to express scientific concepts and understanding. Moreover, learning to write a research paper provides a tool to improve science literacy as indicated in the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards (1996), and A Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011), the underlying foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards currently being developed. Background information explains the importance of peer review and communicating results, along with details of each critical component, the Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Specific steps essential to helping students write clear and coherent research papers that follow a logical format, use effective communication, and develop scientific inquiry are described.

  12. Integrated simulations for fusion research in the 2030's time frame (white paper outline)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LoDestro, Lynda L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Parker, Jeffrey B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Xu, Xueqiao Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This white paper presents the rationale for developing a community-wide capability for whole-device modeling, and advocates for an effort with the expectation of persistence: a long-term programmatic commitment, and support for community efforts. Statement of 2030 goal (two suggestions): (a) Robust integrated simulation tools to aid real-time experimental discharges and reactor designs by employing a hierarchy in fidelity of physics models. (b) To produce by the early 2030s a capability for validated, predictive simulation via integration of a suite of physics models from moderate through high fidelity, to understand and plan full plasma discharges, aid in data interpretation, carry out discovery science, and optimize future machine designs. We can achieve this goal via a focused effort to extend current scientific capabilities and rigorously integrate simulations of disparate physics into a comprehensive set of workflows.

  13. The Iterative Design Process in Research and Development: A Work Experience Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, George F. III

    2013-01-01

    The iterative design process is one of many strategies used in new product development. Top-down development strategies, like waterfall development, place a heavy emphasis on planning and simulation. The iterative process, on the other hand, is better suited to the management of small to medium scale projects. Over the past four months, I have worked with engineers at Johnson Space Center on a multitude of electronics projects. By describing the work I have done these last few months, analyzing the factors that have driven design decisions, and examining the testing and verification process, I will demonstrate that iterative design is the obvious choice for research and development projects.

  14. The skills gap in nursing management in South Africa: a sectoral analysis: a research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-03-01

    To identify competencies important for effective nursing management and to assess managers' proficiency therein. A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to health delivery in South Africa. Despite nursing managers being central to overcoming the challenges facing health care, there has been a paucity of research that empirically evaluates their skill levels. A survey was conducted among 171 senior nursing managers in South Africa using a self-administered questionnaire. Public sector managers assessed themselves as being relatively less competent than private sector managers. The largest skill gaps for public sector managers were for 'ethico-legal', 'task-related' and 'controlling' skills whereas those for private sector managers were for 'ethico-legal', 'health-related ' and 'task-related' skills. This research confirmed the lack of management capacity within the health sector and identified areas in which the skills deficit was most significant for both the public and private sectors. These findings reflect the needs of nursing managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa.

  15. White paper on science and technology, 1997. Striving for an open research community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns the policy measures intended to promote science and technology, pursuant to Article 8 of the Science and Technology Basic Law (Law No. 130), enacted in 1995. This report is constituted from three parts. Part 1 and 2 discuss trends in a wide range of scientific and technological activities to help the reader understand the policy measures implemented to promote science and technology, which are then discussed in Part 3. Part 1, titled 'striving for an open research community', attempt an analysis of reform and current and future issues addressed in the Science and Technology Basic Plan, which was enacted in July, 1996. Part 2 uses various data to compare scientific and technological activities in Japan with those in other selected countries. Part 3 relates to policies implanted for the promotion of science and technology in the Science and Technology Agency, Japan Government. Here is described on science and technology policy development, development of comprehensive and systematic policies and promotion of research activities. (G.K.)

  16. The nuclear research in Mexico (1986-1994). Bibliometrics of papers published in journals outside of the Latin American region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido R, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mexican research in nuclear science during 1986-1994 has been studied through the bibliometric analysis of the output of scientific papers published by Mexican institutions in non Latin American journals of international circulation. Bibliographic references were compiled from the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database as well as from proceedings and annual reports of Mexican research institutions within the field of interest. After careful normalization, data from the 920 detected papers were keyboarded and checked in a database used for the evaluation of the number of papers by discipline, source institutions and departments, authors, coauthors, publication year as well as publishing journals and their geographic origin, language of publication and the interactions of all these parameters. Results were expressed in reports, and summarized in tables and figures to visualize the state of this research field in Mexico. (Author)

  17. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume I. Issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 12 invited issue papers and for 3 of the 13 documents received from the public at large in the preparation of an agenda for federally sponsored and conducted research into the biological effects of ionizing radiation. One issue paper previously input to the data base deals with the potential for significant human exposure from environmentally dispersed radionuclides

  18. A research-based commentary on the EC Green Paper "Audit Policy: Lessons form the Crisis": Governance and independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of ehe financial crisis, the EU Commision has published a Green Paper on the future role of the audit function in Europe. The Green Paper lists a number of proposals for tighter rules for audits and auditors in order to contribute to stabilizing the financial system. The present article...... presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence. The Green...

  19. THE MITIGATION OF SCIENTIFIC CLAIMS IN RESEARCH PAPERS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martín Martín

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of academic writing, authors tend to mitigate the force of their scientific claims by means of hedging devices in order to reduce the risk of opposition and minimise the face threatening acts that are involved in the making of claims. This study explores the phenomenon of hedging in the research article (RA from a cross-cultural perspective. To this end, a total of 40 RAs written in English and Spanish in the field of Clinical and Health Psychology were analysed in terms of the frequency of occurrence and distribution of the various strategies and the linguistic devices associated to each strategy which perform a hedging function in the different structural units of the articles. The results of the comparative quantitative analyses revealed that there are similarities between the two languages regarding the distribution of hedges across the structural units of the RAs, although a certain degree of rhetorical variation was also found mainly in terms of the frequency of use of the strategy of indetermination (i.e. modality devices and approximators which occurs to a much greater extent in the English texts. This suggests that the English RAs in the field of Clinical and Health Psychology, as a whole, involve more protection to the author’s face.

  20. How to conduct research on overdiagnosis. A keynote paper from the EGPRN May 2016, Tel Aviv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, John

    2017-12-01

    Overdiagnosis is a growing problem worldwide. Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of deviations, abnormalities, risk factors, and pathologies that in themselves would never cause symptoms (this applies only to risk factors and pathology), would never lead to morbidity, and would never be the cause of death. Overdiagnosis is often misinterpreted as overutilization or overtreatment. Overutilization, overtreatment, and overdiagnosis are interrelated but three distinct topics. Overutilization (establishment of standard practice that does not provide net benefit) does not have to lead to overdiagnosis or overtreatment, but the risk exists. Treatment of overdiagnosed conditions is one category of overtreatment. Another is when the best available evidence shows that the treatment has no beneficial effect. Overdiagnosis can be caused by overutilization and is nearly always followed by overtreatment. Treating an overdiagnosed condition cannot improve the patient's prognosis, and therefore can only be harmful. At the individual level, we can never be sure if the person is overdiagnosed. However, experiences and thoughts of individuals who are most likely overdiagnosed can be explored in qualitative interviews, e.g. men with a small screening detected abdominal aortic aneurism. In longitudinal surveys, the degree and length of psychosocial consequences associated with overdiagnosis can be estimated. In high-quality RCTs, the magnitude of overdiagnosis can be quantified, and in cohort studies, we can find indications of overdiagnosis. Finally, we can conduct research about the consequences of overdiagnosis in at least eight different areas: financial strain, hassles/inconveniences, medical costs, opportunity costs, physical harms, psychological harms, societal costs and work-related costs.

  1. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  2. Research and the promotion of child health: a position paper of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Kolacek, Sanja; Phillips, Alan; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Baumann, Ulrich; van Goudoever, Johannes; de Swarte, Casper; Benninga, Marc; Mearin, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Children comprise one-fifth of Europe's population. Promoting child health and development is of key importance for society and its future. This position paper highlights opportunities of investing in gastrointestinal, liver, and nutritional research to promote child health and delineates priorities

  3. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Academic Outcomes: Does Parental Work Boost Grades? Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Amber Stitziel, Lewis, Dan A.

    The 1996 welfare reform act forced many poor parents into the labor market, with little understanding of how the parents' workforce participation would affect family life in general and their children in particular. In this paper, researchers examine the relationship between parental workforce participation, welfare receipt, and children's…

  4. Transatlantic Dialogue: A Research Exchange; Papers from a Joint Conference (Leeds, England, July 11-13, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukas, Miriam, Ed.

    Over 90 papers focus on adult education research. Selected titles include "Karl Marx's Theoretical Contributions to Radical Adult Education" (Allman, Wallis); "Educating Educators" (Armstrong); "Comparative Study of Philosophical Foundations of Adult Education in China and United States" (Bao); "Ethical Value Dilemmas of Professional Adult…

  5. A Model of Research Paper Writing Instructional Materials for Academic Writing Course: "Needs & Documents Analysis and Model Design"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghufron, M. Ali; Saleh, Mursid; Warsono; Sofwan, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at designing a model of instructional materials for Academic Writing Course focusing on research paper writing. The model was designed based on the Curriculum at the English Education Study Program, Faculty of Language and Art Education of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, East Java, Indonesia. This model was developed in order to improve…

  6. Simultaneous and Comparable Numerical Indicators of International, National and Local Collaboration Practices in English-Medium Astrophysics Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We report an investigation on collaboration practices in research papers published in the most prestigious English-medium astrophysics journals. Method: We propose an evaluation method based on three numerical indicators to study and compare, in absolute terms, three different types of collaboration (international, national and…

  7. Research paper 2000-B-8: the implementation of the municipal waste incineration directives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Directives had the highest impact on goal attainment in the countries that defined lower ambition levels. In those countries allocation of abatement costs was done more efficient. The presented analysis is predominately withdrawn from the national case studies by Bueltman and Waetzold (2000), Eames (2000), Lulofs (1999) and Schucht (2000). The analysis on the plant level was focused on the approximately 400 existing incinerators for municipal waste in the four IMPOL countries. The research period covers the years 1989-1999 with a focus on the years 1989-1996. (author)

  8. "My Memory's Back!" Inclusive Learning Disability Research Using Ethics, Oral History and Digital Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    The following article outlines the methodological approach used to include people with learning disabilities as active participants in an oral history produced in Australia. The history sought to document life inside Kew Cottages, Australia's oldest and largest specialised institution for people with learning disabilities. This work furthers…

  9. Model specification in oral health-related quality of life research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieffer, J.M.; Verrips, E.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze conventional wisdom regarding the construction and analysis of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaires and to outline statistical complications. Most methods used for developing and analyzing questionnaires, such as factor analysis and

  10. Theory-based formative research on oral rehydration salts and zinc use in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Greenland

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A theoretically grounded formative research study was carried out to investigate behaviour related to the use of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS and zinc tablets. The purpose was to inform the design of the behaviour change component of the Programme for Awareness and Elimination of Diarrhoea in Lusaka Province, Zambia, which aims to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality from diarrhoeal disease. Methods Fourteen behaviour trials were conducted among caregivers of children under-five with diarrhoea. Caregivers were recruited from two clinics situated in rural and peri-urban Lusaka. Trials took ten days and data were captured using video, observation and repeated interviews. Additional data were collected through focus group discussions with mothers, observations in clinics and pharmacies and interviews with clinic and pharmacy staff. Findings were organised according to categories of behavioural determinants from Evo-Eco theory. Results Participants were all familiar with ORS and most knew its purpose. ORS use was motivated by symptoms of dehydration, rather than the start of a diarrhoea episode, and was stopped when the child had visibly recovered energy. Only four of 14 behaviour trial participants were observed to correctly prepare ORS. Errors were mainly associated with measurement, resulting in a solution that was too concentrated. ORS was not observed to be given to children at clinics. Although zinc was unknown in this population, it was positively received by mothers keen to learn whether zinc would work better than alternative treatments to stop diarrhoea. Conclusions ORS was sub-optimally prepared and used at home. It was not used while waiting to be seen at a clinic. In homes, the behaviour change intervention should promote early and continued use of correctly prepared ORS. In the longer-term, these behaviours may best be encouraged by changing the product design or sachet size. Despite its unfamiliarity, this

  11. Evaluation of university scientific research ability based on the output of sci-tech papers: A D-AHP approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Fan; Wang, Lifang

    2017-01-01

    University scientific research ability is an important indicator to express the strength of universities. In this paper, the evaluation of university scientific research ability is investigated based on the output of sci-tech papers. Four university alliances from North America, UK, Australia, and China, are selected as the case study of the university scientific research evaluation. Data coming from Thomson Reuters InCites are collected to support the evaluation. The work has contributed new framework to the issue of university scientific research ability evaluation. At first, we have established a hierarchical structure to show the factors that impact the evaluation of university scientific research ability. Then, a new MCDM method called D-AHP model is used to implement the evaluation and ranking of different university alliances, in which a data-driven approach is proposed to automatically generate the D numbers preference relations. Next, a sensitivity analysis has been given to show the impact of weights of factors and sub-factors on the evaluation result. At last, the results obtained by using different methods are compared and discussed to verify the effectiveness and reasonability of this study, and some suggestions are given to promote China's scientific research ability.

  12. Full Length Research paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marcos

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... Cut flowers have a very limited life after they have been cut off from the mother plant, as survival on their own reserves is ... One of the techniques used for the removal ... and vegetables (Pellegrini and Belle, 2008). There are ...

  13. Original Research Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Mehmet Ali; Aydin, M. Ali; Ibali, H. Ibrahim; Gurkas Aydin, Zeynep; Zaim, A. Halim

    2016-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) technology integration with mobile phones has extended the way we use mobile devices. Instead of voice and text communication mobile devices can be used as credit cards to replace our wallets. In this study we have developed an NFC based mobile wallet with using Alcatel Lucent Mobile Wallet web services with provided functionalities such as accounts, e-money, loyalty cards, etc. These services are consumed from NFC mobile phones and NFC device is used for paymen...

  14. Full Length Research paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marcos

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... 1Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, CEP: 18601-060, Botucatu, SP, Brasil. 2Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Centro de Ciências Agrárias-CECA, Maceio, AL, Brasil. 3Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Departamento de Ciências Vegetais, Mossoró, RN, Brasil ...

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 49: Becoming an aerospace engineer: A cross-gender comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Laura M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a mail (self-reported) survey of 4300 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) during the spring of 1993 as a Phase 3 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. The survey was designed to explore students' career goals and aspirations, communications skills training, and their use of information sources, products, and services. We received 1723 completed questionnaires for an adjusted response rate of 42%. In this article, we compare the responses of female and male aerospace engineering students in the context of two general aspects of their educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which women and men differ in regard to factors that lead to the choice to study aerospace engineering, their current level of satisfaction with that choice, and their career-related goals and aspirations. Second, we examine students' responses to questions about communications skills training and the helpfulness of that training, and their use of and the importance to them of selected information sources, products, and services. The cross-gender comparison revealed more similarities than differences. Female students appear to be more satisfied than their male counterparts with the decision to major in aerospace engineering. Both female and male student respondents consider communications skills important for professional success, but females place a higher value than males do on oral communications skills. Women students also place a higher value than men do on the roles of other students and faculty members in satisfying their needs for information.

  16. Evaluation of medical research performance--position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists' careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific "impact" rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the promotion of junior scientists. With the

  17. Research, development and demonstration. Issue paper - working group 3; Denmark. Smart Grid Network; Forskning, udvikling og demonstration. Issue paper, arbejdsgruppe 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasiu, A [Siemens A/S, Ballerup (Denmark); Troi, A [Danmarks Tekniske Univ. Risoe Nationallaboratoriet for Baeredygtig Energi, Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Casper [DI Energibranchen, Copenhagen (Denmark); and others

    2011-07-01

    The Smart Grid Network was established in 2010 by the Danish climate and energy minister tasked with developing recommendations for future actions and initiatives that make it possible to handle up to 50% electricity from wind energy in the power system in 2020. The task of working group 3 was defined as: - An overview of the Danish research and development of smart grids and related areas; - Conducting an analysis of the research and development needs required for the introduction of a smart grid in Denmark. Based on this analysis, provide suggestions for new large research and development projects; - Provide recommendations on how the activities are best carried out taking into account innovation, economic growth and jobs. In the analysis it is explained that Denmark so far has a strong position in several elements of RD and D activities. This position will soon be threatened as several European countries have launched ambitious initiatives to strengthen the national position. The working group recommends that Denmark gives priority to Smart Grids as a national action in order to solve the challenge of technically and economically efficient integration of renewable energy. Smart Grid is a catalyst that strengthens a new green growth industry (cleantech) in Denmark. Research and development has an important role to play in this development. A common vision and roadmap must be established for research institutions, energy companies and industries related to research, development and demonstration of Smart Grid, which can maintain and expand Denmark's global leadership position. As part of this, there is a need to strengthen and market research infrastructures, which can turn Denmark into a global hub for smart grid development. There is a current need to strengthen the advanced technical and scientific research in the complexities of the power system, research on market design, user behavior and smart grid interoperability. (LN)

  18. Research, development and demonstration. Issue paper - working group 3; Denmark. Smart Grid Network; Forskning, udvikling og demonstration. Issue paper, arbejdsgruppe 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasiu, A. (Siemens A/S, Ballerup (Denmark)); Troi, A. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ.. Risoe Nationallaboratoriet for Baeredygtig Energi, Roskilde (Denmark)); Andersen, Casper (DI Energibranchen, Copenhagen (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-07-01

    The Smart Grid Network was established in 2010 by the Danish climate and energy minister tasked with developing recommendations for future actions and initiatives that make it possible to handle up to 50% electricity from wind energy in the power system in 2020. The task of working group 3 was defined as: - An overview of the Danish research and development of smart grids and related areas; - Conducting an analysis of the research and development needs required for the introduction of a smart grid in Denmark. Based on this analysis, provide suggestions for new large research and development projects; - Provide recommendations on how the activities are best carried out taking into account innovation, economic growth and jobs. In the analysis it is explained that Denmark so far has a strong position in several elements of RD and D activities. This position will soon be threatened as several European countries have launched ambitious initiatives to strengthen the national position. The working group recommends that Denmark gives priority to Smart Grids as a national action in order to solve the challenge of technically and economically efficient integration of renewable energy. Smart Grid is a catalyst that strengthens a new green growth industry (cleantech) in Denmark. Research and development has an important role to play in this development. A common vision and roadmap must be established for research institutions, energy companies and industries related to research, development and demonstration of Smart Grid, which can maintain and expand Denmark's global leadership position. As part of this, there is a need to strengthen and market research infrastructures, which can turn Denmark into a global hub for smart grid development. There is a current need to strengthen the advanced technical and scientific research in the complexities of the power system, research on market design, user behavior and smart grid interoperability. (LN)

  19. Revisiting persuasion in oral academic and professional genres: Towards a methodological framework for Multimodal Discourse Analysis of research dissemination talks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Valeiras-Jurado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work on oral genres (Kress & Van Leeuwen, 2001; Kress, 2010; Bateman, 2011 as well as on persuasion (O’Keefe, 2002; Perloff, 2003; Poggi & Pelachaud, 2008 has indicated that effective persuasive oral communication depends heavily on the use of a wide range of different semiotic modes including words, gestures and intonation. However, little attention has been paid so far to how speakers convey their communicative intentions orchestrating different modes into a coherent multimodal ensemble (Kress, 2010. In this paper we propose a methodological framework for Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA of persuasion in oral academic and professional genres. Drawing on previous studies on persuasion (Fuertes-Olivera et al., 2001; O’Keefe, 2002; Perloff, 2003; Virtanen & Halmari, 2005; Dafouz-Milne, 2008, our framework combines earlier proposals for MDA (Querol-Julián, 2011; Querol-Julián & Fortanet-Gómez, 2014 with an ethnographic perspective (Rubin & Rubin, 1995. Our study focuses specifically on the analysis of persuasive strategies used in dissemination talks. The proposed MDA caters for the following modes: words, intonation, head movements and gestures. Preliminary findings hint at a relation between persuasion and so-called modal density (Norris, 2004. Finally, we propose a tentative taxonomy of persuasive strategies and how they are realised multimodally.

  20. Virtualization of Research Universities: Raising the Right Questions to Address Key Functions of the Institution. Research & Occasional Paper Series. CSHE.6.03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the variety of information and communication technology (ICT) applications at traditional universities and to integrate them into a holistic picture of the institution. Using the distinction of three key elements of scholarly activity (research, publication, education), it suggests a functional…

  1. Sustainable and resource efficient intensivation of crop production - Perspectives of agro-ecosystem research Policy paper of the DFG Senate Commission on Agroecosystem Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, V.; Isselstein, J.; Stützel, H.; Ordon, F.; Haaren, von C.; Schlecht, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Birner, R.; Lützow, von M.; Brüggemann, N.; Diekkrüger, B.; Fangmeier, A.; Flessa, H.; Kage, H.; Kaupenhohann, M.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Mosandl, R.; Seppelt, R.

    2014-01-01

    With its policy paper the Senate Commission on Agro-ecosystemResearch of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DFG) summarizes potential benefits of basic researchfor the sustainable intensification of crop production. Agro-ecosystems critically contribute to fulfilling the need forincreasing food and

  2. Implementation research: reactive mass vaccination with single-dose oral cholera vaccine, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncin, Marc; Zulu, Gideon; Voute, Caroline; Ferreras, Eva; Muleya, Clara Mbwili; Malama, Kennedy; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Mufunda, Jacob; Robert, Hugues; Uzzeni, Florent; Luquero, Francisco J; Chizema, Elizabeth; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2018-02-01

    To describe the implementation and feasibility of an innovative mass vaccination strategy - based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine - to curb a cholera epidemic in a large urban setting. In April 2016, in the early stages of a cholera outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia, the health ministry collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization in organizing a mass vaccination campaign, based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine. Over a period of 17 days, partners mobilized 1700 health ministry staff and community volunteers for community sensitization, social mobilization and vaccination activities in 10 townships. On each day, doses of vaccine were delivered to vaccination sites and administrative coverage was estimated. Overall, vaccination teams administered 424 100 doses of vaccine to an estimated target population of 578 043, resulting in an estimated administrative coverage of 73.4%. After the campaign, few cholera cases were reported and there was no evidence of the disease spreading within the vaccinated areas. The total cost of the campaign - 2.31 United States dollars (US$) per dose - included the relatively low cost of local delivery - US$ 0.41 per dose. We found that an early and large-scale targeted reactive campaign using a single-dose oral vaccine, organized in response to a cholera epidemic within a large city, to be feasible and appeared effective. While cholera vaccines remain in short supply, the maximization of the number of vaccines in response to a cholera epidemic, by the use of just one dose per member of an at-risk community, should be considered.

  3. A review paper on offline inspection of finished and semi-finished products and emerging research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Ramzan Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations want to focus on product quality along with productivity to get their competitive advantage in global market. In order to achieve this aim, quality management system and its different aspects are becoming more valuable than before. This study has considered quality control and its activities with specific focus on offline inspection. The objective of this study is to provide a literature review that identifies different models and methodologies, developed for offline inspection under different manufacturing and inspection conditions. This review is based on research work accepted by international journals and published in the years from 2000 to 2016. These studies are classified into six groups on the basis of their research objectives, model developed, adopted methodologies, and research outcomes. This review paper also gives а brief look at the offline inspection to propose future research opportunities and emerging trends. The proposed research directions can be helpful in developing new models or modifying the existing models to improve the performance of offline inspection.

  4. Urine metabolic profiling for the pathogenesis research of erosive oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Yang, Xu-Yan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Zou, Wei; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Ling-Shu; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Xie, Liang-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic immune-pathological and inflammatory disease and potentially oral precancerous lesion. Erosive OLP patients show the higher rate of malignant transformation than patients with non-erosive OLP. Identifying the potential biomarkers related to erosive OLP may help to understand the pathogenesis of the diseases. Metabolic profiles were compared in control and patient subjects with erosive OLP by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) coupled with pattern recognition methods An integrative analysis was used to identify the perturbed metabolic pathways and pathological processes that may be associated with the disease. In total, 12 modulated metabolites were identified and considered as the potential biomarkers of erosive OLP. Multiple metabolic pathways and pathological processes were involved in erosive OLP. The dysregulations of these metabolites could be used to explain the pathogenesis of the disease, which could also be the potential therapeutic targets for the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The evaluation of research papers in the XXI century. The Open Peer Discussion system of the World Economics Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ietto-Gillies, Grazia

    2012-01-01

    The paper starts with a brief discussion of the traditional peer review (TPR) system of research evaluation, its role, and the criticisms levelled at it. An analysis of specific problems in economics leads to a full discussion of the Open Peer Review (OPR) system developed by the World Economics Association (WEA) and the principles behind it. The system is open in the following two respects: (a) disclosure of names of authors and reviewers; and (b) inclusivity of potential reviewers in terms of paradigmatic approaches, country, and community. The paper then discusses the applicability of the same system to other disciplines. In doing so, it stressed the aims of various evaluation systems and the possible pitfalls of rating systems. It also speculates on the future of journal publication.

  6. Definition of chronic kidney disease and measurement of kidney function in original research papers: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jocelyn; Glynn, Liam G

    2011-09-01

    Over the past decade, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become an area of intensive clinical and epidemiological research. Despite the clarity provided by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines, there appears to be within the CKD research literature significant disagreement on how to define CKD and measure kidney function. The objectives of this study were to investigate the variety of methods used to define CKD and to measure kidney function in original research papers as well as to investigate whether the quality of the journal had any effect on the quality of the methodology used. This was a descriptive review and not a meta-analysis. Information was extracted from each article including publication details (including the journal's impact factor), definition of CKD, method used to estimate kidney function and quantity of serum creatinine readings used to define CKD. An electronic search of MEDLINE through OVID was completed using the search term CKD. The search was limited to articles in English published in 2009. Studies were included in the review only if they were original research articles including patients with CKD. Articles were excluded if they reported data from a paediatric population, a population solely on dialysis or if there was no full-text access through OVID. Each article was assessed for quality with respect to using KDOQI CKD definition criteria. A description of the pooled data was completed and chi-square tests were used to investigate the relation between article quality and journal quality. Analysis was carried out using SPSS (15.0) and a P-value of definitions are being used in original research articles to define CKD and measure kidney function which calls into question the validity and reliability of such research findings and associated clinical guidelines. International consensus is urgently required to improve validity and generalizability of CKD research findings.

  7. ADVANCES IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS. International Symposium Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Institutional Physics Research in Romania. Abstracts of invited talks, oral contributions and posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Enulescu, A.; Stoica, S.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the Abstracts of the invited talks, oral contributions and posters presented in the International Symposium Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Institutional Physics Research in Romania. Horia Hulubei was born in November 15, 1896 in Iassy and died in November 22, 1972. He graduated in 1926 and in 1927 went in Paris and worked with the Physical Chemistry Laboratory of Sorbonne and took his PhD in 1933 with Professor Jean Perrin in the field of X-ray spectroscopy, a domain in which he became one of the best specialists of the time. His papers treated a large area of subjects from the multiple Compton effects, predicted and experimentally discovered by him, Raman spectra, the X-ray spectra of gases obtained in collaboration with Yvette Cauchois, the identification of elements by X-ray spectroscopy, etc. Winner of two prises of Paris Academy of Sciences, he was elected Corresponding Member of this prestigious French institution. He was also a Directeur de Recherches at the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS). In Romania, he founded in 1949 at Bucharest, the Institute of Atomic Physics, a realization of his dream to build a modern institution of Western type in his own country, tightly connected with the rest of scientific world by international cooperation. The lectures given at this symposium will be published by World Scientific Publishing Co. while the oral contributions and posters will be published in Romanian Journal of Physics. The abstracts of all these communications are dealing with current research conducted in the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in the field of nuclear structure, elementary particle and fields, applications of isotopes and radiation, etc. A number of these communications have been presented by invited prominent scientists of abroad, many of them working in collaboration with the scientific staff of the Romanian institutes and universities

  8. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  9. An increasing number of qualitative research papers in oncology and palliative care: does it mean a thorough development of the methodology of research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunelli Cinzia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the second half of the nineties, a scientific debate about the usefulness of qualitative research in medicine began in the main medical journals as well as the amount of "qualitative" papers published on peer reviewed journals has noticeably increased during these last years. Nevertheless the label of qualitative methodology has been assigned to an heterogeneous collection of studies. Some of them show a complete awareness of the specificity of this kind of research, while others are still largely influenced by the quantitative paradigm prevailing in the medical field. The concern with the rigour and credibility of qualitative methods has lead to the development of a number of checklist for assessing qualitative research. The purposes of this review were to describe the quality of the development of qualitative research in the medical field, focusing on oncology and palliative care, and to discuss the applicability of a descriptive checklist. Methods A review was conducted on Medline and PsycINFO databases. On the basis of their abstract, papers found have been classified considering: publication year, kind of journal, paper type, data gathering method, sample size and declared methodological approach. A sub sample of the previous papers was than selected and their methodological characteristics were evaluated based on a descriptive checklist. Results 351 abstracts and 26 full papers were analysed. An increase over time in the number of qualitative studies is evident. While most of the papers before 1999 were published on nursing journals (43%, afterwards also medical journals were largely represented. Psychological journals increased from 7% to 12%. The 22% of studies used a sample size lower than 15 and the 15% did not specify the sample size in the abstract. The methodological approach was also often not specified and the percentage increased in the second time period (from 73% to 80%. Grounded theory was the most

  10. 15 years of research on Oral-Facial-Digital syndromes: from 1 to 16 causal genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruel, Ange-Line; Franco, Brunella; Duffourd, Yannis; Thevenon, Julien; Jego, Laurence; Lopez, Estelle; Deleuze, Jean-François; Doummar, Diane; Giles, Rachel H.; Johnson, Colin A.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Chevrier, Véronique; Burglen, Lydie; Morleo, Manuela; Desguerres, Isabelle; Pierquin, Geneviève; Doray, Bérénice; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Reversade, Bruno; Steichen-Gersdorf, Elisabeth; Baumann, Clarisse; Panigrahi, Inusha; Fargeot-Espaliat, Anne; Dieux, Anne; David, Albert; Goldenberg, Alice; Bongers, Ernie; Gaillard, Dominique; Argente, Jesús; Aral, Bernard; Gigot, Nadège; St-Onge, Judith; Birnbaum, Daniel; Phadke, Shubha R.; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Eguether, Thibaut; Pazour, Gregory J.; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Lee, Jaclyn S.; Pasquier, Laurent; Loget, Philippe; Saunier, Sophie; Mégarbané, André; Rosnet, Olivier; Leroux, Michel R.; Wallingford, John B.; Blacque, Oliver E.; Nachury, Maxence V.; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Faivre, Laurence; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel

    2017-01-01

    Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) gather rare genetic disorders characterized by facial, oral and digital abnormalities associated with a wide range of additional features (polycystic kidney disease, cerebral malformations and several others) to delineate a growing list of OFD subtypes. The most frequent, OFD type I, is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the OFD1 gene encoding a centrosomal protein. The wide clinical heterogeneity of OFDS suggests the involvement of other ciliary genes. For 15 years, we have aimed to identify the molecular bases of OFDS. This effort has been greatly helped by the recent development of whole exome sequencing (WES). Here, we present all our published and unpublished results for WES in 24 OFDS cases. We identified causal variants in five new genes (C2CD3, TMEM107, INTU, KIAA0753, IFT57) and related the clinical spectrum of four genes in other ciliopathies (C5orf42, TMEM138, TMEM231, WDPCP) to OFDS. Mutations were also detected in two genes previously implicated in OFDS. Functional studies revealed the involvement of centriole elongation, transition zone and intraflagellar transport defects in OFDS, thus characterizing three ciliary protein modules: the complex KIAA0753-FOPNL-OFD1, a regulator of centriole elongation; the MKS module, a major component of the transition zone; and the CPLANE complex necessary for IFT-A assembly. OFDS now appear to be a distinct subgroup of ciliopathies with wide heterogeneity, which makes the initial classification obsolete. A clinical classification restricted to the three frequent/well-delineated subtypes could be proposed, and for patients who do not fit one of these 3 main subtypes, a further classification could be based on the genotype. PMID:28289185

  11. The Effect of Genre-based Scaffolding on Research Paper Writing of MA Candidates in an EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salehpour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on genre-based approaches to writing instruction. However, scant attention has been paid to the use of genre-based scaffolding in the realm of academic writing. Hence, in an attempt to tackle the problems prevalent in academic writing, this study set out to investigate the effect of genre-based scaffolding through sentence starters and writing frames on MA candidates’ research paper writing. To this end, twenty MA candidates majoring in ELT were randomly assigned to two homogenous groups, one control and one experimental group, each including 10 participants. Both groups were exposed to a five-session genre-based instruction while the experimental group benefitted from the additional provision of sentence starters and writing frames relevant to different sections of a research paper. The analysis of the results, using independent sample of t-test, reveals that genre-based instruction can be a useful tool in improving academic writing. Moreover, the outperformance of the participants of the experimental group is indicative of the beneficial effect of scaffolding through starters and frames.

  12. THE 3rd SCHIZOPHRENIA INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH SOCIETY CONFERENCE, 14-18 APRIL 2012, FLORENCE, ITALY: SUMMARIES OF ORAL SESSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbs, Brandon; Achalia, Rashmin M; Adelufosi, Adegoke O; Aktener, Ahmet Yiğit; Beveridge, Natalie J; Bhakta, Savita G; Blackman, Rachael K; Bora, Emre; Byun, MS; Cabanis, Maurice; Carrion, Ricardo; Castellani, Christina A; Chow, Tze Jen; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Gomes, Felipe V; Haut, Kristen; Hori, Hiroaki; Kantrowitz, Joshua T; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Lee, Frankie HF; Lin, Ashleigh; Palaniyappan, Lena; Quan, Meina; Rubio, Maria D; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Sahoo, Saddichha; Strauss, Gregory P; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Thompson, Andrew D; Trotta, Antonella; Tully, Laura M; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Velthorst, Eva; Young, Jared W; O’Shea, Anne; DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 14-18, 2012.and this year had as its emphasis, “The Globalization of Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session and focused their summaries on the most significant findings that emerged and the discussions that followed. The following report is a composite of these summaries. We hope that it will provide an overview for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research. PMID:22910407

  13. Islamic fasting and oral health and diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Javadzadeh Blouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasting is a religious obligation, which can be challenging for individuals with oral conditions due to its stringent code of conduct. Moreover, food abstinence during fasting can restrict oral feeding even further in patients whose nutrition has been already compromised. Previous research has mainly concentrated on oral hygiene and gum health, disregarding orodental conditions and diseases. This highlights the importance of further research in this regard. In this paper, we intended to clarify the correlation between fasting and oral injections, bleeding following tooth extraction, and brushing to overcome common misconceptions which indicate the breach of religious disciplines under such circumstances. We also aimed to determine the grave effects of fasting on health in case of severe immunological deficiencies, chronic oral ulcers and certain drug administration protocols for those with rigid religious beliefs.

  14. Research and the promotion of child health: a position paper of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Kolacek, Sanja; Phillips, Alan; Troncone, Riccardo; Vandenplas, Yvan; Thapar, Nikhil; Baumann, Ulrich; van Goudoever, Johannes; Mihatsch, Walter; de Swarte, Casper; Benninga, Marc; Mearin, Luisa

    2014-08-01

    Children comprise one-fifth of Europe's population. Promoting child health and development is of key importance for society and its future. This position paper highlights opportunities of investing in gastrointestinal, liver, and nutritional research to promote child health and delineates priorities for research. Investing in child health plays a key role in the promotion of population health, well-being, and disease prevention lifelong, with large health economic benefits. Major opportunities for improving knowledge and translational application arise from recent scientific and technological developments, for example, the long-term impact of early environmental cues interacting with genes. Personalised approaches to therapy and prevention should be enhanced. Deciphering the microbiome and its effects on functions can help in promoting long-term health. Epigenetic research can help to understand how early environmental factors influence later gastrointestinal and hepatic health and disease. A linked nutrition and physical activity strategy can promote health and prevent nutritional deficiencies, inactivity, and chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as diabetes, to ensure optimal health and cognition. Special attention should be devoted to populations with low socioeconomic status, migrant background, and ethnic minorities, and to critical life periods, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, and childhood. Improved understanding of optimal nutrition and on maintaining gut and liver homeostasis throughout childhood will help prevent chronic diseases in later life.

  15. Current State and Development Trends of Education Policy Research in China in the Last Decade (2004-2013): A Statistical Analysis of Papers from Eight Core Chinese Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guo

    2017-01-01

    The author conducted sampling and statistical analysis of papers on education policy research collected by the China National Knowledge Infrastructure in the period from the years 2004--2013. Under the current state of education policy research in China, the number of papers correlates positively with the year; the papers are concentrated in…

  16. How Authors Did It--A Methodological Analysis of Recent Engineering Education Research Papers in the European Journal of Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmi, Lauri; Adawi, Tom; Curmi, Ronald; de Graaff, Erik; Duffy, Gavin; Kautz, Christian; Kinnunen, Päivi; Williams, Bill

    2018-01-01

    We investigated research processes applied in recent publications in the "European Journal of Engineering Education" (EJEE), exploring how papers link to theoretical work and how research processes have been designed and reported. We analysed all 155 papers published in EJEE in 2009, 2010 and 2013, classifying the papers using a taxonomy…

  17. Issues, Challenges and Criteria for Non-Research and Development Research Officers to Fulfill the Requirements for Producing Papers and Publications in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Muin Abdul Rahman; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Majority of graduates posted to Nuclear Malaysia are assigned to the position of Research Officers, a loosely defined category of career positions under the Research and Development Scheme within the Government system whereby the personnel are expected to perform R&D works either in the scientific or any of the social sciences disciplines. However a number of the so called Research Officers are also assigned to perform technical support services in the scientific, engineering and management sectors in contrasts to other staff members of the same classification who are doing hard core scientific R&D works. The performance of such staff members are often evaluated by the number of papers and publications they are able to produce as one the main performance evaluation criterion besides other considerations. While those working in R&D per say, due to their nature of works, have plenty of opportunities for producing such R&D outputs, those working in the services and management sectors find it rather hard and at odds in fulfilling such requirement, especially when the characteristics of what is considered as an accepted or cited paper is strictly defined by those within the R&D communities. However works within the services and management sectors often involves publication of materials, reports, proposals, statements or non-papers for the purpose of presentations, reporting and communications, in which writing skills, analytical and critical thinking are essential ingredients for the successful execution of the assigned tasks. Hence this paper will take a look at issues and challenges faced by non-R&D staffs in this respect and how non-papers or publications produced by staff members working in a non-R&D-per-say environment could be treated to be at par with cited papers and publications produced by their colleagues on the other side of the equation, so that their performance evaluation could be treated fairly and squarely against each other and proposes the criterion

  18. Towards a set of design principles for developing oral presentation competence: A synthesis of research in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van S.O.; Gulikers, J.T.M.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing oral presentation competence is an essential objective in higher education. However, a comprehensive picture of effective learning environment characteristics for encouraging oral presentation performance is lacking hitherto. This review identifies and classifies relevant studies with the

  19. Panama Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    Mossack Fonseca kept its clients largely on the right side of the law. Indeed, that’s entirely the point. This article for The Atlantic draws on my wealth management research to explain why most of what is revealed in the Panama Papers leak will not result in criminal prosecution for anyone...

  20. Model specification in oral health-related quality of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Jacobien M; Verrips, Erik; Hoogstraten, Johan

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze conventional wisdom regarding the construction and analysis of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaires and to outline statistical complications. Most methods used for developing and analyzing questionnaires, such as factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha, presume psychological constructs to be latent, inferring a reflective measurement model with the underlying assumption of local independence. Local independence implies that the latent variable explains why the variables observed are related. Many OHRQoL questionnaires are analyzed as if they were based on a reflective measurement model; local independence is thus assumed. This assumption requires these questionnaires to consist solely of items that reflect, instead of determine, OHRQoL. The tenability of this assumption is the main topic of the present study. It is argued that OHRQoL questionnaires are a mix of both a formative measurement model and a reflective measurement model, thus violating the assumption of local independence. The implications are discussed.

  1. Validated Measures of Publication Quality: Guide for Novice Researchers to Choose an Appropriate Journal for Paper Submission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Ebrahimzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is always a concern regarding the "quality" of publications as an index for promotion and career advancement. There are some ways to measure this "quality" including impact factor and SCImago Journal Rank (SJR as a measure of journals’ level of impact, h-index as a measure of researchers’ level of impact, and visibility and citation as a measure of individual papers’ level of impact. Paper publication is bringing revenue to some journals by soliciting money from whom that must publish or perish. This raises the suspicion of fraud toward Open Access journals because sometimes charlatans pocket the money via creating predatory journals or even creating counterfeit websites using terms similar to those already known. For this reason, legitimate Open Access journals have to be authenticated. Tempting emails from Open Access journals showing high indices of quality might entrap the new researchers, which could be prevented by awareness of the below terms [Figure 1]. ...

  2. Assistive technology and people: a position paper from the first global research, innovation and education on assistive technology (GREAT) summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Deirdre; Layton, Natasha; Bentley, Jacob; Boot, Fleur Heleen; Borg, Johan; Dhungana, Bishnu Maya; Gallagher, Pamela; Gitlow, Lynn; Gowran, Rosemary Joan; Groce, Nora; Mavrou, Katerina; Mackeogh, Trish; McDonald, Rachael; Pettersson, Cecilia; Scherer, Marcia

    2018-05-17

    Assistive technology (AT) is a powerful enabler of participation. The World Health Organization's Global Collaboration on Assistive Technology (GATE) programme is actively working towards access to assistive technology for all. Developed through collaborative work as a part of the Global Research, Innovation and Education on Assistive Technology (GREAT) Summit, this position paper provides a "state of the science" view of AT users, conceptualized as "People" within the set of GATE strategic "P"s. People are at the core of policy, products, personnel and provision. AT is an interface between the person and the life they would like to lead. People's preferences, perspectives and goals are fundamental to defining and determining the success of AT. Maximizing the impact of AT in enabling participation requires an individualized and holistic understanding of the value and meaning of AT for the individual, taking a universal model perspective, focusing on the person, in context, and then considering the condition and/or the technology. This paper aims to situate and emphasize people at the centre of AT systems: we highlight personal meanings and perspectives on AT use and consider the role of advocacy, empowerment and co-design in developing and driving AT processes.

  3. A content analysis of the papers published in the Journal of School of Business Administration: Operations Research and Operations Management (1972 -2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Akçay Kasapoğlu, Özlem

    2012-01-01

    In this study operations research and operations management papers that were published between the years 1972 and 2007 at Journal of School of Business Administration, Istanbul University are assessed. It is aimed to reach general conclusions on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of operations research and operations management papers published in the journal. Additionally, in the study, a content analysis of some selected papers is done. During the research, 161 articles are in...

  4. Study of co-authorship network of papers in the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences using social network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Zare-Farashbandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Co-authorship is one of the most tangible forms of research collaboration. A co-authorship network is a social network in which the authors through participation in one or more publication through an indirect path have linked to each other. The present research using the social network analysis studied co-authorship network of 681 articles published in Journal of Research in Medical Sciences (JRMS during 2008-2012. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out with the scientometrics approach and using co-authorship network analysis of authors. The topology of the co-authorship network of 681 published articles in JRMS between 2008 and 2012 was analyzed using macro-level metrics indicators of network analysis such as density, clustering coefficient, components and mean distance. In addition, in order to evaluate the performance of each authors and countries in the network, the micro-level indicators such as degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality as well as productivity index were used. The UCINET and NetDraw softwares were used to draw and analyze the co-authorship network of the papers. Results: The assessment of the authors productivity in this journal showed that the first ranks were belonged to only five authors, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of the co-authorship of the authors in the network demonstrated that in the betweenness centrality index, three authors of them had the good position in the network. They can be considered as the network leaders able to control the flow of information in the network compared with the other members based on the shortest paths. On the other hand, the key role of the network according to the productivity and centrality indexes was belonged to Iran, Malaysia and United States of America. Conclusion: Co-authorship network of JRMS has the characteristics of a small world network. In addition, the theory of 6° separation is valid in this network was also true.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 66: Emerging Trends in the Globalization of Knowledge: The Role of the Technical Report in Aerospace Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli,Thomas E.; Golich, Vicki L.

    1997-01-01

    Economists, management theorists, business strategists, and governments alike recognize knowledge as the single most important resource in today's global economy. Because of its relationship to technological progress and economic growth, many governments have taken a keen interest in knowledge; specifically its production, transfer, and use. This paper focuses on the technical report as a product for disseminating the results of aerospace research and development (R&D) and its use and importance to aerospace engineers and scientists. The emergence of knowledge as an intellectual asset, its relationship to innovation, and its importance in a global economy provides the context for the paper. The relationships between government and knowledge and government and innovation are used to place knowledge within the context of publicly-funded R&D. Data, including the reader preferences of NASA technical reports, are derived from the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, a ten-year study of knowledge diffusion in the U.S. aerospace industry.

  6. Assistive technology policy: a position paper from the first global research, innovation, and education on assistive technology (GREAT) summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Banes, David; Bell, Diane; Borg, Johan; Donnelly, Brian; Fembek, Michael; Ghosh, Ritu; Gowran, Rosemary Joan; Hannay, Emma; Hiscock, Diana; Hoogerwerf, Evert-Jan; Howe, Tracey; Kohler, Friedbert; Layton, Natasha; Long, Siobhán; Mannan, Hasheem; Mji, Gubela; Odera Ongolo, Thomas; Perry, Katherine; Pettersson, Cecilia; Power, Jessica; Delgado Ramos, Vinicius; Slepičková, Lenka; Smith, Emma M; Tay-Teo, Kiu; Geiser, Priscille; Hooks, Hilary

    2018-07-01

    Increased awareness, interest and use of assistive technology (AT) presents substantial opportunities for many citizens to become, or continue being, meaningful participants in society. However, there is a significant shortfall between the need for and provision of AT, and this is patterned by a range of social, demographic and structural factors. To seize the opportunity that assistive technology offers, regional, national and sub-national assistive technology policies are urgently required. This paper was developed for and through discussion at the Global Research, Innovation and Education on Assistive Technology (GREAT) Summit; organized under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Global Collaboration on Assistive Technology (GATE) program. It outlines some of the key principles that AT polices should address and recognizes that AT policy should be tailored to the realities of the contexts and resources available. AT policy should be developed as a part of the evolution of related policy across a number of different sectors and should have clear and direct links to AT as mediators and moderators for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The consultation process, development and implementation of policy should be fully inclusive of AT users, and their representative organizations, be across the lifespan, and imbued with a strong systems-thinking ethos. Six barriers are identified which funnel and diminish access to AT and are addressed systematically within this paper. We illustrate an example of good practice through a case study of AT services in Norway, and we note the challenges experienced in less well-resourced settings. A number of economic factors relating to AT and economic arguments for promoting AT use are also discussed. To address policy-development the importance of active citizenship and advocacy, the need to find mechanisms to scale up good community practices to a higher level, and the importance of political engagement for the

  7. Creation of a personality garden--a tool for reflection and teacher development; an autoethnographical research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Creation of a Personality Garden as a development tool. The original concept of the Garden was born from an autoethnographical study on the effects of self-concept on the teaching and learning experience. To explore the effects of self-concept on the teaching and learning experience. An autoethnographical study. The study was undertaken in London, UK. The researcher was also the sole participant in line with the autoethnographical approach. Data was collected through the means of a reflective diary, personal memory data, interview and other creative genres. A thematic analysis approach was then used to code and group core concepts. Three key areas were identified: emotional connection, growth, and resilience, with a fourth as an over-arching driver for the study; the audience and act of teaching. These elements appeared to underpin a teaching philosophy which recognises the benefits of self-awareness in teachers and an ability and willingness to connect with learners and respond to individual needs. The Garden was one element of self-reflective data which was later re-designed to embrace the personal transformation of the researcher throughout the study. Educationalists must have a willingness to explore self-perception as it can facilitate a sense of transparency and connection between the teacher and the learner. The Garden works as a dynamic tool and a sustainable model for confronting the on-going challenges of embracing risk-taking and emotionally connecting with learners within the educational context. It allows exploration of the nuances of personality and how the uniqueness of self interacts with the role of the teacher; a sometimes uncomfortable, yet safe, place to sit and experience a virtual reality check questioning assumptions and the theories that the individual espouses to use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral mucosal injury caused by cancer therapies: current management and new frontiers in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Peterson, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    by cancer therapies are also delineated as a basis for identifying pathobiologic and pharmacogenomic targets for interventions. This collective portfolio of research and its ongoing incorporation into clinical practice is setting the stage for the clinician in the future to predict mucosal toxicity risk...

  9. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brailo, Vlaho; Firriolo, Francis John; Tanaka, Takako Imai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the current scope and status of Oral Medicine-specific software (OMSS) utilized to support clinical care, research, and education in Oral Medicine and to propose a strategy for broader implementation of OMSS within the global Oral Medicine community. STUDY DESIGN...... were being used for education, and three were multipurpose. Clinical software was being utilized as databases developed to integrate of different type of clinical information. Research software was designed to facilitate multicenter research. Educational software represented interactive, case......-orientated technology designed for clinical training in Oral Medicine. Easy access to patient data was the most commonly reported advantage. Difficulty of use and poor integration with other software was the most commonly reported disadvantage. CONCLUSIONS: The OMSS presented in this paper demonstrate how information...

  10. Respecting and Fulfilling the Right of Post-Primary Pupils to Consent to Participate in Trials and Evaluative Research: A Discussion Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Lisa K.; Byrne, Bronagh; Kehoe, Susan

    2018-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to issues surrounding the participation rights of young people in research and the implications of their growing involvement in research as well as providing a discourse on the ethical implications related to consent. The unique contribution of this paper is that it considers children's rights in respect to the…

  11. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (31st, Orlando, FL, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    For the thirty-first year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) sponsored the publication of these Proceedings. Papers were presented at the annual AECT Convention in Orlando, Florida. This year's Proceedings has two sections--Section 1 includes research and development papers and…

  12. Index of Oral Histories Relating to Naval Research, Development, and Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Mentioned: Byrnes, CAPT James Parsons, RADIA William S. Lauritsen, Dr. Charles C. Sabin , Palmer Aubjects: China Lake pilot plant Michelson Laboratory...119 Seiler, Karl 30 Saalfeld, Dr. Frederick 355, 358 Selwyn, Dr. Philip 355, 358 Sabin , Palmer 266 Senter, Frank 31 Sagdahl, John 266 Sette, Dr...research 157 Lehman, John 222 Libby Board 47, 128 Jaimming devices 210 Life cycle support function 69 Jet Propulsion 308 Light airborne ASW vehicle 235 Jet

  13. Research on oral test modeling based on multi-feature fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuliang; Tao, Yiyue; Lei, Jun

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the spectrum of speech signal is taken as an input of feature extraction. The advantage of PCNN in image segmentation and other processing is used to process the speech spectrum and extract features. And a new method combining speech signal processing and image processing is explored. At the same time of using the features of the speech map, adding the MFCC to establish the spectral features and integrating them with the features of the spectrogram to further improve the accuracy of the spoken language recognition. Considering that the input features are more complicated and distinguishable, we use Support Vector Machine (SVM) to construct the classifier, and then compare the extracted test voice features with the standard voice features to achieve the spoken standard detection. Experiments show that the method of extracting features from spectrograms using PCNN is feasible, and the fusion of image features and spectral features can improve the detection accuracy.

  14. ACT-CCREC Core Research Program: Study Questions and Design. ACT Working Paper Series. WP-2015-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruce, Ty M.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a non-technical overview of the guiding research questions and research design for the ACT-led core research program conducted on behalf of the GEAR UP College and Career Readiness Evaluation Consortium (CCREC). The core research program is a longitudinal study of the effectiveness of 14 GEAR UP state grants on the academic…

  15. An analysis of the most-cited research papers on oncology: which journals have they been published in?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk

    2014-05-01

    The most-cited papers (MCPs) are likely those that impressed researchers and had profound influence on clinical practice or future developments in the related scientific field. This study was conducted to explore a bibliometric approach to assess where the oncology-related MCPs have been published in. The source of the data presented in this study was provided by using the InCitesTM, Web of Science, Thomson Reuters Database (2013). It contained any journal indexed by ISI between 1979 and 2013. The term MCPs arbitrarily defined as equal or more than 100 citations. A total of 565 publications were cited equal or more than 100 times. They were published in 79 different journals (64 oncology, 12 medicine, and 3 science), led by the Journal of Clinical Oncology (n = 76; 13.5%) and Cancer Research (n = 66; 11.7%) followed by Oncogene (n = 46; 8.1%), Nature Reviews Cancer (n = 41; 7.3%), and Cancer (n = 37; 6.5%). Moreover, the journal categories with the MCPs were the Oncology with 495 articles (87.6%), followed by the Medicine with 60 (10.6%) articles. However, the numbers of journals related to Science (n = 10; 1.8%) were the least. The MCPs were cited a total of 118,531 times. The citations ranged from 100 to 1,790, and the median number was 149. The total numbers of MCPs were the most prominent for the journals, the New England Journal of Medicine (median 398), Lancet (median 213), and Nature Reviews Cancer (median 210). In other side, the counts of MCPs were the highest for the Science and Medicine-categorized journals (median 212.5 and 192.5 citations, respectively). The MCPs categorized as Oncology were the least cited (median 145). The median number of MCPs per year was 18.7 with range 4.1-858.5. The annual most valuable MCPs were also published in the journal Nature Reviews Cancer (median 42) and the New England Journal of Medicine (median 38.7). Likewise, the numbers of MCPs were the highest for the Science-categorized journals (median

  16. Research and Teaching: Think before (and after) You Speak: Practice and Self-Reflection Bolster Oral Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Eleanor; Bravo, Adriana; Porzecanski, Ana Luz; Burks, Romi L.; Linder, Joshua; Langen, Tom; Fernandez, Denny; Ruby, Douglas; Bynum, Nora

    2016-01-01

    In this study, conservation biology faculty and practitioners from across the United States designed classroom exercises and teaching interventions intended to bolster oral communication skills. Through repeated oral presentation assignments integrated into course requirements, the authors examined individual student learning gains via…

  17. The Demand For, and Impact Of, Youth Internships: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Yemen. Policy Research Working Paper 7463

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, David; Assaf, Nabila; Cusolito, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates a youth internship program in the Republic of Yemen that provided firms with a 50 percent subsidy to hire recent graduates of universities and vocational schools. The first round of the program took place in 2014 and required both firms and youth to apply for the program. The paper examines the demand for such a program, and…

  18. Macro-Environmental Mapping of International Branch Campus Activities of Universities Worldwide. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.2.14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmützky, Anna; Krücken, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides an initial international comparative empirical assessment of international branch campuses (IBCs) worldwide. Building on neo-institutional theory and organizational ecology, it sheds light on the new organizational form by analyzing their founding age of the home university and IBC mortality. Furthermore the paper analyzes the…

  19. USING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS TO STIMULATE THE STUDY OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION: THE RESEARCH ON ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Gagianone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is characterized by mutations in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA peroxisome transporter, leading to VLCFA accumulation in myelin sheath. In the 70’s and 80’s it was hypothesized that X-ALD is caused by enzymatic deficits in FA-coenzyme A connection, VLCFA degradation or FA elongation. The latter enabled Lorenzo’s oil (LO treatment, which became famous by the homonym movie. The apparent initial therapy effectiveness lead to LO administration in many patients, although with biochemical knowledge progress its relevance has been questioned.Objectives Our aim was to discuss X-ALD researches in “Lipids Metabolism” classes during 2014 Biochemistry courses to Biology and Biomedicine undergraduate students at Fluminense Federal University to illustrate how scientific knowledge is constructed.Materials and MethodsIn order to contrast the recent scientific advances with the information spread to society through “Lorenzo’s Oil”, the movie in edited version was presented to students followed by a questionnaire with Likert scale to evaluate the perception of scientific knowledge exposed by the movie. Afterwards, a Guided Study containing a brief history and discursive questions based upon a paper (Wiesingner et.al, J. Biol. Chem. 288:19269, 2013 was applied in class.Results and DiscussionFrom 58 students who filled in the questionnaire,72,4% considered the movie shows that X-ALD biochemical knowledge has been achieved. This notion was confirmed since 84,5% agreed LO is an effective alternative treatment if X-ALD is early detected. The same percentage agreed that based on the movie the biochemical deficiency relies on an enzyme involved in VLCFA degradation. Although the movie transmits the idea that the cure has been found, 67,2% believed X-ALD biochemical mechanisms are not fully comprehended. ConclusionsThe Guided Study/movie application was very effective because allowed the

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  1. Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on heat exchangers, boilers and pressure vessels (HEB-97). Vol.1 (Research Papers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This conference was held on 5-6 Apr 1997 in Alexandria. the specialists discussed heat exchangers, boilers and pressure vessels. more than 200 papers were presented in the meetings. it contains of data, figures and tables

  2. Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on heat exchangers, boilers and pressure vessels (HEB-97). Vol.1 (Research Papers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This conference was held on 5-6 Apr 1997 in Alexandria. the specialists discussed heat exchangers, boilers and pressure vessels. more than 200 papers were presented in the meetings. it contains of data, figures and tables.

  3. How Can FM Create Value to Organisations? – A critical review of papers from EuroFM Research Symposia 2013-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo

    The main purpose of this report is to provide a state of the art of research and practice in relation to the Added Value of FM. This is done by making a critical review of research papers from FM conferences (chapter 2) and by presenting the concept of Value Adding Management (chapter 3) with res......The main purpose of this report is to provide a state of the art of research and practice in relation to the Added Value of FM. This is done by making a critical review of research papers from FM conferences (chapter 2) and by presenting the concept of Value Adding Management (chapter 3...

  4. Local government pavement research, development, and implementation organization in several states : a white paper from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This white paper presents the results of a survey administered by the University of California Pavement Research Center (UCPRC) exploring the successes, challenges, funding, and organizational structure of six centers in other states that share a sim...

  5. International Academic Mobility: Towards a Concentration of the Minds in Europe. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.3.14

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wende, Marijk

    2015-01-01

    The global competition and related international academic mobility in science and research is rising. Within this context, Europe faces quantitative skills shortages, including an estimate of between 800,000 and one million researchers. Within Europe skills imbalances and mismatches increase, with a growing divergence between countries and…

  6. Unpacking Neighborhood Influences on Education Outcomes: Setting the Stage for Future Research. NBER Working Paper No. 16055

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Gennetian, Lisa; Winship, Christopher; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Kling, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    We motivate future neighborhood research through a simple model that considers youth educational outcomes as a function of neighborhood context, neighborhood exposure, individual vulnerability to neighborhood effects, and non-neighborhood educational inputs--with a focus on effect heterogeneity. Research using this approach would require three…

  7. The PhD Ethos-Mythos: What Chances do Have Young Talented Researchers in Reality? (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Wallner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear tasks of universities did not change in the course of time. However, new responsibilities are added mostly depending on the en vogue zeitgeist, which does not necessarily facilitate strategic planning in an easy way. Because changes following the ideology of the spirit of the time are frequently not really adaptable to established structures. The classical parameters of university achievements are research and its output as well as teaching concepts to educate young scientists. Both, teaching and research, represent the major performance columns for universities and are dependent from each other and cause each other mutually. Many institutions proclaim that research-led approaches of scientific teaching generates the best academically trained graduates, who succeed competitively in the working environment and in the research world of universities. However, during the last 100 years the developments in the academic world showed that teaching and research do not cause each other like Castor and Pollux in order to be successful.

  8. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  9. A new framework for the documentation and interpretation of oral food challenges in population-based and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhenrich, L B; Reich, A; Bellach, J; Trendelenburg, V; Sprikkelman, A B; Roberts, G; Grimshaw, K E C; Sigurdardottir, S; Kowalski, M L; Papadopoulos, N G; Quirce, S; Dubakiene, R; Niggemann, B; Fernández-Rivas, M; Ballmer-Weber, B; van Ree, R; Schnadt, S; Mills, E N C; Keil, T; Beyer, K

    2017-03-01

    The conduct of oral food challenges as the preferred diagnostic standard for food allergy (FA) was harmonized over the last years. However, documentation and interpretation of challenge results, particularly in research settings, are not sufficiently standardized to allow valid comparisons between studies. Our aim was to develop a diagnostic toolbox to capture and report clinical observations in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC). A group of experienced allergists, paediatricians, dieticians, epidemiologists and data managers developed generic case report forms and standard operating procedures for DBPCFCs and piloted them in three clinical centres. The follow-up of the EuroPrevall/iFAAM birth cohort and other iFAAM work packages applied these methods. A set of newly developed questionnaire or interview items capture the history of FA. Together with sensitization status, this forms the basis for the decision to perform a DBPCFC, following a standardized decision algorithm. A generic form including details about severity and timing captures signs and symptoms observed during or after the procedures. In contrast to the commonly used dichotomous outcome FA vs no FA, the allergy status is interpreted in multiple categories to reflect the complexity of clinical decision-making. The proposed toolbox sets a standard for improved documentation and harmonized interpretation of DBPCFCs. By a detailed documentation and common terminology for communicating outcomes, these tools hope to reduce the influence of subjective judgment of supervising physicians. All forms are publicly available for further evolution and free use in clinical and research settings. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A Comparative Investigation on Citation Counts and Altmetrics between Papers Authored by Universities and Companies in the Research Field of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Feiheng; Zheng, Han; Erdt, Mojisola Helen; Raamkumar, Aravind Sesagiri; Theng, Yin-Leng

    2018-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is currently a popular research field. With the development of deep learning techniques, researchers in this area have achieved impressive results in a variety of tasks. In this initial study, we explored scientific papers in Artificial Intelligence, making comparisons between papers authored by the top universities and companies from the dual perspectives of bibliometrics and altmetrics. We selected publication venues according to the venue rankings provided by Google...

  11. Terminology for the body in social interaction, as appearing in papers published in the journal 'Research on Language and Social Interaction', 1987-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is a list of terms referring generally to the body in descriptions and analyses of social interaction, as used by authors in papers published in ROLSI. The list includes over 200 items, grouped according to common phrasing and within alphabetical order. The list was compiled in preparation...... for the review paper: Nevile, M. (2015) The embodied turn in research on language and social interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction,48(2): 121-151....

  12. Assessing the Impact of Research: A Case Study of the LSAY Research Innovation and Expansion Fund. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to apply the framework developed by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) for measuring research impact to assess the outcomes of the research and activities funded under the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) Research Innovation and Expansion Fund (RIEF). LSAY provides a rich…

  13. Do open access working papers attract more citations compared to printed journal articles from the same research unit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Elleby, Anita

    2011-01-01

    articles published in the same year (2004) by the same institute and predominantly by the same authors. The study analyzes the total amount of citations and citation impact observed in Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar (GS) received during the five-year period 2004-09 (February) by the two...... access working papers publicly accessible through the DIIS e-archive became far less cited than the corresponding sample of DIIS journal articles published in printed form. However, highly cited working papers have higher impact than the average of the lower half of cited articles. Citation time series...... show identical distinct patterns for the articles in WoS and GS and working papers in GS, more than doubling the amount of citations received through the latter source....

  14. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. 1997 Ship Production Symposium, Paper Number 13: Producibility Cost Reductions Through Alternative Materials and Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horsmon, Jr., Albert W; Johnson, Karl; Gans-Devney, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    .... The research, backed by the NSRP through the SP-8, Industrial Engineering Panel of the SNAME Ship Production Committee, looks specifically at fiberglass and plastic pipe, adhesives and rubber hose...

  15. Oral Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get involved Understanding Dental Research People Resources About Understanding Events Get involved Dental Research Resources Contact Sitemap The Oral Cancer Foundation admin 2017-11-12T16:49:25+ ...

  16. On truth-telling and storytelling: Truth-seeking during research involving communities with an oral culture and a history of violent conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Vethuizen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose some principles and practices for truth-seeking during research into violent conflict. To achieve this aim, an argument is deployed by analysing the theoretical concepts “truth”, “myth” and “oral culture” as sources of knowledge. This conceptual analysis precedes a discussion on community-based participatory research (CBPR as a research methodology to access the knowledge of lived experiences embedded in the oral culture of the San community of Platfontein, near Kimberley, South Africa. It was found that CBPR contains good practices to use in research to judge the probable truth about disputes. The CBPR process is ideal for determining the accuracy of data in the context of a specific culture, considering the norms, spiritual influences and personal considerations of knowledge-holders that accompany a unique cosmology. A variety and equity of worldviews and perspectives of what happened during violent conflict successfully challenges hegemonic power relationships, paradigms and narratives, ultimately leading to informed judgements of what is probably true about a conflict. CBPR with the San of Platfontein revealed principles that can be used as guidelines for researching disputes where oral culture is involved.

  17. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 13: realizing the full potential of quasi-experiments for health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-09-01

    Although the number of quasi-experiments conducted by health researchers has increased in recent years, there clearly remains unrealized potential for using these methods for causal evaluation of health policies and programs globally. This article proposes five prescriptions for capturing the full value of quasi-experiments for health research. First, new funding opportunities targeting proposals that use quasi-experimental methods should be made available to a broad pool of health researchers. Second, administrative data from health programs, often amenable to quasi-experimental analysis, should be made more accessible to researchers. Third, training in quasi-experimental methods should be integrated into existing health science graduate programs to increase global capacity to use these methods. Fourth, clear guidelines for primary research and synthesis of evidence from quasi-experiments should be developed. Fifth, strategic investments should be made to continue to develop new innovations in quasi-experimental methodologies. Tremendous opportunities exist to expand the use of quasi-experimental methods to increase our understanding of which health programs and policies work and which do not. Health researchers should continue to expand their commitment to rigorous causal evaluation with quasi-experimental methods, and international institutions should increase their support for these efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper): Open access unsolicited emails for scholarly work - Young and senior researchers perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, Sarah; Grech, Victor

    2018-04-20

    The increasing demand on academics and researchers to publish has led to the development of fake journals (also known as predatory journals). Such journals lack peer review and precipitate unfair criticism toward legitimate open access journals. Predatory journals tend to bombard a researcher's mailbox on a daily basis, inviting authors to submit a review/manuscript/opinion/short case to their journal while promising expedited publication - against a fee. This study assessed the unsolicited emails received over the period of November 2017 by a young and by a senior researcher. The young researcher received a substantially higher amount of emails (n = 101) compared to the senior researcher (n = 23). The article processing costs for solicited journals received, ranged between $49 and $3019. These journals are almost all only indexed in Google Scholar and do not display any meaningful journal metrics. Furthermore, the majority of the unsolicited emails were not relevant to the researcher's field of study. Therefore authors and readers alike should evaluate emails received with regard to journal legitimacy prior to submission of work to possibly predatory journals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Kitchen Is Your Laboratory: A Research-Based Term-Paper Assignment in a Science Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clinton D.

    2011-01-01

    A term-paper assignment that encompasses the full scientific method has been developed and implemented in an undergraduate science writing and communication course with no laboratory component. Students are required to develop their own hypotheses, design experiments to test their hypotheses, and collect empirical data as independent scientists in…

  20. The Black-White-Other Test Score Gap: Academic Achievement among Mixed Race Adolescents. Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Melissa R.

    This paper describes the achievement patterns of a sample of 1,492 multiracial high school students and examines how their achievement fits into existing theoretical models that explain monoracial differences in achievement. These theoretical models include status attainment, parenting style, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes. The…

  1. Cognitive Processes in Folk Ornithology: The Identification of Gulls. Working Papers of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory, No. 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Eugene

    Recent studies of folk biology clearly reveal the detailed empirical knowledge of living things which is an important and characteristic element of pre-scientific cultures. This paper attempts a contribution to the study of such systems of knowledge by analyzing the comparable skills of a few American birdwatchers. The process of identification of…

  2. China: A Follower or Leader in Global Higher Education? Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.1.16

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wende, Marijk; Zhu, Jiabin

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on China both as an object and a subject in the globalization of higher education and the sometimes paradoxical nature of the country's policies in this respect. How is the Chinese perspective on globalization shaping its agenda for higher education, the development of world-class universities, and cooperation with Europe and…

  3. Deterrence and the Celerity of the Death Penalty: A Neglected Question in Deterrence Research. Discussion Paper No. 532-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, William C.

    This paper focuses on the deterrent effect of the celerity of the death penalty on homicide rates. The deterrent effect of both the certainty and the celerity of the death penalty on homicide rates is examined cross-sectionally for States. Multiple measures of execution and homicide are considered, along with various sociodemographic variables, in…

  4. Making College Worth It: A Review of Research on the Returns to Higher Education. NBER Working Paper 19053

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Philip; Petronijevic, Uros

    2013-01-01

    Recent stories of soaring student debt levels and under-placed college graduates have caused some to question whether a college education is still a sound investment. In this paper, we review the literature on the returns to higher education in an attempt to determine who benefits from college. Despite the tremendous heterogeneity across potential…

  5. Seeking a Roadmap to Becoming World Class: Strategic Planning at Peking University. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.11.13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangkuan, Xie

    2013-01-01

    Strategic planning plays an important but sometimes controversial role in higher education. This paper examines how strategic planning works in Chinese universities, using Peking University as a case study. This essay discusses the rationale for why Peking University (PKU) decided to pursue status as a world-class university along with objectives…

  6. Towards a European strategy for medicines research (2014-2020): The EUFEPS position paper on Horizon 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Rogério; Aksu, Buket; Cuine, Alain; Danhof, Meindert; Takac, Milena Jadrijevic-Mladar; Linden, Hans H; Link, Andreas; Muchitsch, Eva-Maria; Wilson, Clive G; Ohrngren, Per; Dencker, Lennart

    2012-12-18

    As to the alignment of "Horizon 2020", ir is a more integrated approach to European science policy than expressed in the proposals previously drafted, and specifically considers: (i) promoting excellence in Science, (ii) establishing a sound industrial leadership and (iii) expressing an ambition to address current and future societal challenges. In this respect, the quest for a knowledge-based economy in Europe should result in proposals for industrial and employment policies that will consolidate the major European advantages in the biomedical, healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors. Horizon 2020 also provides the possibility of adopting a more flexible and simplified management route to drive European research through innovation, research and development. What should be additionally considered? Unmet medical needs, under pressure from demographic changes, await the generation of new medicines and health technologies which will evolve into a driver for a unified European policy. We believe that this should be focused on harnessing pharmaceutical knowledge for clinical use, as part of a response to accommodate patient needs and economic growth based on a robust, scientific approach. The bolder ambition for European research is to unlock key bottlenecks currently undermining European competitiveness. The historical lack of an appropriate business/innovation environment with reduced access to adequate risk finance instruments has severed the path for economic growth and industrial development. These issues are of critical importance and a solution is urgently needed to foster translation from the university to the healthcare sector through the generation and support of start-ups, spin-offs, university-industry consortia, and other platforms, which support translational research. The ultimate goal is implementation of holistic programmes: the 'bench to bedside' paradigm of medicines and other healthcare products. The European Research Council supports the basic

  7. Contribution and influence of proceedings papers to citation impact in seven conference and journal-driven sub-fields of energy research 2005-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Larsen, Birger; Garcia-Zorita, J. Carlos

    2013-01-01

    and Wave Energy, Geo-thermal, Bio-fuel and Bio-mass energy sub-fields. The analyses cover research and review articles as well as conference proceeding papers excluding meeting abstracts published 2005-09 and cited 2005-11 through Web of Science. Central findings are: The distribution across document types......This paper analyses the following seven sub-fields of Sustainable Energy Research with respect to the influence of conference paper dominance on citation patterns across citing and cited document types, overall sub-field and document type impacts and citedness: Wind Power, Renewable Energy, Solar...

  8. Selected papers

    CERN Document Server

    Elgot, Calvin C

    1982-01-01

    Cal Elgot was a very serious and thoughtful researcher, who with great determi­ nation attempted to find basic explanations for certain mathematical phenomena­ as the selection of papers in this volume well illustrate. His approach was, for the most part, rather finitist and constructivist, and he was inevitably drawn to studies of the process of computation. It seems to me that his early work on decision problems relating automata and logic, starting with his thesis under Roger Lyndon and continuing with joint work with Biichi, Wright, Copi, Rutledge, Mezei, and then later with Rabin, set the stage for his attack on the theory of computation through the abstract treatment of the notion of a machine. This is also apparent in his joint work with A. Robinson reproduced here and in his joint papers with John Shepherdson. Of course in the light of subsequent work on decision problems by Biichi, Rabin, Shelah, and many, many others, the subject has been placed on a completely different plane from what it was whe...

  9. Exploring Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Exploratorium Magazine communicates ideas that exhibits cannot easily demonstrate, extending the museum beyond its physical walls. This issue takes an in-depth look at the science and history of paper. Topics include: (1) Fascinating Facts about Paper; (2) A Closer Look at the Paper in This Magazine; (3) Handmade Paper; (4) Paper Airplanes; (5)…

  10. Conspiracy of Silence. The Loneliness of Victims of Gender-Based Peer Violence in Polish Junior High Schools. Research Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Chmura-Rutkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research report is an integral part of a larger research project focused on analyzing peer violence which is driven by gender stereotypes and prejudices (including sexual harassment and which is experienced by female and male students of Polish junior high schools. The present qualitative research results are the effect of eight interviews and group discussions carried out in the first half of 2013. The interviewees and discussion participants were students of four different junior high schools in different towns and villages. The discussions focused on the following issues: girls' and boys' strategies of enduring, resisting or confronting gender-based violence and harassment; their reactions and coping mechanisms as victims and/or witnesses of gender-based violence or harassment; how adolescents perceived the roles of adults (that is teachers, parents, professionals in the their experiences of violence.

  11. ASAS Centennial Paper: Impact of animal science research on United States goat production and predictions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L

    2009-01-01

    Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research.

  12. Research paper 2000-B-1: the implementation of the municipal waste incineration directive (89/429) in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucht, S.

    2000-07-01

    This paper constitutes a contribution to the project 'IMPOL - The Implementation of EU Environmental Policies: Efficiency Issues'. The paper deals with the implementation of the EU Directives directed at atmospheric emissions from new (89/369/EEC) and existing (89/429/EEC) municipal waste incineration plants in France. The goal of this paper is twofold: a historic review of the implementation processes and their evaluation following economic criteria of environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency. The focus is on the implementation of the Directives' requirements towards existing municipal waste incineration plants, i.e. those plants having received their operation licence after December 1, 1990. For France we find a general picture of poor compliance. This result has to be differentiated, though: the current compliance rate of plants of a capacity above 6 t/h is almost 100% (although compliance often came late) while the majority of smaller plants does not comply with the Directive's requirements. With a waste incineration park of about 250 plants currently, many of which are very small plants and only treat weak amounts of waste, France constitutes an exception compared to other European countries. A further specific characteristic of France is the high share of waste incineration in total waste treatment (especially in the big cities) which amounts to almost 40%. The outline of the paper is the following: chapter two gives some context information on the French municipal waste incineration plant park and its structure, on the development of waste quantities, on the legal framework and on available subsidy schemes. Chapter three assesses environmental effectiveness, i.e. goal attainment and factors explaining the results. Chapter four comprises the assessment of cost efficiency. Chapter five contains the historic review, i.e. a characterisation of the implementation process, and chapter six concludes, linking the characterisation of

  13. Computerized tablet based versus traditional paper- based survey methods: results from adolescent's health research in schools of Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Agarwal; Balram Paswan; Prakash H. Fulpagare; Dhirendra N Sinha; Thaksaphon Thamarangsi; Manju Rani

    2018-01-01

    Background and challenges to implementation Technological advancement is growing very fast in India and majority of young population is handling electronic devices often during leisure as well as at work. This study indicates that electronic tablets are less time consuming and improves survey response rate over the traditional paper-pencil survey method. Intervention or response An Android-based Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire was used with the...

  14. Sample Selectivity and the Validity of International Student Achievement Tests in Economic Research. NBER Working Paper No. 15867

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    Critics of international student comparisons argue that results may be influenced by differences in the extent to which countries adequately sample their entire student populations. In this research note, we show that larger exclusion and non-response rates are related to better country average scores on international tests, as are larger…

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Interactional Metadiscourse Markers in the Introduction and Conclusion Sections of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaji, Masoomeh; Vafaeimehr, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Academic writing, particularly writing research articles, is an indispensable part of every major in higher education. Hyland (2004) argued that a valuable means of exploring academic writing, and comparing the rhetorical features and preferences of different discourse communities, is through the metadiscourse analysis of the text. The present…

  16. Paper-Based Theses as the Silver Bullet for Increased Research Outputs: First Hear My Story as a Supervisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Marius

    2017-01-01

    With increased pressure to publish, academics are pursuing creative ways to achieve enhanced research outputs. One such process is the publication-based thesis (PBT) for both masters and PhD candidates, rather than monographs. While this process is not novel in the sciences, it has not been widely applied by economic and management schools,…

  17. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 47: The value of computer networks in aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Ann Peterson; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents data on the value of computer networks that were obtained from a national survey of 2000 aerospace engineers that was conducted in 1993. Survey respondents reported the extent to which they used computer networks in their work and communication and offered their assessments of the value of various network types and applications. They also provided information about the positive impacts of networks on their work, which presents another perspective on value. Finally, aerospace engineers' recommendations on network implementation present suggestions for increasing the value of computer networks within aerospace organizations.

  19. White paper on science and technology, 1996. Striving to become a front-runner in research activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the first report on policy measures implemented with regard to the promotion of science and technology, in accordance with Article 8 of the Science and Technology Basic Law, which was enacted in November 1995. Parts 1 and 2 of this report discuss trends in a wide range of scientific and technological activities to help the reader understand the policy measures implemented to promote science and technology. Part 1, titled 'Striving to become a front-runner in research activity', attempts and analysis of the public's expectations and demands concerning science and technology; of the state of affairs at institutions engaged in R and D; and of the issues that require attention in the pursuit of future of research activity. In Part 2, various types of data are used to compare Japan's scientific and technological activities with those in other major nations. And, Part 3 contains Policies implemented for the promotion of science and technology. (G.K.)

  20. Effects of Oral Stimulation Intervention in Newborn Babies with Cri du Chat Syndrome: Single-Subject Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyung Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to treat dysphagia in a newborn baby with cri du chat syndrome using an oral stimulation intervention and to examine its effects. The subject of this study was a baby born 2 weeks prematurely. Since birth, his oxygen saturation (SaO2 decreased while feeding, and he had difficulty with mouth feeding. Thus, an NG feeding tube was inserted, and dysphagia treatment was initiated on the sixth day after birth. A baseline phase and an intervention phase were performed using an AB design. The oral stimulation intervention was not performed in the baseline phase, as only nonnutritive sucking training using a rubber pacifier was used during the baseline phase. During the intervention phase, nonnutritive sucking training and oral stimulation intervention were simultaneously conducted. After the intervention period, daily oral milk intake and intake per feeding of the subject noticeably increased. The oxygen saturation while feeding rose over 90% on average, and the baby did not present with hypoxia. The oral stimulation intervention provided prior to feeding resulted in highly positive effects, including induced normal development of the baby, stimulation of his transition from the NG feeding tube to bottle feeding, increased oxygen saturation, and a shortened hospital stay.

  1. Radon Remediation and Protective Measures in UK Buildings: The Work of the Building Research Establishment Ltd. (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.; Woolliscroft, M.

    1998-01-01

    The scope is described of work carried out by the Building Research Establishment Ltd (BRE) in the UK. BRE, funded by the UK Department of the Environment and the Regions (DETR), have been carrying out research into radon in UK buildings for over 10 years. Research has resulted in the successful development of a range of reliable, practical and cost effective radon remedial measures. The measures, which are described in a series of practical guides, are applicable to almost all building types found in the UK, and would be appropriate for use in many buildings found in other countries. The principal aims of this work have been to develop practical, cost effective and appropriate methods for reducing radon levels in existing buildings and to develop protective measures for new buildings. It is considered particularly important to ensure that measures recommended not only reduce radon levels, but that they do not cause adverse effects to the structure or indoor environment, whilst also being cost effective. A comprehensive series of field trials has been undertaken to test a variety of different solutions in more than 300 existing buildings and protective measures in more than 500 new buildings. To support the field trials BRE have a test house located in the South West of England which allows researchers access to a real house without causing considerable disruption to householders in conducting experiments. BRE have also carried out computer modelling work to try to understand the processes which cause radon entry, and how measures taken might affect these processes. A comprehensive database of work carried out in some 300 UK houses is also maintained. (author)

  2. A Scientometric study of Research Papers Published by Visiting Associates of IUCAA, Pune (India) during 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) is an autonomous institution set up by the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India to promote the nucleation and growth of active groups in astronomy and astrophysics at Indian universities. It was established in 1988 at Pune, India. IUCAA aims to be a centre of excellence within the university sector for teaching, research and development in astronomy and astrophysics. To highlight IUCAA Associates program and associates ...

  3. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Donald H; Rappold, Joseph F; Badloe, John F; Berséus, Olle; Blackbourne, Lorne; Brohi, Karim H; Butler, Frank K; Cap, Andrew P; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Davenport, Ross; DePasquale, Marc; Doughty, Heidi; Glassberg, Elon; Hervig, Tor; Hooper, Timothy J; Kozar, Rosemary; Maegele, Marc; Moore, Ernest E; Murdock, Alan; Ness, Paul M; Pati, Shibani; Rasmussen, Todd; Sailliol, Anne; Schreiber, Martin A; Sunde, Geir Arne; van de Watering, Leo M G; Ward, Kevin R; Weiskopf, Richard B; White, Nathan J; Strandenes, Geir; Spinella, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network held its third annual Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium in June 2013 in Bergen, Norway. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is a multidisciplinary group of investigators with a common interest in improving outcomes and safety in patients with severe traumatic injury. The network's mission is to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from traumatic hemorrhagic shock, in the prehospital phase of resuscitation through research, education, and training. The concept of remote damage control resuscitation is in its infancy, and there is a significant amount of work that needs to be done to improve outcomes for patients with life-threatening bleeding secondary to injury. The prehospital phase of resuscitation is critical in these patients. If shock and coagulopathy can be rapidly identified and minimized before hospital admission, this will very likely reduce morbidity and mortality. This position statement begins to standardize the terms used, provides an acceptable range of therapeutic options, and identifies the major knowledge gaps in the field.

  4. Global oral health inequalities: task group--implementation and delivery of oral health strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheiham, A; Alexander, D; Cohen, L

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the shortcomings of present approaches to reduce oral diseases and inequalities, details the importance of social determinants, and links that to research needs and policies on implementation of strategies to reduce oral health inequalities. Inequalities in health...... their environment. There is a dearth of oral health research on social determinants that cause health-compromising behaviors and on risk factors common to some chronic diseases. The gap between what is known and implemented by other health disciplines and the dental fraternity needs addressing. To re-orient oral...... strategies tailored to determinants and needs of each group along the social gradient. Approaches focusing mainly on downstream lifestyle and behavioral factors have limited success in reducing health inequalities. They fail to address social determinants, for changing people's behaviors requires changing...

  5. [A visualization study of research papers on childhood tuberculous meningitis in China and abroad over the past decade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jing; Ye, Shao-Lin; Luo, Rong; Mu, De-Zhi; Wan, Chao-Min

    2016-05-01

    To introduce co-word analysis into the analysis of the current research status of childhood tuberculous meningitis, to compare the similarities and differences in research topics of the field in China and abroad over the past decade, and to discover the advantages and weak links in the study field in China. PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data were searched for the articles which met the inclusion criteria. Ucinet 6.0 and Netdraw were used for co-occurrence analysis, and the co-article relationship between high-frequency key words was visualized. A total of 226 articles abroad and 186 Chinese articles on childhood tuberculous meningitis were obtained. The figures for co-occurrence analysis of high-frequency key words in research articles on childhood tuberculous meningitis in China and abroad were successfully plotted. Compared with the studies in China, the studies abroad were more sophisticated and well-developed, with more studies on drug-resistant tuberculosis, the relationship between tuberculosis and AIDS, and the epidemiology of tuberculosis. The key words listed in the studies abroad were more standard. The studies in China on childhood tuberculous meningitis concentrated on vaccination and nursing. In general, the studies on childhood tuberculous meningitis in China and abroad have the same directions. The studies abroad have a complicated network and use more standard key words. The studies on childhood tuberculous meningitis are well conducted in China. However, more studies are needed for drug-resistant tuberculosis, the relationship between tuberculosis and AIDS, and the epidemiology of tuberculosis in future.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 39: The role of computer networks in aerospace engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Ann P.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from an empirical investigation into the use of computer networks in aerospace engineering. Such networks allow aerospace engineers to communicate with people and access remote resources through electronic mail, file transfer, and remote log-in. The study drew its subjects from private sector, government and academic organizations in the U.S. aerospace industry. Data presented here were gathered in a mail survey, conducted in Spring 1993, that was distributed to aerospace engineers performing a wide variety of jobs. Results from the mail survey provide a snapshot of the current use of computer networks in the aerospace industry, suggest factors associated with the use of networks, and identify perceived impacts of networks on aerospace engineering work and communication.

  7. Intercomparison of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures. Papers and working materials presented at the 3. research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Coordinated research program on Intercomparison of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures involved participants from Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russia, United Kingdom, USA, EC. The purpose of the meeting was to review the progress on the finite element prediction of the force-deformation behaviour of seismic isolators and to discuss the first set of analytical results for the prediction of the response of base-oscillated structures to earthquake inputs. The intercomparison of predictions of bearing behaviour has identified important unexpected issues requiring deeper investigation

  8. Research paper no. 18. Trading rules for CO2 emission permits systems. A proposal for ceilings on quantities and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, P.; Viguier, L.

    2000-01-01

    Tradable emission permit (TEP) systems for greenhouse gases (GHGs) as they could develop following the Kyoto Protocol - that is if they are limited to Annex B countries and are not bound by exchange regulations) - do not appear to be greatly acceptable today, either to the United States or to the European Union. The problem of the uncertainty related to the cost of reducing emissions is strongly highlighted in the United States: in fact, the approach adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, that of quantitative emissions targets, leaves the question of the reduction programme costs wide open. For the European Union, the unregulated TEP system is hardly acceptable because it would not guarantee that the principle of 'supplementarity' adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, that is, the fact that the purchase of permits should be in addition to action taken within each of the Annex B countries. The section two of this paper is an in-depth economic analysis of the european proposal for ''concrete ceilings''. The alternative proposals, formulated in the United States and relating more to permit price ceilings or''trigger price'', are examined in Section 3. After showing that each of the foregoing proposals could have consequences unacceptable to some or others of the parties to the Protocol, Section 4 offers the proposal of a hybrid formula for regulating the rights market. In fact, the main aim of this paper is to show that the implementation of a 'hybrid solution', consisting of limiting the volume of exchanges while at the same time introducing a TEP price ceiling, could provide a market regulation framework effect allowing the benefits of most of the economic advantages to be enjoyed and also having characteristics acceptable to the various parties from an environmental as well as from an international fairness point of view. (A.L.B.)

  9. Accepted standards on how to give a Medical Research Presentation: a systematic review of expert opinion papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blome, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review aimed to extract recommendations from expert opinion articles on how to give a medical research presentation on a scientific conference and to determine whether the experts agree on what makes an effective or poor presentation. Methods: Presentation-related terms were searched within article titles listed in PubMed, restricting the search to English-language articles published from January 1975 to July 2015. Recommendations were extracted from the articles, grouped by content, and analyzed for frequency. Ninety-one articles were included. Among 679 different recommendations, 29 were given in more than 20% of articles each. The five most frequent recommendations were to keep slides simple, adjust the talk to the audience, rehearse, not read the talk from slides or a manuscript, and make eye contact. Results: No article gave advice that was the complete opposite of the 29 most frequent recommendations with the exception of whether a light or dark background should be used for slides. Conclusions: Researchers should comply with these widely accepted standards to be perceived as effective presenters.

  10. Accepted standards on how to give a Medical Research Presentation: a systematic review of expert opinion papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Christine; Sondermann, Hanno; Augustin, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: This systematic review aimed to extract recommendations from expert opinion articles on how to give a medical research presentation on a scientific conference and to determine whether the experts agree on what makes an effective or poor presentation. Methods: Presentation-related terms were searched within article titles listed in PubMed, restricting the search to English-language articles published from January 1975 to July 2015. Recommendations were extracted from the articles, grouped by content, and analyzed for frequency. Ninety-one articles were included. Among 679 different recommendations, 29 were given in more than 20% of articles each. The five most frequent recommendations were to keep slides simple, adjust the talk to the audience, rehearse, not read the talk from slides or a manuscript, and make eye contact. Results: No article gave advice that was the complete opposite of the 29 most frequent recommendations with the exception of whether a light or dark background should be used for slides. Conclusions: Researchers should comply with these widely accepted standards to be perceived as effective presenters.

  11. Oral Health Equals Total Health: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Yap

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral health is essential to total health and satisfactory quality of life. According to the World Health Organization (2012, oral health has been defined as a state of being free of mouth and facial pain, oral infections and sores, and oral and other diseases that limit an individual’s capacity in biting, chewing, smiling, speaking, and psychosocial well-being. Oral conditions like dental caries and periodontal (gum disease continue to plague humanity. Nearly all adults have existing tooth decay, and severe gum disease occurs in 15 to 20% of middle-aged adults. The adverse effects of inadequate care for teeth, gums, bite, and jaws can move beyond the mouth to affect overall physical and psychological health. Research has indicated that poor oral health may be associated with medical conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, pneumonia, and other respiratory diseases. It has also been linked to pre-term births and low-birth-weight babies. Jaw problems are also a common cause of headaches and ear and facial pain. Dental clearance prior to medical treatment, including cancer/bisphosphonate therapy and cardiac surgery, minimizes both oral and systemic complications. Many medical conditions have oral manifestations, and some medications have side effects that lead to compromised oral health as well as jaw function disabilities. This paper summarizes and highlights the importance of oral-systemic connections. In addition, the features of common dental problems are discussed. 

  12. Challenges of the Oral Cancer Burden in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India, which accounts for over thirty per cent of all cancers reported in the country and oral cancer control is quickly becoming a global health priority. This paper provides a synopsis of the incidence of oral cancer in India by focusing on its measurement in cancer registries across the country. Based on the International Classification of Disease case definition adopted by the World Health Organisation, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, this review systematically examines primary and secondary data where the incidence or prevalence of oral cancer is known to be directly reported. Variability in age-adjusted incidence with crude incidence is projected to increase by 2030. Challenges focus on measurement of disease incidence and disease-specific risk behavior, predominantly, alcohol, and tobacco use. Future research should be aimed at improving quality of data for early detection and prevention of oral cancer. PMID:23093961

  13. Challenges of the Oral Cancer Burden in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, K. R.; Coelho, K. R.

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India, which accounts for over thirty per cent of all cancers reported in the country and oral cancer control is quickly becoming a global health priority. This paper provides a synopsis of the incidence of oral cancer in India by focusing on its measurement in cancer registries across the country. Based on the International Classification of Disease case definition adopted by the World Health Organisation, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, this review systematically examines primary and secondary data where the incidence or prevalence of oral cancer is known to be directly reported. Variability in age-adjusted incidence with crude incidence is projected to increase by 2030. Challenges focus on measurement of disease incidence and disease-specific risk behavior, predominantly, alcohol, and tobacco use. Future research should be aimed at improving quality of data for early detection and prevention of oral cancer.

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 19: Computer and information technology and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Bishop, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    To remain a world leader in aerospace, the US must improve and maintain the professional competency of its engineers and scientists, increase the research and development (R&D) knowledge base, improve productivity, and maximize the integration of recent technological developments into the R&D process. How well these objectives are met, and at what cost, depends on a variety of factors, but largely on the ability of US aerospace engineers and scientists to acquire and process the results of federally funded R&D. The Federal Government's commitment to high speed computing and networking systems presupposes that computer and information technology will play a major role in the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. However, we know little about information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The use of computer and information technology by US aerospace engineers and scientists in academia, government, and industry is reported.

  15. Research Paper: Investigation of Acoustic Characteristics of Speech Motor Control in Children Who Stutter and Children Who Do Not Stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fakar Gharamaleki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Stuttering is a developmental disorder of speech fluency with unknown causes. One of the proposed theories in this field is deficits in speech motor control that is associated with damaged control, timing, and coordination of the speech muscles. Fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time are the most important acoustic components that are often used for indirect evaluation of physiological functions underlying the mechanisms of speech motor control. The purpose of this investigation was to compare some of the acoustic characteristics of speech motor control in children who stutter and children who do not stutter. Materials & Methods This research is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 25 Azari-Persian bilingual boys who stutter (stutters group and 23 Azari-Persian bilinguals and 21 Persian monolingual boys who do not stutter (non-stutters group in the age range of 6 to 10 years participated in this study. Children participated in /a/ and /i/ vowels prolongation and carrier phrase repetition tasks for the analysis of some of their acoustic characteristics including fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time. The PRAAT software was used for acoustic analysis. SPSS software (version 17, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for analyzing the data. Results The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the stutters and non-stutters groups (P>0.05 with respect to the acoustic features of speech motor control . Conclusion No significant group differences were observed in all of the dependent variables reported in this study. Thus, the results of this research do not support the notion of aberrant speech motor control in children who stutter.

  16. Trends in gel dosimetry: Preliminary bibliometric overview of active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from Gore’s 1984 paper onwards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C

    2017-01-01

    John Gore’s seminal 1984 paper on gel dosimetry spawned a vibrant research field ranging from fundamental science through to clinical applications. A preliminary bibliometric study was undertaken of the gel dosimetry family of publications inspired by, and resulting from, Gore’s original 1984 paper to determine active growth areas, research trends and hot topics from Gore’s paper up to and including 2016. Themes and trends of the gel dosimetry research field were bibliometrically explored by way of co-occurrence term maps using the titles and abstracts text corpora from the Web of Science database for all relevant papers from 1984 to 2016. Visualisation of similarities was used by way of the VOSviewer visualisation tool to generate cluster maps of gel dosimetry knowledge domains and the associated citation impact of topics within the domains. Heat maps were then generated to assist in the understanding of active growth areas, research trends, and emerging and hot topics in gel dosimetry. (paper)

  17. A critical cost benefit analysis of oilseed biodiesel in Canada : a BIOCAP research integration program synthesis paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaney, M.J.T.; Hartley Furtan, W.; Loutas, P.

    2006-03-01

    This paper investigated resources in Canada with the potential for conversion to biodiesel and analyzed strategies for the development of a biodiesel economy in Saskatchewan. Costs and benefits of biodiesel production were investigated. Producer margins for growing biodiesel crops were examined. Grain transportation and storage methods for various feed materials were discussed, as well as oil extraction and refining strategies that influence non-oil co-products. Biodiesel production technologies were also evaluated, and various distribution methods were discussed. The study determined that the costs and benefits of a biodiesel economy would accrue to many different sectors and sub-sectors, including seed production; farming; agricultural chemicals; fertilizers; grain storage and transportation; biodiesel manufacture and distribution; and petroleum manufacture and distribution. Outlines of impacts on each sector were examined under various scenarios. Results of the study demonstrated that the quantity of low-priced canola that is available in a given year has a significant impact on the profitability of a biodiesel industry in Saskatchewan. 16 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Research paper 2000-B-3: the implementation of the EU large combustion plant directive (88/609) in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucht, S.

    2000-07-01

    This paper constitutes a contribution to the project 'IMPOL - The Implementation of EU Environmental Policies: Efficiency Issues'. The main objective of this paper is twofold: a description of the implementation process in a historic review and an evaluation according to economic criteria of the implementation of the 1988 EEC Large Combustion Plant Directive (LCPD) in France. The analysis focuses on the electricity supply industry (ESI) and the Directive's provisions towards SO{sub 2} emissions from existing large combustion plants (LCPs), as defined by the Directive. These provisions take the form of national emission ceilings defined for the years 1993, 1998 and 2003 which are presented in the form of overall national emission reduction objectives for the LCP sector. The reference year is 1980. The question of how these emission ceilings were to be reached, i.e. which instruments were to be applied, was left to the discretion of the Member States. In France, we find a large over-compliance with the Directive's targets. This result is, largely, explained by the French nuclear power programme, which was set up after the first oil crisis and which took effects between 1980 and 1990. Furthermore, we find that there were no demands towards existing ESI LCPs or measures taken by the ESI that could be linked to the LCPD. Policy directed at SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from existing ESI LCPs is limited to a voluntary commitment ('EDF-programme') of Electricite de France (EDF), France's largest electricity supplier and - only in a few cases - to requirements related to the French air quality law, i.e. to requirements defined for local protection areas. Owing to a lack of measures related to the LCP Directive, we analyse the implementation of the EDF programme as well. The economic evaluation is based on criteria of environmental effectiveness and of cost efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs. Environmental

  19. Audio Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    With this special issue of Seismograf we are happy to present a new format of articles: Audio Papers. Audio papers resemble the regular essay or the academic text in that they deal with a certain topic of interest, but presented in the form of an audio production. The audio paper is an extension...

  20. Researching participants taking IELTS Academic Writing Task 2 (AWT2) in paper mode and in computer mode in terms of score equivalence, cognitive validity and other factors

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Sathena; Bax, Stephen; Weir, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    Computer-based (CB) assessment is becoming more common in most university disciplines, and international language testing bodies now routinely use computers for many areas of English language assessment. Given that, in the near future, IELTS also will need to move towards offering CB options alongside traditional paper-based (PB) modes, the research reported here prepares for that possibility, building on research carried out some years ago which investigated the statistical comparability of ...

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 42: An analysis of the transfer of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura F.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. aerospace industry has a long history of federal support for research related to its needs. Since the establishment of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1915, the federal government has provided continuous research support related to flight and aircraft design. This research has contributed to the international preeminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a sociological analysis of aerospace engineers and scientists and how their attitudes and behaviors impact the flow of scientific and technical information (STI). We use a constructivist framework to explain the spotty dissemination of federally funded aerospace research. Our research is aimed towards providing federal policymakers with a clearer understanding of how and when federally funded aerospace research is used. This understanding will help policymakers design improved information transfer systems that will aid the competitiveness of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  2. Medical imaging in personalised medicine: a white paper of the research committee of the European Society of Radiology (ESR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The future of medicine lies in early diagnosis and individually tailored treatments, a concept that has been designated 'personalised medicine' (PM), which aims to deliver the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Medical imaging has always been personalised and is fundamental to almost all aspects of PM. It is instrumental in solving clinical differential diagnoses. Imaging procedures are tailored to the clinical problem and patient characteristics. Screening for preclinical disease is done with imaging. Stratification based on imaging biomarkers can help identify individuals suited for preventive intervention. Treatment decisions are based on the in vivo visualisation of the location and extent of an abnormality, as well as the loco-regional physiological, biochemical and biological processes using structural and molecular imaging. Image-guided biopsy provides relevant tissue specimens for genetic/molecular characterisation. In addition, radiogenomics relate imaging biomarkers to these genetic and molecular features. Furthermore, imaging is essential to patient-tailored therapy planning, therapy monitoring and follow-up of disease, as well as targeting non-invasive or minimally invasive treatments, especially with the rise of theranostics. Radiologists need to be prepared for this new paradigm as it will mean changes in training, clinical practice and in research. Key Points • Medical imaging is a key component in personalised medicine • Personalised prevention will rely on image-based screening programmes • Anatomical, functional and molecular imaging biomarkers affect decisions on the type and intensity of treatment • Treatment response assessment with imaging will improve personalised treatment • Image-based invasive intervention integrates personalised diagnosis and personalised treatment.

  3. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  5. Collection of scientific papers in collaboration with Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, USSR and Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest, Hungary Vol. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhidkov, E.P.; Lobanov, Yu.Yu.; Nemeth, G.

    1989-11-01

    Papers of collaboration of JINR, Dubna and CRIP, Budapest, are presented in the field of algorithms and computer programs for solution of physical problems. The topics include computer evaluation and calculation of functional integrals and Pade approximants, occurring in theoretical particle physics, field theory and statistical physics, error estimations for approximate solutions of quasilinear integrodifferential evolution equations, overview of protocol testing, improved random number generation methods and computer simulation methods in molecule physics. Computer codes are also presented. (D.G.)

  6. Bibliometric analysis in the evaluation of journals published by the Forest Research Institute: Forest Research Papers and Folia Forestalia Polonica Series A – Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczykiewicz Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in interest in publishing articles in journals recorded by global databases, in particular the Web of Science ™ Core Collection, which indexes journals found in the Journal Citation Reports. The publication of results in these journals has a significant impact on the assessment of the achievements of researchers and scientific institutions.

  7. Titles of Scientific Letters and Research Papers in Astrophysics: A Comparative Study of Some Linguistic Aspects and Their Relationship with Collaboration Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles

    2017-01-01

    In this study we compare the titles of scientific letters and those of research papers published in the field of astrophysics in order to identify the possible differences and/or similarities between both genres in terms of several linguistic and extra-linguistic variables (length, lexical density, number of prepositions, number of compound…

  8. [Investigation methodology and application on scientific and technological personnel of traditional Chinese medical resources based on data from Chinese scientific research paper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-yan; Li, Yuan-hai; Yang, Yang; Liu, Fang-zhou; Wang, Jing; Tian, Ye; Yang, Ce; Liu, Yang; Li, Meng; Sun Li-ying

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the present status of the scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) resource science. Based on the data from Chinese scientific research paper, an investigation regarding the number of the personnel, the distribution, their output of paper, their scientific research teams, high-yield authors and high-cited authors was conducted. The study covers seven subfields of traditional Chinese medicine identification, quality standard, Chinese medicine cultivation, harvest processing of TCM, market development and resource protection and resource management, as well as 82 widely used Chinese medicine species, such as Ginseng and Radix Astragali. One hundred and fifteen domain authority experts were selected based on the data of high-yield authors and high-cited authors. The database system platform "Skilled Scientific and Technological Personnel in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resource Science-Chinese papers" was established. This platform successfully provided the retrieval result of the personnel, output of paper, and their core research team by input the study field, year, and Chinese medicine species. The investigation provides basic data of scientific and technological personnel in the field of traditional Chinese medicine resource science for administrative agencies and also evidence for the selection of scientific and technological personnel and construction of scientific research teams.

  9. AGB-UVA Symposium on Research and Scholarship on Higher Education [Governance, Trusteeship and the Academic Presidency] (Charlottesville, VA, December 5-6, 1999). Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusser, Brian

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the proceedings of the 1999 Symposium on Research and Scholarship on Higher Education Governance, Trusteeship, and the Academic Presidency sponsored by the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges and the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia. The symposium addressed the state of research…

  10. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (28th, Orlando, Florida, 2005). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.; Crawford, Margaret, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    For the twenty-eighth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the National AECT Convention in Orlando, Florida. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  11. Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (28th, Orlando, Florida, 2005). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Michael, Ed.; Crawford, Margaret, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    For the twenty-eighth year, the Research and Theory Division of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) is sponsoring the publication of these Proceedings. Papers published in this volume were presented at the National AECT Convention in Orlando, Florida. The Proceedings of AECT's Convention are published in two…

  12. "Thank you for your critical comments and helpful suggestions": compliance and conflict in authors' replies to referees' comments in peer reviews of scientific research papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Gosden

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer reviews of research papers submitted to journals are an "occluded" genre (Swales, 1996 - referees are usually anonymous and the confidential reports themselves are not part of the official record of research publication. Thus, compared to the published, readily available genres of the academy, there are few opportunities to study gatekeeping discourse such as peer reviews, nor are there many opportunities for novice researchers to practice framing appropriate and effective point-by-point replies to criticisms. This paper is part of a study based on the analysis and functional description of comments from a corpus of referees' reports and authors' replies. The data highlight the importance of authors being able to recognize and interpret the relative interactional/interpersonal vs. technical/ideational orientation of requested revisions, in order to revise successfully their papers after peer review. Research on publication productivity in the sciences has emphasized the importance of early productivity as a strong predictor of future publication (Fox, 1983. When young scientists take up their first academic position, publication levels are initially more affected by the productivity of the pre-doctoral years than by the prestige of the new department and institution. In a "reinforcing process of advantage" (Fox, 1983:293, those who have published early will often continue to do so for several years until the supportive research environment of their present location will more strongly affect continued productivity.

  13. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  14. Oral Ketamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Ketamine: A Four-years Experience in ... Key words: Oral Ketamine, Premedication and Oncology. .... form of a letter published in 19835. .... Acta. Anaesthesiol Scandinavica, 1998; 42: 750-758. 4. Murray P. Substitution of another opioid ...

  15. Fostering oral presentation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van Stan; Gulikers, Judith; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Previous research revealed significant differences in the effectiveness of various feedback sources for encouraging students’ oral presentation performance. While former studies emphasised the superiority of teacher feedback, it remains unclear whether the quality of feedback actually differs

  16. An Exploratory Study of the Relationships between Reported Imagery and the Comprehension and Recall of a Story in Fifth Graders. Instructional Research Laboratory Technical Paper # R82007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark C.

    A study investigated the role of visual imagery in the comprehension and retention of prose. Subjects were 48 fifth grade students who orally read a story and then completed three comprehension tasks directly related to the story: a retelling, an oral reading cloze test, and a multiple choice question test comprised of items demonstrated to be…

  17. Parent's pro-health awareness concerning oral health of their children in the light of survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapniarska, Karolina; Buła, Katarzyna; Hilt, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Oral hygiene is a crucial part of caring for young children. This problem is frequently marginalized or even ignored by parents/guardians, what affects child's whole further life. The assessment of parents' knowledge concerning oral hygiene and prevention of dental caries in infants and young children. The test group consisted of parents, as well as men and women currently expecting a child. The study was conducted in a form of a survey, using an original questionnaire, which was carried out in several hospitals in Lodz and online, on a popular local forum for parents. The data obtained were analyzed statistically, allowing the assessment of health awareness of respondents and the creation of various profiles of parental knowledge on the subject investigated. Most of respondents knew the age at which milk and permanent teeth erupt, gave the correct frequency of brushing child's teeth and were in favor of limiting sweets in the diet. A total of 59% correctly gave the number of deciduous teeth and 66% had heard of the "bottle tooth decay". All respondents thought that helping and controlling a child while brushing their teeth is indispensable, but they did not know the best time to start using the toothpaste with fluoride. The information about child's oral hygiene was more often looked for by women (67%) than by men (29%). The study also showed that if a training on the given subject was organized, 60% of respondents would be willing to participate in it. In the test group, pro-health awareness is insufficient to maintain the oral health of the offspring and requires constant developing.

  18. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  19. Oral dirofilariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  20. Student Experience of Oral Communication Assessment Tasks Online from a Multi-Disciplinary Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Bonnie; Drew, Antony; James, Carole; Phelan, Liam; Harris, Keith M; Archer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the experiences of tertiary students learning oral presentation skills in a range of online and blended learning contexts across diverse disciplines. Design/methodology/approach: The research was designed as a "federation" of trials of diverse online oral communications assessment tasks…

  1. Paper Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how to create paper cuts and suggests the most appropriate materials for young children that give good quality results. Describes the methods the author, a professional artist, uses to assemble her own paper cuts and how these can be adopted by older students. (KM)

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 61: The Technical Communications Practices of ESL Aerospace Engineering Students in the United States: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, John R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    When engineering students graduate and enter the world of work, they make the transition from an academic to a professional community of knowledge. The importance of oral and written communication to the professional success and advancement of engineers is well documented. For example, studies such as those conducted by Mailloux (1989) indicate that communicating data, information, and knowledge takes up as much as 80% of an engineer's time. However, these same studies also indicate that many engineering graduates cannot (a) write technical reports that effectively inform and influence decisionmaking, (b) present their ideas persuasively, and (c) communicate with their peers. If these statements are true, how is learning to communicate effectively in their professional knowledge community different for engineering students educated in the United States but who come from other cultures-cultures in which English is not the primary language of communication? Answering this question requires adequate and generalizable data about these students' communications abilities, skills, and competencies. To contribute to the answer, we undertook a national (mail) survey of 1,727 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The focus of our analysis and this paper is a comparison of the responses of 297 student members for whom English is a second language with the responses of 1,430 native English speaking students to queries regarding career choice, bilingualism and language fluency, communication skills, collaborative writing, computer use, and the use of electronic (computer) networks.

  3. Do you kiss your mother with that mouth? An authentic large-scale undergraduate research experience in mapping the human oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jack T H; Daly, Joshua N; Willner, Dana L; Patil, Jayee; Hall, Roy A; Schembri, Mark A; Tyson, Gene W; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Clinical microbiology testing is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of community and hospital-acquired infections. Laboratory scientists need to utilize technical and problem-solving skills to select from a wide array of microbial identification techniques. The inquiry-driven laboratory training required to prepare microbiology graduates for this professional environment can be difficult to replicate within undergraduate curricula, especially in courses that accommodate large student cohorts. We aimed to improve undergraduate scientific training by engaging hundreds of introductory microbiology students in an Authentic Large-Scale Undergraduate Research Experience (ALURE). The ALURE aimed to characterize the microorganisms that reside in the healthy human oral cavity-the oral microbiome-by analyzing hundreds of samples obtained from student volunteers within the course. Students were able to choose from selective and differential culture media, Gram-staining, microscopy, as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, in order to collect, analyze, and interpret novel data to determine the collective oral microbiome of the student cohort. Pre- and postsurvey analysis of student learning gains across two iterations of the course (2012-2013) revealed significantly higher student confidence in laboratory skills following the completion of the ALURE (p < 0.05 using the Mann-Whitney U-test). Learning objectives on effective scientific communication were also met through effective student performance in laboratory reports describing the research outcomes of the project. The integration of undergraduate research in clinical microbiology has the capacity to deliver authentic research experiences and improve scientific training for large cohorts of undergraduate students.

  4. Web of Science use in published research and review papers 1997-2017: a selective, dynamic, cross-domain, content-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Rollins, Jason; Yan, Erjia

    2018-01-01

    Clarivate Analytics's Web of Science (WoS) is the world's leading scientific citation search and analytical information platform. It is used as both a research tool supporting a broad array of scientific tasks across diverse knowledge domains as well as a dataset for large-scale data-intensive studies. WoS has been used in thousands of published academic studies over the past 20 years. It is also the most enduring commercial legacy of Eugene Garfield. Despite the central position WoS holds in contemporary research, the quantitative impact of WoS has not been previously examined by rigorous scientific studies. To better understand how this key piece of Eugene Garfield's heritage has contributed to science, we investigated the ways in which WoS (and associated products and features) is mentioned in a sample of 19,478 English-language research and review papers published between 1997 and 2017, as indexed in WoS databases. We offered descriptive analyses of the distribution of the papers across countries, institutions and knowledge domains. We also used natural language processingtechniques to identify the verbs and nouns in the abstracts of these papers that are grammatically connected to WoS-related phrases. This is the first study to empirically investigate the documentation of the use of the WoS platform in published academic papers in both scientometric and linguistic terms.

  5. Background paper on aquaculture research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto

    due to the availability of vast water resources of good quality (both marine and fresh water), a high veterinary status and generally well developed public infrastructure. Swedish aquaculture has the potential to develop into a green business producing environmentally sustainable healthy food with low...... vattenbruket and the strategy Svenskt vattenbruk – en grön näring på blå åkrar, Strategi 2012–2020. Implementing the strategy will require a real management of aquaculture that secures the balance between responsibility for the environment and development of aquaculture production. For a significant......, products, etc. 2. Environmental efficient production with trapping of solid waste and balanced nutrient management (recirculation technology, waste heat/green energy/integrated production systems). 3. Policy instruments: legislation, economic incentives, socioeconomic...

  6. Doing Institutional Research: A Focus on Professional Development. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the North East Association for Institutional Research (9th, Durham, New Hampshire, October 17-19, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Diana M., Ed.

    Institutional research that focuses on professional development is addressed in 35 papers from the 1982 meeting of the North East Association for Institutional Research. Titles and authors include the following: "Modeling College Student Adjustment and Retention for the Individual Institution" (Norman D. Aitken); "The Development Saga of an…

  7. Review paper on research ethics in Ethiopia: experiences and lessons learnt from Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feleke, Yeweyenhareg; Addissie, Adamu; Wamisho, Biruk L; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Health research in Ethiopia is increasing both in volume and type, accompanied with expansion of higher education and research since the past few years. This calls for a proportional competence in the governance of medical research ethics in Ethiopia in the respective research and higher learning institutes. The paper highlights the evolution and progress ofthe ethics review at Addis Ababa University - College of Health Sciences (AAU-CHS) in the given context of health research review system in Ethiopia. Reflections are made on the key lessons to be drawnfrom the formative experiences of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and their implications to the Ethiopian health research review system. This article is a review paper based on review of published and un published documents on research ethics in Ethiopia and the AAU-CHS (2007-2012). Thematic summaries of review findings are presented in thematic areas - formation of ethics review and key factors in the evolution of ethics review and implications. The IRB at AAU-CHS has been pivotal in providing review and follow-up for important clinical studies in Ethiopia. It has been one of the first IRBs to get WHO/SIDCER recognition from Africa and Ethiopia. Important factors in the successes of the IRB among others included leadership commitment, its placement in institutional structure, and continued capacity building. Financial challenges and sustainability issues need to be addressed for the sustained gains registered so far. Similar factors are considered important for the new and younger IRBs within the emergent Universities and research centers in the country.

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 38: Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) and the communication of technical information in aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Daniel J.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of computers as a medium for communication (CMC) used by aerospace engineers and scientists to obtain and/or provide technical information related to research and development activities. The data were obtained from a questionnaire survey that yielded 1006 mail responses. In addition to communication media, the research also investigates degrees of task uncertainty, environmental complexity, and other relevant variables that can affect aerospace workers' information-seeking strategies. While findings indicate that many individuals report CMC is an important function in their communication patterns, the research indicates that CMC is used less often and deemed less valuable than other more conventional media, such as paper documents, group meetings, telephone and face-to-face conversations. Fewer than one third of the individuals in the survey account for nearly eighty percent of the reported CMC use, and another twenty percent indicate they do not use the medium at all, its availability notwithstanding. These preliminary findings suggest that CMC is not as pervasive a communication medium among aerospace workers as the researcher expect a priori. The reasons underlying the reported media use are not yet fully known, and this suggests that continuing research in this area may be valuable.

  9. Tendencias actuales de citación en los trabajos de investigación filosófica Modern referencing trends in philosophical research papers

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Muñoz-Alonso López

    2006-01-01

    El artículo propone unificar los criterios para citar y elaborar bibliografías en la investigación en filosofía y en ciencias humanas. Se analizan las ventajas y los inconvenientes del sistema tradicional y del sistema Harvard.The paper attempts to unify criteria for referencing documents and elaborating bibliographies in philosophy and human sciences research. The advantages and disadvantages of the Harvard system are confronted with more traditional methods.

  10. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  11. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  12. The development of educational for CA-RP (Cognitive Apprenticeeship-based Research Paper) to improve the research capabilities for majors students of radiological technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Chung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Byung Sam; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Hwan; Lyu, Kwang Yeul [Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    In the medical field, the necessity of education growth for the professional Radiation Technologists has been emphasized to become experts on radiation and the radiation field is important of the society. Also, in hospitals and companies, important on thesis is getting higher in order to active and cope with rapidly changing internal and external environment and a more in-depth expert training, the necessity of new teaching and learning model that can cope with changes in a more proactive has become. Thesis writing classes brought limits to the in-depth learning as to start a semester and rely on only specific programs besides, inevitable on passive participation. In addition, it does not have a variety opportunity to present, an actual opportunity that can be written and discussed does not provide much caused by instructor-led classes. As well as, it has had a direct impact on the quality of the thesis, furthermore, having the opportunity to participate in various conferences showed the limitations. In order to solve these problems, in this study, writing thesis has organized training operations as a consistent gradual deepening of learning, at the same time, the operational idea was proposed based on the connectivity integrated operating and effective training program and instructional tool for improving the ability to perform the written actual thesis. The development of teaching and learning model consisted of 4 system modeling, scaffolding, articulation, exploration. Depending on the nature of the course, consisting team following the personal interest and the topic allow for connection subject, based on this, promote research capacity through a step-by-step evaluation and feedback and, fundamentally strengthen problem-solving skills through the journal studies, help not only solving the real-time problem by taking wiki-space but also efficient use of time, increase the quality of the thesis by activating cooperation through mentoring, as a result, it was to

  13. The development of educational for CA-RP (Cognitive Apprenticeeship-based Research Paper) to improve the research capabilities for majors students of radiological technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Chung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Yun Hee; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Byung Sam; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Hwan; Lyu, Kwang Yeul

    2013-01-01

    In the medical field, the necessity of education growth for the professional Radiation Technologists has been emphasized to become experts on radiation and the radiation field is important of the society. Also, in hospitals and companies, important on thesis is getting higher in order to active and cope with rapidly changing internal and external environment and a more in-depth expert training, the necessity of new teaching and learning model that can cope with changes in a more proactive has become. Thesis writing classes brought limits to the in-depth learning as to start a semester and rely on only specific programs besides, inevitable on passive participation. In addition, it does not have a variety opportunity to present, an actual opportunity that can be written and discussed does not provide much caused by instructor-led classes. As well as, it has had a direct impact on the quality of the thesis, furthermore, having the opportunity to participate in various conferences showed the limitations. In order to solve these problems, in this study, writing thesis has organized training operations as a consistent gradual deepening of learning, at the same time, the operational idea was proposed based on the connectivity integrated operating and effective training program and instructional tool for improving the ability to perform the written actual thesis. The development of teaching and learning model consisted of 4 system modeling, scaffolding, articulation, exploration. Depending on the nature of the course, consisting team following the personal interest and the topic allow for connection subject, based on this, promote research capacity through a step-by-step evaluation and feedback and, fundamentally strengthen problem-solving skills through the journal studies, help not only solving the real-time problem by taking wiki-space but also efficient use of time, increase the quality of the thesis by activating cooperation through mentoring, as a result, it was to

  14. Health literacy in the "oral exchange": an important element of patient-provider communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Sarah S; Rudd, Rima E

    2015-05-01

    Oral communication between health care providers and patients--the "oral exchange"--greatly impacts patient health outcomes; however, only recently have health literacy inquiries been incorporated into this field. This review examines the intersection between oral and aural literacy and the oral exchange. A systematic literature search was carried out. Papers published in English since 2003 that specifically examine oral/aural literacy and oral patient-provider communication were included. The search yielded 999 articles, 12 of which were included in this review. Three tools have been developed to measure either patient or provider oral/aural literacy. There is a discrepancy between patient and provider oral/aural literacy levels, and high literacy demand is associated with reduced patient learning. Low patient oral/aural literacy is associated with poor health outcomes. Two interventions have been developed to reduce literacy demand. This review demonstrates the critical role of oral and aural literacy in the oral exchange, the importance of reducing literacy demand, and the need for future research in this field. Recommendations include the use of plain language and teach-back by providers, as well as incorporation of awareness of oral and aural literacy into community programs and health care provider education and training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Probiotics as oral health biotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shyamali; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Tabrizian, Maryam; Prakash, Satya

    2012-09-01

    Oral health is affected by its resident microorganisms. Three prominent oral disorders are dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis, with the oral microbiota playing a key role in the initiation/progression of all three. Understanding the microbiota and the diseases they may cause is critical to the development of new therapeutics. This review is focused on probiotics for the prevention and/or treatment of oral diseases. This review describes the oral ecosystem and its correlation with oral health/disease. The pathogenesis and current prevention/treatment strategies of periodontal diseases (PD) and dental caries (DC) are depicted. An introduction of probiotics is followed by an analysis of their role in PD and DC, and their potential role(s) in oral health. Finally, a discussion ensues on the future research directions and limitations of probiotics for oral health. An effective oral probiotic formulation should contribute to the prevention/treatment of microbial diseases of the oral cavity. Understanding the oral microbiota's role in oral disease is important for the development of a therapeutic to prevent/treat dental diseases. However, investigations into clinical efficacy, delivery/dose optimization, mechanism(s) of action and other related parameters are yet to be fully explored. Keeping this in mind, investigations into oral probiotic therapies are proving promising.

  16. Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, however, I argue for a different kind of approach, one which holds that there is a useful distinction to be drawn between the metaphysical and epistemological aspects of singular terms. This approach not only avoids the problems faced by alternative accounts but also coheres well with how ordinary speakers ...

  17. Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philosophical Papers is a generalist journal of philosophy edited in the Department of Philosophy at Rhodes University. The journal appears three times a year; the November issue of every year is topic-based and guest-edited. The journal is published by Routledge (Taylor & Francis). Information regarding submissions ...

  18. Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other minds skeptic supposes there may be no minds other than his. The external world skeptic thinks there could be no world external to him. Some philosophers think a person can refute the skeptic and prove that his world is not the solitary scenario the skeptic supposes his could be. In this paper I examine one ...

  19. Assessing the questionnaires on perceived oral healthcare need: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Yaghoubi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Perception of the need for oral healthcare plays a key role in creating motivation and demand for utilization of oral healthcare services. Furthermore, while the lack of resources, people with perceived needs to oral healthcare, due to the higher profit potential of services, will be on higher priority for services. The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review of the existing literature about questionnaires used for assessing the perceived oral healthcare needs. METHODS: The search was conducted in PubMed, ISI and Scopus databases in March 2016. Questionnaire-based and the papers which aimed to determine the perceived need for any type of oral healthcare and dental treatment were included to this study. After determining the appropriate papers, related data were extracted and reviewed. RESULTS: Out of 7069 records found, 190 questionnaire-based papers were included in the review. Ninety-four papers were related to the overall evaluation of oral healthcare need, which did not ask the need for types of oral healthcare service. Sixty-six papers studied the need for a specified dental service, and thirty papers recorded the types of oral healthcare service via asking the open or multiple choices questions. There were not comprehensive and standard questionnaires covering all the common types of oral healthcare services. CONCLUSION: Despite the importance of considering the perception of needs for oral healthcare, there is a lack of the comprehensive and standard questionnaires. Studies aimed to assess perceived oral healthcare needs should use questionnaires which include appropriate items on common types of oral healthcare services based on the characteristics of the target group. Concordance with perceived and normative need is an issue that should be addressed in future researches.

  20. Supporting rural remote physicians to conduct a study and write a paper: experience of Clinical Research Support Team (CRST)-Jichi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, S; Ohkuchi, A; Kamesaki, T; Ishikawa, S; Nakamura, Y; Matsumoto, M

    2014-01-01

    Jichi Medical University (JMU) is the only medical school in Japan that is devoted solely to producing rural and remote doctors. To support research activities of its graduates, mainly young graduates under obligatory rural service, JMU established a voluntary team, Clinical Research Support Team (CRST)-Jichi. CRST-Jichi consists of current and past JMU faculty members; all of them are specialists of certain medical fields and many are also graduates of JMU who have completed rural service. A client who asks the CRST for advice on study design or editing a paper emails the CRST to ask for support in conducting a study. Then, core members of the CRST assign the job to a registered specialist of the corresponding topic, who becomes a 'responsible supporter' and continues to support the client until a paper has been published. During the 3 years from July 2010, 12 English papers have been published in international peer-review journals, two Japanese papers in domestic journals, and 13 studies are in progress. Ninety-one percent of clients were satisfied with the service, and eighty-two percent considered their papers would not have been published if they had not used the service. Sense of commitment, existence of JMU-graduated specialists, and quick response were reported by clients as major strengths of CRST-Jichi. The experience of CRST-Jichi can potentially be transferred to not only other Japanese medical schools with rural doctor production programs, which are now rapidly increasing as part of a national policy, but also rural medical education systems in other countries.

  1. Sizewell papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A collection of papers, previously published in the New Scientist between September 1980 and January 1983, dealing with the pressurised water reactor and in particular the proposal by CEGB to build a PWR at Sizewell, Suffolk, is presented. The individual papers are entitled: American reactors are wrong for Britain; Britain's first pressurised-water reactor; a test bed for nuclear safety; the pressure on nuclear safety; Suffolk - a soft touch for PWRs; why Britain needs a PWR; critical time for Sizewell's reactor; why Britain does not need a PWR; a reactor designed for Sizewell; a case not proven; lessons from Three Mile Island; how France went nuclear; an environmentalist's case for the Sizewell PWR. (U.K.)

  2. Design paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Petersen, Lone; Timmermann, Michael

    2007-01-01

    on depressive symptoms. However, a meta-analysis from 2001 stated: "The effectiveness of exercise in reducing symptoms of depression cannot be determined because of a lack of good quality research on clinical populations with adequate follow-up." OBJECTIVES: The major objective for this randomized trial...

  3. Viewpoint Paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It reveals how social learning brings about deep meaning as students ... that some participants had, as a result of the action research project, been able to emerge from the culture of ... Poor education that places great importance on passing the final examination (Lesotho ... multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary learning.

  4. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Washio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  5. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  6. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and oral parafunctions in urban Saudi arabian adolescents: a research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feteih Rabab M

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and oral parafunction habits among Saudi adolescents in the permanent dentition stage. Methods A total of 385 (230 females and 155 males school children age 12–16, completed a questionnaire and were examined clinically. A stratified selection technique was used for schools allocation. Results The results showed that 21.3% of the subjects exhibited at least one sign of TMD and females were generally more affected than males. Joint sounds were the most prevalent sign (13.5% followed by restricted opening (4.7% and opening deviation (3.9%. The amplitude of mouth opening, overbite taken into consideration, was 46.5 mm and 50.2 mm in females and males respectively. TMJ pain and muscle tenderness were rare (0.5%. Reported symptoms were 33%, headache being the most frequent symptom 22%, followed by pain during chewing 14% and hearing TMJ noises 8.7%. Difficulty during jaw opening and jaw locking were rare. Lip/cheek biting was the most common parafunction habit (41% with females significantly more than males, followed by nail biting (29%. Bruxism and thumb sucking were only 7.4% and 7.8% respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of TMD signs were 21.3% with joint sounds being the most prevalent sign. While TMD symptoms were found to be 33% as, with headache being the most prevalent. Among the oral parafunctions, lip/cheek biting was the most prevalent 41% followed by nail biting 29%.

  7. Oral perfomances in a (post-) literate society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfratello, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The attempt of the present paper is to introduce the following question: How is it possible to still talk about “oral performances” in a literate, indeed “postliterate” society? In order to stress the relevance of such a topic, I will examine some achievements in research fields both dealing...... with literary studies and musicological enquiry. Taking into account some instances of oral musical traditions gathered during ethnomusicological fieldwork, e.g. the singing of mandinàdhes (couplets of improvised rhymed verses) from Crete and the Byzantine liturgical chant of the Albanians of Sicily, I...... will analyse the process both of (re)writing a poetic-formulaic tradition by adapting itself to the modern multimedia technology (i.e. the “media literate poets” case on Crete) and developing techniques of oral safeguarding without the usage of musical notation (i.e. the case of the Sicilian-Albanian community...

  8. STUDENT PLANNING TIME IN ORAL TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangLei

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the process of planning in an oral test situation. Since many researchers have studied the impact of pretask planning in the Second Language Acquisition (SLA) field and some have explored the same subject into the area of oral tests, the present study tries to make a tentative attempt to see what the test takers are actually doing in the planning time while taking an oral test. A questionnaire was designed with the effort to find out whether planning time results in an increased focus on form, particularly at the level of strategic attention to form.The result of the investigation tells us that restricted by the type of situation, test takers can only plan the framework of what they are going to say, which may differ to the results achieved by previous studies.

  9. Thermopressure hydrolysis. Paper; Thermodruckhydrolyse. Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, R. [Scheuchl GmbH, Ortenburg (Germany); Prechtl, S. [Applikations- und Technikzentrum fuer Energieverfahrens-, Umwelt- und Stroemungstechnik (ATZ-EVUS), Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents a processing method which consists in thermal hydrolysis and subsequent anaerobic fermentation and is especially well suited for wet, low-structure organic wastes. [German] Das vorgestellte Verwertungsverfahren bestehend aus thermischer Hydrolyse und anschliessender anaerober Vergaerung eignet sich besonders fuer nasse, strukturarme organische Abfaelle. (orig.)

  10. The British research evidence for recovery, papers published between 2006 and 2009 (inclusive). Part two: a review of the grey literature including book chapters and policy documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Wright, N

    2011-05-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two which reviews the current UK evidence base for recovery in mental health. As outlined in the previous paper, over the last 4 years a vast amount has written about recovery in mental health (approximately 60% of all articles). Whereas the first review focused on the peer-reviewed evidence; this paper specifically focuses on the grey/non-peer-reviewed literature. In total, our search strategy yielded the following: 3 books, a further 11 book chapters, 12 papers, 6 policy documents and 3 publications from voluntary sector organizations. Each group of publications was analysed for content, and they are discursively presented by publication group. The findings are then presented as themes in the discussion section. The themes are: social, historical and political critique; philosophy of hope for the individual; individual identity and narrative; models and guidance for mental health practice. We conclude that there is a need for both empirical research into recovery and a clearer theoretical exposition of the concept. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  11. Papers presented as part of the status report of the Nuclear Safety Research Project of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Center on 23 March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1994-05-01

    The ten papers deal with the state of safety requirements on future LWR plants and with nuclear safety research with regard to fast reactors and future PWR plants. In particular, passive after-heat removal, core disruptive accidents, and actinide burning in fast reactors are analysed. For PWR type plants the fuel element behaviour in the event of accidents, hydrogen distribution and hydrogen fires, and the origin and effects of steam explosions on the reactor pressure vessel and the containment are examined. Core meltdown cooling systems are suggested. (DG) [de

  12. Do You Kiss Your Mother with That Mouth? An Authentic Large-Scale Undergraduate Research Experience in Mapping the Human Oral Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack T.H. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical microbiology testing is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of community and hospital-acquired infections. Laboratory scientists need to utilize technical and problem-solving skills to select from a wide array of microbial identification techniques. The inquiry-driven laboratory training required to prepare microbiology graduates for this professional environment can be difficult to replicate within undergraduate curricula, especially in courses that accommodate large student cohorts. We aimed to improve undergraduate scientific training by engaging hundreds of introductory microbiology students in an Authentic Large-Scale Undergraduate Research Experience (ALURE. The ALURE aimed to characterize the microorganisms that reside in the healthy human oral cavity—the oral microbiome—by analyzing hundreds of samples obtained from student volunteers within the course. Students were able to choose from selective and differential culture media, Gram-staining, microscopy, as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, in order to collect, analyze, and interpret novel data to determine the collective oral microbiome of the student cohort. Pre- and postsurvey analysis of student learning gains across two iterations of the course (2012–2013 revealed significantly higher student confidence in laboratory skills following the completion of the ALURE (p < 0.05 using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Learning objectives on effective scientific communication were also met through effective student performance in laboratory reports describing the research outcomes of the project. The integration of undergraduate research in clinical microbiology has the capacity to deliver authentic research experiences and improve scientific training for large cohorts of undergraduate students. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques

  13. Scientific authorship and collaboration network analysis on malaria research in Benin: papers indexed in the web of science (1996-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azondekon, Roseric; Harper, Zachary James; Agossa, Fiacre Rodrigue; Welzig, Charles Michael; McRoy, Susan

    2018-01-01

    To sustain the critical progress made, prioritization and a multidisciplinary approach to malaria research remain important to the national malaria control program in Benin. To document the structure of the malaria collaborative research in Benin, we analyze authorship of the scientific documents published on malaria from Benin. We collected bibliographic data from the Web Of Science on malaria research in Benin from January 1996 to December 2016. From the collected data, a mulitigraph co-authorship network with authors representing vertices was generated. An edge was drawn between two authors when they co-author a paper. We computed vertex degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvectors among others to identify prolific authors. We further assess the weak points and how information flow in the network. Finally, we perform a hierarchical clustering analysis, and Monte-Carlo simulations. Overall, 427 publications were included in this study. The generated network contained 1792 authors and 116,388 parallel edges which converted in a weighted graph of 1792 vertices and 95,787 edges. Our results suggested that prolific authors with higher degrees tend to collaborate more. The hierarchical clustering revealed 23 clusters, seven of which form a giant component containing 94% of all the vertices in the network. This giant component has all the characteristics of a small-world network with a small shortest path distance between pairs of three, a diameter of 10 and a high clustering coefficient of 0.964. However, Monte-Carlo simulations suggested our observed network is an unusual type of small-world network. Sixteen vertices were identified as weak articulation points within the network. The malaria research collaboration network in Benin is a complex network that seems to display the characteristics of a small-world network. This research reveals the presence of closed research groups where collaborative research likely happens only between members. Interdisciplinary

  14. [Healthcare research in forensic commitment or poking around in the dark : Consensus paper on the necessity for more uniform and better data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querengässer, J; Bezzel, A; Hoffmann, K; Mache, W; Schiffer, B

    2017-11-01

    Complex trends in occupancy determined by many influencing factors, clear state-specific differences in imprisonment practices as well as recently implemented statutory alterations to the appropriate paragraphs in criminal law, underline the necessity for qualitative high-grade concomitant research of German forensic commitment; however, neither the structural prerequisites nor an adequate data situation are currently present in order to do justification to this aim. Not even the total number of patients currently accommodated in forensic commitment can be elucidated from the publicized (partial) statistics. This consensus paper, which was formulated by three research institutes active at the state level, describes the limited possibilities for current forensic healthcare research and raises the demand for a nationwide uniform data situation on patients in forensic commitment. Furthermore, how the appropriate elicitation instrument should be organizationally and structurally achieved, is sketched from a scientific perspective. This article aims at initiating a discussion on a sustainable improvement in the prerequisites for healthcare research in German forensic commitment and targets a sensitization of decision makers in politics and administration for this topic.

  15. Oral Health Condition of Children Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Spillere Rovaris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AIDS progression is faster in children than adults. Little is known about the oral health status of children living with HIV. Aim: To carry out a literature review about the oral health conditions of children living with HIV in order to observe if this specific population presents different oral health conditions compared to children without HIV infection. Methods: A documental study of literature review was carried out. Studies were searched at PubMed using “oral health”, “children”, “HIV” and “AIDS” as keywords. Papers published between 2001 and 2011 were included. After applying the exclusion criteria and complete reading of the selected studies, other articles were selected from the references lists of the first ones. Results: Firstly, 24 studies were identified. Among them, 65.5% were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. From the five selected articles, another five from the references of these were included. Only one article compared the oral health conditions of children living with HIV with controls without HIV infection. Conclusions: Only 10 papers contained information on the oral health conditions of children living with HIV, and just one compared the results with controls. The few studies found were insufficient to establish the oral health condition profile of children living with HIV. This lack of information could represent the lack of interest of researchers and health authorities in more integrative care and can result in neglect with this specific population of children.

  16. Research in Science Education. Volume 21. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (22nd, Surfers Paradise, Queensland, Australia, July 11-14, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This annual publication contains 43 research papers on a variety of issues related to science education. Topics include the following: mature-age students; teacher professional development; spreadsheets and science instruction; the Learning in Science Project and putting it into practice; science discipline knowledge in primary teacher education;…

  17. Multipurpose research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The international symposium on the utilization of multipurpose research reactors and related international co-operation was organized by the IAEA to provide for information exchange on current uses of research reactors and international co-operative projects. The symposium was attended by about 140 participants from 36 countries and two international organizations. There were 49 oral presentations of papers and 24 poster presentations. The presentations were divided into 7 sessions devoted to the following topics: neutron beam research and applications of neutron scattering (6 papers and 1 poster), reactor engineering (6 papers and 5 posters), irradiation testing of fuel and material for fission and fusion reactors (6 papers and 10 posters), research reactor utilization programmes (13 papers and 4 posters), neutron capture therapy (4 papers), neutron activation analysis (3 papers and 4 posters), application of small reactors in research and training (11 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Conference Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A total of 18 papers were presented at the 2003 Annual Executive Conference of the Canadian Gas Association held at St. Andrews, NB, from June 25th to June 28th. Titles of the presentations were as follows: (1) 'Positioning natural gas in a transforming world' by Pierre Marcel Desjardins; (2) 'Positioning natural gas in a transforming world' by Jean-Paul Theoret; (3) 'Perceptions of natural gas' by Noel Sampson; (4) 'Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry' by Peter Love; (5) 'Natural gas R and D - NRCan perspective' by Graham R. Campbell; (6) 'Impact of earned media on corporate perceptions in the gas industry' by Michael Coates; (7) 'Moving forward with an initiative for natural gas technology innovation' by Emmanuel Morin; (8) 'Natural gas R and D - No more dodging the issue' by Chuck Szmurlo; (9) 'Meeting the technology needs of the gas industry and the gas consumer' by Stanley S. Borys; (10) 'Market signals' by John Wellard; (11) 'Future sources of Canadian natural gas' by Rick Hyndman; (12) 'The state of supply: Northeast U.S. perspective' by Tom Kiley; (13) 'AGA's priorities and perspectives' by Dick Reiten; (14) 'Global energy issues: Recent development in policy and business' by Gerald Doucet; (15) 'Keeping the distribution cart behind the horse: Why finding more offshore gas is much more important than completing the natural gas grid, including for New Brunswick' by Brian Lee Crowley; (16) 'Environmental opportunities and challenges for the gas industry' by Manfred Klein; (17) 'The potential for natural gas demand destruction' by Timothy Partridge; and (18) 'Pushing the envelope on gas supply' by Roland R. George. In most instances only speaking notes and view graphs are available

  19. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information...... been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health...... programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 28: The technical communication practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communication practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions; second, to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of the undergraduate course in technical communication; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to Russian aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) and to their U.S. counterparts at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Russian and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 41: Technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists: International perspective on aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The studies had the following objectives: (1) to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions, (2) to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists, (3) to investigate their use of libraries and technical information centers, (4) to investigate their use of and the importance to them of computer and information technology, (5) to examine their use of electronic networks, and (6) to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. Self-administered (mail) questionnaires were distributed to Dutch aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR) in the Netherlands, the NASA Ames Research Center in the U.S., and the NASA Langley Research Center in the U.S. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  2. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Foundation Research and Fellowship Awards: A 26-Year Review at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard School of Dental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverso, Gino; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; Kaban, Leonard B

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to review outcomes of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMS) Foundation's funding awards to members of the OMS department at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in terms of projects completed, abstracts presented, peer-reviewed publications, and career trajectories of recipients. Data were collected from MGH and OMS Foundation records and interviews with award recipients. Primary outcome variables included 1) number of awards and award types, 2) funding amount, 3) project completion, 4) number of presented abstracts, 5) conversion from abstracts to publications, 6) number of peer-reviewed publications, 7) career trajectories of awardees, and 8) additional extramural funding. Eleven Student Research Training Awards provided $135,000 for 39 projects conducted by 37 students. Of these, 34 (87.2%) were completed. There were 30 student abstracts presented, 21 peer-reviewed publications, and a publication conversion rate of 58.8%. Faculty research awards comprised $1,510,970 for 22 research projects by 12 faculty members and two research fellows. Of the 22 funded projects, 21 (95.5%) were completed. There were 110 faculty and research fellow abstracts presented and 113 peer-reviewed publications, for a publication conversion rate of 93.8%. In the student group, 17 of 37 (45.9%) are enrolled in or are applying for OMS residencies. Of the 10 students who have completed OMS training, 3 (30%) are in full-time academic positions. Of the 12 faculty recipients, 9 (75%) remain in OMS academic practice. During this time period, the department received $9.9 million of extramural foundation or National Institutes of Health funding directly or indirectly related to the OMS Foundation grants. The results of this study indicate that 90.2% of projects funded by the OMS Foundation have been completed. Most projects resulted in abstracts and publications in peer-reviewed journals. These grants encouraged students to pursue OMS careers and aided OMS

  3. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  4. Harnessing Technology to Assess Oral Communication in Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tal; Gertler, Hedy

    2015-01-01

    Assessing oral skills in relatively large Business English classes seems a most formidable task for any teacher. How does one make sure to get multiple and valid assessments of each student? This action research paper provides supporting evidence for the correlation between the use of technology and students' engagement. This was achieved by…

  5. Ethnicity and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Bedi, R

    2000-09-01

    Oral squamous-cell carcinoma, the main type of oral cancer, is among the ten most common cancers in the world. The aims of this paper were first, to consider whether there was evidence of marked ethnic variations in the incidence, management, and survival of oral cancer, and then, to review possible explanations for these variations. Evidence from the literature suggests that there is marked, inter-country variation in both the incidence and mortality from oral cancer. There is also growing evidence of intracountry ethnic differences, mostly reported in the UK and USA. These variations among ethnic groups have been attributed mainly to specific risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco (smoking and smokeless), but dietary factors and the existence of genetic predispositions may also play a part. Variations in access to care services are also an apparent factor. The extent of ethnic differences in oral cancer is masked by the scarcity of information available. Where such data are accessible, there are clear disparities in both incidence and mortality of oral cancer between ethnic groups.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The attitudes and behaviours of oral health service providers towards their own oral .... Forty-four respondents (84.6%) perceived their own dental health to be good (n=27 ..... cultural norms that influence students' attitudes and oral health practices, is an important ... of dental students from four Asian countries. Saudi J Dent ...

  7. Papers presented at the Fourteenth International conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. Organization International de la Energia Atomica Wuerzberg, Alemania 30 September - 7 October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the contributions of the CIEMAT's Fusion Unit to the 14th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research that was held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Wuerzberg, Germany from 30 September to 7 October 1992. Three papers were presented that summarized the, main lines of work done in the Unit during the previous two years: The first one on the theoretical advances in the understanding of the Fexible Heliac TJ-II under construction, the second on the confinement studies performed in the operating TJ-I Tokamak and the third one on the description of the physical properties of the soon to be started TJ-IU Torsatron. (Author) 25 refs

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 33: Technical communications practices and the use of information technologies as reported by Dutch and US aerospace engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Tan, Axel S. T.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (The Netherlands), and NASA ARC (U.S.), and NASA LaRC (U.S.). This paper presents responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions concerning four of the seven project objectives: determining the importance of technical communications to aerospace engineering professionals, investigating the production of technical communications, examining the use and importance of computer and information technology, and exploring the use of electronic networks.

  9. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  11. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  12. Systematic review of basic oral care for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Deborah B; Fulton, Janet S; Park, Jumin; Brown, Carlton G; Correa, M Elvira P; Eilers, June; Elad, Sharon; Gibson, Faith; Oberle-Edwards, Loree K; Bowen, Joanne; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate research in basic oral care interventions to update evidence-based practice guidelines for preventing and treating oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients undergoing radio- or chemotherapy. A systematic review of available literature was conducted by the Basic Oral Care Section of the Mucositis Study Group of MASCC/ISOO. Seven interventions--oral care protocols, dental care, normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, mixed medication mouthwash, chlorhexidine, and calcium phosphate--were evaluated using the Hadorn (J Clin Epidemiol 49:749-754, 1996) criteria to determine level of evidence, followed by a guideline determination of one of the following: recommendation, suggestion, or no guideline possible, using Somerfield's (Classic Pap Cur Comments 4:881-886, 2000) schema. Fifty-two published papers were examined by treatment population (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant) and by whether the intervention aimed to prevent or treat OM. The resulting practice suggestions included using oral care protocols for preventing OM across all treatment modalities and age groups and not using chlorhexidine mouthwash for preventing OM in adults with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Considering inadequate and/or conflicting evidence, no guidelines for prevention or treatment of OM were possible for the interventions of dental care, normal saline, sodium bicarbonate, mixed medication mouthwash, chlorhexidine in patients receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or calcium phosphate. The evidence for basic oral care interventions supports the use of oral care protocols in patient populations receiving radiation and/or chemotherapy and does not support chlorhexidine for prevention of mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Additional well-designed research is needed for other interventions to improve the amount and quality of evidence guiding future clinical

  13. The intellectual contribution of laboratory medicine professionals to research papers on laboratory medicine topics published in high-impact general medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Pedro Medina; Nydegger, Urs; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz

    2012-03-01

    An author is generally regarded as an individual "who has made substantial intellectual academic contributions to a published study". However, the extent of the contribution that laboratory medicine professionals have made as authors of research papers in high-impact medical journals remains unclear. From 1 January 2004 to 31 March 2009, 4837 original research articles appeared in the: New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA and BMJ. Using authorship as an indicator of intellectual contribution, we analyzed articles that included laboratory medicine parameters in their titles in an observational cross-sectional study. We also extracted data regarding radiological topics that were published during the same time within the same journals. Out of 481 articles concerning laboratory medicine topics, 380 provided information on the affiliations of the authors. At least one author from an institution within the field of laboratory medicine was listed in 212 articles (55.8%). Out of 3943 co-authors, only 756 (19.2%) were affiliated with laboratory medicine institutions. Authors from laboratory medicine institutions were listed as the first, last or corresponding authors in 99 articles (26.1%). The comparative proportions for author affiliation from 55 radiology articles were significantly higher, as 72.7% (p=0.026) of articles and 24.8% (p=0.001) of authors indicated an affiliation with a radiology institution. Radiology professionals from 72.7% of the articles were listed as either the first, last or corresponding authors (pgeneral medicine journals.

  14. On the Criticality of Interdisciplinary Communications for Continued Scholarly Research, and the Potential Applicability of the Case Studies Methodology (Invited Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Dunne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the prevalence and effectiveness of interdisciplinary communication/collaboration is not a simple matter, but has significant benefits to offer. Ironically, one of the greatest challenges, namely the diversity in perspectives and contributor nature, provides one of its most significant payoffs. Diversity in backgrounds, skills, knowledge, and approaches promotes ingenuity and creativity, and is a powerful source of innovation. But perhaps more importantly, effective interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for applying forefront research to the most challenging societal problems. This reflection paper describes a line of reasoning for why effective interdisciplinary collaboration skills have emerged as an essential, and yet largely neglected, requirement for maintaining the development and relevance of scholarly research. It outlines challenges that must be overcome in meeting this requirement, important factors for addressing those challenges, and concludes by discussing the applicability of the case methodology, as introduced at the 2014 International Multi-Conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics, as a mechanism for training people to become effective participants in interdisciplinary endeavors.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 36: Technical uncertainty as a correlate of information use by US industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Nanci A.; Affelder, Linda O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an exploratory study that investigated the influence of technical uncertainty on the use of information and information sources by U.S. industry-affiliated aerospace engineers and scientists in completing or solving a project, task, or problem. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Survey participants were U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists whose names appeared on the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) mailing list. The results support the findings of previous research and the following study assumptions. Information and information-source use differ for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty. As technical uncertainty increases, information-source use changes from internal to external and from informal to formal sources. As technical uncertainty increases, so too does the use of federally funded aerospace research and development (R&D). The use of formal information sources to learn about federally funded aerospace R&D differs for projects, problems, and tasks with high and low technical uncertainty.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 58; Survey of Reader Preferences Concerning the Format of NASA Langley-Authored Technical Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. Little is also known about the intermediary-based system that is used to transfer the results of federally funded R&D to the U.S. aerospace industry. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this paper, we summarize the literature on the U.S. government technical report and present the results of a survey of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that solicited their opinions concerning the format of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)-authored technical reports. To learn more about the preferences of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the format of NASA LaRC-authored technical reports, we surveyed 133 report producers (i.e., authors) and 137 report users in March-April 1996. Questions covered such topics as (1) the order in which report components are read, (2) components used to determine if a report would be read, (3) those components that could be deleted, (4) the placement of such components as the symbols list, (e) the de-sirability of a table of contents, (5) the format of reference citations, (6) column layout and right margin treatment, and (7) and person and voice. Mail (self-reported) surveys were used to collect the data. The response rates for report producers (i.e., authors) was 68% and for users was 62%.

  17. Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Mancl, Kimberly A.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Ajdic, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque,are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible, thus biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well-elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relati...

  18. La salud oral en la dentición primaria: (II) Estudio sobre la maloclusión y otras anomalías orales en una muestra de 441 niños de Vigo Oral health in temporary dentition: (II) Research about malocclusion and other oral anomalies in 441 child sample from Vigo

    OpenAIRE

    IM Iglesias Parada

    2003-01-01

    La intención de este estudio, que se dividió en tres partes, es valorar la salud oral en los niños de Vigo con dentición primaria. En esta segunda parte se estudian la prevalencia de la maloclusión y otras anomalías orales. MUESTRA: 441 niños entre los 14 y 92 meses de edad (edad media S9,6 meses), todos ellos con dentición primaria al inicio del estudio. RESULTADOS: (precisión de ±4,6% para una seguridad del 9S%) el 90,92% de la muestra es ortognática, el 8,17% es retrognática y el 0,91 es p...

  19. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    1989-01-01

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  20. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001