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Sample records for research observations milagro

  1. THE LARGE-SCALE COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPY AS OBSERVED WITH MILAGRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Allen, B. T.; Chen, C.; Aune, T.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J. A.; Hopper, B.; Lansdell, C. P.; Casanova, S.; Dingus, B. L.; Hoffman, C. M.; Huentemeyer, P. H.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, R.; Kolterman, B. E.; Mincer, A. I.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Linnemann, J. T.; McEnery, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented of a harmonic analysis of the large-scale cosmic-ray (CR) anisotropy as observed by the Milagro observatory. We show a two-dimensional display of the sidereal anisotropy projections in right ascension (R.A.) generated by the fitting of three harmonics to 18 separate declination bands. The Milagro observatory is a water Cherenkov detector located in the Jemez mountains near Los Alamos, New Mexico. With a high duty cycle and large field of view, Milagro is an excellent instrument for measuring this anisotropy with high sensitivity at TeV energies. The analysis is conducted using a seven-year data sample consisting of more than 95 billion events, the largest such data set in existence. We observe an anisotropy with a magnitude around 0.1% for CRs with a median energy of 6 TeV. The dominant feature is a deficit region of depth (2.49 ± 0.02 stat. ± 0.09 sys.) x10 -3 in the direction of the Galactic north pole centered at 189 deg R.A. We observe a steady increase in the magnitude of the signal over seven years.

  2. Determination of particulate lead using aerosol mass spectrometry: MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, D.; Onasch, T. B.; Aiken, A. C.; Williams, L. R.; de Foy, B.; Cubison, M. J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Molina, L. T.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2010-06-01

    We report the first measurements of particulate lead (Pb) from Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers, which were deployed in and around Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)/Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006) field campaigns. The high resolution mass spectrometer of one of the AMS instruments (HR-AMS) and the measured isotopic ratios unequivocally prove the detection of Pb in ambient particles. A substantial fraction of the lead evaporated slowly from the vaporizer of the instruments, which is indicative of species with low volatility at 600 °C. A model was developed in order to estimate the ambient particulate Pb entering the AMS from the signals in the "open" and the "closed" (or "background") mass spectrum modes of the AMS. The model suggests the presence of at least two lead fractions with ~25% of the Pb signal exhibiting rapid evaporation (1/e decay constant, τPEMEX site). From laboratory experiments with pure Pb(NO3)2 particles, we estimated that the Pb ionization efficiency relative to nitrate (RIEPb) is 0.5. Comparison of time series of AMS Pb with other measurements carried out at the T0 supersite during MILAGRO (using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and single-particle counts from an Aerosol Time-of-Fight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS)) shows similar levels (for PIXE and ICP-MS) and substantial correlation. During part of the campaign, sampling at T0 was alternated every 10 min with an Aerosol Concentrator, which enabled the detection of signals for PbCl+ and PbS+ ions. PbS+ displays the signature of a slowly evaporating species, while PbCl+ appears to arise only from fast evaporation, which is likely due to the higher vapor pressure of the compounds generating PbCl+. This is consistent with the evaporation model results. Levels of particulate Pb measured at T0 were similar to previous studies in Mexico City. Pb shows a diurnal cycle

  3. MILAGRO OBSERVATIONS OF MULTI-TeV EMISSION FROM GALACTIC SOURCES IN THE FERMI BRIGHT SOURCE LIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Linnemann, J. T.; Allen, B. T.; Chen, C.; Aune, T.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J. A.; Christopher, G. E.; Kolterman, B. E.; Mincer, A. I.; Nemethy, P.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Hoffman, C. M.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Huentemeyer, P. H.; Morgan, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present the result of a search of the Milagro sky map for spatial correlations with sources from a subset of the recent Fermi Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL consists of the 205 most significant sources detected above 100 MeV by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We select sources based on their categorization in the BSL, taking all confirmed or possible Galactic sources in the field of view of Milagro. Of the 34 Fermi sources selected, 14 are observed by Milagro at a significance of 3 standard deviations or more. We conduct this search with a new analysis which employs newly optimized gamma-hadron separation and utilizes the full eight-year Milagro data set. Milagro is sensitive to gamma rays with energy from 1 to 100 TeV with a peak sensitivity from 10 to 50 TeV depending on the source spectrum and declination. These results extend the observation of these sources far above the Fermi energy band. With the new analysis and additional data, multi-TeV emission is definitively observed associated with the Fermi pulsar, J2229.0+6114, in the Boomerang pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Furthermore, an extended region of multi-TeV emission is associated with the Fermi pulsar, J0634.0+1745, the Geminga pulsar.

  4. Determination of particulate lead using aerosol mass spectrometry: MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Salcedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first measurements of particulate lead (Pb from Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers, which were deployed in and around Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO/Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006 field campaigns. The high resolution mass spectrometer of one of the AMS instruments (HR-AMS and the measured isotopic ratios unequivocally prove the detection of Pb in ambient particles. A substantial fraction of the lead evaporated slowly from the vaporizer of the instruments, which is indicative of species with low volatility at 600 °C. A model was developed in order to estimate the ambient particulate Pb entering the AMS from the signals in the "open" and the "closed" (or "background" mass spectrum modes of the AMS. The model suggests the presence of at least two lead fractions with ~25% of the Pb signal exhibiting rapid evaporation (1/e decay constant, τ<0.1 s and ~75% exhibiting slow evaporation (τ~2.4 min at the T0 urban supersite and a different fraction (70% prompt and 30% slow evaporation at a site northwest from the metropolitan area (PEMEX site. From laboratory experiments with pure Pb(NO32 particles, we estimated that the Pb ionization efficiency relative to nitrate (RIEPb is 0.5. Comparison of time series of AMS Pb with other measurements carried out at the T0 supersite during MILAGRO (using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS and single-particle counts from an Aerosol Time-of-Fight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS shows similar levels (for PIXE and ICP-MS and substantial correlation. During part of the campaign, sampling at T0 was alternated every 10 min with an Aerosol Concentrator, which enabled the detection of signals for PbCl+ and PbS+ ions. PbS+ displays the signature of a slowly evaporating species, while PbCl+ appears to arise only

  5. Ultra high energy gamma rays and observations with CYGNUS/MILAGRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.D.; Yodh, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    This talk discusses high-energy observations of the Crab pulsar/nebula and the pulsar in the X-ray binary, Hercules X-1, and makes the case for continued observations with ground-based γ-ray detectors. The CYGNUS Air Shower Array has a wide field of view on monitors several astrophysical γ-ray sources at the same time, many of which are prime objects observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and air Cerenkov telescopes. This array and the future MILAGRO Water Cerenkov Detector can perform observations that are simultaneous with similar experiments to provide confirmation of emission, and can measure source spectra at a range of high energies previously unexplored

  6. Pulsar TeV Halos Explain the Diffuse TeV Excess Observed by Milagro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Tim; Buckman, Benjamin J

    2018-03-23

    Milagro observations have found bright, diffuse TeV emission concentrated along the galactic plane of the Milky Way. The intensity and spectrum of this emission is difficult to explain with current models of hadronic γ-ray production, and has been named the "TeV excess." We show that TeV emission from pulsars naturally explains this excess. Recent observations have detected "TeV halos" surrounding pulsars that are either nearby or particularly luminous. Extrapolating this emission to the full population of Milky Way pulsars indicates that the ensemble of "subthreshold" sources necessarily produces bright TeV emission diffusively along the Milky Way plane. Models indicate that the TeV halo γ-ray flux exceeds that from hadronic γ rays above an energy of ∼500  GeV. Moreover, the spectrum and intensity of TeV halo emission naturally matches the TeV excess. Finally, we show that upcoming HAWC observations will resolve a significant fraction of the TeV excess into individual TeV halos, conclusively confirming, or ruling out, this model.

  7. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  8. Measurements of VOCs in Mexico City during the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. K.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, N. J.; Meinardi, S.; Atlas, E.; Rowland, F.; Blake, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    During March of 2006 we participated in MILAGRO (Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations), a multi-platform campaign to measure pollutants in and in outflow from the Mexico City metropolitan area. As part of MILAGRO we collected whole air canister samples at two Mexico City ground sites: the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, located in the city, northeast of the center, and the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, a suburban site approximately 50 km northeast of the city center. Samples were also collected in various other locations throughout Mexico City. Over 300 whole air samples were collected and analyzed for a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and halocarbons. Propane was the most abundant NMHC at both the urban and suburban locations, with mixing ratios frequently in excess of 10 parts per billion at both locations. This is likely the result of the widespread use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) of which propane is the major component. For most species, median mixing ratios at the urban sites were significantly greater than at the suburban site. Here we compare results from both urban and suburban locations and also examine the influence of transport on the composition of outflow from Mexico City.

  9. Milagro: A low energy threshold extensive air shower array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnis, C.

    1994-12-31

    Observations of high-energy gamma rays from astronomical sources have revolutionized our view of the cosmos. Gamma rays with energies up to {approximately}10 GeV can be observed directly with space-based instruments. Above 100 GeV the low flux of gamma rays requires one to utilize ground-based instruments. Milagro is a new type of gamma-ray detector based on water Cerenkov technology. This new design will enable to continuously observe the entire overhead sky, and be sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above {approximately}250 GeV. These attributes make Milagro an ideal detector for the study of high-energy transient phenomenon.

  10. Milagro Version 2 An Implicit Monte Carlo Code for Thermal Radiative Transfer: Capabilities, Development, and Usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.J. Urbatsch; T.M. Evans

    2006-02-15

    We have released Version 2 of Milagro, an object-oriented, C++ code that performs radiative transfer using Fleck and Cummings' Implicit Monte Carlo method. Milagro, a part of the Jayenne program, is a stand-alone driver code used as a methods research vehicle and to verify its underlying classes. These underlying classes are used to construct Implicit Monte Carlo packages for external customers. Milagro-2 represents a design overhaul that allows better parallelism and extensibility. New features in Milagro-2 include verified momentum deposition, restart capability, graphics capability, exact energy conservation, and improved load balancing and parallel efficiency. A users' guide also describes how to configure, make, and run Milagro2.

  11. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A. D.; Decarlo, P. F.; Jimenez, J. L.; Dunlea, E. J.; Roberts, G. C.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Collins, D. R.; Howell, S. G.; Kapustin, V. N.; McNaughton, C. S.; Zhou, J.

    2009-09-01

    Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100 nm particles decreased with increasing organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF) as 0.34-0.20×OMF over Central Mexico and 0.47-0.43×OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(-1/3), within measurement uncertainty (~20%). The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0-0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as -0.70×OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust). Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemical composition and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  12. Amulets, Milagros, and Ex-Votos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Aurelia

    2008-01-01

    Tiny metal objects, some representational, showing body parts or saints; others abstract or symbolic, are powerful items in spite of their diminutive size. These are amulets, milagros, and ex-votos and they represent a pathway to the supernatural for peoples all over the globe. Part of folk and traditional religious practices, amulets are used to…

  13. Determination of particulate lead during MILAGRO / MCMA-2006 using Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Dara; Onasch, T. B.; Aiken, A. C.; Williams, L. R.; de Foy, B.; Cubison, M. J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Molina, L. T.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2010-05-01

    We report the first measurements of particulate lead (Pb) from Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers, which were deployed in and around Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) / Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 (MCMA-2006) field campaigns. The high resolution mass spectrometer of one of the AMS instruments (HR-AMS) and the measured isotopic ratios unequivocally prove the detection of Pb in ambient particles. A substantial fraction of the lead evaporated slowly from the vaporizer of the instruments, which is indicative of species with low volatility at 600oC. A model was developed in order to estimate the ambient particulate Pb entering the AMS from the signals in the "open" and the "closed" (or "background") mass spectrum modes of the AMS. The model suggests the presence of at least two lead fractions with ~25% of the Pb signal exhibiting rapid evaporation (1/e decay constant, τ PEMEX32 site). From laboratory experiments with pure Pb(NO3)2 particles, we estimated that the Pb ionization efficiency relative to nitrate (RIEPb) is 0.5. Comparison of time series of AMS Pb with other measurements carried out at the T0 urban supersite during MILAGRO (using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and single-particle counts from an Aerosol Time-of-Fight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS)) shows similar levels (for PIXE and ICP-MS) and substantial correlation. During part of the campaign, sampling at T0 was alternated every 10 minutes with an Aerosol Concentrator, which enabled the detection of signals for PbCl+ and PbS+ ions. PbS+ displays the signature of a slowly evaporating species, while PbCl+ appears to arise only from fast evaporation, which is likely due to the higher vapor pressure of the compounds generating PbCl+. This is consistent with the evaporation model results. Levels of particulate Pb measured during MILAGRO at T0 were similar to previous studies in Mexico

  14. Milagro Limits and HAWC Sensitivity for the Rate-Density of Evaporating Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of approx.5.0 x 10(exp 14) g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV-TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.

  15. Evaluating Simulated Primary Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning Organic Aerosols during MILAGRO: Implications for Assessing Treatments of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Aiken, Allison; Allan, James D.; Alexander, M. L.; Campos, Teresa; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Chapman, Elaine G.; DeCarlo, Peter; de Foy, B.; Gaffney, Jeffrey; de Gouw, Joost A.; Doran, J. C.; Emmons, L.; Hodzic, Alma; Herndon, Scott C.; Huey, L. G.; Jayne, John T.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Kuster, W. C.; Marley, Nancy A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Ochoa, Carlos; Onasch, Timothy B.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Song, Chen; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2009-08-31

    Simulated primary organic aerosols (POA), as well as other particulates and trace gases, in the vicinity of Mexico City are evaluated using measurements collected during the 2006 Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaigns. Since the emission inventories and dilution will affect predictions of total organic matter and consequently total particulate matter, our objective is to assess the uncertainties in predicted POA before testing and evaluating the performance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) treatments. Carbon monoxide (CO) is well simulated on most days both over the city and downwind, indicating that transport and mixing processes were usually consistent with the meteorological conditions observed during MILAGRO. Predicted and observed elemental carbon (EC) in the city was similar, but larger errors occurred at remote locations since the CO/EC emission ratios in the national emission inventory were lower than in the metropolitan emission inventory. Components of organic aerosols derived from Positive Matrix Factorization and data from several Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer instruments deployed both at ground sites and on research aircraft are used to evaluate the model. Predicted POA was consistently lower than the measured organic matter at the ground sites, which is consistent with the expectation that SOA should be a large fraction of the total organic matter mass. A much better agreement was found when predicted POA was compared with the sum of "primary anthropogenic" and "primary biomass burning" components on days with relatively low biomass burning, suggesting that the overall magnitude of primary organic particulates released was reasonable. The predicted POA was greater than the total observed organic matter when the aircraft flew directly downwind of large fires, suggesting that biomass burning emission estimates from some large fires may be too high. Predicted total observed organic carbon (TOOC) was

  16. Overview of the 2006 MILAGRO Campaign in Mexico City: Transport and Transformation of Emissions from a Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L.; MILAGRO Science Team

    2009-04-01

    Megacities (metropolitan areas with population over 10 million) and large urban centers present a major challenge for the global environment. Population growth, increasing motorization and industrialization have resulted in a higher demand for energy, greater use of fossil fuels, and more emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. As a result, air pollution has become not only one of the central environmental problems of the century, but also presents serious consequences to human health and ecosystems and economic costs to society. MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations) is the first international effort to study the impact of air pollutants generated and exported by megacity. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) - one of the largest megacities in the world - was selected as the initial case study for MILAGRO. The measurement phase consisted of a month-long series of carefully coordinated observations of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere in and near Mexico City during March 2006, using a wide range of instruments at ground sites, on aircraft and satellites, complemented by meteorological forecasting and numerical simulations. Together, these research observations have provided the most comprehensive characterization of Mexico City's urban and regional air pollution that will take years to analyze and evaluate fully. Initial analysis of the data is focused on understanding meteorology, emissions, urban and regional photochemistry, aerosol evolution and radiative effects - spanning the urban to regional scale transition. Many interesting aspects of atmospheric chemistry in and near the MCMA are emerging and have already added significantly to our understanding of the chemical and physical properties of the city's reactive atmosphere and the regional impacts. The information can be useful for decision-makers in Mexico in developing air quality management strategies as well as provide insights to air pollution problems in

  17. A Search for bursts of TeV gamma rays with Milagro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. J.; MILAGRO Collaboration

    2001-08-01

    The Very High Energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) component of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) remains unmeasured, despite the fact that models predict that the spectrum of GRBs extends beyond 1 TeV. Satellite detectors capable of observing GRBs lack the sensitivity to detect γ-rays with energies greater than ≈ 30 GeV due to their small effective area. Air ˇCerenkov telescopes, capable of detecting TeV point sources with excellent sensitivity have limited sensitivity to GRBs due to their small fields of view and limited duty cycles. The detection of TeV emission from GRBs is further complicated by the attenuation of VHE photons by interaction with the intergalactic infrared radiation. This process limits the horizon for TeV observations of GRBs to z pond (4800 m2 ) instrumented with an array of photo-multiplier tubes. Milagro operates 24 hours a day and continuously observes the entire overhead sky (≈2 sr). Because of its wide field of view and high duty cycle Milagro is uniquely capable of searching for TeV emission from GRBs. An efficient algorithm has been developed to search the Milagro data for GRBs with durations from 250 microseconds to 40s. The search, while designed to search for the TeV component of GRBs, may also be sensitive to the evaporation of primordial black holes, or some other yet undiscovered phenomenon. The results of this search are presented.

  18. Coastal research: Observational challenge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    research. Modeling has also benefited from new tech nologies and is playing an increasingly important tole as well. Problems such as global climate change as affected by and affecting the oceans, variability in biomass and fish abun dance and regime... will be needed. Further, numerical modeling is central to these collective programs. Many of the societally important coastal problems, like their atmospheric counterparts, require forecasting and rapid information dissemination to decision-makers and the public...

  19. Aircraft and ground-based measurements of hydroperoxides during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Nunnermacker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixing ratios of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide were determined aboard the US Department of Energy G-1 Research Aircraft during the March, 2006 MILAGRO field campaign in Mexico. Ground measurements of total hydroperoxide were made at Tecámac University, about 35 km NW of Mexico City. In the air and on the ground, peroxide mixing ratios near the source region were generally near 1 ppbv. Strong southerly flow resulted in transport of pollutants from Mexico City to two downwind surface sites on several flight days. On these days, it was observed that peroxide concentrations slightly decreased as the G-1 flew progressively downwind. This observation is consistent with low or negative net peroxide production rates calculated for the source region and is due to the very high NOx concentrations in the Mexico City plateau. However, relatively high values of peroxide were observed at takeoff and landing near Veracruz, a site with much higher humidity and lower NOx concentrations.

  20. An Overview of the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign: Mexico City Emissions and their Transport and Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Madronich, Sasha; Gaffney, Jeffrey; Apel, Eric; de Foy, B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Ferrare, R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lamb, Brian K.; Orsonio-Vargas, A. R.; Russell, P. B.; Schauer, James J.; Stevens, P. S.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Zavala, Miguel A.

    2010-03-25

    The world’s population is projected to increase 33% during the next three decades, to 8.1 billion. Nearly all of the projected growth is expected to be concentrated in urban centers. These rapidly expanding urban regions and surrounding suburban areas are leading to the phenomenon of megacities (metropolitan areas with populations exceeding 10 million inhabitants). Well governed, densely populated settlements can reduce the need for land conversion and provide proximity to infrastructure and services. However, many urban areas experience uncontrolled sprawl and their activities are the leading cause of environmental problems. These mega-centers of human population are tied directly to increasing demands for energy and associated industrial activities and motorization that lead to more emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the most important environmental challenges of this century. This challenge is particularly acute in the developing world where the rapid growth of megacities is producing atmospheric pollution of unprecedented severity and extent. MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) is the first international collaborative project to examine the behavior and the export of atmospheric pollutants generated in megacities. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) - one of the world’s largest megacities and North America’s most populous city -- was selected as the initial case study to characterize the sources and processes of emissions from the urban center and to evaluate the regional and global impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume

  1. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  2. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Aerosol Measurements during MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GOMACCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Cook Anthony; Harper, David; Burton, Sharon; Clayton, Marian; Clarke, Antony; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Two1 field experiments conducted during 2006 provided opportunities to investigate the variability of aerosol properties near cities and the impacts of these aerosols on air quality and radiative transfer. The Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) joint experiment conducted during March 2006 investigated the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) (http://www.al.noaa.gov/2006/) conducted during August and September 2006 investigated climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. During both missions, the new NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 King Air aircraft and measured profiles of aerosol extinction, backscattering, and depolarization to: 1) characterize the spatial and vertical distributions of aerosols, 2) quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types, 3) investigate aerosol variability near clouds, 4) evaluate model simulations of aerosol transport, and 5) assess aerosol optical properties derived from a combination of surface, airborne, and satellite measurements.

  3. Infrared Absorption by Atmospheric Aerosols in Mexico City during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    Past research in our group using cylindrical internal reflectance spectroscopy has indicated that aqueous aerosols could contribute to the radiative warming as greenhouse species (1,2). Although aerosol radiative effects have been known for sometime and are considered one of the major uncertainties in climate change modeling, most of the studies have focused on the forcing due to scattering and absorption of radiation in the uv- visible region (3). Infrared spectral information also allows the confirmation of key functional groups that are responsible for enhanced absorption observations from secondary organics in the uv-visible region. This work extends our efforts to evaluate the infrared absorption by aerosols, particularly organics, that are now found to be a major fraction of urban and regional aerosols in the 0.1 to 1.0 micron size range and to help identify key types of organics that can contribute to aerosol absorption. During the MILAGRO campaign, quartz filter samples were taken at 12-hour intervals from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. These samples were taken at the two super-sites, T-0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) and T-1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico). The samples have been characterized for total carbon content (stable isotope mass spectroscopy) and natural radionuclide tracers, as well as for their UV-visible spectroscopic properties by using integrating sphere diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). These same samples have been characterized in the mid and near infrared spectral ranges using diffuse reflection spectroscopy (Nicolet 6700 FTIR with a Smart Collector accessory). Aerosol samples were removed from the surfaces of the aerosol filters by using Si-Carb sampler. The samples clearly indicate the presence of carbonyl organic constituents and the spectra are quite similar to those observed for humic and fulvic acids

  4. Milagro Contributions to XXVI International Cosmic Ray Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, C.M.; Haines, T.J.; Sinnis, G.; Miller, R.S.; Thompson, N.T.

    1999-08-01

    Milagrito, a prototype for the Milagro detector, operated for 15 months in 1997--8 and collected 8.9 x 10{sup 9} events. It was the first extensive air shower (EAS) array sensitive to showers initiated by primaries with energy below 1 TeV. The shadows of the sun and moon observed with cosmic rays can be used to study systematic pointing shifts and measure the angular resolution of EAS arrays. Below a few TeV, the paths of cosmic rays coming toward the earth are bent by the helio- and geo-magnetic fields. This is expected to distort and displace the shadows of the sun and the moon. The moon shadow, offset from the nominal (unreflected) position, has been observed with high statistical significance in Milagrito. This can be used to establish energy calibrations, as well as to search for the anti-matter content of the VHE cosmic ray flux. The shadow of the sun has also been observed with high significance.

  5. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  6. Desarrollo de la Misión Milagro en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Agüin, Victor

    2011-01-01

    La Misión Milagro, iniciativa Cubana apoyada por Venezuela, es una campaña de contenido social y humanitario, cuyo propósito es devolver la visión o curar diversos padecimientos oftalmológicos en los pueblos latinoamericanos. Debido a la deuda con las personas excluidas de la atención de salud y apartadas de la vida social y productiva por padecer problemas solucionables de salud visual, se considera necesario evaluar el desarrollo de la Misión Milagro en el territorio Venezolano. Se realizó ...

  7. Desempeño Laboral de Instructores de Gimnasios Ubicados en Guayaquil, Samborondón, Milagro y Naranjito

    OpenAIRE

    Rondan Elizalde, Manuel De Jesús; Olivo Solís, Johnny Edison

    2013-01-01

    This research, conducted in the cities of Guayaquil, Samborondón, Milagro and Naranjito, all in the province of Guayas, Ecuador, shows the empiricism which instructors apply in guiding weight training and also a lack of scientific knowledge in planning routines, lack of knowledge of exercises and the proper amount for rehabilitation, in each pathology and sport. It also considers the wide study area as a sport or as a complementary activity as well as the benefits of weight training.The...

  8. Enhanced UV Absorption in Carbonaceous Aerosols during MILAGRO and Identification of Potential Organic Contributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangu, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kilaparty, S.; Gunawan, G.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    ), and nitrated PAH compounds for comparison. Potential organic aerosol components are identified which contribute to the enhanced absorption observed in the field. The wavelength dependence of the mass specific absorption is obtained from these spectra and total carbon measurements. The wavelength dependence of the aerosol complex refractive index (m = n +ik) in the UV-visible spectral region is determined by application of the Kramers Kronig function. The importance of the aerosol absorption in the infrared spectral region to radiative forcing will be discussed. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). 2. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and K.A. Orlandini, Chapter 7 in Humic/Fulvic Acids and Organic Colloidal Materials in the Environment, ACS Symposium Series 651, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 96-107, 1996. This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  9. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1 in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Bon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of ~2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  10. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  11. Desempeño Laboral de Instructores de Gimnasios Ubicados en Guayaquil, Samborondón, Milagro y Naranjito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondan Elizalde, Manuel De Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research, conducted in the cities of Guayaquil, Samborondón, Milagro and Naranjito, all in the province of Guayas, Ecuador, shows the empiricism which instructors apply in guiding weight training and also a lack of scientific knowledge in planning routines, lack of knowledge of exercises and the proper amount for rehabilitation, in each pathology and sport. It also considers the wide study area as a sport or as a complementary activity as well as the benefits of weight training.The results of surveys and observation forms reveal that, of the 30 respondents only 3 gyms have designed a training program or routine not based on the maximum force test and 3 gyms have a training program which isn´t based on such a test.The purpose of this work was to mark the starting point for instructors and users who go to the gym to learn about the evolution of the weights and the number of methods used to develop muscle hypertrophy, definition and all types of strength.

  12. Characterization of the child’s academic performance in the absence of at least one parent. Case: Milagro City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Arias Guevara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available I made this research to help children of Milagro City, Ecuador. Here, there is a high proportion of school students without their parents at home. It was possible todefine, by mathematical methods, the typical student’s characteristics, his typical family, and a typical situation at classroom according to the reasons of the absence (in a state school or in a private school and some aspects about his recuperation; however you should not forget that this information is only a reference because each student is a different case to be entirely analyzed. This research could be repeated in other cities.

  13. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Proton Transfer Reaction – Mass Spectrometry during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign

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    E. C. Fortner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured by proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometry (PTR-MS on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area North Northeast of downtown Mexico City as part of the Megacity Initiative – Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO 2006 field campaign. Thirty eight individual masses were monitored during the campaign and many species were quantified including methanol, acetaldehyde, toluene, the sum of C2 benzenes, the sum of C3 benzenes, acetone, isoprene, benzene, and ethyl acetate. The VOC measurements were analyzed to gain a better understanding of the type of VOCs present in the MCMA, their diurnal patterns, and their origins. Diurnal profiles of weekday and weekend/holiday aromatic VOC concentrations showed the influence of vehicular traffic during the morning rush hours and during the afternoon hours. Plumes including elevated toluene as high as 216 parts per billion (ppb and ethyl acetate as high as 183 ppb were frequently observed during the late night and early morning hours, indicating the possibility of significant industrial sources of the two compounds in the region. Wind fields during those peak episodes revealed no specific direction for the majority of the toluene plumes but the ethyl acetate plumes arrived at the site when winds were from the Southwest or West. The PTR-MS measurements combined with other VOC measuring techniques at the field site as well as VOC measurements conducted in other areas of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA will help to develop a better understanding of the spatial pattern of VOCs and its variability in the MCMA.

  14. AIRS Views of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning CO: INTEX-B/MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GoMACCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, W. W.; Warner, J.; Wicks, D.; Barnet, C.; Sachse, G.; Chu, A.; Sparling, L.

    2006-12-01

    Utilizing the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder's (AIRS) unique spatial and temporal coverage, we present observations of anthropogenic and biomass burning CO emissions as observed by AIRS during the 2006 field experiments INTEX-B/MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GoMACCS. AIRS daily CO maps covering more than 75% of the planet demonstrate the near global transport of these emissions. AIRS day/night coverage of significant portions of the Earth often show substantial changes in 12 hours or less. However, the coarse vertical resolution of AIRS retrieved CO complicates its interpretation. For example, extensive CO emissions are evident from Asia during April and May 2006, but it is difficult to determine the relative contributions of biomass burning in Thailand vs. domestic and industrial emissions from China. Similarly, sometimes AIRS sees enhanced CO over and downwind of Mexico City and other populated areas. AIRS low information content and decreasing sensitivity in the boundary layer can result in underestimates of CO total columns and free tropospheric abundances. Building on our analyses of INTEX-A/ICARTT data from 2004, we present comparisons with INTEX-B/MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GoMACCS in situ aircraft measurements and other satellite CO observations. The combined analysis of AIRS CO, water vapor and O3 retrievals; MODIS aerosol optical depths; and forward trajectory computations illuminate a variety of dynamical processes in the troposphere.

  15. Using observational methods in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jenny

    2015-07-08

    Observation is a research data-collection method used generally to capture the activities of participants as well as when and where things are happening in a given setting. It checks description of the phenomena against what the researcher perceives to be fact in a rich experiential context. The method's main strength is that it provides direct access to the social phenomena under consideration. It can be used quantitatively or qualitatively, depending on the research question. Challenges in using observation relate to adopting the role of participant or non-participant researcher as observer. This article discusses some of the complexities involved when nurse researchers seek to collect observational data on social processes in naturalistic settings using unstructured or structured observational methods in qualitative research methodology. A glossary of research terms is provided.

  16. Improving emissions inventories in North America through systematic analysis of model performance during ICARTT and MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Marcelo Andres

    During 2004 and 2006 the University of Iowa provided air quality forecast support for flight planning of the ICARTT and MILAGRO field campaigns. A method for improvement of model performance in comparison to observations is showed. The method allows identifying sources of model error from boundary conditions and emissions inventories. Simultaneous analysis of horizontal interpolation of model error and error covariance showed that error in ozone modeling is highly correlated to the error of its precursors, and that there is geographical correlation also. During ICARTT ozone modeling error was improved by updating from the National Emissions Inventory from 1999 and 2001, and furthermore by updating large point source emissions from continuous monitoring data. Further improvements were achieved by reducing area emissions of NOx y 60% for states in the Southeast United States. Ozone error was highly correlated to NOy error during this campaign. Also ozone production in the United States was most sensitive to NOx emissions. During MILAGRO model performance in terms of correlation coefficients was higher, but model error in ozone modeling was high due overestimation of NOx and VOC emissions in Mexico City during forecasting. Large model improvements were shown by decreasing NOx emissions in Mexico City by 50% and VOC by 60%. Recurring ozone error is spatially correlated to CO and NOy error. Sensitivity studies show that Mexico City aerosol can reduce regional photolysis rates by 40% and ozone formation by 5-10%. Mexico City emissions can enhance NOy and O3 concentrations over the Gulf of Mexico in up to 10-20%. Mexico City emissions can convert regional ozone production regimes from VOC to NOx limited. A method of interpolation of observations along flight tracks is shown, which can be used to infer on the direction of outflow plumes. The use of ratios such as O3/NOy and NOx/NOy can be used to provide information on chemical characteristics of the plume, such as age

  17. Situación Comercial de la ciudad de Milagro

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    Guevara-Viejo, Jorge Fabricio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The canton of Milagro has a business sector with potential for development, but that growth requires the input and support of institutions. Therefore it is important to know the current situation for local companies, considering their key characteristics and the relationship of variables to describe in general terms, their strengths and weaknesses. Data is taken from the Economic Census, conducted by the National Institute of Statistics and Censuses in 2010.From these results we intend to describe business activityand how it can be a catalyst for local development, citing the potential for business growth through collaboration between public and private institutions, generating sustainable development by creating productive linkages to promote agro-industrial activity, adding value to products such as cocoa, flowers,sugar cane and bananas, among others.This raises the need for infrastructure and services such as product design, power supply, training centers, human resources, allocation of land, access to information, marketing support and other activities necessary for the promotion local development.

  18. Air pollutant characterization in Tula industrial corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G; Vega, E; González-Avalos, E; Mora, V; López-Veneroni, D

    2013-01-01

    Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS) and Tepeji (TEP) was 75.1 and 36.8 μ g/m(3), respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μ g/m(3). JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm(-1), while aerosol scattering (76 Mm(-1)) was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ(13)C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  19. Air Pollutant Characterization in Tula Industrial Corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS and Tepeji (TEP was 75.1 and 36.8 μg/m3, respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μg/m3. JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm−1, while aerosol scattering (76 Mm−1 was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ13C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  20. Earth Observation Research for GMES Initial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijma, Sybrand; Balzter, Heiko; Nicolas-Perea, Virginia

    2013-04-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: * Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). * Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centres and market leaders in the private sector. * Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. * Developing a collaborative training network, through the placement of researchers for short periods in other GIONET organizations. Reliable, thorough and up-to-date environmental information is essential for understanding climate change the impacts it has on people's lives and ways to adapt to them. The GIONET researchers are being trained to understand the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers have been placed in industry and universities across Europe, as

  1. BARCAMP MILAGRO 2009 Una iniciativa tecnológica mundial en nuestra universidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayorga-Albán, Amalín Ladaysé

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available At Milagro state University, with the guarantee and support of the authorities and being the main component of the linking programming with the community of the Academic Unit of Distance, Continuing Education and Post degree, was carried out as part of a worldwide initiative called "B ar Camp Milagro 2009". This event was organizedjointly with the community Iguana Valley http://www.iguanavalley.org a national nonprofit organization with the experien­ce in the organization of BarCamps in other cities of the Country. This worldwide activity constitute a series of working days of open and participant descoriferences concerning technology, social networks and iriformation society. Milagro is the fourth largest city nationwide that joined the technology community in the country and abroad, in which users with a little ora lot of knowledge in the technical - computing, they could learn and share ideas, concepts and experien­ces under a principie of collaborative participation among the des conferencistas and present at no cost. The simulta­neous desconferences working days were very well received with great satisfaction as we could observefrom the show 's opening to closing time, the three rooms were full of present willing to learn and share ideas, knowledges and potencial ventures, under a collaborative framework uninterested, with the only goal to contribute that our Community of Milagro participa te of contents of technological nature.

  2. Emission and chemistry of organic carbon in the gas and aerosol phase at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March 2006 during the MILAGRO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. de Gouw

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives. Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC, and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps

  3. Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During the MILAGRO Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Gouw, Joost A.; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Warneke, Carsten; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, Angela K.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, D. R.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Celada, A. T.; Huey, L. G.; Junkermann, W.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Salcido, A.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Sullivan, Amy; Tanner, David J.; Vargas-Ortiz, Leroy; Weber, R. J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2009-05-28

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives). Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC), and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps not dissimilar

  4. Ozone response to emission changes: a modeling study during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of ozone production to precursor emissions was investigated under five different meteorological conditions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO field campaign using the gridded photochemical model CAMx driven by observation-nudged WRF meteorology. Precursor emissions were constrained by the comprehensive data from the field campaign and the routine ambient air quality monitoring network. Simulated plume mixing and transport were examined by comparing with measurements from the G-1 aircraft during the campaign. The observed concentrations of ozone precursors and ozone were reasonably well reproduced by the model. The effects of reducing precursor emissions on urban ozone production were performed for three representative emission control scenarios. A 50% reduction in VOC emissions led to 7 to 22 ppb decrease in daily maximum ozone concentrations, while a 50% reduction in NOx emissions leads to 4 to 21 ppb increase, and 50% reductions in both NOx and VOC emission decrease the daily maximum ozone concentrations up to 10 ppb. These results along with a chemical indicator analysis using the chemical production ratios of H2O2 to HNO3 demonstrate that the MCMA urban core region is VOC-limited for all meteorological episodes, which is consistent with the results from MCMA-2003 field campaign; however the degree of the VOC-sensitivity is higher during MCMA-2006 due to lower VOCs, lower VOC reactivity and moderately higher NOx emissions. Ozone formation in the surrounding mountain/rural area is mostly NOx-limited, but can be VOC-limited, and the range of the NOx-limited or VOC-limited areas depends on meteorology.

  5. IMP Supersite vs Pico de Tres Padres: The first few hours of mixing and oxidation during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, S.; Onasch, T.; Wood, E.; Knighton, B.; Zavala, M.; Mazzoleni, C.; Thornhill, D.; Marr, L.; Kolb, C.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-05-01

    The Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) mobile laboratory was deployed in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) for the full month of March 2006 to support the MCMA-2006/MAX-Mex/MILAGRO research project activities, in collaboration with other MCMA-2006 research groups (see information on MCMA-2006/MILAGRO posted at http:www.mce2.org). The ratios of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to combustion tracer species such as CO and CO2 are compared at one of the supersites (T0) and Pico de Tres Padres. T0 (located at the Mexican Petroleum Institute, IMP) is heavily influenced by various emission sources in the local area, predominantly roadway traffic. Pico de Tres Padres is an isolated, privately owned mountain located within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). It rises 1000 m above the MCMA basin floor and is located about halfway between T0 and T1. The airmasses analyzed at Pico de Tres Padres seem to be mixed urban emissions absent of high frequency spikes of CO, NO or CO2. Relationships between VOCs, and combustion tracers will be used to gain a crude understanding of the initial photochemical processing of the urban emissions. How the initial photochemical processing of Mexico City's air may relate to secondary aerosol production is also explored.

  6. Aerosol effects on the photochemistry in Mexico City during MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the impact of aerosols on the photochemistry in Mexico City is evaluated using the WRF-CHEM model for the period from 24 to 29 March during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign. An aerosol radiative module has been developed with detailed consideration of aerosol size, composition, and mixing. The module has been coupled into the WRF-CHEM model to calculate the aerosol optical properties, including optical depth, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor. Calculated aerosol optical properties are in good agreement with the surface observations and aircraft and satellite measurements during daytime. In general, the photolysis rates are reduced due to the absorption by carbonaceous aerosols, particularly in the early morning and late afternoon hours with a long aerosol optical path. However, with the growth of aerosol particles and the decrease of the solar zenith angle around noontime, aerosols can slightly enhance photolysis rates when ultraviolet (UV radiation scattering dominates UV absorption by aerosols at the lower-most model layer. The changes in photolysis rates due to aerosols lead to about 2–17 % surface ozone reduction during daytime in the urban area in Mexico City with generally larger reductions during early morning hours near the city center, resulting in a decrease of OH level by about 9 %, as well as a decrease in the daytime concentrations of nitrate and secondary organic aerosols by 5–6 % on average. In addition, the rapid aging of black carbon aerosols and the enhanced absorption of UV radiation by organic aerosols contribute substantially to the reduction of photolysis rates.

  7. Optical properties, morphology and elemental composition of atmospheric particles at T1 supersite on MILAGRO campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, G.; Mamani-Paco, R.; Castro, T.; Peralta, O.; Herrera, E.; Trujillo, B.

    2012-03-01

    Atmospheric particles were sampled at T1 supersite during MILAGRO campaign, in March 2006. T1 was located at the north of Mexico City (MC). Aerosol sampling was done by placing copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) on the last five of an 8-stage MOUDI cascade impactor. Samples were obtained at different periods to observe possible variations on morphology. Absorption and scattering coefficients, as well as particle concentrations (0.01-3 μm aerodynamic diameter) were measured simultaneously using a PSAP absorption photometer, a portable integrating nephelometer, and a CPC particle counter. Particle images were acquired at different magnifications using a CM 200 Phillips TEM-EDAX system, and then calculated the border-based fractal dimension. Also, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the elemental composition of particles. The morphology of atmospheric particles for two aerodynamic diameters (0.18 and 1.8 μm) was compared using border-based fractal dimension to relate it to the other particle properties, because T1-generated particles have optical, morphological and chemical properties different from those transported by the MC plume. Particles sampled under MC pollution influence showed not much variability, suggesting that more spherical particles (border-based fractal dimension close to 1.0) are more common in larger sizes (d50 = 1.8 μm), which may be attributed to aerosol aging and secondary aerosol formation. Between 06:00 and 09:00 a.m., smaller particles (d50 = 0.18 μm) had more irregular shapes resulting in higher border-based fractal dimensions (1.2-1.3) for samples with more local influence. EDS analysis in d50 = 0.18 μm particles showed high contents of carbonaceous material, Si, Fe, K, and Co. Perhaps, this indicates an impact from industrial and vehicle emissions on atmospheric particles at T1.

  8. Proyecto de creación de un bowling center en la ciudad de Milagro

    OpenAIRE

    Aviles, Miguel; Caluqui, Juliana; Pallazhco, Jenny; Tobalina, Constantino

    2010-01-01

    The Project realize an analysis the Bowling Center principal characteristic in Milagro City, also realized a study on the market for identify important aspect the production and demand, also realized a finance and economic analysis for demonstrate that yes or no is rental and plan the strategies for establishment the business and have a good result on de market, realized a camp investigation with which was confirmation the enterprise’s number that realize the same business, construction and t...

  9. Intervención del Trabajo Social Comunitario en el Cantón Milagro, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreno Salinas, Zoila Evangelina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compiles and reflects on the Community Social Work, from its historical evolution and through the prism of the new social reality in Ecuador, from the singularity of the Canton Milagro and other ten surrounding cantons, Region 5, Ecuador. It was characterized by the loss of totalitarianism and the reorientation of the ways of social integration, questioned by the intervention of the National Plan for Good Living; this new reality prompted the reflection and rethinking of the Social Work and Community Development. With the intention of raising awareness and contribute to the concept of community, the approach and the Community dimension as an essential part of the subject’s identity, the points that address this article are: International Seminars, Practical and theoretical courses and Com- munity involvement. To train, professionalize, provide enough tools and skills, to perform them on the most vulnerable sectors in the Canton Milagro, from governmental and non-governmental institutions and the State University of Milagro. They take on the challenge of designing, managing and working for the common good, with some university extension projects or the social civil involvement, according to the requirements of their environment, leading social policies in the country, region and locality.

  10. Long-range pollution transport during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign: a case study of a major Mexico City outflow event using free-floating altitude-controlled balloons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Voss

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major objectives of the Megacities Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations (MILAGRO-2006 campaign was to investigate the long-range transport of polluted Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA outflow and determine its downwind impacts on air quality and climate. Six research aircraft, including the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C-130, made extensive chemical, aerosol, and radiation measurements above MCMA and more than 1000 km downwind in order to characterize the evolution of the outflow as it aged and dispersed over the Mesa Alta, Sierra Madre Oriental, Coastal Plain, and Gulf of Mexico. As part of this effort, free-floating Controlled-Meteorological (CMET balloons, commanded to change altitude via satellite, made repeated profile measurements of winds and state variables within the advecting outflow. In this paper, we present an analysis of the data from two CMET balloons that were launched near Mexico City on the afternoon of 18 March 2006 and floated downwind with the MCMA pollution for nearly 30 h. The repeating profile measurements show the evolving structure of the outflow in considerable detail: its stability and stratification, interaction with other air masses, mixing episodes, and dispersion into the regional background. Air parcel trajectories, computed directly from the balloon wind profiles, show three transport pathways on 18–19 March: (a high-altitude advection of the top of the MCMA mixed layer, (b mid-level outflow over the Sierra Madre Oriental followed by decoupling and isolated transport over the Gulf of Mexico, and (c low-level outflow with entrainment into a cleaner northwesterly jet above the Coastal Plain. The C-130 aircraft intercepted the balloon-based trajectories three times on 19 March, once along each of these pathways; in all three cases, peaks in urban tracer concentrations and LIDAR backscatter are consistent with MCMA pollution. In comparison with the transport models

  11. THE GAMMA-RAY AND NEUTRINO SKY: A CONSISTENT PICTURE OF FERMI-LAT, MILAGRO, AND ICECUBE RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggero, Daniele; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro; Grasso, Dario; Marinelli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We compute the γ-ray and neutrino diffuse emission of the Galaxy on the basis of a recently proposed phenomenological model characterized by radially dependent cosmic-ray (CR) transport properties. We show how this model, designed to reproduce both Fermi-LAT γ-ray data and local CR observables, naturally reproduces the anomalous TeV diffuse emission observed by Milagro in the inner Galactic plane. Above 100 TeV our picture predicts a neutrino flux that is about five (two) times larger than the neutrino flux computed with conventional models in the Galactic Center region (full-sky). Explaining in that way up to ∼25% of the flux measured by IceCube, we reproduce the full-sky IceCube spectrum adding an extra-Galactic component derived from the muonic neutrinos flux in the northern hemisphere. We also present precise predictions for the Galactic plane region where the flux is dominated by the Galactic emission

  12. Filosofía CRM como estrategia para pequeñas y medianas empresas de Milagro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yance-Carvajal, Carlos Leonidas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We live in times of change, where every day it is necessary that organizations and SMEs are more competitive and where the use of CRM strategies to retain customers and build loyalty not only enable organizations to achieve their goals of generating profit but they also to engender a sense of belonging to the company by clients, customers, vendors and employees in general. In this study we used a methodological design to define the type of research to develop, employing theoretical and empirical methods. An analysis of data, interpretation and hypothesis testing were carried in the research work. Important conclusions were reached that SMEs in the town of Milagro must implement CRM strategies aligned to customer needs, thereby creating a sense of belonging and loyalty among customers to the brand, product or organization and recommendations for carrying out our proposal can be a great contribution to the existing problem is the small and medium enterprises to offer their products to trade.

  13. Negocios familiares e incidencias en la generación de nuevos emprendimientos en la ciudad de Milagro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Arteaga Estrella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La microempresa familiar es una unidad económica de trabajo y gestión, que se forma por decisión familiar. En ella dos o más integrantes de la familia aportan diferentes recursos: fuerzas de trabajo, capacidades personales, conocimientos e informaciones sobre cómo hacer las cosas, medios materiales, local, equipamiento. En la ciudad de Milagro provincia del Guayas, Ecuador; se establecen micro negocios familiares donde se analizan varios factores que inciden en la generación de nuevos emprendimientos. El incremento de impuestos incide en el desarrollo productivo y sus actividades productivas sólo permiten cubrir deudas, la falta de asesoramiento de expertos no les permite la generación de nuevos emprendimientos. En la presente investigación se llevaron a cabo entrevistas y encuestas en las que se observó una serie de actividades productivas, siendo un segmento poco explorado que genera mayor crecimiento económico y generación de mejores ingresos a la familia.

  14. A beginner's guide to ethnographic observation in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Tiffany

    2017-03-22

    Background Observation is mentioned in most ethnographic textbooks, but specific details about how it should be conducted and the practicalities to be considered in ethnographic nursing research are not always explicit. This paper explores the experiences of and challenges faced by a novice nurse researcher who used observation to collect data. Aim To provide a novice researcher's perspective of observation in ethnographic nursing research and to highlight the associated challenges. Discussion Challenges that arose in observation began with determining which perspective to take, followed by rehearsing observation, developing and maintaining a constructive relationship with the observation site, being aware of the influence of the observer, managing interactions between the observed and the observer, and responding to ethical issues. Conclusion Novice nurse researchers considering using observation to collect data should be aware of the potential challenges they might encounter. Implications for practice The information presented in this paper will enable novice researchers to anticipate these issues and develop strategies to prevent or address them.

  15. Diseño de Estrategias de Marketing Móvil para las PyMES de la Ciudad de Milagro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Sánchez, María del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to inform readers about strategies that allow small and large enterprises to develop, grow and improve their profitability, through direct communication with their customers. Currently sales levels and the acceptance of products are closely linked to the use of mobile marketing, which has had a permanent evolution worldwide in which owners and consumers have managed to benefit from technological advances. It provides customers with personalized information related to time and place in order to promote goods, services and ideas of managers or business owners. The results obtained in this research carried out through surveys, show in a graphical form the trends of the local population with regard to the use of mobile marketing; this has enabled the drafting of a proposal based on mobile marketing strategies for micro - enterprises in the town of Milagro, through the use of devices and internet which aim at increasing the number of customers and securing their loyalty.

  16. Evidence for Biomass Burning from 14C and 13C/12C Measurements at T-0 and T-1 during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Tackett, M. J.; Sturchio, N. C.; Heraty, L. J.; Martinez, N.; Hardy, K.; Guilderson, T.

    2007-12-01

    Both stable carbon isotopic and radiocarbon characterizations of aerosols can yield important information regarding the sources of carbonaceous aerosols in urban and regional environments. Biomass derived materials are labeled due to their recent photochemical activity in radiocarbon and vary depending upon the photochemical pathway (either C-4 or C-3) in stable carbon-13 content. C-4 being enriched over C-3. During the MILAGRO campaign, quartz filter samples were taken at 12 hour intervals from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. These samples were taken at the two super-sites, T-0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) and T-1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico). The total carbon content was analyzed for stable carbon isotopic composition as well as for radiocarbon. Stable isotope mass spectroscopy was used to determine the carbon-13 to carbon-12 isotopic ratios on carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide was then converted to graphite for analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Results are presented for the carbon-13 content relative to the PDB standard and radiocarbon is given relative to recent carbon. The results for total radiocarbon content show that the carbonaceous aerosol content in Mexico City has more than half of the carbon coming from biomass derived sources. These can include inflow of biomass burning aerosols into the T-0 site as well as the input from local burning of biofuels and trash containing biomass derived materials (paper, boxes, etc.). Data also indicate that at the T-1 site biomass burning of C-4 grasses appears to be significant in that the carbon-13 values observed are enriched. Also at T-1 the radiocarbon levels are also found to be slightly higher indicating regional biomass burning as a significant contributor to aerosol carbon in the 0.1 to 1.0 micron size fraction. Some day

  17. Planificación estratégica a través de las TIC en los Gobiernos Autónomos Descentralizados Rurales del cantón Milagro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinueza-Morales, Mariuxi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the product of an exploratory and field research, there is provided organizational behavior in the autonomous governments (GAD parish of the canton Milagro, Ecuador, in meeting its strategic planning and precisely their organizational objectives. It concluded promptly, there is a waste of time and material due to organizational processes performed manually without the support of technology, a fact that goes against an efficient automated management of the planning model of institutional development and transparency public of its laws, regulations and organizational activities. This situation prevents them from exercising a suitable institutional transparency would strengthen access to public information and accountability to the community

  18. La relación médico-paciente en el marco del proyecto Misión Milagro: Milagro Mission project The relation between the physician and the patient:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglis Esteban García Alcolea

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: tratar las características específicas que adquirió la relación médico-paciente en el marco de la Misión Milagro, proyecto humanitario de alcance social. MÉTODOS: estudio exploratorio en forma de comunicación breve, teniendo en cuenta la literatura disponible sobre el tema. CONCLUSIONES: durante el proceso de atención de la Misión Milagro, la relación médico-paciente ha tenido cambios en cuanto a su forma tradicional, relacionados con la participación de un equipo de trabajo médico y la reducción del tiempo, lo que ha constituido un reto para nuestros profesionales de la salud.AIM: to emphasize the specific features acquired by the relation between physician and patient within the Milagro Mission as a humanitarian project of social scope. METHODS: an exploratory study as a brief communication was carried out considering the available literature on this matter. CONCLUSIONS: during the Milagro Mission care process, relation between the physician and the patient undergoes changes as regards its traditional way, related to participation of a medical work team and the time reduction, being a challenge for our health professionals.

  19. Estudio de la incidencia de los hábitos alimentarios En el rendimiento escolar de los niños y niñas de primero a cuarto año de las escuelas fiscales del cantón Milagro

    OpenAIRE

    Saltos-Solís, Marisela

    2012-01-01

    Diet and nutrition during childhood of man is essential to the quality of life of the adult. Eating properly is necessary for physical and mental development of children/ as, helping to prevent overweight and obesity.This is a study of non-experimental, observational, transversal and analytical population is 11,694 schoolchildren prosecutors urban and rural areas of the canton Milagro,its objectives are to determine how it affects the practice of eating habits in school performance chil...

  20. Case Study Observational Research: A Framework for Conducting Case Study Research Where Observation Data Are the Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sonya J; Pullon, Susan R H; Macdonald, Lindsay M; McKinlay, Eileen M; Gray, Ben V

    2017-06-01

    Case study research is a comprehensive method that incorporates multiple sources of data to provide detailed accounts of complex research phenomena in real-life contexts. However, current models of case study research do not particularly distinguish the unique contribution observation data can make. Observation methods have the potential to reach beyond other methods that rely largely or solely on self-report. This article describes the distinctive characteristics of case study observational research, a modified form of Yin's 2014 model of case study research the authors used in a study exploring interprofessional collaboration in primary care. In this approach, observation data are positioned as the central component of the research design. Case study observational research offers a promising approach for researchers in a wide range of health care settings seeking more complete understandings of complex topics, where contextual influences are of primary concern. Future research is needed to refine and evaluate the approach.

  1. The Cuatrocientos milagros de la cruz of Jaime Bleda: a bedside book for Calderón?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián J. Sáez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This paper explores the possible knowledge that some authors of the Golden Age may have about certain treatises of historical, philosophical and political nature, besides the well-known relations with other literary works, like the critics frequently have pointed out. So, this investigation compares the series of miracles that appear in La devoción de la cruz of Calderón with the book Cuatrocientos milagros de la cruz of Jaime Bleda, a religious treaty that Calderón might recalled in order to write some passages of this comedy. Overall, this paper reveals data about the prodigious miscellany that may serve to other studies about this matter. Resumen:Este trabajo explora el posible conocimiento que algunos autores del Siglo de Oro pudieron tener de ciertos tratados de tema histórico, filosófico, político, etc., al margen de las relaciones con otras obras literarias, frecuentemente estudiadas por la crítica. Así, se pone en diálogo la serie de milagros que aparecen en La devoción de la cruz de Calderón con los Cuatrocientos milagros de la cruz de Jaime Bleda, un repertorio de milagros que Calderón pudo recordar a la hora de escribir algunos pasajes de esta comedia. Conjuntamente se da noticia de esta miscelánea de prodigios, que puede resultar de gran utilidad para otros estudios.

  2. Comportamiento de la violencia doméstica en mujeres pertenecientes al consultorio "Altos de Milagro" Behavior of the home violence in women from "Altos de Milagro" consulting room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Espinosa Morales

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la violencia doméstica, específicamente contra la mujer latinoamericana, se ha convertido en los últimos años en un serio problema médico, social y cultural, que exige una urgente atención integral de salud, lo que motivó a las autoras a desarrollar la investigación. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento de la violencia doméstica en mujeres mayores de 15 años atendidas en el consultorio Altos de Milagro, en Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, entre diciembre de 2008 y diciembre 2009. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo para caracterizar el comportamiento de la violencia doméstica en el consultorio popular antes mencionado utilizando una encuesta elaborada por las autoras. Resultados: fueron atendidas 51 pacientes víctimas de violencia doméstica, con predominio de las edades entre 35 y 44 años (39,21 %. Resultaron ser acompañadas el 58,82 % y la totalidad de las pacientes sufrió violencia psicológica (100 %. La escolaridad primaria representó el 39,21 %, y 30 de las pacientes estudiadas pertenecen a familias grandes y extensas, con gran consumo de alcohol, para un 58,82 %. Se encontró, además, que más del 50 % de las estudiadas sufrió violencia doméstica, perteneciendo a la tercera-cuarta década de la vida, con bajo nivel intelectual. Conclusiones: predominó la violencia psicológica, las familias extensas y grandes, y en la mayor parte de estas el factor de riesgo más frecuente fue la ingesta de bebidas alcohólicas.Introduction: home violence specifically against the Latin American woman became in past years in a serious medical, social and cultural problem requiring an urgent integral health care, encouraging authors to develop present research. Objective: to determine the behavior of home violence in women aged over 15 seen in the "Altos de Milagro" consulting room in Maracaibo, Zulia State from December, 2008 to December, 2009. Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study

  3. Recent results from milagro field campaign 2006 in the mexico megacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, I.T.; Madronich, S.; Gaffney, J.S.; Singh, H.B.; Gosa, S.

    2009-01-01

    The air quality in large urbanized regions represents one of the major threats to the public and the ecosystems health. A number of harmful compounds emitted to the atmosphere from the various human activities increase the risk of having undesired illnesses, and possible death. Secondary air pollutants in both, air and aerosol phase, contribute to worsening this situation. on the other hand, there is an increasing recognition that air quality and climate change are strongly connected. Ozone plays an important role in this connection, apart from being by itself a greenhouse gas. This interaction is expected to evolve in response to changes in man-made emissions of gas precursors and to changes in physical climate. In this paper, a general scheme of the tropospheric ozone formation will be presented, as well as the current results from the MILAGRO field campaign took place in the Mexico Mega city in 2006. (author)

  4. Los milagros de la Virgen : versión latina y romance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se lleva a cabo una comparación entre relatos de milagros de la Virgen que se contienen en la colección hispana escrita en latín por Juan Gil de Zamora y en las colecciones romances de Gonzalo de Berceo y de Alfonso X, que ofrecen diferencias de contenido interesantes para el historiador.In this work there is a comparison between the Virgen Mirados tales, contained in the spanish collection, written in Latin by Juan Gil de Zamora, and other Virgin tales contained in the romance language collections of Gonzalo de Berceo and Alfonso X; offering differences in the containing, which are interesting for the historian.

  5. Los mundiales, ¿el milagro de Berlín?

    OpenAIRE

    Siemens, Christof

    2006-01-01

    Con el llamado «milagro de Berna», en 1954, la selección de fútbol alemana se colocó a la cabeza de las selecciones europeas y fue la constatación de su increíble recuperación, no sólo deportiva. En 1974 volvió a ganar la Campeonato del Mundo. Han pasado más de 30 años y los alemanes no han vuelto a ganar. No han sido lo suficientemente competitivos y la afición, con excepción de la del Bayern de Munich, ha ido perdiendo entusiasmo. En este artículo se hace un resumen de ...

  6. Research Opportunities from Emerging Atmospheric Observing and Modeling Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabberdt, Walter F.; Schlatter, Thomas W.

    1996-02-01

    The Second Prospectus Development Team (PDT-2) of the U.S. Weather Research Program was charged with identifying research opportunities that are best matched to emerging operational and experimental measurement and modeling methods. The overarching recommendation of PDT-2 is that inputs for weather forecast models can best be obtained through the use of composite observing systems together with adaptive (or targeted) observing strategies employing both in situ and remote sensing. Optimal observing systems and strategies are best determined through a three-part process: observing system simulation experiments, pilot field measurement programs, and model-assisted data sensitivity experiments. Furthermore, the mesoscale research community needs easy and timely access to the new operational and research datasets in a form that can readily be reformatted into existing software packages for analysis and display. The value of these data is diminished to the extent that they remain inaccessible.The composite observing system of the future must combine synoptic observations, routine mobile observations, and targeted observations, as the current or forecast situation dictates. High costs demand fuller exploitation of commercial aircraft, meteorological and navigation [Global Positioning System (GPS)] satellites, and Doppler radar. Single observing systems must be assessed in the context of a composite system that provides complementary information. Maintenance of the current North American rawinsonde network is critical for progress in both research-oriented and operational weather forecasting.Adaptive sampling strategies are designed to improve large-scale and regional weather prediction but they will also improve diagnosis and prediction of flash flooding, air pollution, forest fire management, and other environmental emergencies. Adaptive measurements can be made by piloted or unpiloted aircraft. Rawinsondes can be launched and satellites can be programmed to make

  7. Exploring the assessment of geological observation with design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, John Y.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the assessment of geological observation through the development and field testing of performance tasks. The study addressed a central challenge in geoscience education: for students to observe the world around them and make real-world connections. Yet, there existed no cohesive research approach for the study of observation in geoscience education. The research goal was to understand the assessment of geological observation. The design research of geological observation encountered the situation where few performance assessments existed and few domain-specific learning theories were available. Design research is suited to inquiries in which a domain of learning is unexplored and the phenomena needs to be supported in the classroom in order to study it. This dissertation addressed one general research question and four subquestions: (RQ) How should geological observation be assessed? (S1) What role did perception play in assessing students' geological observations? (S2) What role did explanation play in assessing students' geological observations? (S3) What role did gestures play in assessing students' geological observations? (S4) Were there performance differences between the first and second trial of the GO Inquire prototype with fourth graders? Students were supported in making geological observations with three performance tasks: GO Inquire stamp task, Cutting task, and Fieldguide task. The data set for this study consisted of student response data, videorecordings, and participant observations from seven field tests across one fourth and one fifth grade class. Three data-analytic methods, qualitative coding, item-difficulty analysis, and non-parametric comparisons, were utilized based on four mixed-method data analysis strategies: typology development, data transformation, extreme case analysis, and data consolidation. Analysis revealed that assessment should take into account the separation of visual from verbal

  8. Salud nutricional y saneamiento ambiental en el centro poblado menor "el milagro" de Trujillo - Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Aldabe Boyd, María Susana

    2006-01-01

    Se describe y analiza la condición de salud nutricional y de saneamiento ambiental en el Centro poblado Menor El Milagro. La muestra estuvo constituida por el 30 % (3838) de la población total de habitantes del Centro Poblado menor El Milagro, de los cuales 2,025 fueron escolares de mayores de 5 años y menores de 18 años de edad, y 1813 adultos mayores de 18 años de edad. La evaluación del estado nutricional del niño, se realizó aplicando la metodología de Waterloo, y para el caso de los...

  9. Modeling organic aerosols during MILAGRO: importance of biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The meso-scale chemistry-transport model CHIMERE is used to assess our understanding of major sources and formation processes leading to a fairly large amount of organic aerosols – OA, including primary OA (POA and secondary OA (SOA – observed in Mexico City during the MILAGRO field project (March 2006. Chemical analyses of submicron aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS indicate that organic particles found in the Mexico City basin contain a large fraction of oxygenated organic species (OOA which have strong correspondence with SOA, and that their production actively continues downwind of the city. The SOA formation is modeled here by the one-step oxidation of anthropogenic (i.e. aromatics, alkanes, biogenic (i.e. monoterpenes and isoprene, and biomass-burning SOA precursors and their partitioning into both organic and aqueous phases. Conservative assumptions are made for uncertain parameters to maximize the amount of SOA produced by the model. The near-surface model evaluation shows that predicted OA correlates reasonably well with measurements during the campaign, however it remains a factor of 2 lower than the measured total OA. Fairly good agreement is found between predicted and observed POA within the city suggesting that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions are reasonably captured. Consistent with previous studies in Mexico City, large discrepancies are encountered for SOA, with a factor of 2–10 model underestimate. When only anthropogenic SOA precursors were considered, the model was able to reproduce within a factor of two the sharp increase in OOA concentrations during the late morning at both urban and near-urban locations but the discrepancy increases rapidly later in the day, consistent with previous results, and is especially obvious when the column-integrated SOA mass is considered instead of the surface concentration. The increase in the missing SOA mass in the afternoon coincides with the sharp drop in POA

  10. Observation of peers in learning to write: Practice and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Elke Van Steendam, Anne Toorenaar,Journal of Writing Research 1(1, 53-83In this paper we discuss the role of observation in learning to write. We argue that the acquisition of skill in such a complex domain as writing relies on observation, the classical imitatio. An important phase in learning to write, at all ages, is learning to write by observing and evaluating relevant processes: writing processes, reading processes or communication processes between writers and readers.First, we present two practical cases: writing lessons in which observation and inquiry are amongst other key elements and where students participate in a community of learners. Then, we review research that may inspire and substantiate proposals for implementing observation as a learning activity in writing education. Two types of studies are discussed: studies in which learners acquire strategies by observing and evaluating writing and reading processes of peers, as a prewriting instructional activity, and studies in which learners are stimulated to 'pre-test' and then revise their first draft, as a post writing instructional activity. The paper closes with some recommendations for further research.

  11. COR V2: teaching observational research with multimedia courseware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasko, Dawn G; Kazmerski, Victoria A; Torgerson, Carla N

    2004-05-01

    Courseware for Observational Research (COR Version 2) is an interactive multimedia program designed to teach the foundation of the scientific method: systematic observation. COR uses digital video with interactive coding to teach basic concepts, such as creating precise operational definitions; using frequency, interval, and duration coding; developing sampling strategies; and analyzing and interpreting data. Through lessons, a case study, and laboratory exercises, it gradually scaffolds students from teacher-directed learning into self-directed learning. The newest addition to COR is a case study in which students work collaboratively, using their own observations to make recommendations about a child's disruptive behavior in an after-school program. Evaluations of the lessons showed that classes using COR received better grades on their field observations than did those using methods that are more traditional. Students' confidence and knowledge increased as they moved through each section of the program.

  12. Participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy; Buch Løgstrup, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of practice. They do so by combining participant observation, anthropology methodology and design anthropology research inquiry engaging with practice based explorations to understand if methods and methodologies, understood as being central to anthropological inquiry, can be taught to interaction design...... engineering students studying in an engineering faculty and engineers working in an energy company. They ask how do you generate anthropological capacities with interaction design engineering students engaged in engineering design processes and employees of an energy company setting out to reframe...... their relation with the private end user? What kind of ways can engaging within collaborative processes of designing offer opportunities for both designing and anthropological research inquiry simultaneously?...

  13. GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Balzter, H.

    2012-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: -Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). -Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centers and market leaders in the private sector. -Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. The training program through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics (each carried out by an Early Stage Researchers based in one of the partner organization) divided in 5 main areas: Forest monitoring: Global biomass information systems Forest Monitoring of the Congo Basin using Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) Multi-concept Earth Observation Capabilities for Biomass Mapping and Change Detection: Synergy of Multi-temporal and Multi-frequency Interferometric Radar and Optical Satellite Data Land cover and change: Multi-scale Remote Sensing Synergy for Land Process Studies: from field Spectrometry to Airborne Hyperspectral and

  14. Comparison of aerosol optical depths from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on Aura with results from airborne sunphotometry, other space and ground measurements during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Livingston

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne sunphotometer measurements are used to evaluate retrievals of extinction aerosol optical depth (AOD from spatially coincident and temporally near-coincident measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI aboard the Aura satellite during the March 2006 Megacity Initiative-Local And Global Research Observations/Phase B of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (MILAGRO/INTEX-B. The 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS flew on nine missions over the Gulf of Mexico and four in or near the Mexico City area. Retrievals of AOD from near-coincident AATS and OMI measurements are compared for three flights over the Gulf of Mexico for flight segments when the aircraft flew at altitudes 60–70 m above sea level, and for one flight over the Mexico City area where the aircraft was restricted to altitudes ~320–800 m above ground level over the rural area and ~550–750 m over the city. OMI-measured top of atmosphere (TOA reflectances are routinely inverted to yield aerosol products such as AOD and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD using two different retrieval algorithms: a near-UV (OMAERUV and a multiwavelength (OMAERO technique. This study uses the archived Collection 3 data products from both algorithms. In particular, AATS and OMI AOD comparisons are presented for AATS data acquired in 20 OMAERUV retrieval pixels (15 over water and 19 OMAERO pixels (also 15 over water. At least four pixels for one of the over-water coincidences and all pixels for the over-land case were cloud-free. Coincident AOD retrievals from 17 pixels of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aboard Aqua are available for two of the over-water flights and are shown to agree with AATS AODs to within root mean square (RMS differences of 0.00–0.06, depending on wavelength. Near-coincident ground-based AOD measurements from ground-based sun/sky radiometers operated as part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET

  15. Estudio del Potencial Acuícola del cantón Milagro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo-Ávila, José

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past, in Ecuador many investments in aquaculture have been made without properly assessing the variables of production, markets and profitability, which could have avoided investments that at first appeared profitable, but that eventually turned out to have problems due to not having made a proper feasibility study of technical, economic and market conditions. Due to sustained growth of aquacul- ture exports and greater participation in productive activities in the country a need for an investment project has arisen. This work, besides serving this specific purpose, may also act as a guide for other potential investors who might be interested in similar projects by providing a tool that serves to meet its orientation towards these activities and as a source of study. In an effort to diversify non-traditional export products and encourage consumption it was decided to present a project within the aquaculture production, studying the native fish of the Ecuadorian Coast which possess the characteristics and prospects for development. The project should be undertaken in areas that meet the parameters of soil and water known as "Aquaculture Farms". This paper develops a study of the aquaculture potential of the district of Milagro to harness their resources in production and marketing projects.

  16. Impact logistics-technique study of generating predictive maintenance in SME sin Milagro, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Rolando Cedeño Anchundia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is to discern the organizational culture regarding the acceptance of monitoring techniques and predictive inspections that help reduce the problems arising in the infrastructure of production processes within an industrial plant and thus optimize downtime that they occur due to ignorance or little attention and in some cases due to lack of awareness of operators or direct users of these computers. SMEs currently are optimizing their processes, automating their production line which implies that there should be better controls, to be more competitive because the increase in technology, greatly improves productivity. Before the technology boom happening in terms of machinery and processes, corrective measures were used to eliminate problems and these generated high rates in terms of costs for equipment maintenance, in the XXI century predictive maintenance techniques, consisting develops diagnose and maintain installed both in the electrical part and mechanical non-stop operational teams, allowing the reduction of lost production time and costs, costs of obtaining the most competitive end products in the market infrastructure. Also analyze the type of maintenance they currently possess SMEs in the city of Milagro-Ecuador and how it is influencing their productivity in order to develop proposals for improvements and recommendations in order to optimize their processes and increase profitability.

  17. Maldiciones, herejías y otros milagros de la economía extractivista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Acosta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se abordan aspectos clave de las economías extractivistas las que se expresan como una teología basada en la religión del crecimiento económico. Se recuerdan sus determinantes históricos en la Ilustración a las políticas más recientes de tipo neoliberal. Estas corrientes defienden programas de libre mercado en sus declaraciones aunque sus prácticas son otras, y no consideran dimensiones como las sociales y ambientales. Esto resulta en una paradoja de una maldición de países que son ricos en recursos naturales pero siguen siendo pobres desde el punto de vista del desarrollo. Se analizan las distorsiones por las cuales las economías extractivistas desembocan en varias «enfermedades» y se dan ejemplos latinoamericanos. Esto incluye procesos tales como la dependencia de capital y tecnologías, la mentalidad mono exportadora y la subordinación a mercados globales. Se generan intercambios desiguales, en lo comercial como en lo ecológico. Las comunidades locales sufren graves impactos sociales y ambientales, y distintas violencias que incluyen violaciones de los derechos humanos y de la naturaleza. Por estas y otras vías, los extractivismos generan una cultura del milagro y prácticas que consideran que las críticas son herejías, todo lo cual amenaza la democracia.

  18. Source apportionment of fine organic aerosol in Mexico City during the MILAGRO experiment 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Stone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic carbon (OC comprises a large fraction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in Mexico City. Daily and select 12-h PM2.5 samples were collected in urban and peripheral sites in Mexico City from 17–30 March 2006. Samples were analyzed for OC and elemental carbon (EC using thermal-optical filter-based methods. Real-time water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC was collected at the peripheral site. Organic compounds, particularly molecular markers, were quantified by soxhlet extraction with methanol and dichloromethane, derivitization, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GCMS. A chemical mass balance model (CMB based on molecular marker species was used to determine the relative contribution of major sources to ambient OC. Motor vehicles, including diesel and gasoline, consistently accounted for 49% of OC in the urban area and 32% on the periphery. The daily contribution of biomass burning to OC was highly variable, and ranged from 5–26% at the urban site and 7–39% at the peripheral site. The remaining OC unapportioned to primary sources showed a strong correlation with WSOC and was considered to be secondary in nature. Comparison of temporally resolved OC showed that contributions from primary aerosol sources during daylight hours were not significantly different from nighttime. This study provides quantitative understanding of the important sources of OC during the MILAGRO 2006 field campaign.

  19. Simulations of organic aerosol concentrations in Mexico City using the WRF-CHEM model during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol concentrations are simulated using the WRF-CHEM model in Mexico City during the period from 24 to 29 March in association with the MILAGRO-2006 campaign. Two approaches are employed to predict the variation and spatial distribution of the organic aerosol concentrations: (1 a traditional 2-product secondary organic aerosol (SOA model with non-volatile primary organic aerosols (POA; (2 a non-traditional SOA model including the volatility basis-set modeling method in which primary organic components are assumed to be semi-volatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area 2006 official emission inventory is used in simulations and the POA emissions are modified and distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments for the non-traditional SOA model. The model results are compared to the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations analyzed using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF technique at an urban background site (T0 and a suburban background site (T1 in Mexico City. The traditional SOA model frequently underestimates the observed POA concentrations during rush hours and overestimates the observations in the rest of the time in the city. The model also substantially underestimates the observed SOA concentrations, particularly during daytime, and only produces 21% and 25% of the observed SOA mass in the suburban and urban area, respectively. The non-traditional SOA model performs well in simulating the POA variation, but still overestimates during daytime in the urban area. The SOA simulations are significantly improved in the non-traditional SOA model compared to the traditional SOA model and the SOA production is increased by more than 100% in the city. However, the underestimation during daytime is still salient in the urban area and the non-traditional model also fails to reproduce the high level of SOA concentrations in the

  20. p-Curve and p-Hacking in Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Stephan B; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-01-01

    The p-curve, the distribution of statistically significant p-values of published studies, has been used to make inferences on the proportion of true effects and on the presence of p-hacking in the published literature. We analyze the p-curve for observational research in the presence of p-hacking. We show by means of simulations that even with minimal omitted-variable bias (e.g., unaccounted confounding) p-curves based on true effects and p-curves based on null-effects with p-hacking cannot be reliably distinguished. We also demonstrate this problem using as practical example the evaluation of the effect of malaria prevalence on economic growth between 1960 and 1996. These findings call recent studies into question that use the p-curve to infer that most published research findings are based on true effects in the medical literature and in a wide range of disciplines. p-values in observational research may need to be empirically calibrated to be interpretable with respect to the commonly used significance threshold of 0.05. Violations of randomization in experimental studies may also result in situations where the use of p-curves is similarly unreliable.

  1. GIONET (GMES Initial Operations Network for Earth Observation Research Training)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, V.; Balzter, H.

    2013-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. Copernicus (previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is a joint undertaking of the European Space Agency and the European Commission. It develops fully operational Earth Observation monitoring services for a community of end users from the public and private sector. The first services that are considered fully operational are the land monitoring and emergency monitoring core services. In GIONET, 14 early stage researchers are being trained at PhD level in understanding the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers are based in industry and universities across Europe, as well as receiving the best technical training and scientific education. The training programme through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics. Each topic is carried out by an Early Stage Researcher based in one of the partner organisations and is expected to lead to a PhD degree. The 14 topics are grouped in 5 research themes: Forest monitoring Land cover and change Coastal zone and freshwater monitoring Geohazards and emergency response Climate adaptation and emergency response The methods developed and used in GIONET are as diverse as its research topics. GIONET has already held two summer schools; one at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany), on 'New operational radar satellite applications: Introduction to SAR, Interferometry and Polarimetry for Land Surface Mapping'. The 2nd summer school took place last September at the University of Leicester (UK )on 'Remote sensing of land cover and forest in GMES'. The next Summer School in September 2013

  2. Observing the user experience a practitioner's guide to user research

    CERN Document Server

    Kuniavsky, Mike; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The gap between who designers and developers imagine their users are, and who those users really are can be the biggest problem with product development. Observing the User Experience will help you bridge that gap to understand what your users want and need from your product, and whether they'll be able to use what you've created. Filled with real-world experience and a wealth of practical information, this book presents a complete toolbox of techniques to help designers and developers see through the eyes of their users. It provides in-depth coverage of 13 user experience research techniques

  3. Negocios familiares e incidencias en la generación de nuevos emprendimientos en la ciudad de Milagro

    OpenAIRE

    Yadira Arteaga Estrella; Ligia Meibol Fajardo Vaca; Félix Villegas Yagual

    2015-01-01

    La microempresa familiar es una unidad económica de trabajo y gestión, que se forma por decisión familiar. En ella dos o más integrantes de la familia aportan diferentes recursos: fuerzas de trabajo, capacidades personales, conocimientos e informaciones sobre cómo hacer las cosas, medios materiales, local, equipamiento. En la ciudad de Milagro provincia del Guayas, Ecuador; se establecen micro negocios familiares donde se analizan varios factores que inciden en la generación de nuevos emprend...

  4. El gran milagro... Todavía=The Great Miracle… As Yet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquita Suárez Coalla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este texto plantea una reflexión personal sobre las múltiples contradicciones y desafíos que la institución y la experiencia de la maternidad plantean a las mujeres, considerando un contexto muy específico: la academia norteamericana, a la que llegué como inmigrante privilegiada desde España. Si la práctica de la co-maternidad aparece en ciertos discursos como garante de la solidaridad entre las mujeres, otros factores como la raza, la clase o las puras circunstancias individuales, modulan nuestras vidas como mujeres, trabajadoras y madres. En cualquier caso, en nuestras sociedades desarrolladas e hiper-competitivas, solo gracias a las redes de apoyo formales o informales entre mujeres y a una voluntad decidida de involucrare en la crianza de l@s hij@s por parte de nuestras parejas garantiza que la experiencia de ser madres pueda ser vivida como un gran milagro.   Abstract This text proposes a personal reflection on the multiple contradictions and challenges that the institution and the experience of motherhood pose to women, considering a very specific context: the American academy, to which I arrived as a (privileged immigrant from Spain. If the practice of co-motherhood appears in certain contexts as a guarantee of solidarity among women, other factors such as race, class or purely individual circumstances modulate our lives as women, workers and mothers. In any case, in our developed and hyper-competitive societies, it is only thanks to formal or informal networks of support between women and a clear will on the part of our partners that allows us to live the experience of motherhood as a great miracle.

  5. A solar observing station for education and research in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaname, José Iba, Ishitsuka; Ishitsuka, Mutsumi; Trigoso Avilés, Hugo; Takashi, Sakurai; Yohei, Nishino; Miyazaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Kazunari; Ueno, Satoru; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Maeda, George

    2007-12-01

    Since 1937 Carnegie Institution of Washington made observations of active regions of the Sun with a Hale type spectro-helioscope in Huancayo observatory of the Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP). IGP has contributed significantly to geophysical and solar sciences in the last 69 years. Now IGP and the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica (UNICA) are planning to refurbish the coelostat at the observatory with the support of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. It is also planned to install a solar Flare Monitor Telescope (FMT) at UNICA, from Hida observatory of Kyoto University. Along with the coelostat, the FMT will be useful to improve scientific research and education.

  6. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosondes and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis was used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin-scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns enables the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  7. Geophysical Observations Supporting Research of Magmatic Processes at Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín. S.; Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; Roberts, Matthew J.

    2010-05-01

    Magmatic processes at volcanoes on the boundary between the European and North American plates in Iceland are observed with in-situ multidisciplinary geophysical networks owned by different national, European or American universities and research institutions, but through collaboration mostly operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. The terrestrial observations are augmented by space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images of the volcanoes and their surrounding surface. Together this infrastructure can monitor magma movements in several volcanoes from the base of the crust up to the surface. The national seismic network is sensitive enough to detect small scale seismicity deep in the crust under some of the voclanoes. High resolution mapping of this seismicity and its temporal progression has been used to delineate the track of the magma as it migrates upwards in the crust, either to form an intrusion at shallow levels or to reach the surface in an eruption. Broadband recording has also enabled capturing low frequency signals emanating from magmatic movements. In two volcanoes, Eyjafjallajökull and Katla, just east of the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), seismicity just above the crust-mantle boundary has revealed magma intruding into the crust from the mantle below. As the magma moves to shallower levels, the deformation of the Earth‘s surface is captured by geodetic systems, such as continuous GPS networks, (InSAR) images of the surface and -- even more sensitive to the deformation -- strain meters placed in boreholes around 200 m below the Earth‘s surface. Analysis of these signals can reveal the size and shape of the magma as well as the temporal evolution. At near-by Hekla volcano flanking the SISZ to the north, where only 50% of events are of M>1 compared to 86% of earthquakes in Eyjafjallajökull, the sensitivity of the seismic network is insufficient to detect the smallest seismicity and so the volcano appears less

  8. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  9. Instrumentation for high-frequency meteorological observations from research vessel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VijayKumar, K.; Khalap, S.; Mehra, P.

    Ship provides an attractive platform from which high-frequency meteorological observations (e.g., wind components, water vapor density, and air temperature) can be made accurately. However, accurate observations of meteorological variables depend...

  10. Exploring interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care: case study based observational research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Eileen M.; Morgan, Sonya J.; Gray, Ben V.; Macdonald, Lindsay M.; Pullon, Susan R.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The increase in multimorbidity or co-occurring chronic illnesses is a leading healthcare concern. Patients with multimorbidity require ongoing care from many different professionals and agencies, and often report a lack of integrated care. Objective To explore the daily help-seeking behaviours of patients with multimorbidity, including which health professionals they seek help from, how professionals work together, and perceptions and characteristics of effective interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care. Design Using a case study observational research design, multiple data sources were assembled for four patients with multimorbidity, identified by two general practitioners in New Zealand. In this paper, two case studies are presented, including the recorded instances of contact and communication between patients and professionals, and between professionals. Professional interactions were categorized as consultation, coordination, or collaboration. Results The two case studies illustrated two female patients with likely similar educational levels, but with different profiles of multimorbidity, social circumstances, and personal capabilities, involving various professionals and agencies. Engagement between professionals showed varying levels of interaction and a lack of clarity about leadership or care coordination. The majority of interactions were one-to-one consultations and rarely involved coordination and collaboration. Patients were rarely included in communications between professionals. Conclusion Cases constructed from multiple data sources illustrate the complexity of day-to-day, interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care. While consultation is the most frequent mode of professional interaction, targeted coordinated and collaborative interactions (including the patient) are highly effective activities. Greater attention should be given to developing and facilitating these interactions and determining who should lead them. PMID

  11. Evaluation of New and Proposed Organic Aerosol Sources and Mechanisms using the Aerosol Modeling Testbed. MILAGRO, CARES, CalNex, BEACHON, and GVAX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodzic, Alma [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Jimenez, Jose L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This work investigated the formation and evolution of organic aerosols (OA) arising from anthropogenic and biogenic sources in a framework that combined state-of-the-science process and regional modeling, and their evaluation against advanced and emerging field measurements. Although OA are the dominant constituents of submicron particles, our understanding of their atmospheric lifecycle is limited, and current models fail to describe the observed amounts and properties of chemically formed secondary organic aerosols (SOA), leaving large uncertainties on the effects of SOA on climate. Our work has provided novel modeling constraints on sources, formation, aging and removal of SOA by investigating in particular (i) the contribution of trash burning emissions to OA levels in a megacity, (ii) the contribution of glyoxal to SOA formation in aqueous particles in California during CARES/CalNex and over the continental U.S., (iii) SOA formation and regional growth over a pine forest in Colorado and its sensitivity to anthropogenic NOx levels during BEACHON, and the sensitivity of SOA to (iv) the sunlight exposure during its atmospheric lifetime, and to (v) changes in solubility and removal of organic vapors in the urban plume (MILAGRO, Mexico City), and over the continental U.S.. We have also developed a parameterization of water solubility for condensable organic gases produced from major anthropogenic and biogenic precursors based on explicit chemical modeling, and made it available to the wider community. This work used for the first time constraints from the explicit model GECKO-A to improve SOA representation in 3D regional models such as WRF-Chem.

  12. The Familiar Observer: Seeing beyond the Expected in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Amy Feiker

    2015-01-01

    Reflection on subjectivity in the qualitative research process is fundamental to the methodology. Although much attention is paid to what to do (identify subjectivities), there is much less emphasis on how one should do this. Furthermore, a researcher engaged in an intimately familiar setting, such as a typical American classroom, faces the unique…

  13. Estructuración de la microempresa establecida en el sector comercial de la Ciudad de Milagro, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Ronquillo, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In seeking to analyse the current structure of small businesses in the town of Milagro we considered those that have a maximum of 10 people, whose activities are performed mostly in an empirical manner, in view of the low levels of academic training amongst owners and workers. We proceeded to carry out a survey amongst a select data sample of data taken from the economic census carried out by the Ecuadorian Institute of Statistics and Censuses in the year 2010; the questions were designed to understand the socio-economic position, level of academic training, and knowledge amongst owners of the new approach of the popular and solidarity-based economy, with the purpose of diagnosing the relevant mechanisms and proposing mechanisms and strategies that contribute to the strengthening of both administrative and financial management, and contribute in this way to obtaining a higher level of income, enabling them to improve their profitability and quality of life.

  14. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis in Observational Research: Introducing the E-Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Ding, Peng

    2017-08-15

    Sensitivity analysis is useful in assessing how robust an association is to potential unmeasured or uncontrolled confounding. This article introduces a new measure called the "E-value," which is related to the evidence for causality in observational studies that are potentially subject to confounding. The E-value is defined as the minimum strength of association, on the risk ratio scale, that an unmeasured confounder would need to have with both the treatment and the outcome to fully explain away a specific treatment-outcome association, conditional on the measured covariates. A large E-value implies that considerable unmeasured confounding would be needed to explain away an effect estimate. A small E-value implies little unmeasured confounding would be needed to explain away an effect estimate. The authors propose that in all observational studies intended to produce evidence for causality, the E-value be reported or some other sensitivity analysis be used. They suggest calculating the E-value for both the observed association estimate (after adjustments for measured confounders) and the limit of the confidence interval closest to the null. If this were to become standard practice, the ability of the scientific community to assess evidence from observational studies would improve considerably, and ultimately, science would be strengthened.

  16. Some observations in university participation in nuclear engineering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickhoff, K.G.; Hill, K.M.

    1980-01-01

    A general discussion is presented on the kinds of problem which with suitable co-ordination would form appropriate topics for university research. R and D work can be done in-house, or with an industrial contractor, or with a university or polytechnic. The criteria are examined. Involvement by universities and polytechnics, and topics and location, are considered further. (U.K.)

  17. Participant Observation, Anthropology Methodology and Design Anthropology Research Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Wendy; Løgstrup, Louise B.

    2014-01-01

    Within the design studio, and across multiple field sites, the authors compare involvement of research tools and materials during collaborative processes of designing. Their aim is to trace temporal dimensions (shifts/ movements) of where and when learning takes place along different sites of practice. They do so by combining participant…

  18. Street Crossing: Observational Research and Developing Health Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…

  19. Emancipatory Research and Disabled People: Some Observations and Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Len

    2005-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the oppression and discrimination of disabled people and to their exclusion from key decisions affecting the quality of their lives. In the last two decades in particular there has been an increasing interest in many societies over the role of research in relation to the empowerment and thus inclusion of disabled people.…

  20. Observations concerning Research Literature on Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspruch, Eric L.; Forman, Bruce D.

    1985-01-01

    Identifies six categories of design and methodological errors contained in the 39 empirical studies of neurolinguistic programming (NLP) documented through April 1984. Representative reports reflecting each category are discussed. Suggestions are offered for improving the quality of research on NLP. (Author/MCF)

  1. COORDINACIÓN DE LAS PROTECCIONES DE LA SUBESTACIÓN DE DISTRIBUCIÓN EN EL SISTEMA MILAGRO GUAYAS – LOS RÍOS

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga Aguirre, Boris Adrian; Muñoz Cabello, Carlos Luis

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo desarrolla el estudio de la coordinación de protecciones aplicados a la subestación de distribución “MILAGRO SUR”, ubicada en el cantón Milagro. Partiendo primero desde la descripción de las instalaciones para conocer los elementos que la componen; posteriormente, se realiza un estudio de flujo de carga en condiciones de máxima y mínima carga y un estudio de cortocircuito de la subestación aplicados a la barra de 69kV y 13.8kV, esto nos servirá como datos preliminares para...

  2. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...... for discussing the implications of combining multiple perspectives in overall sustainability assessments of the food system. We explored how values were embedded in five research perspectives: (1) food science, (2) discourse analysis, (3) phenomenology, (4) neoclassical welfare economics, and (5) actor......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values...

  3. ¿Las peregrinaciones rurales impulsan el desarrollo local? Análisis en San Miguel del Milagro, Tlaxcala, México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Juárez Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se transita del modelo de turismo convencional al alternativo; reflejándose en el comportamiento de la oferta y demanda turística, una de sus vertientes es el turismo religioso en especial las peregrinaciones integrado en el turismo cultural. Esta vertiente es complemento al desarrollo ante la crisis de la agricultura de temporal. La información se obtuvo por medio de entrevistas a los peregrinos que asistieron al santuario de San Miguel del Milagro, Tlaxcala. Se encontró que la peregrinación a San Miguel del Milagro es regional, con una estadía promedio de 1.1 días, se realizan principalmente por personas jóvenes con bajos niveles de ingresos y escolaridad. Asistieron los peregrinos al Santuario fundamentalmente para pedir un milagro y poco más de la mitad la realizó a pie o en bicicleta. La derrama económica por peregrino fue baja ($608.60 en promedio, el principal gasto erogado fue en transporte, y en menor medida la compra de ofrendas, comidas y gastos realizados durante la travesía. No pagaron hospedaje. Se concluye que las peregrinaciones contribuyen a incrementar las ventas en los espacios circunvecinos al santuario y que es necesario incrementar la estadía del peregrino creando productos relacionados con la fe religiosa, respetando su cultura y tradiciones.

  4. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smit, Elisabeth; Kearns, Lisa S; Clarke, Linda; Dick, Jonathan; Hill, Catherine L; Hewitt, Alex W

    2016-01-01

    Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) and Research Governance Offices (RGOs) across Australia. In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a "National Ethics Application Form" and three a "Low Negligible Risk" form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22) and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days). We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently.

  5. Curso de preparación para la maternidad y paternidad, “un proyecto de vida” El milagro de la vida y la aromaterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya Bastidas, Diana Marcela; Naranjo Acevedo, Jenny Marcela; Vergara Bravo, Adriana Patricia

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo de grado se encuentra enfocado a la realización y resultados del curso de Preparación para la MATERNIDAD Y PATERNIDAD, “Un proyecto de vida” EL MILAGRO DE LA VIDA Y LA AROMATERAPIA como respuesta a la necesidad de “lograr una preparación física y psicológica de la gestante, su pareja y su grupo familiar” (Bejarano, Bejarano, 2004). Realizado en la UPA 30 Bomberos de Kennedy durante los meses de Abril y Mayo de 2014; dando respuesta a las metas y proyectos establecidos a ni...

  6. Report of the investigation of the accident at the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO Trailer Park on Rainier Mesa at Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen persons were injured, one fatally, when the ground upon which they were working collapsed, forming a subsidence crater in the recording trailer park of the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO nuclear weapons effects test on Rainier Mesa at the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984. Those persons injured were contractor and laboratory employees from Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo), Pan American World Services, Inc. (PANAM), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report presents the results of an investigation into the causes, effects, and response to the accident. 42 figures

  7. Mexico city aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0 – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the non-fossil carbon fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Aiken

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS and complementary instrumentation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of high resolution AMS spectra identified a biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA component, which includes several large plumes that appear to be from forest fires within the region. Here, we show that the AMS BBOA concentration at T0 correlates with fire counts in the vicinity of Mexico City and that most of the BBOA variability is captured when the FLEXPART model is used for the dispersion of fire emissions as estimated from satellite fire counts. The resulting FLEXPART fire impact factor (FIF correlates well with the observed BBOA, acetonitrile (CH3CN, levoglucosan, and potassium, indicating that wildfires in the region surrounding Mexico City are the dominant source of BBOA at T0 during MILAGRO. The impact of distant BB sources such as the Yucatan is small during this period. All fire tracers are correlated, with BBOA and levoglucosan showing little background, acetonitrile having a well-known tropospheric background of ~100–150 pptv, and PM2.5 potassium having a background of ~160 ng m−3 (two-thirds of its average concentration, which does not appear to be related to BB sources.

    We define two high fire periods based on satellite fire counts and FLEXPART-predicted FIFs. We then compare these periods with a low fire period when the impact of regional fires is about a factor of 5 smaller. Fire tracers are very elevated in the high fire periods whereas tracers of urban pollution do not change between these periods. Dust is also elevated during the high BB period but this appears to be coincidental due to the drier conditions and not driven by direct dust emission from the fires. The AMS oxygenated organic aerosol (OA factor (OOA, mostly secondary OA or SOA

  8. Personal Reflections on Observational and Experimental Research Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen dramatic changes in childhood psychopathology research. The goal of this overview is to contrast observational and experimental research approaches; both have grown more complex such that the boundary between these approaches may be blurred. Both are essential. Landmark observational studies with long-term follow-up…

  9. Heterogeneity of Human Research Ethics Committees and Research Governance Offices across Australia: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth De Smit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. Aims To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs and Research Governance Offices (RGOs across Australia. Methods In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA, for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Results Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a “National Ethics Application Form” and three a “Low Negligible Risk” form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22 and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days. Conclusion We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently

  10. Research Ethics and Ethical Research: Some Observations from the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to achieve two objectives. Firstly, it elicits some of the concerns for universal research ethics. It is argued that ethical codes are never universal; they are geographically sensitive. As such, it is important to "develop authentic individual responses to potentially unique circumstances". Secondly, in going beyond a…

  11. Oxygenated organic functional groups and their sources in single and submicron organic particles in MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF were used to measure organic functional groups and elements of submicron particles collected during MILAGRO in March 2006 on three platforms: the Mexico City urban area (SIMAT, the high altitude site at 4010 m (Altzomoni, and the NCAR C130 aircraft. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS were applied to single particle organic functional group abundance analysis of particles simultaneously collected at SIMAT and C130. Correlations of elemental concentrations showed different groups of source-related elements at SIMAT, Altzomoni, and C130, suggesting different processes affecting the air masses sampled at the three platforms. Cluster analysis resulted in seven distinct clusters of FTIR spectra, with the last three clusters consisting of spectra collected almost exclusively on the C130 platform, reflecting the variety of sources contributing to C130 samples. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF of STXM-NEXAFS spectra identified three main factors representing soot, secondary, and biomass burning type spectra. PMF of FTIR spectra resulted in two fossil fuel combustion factors and one biomass burning factor, the former representative of source regions to the northeast and southwest of SIMAT. Alkane, carboxylic acid, amine, and alcohol functional groups were mainly associated with combustion related sources, while non-acid carbonyl groups were likely from biomass burning events. The majority of OM and O/C was attributed to combustion sources, although no distinction between direct emissions and atmospherically processed OM could be identified.

  12. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paredes-Miranda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aethalometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in North East Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP, as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethalometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 07:00 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic is approximately 75% of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  13. Primary and secondary contributions to aerosol light scattering and absorption in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Miranda, G.; Arnott, W. P.; Jimenez, J. L.; Aiken, A. C.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2009-06-01

    A photoacoustic spectrometer, a nephelometer, an aethalometer, and an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to measure at ground level real-time aerosol light absorption, scattering, and chemistry at an urban site located in North East Mexico City (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexican Petroleum Institute, denoted by IMP), as part of the Megacity Impact on Regional and Global Environments field experiment, MILAGRO, in March 2006. Photoacoustic and reciprocal nephelometer measurements at 532 nm accomplished with a single instrument compare favorably with conventional measurements made with an aethalometer and a TSI nephelometer. The diurnally averaged single scattering albedo at 532 nm was found to vary from 0.60 to 0.85 with the peak value at midday and the minimum value at 07:00 a.m. local time, indicating that the Mexico City plume is likely to have a net warming effect on local climate. The peak value is associated with strong photochemical generation of secondary aerosol. It is estimated that the photochemical production of secondary aerosol (inorganic and organic) is approximately 75% of the aerosol mass concentration and light scattering in association with the peak single scattering albedo. A strong correlation of aerosol scattering at 532 nm and total aerosol mass concentration was found, and an average mass scattering efficiency factor of 3.8 m2/g was determined. Comparisons of photoacoustic and aethalometer light absorption with oxygenated organic aerosol concentration (OOA) indicate a very small systematic bias of the filter based measurement associated with OOA and the peak aerosol single scattering albedo.

  14. Directed Research in Bone Discipline: Refining Previous Research Observations for Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mass density, as a sole index, is an insufficient surrogate for fracture; Clinical Practice Guidelines using bone mass density (both World Health Organization and FRAX) are not specific for complicated subjects such as young, healthy persons following prolonged exposure to skeletal unloading (i.e. an attribute of spaceflight); Research data suggest that spaceflight induces changes to astronaut bones that could be profound, possibly irreversible and unlike age-related bone loss on Earth.; There is a need to objectively assess factors across human physiology that are also influenced by spaceflight (e.g., muscle) that contribute to fracture risk. Some of these objective assessments may require innovative technologies, analyses and modeling.; Astronauts are also exposed to novel situations that may overload their bones highlighting a need integrate biomechanics of physical activities into risk assessments.; As we accumulate data, which reflects the biomechanical competence of bone under specific mechanically-loaded scenarios (even activities of daily living), BONE expects Bone Fracture Module to be more sensitive and/or have less uncertainty in its assessments of fracture probability.; Fracture probability drives the requirement for countermeasures. Level of evidence will unlikely be obtained; hence, the Bone Research and Clinical Advisory Panel (like a Data Safety Monitoring Board) will provide the recommendations.

  15. The politics of avoidable blindness in Latin America--surgery, solidarity, and solutions: the case of Misión Milagro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrison, Tanya L; Armada, Francisco; Rai, Nanky; Muntaner, Caries

    2012-01-01

    Avoidable blindness, especially when caused by cataracts, is a disease primarily of the economically disadvantaged sectors of the population. With a focus on Latin America and the Caribbean, this paper focuses on the program Misión Milagro within its historical, political, and economic contexts. This initiative, led by the governments of Cuba and Venezuela, covers close to 35 countries across Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa. It is well-known throughout Latin America as close to 2 million patients have undergone free screening, corrective surgery, and rehabilitation since its inception in 2004. Misión Milagro shows that implementation of a massive initiative to curb avoidable blindness caused by cataracts in a relatively short time is feasible. The program is also built upon a unique model of international cooperation, which stresses social objectives and solidarity rather than hegemonic international initiatives built on commercial relationships. It also provides elements that could be applied to other public health issues of global or national relevance, not only to other low-middle-income countries, but also to high-income countries such as Canada.

  16. AFSC/ABL: Little Port Walter Marine Research Station Supply Run Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In November, 2006, Oceanographic observations were initiated during the resupply cruises to the Little Port Walter Research Station on lower Baranof Island,...

  17. Report of meteorological observations in site of Tokai Research Establishment in 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Covered are the meteorological observations from January to December 1971 in Tokai Research Establishment as monthly summaries, including daily and hourly mean wind speeds, frequencies of wind directions and atmospheric stability. (auth.)

  18. Total observed organic carbon (TOOC in the atmosphere: a synthesis of North American observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Heald

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of organic carbon compounds in both the gas and particle phases made upwind, over and downwind of North America are synthesized to examine the total observed organic carbon (TOOC in the atmosphere over this region. These include measurements made aboard the NOAA WP-3 and BAe-146 aircraft, the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown, and at the Thompson Farm and Chebogue Point surface sites during the summer 2004 ICARTT campaign. Both winter and summer 2002 measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study are also included. Lastly, the spring 2002 observations at Trinidad Head, CA, surface measurements made in March 2006 in Mexico City and coincidentally aboard the C-130 aircraft during the MILAGRO campaign and later during the IMPEX campaign off the northwestern United States are incorporated. Concentrations of TOOC in these datasets span more than two orders of magnitude. The daytime mean TOOC ranges from 4.0 to 456 μgC m−3 from the cleanest site (Trinidad Head to the most polluted (Mexico City. Organic aerosol makes up 3–17% of this mean TOOC, with highest fractions reported over the northeastern United States, where organic aerosol can comprise up to 50% of TOOC. Carbon monoxide concentrations explain 46 to 86% of the variability in TOOC, with highest TOOC/CO slopes in regions with fresh anthropogenic influence, where we also expect the highest degree of mass closure for TOOC. Correlation with isoprene, formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein also indicates that biogenic activity contributes substantially to the variability of TOOC, yet these tracers of biogenic oxidation sources do not explain the variability in organic aerosol observed over North America. We highlight the critical need to develop measurement techniques to routinely detect total gas phase VOCs, and to deploy comprehensive suites of TOOC instruments in diverse environments to quantify the ambient evolution of organic carbon from source

  19. Using video-based observation research methods in primary care health encounters to evaluate complex interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; Montague, Enid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of video-based observation research methods in primary care environment and highlight important methodological considerations and provide practical guidance for primary care and human factors researchers conducting video studies to understand patient-clinician interaction in primary care settings. We reviewed studies in the literature which used video methods in health care research, and we also used our own experience based on the video studies we conducted in primary care settings. This paper highlighted the benefits of using video techniques, such as multi-channel recording and video coding, and compared "unmanned" video recording with the traditional observation method in primary care research. We proposed a list that can be followed step by step to conduct an effective video study in a primary care setting for a given problem. This paper also described obstacles, researchers should anticipate when using video recording methods in future studies. With the new technological improvements, video-based observation research is becoming a promising method in primary care and HFE research. Video recording has been under-utilised as a data collection tool because of confidentiality and privacy issues. However, it has many benefits as opposed to traditional observations, and recent studies using video recording methods have introduced new research areas and approaches.

  20. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health: Moving from Research to Operational End Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, J.; Estes, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Health providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate NASA's applied science programs efforts to transition from research to operations to benefit society. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the health research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in health research and the transition to operational end users.

  1. Optical properties, morphology and elemental chemical composition of atmospheric particles at T1 supersite on MILAGRO campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, G.; Mamani-Paco, R.; Castro, T.; Peralta, O.; Herrera, E.; Trujillo, B.

    2011-05-01

    Atmospheric particles were sampled at T1 supersite (19°43' N latitude, 98°58' W longitude, and 2340 m above sea level) during MILAGRO campaign. T1 was located at the north of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Aerosol sampling was done by placing transmission electron microscope (TEM) copper grids on the last 5 stages of an 8-stage MOUDI cascade impactor (d50 = 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, and 0.18 μm). Samples were obtained at morning (06:00-09:00), noon (11:00-14:00), afternoon (16:00-19:00) and evening (21:00-24:00) local time. Absorption and scattering coefficients, and particles concentration (0.01-3 μm aerodynamic diameter) were measured simultaneously using a PASP absorption photometer (operated at 550 nm), a portable integrating nephelometer (at 530 nm) and a CNI particle counter. TEM images of particles were acquired at different magnifications using a CM 200 Phillips TEM-EDAX system. The morphology of atmospheric particles for two aerodynamic diameters (0.18 and 1.8 μm) was compared using border-based fractal dimension. Particles sampled under Mexico City pollution influence showed not much variability, suggesting the presence of more compact particles in smaller sizes (d50 = 1.8 μm) at the site. The presence of higher numbers of compact particles can be attributed to aerosol aging and secondary aerosol formation, among others. Under early morning conditions, smaller particles (d50 = 0.18 μm) had more irregular features resulting in a higher average fractal dimension. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the elemental composition of particles. EDS analysis in particles with d50 = 0.18 μm showed a higher content of carbonaceous material and relevant amounts of Si, Fe, K, and Co. This may indicate an impact from industrial and vehicle's emissions on atmospheric particles.

  2. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chen, Aileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hoffman, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tina Shih, Ya-Chen [Department of Medicine, Section of Hospital Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, and Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yu, James B. [Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  3. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Chen, Aileen; Chen, Ronald C.; Hoffman, Karen; Tina Shih, Ya-Chen; Smith, Benjamin D.; Yu, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold

  4. Problematizing qualitative educational research: reading observations and interviews through rhizoanalysis and multiple literacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Masny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article problematizes conventional qualitative educational research through a process of reading observation and interview in rhizomatic research. Such an approach to doing research brings together Multiple Literacies Theory and rhizoanalysis, innovative practices with transdisciplinary implications. This article contributes to on-going research regarding the emergence of multiple literacies and rhizoanalysis as a way to experiment in disrupting conventional research concepts, in this case, observations and interviews. Rhizoanalysis is proposed because of its non-hierarchical and non-linear perspective to conducting qualitative research. In a similar manner, Multiple Literacies Theory seeks to release school-based literacy from its privileged position and unfold literacy as multiple and non-hierarchical. This theoretical and practical stance to educational research is deployed in an assemblage that includes a study of multiple writing systems with 5- to 8 –year- old multilingual children. Reading observation and interviews through the lens of rhizoanalysis and Multiple Literacies Theory becomes an exploration in reconceptualization of qualitative research.

  5. Alternative Observation Tools for the Scope of Contemporary Education Supervision: An Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet Kuru Cetin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in-class lesson observations were made with volunteer teachers working in primary and secondary schools using alternative observation tools regarding the scope of contemporary educational supervision. The study took place during the fall and spring semesters of the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 academic years and the class observations were made with six alternative volunteer teachers in the primary and secondary schools in the provincial and district centers using alternative observation tools. In the classroom observations, the teacher's verbal flow scheme, teacher's movement scheme and student behaviors both during tasks and not, were analyzed. Observations were made during the two classes with teacher's permission. After the first observation, an information meeting was held and then the second observation was made. Following the observations, interviews were held with the teachers. In interviews, the information about the class observations was shared with teachers and their opinions about research were asked. It has been found that alternative observations, in general, have a positive effect on the professional development of teachers. It is concluded that this type of observation approach positively affects teachers' in-class activities, helps in classroom management and teaching arrangements and positively affects student's unwanted behaviors.

  6. Ten years research activities in Earth observation at the Cyprus University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Nisantzi, Argyro; Papoutsa, Christiana; Tzouvaras, Marios; Neoclous, Kyriacos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Michaelides, Silas

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the achievements for the last 10 years of the Remote Sensing and Geo-Environment Laboratory of the Cyprus University of Technology in the Earth observation through the ERATOSTHENES Research Centre. Over the past 10 years, the Centre has secured competitive research funding from various sources, such as the European Commission, the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation, as well as industrial partners, having participated either as a coordinator or as a partner in more than 60 research projects. The research activities of the Centre encompass remote sensing and GIS applications in the fields of Cultural Heritage, Agriculture, Water Resource Management, Environment, Infrastructure, Marine Spatial Planning, Atmospheric, Air Pollution and Coastal Applications, Natural Resource Management and Hazard Assessment. The aim of this paper is to map the existing activities and identify the future trends and goals of the Eratosthenes Research Centre for the next 15 years.

  7. Funding for cerebral palsy research in Australia, 2000–2015: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R; Novak, I; Badawi, N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the funding for cerebral palsy (CP) research in Australia, as compared with the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Design Observational study. Setting For Australia, philanthropic funding from Cerebral Palsy Alliance Research Foundation (CPARF) (2005–2015) was compared with National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2000–2015) and Australian Research Council (ARC, 2004–2015) and CPARF and NHMRC funding were compared with NIH funding (USA). Participants Cerebral Palsy researchers funded by CPARF, NHMRC or NIH. Results Over 10 years, total CPARF philanthropic funding was $21.9 million, including people, infrastructure, strategic and project support. As competitive grants, CPARF funded $11.1 million, NHMRC funded $53.5 million and Australian Research Council funded $1.5 million. CPARF, NHMRC and NIH funding has increased in real terms, but only the NIH statistically significantly increased in real terms (mean annual increase US$4.9 million per year, 95% CI 3.6 to 6.2, p<0.001). The NHMRC budget allocated to CP research remained steady over time at 0.5%. A network analysis indicated the relatively small number of CP researchers in Australia is mostly connected through CPARF or NHMRC funding. Conclusions Funding for CP research from the Australian government schemes has stabilised and CP researchers rely on philanthropic funding to fill this gap. In comparison, the NIH is funding a larger number of CP researchers and their funding pattern is consistently increasing. PMID:27798026

  8. La situación de enfermería: "un milagro de vida" en la aplicación integral del concepto de duelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Yaneth Noguera Ortiz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El duelo por la muerte es una situación que se encuentra inmersa en el diario vivir del personal de salud, es inherente a los procesos de enfermedad, hospitalización y muerte. Por tal motivo, es indispensable que los profesionales de enfermería tengan conocimiento, desarrollen habilidades y destrezas con relación a esta temática. En el presente artículo se describe la situación de enfermería "Un milagro de vida" en la que se narra la muerte de un hijo recién nacido. Posteriormente, se plantea el análisis y la formulación del concepto duelo, a partir de la revisión bibliográfica y la experiencia personal.

  9. Gestión Financiera de la Banca Pública para el Desarrollo Agrícola del Cantón Milagro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros-Bermeo, Margoth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between the levels of lending by state-owned financial institutions and their distribution to large and small farmers. Milagro In Canton, with little modernization agriculture is in the hands of capitalists and landowners, while the small farmer does not have sufficient financial resources or technical advice. The area is characterized by a low level of organization, lack of policies for the management and low productivity growth in the use of monetary resources. The private and public financial institutions have their own script and the leading role of development lies in institutions like the National Development Bank(BNF and the more distant the Corporación Financiera Nacional (CFN.The delayed operation of credit and bureaucratic processes, micro stagnate business growth, especially the agricultural sector, compared to other cities.

  10. Producción y comercialización del cacao y su incidencia en el desarrollo socioeconómico del cantón Milagro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Cárdenas, Erika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa cultivation in Ecuador is a source of income for many households in different cities of the country. Cocoa sector is considered of great importance since the role played by farmers and traders is essential for the socio-economic development, not only of Milagro Canton but also of Ecuador. The share of this sector in relation to the provincial and national production is not high; however, it does represent a contribution to the productive matrix of the country. In addition, it is affected by the conditions in which the country roads are.Through surveys applied to traders and producers, the information needed to establish their real situation was collected, as well as to know and analyze the way of marketing for cocoa and its impact on the socio-economic development of Ecuador in order to identify the different problems that this sector has, which does not allow it to interact appropriately in the national and international market.

  11. Parasitosis intestinal, su relación con factores ambientales en niños del sector "Altos de Milagro", Maracaibo Intestinal parasitosis, its relation to environmental factors in children from the "Altos de Milagro", Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Espinosa Morales

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El parasitismo intestinal de conjunto con otras enfermedades infecciosas trasmisibles, constituye el motivo por el cual un gran número de pacientes acude a los consultorios populares en la República Bolivariana de Venezuela; dentro de ellos predominan los niños y adolescentes, debido a la pobre condición higiénico- sanitaria de las barriadas. OBJETIVO: Determinar la presencia de algunos factores ambientales condicionantes en niños parasitados, del sector "Altos de Milagro"Norte, Maracaibo estado Zulia, entre diciembre de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo para determinar el comportamiento de la parasitosis intestinal en los niños del sector y su relación con algunos factores ambientales, para lo cual se utilizó una encuesta realizada por la autora, con la finalidad de obtener la información relacionada con las diferentes variables a estudiar. RESULTADOS: Fueron atendidos 56 pacientes, 51,7 % representó al sexo masculino, este último fue el más parasitado con un 42,7 %, predominaron las edades comprendidas entre 1-4 años con 39,2 %, la disposición inadecuada de excretas estuvo presente en un 86,6 %, así como la presencia de vectores en un 94,6 %, y 26 pacientes consumían agua no tratada (57,8 %. CONCLUSIONES: Existió una elevada presencia de la enfermedad, el sexo masculino fue el más afectado; sin embargo no mostró diferencias significativas con el otro sexo. Predominó el grupo etario de 1-4 años. El alto porcentaje obtenido en los factores ambientales estudiados, mostró que fueron importantes en el comienzo, transmisión y propagación de la parasitosis. Se recomendó efectuar programas de intervención comunitaria que impidan o limiten la aparición de estas enfermedades.INTRODUCTION: The intestinal parasitism together with other transmissible and infectious disease is the reason by which many patients come to popular consulting rooms in the Bolivarian

  12. The Hawthorne effect in direct observation research with physicians and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Meredith A; Stange, Kurt C; Zyzanski, Stephen J; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Borawski, Elaine A; Flocke, Susan A

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the degree to which a "Hawthorne effect" alters outpatient-visit content. Trained research nurses directly observed 4454 visits to 138 family physicians. Multiple data sources were used to examine the Hawthorne effect including differences in medical record documentation for observed visits and the prior visit by the same patient, time use during visits on the first versus the second observation day of each physician, and report by the patient, physician, and observer of the effect of observation. Visits on the first versus the second observation day were longer by an average of 1 minute (P effect of the observer on the interaction was reported by 74% of patients and 55% of physicians. Most of those that reported an affect indicated it was slight. Patients with non-White race, lower-educational level, and poorer health were more likely to report being affected by the observer. In a study that was designed to minimize the Hawthorne effect, the presence of an observer had little effect on most patient-physician visits but appeared to at least slightly effect a subgroup of vulnerable patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Research capacity and culture in podiatry: early observations within Queensland Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Research is a major driver of health care improvement and evidence-based practice is becoming the foundation of health care delivery. For health professions to develop within emerging models of health care delivery, it would seem imperative to develop and monitor the research capacity and evidence-based literacy of the health care workforce. This observational paper aims to report the research capacity levels of statewide populations of public-sector podiatrists at two different time points twelve-months apart. Methods The Research Capacity & Culture (RCC) survey was electronically distributed to all Queensland Health (Australia) employed podiatrists in January 2011 (n = 58) and January 2012 (n = 60). The RCC is a validated tool designed to measure indicators of research skill in health professionals. Participants rate skill levels against each individual, team and organisation statement on a 10-point scale (one = lowest, ten = highest). Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to determine any differences between the results of the two survey samples. A minimum significance of p  6). Whereas, most reported their organisation’s skills to perform and support research at much higher levels (Median > 6). The 2012 survey respondents reported significantly higher skill ratings compared to the 2011 survey in individuals’ ability to secure research funding, submit ethics applications, and provide research advice, plus, in their organisation’s skills to support, fund, monitor, mentor and engage universities to partner their research (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study appears to report the research capacity levels of the largest populations of podiatrists published. The 2011 survey findings indicate podiatrists have similarly low research capacity skill levels to those reported in the allied health literature. The 2012 survey, compared to the 2011 survey, suggests podiatrists perceived higher skills and support to initiate

  14. Development of a Modular Research Platform to Create Medical Observational Studies for Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zens, Martin; Grotejohann, Birgit; Tassoni, Adrian; Duttenhoefer, Fabian; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-05-23

    Observational studies have proven to be a valuable resource in medical research, especially when performed on a large scale. Recently, mobile device-based observational studies have been discovered by an increasing number of researchers as a promising new source of information. However, the development and deployment of app-based studies is not trivial and requires profound programming skills. The aim of this project was to develop a modular online research platform that allows researchers to create medical studies for mobile devices without extensive programming skills. The platform approach for a modular research platform consists of three major components. A Web-based platform forms the researchers' main workplace. This platform communicates via a shared database with a platform independent mobile app. Furthermore, a separate Web-based login platform for physicians and other health care professionals is outlined and completes the concept. A prototype of the research platform has been developed and is currently in beta testing. Simple questionnaire studies can be created within minutes and published for testing purposes. Screenshots of an example study are provided, and the general working principle is displayed. In this project, we have created a basis for a novel research platform. The necessity and implications of a modular approach were displayed and an outline for future development given. International researchers are invited and encouraged to participate in this ongoing project. ©Martin Zens, Birgit Grotejohann, Adrian Tassoni, Fabian Duttenhoefer, Norbert P Südkamp, Philipp Niemeyer. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 23.05.2017.

  15. Improving the Transition of Earth Satellite Observations from Research to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Lapenta, William M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    There are significant gaps between the observations, models, and decision support tools that make use of new data. These challenges include: 1) Decreasing the time to incorporate new satellite data into operational forecast assimilation systems, 2) Blending in-situ and satellite observing systems to produce the most accurate and comprehensive data products and assessments, 3) Accelerating the transition from research to applications through national test beds, field campaigns, and pilot demonstrations, and 4) Developing the partnerships and organizational structures to effectively transition new technology into operations. At the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama, a NASA-NOAA-University collaboration has been developed to accelerate the infusion of NASA Earth science observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NWS forecast operations and decision-making. The SPoRT Center research focus is to improve forecasts through new observation capability and the regional prediction objectives of the US Weather Research Program dealing with 0-1 day forecast issues such as convective initiation and 24-hr quantitative precipitation forecasting. The near real-time availability of high-resolution experimental products of the atmosphere, land, and ocean from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Infrared Spectroradiometer (AIRS), and lightning mapping systems provide an opportunity for science and algorithm risk reduction, and for application assessment prior to planned observations from the next generation of operational low Earth orbiting and geostationary Earth orbiting satellites. This paper describes the process for the transition of experimental products into forecast operations, current products undergoing assessment by forecasters, and plans for the future. The SPoRT Web page is at (http://www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/sport).

  16. Research on Natural Settings: Observing Adolescent Mothers and Infants throughout the First Postpartum Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Silvia H

    2018-03-01

    This manuscript aims to present and discuss challenges regarding naturalistic observation of adolescent mothers and their infants throughout the first postpartum year. Case illustrations were the object to discuss methodological options and issues faced during an observational and longitudinal research. The participants live in vulnerability in a metropolitan area in Southern Brazil. Data collection challenges led to reflections about naturalistic observation and methodological procedures, which were affected by setting characteristics and by the need of adapting to them. Most methodological difficulties were linked to naturalistic observations of mothers and their infants. Personal and contextual aspects of these settings must be taken into account in order to enhance result reliability and the knowledge about cultural idiosyncrasies.

  17. Exploring Researchers in Dialogue: Linguistic and Educational Perspectives on Observational Data from a Sixth Grade Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helg Fottland

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on a collaborative process between two researchers from different backgrounds conducting a joint-venture classroom observation project focusing on language, communication and special education. Focusing on the connection between explorative learning situations and dialogue in relation to children's learning and identity development, the researchers cooperate on all levels in the research process. The article compares findings when approaching data from two different professional traditions, linguistics and education. The main focus is how each of the researchers approaches the data analysis. The combining of approaches in interpreting and writing is also discussed. Narratives and spoken dialogues are vital in this work; transcripts of video material from a primary school classroom are used as illustrations.

  18. Ethics and observational studies in medical research: various rules in a common framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudot, Frédérique; Alla, François; Fresson, Jeanne; Calvez, Thierry; Coudane, Henry; Bonaïti-Pellié, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Background Research ethics have become universal in their principles through international agreements. The standardization of regulations facilitates the internationalization of research concerning drugs. However, in so-called observational studies (i.e. from data collected retrospectively or prospectively, obtained without any additional therapy or monitoring procedure), the modalities used for applying the main principles vary from one country to the other. This situation may entail problems for the conduct of multi-centric international studies, as well as for the publication of results if the authors and editors come from countries governed by different regulations. In particular, several French observational studies were rejected or retracted by United States peer reviewed journals, because their protocols have not been submitted to an Institutional Review Board/Independent Ethics Committee (IRB/IEC). Methods national legislation case analysis Results In accordance with European regulation, French observational studies from data obtained without any additional therapy or monitoring procedure, do not need the approval of an IRB/IEC. Nevertheless, these researches are neither exempt from scientific opinion nor from ethical and legal authorization. Conclusion We wish to demonstrate through the study of this example that different bodies of law can provide equivalent levels of protection that respect the same ethical principles. Our purpose in writing this paper was to encourage public bodies, scientific journals, and researchers to gain a better understanding of the various sets of specific national regulations and to speak a common language. PMID:19336436

  19. Overview of GNSS-R Research Program for Ocean Observations at Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kaoru; Ebinuma, Takuji; Akiyama, Hiroaki; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    2015-04-01

    GNSS-R is a new remote-sensing method which uses reflected GNSS signals. Since no transmitters are required, it is suitable for small satellites. Constellations of GNSS-R small satellites have abilities on revolutionary progress on 'all-time observable' remote-sensing methods . We have started a research program for GNSS-R applications on oceanographic observations under a contract with MEXT (Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN) as a'Space science research base formation program'. The duration of research program is 3 years (2015-2017). The one of important focuses of this program is creation of a new community to merge space engineering and marine science through establishment on application plans of GNSS-R. Actual GNSS-R data acquisition experiments using multi-copters, ships, and/or towers are planned, together with in-situ sea truth data such as wave spectrum, wind speed profiles and sea surface height. These data are compared to determine the accuracy and resolution of the estimates based on GNSS-R observations. Meanwhile, preparation of a ground station for receiving GNSS-R satellite data will be also established. Whole those data obtained in this project will be distributed for public. This paper introduces the overview of research plan..

  20. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT): an International Science Mission Using a Cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Swenson, Charles; Durao, Otavio; Loures, Luis; Heelis, Rod; Bishop, Rebecca; Le, Guan; Abdu, Mangalathayil; Krause, Linda; Fry, Craig; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) is a 6U CubeSat mission to address the compelling but difficult problem of understanding the preconditions leading to equatorial plasma bubbles. The scientific literature describes the preconditions in both the plasma drifts and the density profiles related to bubble formations that occur several hours later in the evening. Most of the scientific discovery has resulted from observations at a single site, within a single longitude sector, from Jicamarca, Peru. SPORT will provide a systematic study of the state of the pre-bubble conditions at all longitudes sectors to enhance understanding between geography and magnetic geometry. SPORT is an international partnership between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE), and the Technical Aeronautics Institute under the Brazilian Air Force Command Department (DCTA/ITA), and encouraged by U.S. Southern Command. This talk will present an overview of the SPORT mission, observation strategy, and science objectives to improve predictions of ionospheric disturbances that affect radio propagation of telecommunication signals. The science goals will be accomplished by a unique combination of satellite observations from a nearly circular middle inclination orbit and the extensive operation of ground based observations from South America near the magnetic equator.

  1. Prevalence of Recommendations Made Within Dental Research Articles Using Uncontrolled Intervention or Observational Study Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M K; Chestnutt, I G

    2016-03-01

    Evidence to inform clinical practice is reliant on research carried out using appropriate study design. The objectives of this work were to (i) identify the prevalence of articles reporting on human studies using uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs published in peer-reviewed dental journals and (ii) determine the nature of recommendations made by these articles. Six peer-reviewed dental journals were selected. Issues published in January to June 2013 were examined and the types of articles published categorized. Following pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria, human studies classified as using uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs were subject to detailed review by two independent investigators, to examine if they presented clinical, policy or research recommendations and if these recommendations were supported by the data presented. 52.9% (n = 156) of studies published during the time period met the inclusion criteria. Studies with uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs comprised a larger proportion of the primary research studies published in the journals with lower impact factors (73.3%; n = 107) compared to the high impact journals (38.9%; n = 49). Analysis showed that 60.9% (n = 95) of the included studies made recommendations for clinical practice/dental policy. In 28.2% (n = 44) of studies, the clinical/policy recommendations made were judged to not be fully supported by the data presented. Many studies published in the current dental literature, which are not considered to produce strong evidence, make recommendations for clinical practice or policy. There were some cases when the recommendations were not fully supported by the data presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ozone and ultraviolet radiation. Observations and research in the Netherlands and Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An overview of recent scientific research in Belgium and the Netherlands on the title subject is given. After an overall introduction on ozone and ultraviolet radiation in chapter 1 attention is paid to observations and monitoring of ozone and UV-radiation in chapter 2 and recent research projects in the Netherlands and Belgium with respect to those quantities in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the biological effects of UV-radiation are described, while in chapter 5 the international policy to protect the ozone layer is discussed as well as the effects of such policy on the UV burden and public health. 10 refs

  3. OBSERVATION OF TeV GAMMA RAYS FROM THE CYGNUS REGION WITH THE ARGO-YBJ EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A. K. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cattaneo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Chen, T. L. [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Road, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); D' Ali Staiti, G., E-mail: chensz@ihep.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-02-15

    We report the observation of TeV {gamma}-rays from the Cygnus region using the ARGO-YBJ data collected from 2007 November to 2011 August. Several TeV sources are located in this region including the two bright extended MGRO J2019+37 and MGRO J2031+41. According to the Milagro data set, at 20 TeV MGRO J2019+37 is the most significant source apart from the Crab Nebula. No signal from MGRO J2019+37 is detected by the ARGO-YBJ experiment, and the derived flux upper limits at the 90% confidence level for all the events above 600 GeV with medium energy of 3 TeV are lower than the Milagro flux, implying that the source might be variable and hard to be identified as a pulsar wind nebula. The only statistically significant (6.4 standard deviations) {gamma}-ray signal is found from MGRO J2031+41, with a flux consistent with the measurement by Milagro.

  4. Astronomy Education Research Observations from the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatge, C. B.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.; Schleigh, S.; McKinnon, D.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, an important part of the scientific research cycle is to situate any research project within the landscape of the existing scientific literature. In the field of discipline-based astronomy education research, grappling with the existing literature base has proven difficult because of the difficulty in obtaining research reports from around the world, particularly early ones. In order to better survey and efficiently utilize the wide and fractured range and domain of astronomy education research methods and results, the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning database project was initiated. The project aims to host a living, online repository of dissertations, theses, journal articles, and grey literature resources to serve the world's discipline-based astronomy education research community. The first domain of research artifacts ingested into the iSTAR database were doctoral dissertations. To the authors' great surprise, nearly 300 astronomy education research dissertations were found from the last 100-years. Few, if any, of the literature reviews from recent astronomy education dissertations surveyed even come close to summarizing this many dissertations, most of which have not been published in traditional journals, as re-publishing one's dissertation research as a journal article was not a widespread custom in the education research community until recently. A survey of the iSTAR database dissertations reveals that the vast majority of work has been largely quantitative in nature until the last decade. We also observe that modern-era astronomy education research writings reaches as far back as 1923 and that the majority of dissertations come from the same eight institutions. Moreover, most of the astronomy education research work has been done covering learners' grasp of broad knowledge of astronomy rather than delving into specific learning targets, which has been more in vogue during the last two decades. The surprisingly wide breadth

  5. Varying Student Behaviours Observed in the Library Prompt the Need for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Melssen

    2014-03-01

    may have led the authors to mistake non-study behaviour for study behaviour. An additional limitation is the short duration of time spent observing the students as well as the proximity of the observer to the student. Observations lasting longer than 3 to 10 seconds and made at a closer range to the students could provide more accurate data regarding what type of behaviours students engage in and for how much time. In addition to the before mentioned limitations, the authors acknowledge that they had no way of knowing if the individuals being observed were actual students: the assumed students could have been faculty, staff, or visitors to the university. Due to the study’s limitations, further research is needed to determine in greater detail what students are doing while they are studying in the library. This data would allow librarians to justify the need to provide both study and non-study space to meet the diverse needs of students. Conducting a cohort study would allow researchers to observe student behaviour longitudinally. It would minimize the limitations of short-term student observation as well as the proximity of the observer to the student. Research on the use of mobile technologies by students, such as smart phones, to access study related material while they are in the library would also yield valuable data regarding student study behaviours.

  6. Meteorological observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica, 2008 by the 49th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideshi Yoshimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the result of meteorological observations at Syowa Station by the Meteorological Observation Team of the 49th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-49 during the period 1 February 2008 to 27 January 2009. The observation methods, instruments, and statistical methods used by the JARE-49 team are nearly the same as those used by the JARE-48 observation team. Remarkable weather phenomena observed during the period of JARE-49 are as follows. 1 On 1 September 2008, the record minimum temperature for September was observed in the upper atmosphere (pressure greater than 175 hPa. 2 The monthly mean temperature at Syowa Station during October 2008 was -17.5°C; this is the lowest monthly mean October temperature recorded at Syowa Station. 3 The total ozone over Syowa Station was less than or equal to 220 m atm-cm during the period from late August to late November, and was close to minimum levels during the period from mid-September to mid-October. The lowest total ozone in 2008, recorded on 16 October 2008, was 140 m atm-cm.

  7. Measuring the quality of observational study data in an international HIV research network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephany N Duda

    Full Text Available Observational studies of health conditions and outcomes often combine clinical care data from many sites without explicitly assessing the accuracy and completeness of these data. In order to improve the quality of data in an international multi-site observational cohort of HIV-infected patients, the authors conducted on-site, Good Clinical Practice-based audits of the clinical care datasets submitted by participating HIV clinics. Discrepancies between data submitted for research and data in the clinical records were categorized using the audit codes published by the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer. Five of seven sites had error rates >10% in key study variables, notably laboratory data, weight measurements, and antiretroviral medications. All sites had significant discrepancies in medication start and stop dates. Clinical care data, particularly antiretroviral regimens and associated dates, are prone to substantial error. Verifying data against source documents through audits will improve the quality of databases and research and can be a technique for retraining staff responsible for clinical data collection. The authors recommend that all participants in observational cohorts use data audits to assess and improve the quality of data and to guide future data collection and abstraction efforts at the point of care.

  8. Research capacity and culture in podiatry: early observations within Queensland Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzarini Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research is a major driver of health care improvement and evidence-based practice is becoming the foundation of health care delivery. For health professions to develop within emerging models of health care delivery, it would seem imperative to develop and monitor the research capacity and evidence-based literacy of the health care workforce. This observational paper aims to report the research capacity levels of statewide populations of public-sector podiatrists at two different time points twelve-months apart. Methods The Research Capacity & Culture (RCC survey was electronically distributed to all Queensland Health (Australia employed podiatrists in January 2011 (n = 58 and January 2012 (n = 60. The RCC is a validated tool designed to measure indicators of research skill in health professionals. Participants rate skill levels against each individual, team and organisation statement on a 10-point scale (one = lowest, ten = highest. Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to determine any differences between the results of the two survey samples. A minimum significance of p  Results Thirty-seven (64% podiatrists responded to the 2011 survey and 33 (55% the 2012 survey. The 2011 survey respondents reported low skill levels (Median  6. Whereas, most reported their organisation’s skills to perform and support research at much higher levels (Median > 6. The 2012 survey respondents reported significantly higher skill ratings compared to the 2011 survey in individuals’ ability to secure research funding, submit ethics applications, and provide research advice, plus, in their organisation’s skills to support, fund, monitor, mentor and engage universities to partner their research (p  Conclusions This study appears to report the research capacity levels of the largest populations of podiatrists published. The 2011 survey findings indicate podiatrists have similarly low research capacity skill

  9. Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences: reincarnation of a 50 year old State Observatory of Nainital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Ram

    2006-03-01

    The fifty year old State Observatory, well known as U.P. State Observatory till the formation of Uttaranchal in November 2000, was reincarnated on March 22, 2004 as Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences with acronym ARIES, an autonomous institute, under the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. The growth of academic and technical activities and new mandate of the Institute are briefly described. In early 60's, the Institute was one of the 12 centres established by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, USA, all over the globe but the only centre in India for imaging artificial earth satellites. Commensurating with its observing capabilities, the Institute started a number of front-line research programmes during the last decade, e.g., optical follow up observations of GRB afterglows, radio and space borne astronomical resources, intra-night optical variability in active galactic nuclei as well as gravitational microlensing and milli-magnitude variations in the rapidly oscillating peculiar A type stars. As a part of atmospheric studies, characterisation of aerosol at an altitude of about 2 km is going on since 2002. ARIES has plans for establishing modern observing facilities equipped with latest backend instruments in the area of both astrophysics and atmospheric science. Formation of ARIES, therefore augurs well for the overall development of astrophysics and atmospheric science in India.

  10. Regression-based statistical mediation and moderation analysis in clinical research: Observations, recommendations, and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Andrew F; Rockwood, Nicholas J

    2017-11-01

    There have been numerous treatments in the clinical research literature about various design, analysis, and interpretation considerations when testing hypotheses about mechanisms and contingencies of effects, popularly known as mediation and moderation analysis. In this paper we address the practice of mediation and moderation analysis using linear regression in the pages of Behaviour Research and Therapy and offer some observations and recommendations, debunk some popular myths, describe some new advances, and provide an example of mediation, moderation, and their integration as conditional process analysis using the PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS. Our goal is to nudge clinical researchers away from historically significant but increasingly old school approaches toward modifications, revisions, and extensions that characterize more modern thinking about the analysis of the mechanisms and contingencies of effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fifty Years of Quasars From Early Observations and Ideas to Future Research

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars in 1963 presents an interesting opportunity to ask questions about the current state of quasar research. Formatted as a series of interviews with noted researchers in the field, each of them asked to address a specific set of questions covering topics selected by the editors, this book deals with the historical development of quasar research and discusses how advances in instrumentation and computational capabilities have benefitted quasar astronomy and have changed our basic understanding of quasars. In the last part of the book the interviews address the current topic of the role of quasars in galaxy evolution. They summarise open issues in understanding active galactic nuclei and quasars and present an outlook regarding what future observational facilities both on the ground and in space might reveal. Its interview format, the fascinating topic of quasars and black holes, and the lively recollections and at times controversial views of the contributors make ...

  12. The use of participant-observation protocol in an industrial engineering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira e Silva, Renato da; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal; D'Afonseca e Silva, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Based on literature, this article aims to present the "participant-observation' research protocol, and its practical application in the industrial engineering field, more specifically within the area of design development, and in the case shown by this article, of interiors' design. The main target is to identify the concept of the method, i.e., from its characteristics to structure a general sense about the subject, so that the protocol can be used in different areas of knowledge, especially those ones which are committed with the scientific research involving the expertise from researchers, and subjective feelings and opinions of the users of an engineering product, and how this knowledge can be benefic for product design, contributing since the earliest stage of design.

  13. Academic and research capacity development in Earth observation for environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassells, Gemma; Woodhouse, Iain H; Patenaude, Genevieve; Tembo, Mavuto

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable environmental management is one of the key development goals of the 21st century. The importance of Earth observation (EO) for addressing current environmental problems is well recognized. Most developing countries are highly susceptible to environmental degradation; however, the capacity to monitor these changes is predominantly located in the developed world. Decades of aid and effort have been invested in capacity development (CD) with the goal of ensuring sustainable development. Academics, given their level of freedom and their wider interest in teaching and knowledge transfer, are ideally placed to act as catalyst for capacity building. In this letter, we make a novel investigation into the extent to which the EO academic research community is engaged in capacity development. Using the Web of Knowledge publication database (http://wok.mimas.ac.uk), we examined the geographical distribution of published EO related research (a) by country as object of research and (b) by authors' country of affiliation. Our results show that, while a significant proportion of EO research (44%) has developing countries as their object of research, less than 3% of publications have authors working in, or affiliated to, a developing country (excluding China, India and Brazil, which not only are countries in transition, but also have well established EO capacity). These patterns appear consistent over the past 20 years. Despite the wide awareness of the importance of CD, we show that significant progress on this front is required. We therefore propose a number of recommendations and best practices to ease collaboration and open access.

  14. Considerations in relation to some research on the possible neural underpinnings linked to visual artworks observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Bartoli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the observations conducted by Freedberg & Gallese (2007 on neural processes implication in organizing the empathetic/aesthetic response, some recent research carried out by neuroscientists and art historians are analyzed, as they demonstrated cortical sensorimotor activation during the observation of abstract artworks (2012, 2013. The role of the “embodied simulation” of artist’s gesture in the empathic perception of artworks is hereby confirmed. These results are commented in light of psychological studies about aesthetic experience, with special regard to those based on a phenomenological methodology. The intention is to further explore possible interactions between neurosciences and phenomenological psychology, in accordance with their respective theoretical and methodological differences.

  15. Important considerations related to the construction of observation wells in radiation facilities sites: A review research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S. A.; Salem, W. M.; Atta, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Observation wells in radiation facility sites are considered the main sources of the required subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic data. They are the most important means to detect the radioactive and/or chemical contaminants within the ground water. Also, they are used to observe the groundwater level fluctuations and perform the different aquifer tests to understand the hydraulic properties of aquifers and the behavior of contaminants transportation. This research reviews the necessary considerations and available techniques for constructing the observation wells properly. The review process depends on the international guidelines presented in the literature and the field experience. The proper well completion is essential for the well efficiency and longevity. Three main important topics are considered and discussed briefly in this review. They are the preliminary considerations, the drilling program and the well protection procedures. The preliminary considerations included are the collection of the available geologic and hydrogeologic data and information, selection of drilling method and the legal requirements. The drilling program comprises the site preparation, drilling processes, sampling, well logging, well design, casing components and materials, gravel pack and well development. The well protection procedures include well grout, concrete slab and others requirements. Observation wells should be constructed to a high standard and should be properly maintained and protected to ensure ongoing and reliable data collection

  16. Defining and Verifying Research Grade Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Shrestha, R. L.; Slatton, C. C.

    2004-12-01

    The first and primary goal of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supported Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM), operated jointly by the University of Florida and the University of California, Berkeley, is to make "research grade" ALSM data widely available at affordable cost to the national scientific community. Cost aside, researchers need to know what NCALM considers research grade data and how the quality of the data is verified, to be able to determine the likelihood that the data they receive will meet their project specific requirements. Given the current state of the technology it is reasonable to expect a well planned and executed survey to produce surface elevations with uncertainties less than 10 centimeters and horizontal uncertainties of a few decimeters. Various components of the total error are generally associated with the aircraft trajectory, aircraft orientation, or laser vectors. Aircraft trajectory error is dependent largely on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, aircraft orientation on Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) observations, and laser vectors on the scanning and ranging instrumentation. In addition to the issue of the precision or accuracy of the coordinates of the surface points, consideration must also be given to the point-to-point spacing and voids in the coverage. The major sources of error produce distinct artifacts in the data set. For example, aircraft trajectory errors tend to change slowly as the satellite constellation geometry varies, producing slopes within swaths and offsets between swaths. Roll, pitch and yaw biases in the IMU observations tend to persist through whole flights, and created distinctive artifacts in the swath overlap areas. Errors in the zero-point and scale of the laser scanner cause the edges of swaths to turn up or down. Range walk errors cause offsets between bright and dark surfaces, causing paint stripes to float above the dark surfaces of roads. The three keys to producing

  17. Measurement plan and observational construction program on drift excavation at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Masanao; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Funaki, Hironori; Fujikawa, Daisuke; Tsusaka, Kimikazu

    2008-09-01

    The Horonobe URL Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido. The project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D' on Geological Disposal', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigation', 'Phase II: Construction' and 'Phase III: Operation', over a period of 20 years. On the Horonobe URL Project, 'Phase 1' was finished in 2005FY and construction of the underground facility was started since then. Now, 'Phase 2' (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) is on-going. On the 'Development of engineering techniques for use in the deep underground environment' in Phase 1, based on the various types of data acquired on investigations from the surface, the design of underground facility in advance was planned. At the inception of the Phase II investigations, an investigation report titled 'Measurement Plan and Observational Construction Program on Shaft Excavation at the Horonobe URL Project' (hereinafter referred to as 'Observational Construction Program') was published. The Observational Construction Program summarizes followings from the Phase I investigations: measurements for safety/reasonable construction, measurements for R and D on enhancement of shaft design/construction technology, and measurements for verification of the deep geological environment model estimated before shaft excavation, and it is on-going. This report summarizes the measurement plan during construction of drifts based on the design in advance and the observational construction program for feedback measurements data into design and construction on subsequent steps. This report also describes about design and construction management program of underground facility and R and D program on

  18. Impact of observing hand hygiene in practice and research: a methodological reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D J; Creedon, S; Jeanes, A; Drey, N S; Chudleigh, J; Moralejo, D

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of hand hygiene is to break the chain of healthcare-associated infection. In many countries hand hygiene is regularly audited as part of quality assurance based on recommendations from the World Health Organization. Direct observation is the recommended audit method but is associated with disadvantages, including potential for being observed to alter usual behaviour. The Hawthorne effect in relation to hand hygiene is analogous with productivity improvement by increasing the frequency with which hand hygiene is undertaken. Unobtrusive and/or frequent observation to accustom staff to the presence of observers is considered an acceptable way of reducing the Hawthorne effect, but few publications have discussed how to implement these techniques or examine their effectiveness. There is evidence that awareness of being watched can disrupt the usual behaviour of individuals in complex and unpredictable ways other than simple productivity effect. In the presence of auditors, health workers might defer or avoid activities that require hand hygiene, but these issues are not addressed in guidelines for practice or research studies. This oversight has implications for the validity of hand hygiene audit findings. Measuring hand hygiene product use overcomes avoidance tactics. It is cheaper and generates data continuously to assess the compliance of all clinicians without disrupting patient care. Disadvantages are the risk of overestimating uptake through spillage, wastage, or use by visitors and non-clinical staff entering patient care areas. Electronic devices may overcome the Hawthorne and avoidance effects but are costly and are not widely used outside research studies. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT): A Multinational Science Mission using a CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, J. F.; Habash Krause, L.; Swenson, C.; Heelis, R. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Le, G.; Abdu, M. A.; Durão, O.; Loures, L.; De Nardin, C. M.; Shibuya, L.; Casas, J.; Nash-STevenson, S.; Muralikrishana, P.; Costa, J. E. R.; Wrasse, C. M.; Fry, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) is a 6U CubeSat pathfinder mission to address the very compelling but difficult problem of understanding the preconditions leading to equatorial plasma bubbles. The scientific literature describes the preconditions in both the plasma drifts and the density profiles related to bubble formations that occur several hours later in the evening. Most of the scientific discovery has resulted from observations at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory from Peru, a single site, within a single longitude sector. SPORT will provide a systematic study of the state of the pre-bubble conditions at all longitudes sectors to allow us to understand the differences between geography and magnetic geometry. This talk will present an overview of the mission and the anticipated data products. Products include global maps of scintillation occurrence as a function of local time, and magnetic conjugacy occurrence observations. SPORT is a multinational partnership between NASA, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE), and the Technical Aeronautics Institute under the Brazilian Air Force Command Department (DCTA/ITA). It has been encouraged by U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) to foster increased cooperation and ties between academics, civilian space programs and the militaries. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is coordinating this investigation by overseeing the launch to orbit and the flight instruments, which are being built by the Aerospace Corporation, University of Texas Dallas, Utah State University, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The Brazilian partners are contributing the spacecraft, observatory integration and test, ground observation networks, and mission operations and data management. The science data will be distributed from and archived at the INPE/EMBRACE regional space-weather forecasting center in Brazil, and mirrored at the NASA GSFC Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF).

  20. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We started a Japanese initiative - "Arctic Climate Change Research Project" - within the framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT), in 2011. This Project targeted understanding and forecasting "Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences." Four strategic research targets are set by the Ministry: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic; 2. Understanding the Arctic climate system for global climate and future change; 3. Evaluation of the impacts of Arctic change on the weather and climate in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries; 4. Projection of sea ice distribution and Arctic sea routes. Through a network of universities and institutions in Japan, this 5-year Project involves more than 300 scientists from 39 institutions and universities. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) works as the core institute and The Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) joins as the supporting institute. There are 7 bottom up research themes approved: the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, cryosphere, greenhouse gases, marine ecology and fisheries, sea ice and Arctic sea routes and climate modeling, among 22 applications. The Project will realize multi-disciplinal study of the Arctic region and connect to the projection of future Arctic and global climatic change by modeling. The project has been running since the beginning of 2011 and in those 5 years pan-Arctic observations have been carried out in many locations, such as Svalbard, Russian Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. In particular, 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and intensive atmospheric observations were carried out in 2014 and 2015. In addition, the Arctic Ocean cruises by R/V "Mirai" (belonging to JAMSTEC) and other icebreakers belonging to other

  1. Informing potential participants about research: observational study with an embedded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Kirkby

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess: 1 the feasibility of electronic information provision; 2 gather evidence on the topics and level of detail of information potential research participant's accessed; 3 to assess satisfaction and understanding. DESIGN: Observational study with an embedded randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Low risk intervention study based in primary care. PARTICIPANTS: White British & Irish, South Asian and African-Caribbean subjects aged between 40-74 years eligible for a blood pressure monitoring study. INTERVENTIONS: PDF copy of the standard paper participant information sheet (PDF-PIS and an electronic Interactive Information Sheet (IIS where participants could choose both the type and level of detail accessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 1 Proportion of participants providing an email address and accessing electronic information 2 Willingness to participate in a recruitment clinic. 3 Type and depth of information accessed on the IIS. 4 Participant satisfaction and understanding. RESULTS: 1160 participants were eligible for the study. Of these, 276 (24% provided an active email address, of whom 84 did not respond to the email. 106 responded to the email but chose not to access any electronic information and were therefore ineligible for randomisation. 42 were randomised to receive the PDF-PIS and 44 to receive the IIS (with consent rates of 48% and 36%, respectively; odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.25 to 1.4. Electronic observation of information accessed by potential participants showed 41% chose to access no information and only 9% accessed the detail presented on the Research Ethics Committee approved participant information sheet before booking to attend a recruitment clinic for the intervention study. 63 of the 106 participants (59% who chose not to access any electronic information also booked an appointment. CONCLUSIONS: Current written information about research may not be read, emphasising the importance of the consent

  2. Meteorological observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica, 2009 by the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhei Sugaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the results of meteorological observations carried out by the Meteorological Observation Team of the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-50 at Syowa Station from February 2009 to January 2010. The observation methods, instruments, and statistical methods used by JARE-50 were similar to those used by JARE-49.  The most notable results are as follows.  1 Class-A blizzards, the heaviest storm class, were recorded 13 times. This frequency is the same as in 1978, which was the highest on record. A total of 29 blizzards (of various classes occurred in 2009, which is close to normal.  2 The maximum sustained wind speed of 47.4 m/s was recorded on 21 February 2009.  3 Tropospheric temperatures for May-July over Syowa Station were higher than normal, but temperatures in the lower stratosphere for August-October were lower than normal.  4 Total ozone over Syowa Station was less than 220 m atm-cm between the middle of August and the end of October. The minimum value in 2009 was 135 m atm-cm. Total ozone increased rapidly in November 2009 when the ozone-hole area decreased around Syowa Station.

  3. Clinical Impact Research – how to choose experimental or observational intervention study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Interventions directed to individuals by health and social care systems should increase health and welfare of patients and customers. Aims: This paper aims to present and define a new concept Clinical Impact Research (CIR) and suggest which study design, either randomized controlled trial (RCT) (experimental) or benchmarking controlled trial (BCT) (observational) is recommendable and to consider the feasibility, validity, and generalizability issues in CIR. Methods: The new concept is based on a narrative review of the literature and on author’s idea that in intervention studies, there is a need to cover comprehensively all the main impact categories and their respective outcomes. The considerations on how to choose the most appropriate study design (RCT or BCT) were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs and on author’s previous work on the concepts benchmarking controlled trial and system impact research (SIR). Results: The CIR covers all studies aiming to assess the impact for health and welfare of any health (and integrated social) care or public health intervention directed to an individual. The impact categories are accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. Impact is the main concept, and within each impact category, both generic- and context-specific outcome measures are needed. CIR uses RCTs and BCTs. Conclusions: CIR should be given a high priority in medical, health care, and health economic research. Clinicians and leaders at all levels of health care can exploit the evidence from CIR. Key messagesThe new concept of Clinical Impact Research (CIR) is defined as a research field aiming to assess what are the impacts of healthcare and public health interventions targeted to patients or individuals.The term impact refers to all effects caused by the interventions, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. CIR uses two study

  4. Clinical Impact Research - how to choose experimental or observational intervention study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-11-01

    Interventions directed to individuals by health and social care systems should increase health and welfare of patients and customers. This paper aims to present and define a new concept Clinical Impact Research (CIR) and suggest which study design, either randomized controlled trial (RCT) (experimental) or benchmarking controlled trial (BCT) (observational) is recommendable and to consider the feasibility, validity, and generalizability issues in CIR. The new concept is based on a narrative review of the literature and on author's idea that in intervention studies, there is a need to cover comprehensively all the main impact categories and their respective outcomes. The considerations on how to choose the most appropriate study design (RCT or BCT) were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs and on author's previous work on the concepts benchmarking controlled trial and system impact research (SIR). The CIR covers all studies aiming to assess the impact for health and welfare of any health (and integrated social) care or public health intervention directed to an individual. The impact categories are accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. Impact is the main concept, and within each impact category, both generic- and context-specific outcome measures are needed. CIR uses RCTs and BCTs. CIR should be given a high priority in medical, health care, and health economic research. Clinicians and leaders at all levels of health care can exploit the evidence from CIR. Key messages The new concept of Clinical Impact Research (CIR) is defined as a research field aiming to assess what are the impacts of healthcare and public health interventions targeted to patients or individuals. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the interventions, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, equality, effectiveness, safety, and efficiency. CIR uses two study designs: randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (experimental

  5. Observations and recommendations for further research regarding environmentally assisted fatigue evaluation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, G.L.; Tregoning, R.L. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), Rockville, MD (United States); Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have completed research activities on environmentally assisted fatigue (EAF) methods. This work has led to a revision of NUREG/CR-6909 in its entirety, a draft of which is forthcoming for public review and comment. These activities addressed the following areas: - Air and water fatigue curves were re-developed using a much larger fatigue (ε-N) database. The additional data include an expansion in the ε-N data previously used by the NRC and ANL by as much as 50%. - The environmental fatigue multiplier (F{sub en}) expressions for carbon, low-alloy, stainless, and nickel-alloy steels were revised. - The revised F{sub en} expressions address comments from interested stakeholders related to: (a) the constants in previous F{sub en} expressions that results in F{sub en} values of approximately 2.0 even when the strain rate is very high or the temperature is very low, (b) the temperature dependence of the F{sub en} expression for carbon and low-alloy steels, and (c) the dependence of F{sub en} on water chemistry for austenitic stainless steels. - In addition, the appropriateness of a strain threshold and the possible effects of hold periods were evaluated. - The potential effects of dynamic strain aging (DSA) on cyclic deformation and environmental effects were discussed. - The revised F{sub en} expressions proposed were validated to the extent possible by comparing the results of five different experimental data sets obtained from fatigue tests that simulate actual plant conditions to estimates of fatigue usage adjusted for environmental effects using the updated F{sub en} expressions. In the course of performing the foregoing EAF research activities, the NRC and ANL observed several areas where further research could yield reduced conservatism in EAF evaluation. These include more refined, material-specific fatigue (S-N) curves, S-N curves for ferritic materials based on material tensile

  6. Factores de riesgo y prevención del estrés académico en estudiantes universitarios de la UNEMI, Milagro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Espinel Guadalupe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo investigativo, tiene como fin identificar los principales factores de riesgo para el estrés académico mediante la aplicación del Inventario SISCO, que mide estrés académico a los estudiantes de la Universidad Estatal de Milagro, para plantear una estrategia de prevención en base a los resultados obtenidos, realizando un estudio cuantitativo descriptivo de corte transversal, en una muestra representativa de estudiantes de psicología industrial, durante los meses octubre a diciembre en el año 2012. La intensidad del estrés en la muestra de 85 estudiantes (58 mujeres y 27 hombres, está dentro del término medio en 40% de la muestra, sumado a este valor el 11,76% de personas cuya intensidad de estrés es alta. La frecuencia de los síntomas se evidencian en un 40% de reacciones físicas, 33,33 % de reacciones psicológicas y el 26,7% muestran reacciones comportamentales, sin embargo el uso de estrategias de afrontamiento del estrés arrojan porcentajes en un promedio del 16% para alguna de ellas.

  7. Estudio de la incidencia de los hábitos alimentarios En el rendimiento escolar de los niños y niñas de primero a cuarto año de las escuelas fiscales del cantón Milagro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltos-Solís, Marisela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet and nutrition during childhood of man is essential to the quality of life of the adult. Eating properly is necessary for physical and mental development of children/ as, helping to prevent overweight and obesity.This is a study of non-experimental, observational, transversal and analytical population is 11,694 schoolchildren prosecutors urban and rural areas of the canton Milagro,its objectives are to determine how it affects the practice of eating habits in school performance children from first to fourth year of basic education, assess their nutritional status using the techniques proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO and determine the level of academic achievement, considering the extent to which dietary habits practiced in the family school and affect.We found that not all children have breakfast, 65% do not take lunch box to school, eat foods rich in carbohydrates and fats. The 74.1% normal weight, 15.5% overweight, 8.2% obese and 2.2% underweight in both urban and ruralmschools. And by school grade point average is between 17 and 14 out of 20

  8. The Many Faces of Mitochondrial Autophagy: Making Sense of Contrasting Observations in Recent Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexander I.; Devenish, Rodney J.; Prescott, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Research into the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria—mitophagy—has intensified in recent years, yielding significant insights into the function, mechanism, and regulation of this process in the eukaryotic cell. However, while some molecular players in budding yeast, such as Atg32p, Uth1p, and Aup1p, have been identified, studies further interrogating the mechanistic and regulatory features of mitophagy have yielded inconsistent and sometimes conflicting results. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of mitophagy mechanism, induction, and regulation in yeast, and suggest that differences in experimental conditions used in the various studies of mitophagy may contribute to the observed discrepancies. Consideration and understanding of these differences may help place the mechanism and regulation of mitophagy in context, and further indicate the intricate role that this essential process plays in the life and death of eukaryotic cells. PMID:22550491

  9. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, M. [Wigner RCP, Euratom Association-HAS, Budapest (Hungary); BME NTI, Budapest (Hungary); Anda, G.; Réfy, D.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP, Euratom Association-HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Czopf, A.; Erdei, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, BME IOP, Budapest (Hungary); Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I. [BME NTI, Budapest (Hungary); Nam, Y. U. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera’s measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  10. Remote sensing, hydrological modeling and in situ observations in snow cover research: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunyu

    2018-06-01

    Snow is an important component of the hydrological cycle. As a major part of the cryosphere, snow cover also represents a valuable terrestrial water resource. In the context of climate change, the dynamics of snow cover play a crucial role in rebalancing the global energy and water budgets. Remote sensing, hydrological modeling and in situ observations are three techniques frequently utilized for snow cover investigations. However, the uncertainties caused by systematic errors, scale gaps, and complicated snow physics, among other factors, limit the usability of these three approaches in snow studies. In this paper, an overview of the advantages, limitations and recent progress of the three methods is presented, and more effective ways to estimate snow cover properties are evaluated. The possibility of improving remotely sensed snow information using ground-based observations is discussed. As a rapidly growing source of volunteered geographic information (VGI), web-based geotagged photos have great potential to provide ground truth data for remotely sensed products and hydrological models and thus contribute to procedures for cloud removal, correction, validation, forcing and assimilation. Finally, this review proposes a synergistic framework for the future of snow cover research. This framework highlights the cross-scale integration of in situ and remotely sensed snow measurements and the assimilation of improved remote sensing data into hydrological models.

  11. Bringing ocean observations to the classroom - integrating research infrastructure into education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Hoenner, X.; Mancini, S.; Tattersall, K.; Everett, J. D.; Suthers, I. M.; Steinberg, P.; Doblin, M.; Moltmann, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the past 4 years the Sydney Institute of Marine Science, a partnership of four Australian Universities (Macquarie University, the University of NSW, the University of Sydney and the University of Technology Sydney) has been running a Master's degree course called Topics in Australian Marine Science (TAMS). This course is unique in that the core of the course is built around research infrastructure - the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). IMOS, established in 2007, is collecting unprecedented volumes of multi-disciplinary oceanographic data in the ocean and on the continental shelf which is made freely available across the web; IMOS frequently runs `data user workshops' throughout Australia to introduce scientists and managers to the wealth of observations available at their fingertips. The Masters course gives students an understanding of how different measurement platforms work and they explore the data that these platforms collect. Students combine attending seminars and lectures with hands on practicals and personal assignments, all built around access to IMOS data and the many tools available to visualise and analyse. The course attracts a diverse class with many mature students (i.e. > 25 years old) from a range of backgrounds who find that the ease of discovering and accessing data, coupled with the available tools, enables them to easily study the marine environment without the need for high level computational skills. Since its inception the popularity of the course has increased with 38 students undertaking the subject in 2014. The consensus from students and lecturers is that integrating `real' observations into the classroom is beneficial to all, and IMOS is seeking to extend this approach to other university campuses. The talk will describe the experiences from the TAMS course and highlight the IMOS approach to data discovery, availability and access through course examples.

  12. The Earth Resources Observation Systems data center's training technical assistance, and applications research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDO, administered by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, provides remotely sensed data to the user community and offers a variety of professional services to further the understanding and use of remote sensing technology. EDC reproduces and sells photographic and electronic copies of satellite images of areas throughout the world. Other products include aerial photographs collected by 16 organizations, including the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Primary users of the remotely sensed data are Federal, State, and municipal government agencies, universities, foreign nations, and private industries. The professional services available at EDC are primarily directed at integrating satellite and aircraft remote sensing technology into the programs of the Department of the Interior and its cooperators. This is accomplished through formal training workshops, user assistance, cooperative demonstration projects, and access to equipment and capabilities in an advanced data analysis laboratory. In addition, other Federal agencies, State and local governments, universities, and the general public can get assistance from the EDC Staff. Since 1973, EDC has contributed to the accelerating growth in development and operational use of remotely sensed data for land resource problems through its role as educator and by conducting basic and applied remote sensing applications research. As remote sensing technology continues to evolve, EDC will continue to respond to the increasing demand for timely information on remote sensing applications. Questions most often asked about EDC's research and training programs include: Who may attend an EDC remote sensing training course? Specifically, what is taught? Who may cooperate with EDC on remote sensing projects? Are interpretation services provided on a service basis? This report attempts to define the goals and

  13. Observing efl classrooms in primary or secondary schools: a research task in applied linguistics Observing efl classrooms in primary or secondary schools: a research task in applied linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Heberle

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, com base em princípios da gramática funcional de Halliday e de análise crítica do discurso, bem como minha experiência em Lingüística Aplicada, discuto questões relacionadas à observação de aulas de inglês como língua estrangeira. A análise (de cunho etnográfico surge de discussões nas minhas aulas de Lingüística Aplicada e de relatos de alunos sobre as aulas observadas. O estudo visa contribuir para uma conscientização da relevância de uma prática educacional que vai além de, por exemplo, mera listagem de pronomes pessoais com as formas do verbo to be, para uma discussão de tópicos que possam, de alguma forma, integrar perspectivas socioculturais na educação de professores de inglês como língua estrangeira. In this paper, based on principles of systemic-functional grammar and critical discourse analysis, as well as on my experience as a teacher of Applied Linguistics, I discuss issues related to the observation of EFL classes. The analysis (qualitative, ethnographically-based arises from discussions in my Applied Linguistics course and students’ reports on the classes they observed. The study aims at contributing to an awareness of the relevance of an educational practice that goes beyond the mere listing of personal pronouns with the corresponding forms of the verb to be, for instance, and suggests a discussion of topics which could somehow integrate sociocultural perspectives into EFL teacher education.

  14. A Unified Checklist for Observational and Experimental Research in Software Engineering (Version 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2012-01-01

    Current checklists for empirical software engineering cover either experimental research or case study research but ignore the many commonalities that exist across all kinds of empirical research. Identifying these commonalities, and explaining why they exist, would enhance our understanding of

  15. Structured Observation of School Administrator Work Activities: Methodological Limitations and Recommendations for Research, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Nancy J.; Russell, James S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper critically reviews administrator work activity studies which follow the research of Henry Mintzberg. It discusses directions for future research using qualitative and quantitative methods and discourages research that relies solely on Mintzberg's structure. (Author/JAZ)

  16. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  17. Nonparametric estimation for censored mixture data with application to the Cooperative Huntington's Observational Research Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanjia; Garcia, Tanya P; Ma, Yanyuan

    2012-01-01

    This work presents methods for estimating genotype-specific distributions from genetic epidemiology studies where the event times are subject to right censoring, the genotypes are not directly observed, and the data arise from a mixture of scientifically meaningful subpopulations. Examples of such studies include kin-cohort studies and quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies. Current methods for analyzing censored mixture data include two types of nonparametric maximum likelihood estimators (NPMLEs) which do not make parametric assumptions on the genotype-specific density functions. Although both NPMLEs are commonly used, we show that one is inefficient and the other inconsistent. To overcome these deficiencies, we propose three classes of consistent nonparametric estimators which do not assume parametric density models and are easy to implement. They are based on the inverse probability weighting (IPW), augmented IPW (AIPW), and nonparametric imputation (IMP). The AIPW achieves the efficiency bound without additional modeling assumptions. Extensive simulation experiments demonstrate satisfactory performance of these estimators even when the data are heavily censored. We apply these estimators to the Cooperative Huntington's Observational Research Trial (COHORT), and provide age-specific estimates of the effect of mutation in the Huntington gene on mortality using a sample of family members. The close approximation of the estimated non-carrier survival rates to that of the U.S. population indicates small ascertainment bias in the COHORT family sample. Our analyses underscore an elevated risk of death in Huntington gene mutation carriers compared to non-carriers for a wide age range, and suggest that the mutation equally affects survival rates in both genders. The estimated survival rates are useful in genetic counseling for providing guidelines on interpreting the risk of death associated with a positive genetic testing, and in facilitating future subjects at risk

  18. Field observations and failure analysis of an excavation damaged zone in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi; Ishida, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    In the construction of a deep underground facility, the hydromechanical properties of the rock mass around an underground opening are changed significantly due to stress redistribution. This zone is called an excavation damaged zone (EDZ). In high-level radioactive waste disposal, EDZs can provide a shortcut for the escape of radionuclides to the surface environment. Therefore, it is important to develop a method for predicting the detailed characteristics of EDZs. For prediction of the EDZ in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory of Japan, we conducted borehole televiewer surveys, rock core analyses, and repeated hydraulic conductivity measurements. We observed that niche excavation resulted in the formation of extension fractures within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall, i.e., the extent of the EDZ is within 0.2 to 1.0 m into the niche wall. These results are largely consistent with the results of a finite element analysis implemented with the failure criteria considering failure mode. The hydraulic conductivity in the EDZ was increased by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude compared with the outer zone. The hydraulic conductivity in and around the EDZ has not changed significantly in the two years following excavation of the niche. These results show that short-term unloading due to excavation of the niche created a highly permeable EDZ. (author)

  19. [Clinical research XVII. χ(2) test, from the expected to the observed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D; Pérez, Marcela; Talavera, Juan O

    2013-01-01

    When you want to show if there is a statistical association or differences between categorical variables, it is recommended to use the χ(2) test. This nonparametric test is one of the most used in clinical research; it contrasts nominal or ordinal qualitative variables that are observed in clinical practice. This test calculates the p value that determines whether differences between groups are real or due to chance. The χ(2) test is the basis of other tests to analyze qualitative ordinal variables as χ(2) for linear trend, which compares three groups with two outcomes or McNemar test, which contrasts two related samples (a before and afterward comparison) or Mantel-Haenszel χ(2), which controls for potential confounding variables. When using small samples, where the expected results are less than 5, Fisher's exact test should be used. These tests are the most widely used in the medical literature; however, they do not give us the magnitude or the direction of the event and a proper interpretation that requires clinical judgment is needed.

  20. Some Observations on the Relationships Between Research Productivity and Student Evaluations of Courses and Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William A.; Singhal, Sushila

    "Does the good researcher tend to be a good teacher, and vice versa?" University administrators contend that teaching and research are equally important, though students claim that researchers neglect teaching and professors claim that only their research efforts are rewarded. In this study, course and instructor evaluations were defined…

  1. Developing an Arctic Observing Network: Looking Beyond Scientific Research as a Driver to Broader Societal Benefits as Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will address the first ever application of the Societal Benefit Areas approach to continuing efforts to develop an integrated pan-Arctic Observing Network. The scientific research community has been calling for an Arctic Observing Network since the early years of this century, at least. There is no question of the importance of research-driven observations at a time when rapid changes occurring throughout the Arctic environmental system are affecting people and communities in the Arctic and in regions far from the Arctic. Observations are need for continued environmental monitoring and change detection; improving understanding of how the system and its components function, and how they are connected to lower latitude regions; advancing numerical modeling capabilities for forecasting and projection; and developing value-added products and services for people and communities, and for decision- and policymaking. Scientific research is, without question, a benefit to society, but the benefits of Earth observations extend beyond scientific research. Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) were first described by the international Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and have since been used by USGEO as the basis for its National Earth Observation Assessments. The most recent application of SBAs to Earth observing realized a framework of SBAs, SBA Sub-areas, and Key Objectives required for the completion of a full Earth observing assessment for the Arctic. This framework, described in a report released in June 2017, and a brief history of international efforts to develop an integrated pan-Arctic Observing Network, are the subjects of this presentation.

  2. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  3. Towards a Creative Synthesis of Participant Observation and Participatory Research: Reflections on Doing Research "with" and "on" Young Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to Wright and Nelson's (1995) call for a "creative synthesis" of participant observation and participatory research, which may allow the limitations of both methods to be addressed. It does so by reflecting on the experience of doing long-term research both with and on young Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Although…

  4. Review of the researches on changma and future observational study (kormex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jai-Ho; Kwon, Won-Tae; Ryoo, Sang-Boom

    1997-06-01

    Changma is the most important supplier of water resource in Korea. However, its interannual variation may cause either floods or droughts time to time in many regions of Korea. A number of studies on Changma have been done in many subjects, such as the on-set and retreat timing, duration of Changma, and its interannual variation, which may cause either wet or dry Changma, and the heavy rainfall phenomena associated with the Changma front. Also, the subjects covered the dynamical situation of Changma compared to that of Baiu and Mei-yu as a part of East Asian monsoon circulation, and relation between Changma and tropical Pacific sea-surface temperature (SST) through atmosphere-ocean interaction, etc: A numerical study is presented in this paper to check the teleconnection between the behavior of Changma front and the variation of tropical Pacific SST. The difference in the lower level streamfunction between the El Nino event of 1987 and the La Nina event.of 1988 illustrates that the cross-equatorial and westerly wind crossing over the India and Indo-China peninsula were weak during the summer of 1988 compared to 1987. This may cause the drought of 1988 in East Asia by reducing moisture supply from the Indian Ocean and the south-western Pacific. Even though there are numerous research activities on the Changma, our knowledge on the Changma is still limited to explain the mechanism of interannual variation of Changma and to provide a proper prediction of precipitation due to both geographical location of Korea and its complex topography. In collaboration with the international field observational projects, such as GAME and SCSMEX, the Korea Monsoon Experiment (KORMEX) has been planned by several scientists in Korea to improve our knowledge on the atmospheric circulation and water cycle related to the East Asian monsoon and to provide necessary information to predict both short- and long-term variation of rainfall during the Changma season.

  5. Observations on European Education and Educational Research: The "European Educational Research Journal" at Work, 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Sverker

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the "European Educational Research Journal" ("EERJ") since the start in 2002 and up to 2014. Three questions were put forward: what are the ambitions with the journal, how has the journal developed over time, and what are its possible futures? The review is based on minutes and emails from the late 1990s up…

  6. OBSERVATION OF THE TeV GAMMA-RAY SOURCE MGRO J1908+06 WITH ARGO-YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica ' Ennio De Giorgi' , Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Melcarne, A. K. Calabrese [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cattaneo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Chen, T. L. [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Rd., 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Staiti, G. D' Ali [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Collaboration: Argo-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    The extended gamma-ray source MGRO J1908+06, discovered by the Milagro air shower detector in 2007, has been observed for {approx}4 years by the ARGO-YBJ experiment at TeV energies, with a statistical significance of 6.2 standard deviations. The peak of the signal is found at a position consistent with the pulsar PSR J1907+0602. Parameterizing the source shape with a two-dimensional Gauss function, we estimate an extension of {sigma}{sub ext} = 0.{sup 0}49 {+-} 0.{sup 0}22, which is consistent with a previous measurement by the Cherenkov Array H.E.S.S. The observed energy spectrum is dN/dE = 6.1 {+-} 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} (E/4 TeV){sup -2.54{+-}0.36} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}, in the energy range of {approx}1-20 TeV. The measured gamma-ray flux is consistent with the results of the Milagro detector, but is {approx}2-3 times larger than the flux previously derived by H.E.S.S. at energies of a few TeV. The continuity of the Milagro and ARGO-YBJ observations and the stable excess rate observed by ARGO-YBJ and recorded in four years of data support the identification of MGRO J1908+06 as the steady powerful TeV pulsar wind nebula of PSR J1907+0602, with an integrated luminosity over 1 TeV {approx} 1.8 times the luminosity of the Crab Nebula.

  7. Comercio electrónico: Un enfoque desde las perspectivas de las PYMES en la generación de estrategias para potenciar el desarrollo económico y empresarial en la ciudad de Milagro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Rodas Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El E-Commerce se define como la compra y venta de productos mediante el internet, convirtiéndose en una herramienta esencial en las empresas para mejorar la rentabilidad. Actualmente las Mipymes en el mundo están usando el E-commerce como recurso estratégico para posesionar sus negocios, productos y servicios fuera del país. Se realizó un estudio en la ciudad de Milagro, sector agroindustrial de la provincia del Guayas; los problemas que enfrentan en un mercado altamente competitivo donde las oportunidades están dadas a las grandes multinacionales imposibilitando el desarrollo de los pequeños negocios. La información recolectada a 245 Mipymes asentadas en la ciudad de Milagro y analizada permitió identificar como factores desencadenantes del problema la escasez de estrategias publicitarias, falta de recursos y el poco interés en inversión tecnológica para impulsar el uso de las tecnologías en las actividades comerciales

  8. Quantifying Peer Interactions for Research and Clinical Use: The Manchester Inventory for Playground Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jenny; Hussain, Jamilla; Holsgrove, Samina; Adams, Catherine; Green, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Direct observation of peer relating is potentially a sensitive and ecologically valid measure of child social functioning, but there has been a lack of standardised methods. The Manchester Inventory for Playground Observation (MIPO) was developed as a practical yet rigorous assessment of this kind for 5-11 year olds. We report on the initial…

  9. Alternative Observation Tools for the Scope of Contemporary Education Supervision: An Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru Cetin, Saadet

    2018-01-01

    In this study, in-class lesson observations were made with volunteer teachers working in primary and secondary schools using alternative observation tools regarding the scope of contemporary educational supervision. The study took place during the fall and spring semesters of the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 academic years and the class observations…

  10. Transfer Paths of Research Results to the Practice: Observations From the Receiving End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findikakis, A. N.

    2005-12-01

    A non-scientific poll of fellow practicing professionals suggests that there is a range of opinions regarding the effectiveness of different ways of becoming acquainted with and using the results of academic research in their practice. Journal articles remain the dominant path for transferring research results to the profession, even though accessing them is becoming more difficult with time. Driven primarily by cost considerations personal and corporate subscriptions seem to be on the decline. Libraries are one of the first victims of cost cutting measures in the industry. Even though the availability of journal articles in electronic form facilitates their availability, their prices are prohibitive. This is especially true during when a professional is searching for a solution to a problem and may have to review several papers on the subject. One colleague suggested that the professional organizations and other publishers of research articles could learn from the experience of the music industry, by lowering the cost of downloading individual papers to something like a dollar per article, recovering thus their production costs through the increase in the volume of purchased articles. The posting on the internet of special reports and dissertations by research institutions is viewed as very useful by those working in practice. The distribution through the internet of reports by federal organizations conducting or sponsoring research, such as the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is greatly appreciated by the practicing professionals. The use of leading researchers as consultants provides a direct path for bringing research results to the practice, but it is limited to a small number of cases where bringing in a consultant can be justified. Short courses are viewed as an effective way of familiarizing professionals with the latest research findings on specific subjects. The notes distributed in such courses are considered

  11. Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Academic Observers: Popular Methodologies and Research Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollomotz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, disability activists and scholars have developed research paradigms that aim to place (some of the) control over the research process in the hands of disabled people. This paper discusses the appropriateness of applying such paradigms to sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID). It exposes to what…

  12. Challenges in the Management and Stewardship of Airborne Observational Data at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, J.; Daniels, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) funding for the operation, maintenance and upgrade of two research aircraft: the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Gulfstream V and the NSF/NCAR Hercules C-130. A suite of in-situ and remote sensing airborne instruments housed at the EOL Research Aviation Facility (RAF) provide a basic set of measurements that are typically deployed on most airborne field campaigns. In addition, instruments to address more specific research requirements are provided by collaborating participants from universities, industry, NASA, NOAA or other agencies (referred to as Principal Investigator, or PI, instruments). At the 2014 AGU Fall Meeting, a poster (IN13B-3639) was presented outlining the components of Airborne Data Management included field phase data collection, formats, data archival and documentation, version control, storage practices, stewardship and obsolete data formats, and public data access. This talk will cover lessons learned, challenges associated with the above components, and current developments to address these challenges, including: tracking data workflows for aircraft instrumentation to facilitate identification, and correction, of gaps in these workflows; implementation of dataset versioning guidelines; and assignment of Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to data and instrumentation to facilitate tracking data and facility use in publications.

  13. A review of the use of a systematic observation method in coaching research between 1997 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Ed; Partington, Mark; Harvey, Stephen

    2017-10-01

    A systematic observation method has been one of the most popularly employed methods in coaching research. Kahan's review of this method conducted between 1975 and 1997 highlighted the key trends in this research, and offered methodological guidance for researchers wishing to use this method in their research. The purpose of this review was to provide an update of the use of a systematic observation method in coaching research and assess the extent to which the calls made by Kahan have been addressed. While in some respect this field of study has progressed (i.e., the introduction of qualitative methods), researchers adopting this method have failed to attend to many of the issues Kahan raised. For this method to continue to make a positive contribution towards the coaching research literature, researchers need to more critically reflect on how and why they are employing this method. At present, some of the decisions made by researchers who have conducted work in this area are not justified with a rationale. It is our intention that this review will serve as guidance for researchers and practitioners, and editors and reviewers of journals when attempting to assess the quality of this type of work.

  14. SIOS: A regional cooperation of international research infrastructures as a building block for an Arctic observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, K. J.; Lønne, O. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Svalbard Integrated Earth Observing System (SIOS) is a regional response to the Earth System Science (ESS) challenges posed by the Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change. SIOS is intended to develop and implement methods for how observational networks in the Arctic are to be designed in order to address such issues in a regional scale. SIOS builds on the extensive observation capacity and research installations already in place by many international institutions and will provide upgraded and relevant Observing Systems and Research Facilities of world class in and around Svalbard. It is a distributed research infrastructure set up to provide a regional observational system for long term measurements under a joint framework. As one of the large scale research infrastructure initiatives on the ESFRI roadmap (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures), SIOS is now being implemented. The new research infrastructure organization, the SIOS Knowledge Center (SIOS-KC), is instrumental in developing methods and solutions for setting up its regional contribution to a systematically constructed Arctic observational network useful for global change studies. We will discuss cross-disciplinary research experiences some case studies and lessons learned so far. SIOS aims to provide an effective, easily accessible data management system which makes use of existing data handling systems in the thematic fields covered by SIOS. SIOS will, implement a data policy which matches the ambitions that are set for the new European research infrastructures, but at the same time be flexible enough to consider `historical' legacies. Given the substantial international presence in the Svalbard archipelago and the pan-Arctic nature of the issue, there is an opportunity to build SIOS further into a wider regional network and pan-Arctic context, ideally under the umbrella of the Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) initiative. It is necessary to anchor SIOS strongly in a European

  15. Intelligent Transportation Systems Research Data Exchange - Minnesota DOT Mobile Observation data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Registered users can download the RDE API client application and receive a real-time data feed from the Minnesota Integrated Mobile Observation (IMO) project. Mobile...

  16. Lightning Observations from the International Space Station (ISS) for Science Research and Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T.; hide

    2015-01-01

    There exist several core science applications of LIS lightning observations, that range from weather and climate to atmospheric chemistry and lightning physics due to strong quantitative connections that can be made between lightning and other geophysical processes of interest. The space-base vantage point, such as provided by ISS LIS, still remains an ideal location to obtain total lightning observations on a global basis.

  17. Methods of materiality:Participant observation and qualitative research in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi

    2016-01-01

    This article challenges the hegemonic status of “language” as the primary substance of qualitative research in psychology, whether through interviews or recordings of naturally occurring talk. It thereby questions the overt focus on analyzing linguistic “meaning.” Instead, it is suggested that researchers should start paying attention to the material world (consisting of both human bodies and material objects) and what it means for how people live their lives. It is argued that this can be do...

  18. The space station window observational research facility; a high altitude imaging laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runco, Susan K.; Eppler, Dean B.; Scott, Karen P.

    1999-01-01

    Earth Science will be one of the major research areas to be conducted on the International Space Station. The facilities from which this research will be accomplished are currently being constructed and will be described in this paper. By April 1999, the International Space Station nadir viewing research window fabrication will be completed and ready for installation. The window will provide a 20 inch (51 cm) diameter clear aperture. The three fused silica panes, which make up the window are fabricated such that the total peak-to-valley wavefront error in transmission through the three panes over any six inch diameter aperture does not exceed λ/7 where the reference wavelength is 632.8 nm. The window will have over 90% transmission between about 400 and 750, above 50% transmission between about 310 nm and 1375 nm and 40% transmission between 1386 nm and 2000 nm. The Window Operational Research Facility (WORF) is designed to accommodate payloads using this research window. The WORF will provide access to the International Space Station utilities such as data links, temperature cooling loops and power. Emphasis has been placed on the factors which will make this facility an optimum platform for conducting Earth science research

  19. A cross sectional observational study of research activity of allied health teams: is there a link with self-reported success, motivators and barriers to undertaking research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Rachel J; Mickan, Sharon; Bisset, Leanne

    2017-02-06

    Team-based approaches to research capacity building (RCB) may be an efficient means to promote allied health research participation and activity. In order to tailor such interventions, a clearer understanding of current patterns of research participation within allied health teams is needed. Different self-report measures exist which evaluate a team's research capacity and participation, as well as associated barriers and motivators. However, it remains unclear how such measures are associated with a team's actual research activity (e.g., journal publications, funding received). In response, this observational study aimed to identify the research activity, self-reported success, and motivations and barriers to undertaking research of eight allied health professional (AHP) teams and to explore whether any relationships exist between the self-reported measures and actual research activity within each team. A total of 95 AHPs from eight teams completed the research capacity and culture survey to evaluate team success, barriers and motivators to undertaking research, and an audit of research activity from January 2013 to August 2014 was undertaken within each team. Kendell's correlation coefficients were used to determine the association between research activity (i.e., number of journal publications, ethically approved projects and funding received) and the self-reported measures. Seven out of eight teams rated their teams as having average success in research and demonstrated some form of research activity including at least two ethically approved projects. Research activity varied between teams, with funding received ranging from $0 to over $100,000, and half the teams not producing any journal publications. Team motivators demonstrated a stronger association with research activity compared to barriers, with the motivator "enhancing team credibility" being significantly associated with funding received. No significant association between self-reported research

  20. "Back on Track": A Mobile App Observational Study Using Apple's ResearchKit Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zens, Martin; Woias, Peter; Suedkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-02-28

    In March 2015, Apple Inc announced ResearchKit, a novel open-source framework intended to help medical researchers to easily create apps for medical studies. With the announcement of this framework, Apple presented 5 apps built in a beta phase based on this framework. The objective of this study was to better understand decision making in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. Here, we describe the development of a ResearchKit app for this study. A multilanguage observatory study was conducted. At first a suitable research topic, target groups, participating territories, and programming method were carefully identified. The ResearchKit framework was used to program the app. A secure server connection was realized via Secure Sockets Layer. A data storage and security concept separating personal information and study data was proposed. Furthermore, an efficient method to allow multilanguage support and distribute the app in many territories was presented. Ethical implications were considered and taken into account regarding privacy policies. An app study based on ResearchKit was developed without comprehensive iPhone Operating System (iOS) development experience. The Apple App Store is a major distribution channel causing significant download rates (>1.200/y) without active recruitment. Preliminary data analysis showed moderate dropout rates and a good quality of data. A total of 180 participants were currently enrolled with 107 actively participating and producing 424 completed surveys in 9 out of 24 months. ResearchKit is an easy-to-use framework and powerful tool to create medical studies. Advantages are the modular built, the extensive reach of iOS devices, and the convenient programming environment. ©Martin Zens, Peter Woias, Norbert P Suedkamp, Philipp Niemeyer. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 28.02.2017.

  1. The Importance of Earth Observations and Data Collaboration within Environmental Intelligence Supporting Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Within the IARPC Collaboration Team activities of 2016, Arctic in-situ and remote earth observations advanced topics such as :1) exploring the role for new and innovative autonomous observing technologies in the Arctic; 2) advancing catalytic national and international community based observing efforts in support of the National Strategy for the Arctic Region; and 3) enhancing the use of discovery tools for observing system collaboration such as the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Arctic Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) project geo reference visualization decision support and exploitation internet based tools. Critical to the success of these earth observations for both in-situ and remote systems is the emerging of new and innovative data collection technologies and comprehensive modeling as well as enhanced communications and cyber infrastructure capabilities which effectively assimilate and dissemination many environmental intelligence products in a timely manner. The Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) project is well positioned to greatly enhance user capabilities for accessing, organizing, visualizing, sharing and producing collaborative knowledge for the Arctic.

  2. The research of radar target tracking observed information linear filter method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Zhao, Xuanzhi; Zhang, Wen

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at the problems of low precision or even precision divergent is caused by nonlinear observation equation in radar target tracking, a new filtering algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, local linearization is carried out on the observed data of the distance and angle respectively. Then the kalman filter is performed on the linearized data. After getting filtered data, a mapping operation will provide the posteriori estimation of target state. A large number of simulation results show that this algorithm can solve above problems effectively, and performance is better than the traditional filtering algorithm for nonlinear dynamic systems.

  3. Observations and actions to ensure equal treatment of all candidates by the European Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; El Mjiyad, Nadia; Kota, Jhansi; Thelen, Lionel

    2017-04-01

    The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views equality of opportunities as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected in running highly competitive and internationally recognised funding schemes are presented. Recent initiatives to tackle geographical imbalances will also be presented.

  4. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; McCord, Raymond [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sisterson, Doug [Argonne National Laboratory; Voyles, Jimmy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  5. The Reporting of Observational Research Studies in Dermatology Journals A Literature-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langan, Sinead; Schmitt, Jochen; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Svensson, Ake; von Elm, Erik; Williams, Hywel

    Objective: To assess the quality of reporting in observational studies in dermatology. Data Sources: Five dermatology journals-the Archives of Dermatology, the British Journal of Dermatology, the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, and Acta

  6. The Kernel Levine Equipercentile Observed-Score Equating Function. Research Report. ETS RR-13-38

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the observed-score equating methods for the nonequivalent groups with anchor test design, there are 3 fundamentally different ways of using the information provided by the anchor scores to equate the scores of a new form to those of an old form. One method uses the anchor scores as a conditioning variable, such as the Tucker…

  7. Observational studies to mitigate seismic risks in mines: a new Japanese-South African collaborative research project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available and High Stress Mining, 6-8 October 2010, Santiago CHILE 1 Observational studies to mitigate seismic risks in mines: a new Japanese - South African collaborative research project R.J. Durrheim SATREPS*, CSIR Centre for Mining Innovation.... 3. To upgrade the South African national seismic network. The project is carried out under the auspices of the SATREPS (Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development) program "Countermeasures towards Global Issues through...

  8. Calibration and Quality Assurance of Flux Observations from a Small Research Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, O.S.; Dobosy, R.J.; Dumas, E.J.; Beniamino, G.; Elbers, J.A.; Hutjes, R.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Small environmental research aircraft (ERA) are becoming more common for detailed studies of air–surface interactions. The Sky Arrow 650 ERA, used by multiple groups, is designed to minimize the complexity of high-precision airborne turbulent wind measurement. Its relative wind probe, of a nine-port

  9. Researches of real observation geometry in monitoring fuel-containing materials' subcriticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskij, E.D.; Shevchenko, V.G.; Shevchenko, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of fuel-containing materials monitoring is discussed in the part related to the feasibilities of researches and realization of optimal geometry (detectors - source) of survey of neutron activity dynamics in nuclearly hazardous areas with clusters of fuel-containing materials concentrated in the premises 305/2

  10. Collaborative Research. Separating Forced and Unforced Decadal Predictability in Models and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DelSole, Timothy [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of the proposed research was to identify unforced predictable components on decadal time scales, distinguish these components from forced predictable components, and to assess the reliability of model predictions of these components. The question of whether anthropogenic forcing changes decadal predictability, or gives rise to new forms of decadal predictability, also will be

  11. Política educativa y contingencia: creencias, estatus y confianza detrás del milagro finlandés de PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Simola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los autores sugieren tres conceptos teóricos que consideran prometedores para la educación comparada. Estos son: (1 unificar los conceptos teóricos de dependencia, convergencia y contingencia, (2 trazar la historia de la problemática y (3 analizar las interpretaciones nacionales y locales como híbridos. En su análisis del “milagro finlandés” de PISA, los autores se centran exclusivamente en el concepto de contingencia para ver si se puede facilitar una comprensión más amplia sobre el éxito nacional. Para ello identifican tres ‘verdades’ nacionales que son ampliamente aceptadas en Finlandia a pesar de faltar la evidencia empírica de una investigación que las apoye: los finlandeses comparten una amplia creencia en la escolarización, la enseñanza es una profesión muy apreciada en Finlandia y las escuelas finlandesas gozan de una confianza bastante alta por parte de los padres, las autoridades y los políticos. Este estudio muestra cómo la génesis de estas tres “creencias” nacionales se debe más bien a la casualidad que al resultado de una planificación racional o a un propósito educativo por parte de los políticos. Simola y Rinne concluyen que conceptualizaciones tales como la contingencia, se deben tomar en serio si se persigue una comprensión de las políticas nacionales de educación. El enfoque alternativo, es decir, operar únicamente a través de los modelos funcionalistas y sistemáticos, destacando principalmente las tendencias transnacionales o nacionales, y centrándose exclusivamente en las decisiones y elecciones racionales, no proporciona los instrumentos teóricos adecuados para una investigación comparada.

  12. Modeling and Explaining Content: Definition, Research Support, and Measurement of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series. Research Memorandum No. RM-16-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Leslie; Sykes, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This report reviews the scholarly and research evidence supporting the construct labeled modeling and explaining content (MEC), which is measured via a performance assessment in the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) assessment series. This construct involves practices at the heart of teaching that deal with how…

  13. Eliciting Student Thinking: Definition, Research Support, and Measurement of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series. Research Memorandum No. RM-16-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi; Sykes, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This report describes and provides research and scholarly support for a core practice of teaching--eliciting student thinking (EST)--that is the target for a performance assessment contributing one component of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) assessment series. The purpose of this report is to review the…

  14. Observing nature in the Gorleben salt dome geosystem. Making the invisible visible. Research, insights, reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.G.; Roethemeyer, H.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable safety assessments of underground deposits require the respective geological systems to be observed and evaluated in their entirety. Important objects to be studied for this purpose are observations of nature providing information about the natural isolation potential. The study under review presents 5 such observations of nature in the geosystem of the Gorleben salt dome. They include the absolute Br-distribution in carnallite rock and in Stassfurt-type rock salt (in a profile and in space), the quantitative chemical compositions of minor fluid inclusions in salt crystals and of residual fluid inside evaporates. All findings agree in one respect: In the central part of the salt dome explored so far, no influences have been active, from the origins of the evaporates some 250 million years ago to this day, which were imposed from the outside (such as solutions from the caprock, the adjoining rock) and/or have given rise to large-scale changes in the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the saline rock. (orig.)

  15. Observational Research on Alcohol Use and Chronic Disease Outcome: New Approaches to Counter Biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The frequently reported protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption in observational studies may be due to unadjusted bias. Aim. To examine two new approaches that account for unknown confounding factors and allow the application of intention-to-treat analysis. Method. This study used data from the 2008, 2009, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys conducted in the United States. Unknown confounding effects were estimated through the association between parental alcohol use and health outcomes for children, because the presence of hypothetical physiological effects of alcohol can be ruled out for this association. In order to apply intention-to-treat analysis, previous alcohol use of former drinkers was obtained by using multiple imputations. Estimates with new adjustment approaches were compared with the traditional approach. Results. The traditional analytical approach; appears to be consistent with findings from previous observational studies; when two further adjustment approaches were used, the “protective” effects of moderate drinking almost disappeared. Conclusion. Use of a proxy outcome to estimate and control residual confounding effects of alcohol use and application of the intention-to-treat principle could provide a more realistic estimation of the true effects of alcohol use on health outcomes in observational epidemiological studies.

  16. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: distorted research and anecdotal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brongersma, E

    1990-01-01

    A wide experience with boy-lovers has convinced the author that one can often learn more about them from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. All too often research is unreliable because (1) it assumes pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia; (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles; (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners; and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. Representative samples for research cannot be drawn from members of boy-love organizations. The incidence of violence is very low in pedophile contacts with boys. The influence can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be either wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually only a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction and education. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents and the problem of the partners' inequality are discussed.

  17. An Observational Study of Children's Involvement in Informed Consent for Exome Sequencing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Werner-Lin, Allison; Walser, Sarah A; Biswas, Sawona; Bernhardt, Barbara A

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine children's involvement in consent sessions for exome sequencing research and associations of involvement with provider and parent communication. Participants included 44 children (8-17 years) from five cohorts who were offered participation in an exome sequencing study. The consent sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded. Providers attempted to facilitate the child's involvement in the majority (73%) of sessions, and most (75%) children also verbally participated. Provider facilitation was strongly associated with likelihood of child participation. These findings underscore that strategies such as asking for children's opinions and soliciting their questions show respect for children and may increase the likelihood that they are engaged and involved in decisions about research participation.

  18. Aviation & Space Weather Policy Research: Integrating Space Weather Observations & Forecasts into Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G.; Jones, B.

    2006-12-01

    The American Meteorological Society and SolarMetrics Limited are conducting a policy research project leading to recommendations that will increase the safety, reliability, and efficiency of the nation's airline operations through more effective use of space weather forecasts and information. This study, which is funded by a 3-year National Science Foundation grant, also has the support of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) who is planning the Next Generation Air Transportation System. A major component involves interviewing and bringing together key people in the aviation industry who deal with space weather information. This research also examines public and industrial strategies and plans to respond to space weather information. The focus is to examine policy issues in implementing effective application of space weather services to the management of the nation's aviation system. The results from this project will provide government and industry leaders with additional tools and information to make effective decisions with respect to investments in space weather research and services. While space weather can impact the entire aviation industry, and this project will address national and international issues, the primary focus will be on developing a U.S. perspective for the airlines.

  19. The persistence of the subjective in neuropsychopharmacology: observations of contemporary hallucinogen research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlitz, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The elimination of subjectivity through brain research and the replacement of so-called "folk psychology" by a neuroscientifically enlightened worldview and self-conception has been both hoped for and feared. But this cultural revolution is still pending. Based on nine months of fieldwork on the revival of hallucinogen research since the "Decade of the Brain," this paper examines how subjective experience appears as epistemic object and practical problem in a psychopharmacological laboratory. In the quest for neural correlates of (drug-induced altered states of) consciousness, introspective accounts of test subjects play a crucial role in neuroimaging studies. Firsthand knowledge of the drugs' flamboyant effects provides researchers with a personal knowledge not communicated in scientific publications, but key to the conduct of their experiments. In many cases, the "psychedelic experience" draws scientists into the field and continues to inspire their self-image and way of life. By exploring these domains the paper points to a persistence of the subjective in contemporary neuropsychopharmacology.

  20. Risk of bias and confounding of observational studies of Zika virus infection: A scoping review of research protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Haby, Michelle M; Martínez-Vega, Ruth; Pinzón-Flores, Carlos E; Elias, Vanessa; Smith, Emma; Pinart, Mariona; Broutet, Nathalie; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Van Kerkhove, Maria D

    2017-01-01

    Given the severity and impact of the current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas, numerous countries have rushed to develop research studies to assess ZIKV and its potential health consequences. In an effort to ensure that studies are comprehensive, both internally and externally valid, and with reliable results, the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, Institut Pasteur, the networks of Fiocruz, the Consortia for the Standardization of Influenza Seroepidemiology (CONSISE) and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) have generated six standardized clinical and epidemiological research protocols and questionnaires to address key public health questions on ZIKV. We conducted a systematic search of ongoing study protocols related to ZIKV research. We analyzed the content of protocols of 32 cohort studies and 13 case control studies for systematic bias that could produce erroneous results. Additionally we aimed to characterize the risks of bias and confounding in observational studies related to ZIKV and to propose ways to minimize them, including the use of six newly standardized research protocols. Observational studies of ZIKV face an array of challenges, including measurement of exposure and outcomes (microcephaly and Guillain-Barré Syndrome). Potential confounders need to be measured where known and controlled for in the analysis. Selection bias due to non-random selection is a significant issue, particularly in the case-control design, and losses to follow-up is equally important for the cohort design. Observational research seeking to answer key questions on the ZIKV should consider these restrictions and take precautions to minimize bias in an effort to provide reliable and valid results. Utilization of the standardized research protocols developed by the WHO, PAHO, Institut Pasteur, and CONSISE will harmonize the key methodological aspects of each study design to minimize bias at

  1. Risk of bias and confounding of observational studies of Zika virus infection: A scoping review of research protocols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Reveiz

    Full Text Available Given the severity and impact of the current Zika virus (ZIKV outbreak in the Americas, numerous countries have rushed to develop research studies to assess ZIKV and its potential health consequences. In an effort to ensure that studies are comprehensive, both internally and externally valid, and with reliable results, the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, Institut Pasteur, the networks of Fiocruz, the Consortia for the Standardization of Influenza Seroepidemiology (CONSISE and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC have generated six standardized clinical and epidemiological research protocols and questionnaires to address key public health questions on ZIKV.We conducted a systematic search of ongoing study protocols related to ZIKV research. We analyzed the content of protocols of 32 cohort studies and 13 case control studies for systematic bias that could produce erroneous results. Additionally we aimed to characterize the risks of bias and confounding in observational studies related to ZIKV and to propose ways to minimize them, including the use of six newly standardized research protocols.Observational studies of ZIKV face an array of challenges, including measurement of exposure and outcomes (microcephaly and Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Potential confounders need to be measured where known and controlled for in the analysis. Selection bias due to non-random selection is a significant issue, particularly in the case-control design, and losses to follow-up is equally important for the cohort design.Observational research seeking to answer key questions on the ZIKV should consider these restrictions and take precautions to minimize bias in an effort to provide reliable and valid results. Utilization of the standardized research protocols developed by the WHO, PAHO, Institut Pasteur, and CONSISE will harmonize the key methodological aspects of each study design to

  2. Observations on persistent organic pollutants in indoor and outdoor air using passive polyurethane foam samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Pernilla; Jones, Kevin C.; Tovalin, Horacio; Strandberg, Bo

    Air quality data of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) indoors and outdoors are sparse or lacking in several parts of the world, often hampered by the cost and inconvenience of active sampling techniques. Cheap and easy passive air sampling techniques are therefore helpful for reconnaissance surveys. As a part of the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) project in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in 2006, a range of POPs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) were analyzed in polyurethane foam (PUF) disks used as passive samplers in indoor and outdoor air. Results were compared to those from samplers deployed simultaneously in Gothenburg (Sweden) and Lancaster (United Kingdom). Using sampling rates suggested in the literature, the sums of 13 PAHs in the different sites were estimated to be 6.1-180 ng m -3, with phenanthrene as the predominant compound. Indoor PAH levels tended to be higher in Gothenburg and outdoor levels higher in Mexico City. The sum of PCBs ranged 59-2100 ng m -3, and seemed to be highest indoors in Gothenburg and Lancaster. PBDE levels (sum of seven) ranged 0.68-620 ng m -3, with the highest levels found in some indoor locations. OCPs (i.e. DDTs, HCHs, and chlordanes) were widely dispersed both outdoors and indoors at all three studied areas. In Gothenburg all POPs tended to be higher indoors than outdoors, while indoor and outdoor levels in Mexico City were similar. This could be due to the influence of indoor and outdoor sources, air exchange rates, and lifestyle factors. The study demonstrates how passive samplers can provide quick and cheap reconnaissance data simultaneously at many locations which can shed light on sources and other factors influencing POP levels in air, especially for the gaseous fractions.

  3. The role of observational research in improving faculty lecturing skills: A qualitative study in an Italian dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Sonia; Lodi, Giovanni; Carrassi, Antonio; Zannini, Lucia

    2009-08-01

    This pilot study is based on observational research of lecturing skills during the annual Oral Medicine course at the Milan Dentistry School. Our goals were to explore how teachers exhibited desirable lecturing skills, to observe how their attitudes and lecturing skills affected students' attention and thereby learning, and to provide feedback. We prepared a structured observational grid divided into four categories: explaining, questioning, visual aids, and lecturer attitude. The grid was filled in by a participant, nonactive researcher. Two main types of lecture were observed: "traditional" and "interactive". Both of these can result in a high level of attention among students. Among the categories, only "lecturer attitude" appeared to affect student attention. In particular, the skills of "speaking aloud" and "sustaining verbal communication with vocal inflection" appeared to have the greatest impact on lecturer attitude. The data were then presented blindly to the five lecturers, who were able to identify their own lesson. Our grid proved to be a valid instrument although it was very expensive. When integrated with other strategies for improving lecturing, such as student scoring, peer evaluation, and microteaching, observational research can be a cost-effective method to stimulate guided reflection and to improve the lecturing skills of faculty members.

  4. Statistical and observational research of solar flare for total spectra and geometrical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, S.; Watanabe, K.; Imada, S.; Kawate, T.; Lee, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    Impulsive energy release phenomena such as solar flares, sometimes affect to the solar-terrestrial environment. Usually, we use soft X-ray flux (GOES class) as the index of flare scale. However, the magnitude of effect to the solar-terrestrial environment is not proportional to that scale. To identify the relationship between solar flare phenomena and influence to the solar-terrestrial environment, we need to understand the full spectrum of solar flares. There is the solar flare irradiance model named the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) (Chamberlin et al., 2006, 2007, 2008). The FISM can estimate solar flare spectra with high wavelength resolution. However, this model can not express the time evolution of emitted plasma during the solar flare, and has low accuracy on short wavelength that strongly effects and/or controls the total flare spectra. For the purpose of obtaining the time evolution of total solar flare spectra, we are performing statistical analysis of the electromagnetic data of solar flares. In this study, we select solar flare events larger than M-class from the Hinode flare catalogue (Watanabe et al., 2012). First, we focus on the EUV emission observed by the SDO/EVE. We examined the intensities and time evolutions of five EUV lines of 55 flare events. As a result, we found positive correlation between the "soft X-ray flux" and the "EUV peak flux" for all EVU lines. Moreover, we found that hot lines peaked earlier than cool lines of the EUV light curves. We also examined the hard X-ray data obtained by RHESSI. When we analyzed 163 events, we found good correlation between the "hard X-ray intensity" and the "soft X-ray flux". Because it seems that the geometrical features of solar flares effect to those time evolutions, we also looked into flare ribbons observed by SDO/AIA. We examined 21 flare events, and found positive correlation between the "GOES duration" and the "ribbon length". We also found positive correlation between the "ribbon

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Insights from over 30 years of research satellite observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahoz, W.A.; Orsolini, Y.J.; Manney, G.L.; Minschwaner, K.; Allen, D.R.; Errera, Q.; Jackson, D.R.; Lambert, A.; Lee, J.; Pumphrey, H.; Schwartz, M.; Wu, D.

    2012-07-01

    We discuss the insights that research satellite observations from the last 30 years have provided on the spatio-temporal variability of the polar middle atmosphere. Starting from the time of the NASA LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) and TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) instruments, both launched in 1978, we show how these observations have augmented our knowledge of the polar middle atmosphere, in particular how information on ozone and tracers has augmented our knowledge of: (i) the spatial and temporal characteristics of the wintertime polar stratosphere and the summertime circulation; and (ii) the roles of chemistry and transport in determining the stratospheric ozone distribution. We address the increasing joint use of observations and models, in particular in data assimilation, in contributing to this understanding. Finally, we outline requirements to allow continuation of the wealth of information on the polar middle atmosphere provided by research satellites over the last 30 years.(Author)

  6. Analysing data from observer studies in medical imaging research: An introductory guide to free-response techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.; Manning, D.J.; Hogg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Observer performance methods maintain their place in radiology research, particularly in the assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of new and existing techniques, despite not being fully embraced by the wider audience in medical imaging. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) paradigm has been widely used in research and the latest location sensitive methods allow an analysis that is closer to the clinical scenario. This paper discusses the underpinning theories behind observer performance assessment, exploring the potential sources of error and the development of the ROC method. The paper progresses by explaining the clinical relevance and statistical suitability of the free-response ROC (FROC) paradigm, and the methodological considerations for those wishing to perform an observer performance study

  7. Research on Optimal Observation Scale for Damaged Buildings after Earthquake Based on Optimal Feature Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Chen, W.; Dou, A.; Li, W.; Sun, Y.

    2018-04-01

    A new information extraction method of damaged buildings rooted in optimal feature space is put forward on the basis of the traditional object-oriented method. In this new method, ESP (estimate of scale parameter) tool is used to optimize the segmentation of image. Then the distance matrix and minimum separation distance of all kinds of surface features are calculated through sample selection to find the optimal feature space, which is finally applied to extract the image of damaged buildings after earthquake. The overall extraction accuracy reaches 83.1 %, the kappa coefficient 0.813. The new information extraction method greatly improves the extraction accuracy and efficiency, compared with the traditional object-oriented method, and owns a good promotional value in the information extraction of damaged buildings. In addition, the new method can be used for the information extraction of different-resolution images of damaged buildings after earthquake, then to seek the optimal observation scale of damaged buildings through accuracy evaluation. It is supposed that the optimal observation scale of damaged buildings is between 1 m and 1.2 m, which provides a reference for future information extraction of damaged buildings.

  8. SUMO: A small unmanned meteorological observer for atmospheric boundary layer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuder, J; Jonassen, M; Mayer, S; Brisset, P; Mueller, M

    2008-01-01

    A new system for atmospheric measurements in the lower troposphere has been developed and successfully tested. The presented Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO) is based on a light-weighted commercially available model airplane, equipped with an autopilot and meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. During the 5 week field campaign FLOHOF (Flow over and around HofsjoUkull) in Central Iceland the system has been successfully tested in July/August 2007. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground. In addition the applicability of SUMO for horizontal surveys up to 4 km away from the launch site has been approved. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under harsh polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m at ground temperatures of -20 deg. C and wind speeds up to 15 m s -1 . With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and its weight of below 600 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas. The direct material costs for one SUMO unit, including airplane, autopilot and sensors are below 1200 Euro. Assuming at least several tenths of flights for each airframe, SUMO provides a cost-efficient measurement system with a large potential to close the existing observational gap of reasonable atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes

  9. SUMO: A small unmanned meteorological observer for atmospheric boundary layer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuder, J; Jonassen, M; Mayer, S [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allegaten 70, 5009 Bergen (Norway); Brisset, P [Ecole Nationale de l' Aviation Civile (ENAC), 7 avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse (France); Mueller, M [Orleansstrasse 26a, 31135 Hildesheim (Germany)], E-mail: joachim.reuder@gfi.uib.no, E-mail: pascal.brisset@enac.fr, E-mail: marius.jonassen@gfi.uib.no, E-mail: martin@pfump.org, E-mail: stephanie.mayer@gfi.uib.no

    2008-05-01

    A new system for atmospheric measurements in the lower troposphere has been developed and successfully tested. The presented Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer (SUMO) is based on a light-weighted commercially available model airplane, equipped with an autopilot and meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. During the 5 week field campaign FLOHOF (Flow over and around HofsjoUkull) in Central Iceland the system has been successfully tested in July/August 2007. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground. In addition the applicability of SUMO for horizontal surveys up to 4 km away from the launch site has been approved. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under harsh polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m at ground temperatures of -20 deg. C and wind speeds up to 15 m s{sup -1}. With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and its weight of below 600 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas. The direct material costs for one SUMO unit, including airplane, autopilot and sensors are below 1200 Euro. Assuming at least several tenths of flights for each airframe, SUMO provides a cost-efficient measurement system with a large potential to close the existing observational gap of reasonable atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes.

  10. The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO. A new tool for atmospheric boundary layer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuder, Joachim; Jonassen, Marius; Mayer, Stephanie [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Geophysical Inst.; Brisset, Pascal [Ecole Nationale de l' Aviation Civile (ENAC), Toulouse (France); Mueller, Martin [Martin Mueller Engineering, Hildesheim (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO has been developed as a cost-efficient measurement system with the aim to close the existing observational gap of atmospheric measurement systems in between meteorological masts/towers and radiosondes. The system is highly flexible and has the capability for in-situ ABL measurements with unique spatial and temporal resolution. SUMO is based on a light-weighted styrofoam model airplane, equipped with an autopilot system for autonomous flight missions and in its recent version with meteorological sensors for temperature, humidity and pressure. With its wingspan of 80 cm, its length of 75 cm and a total lift-off weight of 580 g, SUMO is easy to transport and operate even in remote areas with limited infrastructure. During several field campaigns in 2007 and 2008 the system has been successfully tested and operated. Atmospheric profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction have been determined up to 3500 m above ground during the FLOHOF (FLOw over and around HOFsjoekull) field campaign in Central Iceland in July/August 2007. During a 3 week campaign on and around Spitsbergen in February/March 2008 the SUMO system also proved its functionality under polar conditions, reaching altitudes above 1500 m even at ground temperatures of -20 C and wind speeds up to 15 m s{sup -1}. (orig.)

  11. Development of a New Research Data Infrastructure for Collaboration in Earth Observation and Global Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Briese, Christian

    2017-04-01

    With the global population having surpassed 7 billion people in 2012, the impacts of human activities on the environment have started to be noticeable almost everywhere on our planet. Yet, while pressing social problems such as mass migration may be at least be partly a consequence of these impacts, many are still elusive, particularly when trying to quantify them on larger scales. Therefore, it is essential to collect verifiable observations that allow tracing environmental changes from a local to global scale over several decades. Complementing in situ networks, this task is increasingly fulfilled by earth observation satellites which have been acquiring measurements of the land, atmosphere and oceans since the beginning of the 1970s. While many multi-decadal data sets are already available, the major limitation hindering their effective exploitation in global change studies is the lack of dedicated data centres offering the high performance processing capabilities needed to process multi-year global data sets at a fine spatial resolution (Wagner, 2015). Essentially the only platform which currently offers these capabilities is Google's Earth Engine. From a scientific perspective there is undoubtedly a high need to build up independent science-driven platforms that are transparent for their users and offer a higher diversity and flexibility in terms of the data sets and algorithms used. Recognizing this need, TU Wien founded the EODC Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring together with other Austrian partners in May 2014 as a public-private partnership (Wagner et al. 2014). Thanks to its integrative governance approach, EODC has succeeded of quickly developing an international cooperation consisting of scientific institutions, public organisations and several private partners. Making best use of their existing infrastructures, the EODC partners have already created the first elements of a federated IT infrastructure capable of storing and

  12. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  13. Research of Compound Control for DC Motor System Based on Global Sliding Mode Disturbance Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of modeling errors, parameter variations, and load moment disturbances in DC motor control system, one global sliding mode disturbance observer (GSMDO is proposed based on the global sliding mode (GSM control theory. The output of GSMDO is used as the disturbance compensation in control system, which can improve the robust performance of DC motor control system. Based on the designed GSMDO in inner loop, one compound controller, composed of a feedback controller and a feedforward controller, is proposed in order to realize the position tracking of DC motor system. The gains of feedback controller are obtained by means of linear quadratic regulator (LQR optimal control theory. Simulation results present that the proposed control scheme possesses better tracking properties and stronger robustness against modeling errors, parameter variations, and friction moment disturbances. Moreover, its structure is simple; therefore it is easy to be implemented in engineering.

  14. [Translated Title: Participatory research to develop a school violence observation instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Santiago, Nilda G; Rivera, Tania Cruz; Rodríguez, Maryanes Trenche; Báez Ávila, Loggina S

    2017-01-01

    School violence has been recognized worldwide as a public health problem that negatively impacts the educational process. However, in Puerto Rico official statistics and the media generally focus on isolated incidents of extreme violence in which weapons are used or property is destroyed. Little data is available about the most common forms of violence that often occur in schools on a daily basis. The Instrumento de Observación de Violencia Escolar (INOVE) , developed with the input of school communities participating in Project VIAS (Violence and Asthma Health Disparity Network) of Universidad del Este (UNE), was used in this study to gather information about the characteristics of violence in two Puerto Rican schools. Among the study findings we highlight gender differences in observed violence and aggressive games and interactions between students. The data collected have served as a basis for decision-making regarding violence prevention in participating schools and have implications for the development of prevention strategies and programs.

  15. JPSS Operational and Research Applications: The Pathway from Observations to Applications to Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M.; Sjoberg, W.; Layns, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Applications of satellite data are paramount to transform science and technology to product and services which are used in critical decision making. For the satellite community, good representations of technology are the satellite sensors, while science provides the instrument calibration and derived geophysical parameters. Weather forecasting is an application of the science and technology provided by remote sensing satellites. The Joint Polar Satellite System, which includes the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) provides formidable science and technology to support many applications and includes support to 1) weather forecasting - data from the JPSS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) are used to forecast weather events out to 7 days - nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites; 2) environmental monitoring -data from the JPSS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color; and 3) climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS and CERES will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. To bridge the gap between products and applications, the JPSS Program has established the Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) Program to identify opportunities to maximize the operational application of current JPSS capabilities. The PGRR Program also helps identify and evaluate the use of JPSS capabilities for new operational missions. New PGRR initiatives focus on hydrological, Arctic, data assimilation, atmospheric chemistry, ocean ecosystem applications. At the conference, the benefits of JPSS data on societal benefits will be presented along with results

  16. The Impact of Financial Conflict of Interest on Surgical Research: An Observational Study of Published Manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Viso, Cristina P; Olavarria, Oscar A; Bernardi, Karla; Holihan, Julie L; Mueck, Krislynn M; Flores-Gonzalez, Juan; Liang, Mike K; Adams, Sasha D

    2018-02-09

    Substantial discrepancies exist between industry-reported and self-reported conflicts of interest (COI). Although authors with relevant, self-reported financial COI are more likely to write studies favorable to industry sponsors, it is unknown whether undisclosed COI have the same effect. We hypothesized that surgeons who fail to disclose COI are more likely to publish findings that are favorable to industry than surgeons with no COI. PubMed was searched for articles in multiple surgical specialties. Financial COI reported by surgeons and industry were compared. COI were considered to be relevant if they were associated with the product(s) mentioned by an article. Primary outcome was favorability, which was defined as an impression favorable to the product(s) discussed by an article and was determined by 3 independent, blinded clinicians for each article. Primary analysis compared incomplete self-disclosure to no COI. Ordered logistic multivariable regression modeling was used to assess factors associated with favorability. Overall, 337 articles were reviewed. There was a high rate of discordance in the reporting of COI (70.3%). When surgeons failed to disclose COI, their conclusions were significantly more likely to favor industry than surgeons without COI (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4, p relevance, disclosure, or monetary amount) were significantly associated with favorability. Any financial COI (disclosed or undisclosed, relevant or not relevant) significantly influence whether studies report findings favorable to industry. More attention must be paid to improving research design, maximizing transparency in medical research, and insisting that surgeons disclose all COI, regardless of perceived relevance.

  17. Tropical cyclones-Pacific Asian Research Campaign for Improvement of Intensity estimations/forecasts (T-PARCII): A research plan of typhoon aircraft observations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboki, Kazuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Typhoons are the most devastating weather system occurring in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea. Violent wind and heavy rainfall associated with a typhoon cause huge disaster in East Asia including Japan. In 2013, Supertyphoon Haiyan struck the Philippines caused a very high storm surge and more than 7000 people were killed. In 2015, two typhoons approached the main islands of Japan and severe flood occurred in the northern Kanto region. Typhoons are still the largest cause of natural disaster in East Asia. Moreover, many researches have projected increase of typhoon intensity with the climate change. This suggests that a typhoon risk is increasing in East Asia. However, the historical data of typhoon include large uncertainty. In particular, intensity data of the most intense typhoon category have larger error after the US aircraft reconnaissance of typhoon was terminated in 1987.The main objective of the present study is improvements of typhoon intensity estimations and of forecasts of intensity and track. We will perform aircraft observation of typhoon and the observed data are assimilated to numerical models to improve intensity estimation. Using radars and balloons, observations of thermodynamical and cloud-microphysical processes of typhoons will be also performed to improve physical processes of numerical model. In typhoon seasons (mostly in August and September), we will perform aircraft observations of typhoons. Using dropsondes from the aircraft, temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind are measured in surroundings of the typhoon inner core region. The dropsonde data are assimilated to a cloud-resolving model which has been developed in Nagoya University and named the Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). Then, more accurate estimations and forecasts of the typhoon intensity will be made as well as typhoon tracks. Furthermore, we will utilize a ground-based balloon with microscope camera, X-band precipitation radar, Ka-band cloud radar

  18. 'Relief of oppression': an organizing principle for researchers' obligations to participants in observational studies in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, James V; Bandewar, Sunita V S; Kimani, Joshua; Upshur, Ross E G; Plummer, Frances A; Singer, Peter A

    2010-06-30

    A central question in the debate about exploitation in international research is whether investigators and sponsors from high-income countries (HIC) have obligations to address background conditions of injustice in the communities in which they conduct their research, beyond the healthcare and other research-related needs of participants, to aspects of their basic life circumstances. In this paper, we describe the Majengo sexually transmitted disease (STD) Cohort study, a long-term prospective, observational cohort of sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Despite important scientific contributions and a wide range of benefits to the women of the cohort, most of the women have remained in the sex trade during their long-standing participation in the cohort, prompting allegations of exploitation. The Majengo STD cohort case extends the debate about justice in international research ethics beyond clinical trials into long-term observational research. We sketch the basic features of a new approach to understanding and operationalizing obligations of observational researchers, which we call 'relief of oppression'. 'Relief of oppression' is an organizing principle, analogous to the principle of harm reduction that is now widely applied in public health practice. Relief of oppression aims to help observational researchers working in conditions of injustice and deprivation to clarify their ethical obligations to participants. It aims to bridge the gap between a narrow, transaction-oriented account of avoiding exploitation and a broad account emphasizing obligations of reparation for historic injustices. We propose that relief of oppression might focus researchers' consideration of benefits on those that have some relevance to background conditions of injustice, and so elevate the priority of these benefits, in relation to others that might be considered and negotiated with participants, according to the degree to which the participating communities are constrained in their

  19. All-sky-imaging capabilities for ionospheric space weather research using geomagnetic conjugate point observing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, C.; Baumgardner, J.; Wroten, J.; Mendillo, M.

    2018-04-01

    Optical signatures of ionospheric disturbances exist at all latitudes on Earth-the most well known case being visible aurora at high latitudes. Sub-visual emissions occur equatorward of the auroral zones that also indicate periods and locations of severe Space Weather effects. These fall into three magnetic latitude domains in each hemisphere: (1) sub-auroral latitudes ∼40-60°, (2) mid-latitudes (20-40°) and (3) equatorial-to-low latitudes (0-20°). Boston University has established a network of all-sky-imagers (ASIs) with sites at opposite ends of the same geomagnetic field lines in each hemisphere-called geomagnetic conjugate points. Our ASIs are autonomous instruments that operate in mini-observatories situated at four conjugate pairs in North and South America, plus one pair linking Europe and South Africa. In this paper, we describe instrument design, data-taking protocols, data transfer and archiving issues, image processing, science objectives and early results for each latitude domain. This unique capability addresses how a single source of disturbance is transformed into similar or different effects based on the unique "receptor" conditions (seasonal effects) found in each hemisphere. Applying optical conjugate point observations to Space Weather problems offers a new diagnostic approach for understanding the global system response functions operating in the Earth's upper atmosphere.

  20. Observations on the radiochemical control of radiopharmaceuticals at tajoura nuclear research center (TNRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuzwida, M.A.; Saad, M.A.; Elmagrahi, H.; Elghanodi, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Production of radioisotopes for the radiopharmaceutical purposes is the main task of Tajoura nuclear center. During the analysis of the 131 I- radioactive solution which was produced using the so-called dry method, the following has been observed : in order to reduce the cost and the time of analytical cycle or time used for the radiochemical purity (RCP), a spot test has been used to indicate the position of the radioactivity in the chromatogram rather than using autoradiographing or the x-ray films. This method was based on the reaction between I 2 and starch to give a blue color at different R f values I 2 is liberated by I - oxidation (H 2 O 2 ) or by IO - 3 reaction with SCN - in the presence of HCl. A simple and fast test for the estimation of the content in the radioactive sample has been elaborated.This method was based on the reduction of Te (IV) or (VI) to Te metal using SnCI 2 in a alkaline media. The detection limit of the elaborated method was found to be 131 I- buffer solution, and 16.0 m S for Na CI saline solution were obtained

  1. Methodological considerations in observational comparative effectiveness research for implantable medical devices: an epidemiologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Jessica J; Ritchey, Mary Elizabeth; Mi, Xiaojuan; Chen, Chih-Ying; Hammill, Bradley G; Curtis, Lesley H; Setoguchi, Soko

    2014-11-01

    Medical devices play a vital role in diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases and are an integral part of the health-care system. Many devices, including implantable medical devices, enter the market through a regulatory pathway that was not designed to assure safety and effectiveness. Several recent studies and high-profile device recalls have demonstrated the need for well-designed, valid postmarketing studies of medical devices. Medical device epidemiology is a relatively new field compared with pharmacoepidemiology, which for decades has been developed to assess the safety and effectiveness of medications. Many methodological considerations in pharmacoepidemiology apply to medical device epidemiology. Fundamental differences in mechanisms of action and use and in how exposure data are captured mean that comparative effectiveness studies of medical devices often necessitate additional and different considerations. In this paper, we discuss some of the most salient issues encountered in conducting comparative effectiveness research on implantable devices. We discuss special methodological considerations regarding the use of data sources, exposure and outcome definitions, timing of exposure, and sources of bias. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Observation to Theory in Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research: Can We Piece It Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, F. S.; Thurber, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Three decades of observations of microbes in deep environments have led to startling discoveries of life in the subsurface. Now, a few theoretical frameworks exist that help to define Stygian life. Temperature, redox gradients, productivity (e.g., in the overlying ocean), and microbial power requirements are thought to determine the distribution of microbes in the subsurface. Still, we struggle to comprehend the spatial and temporal spectra of Earth processes that define how deep microbe communities survive. Stommel diagrams, originally used to guide oceanographic sampling, may be useful in depicting the subsurface where microbial communities are impacted by co-occurring spatial and temporal phenomena that range across exponential scales. Spatially, the geological settings that influence the activity and distribution of microbes range from individual molecules or minerals all the way up to the planetary-scale where geological formations, occupying up to 105 km3, dictate the bio- and functional geography of microbial communities. Temporally, life in the subsurface may respond in time units familiar to humans (e.g., seconds to days) or to events that unfold over hundred millennial time periods. While surface community dynamics are underpinned by solar and lunar cycles, these cycles only fractionally dictate survival underground where phenomena like tectonic activity, isostatic rebound, and radioactive decay are plausible drivers of microbial life. Geological or planetary processes that occur on thousand or million year cycles could be uniquely important to microbial viability in the subsurface. Such an approach aims at a holistic comprehension of the interaction of Earth system dynamics with microbial ecology.

  3. Collaboration Between Astronomers at UT Austin and K-12 Teachers: Connecting the Experience of Observing and Research with the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Sneden, Christopher; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Preston, Sandra; EXES Teachers Associate Program

    2015-01-01

    McDonald Observatory has a long history of providing teacher professional development (PD), and recently we have developed a new workshop model for more advanced participants. By choosing a select group of middle and high school teachers from those previously involved in our past PD programs, we have created a joint workshop / observing run program for them. After traveling to the observatory, the teachers participate in an actual observing run with a research astronomer. The teachers are trained first-hand how to take observations, operate the telescope, set up the instrument, and monitor observing conditions. The teachers are fully put in the role of observer. They are also given background information before and during the workshop related to the science and data they are helping to collect. The teachers work in teams to both perform the nightly observations with an astronomer, but to also perform new interactive classroom activities with education staff, and use other telescopes on the mountain. This is a unique experience for teachers since it allows them to take the resources and experiences directly back to their classrooms and students. They can directly relate to their students what skills for specific careers in STEM fields are needed. Evaluation from these workshops shows that there is: increased content knowledge among participants, greater impact that will be passed on to their students, and an authentic research experience that can't be replicated in other PD settings. In addition, not only is this program beneficial to the teachers, but this group is benefit to the education program of McDonald Observatory. Building on an existing PD program (with a 16 year history) we have the opportunity to test out new products and new education endeavors with this devoted group of well-trained teachers before bringing them to wider teacher and student audiences. This program is currently supported by the NSF grant AST-1211585 (PI Sneden).

  4. Collaborative Observation and Research (CORE) Watersheds: new strategies for tracking the regional effects of climate change on complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, P. S.

    2007-12-01

    The past 30 years of environmental research have shown that our world is not made up of discrete components acting independently, but rather of a mosaic of complex relations among air, land, water, living resources, and human activities. Recent warming of the climate is having a significant effect on the functioning of those systems. A national imperative is developing to quickly establish local, regional, and national systems for anticipating environmental degradation from a changing climate and developing cost-effective adaptation or mitigation strategies. In these circumstances, the debate over research versus monitoring becomes moot--there is a clear need for the integrated application of both across a range of temporal and spatial scales. A national framework that effectively addresses the multiple scales and complex multi-disciplinary processes of climate change is being assembled largely from existing programs through collaboration among Federal, State, local, and NGO organizations. The result will be an observation and research network capable of interpreting complex environmental changes at a range of spatial and temporal scales, but at less cost than if the network were funded as an independent initiative. A pilot implementation of the collaborative framework in the Delaware River Basin yielded multi-scale assessments of carbon storage and flux, and the effects of forest fragmentation and soil calcium depletion on ecosystem function. A prototype of a national climate-effects observation and research network linking research watersheds, regional surveys, remote sensing, and ecosystem modeling is being initiated in the Yukon River Basin where carbon flux associated with permafrost thaw could accelerate global warming.

  5. A review of the US Global Change Research Program and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Anderson, James G.; Costanza, Robert; Gates, W. Lawrence; Grew, Priscilla C.; Leinen, Margaret S.; Mayewski, Paul A.; McCarthy, James J.; Sellers, Piers J.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the results of a ten-day workshop convened at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography July 19-28, 1995. The workshop was convened as the first phase of a two part review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The workshop was organized to provide a review of the scientific foundations and progress to date in the USGCRP and an assessment of the implications of new scientific insights for future USGCRP and Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System (MTPE/EOS) activities; a review of the role of NASA's MTPE/EOS program in the USGCRP observational strategy; a review of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) as a component of USGCRP data management activities; and an assessment of whether recent developments in the following areas lead to a need to readjust MTPE/EOS plans. Specific consideration was given to: proposed convergence of U.S. environmental satellite systems and programs, evolving international plans for Earth observation systems, advances in technology, and potential expansion of the role of the private sector. The present report summarizes the findings and recommendations developed by the Committee on Global Change Research on the basis of the presentations, background materials, working group deliberations, and plenary discussions of the workshop. In addition, the appendices include summaries prepared by the six working groups convened in the course of the workshop.

  6. Ressenya a Cárcel Ortí, María Milagros i García MArsilla, Juan Vicente, Documents de la pintura valenciana medieval i moderna. IV. Llibre de l’entrada de Ferran d’Antequera, València: Publicacions de la Universitat de València, 2013, 513 pp. ISBN: 978-84-370-9085-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Mora Galbis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Review to Cárcel Ortí, María Milagros i García MArsilla, Juan Vicente, Documents de la pintura valenciana medieval i moderna. IV. Llibre de l’entrada de Ferran d’Antequera, València: Publicacions de la Universitat de València, 2013, 513 pp. ISBN: 978-84-370-9085-6

  7. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L., E-mail: bhg@uw.edu [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, Hutchinson Institute for Cancer Outcomes Research (HICOR), Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Ramsey, Scott D. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Public Health Sciences, Hutchinson Institute for Cancer Outcomes Research (HICOR), Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Parvathaneni, Upendra [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design.

  8. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulart, Bernardo H.L.; Ramsey, Scott D.; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design

  9. Multi-component observation in deep boreholes, and its applications to earthquake prediction research and rock mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science (TRIES) has developed a multicomponent instrument that can be operated in deep boreholes (e.g., those one km in depth). It is equipped with stress meters, strain meters, tilt meters, seismometers, magnetometers, and thermometers; in addition, these sensors can be arbitrarily combined. The stress meters, which were developed recently, can observe stress and strain; in the future, data obtained from these sensors will offer new information on seismology and rock mechanics. The size of typical probe is 12 cm diameter 7.8 m total length and 290 kg total weight. It consists of many meters in tandem connection. (authors)

  10. Basic technologies of web services framework for research, discovery, and processing the disparate massive Earth observation data from heterogeneous sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savorskiy, V.; Lupyan, E.; Balashov, I.; Burtsev, M.; Proshin, A.; Tolpin, V.; Ermakov, D.; Chernushich, A.; Panova, O.; Kuznetsov, O.; Vasilyev, V.

    2014-04-01

    Both development and application of remote sensing involves a considerable expenditure of material and intellectual resources. Therefore, it is important to use high-tech means of distribution of remote sensing data and processing results in order to facilitate access for as much as possible number of researchers. It should be accompanied with creation of capabilities for potentially more thorough and comprehensive, i.e. ultimately deeper, acquisition and complex analysis of information about the state of Earth's natural resources. As well objective need in a higher degree of Earth observation (EO) data assimilation is set by conditions of satellite observations, in which the observed objects are uncontrolled state. Progress in addressing this problem is determined to a large extent by order of the distributed EO information system (IS) functioning. Namely, it is largely dependent on reducing the cost of communication processes (data transfer) between spatially distributed IS nodes and data users. One of the most effective ways to improve the efficiency of data exchange processes is the creation of integrated EO IS optimized for running procedures of distributed data processing. The effective EO IS implementation should be based on specific software architecture.

  11. First observation of density profile in directly laser-driven polystyrene targets for ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Nishikino, Masaharu; Shigemori, Keisuke; Sunahara, Atsushi; Nakai, Mitsuo; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the density profile of a directly laser-driven polystyrene target was observed for the first time using an x-ray penumbral imaging technique coupled with side-on x-ray backlighting at the GEKKO XII [C. Yamanaka et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1639 (1981)]-High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research laser facility (I L =0.7x10 14 W/cm 2 , λ L =0.35 μm). This density measurement makes it possible to experimentally confirm all physical parameters [γ(k),k,g,m,ρ a ,L m ] appearing in the modified Takabe formula for the growth rate of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The measured density profiles were well reproduced by a one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation code. The density measurement contributes toward fully understanding the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

  12. Mitología y emblemática en Milagros de Nuestra Señora de la Fuencisla (1615, de Jerónimo de Alcalá Yáñez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donoso Rodríguez, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emblems, enigmas and hieroglyphics were very popular in the Golden Age culture. Literature is a good example of this, as it can be seen in the literary works that took part in the poetry competitions held on the occasion of the enthronement of the Virgen de la Fuencisla’s image in her new shrine in Segovia, an event that took place in 1613 and that is described in the work Milagros de Nuestra Señora de la Fuencisla (1615, by Dr. Jerónimo de Alcalá Yáñez, which belongs to the genre of events relations, so popular in the Spanish seventeenth century. In this article, we study some hieroglyphs and enigmas included in that work, in which we can see how these literary compositions are not only nourished by the Bible and the Gospel, but also by the Emblem Tradition and the mythological world.Los emblemas, enigmas y jeroglíficos fueron muy populares en la cultura del Siglo de Oro. La literatura da buena muestra de ello, tal como se puede apreciar en las composiciones literarias que concursaron en los certámenes poéticos que se celebraron con motivo de la entronización de la imagen de la Virgen de la Fuencisla en su nuevo santuario, en Segovia, acontecimiento ocurrido en 1613 y descrito en el libro Milagros de Nuestra Señora de la Fuencisla (1615, del doctor Jerónimo de Alcalá Yáñez, obra que pertenece al género de las relaciones de sucesos, tan populares en el siglo XVII español. En este artículo se estudian algunos jeroglíficos y enigmas descritos en dicho texto, en los cuales se puede apreciar cómo estas composiciones literarias no solo se nutren de la Biblia y del Evangelio, sino también de la emblemática y del mundo mitológico.

  13. Biological collections and ecological/environmental research: a review, some observations and a look to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Graham H; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2010-05-01

    collections have, for example, been particularly useful as sources of information regarding variation in attributes of individuals (e.g. morphology, chemical composition) in relation to environmental variables, and provided important information in relation to species' distributions, but less useful in the contexts of habitat associations and population sizes. Changes to policies, strategies and procedures associated with biological collections could mitigate these biases and limitations, and hence make such collections more useful in the context of ecological/environmental issues. Haphazard and opportunistic collecting could be replaced with strategies for adding to existing collections that prioritize projects that use biological collections and include, besides taxonomy and systematics, a focus on significant environmental/ecological issues. Other potential changes include increased recording of the nature and extent of collecting effort and information associated with each specimen such as nearby habitat and other individuals observed but not collected. Such changes have begun to occur within some institutions. Institutions that house biological collections should, we think, pursue a mission of 'understanding the life of the planet to inform its stewardship' (Krishtalka & Humphrey, 2000), as such a mission would facilitate increased use of biological collections in an ecological/environmental context and hence lead to increased appreciation, encouragement and support from the public for these collections, their associated research, and the institutions that house them.

  14. Nonparametric estimation for censored mixture data with application to the Cooperative Huntington’s Observational Research Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanjia; Garcia, Tanya P.; Ma, Yanyuan

    2012-01-01

    This work presents methods for estimating genotype-specific distributions from genetic epidemiology studies where the event times are subject to right censoring, the genotypes are not directly observed, and the data arise from a mixture of scientifically meaningful subpopulations. Examples of such studies include kin-cohort studies and quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies. Current methods for analyzing censored mixture data include two types of nonparametric maximum likelihood estimators (NPMLEs) which do not make parametric assumptions on the genotype-specific density functions. Although both NPMLEs are commonly used, we show that one is inefficient and the other inconsistent. To overcome these deficiencies, we propose three classes of consistent nonparametric estimators which do not assume parametric density models and are easy to implement. They are based on the inverse probability weighting (IPW), augmented IPW (AIPW), and nonparametric imputation (IMP). The AIPW achieves the efficiency bound without additional modeling assumptions. Extensive simulation experiments demonstrate satisfactory performance of these estimators even when the data are heavily censored. We apply these estimators to the Cooperative Huntington’s Observational Research Trial (COHORT), and provide age-specific estimates of the effect of mutation in the Huntington gene on mortality using a sample of family members. The close approximation of the estimated non-carrier survival rates to that of the U.S. population indicates small ascertainment bias in the COHORT family sample. Our analyses underscore an elevated risk of death in Huntington gene mutation carriers compared to non-carriers for a wide age range, and suggest that the mutation equally affects survival rates in both genders. The estimated survival rates are useful in genetic counseling for providing guidelines on interpreting the risk of death associated with a positive genetic testing, and in facilitating future subjects at risk

  15. HAWC Observations Strongly Favor Pulsar Interpretations of the Cosmic-Ray Positron Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Cholis, Ilias [Johns Hopkins U.; Linden, Tim [Ohio State U., CCAPP; Fang, Ke [Maryland U.

    2017-11-17

    Recent measurements of the Geminga and B0656+14 pulsars by the gamma-ray telescope HAWC (along with earlier measurements by Milagro) indicate that these objects generate significant fluxes of very high-energy electrons. In this paper, we use the very high-energy gamma-ray intensity and spectrum of these pulsars to calculate and constrain their expected contributions to the local cosmic-ray positron spectrum. Among models that are capable of reproducing the observed characteristics of the gamma-ray emission, we find that pulsars invariably produce a flux of high-energy positrons that is similar in spectrum and magnitude to the positron fraction measured by PAMELA and AMS-02. In light of this result, we conclude that it is very likely that pulsars provide the dominant contribution to the long perplexing cosmic-ray positron excess.

  16. The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO: Recent developments and applications of a Micro-UAS for atmospheric boundary layer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuder, J.; Jonassen, M. O.; Ólafsson, H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 5 years, the Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO has been developed as a new and flexible tool for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research to be operated as controllable and recoverable atmospheric sounding system for the lowest 4 km above the Earth's surface. In the year 2011 two main technical improvements of the system have been accomplished. The integration of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) into the Paparazzi autopilot system has expanded the environmental conditions for SUMO operation to now even allowing incloud flights. In the field of sensor technology the implementation of a 5-hole probe for the determination of the 3 dimensional flow vector impinging the aircraft with a 100 Hz resolution and of a faster Pt1000 based temperature sensor have distinctly enhanced the meteorological measurement capabilities. The extended SUMO version has recently been operated during two field campaigns. The first one in a wind farm close to Vindeby on Lolland, Denmark, was dedicated to the investigation of the effects of wind turbines on boundary layer turbulence. In spite of a few pitfalls related to configuration and synchronisation of the corresponding data logging systems, this campaign provided promising results indicating the capability and future potential of small UAS for turbulence characterization in and around wind farms. The second one, the international BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Transition) field campaign at the foothills of the Pyrenees in Lannemezan, France was focussing on processes related to the afternoon transition of the convective boundary layer. On a calm sunny day during this experiment, the SUMO soundings revealed an unexpected 2°C cooling in the ABL during morning hours. By a comparison with model simulations this cooling can be associated with thermally-driven upslope winds and the subsequent advection of relatively cool air from the lowlands north of the Pyrenees.

  17. Observing the Human Exposome as Reflected in Breath Biomarkers: Heat Map Data Interpretation for Environmental and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past decade, the research of human systems biology and the interactions with the external environment has permeated all phases of environmental, medical, and public health research. Similarly to the fields of genomics and proteomics research, the advent of new instrumen...

  18. Blinding Applicants in a First-Stage Peer-Review Process of Biomedical Research Grants: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solans-Domènech, Maite; Guillamón, Imma; Ribera, Aida; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Carrion, Carme; Permanyer-Miralda, Gaietà; Pons, Joan M. V.

    2017-01-01

    To blind or not researcher's identity has often been a topic of debate in the context of peer-review process for scientific publication and research grant application. This article reports on how knowing the name and experience of researchers/institutions influences the qualification of a proposal. We present our experience of managing the…

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  20. High-frequency HYDRO-geophysical observations for an advanced understanding of clayey landSLIDES: the HYDROSLIDE research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malet, Jean-Philippe; Supper, Robert; Flores-Orozco, Adrian; Gautier, Stéphanie; Bogaard, Thom

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of change in hydrological cycles and the increase of exposed goods, the risk of landslides is globally growing all over the world. As a consequence, short-time landslide prediction is a fundamental tool for risk mitigation. To this aim, real-time monitoring and interpretation methods aiming at a full exploitation of the available landslide information are needed, including further development of sensor technology and use of advanced numerical modeling. The most commonly used warning parameters are direct measurements of slope displacement and pore-water pressures. However, recent research on landslide controlled by slope hydrology has shown that other parameters (e.g. soil moisture) can be used and other methods (e.g. electrical resistivity tomography, electrical spontaneous potential) are available, which might give indications on triggering even before an actual displacement is measureable and thus could possibly be used as physical precursors for short-term warning. The CNRS - Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre (EOST) and the Geological Survey of Austria - Geophysical Division (GBA) started successfully to evaluate time-lapse resistivity measurements for monitoring changes in water content/flows in landslides at different monitoring sites. At the same period, CNRS also started to establish the French Observatory on Landslides (OMIV: omiv.unistra.fr), which task is the long term monitoring and data sharing of landslide parameters (geodesy, hydrology, seismic). Results from these projects proved that electrical resistivity monitoring can be successfully applied to detect changes in water storage and to understand water circulation in complex landslide bodies. However, especially for clayey landslides, this method is only applicable with limitation, since the resistivity of clays shows almost the same values as the resistivity of the saturated soil (15-20 O.m). Consequently, the change in water content expressed in the electrical

  1. The cognitive impact of research synopses on physicians: a prospective observational analysis of evidence-based summaries sent by email

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqing Wang

    2009-06-01

    Conclusions Characteristics of the synopses appear to influence cognitive impact, and there might be lexical patterns specific to these factors. Further research is recommended in order to understand the mechanism for the influence of these characteristics.

  2. “Back on Track”: A Mobile App Observational Study Using Apple’s ResearchKit Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woias, Peter; Suedkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Background In March 2015, Apple Inc announced ResearchKit, a novel open-source framework intended to help medical researchers to easily create apps for medical studies. With the announcement of this framework, Apple presented 5 apps built in a beta phase based on this framework. Objective The objective of this study was to better understand decision making in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. Here, we describe the development of a ResearchKit app for this study. Methods A multilanguage observatory study was conducted. At first a suitable research topic, target groups, participating territories, and programming method were carefully identified. The ResearchKit framework was used to program the app. A secure server connection was realized via Secure Sockets Layer. A data storage and security concept separating personal information and study data was proposed. Furthermore, an efficient method to allow multilanguage support and distribute the app in many territories was presented. Ethical implications were considered and taken into account regarding privacy policies. Results An app study based on ResearchKit was developed without comprehensive iPhone Operating System (iOS) development experience. The Apple App Store is a major distribution channel causing significant download rates (>1.200/y) without active recruitment. Preliminary data analysis showed moderate dropout rates and a good quality of data. A total of 180 participants were currently enrolled with 107 actively participating and producing 424 completed surveys in 9 out of 24 months. Conclusions ResearchKit is an easy-to-use framework and powerful tool to create medical studies. Advantages are the modular built, the extensive reach of iOS devices, and the convenient programming environment. PMID:28246069

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  5. The effectiveness of research-based physics learning module with predict-observe-explain strategies to improve the student’s competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmeldi

    2018-05-01

    The preliminary study shows that many students are difficult to master the concept of physics. There are still many students who have not mastery learning physics. Teachers and students still use textbooks. Students rarely do experiments in the laboratory. One model of learning that can improve students’ competence is a research-based learning with Predict- Observe-Explain (POE) strategies. To implement this learning, research-based physics learning modules with POE strategy are used. The research aims to find out the effectiveness of implementation of research-based physics learning modules with POE strategy to improving the students’ competence. The research used a quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest group control design. Data were collected using observation sheets, achievement test, skill assessment sheets, questionnaire of attitude and student responses to learning implementation. The results of research showed that research-based physics learning modules with POE strategy was effective to improve the students’ competence, in the case of (1) mastery learning of physics has been achieved by majority of students, (2) improving the students competency of experimental class including high category, (3) there is a significant difference between the average score of students’ competence of experimental class and the control class, (4) the average score of the students competency of experimental class is higher than the control class, (5) the average score of the students’ responses to the learning implementation is very good category, this means that most students can implement research-based learning with POE strategies.

  6. Towards a Better Understanding of Water Stores and Fluxes: Model Observation Synthesis in a Snowmelt Dominated Research Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryken, A.; Gochis, D.; Carroll, R. W. H.; Bearup, L. A.; Williams, K. H.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrology of high-elevation, mountainous regions is poorly represented in Earth Systems Models (ESMs). In addition to regulating downstream water delivery, these ecosystems play an important role in the storage and land-atmosphere exchange of carbon and water. Water balances are sensitive to the amount of water stored in the snowpack (SWE) and the amount of water leaving the system in the form of evapotranspiration—two pieces of the hydrologic cycle that are difficult to observe and model in heterogeneous mountainous regions due to spatially variant weather patterns. In an effort to resolve this hydrologic gap in ESMs, this study seeks to better understand the interactions between groundwater, carbon flux, and the lower atmosphere in these high-altitude environments through integration of field observations and model simulations. We compare model simulations to field observations to elucidate process performance combined with a sensitivity analysis to better understand parameter uncertainty. Observations from a meteorological station in the East River Basin are used to force an integrated single-column hydrologic model, ParFlow-CLM. This met station is co-located with an eddy covariance tower, which, along with snow surveys, is used to better constrain the water, carbon, and energy fluxes in the coupled land-atmosphere model to increase our understanding of high-altitude headwaters. Preliminary results suggest the model compares well to the eddy covariance tower and field observations, shown through both correct magnitude and timing of peak SWE along with similar magnitudes and diurnal patterns of heat and water fluxes. Initial sensitivity analysis results show that an increase in temperature leads to a decrease in peak SWE as well as an increase in latent heat revealing a sensitivity of the model to air temperature. Further sensitivity analysis will help us understand more parameter uncertainty. Through obtaining more accurate and higher resolution

  7. Systematic research review of observational approaches used to evaluate mother-child mealtime interactions during preschool years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi; Skouteris, Helen; Hetherington, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The family meal and social interactions during the meal are important events in a child's life. Specifically, mealtime interactions have been linked to child weight status, the development of children's eating patterns, and socialization. Mealtime interactions may be observed and evaluated to provide insights into this important event beyond self-reported measurements. We aimed to identify, review, and examine studies in which mother-child mealtime behaviors were measured through observation. MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES were systematically searched by using sensitive search strategies. We included observational studies of mother-child eating and mealtimes and associations between mother-child interactions and preschool child eating or weight status published to March 2014. Thirteen articles were included in our review. All studies but one were cross-sectional, and none of the studies evaluated how mutual dimensions (e.g., parent responsiveness to the child and child responsiveness to the parent) of dyadic interactions between mothers and children influence maternal feeding practices, children's eating, and weight. The parenting style was associated with maternal feeding practices but not directly with children's eating. Parental discouragements to eat and negative statements about food were associated with higher child weight status. Parental encouragement to eat was associated with higher child weight status as well as maternal body mass index. No associations were shown between maternal reports of feeding practices and observed maternal feeding practices. Parents' overarching attitudes and approaches to parenting appear to be associated with their feeding practices or styles. Future studies should implement longitudinal observational methods with the capacity to measure levels of dimensions within bidirectional parent-child interactions and the extent to which these factors influence maternal practices, children's eating, and weight status.

  8. The Power of Flash Mob Research Conducting a Nationwide Observational Clinical Study on Capillary Refill Time in a Single Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsma, Jelmer; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Nanayakkara, Prabath W. B.; Schouten, W. E. M. Ineke; Baten, Anique; Bauer, Martijn P.; Holleman, Frits; Ligtenberg, Jack J. M.; Stassen, Patricia M.; Kaasjager, Karin H. A. H.; Haak, Harm R.; Bosch, Frank H.; Schuit, Stephanie C. E.

    BACKGROUND: Capillary refill time (CRT) is a clinical test used to evaluate the circulatory status of patients; various methods are available to assess CRT. Conventional clinical research often demands large numbers of patients, making it costly, labor-intensive, and time-consuming. We studied the

  9. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  10. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  11. The Specificity of Observational Studies in Physical Activity and Sports Sciences: Moving Forward in Mixed Methods Research and Proposals for Achieving Quantitative and Qualitative Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguera, M Teresa; Camerino, Oleguer; Castañer, Marta; Sánchez-Algarra, Pedro; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods studies are been increasingly applied to a diversity of fields. In this paper, we discuss the growing use-and enormous potential-of mixed methods research in the field of sport and physical activity. A second aim is to contribute to strengthening the characteristics of mixed methods research by showing how systematic observation offers rigor within a flexible framework that can be applied to a wide range of situations. Observational methodology is characterized by high scientific rigor and flexibility throughout its different stages and allows the objective study of spontaneous behavior in natural settings, with no external influence. Mixed methods researchers need to take bold yet thoughtful decisions regarding both substantive and procedural issues. We present three fundamental and complementary ideas to guide researchers in this respect: we show why studies of sport and physical activity that use a mixed methods research approach should be included in the field of mixed methods research, we highlight the numerous possibilities offered by observational methodology in this field through the transformation of descriptive data into quantifiable code matrices, and we discuss possible solutions for achieving true integration of qualitative and quantitative findings.

  12. The Specificity of Observational Studies in Physical Activity and Sports Sciences: Moving Forward in Mixed Methods Research and Proposals for Achieving Quantitative and Qualitative Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Anguera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed methods studies are been increasingly applied to a diversity of fields. In this paper, we discuss the growing use—and enormous potential—of mixed methods research in the field of sport and physical activity. A second aim is to contribute to strengthening the characteristics of mixed methods research by showing how systematic observation offers rigor within a flexible framework that can be applied to a wide range of situations. Observational methodology is characterized by high scientific rigor and flexibility throughout its different stages and allows the objective study of spontaneous behavior in natural settings, with no external influence. Mixed methods researchers need to take bold yet thoughtful decisions regarding both substantive and procedural issues. We present three fundamental and complementary ideas to guide researchers in this respect: we show why studies of sport and physical activity that use a mixed methods research approach should be included in the field of mixed methods research, we highlight the numerous possibilities offered by observational methodology in this field through the transformation of descriptive data into quantifiable code matrices, and we discuss possible solutions for achieving true integration of qualitative and quantitative findings.

  13. Risk factors and outcomes for late presentation for HIV-positive persons in Europe: results from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe Study (COHERE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D.; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Casabona, Jordi; Castagna, Antonella; Costagliola, Dominique; Dabis, Francois; de Wit, Stéphane; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Furrer, Hansjakob; Johnson, Anne M.; Lazanas, Marios K.; Leport, Catherine; Moreno, Santiago; Obel, Niels; Post, Frank A.; Reekie, Joanne; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Skaletz-Rorowski, Adriane; Suarez-Lozano, Ignacio; Torti, Carlo; Warszawski, Josiane; Zangerle, Robert; Fabre-Colin, Céline; Kjaer, Jesper; Chene, Genevieve; Grarup, Jesper; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Miriam; Johnson, Anne; Lazanas, Mario; Post, Frank; Suarez-Loano, Ignacio; Johnson, Hansjakob Furrer Anne; Touloumi, Giota; Meyer, Laurence; Dabis, François; Krause, Murielle Mary; Ghosn, Jade; de Wolf, Frank; Prins, Maria; Bucher, Heiner; Gibb, Diana; Hamouda, Osamah; Bartmeyer, Barbara; del Amo, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have monitored late presentation (LP) of HIV infection over the European continent, including Eastern Europe. Study objectives were to explore the impact of LP on AIDS and mortality. LP was defined in Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) as HIV

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  17. Nemo Solus Satis Sapit: Trends of Research Collaborations in the Vietnamese Social Sciences, Observing 2008–2017 Scopus Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available “Nemo solus satis sapit”—no one can be wise enough on his own. This is particularly true when it comes to collaborations in scientific research. Concerns over this issue in Vietnam, a developing country with limited academic resources, led to an in-depth study on Vietnamese social science research, using Google Scholar and Scopus, during 2008–2017. The results showed that more than 90% of scientists had worked with colleagues to publish, and they had collaborated 13 times on average during the time limit of the data sample. These collaborations, both domestic and international, mildly boosted author performance. On the other hand, the modest number of publications by Vietnamese authors was reportedly linked to Vietnamese social scientists’ heavy reliance on collaborative work as non-leading co-authors: for an entire decade (2008–2017, the average author assumes the leading role merely in two articles, and hardly ever published alone. This implies that policy-makers ought to consider promoting institutional collaborations while also encouraging authors to acquire the experience of publishing solo.

  18. High levels of reactive gaseous mercury observed at a high elevation research laboratory in the Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Faïn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical cycling and spatiotemporal distribution of mercury in the troposphere is poorly understood. We measured gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particulate mercury (HgP along with carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, aerosols, and meteorological variables at Storm Peak Laboratory at an elevation of 3200 m a.s.l., in Colorado, from 28 April to 1 July 2008. The mean mercury concentrations were 1.6 ng m−3 (GEM, 20 pg m−3 (RGM and 9 pg m−3 (HgP. We observed eight events of strongly enhanced atmospheric RGM levels with maximum concentrations up to 137 pg m−3. RGM enhancement events lasted for long time periods of 2 to 6 days showing both enriched level during daytime and nighttime when other tracers (e.g., aerosols showed different representations of boundary layer air and free tropospheric air. During seven of these events, RGM was inversely correlated to GEM (RGM/GEM regression slope ~−0.1, but did not exhibit correlations with ozone, carbon monoxide, or aerosol concentrations. Relative humidity was the dominant factor affecting RGM levels with high RGM levels always present whenever relative humidity was below 40 to 50%. We conclude that RGM enhancements observed at Storm Peak Laboratory were not induced by pollution events and were related to oxidation of tropospheric GEM. High RGM levels were not limited to upper tropospheric or stratospherically influenced air masses, indicating that entrainment processes and deep vertical mixing of free tropospheric air enriched in RGM may lead to high RGM levels throughout the troposphere and into the boundary layer over the Western United States. Based on backtrajectory analysis and a lack of mass balance between RGM and GEM, atmospheric production of RGM may also have occurred in some distance allowing for scavenging and/or deposition of RGM prior to reaching the laboratory. Our

  19. High levels of reactive gaseous mercury observed at a high elevation research laboratory in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faïn, X.; Obrist, D.; Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I.; Rahn, T.

    2009-10-01

    The chemical cycling and spatiotemporal distribution of mercury in the troposphere is poorly understood. We measured gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (HgP) along with carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), aerosols, and meteorological variables at Storm Peak Laboratory at an elevation of 3200 m a.s.l., in Colorado, from 28 April to 1 July 2008. The mean mercury concentrations were 1.6 ng m-3 (GEM), 20 pg m-3 (RGM) and 9 pg m-3 (HgP). We observed eight events of strongly enhanced atmospheric RGM levels with maximum concentrations up to 137 pg m-3. RGM enhancement events lasted for long time periods of 2 to 6 days showing both enriched level during daytime and nighttime when other tracers (e.g., aerosols) showed different representations of boundary layer air and free tropospheric air. During seven of these events, RGM was inversely correlated to GEM (RGM/GEM regression slope ~-0.1), but did not exhibit correlations with ozone, carbon monoxide, or aerosol concentrations. Relative humidity was the dominant factor affecting RGM levels with high RGM levels always present whenever relative humidity was below 40 to 50%. We conclude that RGM enhancements observed at Storm Peak Laboratory were not induced by pollution events and were related to oxidation of tropospheric GEM. High RGM levels were not limited to upper tropospheric or stratospherically influenced air masses, indicating that entrainment processes and deep vertical mixing of free tropospheric air enriched in RGM may lead to high RGM levels throughout the troposphere and into the boundary layer over the Western United States. Based on backtrajectory analysis and a lack of mass balance between RGM and GEM, atmospheric production of RGM may also have occurred in some distance allowing for scavenging and/or deposition of RGM prior to reaching the laboratory. Our observations provide evidence that the tropospheric pool of mercury is frequently enriched in divalent

  20. Aerosol Observability and Predictability: From Research to Operations for Chemical Weather Forecasting. Lagrangian Displacement Ensembles for Aerosol Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    A challenge common to many constituent data assimilation applications is the fact that one observes a much smaller fraction of the phase space that one wishes to estimate. For example, remotely sensed estimates of the column average concentrations are available, while one is faced with the problem of estimating 3D concentrations for initializing a prognostic model. This problem is exacerbated in the case of aerosols because the observable Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is not only a column integrated quantity, but it also sums over a large number of species (dust, sea-salt, carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. An aerosol transport model when driven by high-resolution, state-of-the-art analysis of meteorological fields and realistic emissions can produce skillful forecasts even when no aerosol data is assimilated. The main task of aerosol data assimilation is to address the bias arising from inaccurate emissions, and Lagrangian misplacement of plumes induced by errors in the driving meteorological fields. As long as one decouples the meteorological and aerosol assimilation as we do here, the classic baroclinic growth of error is no longer the main order of business. We will describe an aerosol data assimilation scheme in which the analysis update step is conducted in observation space, using an adaptive maximum-likelihood scheme for estimating background errors in AOD space. This scheme includes e explicit sequential bias estimation as in Dee and da Silva. Unlikely existing aerosol data assimilation schemes we do not obtain analysis increments of the 3D concentrations by scaling the background profiles. Instead we explore the Lagrangian characteristics of the problem for generating local displacement ensembles. These high-resolution state-dependent ensembles are then used to parameterize the background errors and generate 3D aerosol increments. The algorithm has computational complexity running at a resolution of 1/4 degree, globally. We will present the result of

  1. Observations of fluorescent aerosol-cloud interactions in the free troposphere at the Sphinx high Alpine research station, Jungfraujoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, I.; Lloyd, G.; Bower, K. N.; Connolly, P. J.; Flynn, M. J.; Kaye, P. H.; Choularton, T. W.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2015-09-01

    The fluorescent nature of aerosol at a high Alpine site was studied using a wide-band integrated bioaerosol (WIBS-4) single particle multi-channel ultra violet-light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectrometer. This was supported by comprehensive cloud microphysics and meteorological measurements with the aims of cataloguing concentrations of bio-fluorescent aerosols at this high altitude site and also investigating possible influences of UV-fluorescent particle types on cloud-aerosol processes. Analysis of background free tropospheric air masses, using a total aerosol inlet, showed there to be a minor but statistically insignificant increase in the fluorescent aerosol fraction during in-cloud cases compared to out of cloud cases. The size dependence of the fluorescent aerosol fraction showed the larger aerosol to be more likely to be fluorescent with 80 % of 10 μm particles being fluorescent. Whilst the fluorescent particles were in the minority (NFl/NAll = 0.27±0.19), a new hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis approach, Crawford et al. (2015) revealed the majority of the fluorescent aerosol were likely to be representative of fluorescent mineral dust. A minor episodic contribution from a cluster likely to be representative of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) was also observed with a wintertime baseline concentration of 0.1±0.4 L-1. Given the low concentration of this cluster and the typically low ice active fraction of studied PBAP (e.g. pseudomonas syringae) we suggest that the contribution to the observed ice crystal concentration at this location is not significant during the wintertime.

  2. Statistical Machines for Trauma Hospital Outcomes Research: Application to the PRospective, Observational, Multi-Center Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Moore

    Full Text Available Improving the treatment of trauma, a leading cause of death worldwide, is of great clinical and public health interest. This analysis introduces flexible statistical methods for estimating center-level effects on individual outcomes in the context of highly variable patient populations, such as those of the PRospective, Observational, Multi-center Major Trauma Transfusion study. Ten US level I trauma centers enrolled a total of 1,245 trauma patients who survived at least 30 minutes after admission and received at least one unit of red blood cells. Outcomes included death, multiple organ failure, substantial bleeding, and transfusion of blood products. The centers involved were classified as either large or small-volume based on the number of massive transfusion patients enrolled during the study period. We focused on estimation of parameters inspired by causal inference, specifically estimated impacts on patient outcomes related to the volume of the trauma hospital that treated them. We defined this association as the change in mean outcomes of interest that would be observed if, contrary to fact, subjects from large-volume sites were treated at small-volume sites (the effect of treatment among the treated. We estimated this parameter using three different methods, some of which use data-adaptive machine learning tools to derive the outcome models, minimizing residual confounding by reducing model misspecification. Differences between unadjusted and adjusted estimators sometimes differed dramatically, demonstrating the need to account for differences in patient characteristics in clinic comparisons. In addition, the estimators based on robust adjustment methods showed potential impacts of hospital volume. For instance, we estimated a survival benefit for patients who were treated at large-volume sites, which was not apparent in simpler, unadjusted comparisons. By removing arbitrary modeling decisions from the estimation process and concentrating

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-02-17

    Feb 17, 2015 ... Due to the low sensitivity observed with RADT, the American. Academy of Paediatrics ... Central Hospital Yaounde (CHY). No prior antibiotic ... Turbidity in the growth medium was indicative of a positive growth after 24 hours.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  9. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  11. Demonstrating the Value of Near Real-time Satellite-based Earth Observations in a Research and Education Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, L.; Hao, X.; Kinter, J. L.; Stearn, G.; Aliani, M.

    2017-12-01

    The launch of GOES-16 series provides an opportunity to advance near real-time applications in natural hazard detection, monitoring and warning. This study demonstrates the capability and values of receiving real-time satellite-based Earth observations over a fast terrestrial networks and processing high-resolution remote sensing data in a university environment. The demonstration system includes 4 components: 1) Near real-time data receiving and processing; 2) data analysis and visualization; 3) event detection and monitoring; and 4) information dissemination. Various tools are developed and integrated to receive and process GRB data in near real-time, produce images and value-added data products, and detect and monitor extreme weather events such as hurricane, fire, flooding, fog, lightning, etc. A web-based application system is developed to disseminate near-real satellite images and data products. The images are generated with GIS-compatible format (GeoTIFF) to enable convenient use and integration in various GIS platforms. This study enhances the capacities for undergraduate and graduate education in Earth system and climate sciences, and related applications to understand the basic principles and technology in real-time applications with remote sensing measurements. It also provides an integrated platform for near real-time monitoring of extreme weather events, which are helpful for various user communities.

  12. Theoretical Foundations of Research Focused on HIV Prevention Among Substance-Involved Women: A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith D; Smith, Laramie R

    2015-06-01

    Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date, relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use and risks associated with sexual activity in which power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other factors. As such, HIV risk for SIW resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political—in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk, and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemic approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW.

  13. Proposed heat transfer model for the gas-liquid heat transfer effects observed in the Stanford Research Institute scaled tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.; Sonin, A.A.; Todreas, N.

    1976-12-01

    In 1971-72, the Stanford Research Institute conducted a series of scaled experiments which simulated a sodium-vapor expansion in a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) for the Fast Flux Test Facility. A non-condensible explosive source was used to model the pressure-volume expansion characteristics of sodium vapor as predicted by computer code calculations. Rigid piston-cylinder experiments ( 1 / 10 and 1 / 30 scale) were undertaken to determine these expansion characteristics. The results showed that the pressure-volume characteristics depend significantly on the presence of water in the cylinder reducing the work output by about 50 percent when a sufficient water depth was present. The study presented proposes that the mechanism of heat transfer between the water and high temperature gas was due to area enhancement by Taylor instabilities at the gas-liquid interface. A simple heat transfer model is proposed which describes this energy transport process and agrees well with the experimental data from both scaled experiments. The consequences of this analysis suggest that an estimate of the heat transfer to the cold slug during a full-scale HCDA due to sodium vapor expansion and the accompanying reduction in mechanical work energy warrants further investigation. The implication of this analysis is that for either sodium or fuel vapor expansion in an HCDA, there is an inherent heat transfer mechanism which significantly reduces the work output of the expanding bubble

  14. Kreapelin's Scientific Value of his Clinical Observations in the Research of Thought and Language Disorders in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa Figueira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During the transition of the XIX to the XXth century, several changes took place in the dominant moral psychiatric paradigm. In the movement, that opposes the former romantic and normative vision of behaviour and intentions, the primacy of observation and description emerges as a superior clinical method, organizing knowledge and investigation. Kraepelin in one of the main figures that emerges, with a remarkable masterpiece, his "Treatise of Psychiatry", including several editions, each one resulting in reformulations according to the new data he obtained. Comparing Kraepelin's work - or other contemporary authors - with posterior essays on thought and language in shizophrenia would be incongruous, because the irreducibility of a clinical to an experimental method. The aim of this paper is merely to show the relation between clinical descriptions and the resulting hypothesis or constructs. Description is viewed as a systematic exploration of the psychopathological reality and an important source of scientific intuitions. This is what has happened with the work of Kraepelin, Bleuler and many others, from which we can extrapolate the ideas for knowledge produced in laboratorial context. In particular, we shall review investigation data about thought and language, produced between the sixties and the eighties, a very fertile scientific period in this area of knowledge and, which has, almost disappeared. In fact, today's literaure about thought diosorder in schizophrenia is based predominantly on the neuropsychological paradigm with the use of test batteries that evaluate cognitive deficits. The importance of this perspective is that it enables the development of response indicators with the psychopharmacological therapies and the implementation of rehabilitation programs. However, it doesn't contain the richness of the period mentioned earlier. We chose some of the particular aspects of cognitive functioning to illustrate the influence of Kraepelin

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 describing research and development of earth resources observation systems; 1984 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Japan's Outline of Space Development were renewed in February 1984. Under the new principles, the earth resources satellite (ERS-1) program is to be promoted and that research and development efforts for a launch in fiscal 1989 are to be started. Industrial, academic, and governmental organizations concerned making their utmost efforts have established a Technology Research Association for Resources Remote Sensing for the execution of the tasks. The contents of its business are the research and development of an observation system to be installed aboard ERS-1. That is, a synthetic aperture radar and other equipment such as optical sensors and data transmission systems will be developed, and technologies necessary for the development of a satellite borne observation system will be established through evaluation and verification by testing such systems for instance aboard aircraft. Carried out in fiscal 1984 are the studies of required specifications and the drafting of research and development programs for the next and the following fiscal years involving the research and development of the resources exploration system as a whole, sensor systems, and data transmission systems. (NEDO)

  16. Management and Stewardship of Airborne Observational Data for the NSF/NCAR HIAPER (GV) and NSF/NCAR C-130 at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) funding for the operation, maintenance and upgrade of two research aircraft: the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Gulfstream V and the NSF/NCAR Hercules C-130. A suite of in-situ and remote sensing airborne instruments housed at the EOL Research Aviation Facility (RAF) provide a basic set of measurements that are typically deployed on most airborne field campaigns. In addition, instruments to address more specific research requirements are provided by collaborating participants from universities, industry, NASA, NOAA or other agencies. The data collected are an important legacy of these field campaigns. A comprehensive metadata database and integrated cyber-infrastructure, along with a robust data workflow that begins during the field phase and extends to long-term archival (current aircraft data holdings go back to 1967), assures that: all data and associated software are safeguarded throughout the data handling process; community standards of practice for data stewardship and software version control are followed; simple and timely community access to collected data and associated software tools are provided; and the quality of the collected data is preserved, with the ultimate goal of supporting research and the reproducibility of published results. The components of this data system to be presented include: robust, searchable web access to data holdings; reliable, redundant data storage; web-based tools and scripts for efficient creation, maintenance and update of data holdings; access to supplemental data and documentation; storage of data in standardized data formats; comprehensive metadata collection; mature version control; human-discernable storage practices; and procedures to inform users of changes. In addition, lessons learned, shortcomings, and desired upgrades

  17. From observations to experiments in phenology research: investigating climate change impacts on trees and shrubs using dormant twigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Richard B; Laube, Julia; Gallinat, Amanda S; Menzel, Annette

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is advancing the leaf-out times of many plant species and mostly extending the growing season in temperate ecosystems. Laboratory experiments using twig cuttings from woody plant species present an affordable, easily replicated approach to investigate the relative importance of factors such as winter chilling, photoperiod, spring warming and frost tolerance on the leafing-out times of plant communities. This Viewpoint article demonstrates how the results of these experiments deepen our understanding beyond what is possible via analyses of remote sensing and field observation data, and can be used to improve climate change forecasts of shifts in phenology, ecosystem processes and ecological interactions. The twig method involves cutting dormant twigs from trees, shrubs and vines on a single date or at intervals over the course of the winter and early spring, placing them in containers of water in controlled environments, and regularly recording leaf-out, flowering or other phenomena. Prior to or following leaf-out or flowering, twigs may be assigned to treatment groups for experiments involving temperature, photoperiod, frost, humidity and more. Recent studies using these methods have shown that winter chilling requirements and spring warming strongly affect leaf-out and flowering times of temperate trees and shrubs, whereas photoperiod requirements are less important than previously thought for most species. Invasive plant species have weaker winter chilling requirements than native species in temperate ecosystems, and species that leaf-out early in the season have greater frost tolerance than later leafing species. This methodology could be extended to investigate additional drivers of leaf-out phenology, leaf senescence in the autumn, and other phenomena, and could be a useful tool for education and outreach. Additional ecosystems, such as boreal, southern hemisphere and sub-tropical forests, could also be investigated using dormant twigs to

  18. ReRouting biomedical innovation: observations from a mapping of the alternative research and development (R&D) landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Alexandra; Kiddell-Monroe, Rachel

    2016-09-14

    In recent years, the world has witnessed the tragic outcomes of multiple global health crises. From Ebola to high prices to antibiotic resistance, these events highlight the fundamental constraints of the current biomedical research and development (R&D) system in responding to patient needs globally.To mitigate this lack of responsiveness, over 100 self-identified "alternative" R&D initiatives, have emerged in the past 15 years. To begin to make sense of this panoply of initiatives working to overcome the constraints of the current system, UAEM began an extensive, though not comprehensive, mapping of the alternative biomedical R&D landscape. We developed a two phase approach: (1) an investigation, via the RE:Route Mapping, of both existing and proposed initiatives that claim to offer an alternative approach to R&D, and (2) evaluation of those initiatives to determine which are in fact achieving increased access to and innovation in medicines. Through phase 1, the RE:Route Mapping, we examined 81 initiatives that claim to redress the inequity perpetuated by the current system via one of five commonly recognized mechanisms necessary for truly alternative R&D.Preliminary analysis of phase 1 provides the following conclusions: 1. No initiative presents a completely alternative model of biomedical R&D. 2. The majority of initiatives focus on developing incentives for drug discovery. 3. The majority of initiatives focus on rare diseases or diseases of the poor and marginalized. 4. There is an increasing emphasis on the use of push, pull, pool, collaboration and open mechanisms alongside the concept of delinkage in alternative R&D. 5. There is a trend towards public funding and launching of initiatives by the Global South. Given the RE:Route Mapping's inevitable limitations and the assumptions made in its methodology, it is not intended to be the final word on a constantly evolving and complex field; however, its findings are significant. The Mapping's value lies in its

  19. Health services research in patients with breast cancer (CAMISS-prospective): study protocol for an observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutierrez, Susana; Orive, Miren; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Legarreta, Maria Jose; Gonzalez, Nerea; Redondo, Maximino; Rivero, Amado; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro; Castells, Xavier; Quintana, Jose Maria; Sala, Maria

    2018-01-08

    Though breast cancer remains a major health problem, there is a lack of information on health care provided to patients with this disease and associated costs. In addition, there is a need to update and validate risk stratification tools in Spain. Our purpose is to evaluate the health services provided for breast cancer in Spain, from screening and diagnosis to treatment and prognosis. Prospective cohort study involving 13 hospitals in Spain with a follow-up period of up to 5 years after diagnostic biopsy. Eligibility criteria: Patients diagnosed with breast cancer between April 2013 and May 2015 that have consented to participate in the study. Data will be collected on the following: pre-intervention medical history, biological, clinical, and sociodemographic characteristics, mode of cancer detection, hospital admission, treatment, and outcomes up to 5 years after initial treatment. Questionnaires about quality of life (EuroQoL EQ-5D-5 L, the European Organization For Research And Treatment Of Cancer Core Quality Of Life Questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 join to the specific breast cancer module (QLQ-BR23), as well as Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were completed by the patients before the beginning of the initial treatment and at the end of follow-up period, 2 years later. The end-points of the study were changes in health-related quality of life, recurrence, complications and readmissions at 2 and 5 years after initial treatment. Descriptive statistics will be calculated and multivariate models will be used where appropriate to adjust for potential confounders. In order to create and validate a prediction model, split validation and bootstrapping will be performed. Cost analysis will be carried out from the perspective of a national health system. The results of this coordinated project are expected to generate scientifically valid and clinically and socially important information to inform the decision-making of managers and the authorities responsible for

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-09

    Jun 9, 2015 ... and susceptibility testing using the Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method and the MIC was done using the E-test. Results: Out of the 207 .... performance guideline for antimicrobial susceptibility testing [13]. Quality was assured ... fluoroquinolone resistance observed could also limit treatment options especially ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    21 janv. 2012 ... les endocrinopathies et aussi les effets secondaires des antihypertenseurs [6,7]. Les recommandations de la JNC VII [8] ... de Lomé, ayant concerné 394 patients hypertendus en traitement régulier (médicaments antihypertenseurs + mesures hygiéno-diététiques) depuis au moins 1 mois et bien observants.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... specific causes of maternal deaths and identify specific contributing factors. This study therefore aimed to ... third delay were mainly contributed by lack of blood transfusion. (5%, n=18), lack of skills (2%, n=8), .... observed in Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital, where slightly over a half had died within 24 ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    29 juin 2012 ... Enfin, un accent devrait être mis sur les consultations d'éducation .... dans la localité, les agents de relais communautaires (ARC), l'assistante sociale et dans une ... par ANOVA ou le test non paramétrique de Mann Whytney/Wilcoxon pour ..... Costagliola D, Barberousse C. Comment mesurer l'observance.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    12 oct. 2015 ... de réduire l'impact d'une mauvaise observance en terme de santé mondiale. Un taux moyen de .... Les scènes de simulations du premier contact du ... Psychiatric distress and disability associated with psoriasis: the BGSM ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-22

    Sep 22, 2017 ... Nigeria, 4Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, University of Calabar, Nigeria, 5Department of Oral and ... Regional variations were observed both for location, age group and gender .... clinical and histopathological information were excluded from the study. ..... International Journal of Cancer.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    4 févr. 2013 ... 24,52% de nos patients ont fait recours à la tradithérapie en remplacement ou en complément de leur traitement. Discussion. Notre étude est une étude transversale avec quelques biais engendrés en rapport avec le non-respect des rendez-vous. Toutefois, notre objectif qui était d'évaluer l'observance.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    11 août 2015 ... Nous avons eu recours à un automate ABX Micros 60 pour l'évaluation hématologique. Pour l'évaluation nutritionnel nous avons étudiés le poids, la taille, l'âge ainsi que le sexe. Résultats: Nous n'avons pas observé de différence significative entre les deux groupes par rapport à l'état nutritionnel (p>0,05).

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    21 mai 2015 ... VIH/Sida [3, 5, 6]. En Afrique Noire, il existe des particularités cliniques et épidémiologiques des affections cutanées observées, et les dermatologues ont souvent recours à l'anatomopathologie, qui apporte des éléments de diagnostic sûr dans de nombreux cas. Cependant, la dermatopathologie est ...

  3. Enhanced tropospheric BrO over Antarctic sea ice in mid winter observed by MAX-DOAS on board the research vessel Polarstern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We present Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS observations of tropospheric BrO carried out on board the German research vessel Polarstern during the Antarctic winter 2006. Polarstern entered the area of first year sea ice around Antarctica on 24 June 2006 and stayed within this area until 15 August 2006. For the period when the ship cruised inside the first year sea ice belt, enhanced BrO concentrations were almost continuously observed. Outside the first year sea ice belt, typically low BrO concentrations were found. Based on back trajectory calculations we find a positive correlation between the observed BrO differential slant column densities (ΔSCDs and the duration for which the air masses had been in contact with the sea ice surface prior to the measurement. While we can not completely rule out that in several cases the highest BrO concentrations might be located close to the ground, our observations indicate that the maximum BrO concentrations might typically exist in a (possibly extended layer around the upper edge of the boundary layer. Besides the effect of a decreasing pH of sea salt aerosol with altitude and therefore an increase of BrO with height, this finding might be also related to vertical mixing of air from the free troposphere with the boundary layer, probably caused by convection over the warm ocean surface at polynyas and cracks in the ice. Strong vertical gradients of BrO and O3 could also explain why we found enhanced BrO levels almost continuously for the observations within the sea ice. Based on our estimated BrO profiles we derive BrO mixing ratios of several ten ppt, which is slightly higher than many existing observations. Our observations indicate that enhanced BrO concentrations around Antarctica exist about one month earlier than observed by satellite instruments. From detailed radiative transfer simulations we find that MAX-DOAS observations are up to about one order of

  4. Liderazgo Educativo en el desarrollo comunitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia-Medina, Elvia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of joint ethnographic research by faculty and students at the Public University of Milagro (UNEMI, involved in the area of Formative Research and Bonding. This initiative by the teaching staff on the Cultural Anthropology course, applied dialogic techniques to highlight the problems affecting the Huancavilca Citadel in the southeastern part of the canton of Milagro, province of Guayas, Ecuador: apathy regarding participation, lack of organization, disunity and distrust of anyone who intended to lead citizen action. The Public University of Milagro activity involved first analyzing the situation and then forming brigades with students, with community participation as observers. In the process, working in teams and recreational activities, sports, cultural preservation, environmental protection, educational and productive enterprise confidence was restored; at the end of the project increased from 30% to 90% community participation was achieved motivating and training, to enhance the potential and skills of community members.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    14 août 2012 ... par l'utilisation fréquente des médicaments de la dysfonction érectile ; ils ont en effet été associés à des comportements sexuels à risque [23] ; la méconnaissance des risques de transmission ... La mesure de l'observance a été évaluée sur les 24 dernières heures afin de limiter l'effet d'un éventuel biais de ...

  6. Measurements of HNO3 and N2O5 using ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometry during the MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Fortner, E. C.; Volkamer, R. M.; Molina, L.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Gaeggeler, K.; Dommen, J.; Dusanter, S.; Stevens, P. S.; Tie, X.

    2008-11-01

    An ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ID-CIMS) was deployed in Mexico City between 7 and 31 March to measure gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA)-2006 field campaign. The observation site was located at the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo in the northern part of Mexico City urban area with major emissions of pollutants from residential, vehicular and industrial sources. Diurnally, HNO3 was less than 200 parts per trillion (ppt) during the night and early morning. The concentration of HNO3 increased steadily from around 09:00 a.m. central standard time (CST), reached a peak value of 0.5 to 3 parts per billion (ppb) in the early afternoon, and then declined sharply to less than half of the peak value near 05:00 p.m. CST. An inter-comparison between the ID-CIMS and an ion chromatograph/mass spectrometer (ICMS) showed a good agreement between the two HNO3 measurements (R2=0.75). The HNO3 mixing ratio was found to anti-correlate with submicron-sized aerosol nitrate, suggesting that the gas-particle partitioning process was a major factor in determining the gaseous HNO3 concentration. Losses by irreversible reactions with mineral dust and via dry deposition also could be important at this site. Most of the times during the MCMA 2006 field campaign, N2O5 was found to be below the detection limit (about 30 ppt for a 10 s integration time) of the ID-CIMS, because of high NO mixing ratio at the surface (>100 ppb) during the night. An exception occurred on 26 March 2006, when about 40 ppt N2O5 was observed during the late afternoon and early evening hours under cloudy conditions before the build-up of NO at the surface site. The results revealed that during the MCMA-2006 field campaign HNO3 was primarily produced from the reaction of OH with NO2 and regulated by gas/particle transfer and dry deposition. The production of HNO3 from N2O5 hydrolysis during the nighttime was small because of

  7. Análisis técnico y económico para la reducción de pérdidas técnicas y comerciales de energía en la empresa eléctrica Milagro c.a.- eemca.

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda Ordoñez, William; Gonzalez Bravo, Miguel; Torres Quizhpe, Nelson; Salcedo Guerrero, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es realizar un análisis de pérdidas técnicas en las diferentes etapas del sistema, así como las pérdidas no técnicas que tiene la Empresa Eléctrica Milagro; a fin de establecer soluciones adecuadas para reducir y controlar estas pérdidas. Inicialmente se realiza un estudio general de la empresa, referente a su estructura técnica y organizacional, además de su actual situación energética. Con el propósito de establecer alternativas para reducir estas pérdid...

  8. Contributions of the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) to the EPOS (European Plate Observing System) Implementation Phase 2015-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Lauterjung, J.

    2017-12-01

    The European Plate Observing System project is currently approaching the end of year two of its four-year Implementation Phase 2015-18 (EPOS-IP). Under the Horizon 2020 Programme INFRADEV-3, the EPOS cyberinfrastructure is being established as an ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) and encompasses the implementation of both the EPOS Integrated Core Services (ICS) for solid Earth Science and a multitude of EPOS Thematic Core Services (TCS). During year two, a basic set of ICS and TCS services was developed and implemented, so that in October 2017 the validation phase (year 3) of EPOS is ready to be launched. Up to now, various TCS-Elements have integrated different Service Providers (SD) that are delivering Data, Data Products, Services and Software (DDSS) to their specific scientific community. As one of the 29 awardees of the EC grant, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) plays an important role in the implementation of EPOS and its Thematic and Integrated Core Services. The presented poster will give an overview of GFZ's participation in the work of nine technical EPOS Work Packages (WP7 ICS Development, WP8 Seismology, WP11 Volcano Observations, WP12 Satellite Data, WP13 Geomagnetic Observations, WP14 Anthropogenic Hazards, WP15 Geological Information and Modelling, WP16 Multi-Scale Laboratories and WP17 Geo Energy Test Beds) as well as in four administrative EPOS Work Packages (WP2 Communication, WP3 Harmonization, WP4 Legal & Governance, and WP5 Financial).

  9. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Using Crew Earth Observation Imagery from the International Space Station to Facilitate Student-Led Authentic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2012-01-01

    Student-led authentic research in the classroom helps motivate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related subjects. Classrooms benefit from activities that provide rigor, relevance, and a connection to the real world. Those real world connections are enhanced when they involve meaningful connections with NASA resources and scientists. Using the unique platform of the International Space Station (ISS) and Crew Earth Observation (CEO) imagery, the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program provides an exciting way to enable classrooms in grades 5-12 to be active participants in NASA exploration, discovery, and the process of science. EEAB was created by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education Program, at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This Earth and planetary science education program has created a framework enabling students to conduct authentic research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons using the captivating CEO images being taken by astronauts onboard the ISS. The CEO payload has been a science payload onboard the ISS since November 2000. ISS crews are trained in scientific observation of geological, oceanographic, environmental, and meteorological phenomena. Scientists on the ground select and periodically update a series of areas to be photographed as part of the CEO science payload.

  10. The oxidative potential and biological effects induced by PM10 obtained in Mexico City and at a receptor site during the MILAGRO Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Raul; Serrano, Jesus; Gomez, Virginia; Foy, Benjamin de; Miranda, Javier; Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia; Vega, Elizabeth; Vazquez-Lopez, Ines; Molina, Luisa T.; Manzano-Leon, Natalia; Rosas, Irma; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a field campaign that studied the impact of Mexico City pollution plume at the local, sub-regional and regional levels, we studied transport-related changes in PM 10 composition, oxidative potential and in vitro toxicological patterns (hemolysis, DNA degradation). We collected PM 10 in Mexico City (T 0 ) and at a suburban-receptor site (T 1 ), pooled according to two observed ventilation patterns (T 0 → T 1 influence and non-influence). T 0 samples contained more Cu, Zn, and carbon whereas; T 1 samples contained more of Al, Si, P, S, and K (p 4 -2 increased in T 1 during the influence periods. Oxidative potential correlated with Cu/Zn content (r = 0.74; p 1 PM 10 induced greater hemolysis and T 0 PM 10 induced greater DNA degradation. Influence/non-influence did not affect oxidative potential nor biological effects. Results indicate that ventilation patterns had little effect on intrinsic PM 10 composition and toxicological potential, which suggests a significant involvement of local sources. - Highlights: → Transport-related changes in PM 10 composition, oxidative potential and in vitro toxicity were studied. → Cu, Zn, and carbon levels were predominant in urban PM 10 ; receptor site PM 10 was rich in soil elements. → SO 4 -2 was the only component increased in PM 10 from the receptor during the influence periods. → PM 10 oxidative potential correlates with Cu/Zn content but not with studied biological effects. → Ventilation patterns had little effect on PM 10 composition and toxicity. - Mexico City ventilation patterns had little effect on the intrinsic PM 10 composition and toxicological potential, which suggests a significant involvement of local sources as opposed to downwind transport.

  11. The oxidative potential and biological effects induced by PM{sub 10} obtained in Mexico City and at a receptor site during the MILAGRO Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, Raul [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Serrano, Jesus [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Gomez, Virginia [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Foy, Benjamin de [Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Miranda, Javier [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Vega, Elizabeth [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Vazquez-Lopez, Ines [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Molina, Luisa T. [Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Manzano-Leon, Natalia [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Rosas, Irma [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R., E-mail: osornio@ualberta.ca [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (Mexico); Department of Paediatrics, University of Alberta, 1048 RTF, 8308 114 St, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V2 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    As part of a field campaign that studied the impact of Mexico City pollution plume at the local, sub-regional and regional levels, we studied transport-related changes in PM{sub 10} composition, oxidative potential and in vitro toxicological patterns (hemolysis, DNA degradation). We collected PM{sub 10} in Mexico City (T{sub 0}) and at a suburban-receptor site (T{sub 1}), pooled according to two observed ventilation patterns (T{sub 0} {yields} T{sub 1} influence and non-influence). T{sub 0} samples contained more Cu, Zn, and carbon whereas; T{sub 1} samples contained more of Al, Si, P, S, and K (p < 0.05). Only SO{sub 4}{sup -2} increased in T{sub 1} during the influence periods. Oxidative potential correlated with Cu/Zn content (r = 0.74; p < 0.05) but not with biological effects. T{sub 1} PM{sub 10} induced greater hemolysis and T{sub 0} PM{sub 10} induced greater DNA degradation. Influence/non-influence did not affect oxidative potential nor biological effects. Results indicate that ventilation patterns had little effect on intrinsic PM{sub 10} composition and toxicological potential, which suggests a significant involvement of local sources. - Highlights: > Transport-related changes in PM{sub 10} composition, oxidative potential and in vitro toxicity were studied. > Cu, Zn, and carbon levels were predominant in urban PM{sub 10}; receptor site PM{sub 10} was rich in soil elements. > SO{sub 4}{sup -2} was the only component increased in PM{sub 10} from the receptor during the influence periods. > PM{sub 10} oxidative potential correlates with Cu/Zn content but not with studied biological effects. > Ventilation patterns had little effect on PM{sub 10} composition and toxicity. - Mexico City ventilation patterns had little effect on the intrinsic PM{sub 10} composition and toxicological potential, which suggests a significant involvement of local sources as opposed to downwind transport.

  12. Definition of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as an outcome event in clinical trials and observational studies: proposal of a multidisciplinary research group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Vermeulen, Marinus; van Gijn, Jan; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Wijdicks, Eelco F; Muizelaar, J Paul; Mendelow, A David; Juvela, Seppo; Yonas, Howard; Terbrugge, Karel G; Macdonald, R Loch; Diringer, Michael N; Broderick, Joseph P; Dreier, Jens P; Roos, Yvo B W E M

    2010-10-01

    In clinical trials and observational studies there is considerable inconsistency in the use of definitions to describe delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A major cause for this inconsistency is the combining of radiographic evidence of vasospasm with clinical features of cerebral ischemia, although multiple factors may contribute to DCI. The second issue is the variability and overlap of terms used to describe each phenomenon. This makes comparisons among studies difficult. An international ad hoc panel of experts involved in subarachnoid hemorrhage research developed and proposed a definition of DCI to be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and observational studies. We used a consensus-building approach. It is proposed that in observational studies and clinical trials aiming to investigate strategies to prevent DCI, the 2 main outcome measures should be: (1) cerebral infarction identified on CT or MRI or proven at autopsy, after exclusion of procedure-related infarctions; and (2) functional outcome. Secondary outcome measure should be clinical deterioration caused by DCI, after exclusion of other potential causes of clinical deterioration. Vasospasm on angiography or transcranial Doppler can also be used as an outcome measure to investigate proof of concept but should be interpreted in conjunction with DCI or functional outcome. The proposed measures reflect the most relevant morphological and clinical features of DCI without regard to pathogenesis to be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and observational studies.

  13. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brunner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observation points. This approach allows for a very close comparison with observations and fully accounts for the specific meteorological conditions during the measurement flights. This is important considering the often limited availability and representativity of such trace gas measurements. A new extensive database including all major research and commercial aircraft measurements between 1995 and 1998, as well as ozone soundings, was established specifically to support this type of direct comparison. Quantitative methods were applied to judge model performance including the calculation of average concentration biases and the visualization of correlations and RMS errors in the form of so-called Taylor diagrams. We present the general concepts applied, the structure and content of the database, and an overall analysis of model skills over four distinct regions. These regions were selected to represent various atmospheric conditions and to cover large geographical domains such that sufficient observations are available for comparison. The comparison of model results with the observations revealed specific problems for each individual model. This study suggests the further improvements needed and serves as a benchmark for re-evaluations of such improvements. In general all models show deficiencies with respect to both mean concentrations and vertical gradients of important trace gases. These include ozone, CO and NOx at the tropopause. Too strong two-way mixing across the

  14. El milagro japonés

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo Llamas, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata de analizar el crecimiento económico japonés desde el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial hasta la crisis del petróleo de 1973, y explicar los factores que han incidido en tal crecimiento. Teniendo en cuenta la cantidad de factores que pueden explicarlo en mayor o menor medida, algunos exógenos y otros endógenos, se tratará de dar su relativa importancia a los factores de carácter económico que han influido con el fin de averiguar de qué manera puede crecer un país. E...

  15. Water vapor variability and comparisons in the subtropical Pacific from The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment-Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC) Driftsonde, Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC), and reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhong; Zhang, Liangying; Lin, Po-Hsiung; Bradford, Mark; Cole, Harold; Fox, Jack; Hock, Terry; Lauritsen, Dean; Loehrer, Scot; Martin, Charlie; Vanandel, Joseph; Weng, Chun-Hsiung; Young, Kathryn

    2010-11-01

    During the THORPEX (The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment) Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC), from 1 August to 30 September 2008, ˜1900 high-quality, high vertical resolution soundings were collected over the Pacific Ocean. These include dropsondes deployed from four aircrafts and zero-pressure balloons in the stratosphere (NCAR's Driftsonde system). The water vapor probability distribution and spatial variability in the northern subtropical Pacific (14°-20°N, 140°E-155°W) are studied using Driftsonde and COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) data and four global reanalysis products. Driftsonde data analysis shows distinct differences of relative humidity (RH) distributions in the free troposphere between the Eastern and Western Pacific (EP and WP, defined as east and west of 180°, respectively), very dry with a single peak of ˜1% RH in the EP and bi-modal distributions in the WP with one peak near ice saturation and one varying with altitude. The frequent occurrences of extreme dry air are found in the driftsonde data with 59% and 19% of RHs less than or equal to 5% and at 1% at 500 hPa in the EP, respectively. RH with respect to ice in the free troposphere exhibits considerable longitudinal variations, very low (problems in Driftsonde, two National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalyses and COSMIC data. The moist layer at 200-100 hPa in the WP shown in the ERA-Interim, JRA and COSMIC is missing in Driftsonde data. Major problems are found in the RH means and variability over the study region for both NCEP reanalyses. Although the higher-moisture layer at 200-100 hPa in the WP in the COSMIC data agrees well with the ERA-Interim and JRA, it is primarily attributed to the first guess of the 1-Dimensional (1D) variational analysis used in the COSMIC retrieval rather than the refractivity measurements. The limited soundings (total 268) of Driftsonde data are capable of

  16. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert C

    1995-01-01

    Combining a critical account of observational methods (telescopes and instrumentation) with a lucid description of the Universe, including stars, galaxies and cosmology, Smith provides a comprehensive introduction to the whole of modern astrophysics beyond the solar system. The first half describes the techniques used by astronomers to observe the Universe: optical telescopes and instruments are discussed in detail, but observations at all wavelengths are covered, from radio to gamma-rays. After a short interlude describing the appearance of the sky at all wavelengths, the role of positional astronomy is highlighted. In the second half, a clear description is given of the contents of the Universe, including accounts of stellar evolution and cosmological models. Fully illustrated throughout, with exercises given in each chapter, this textbook provides a thorough introduction to astrophysics for all physics undergraduates, and a valuable background for physics graduates turning to research in astronomy.

  17. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabu T. Mabunda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. Aim: To apply a community-based participatory research approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. Setting: This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Methods: Community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. Results: A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Conclusion: Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community. Keywords: Health seeking, Adherence, Community based participatory research, Tuberculosis

  18. A bibliography of research conducted by the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Office, U.S. Geological Survey : 1975-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Helen L.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program was established in 1967 by Secretarial order to plan and develop techniques for collecting and analyzing remotely sensed data, and to apply these techniques to the resource inventory and management responsibilities of the Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, realizing the potential benefits of synoptic views of the Earth, were among the first members of America's scientific community to press for the launch of civilian Earth-surface observation satellites. Under the leadership of Director William T. Pecora, U.S. Geological Survey initiatives greatly influenced the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) development of the Landsat program.As part of the Landsat program, an agreement between NASA and the Geological Survey was signed to provide Landsat archiving and data production capabilities at the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This partnership with NASA began in 1972 and continued until Presidential Directive 54 designated the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the Department of Commerce as the manager of U.S. civil operational land remote-sensing activities. NOAA has managed the Landsat program since Fiscal Year 1983, and EROS continues to process, archive, reproduce, and distribute Landsat data under a Memorandum of Understanding between NOAA and the Geological Survey. Archives at the EROS Data Center include over 2 million worldwide Landsat scenes and over 5 million aerial photographs, primarily of U.S. sites. Since the launch of Landsat 1, global imaging of the Earth's surface has become an operational tool for resource exploration and land management. As technology evolved, so did the EROS Program mission. Research and applications efforts began at the EROS Headquarters Office in the Washington metropolitan area in 1966; at the EROS Data Center in 1971; and at the EROS Field Office in Anchorage

  19. TeV Gamma-Ray Observations of Geminga with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Geminga is a radio-quiet pulsar that was first detected at GeV energies. Its pulsations were first discovered in X-rays. It is one of the closest middle-aged pulsars at approximately 250 parsecs from Earth. The Geminga pulsar is one of the brightest sources in the GeV sky but there is no unambiguous evidence for the existence of a pulsar wind nebula at GeV energies. Milagro reported an extended TeV source spatially consistent with Geminga, but IACT observations using standard analysis techniques have only provided upper limits. Geminga has been interpreted as a nearby cosmic-ray accelerator, which would possibly explain the observed multi-GeV positron excess. TeV observations of Geminga are crucial to test this interpretation. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located at 4100 m above see level in central Mexico, is sensitive to gamma rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. Thanks to its large field of view of 2 steradians, HAWC has a good sensitivity to extended sources. We will present the preliminary results for TeV gamma-ray emission from Geminga from HAWC data. Spectral and morphological analyses are on-going with a growing data set.

  20. Observations of fine-scale transport structure in the upper troposphere from the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.; Pan, Laura L.; Campos, Teresa; Gao, Rushan

    2007-09-01

    The Progressive Science Mission in December 2005 was the first research use of the new NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) aircraft. The Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport (START) component of the mission was designed to investigate the dynamical and chemical structure of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Flight 5 of the Progressive Science mission was a START flight that sampled near the tropopause in an area between the main jet stream and a large, quasi-stationary, cutoff low. The large-scale flow in this region was characterized by a hyperbolic (saddle) point. In this study the in situ measurements by HIAPER are combined with flow analyses and satellite data to investigate the quasi-isentropic stirring of trace species in the upper troposphere. As expected from theoretical considerations, strong stretching and folding deformation of the flow near the hyperbolic point resulted in rapid filamentation of air masses and sharp gradients of constituents. Calculations of the stirring using operational meteorological analyses from the NCEP Global Forecast System model produced excellent agreement with HIAPER and satellite observations of trace species. Back trajectories indicate that elevated ozone levels in some filaments likely came from a large stratospheric intrusion that occurred upstream in the jet over the north Pacific Ocean. The methods presented here can be used with operational forecasts for future flight planning.

  1. The Power of Flash Mob Research: Conducting a Nationwide Observational Clinical Study on Capillary Refill Time in a Single Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsma, Jelmer; van Saase, Jan L C M; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B; Schouten, W E M Ineke; Baten, Anique; Bauer, Martijn P; Holleman, Frits; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Stassen, Patricia M; Kaasjager, Karin H A H; Haak, Harm R; Bosch, Frank H; Schuit, Stephanie C E

    2017-05-01

    Capillary refill time (CRT) is a clinical test used to evaluate the circulatory status of patients; various methods are available to assess CRT. Conventional clinical research often demands large numbers of patients, making it costly, labor-intensive, and time-consuming. We studied the interobserver agreement on CRT in a nationwide study by using a novel method of research called flash mob research (FMR). Physicians in the Netherlands were recruited by using word-of-mouth referrals, conventional media, and social media to participate in a nationwide, single-day, "nine-to-five," multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study to evaluate CRT. Patients aged ≥ 18 years presenting to the ED or who were hospitalized were eligible for inclusion. CRT was measured independently (by two investigators) at the patient's sternum and distal phalanx after application of pressure for 5 s (5s) and 15 s (15s). On October 29, 2014, a total of 458 investigators in 38 Dutch hospitals enrolled 1,734 patients. The mean CRT measured at the distal phalanx were 2.3 s (5s, SD 1.1) and 2.4 s (15s, SD 1.3). The mean CRT measured at the sternum was 2.6 s (5s, SD 1.1) and 2.7 s (15s, SD 1.1). Interobserver agreement was higher for the distal phalanx (κ value, 0.40) than for the sternum (κ value, 0.30). Interobserver agreement on CRT is, at best, moderate. CRT measured at the distal phalanx yielded higher interobserver agreement compared with sternal CRT measurements. FMR proved a valuable instrument to investigate a relatively simple clinical question in an inexpensive, quick, and reliable manner. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Testing the Impact of a Multi-year, Curriculum-based Undergraduate Research Experience (MY-CURE) in the Geosciences: Baseline Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. L.; Creamer, E. G.; Kuehn, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Short-term undergraduate research experiences (URE's) provide skill and confidence enhancement to students, but it is unclear how effective they are in comparison to a dedicated, longer-term URE. This study examines the impact of a long-term URE embedded in a sequence of five courses in the geology curriculum. It begins with a sophomore course in environmental geology, and continues through mineralogy, structural geology, and petrology, before concluding at our summer geology field camp. In this sequence, they build upon individual URE's related to the structure and petrology of fault rocks from a mid-crustal shear zone. Rather than have students engage in one or more short-term URE's, they retain the same project for two calendar years so that we can assess when and how different gains, including a more sophisticated understanding of the nature of science, begin to emerge and mature. As each student progresses, we document the longitudinal development of a diverse suite of gains including: (1) Technical and higher-order research skills, (2) personal gains such as self-identity as a scientist, and (3) communication skills. In this presentation, we describe the framework of the study and baseline observations recorded during the first year of a 2-year cohort. Using a Q-sort method, students were given a deck of 16 index cards with an educational outcome listed on each. They sorted the cards into three piles: Those that encouraged an interest in geology, those that deterred an interest, and those with no impact. Participants discussed the top cards from the negative and positive piles. The top attractors to geology are collegial relationships with faculty, the opportunity to use scientific equipment, field work, the concreteness of geology, and the availability of jobs. Factors that deter interest include hours of tedious homework, math courses, and time invested in wrong answers or failed experiments/sample preparation. Factors not yet evident include confidence in

  3. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio Continuum Observations using SKA and Citizen-Science Research using Multi-Wavelength Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hota, Ananda; Konar, C.; Stalin, C. S.; Vaddi, Sravani; Mohanty, Pradeepta K.; Dabhade, Pratik; Dharmik Bhoga, Sai Arun; Rajoria, Megha; Sethi, Sagar

    2016-12-01

    We present a brief review of progress in the understanding of general spiral and elliptical galaxies, through merger, star formation and AGN activities. With reference to case studies performed with the GMRT, we highlight the unique aspects of studying galaxies in the radio wavelengths where powerful quasars and bright radio galaxies are traditionally the dominating subjects. Though AGN or quasar activity is extremely energetic, it is extremely short-lived. This justify focussing on transitional galaxies to find relic-evidences of the immediate past AGN-feedback which decide the future course of evolution of a galaxy. Relic radio lobes can be best detected in low frequency observations with the GMRT, LOFAR and in future SKA. The age of these relic radio plasma can be as old as a few hundred Myr. There is a huge gap between this and what is found in optical bands. The very first relic-evidences of a past quasar activity (Hanny's Voorwerp) was discovered in 2007 by a Galaxy Zoo citizen-scientist, a school teacher, in the optical bands. This relic is around a few tens of thousand years old. More discoveries needed to match these time-scales with star formation time-scales in AGN host galaxies to better understand black hole galaxy co-evolution process via feedback-driven quenching of star formation. It is now well-accepted that discovery and characterization of such faint fuzzy relic features can be more efficiently done by human eye than a machine. Radio interferometry images are more complicated than optical and need the citizen-scientists to be trained. RAD@home, the only Indian citizen-science research project in astronomy, analysing TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS) 150 MHz data and observing from the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT), was launched in April 2013. Unique, zero-infrastructure zero-funded design of RAD@home as a collaboratory of 69 trained e-astronomers is briefly described. Some of the new-found objects like episodic radio galaxies, radio-jet and

  4. Academia Sinica, TW E-science to Assistant Seismic Observations for Earthquake Research, Monitor and Hazard Reduction Surrounding the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bor-Shouh; Liu, Chun-Chi; Yen, Eric; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Lin, Simon C.; Huang, Win-Gee; Lee, Shiann-Jong; Chen, Hsin-Yen

    Experience from the 1994 giant Sumatra earthquake, seismic and tsunami hazard have been considered as important issues in the South China Sea and its surrounding region, and attracted many seismologist's interesting. Currently, more than 25 broadband seismic instruments are currently operated by Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica in northern Vietnam to study the geodynamic evolution of the Red river fracture zone and rearranged to distribute to southern Vietnam recently to study the geodynamic evolution and its deep structures of the South China Sea. Similar stations are planned to deploy in Philippines in near future. In planning, some high quality stations may be as permanent stations and added continuous GPS observations, and instruments to be maintained and operated by several cooperation institutes, for instance, Institute of Geophysics, Vietnamese Acadamy of Sciences and Technology in Vietnam and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Philippines. Finally, those stations will be planed to upgrade as real time transmission stations for earthquake monitoring and tsunami warning. However, high speed data transfer within different agencies is always a critical issue for successful network operation. By taking advantage of both EGEE and EUAsiaGrid e-Infrastructure, Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre coordinates researchers from various Asian countries to construct a platform to high performance data transfer for huge parallel computation. Efforts from this data service and a newly build earthquake data centre for data management may greatly improve seismic network performance. Implementation of Grid infrastructure and e-science issues in this region may assistant development of earthquake research, monitor and natural hazard reduction. In the near future, we will search for new cooperation continually from the surrounding countries of the South China Sea to install new seismic stations to construct a complete seismic network of the

  5. Direct observation of the phase space footprint of a painting injection in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Saha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex is nearly at the operational stage with regard to the beam commissioning aspects. Recently, the design painting injection study has been commenced with the aim of high output beam power at the extraction. In order to observe the phase space footprint of the painting injection, a method was developed utilizing a beam position monitor (BPM in the so-called single pass mode. The turn-by-turn phase space coordinates of the circulating beam directly measured using a pair of BPMs entirely positioned in drift space, and the calculated transfer matrices from the injection point to the pair of BPMs with several successive turns were used together in order to obtain the phase space footprint of the painting injection. There are two such pairs of BPMs placed in two different locations in the RCS, the results from which both agreed and were quite consistent with what was expected.

  6. Direct observation of the phase space footprint of a painting injection in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. K.; Shobuda, Y.; Hotchi, H.; Hayashi, N.; Takayanagi, T.; Harada, H.; Irie, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex is nearly at the operational stage with regard to the beam commissioning aspects. Recently, the design painting injection study has been commenced with the aim of high output beam power at the extraction. In order to observe the phase space footprint of the painting injection, a method was developed utilizing a beam position monitor (BPM) in the so-called single pass mode. The turn-by-turn phase space coordinates of the circulating beam directly measured using a pair of BPMs entirely positioned in drift space, and the calculated transfer matrices from the injection point to the pair of BPMs with several successive turns were used together in order to obtain the phase space footprint of the painting injection. There are two such pairs of BPMs placed in two different locations in the RCS, the results from which both agreed and were quite consistent with what was expected.

  7. Connecting Participant Observation Positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCurdy, Patrick; Uldam, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue for the importance of considering participant observation roles in relation to both insider/outsider and overt/covert roles. Through combining key academic debates on participant observation, which have separately considered insider/outsider and overt/covert participant...... observation, we develop a reflexive framework to assist researchers in (1) locating the type of participant observation research; (2) identifying implications of participant observation for both the research and the subjects under study; and (3) reflecting on how one’s role as participant observer shifts over...

  8. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  9. Verification of a One-Dimensional Model of CO2 Atmospheric Transport Inside and Above a Forest Canopy Using Observations at the Norunda Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalets, Ivan; Avila, Rodolfo; Mölder, Meelis; Kovalets, Sophia; Lindroth, Anders

    2018-07-01

    A model of CO2 atmospheric transport in vegetated canopies is tested against measurements of the flow, as well as CO2 concentrations at the Norunda research station located inside a mixed pine-spruce forest. We present the results of simulations of wind-speed profiles and CO2 concentrations inside and above the forest canopy with a one-dimensional model of profiles of the turbulent diffusion coefficient above the canopy accounting for the influence of the roughness sub-layer on turbulent mixing according to Harman and Finnigan (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 129:323-351, 2008; hereafter HF08). Different modelling approaches are used to define the turbulent exchange coefficients for momentum and concentration inside the canopy: (1) the modified HF08 theory—numerical solution of the momentum and concentration equations with a non-constant distribution of leaf area per unit volume; (2) empirical parametrization of the turbulent diffusion coefficient using empirical data concerning the vertical profiles of the Lagrangian time scale and root-mean-square deviation of the vertical velocity component. For neutral, daytime conditions, the second-order turbulence model is also used. The flexibility of the empirical model enables the best fit of the simulated CO2 concentrations inside the canopy to the observations, with the results of simulations for daytime conditions inside the canopy layer only successful provided the respiration fluxes are properly considered. The application of the developed model for radiocarbon atmospheric transport released in the form of ^{14}CO2 is presented and discussed.

  10. Risk Factors and Outcomes for Late Presentation for HIV-Positive Persons in Europe: Results from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe Study (COHERE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D.; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Casabona, Jordi; Castagna, Antonella; Costagliola, Dominique; Dabis, Francois; De Wit, Stéphane; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Furrer, Hansjakob; Johnson, Anne M.; Lazanas, Marios K.; Leport, Catherine; Moreno, Santiago; Obel, Niels; Post, Frank A.; Reekie, Joanne; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Skaletz-Rorowski, Adriane; Suarez-Lozano, Ignacio; Torti, Carlo; Warszawski, Josiane; Zangerle, Robert; Fabre-Colin, Céline; Kjaer, Jesper; Chene, Genevieve; Grarup, Jesper; Kirk, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have monitored late presentation (LP) of HIV infection over the European continent, including Eastern Europe. Study objectives were to explore the impact of LP on AIDS and mortality. Methods and Findings LP was defined in Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) as HIV diagnosis with a CD4 count Europe among homosexual men, and male and female heterosexuals, but increased over time for female heterosexuals and male intravenous drug users (IDUs) from Southern Europe and in male and female IDUs from Eastern Europe. 8,187 AIDS/deaths occurred during 327,003 person-years of follow-up. In the first year after HIV diagnosis, LP was associated with over a 13-fold increased incidence of AIDS/death in Southern Europe (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 13.02; 95% CI 8.19–20.70) and over a 6-fold increased rate in Eastern Europe (aIRR 6.64; 95% CI 3.55–12.43). Conclusions LP has decreased over time across Europe, but remains a significant issue in the region in all HIV exposure groups. LP increased in male IDUs and female heterosexuals from Southern Europe and IDUs in Eastern Europe. LP was associated with an increased rate of AIDS/deaths, particularly in the first year after HIV diagnosis, with significant variation across Europe. Earlier and more widespread testing, timely referrals after testing positive, and improved retention in care strategies are required to further reduce the incidence of LP. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24137103

  11. The Clinical Research Center for Depression Study: Baseline Characteristics of a Korean Long-Term Hospital-Based Observational Collaborative Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Jeong, Seung Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study is a 9-year observational collaborative prospective cohort study for the clinical outcomes in participants with depressive disorders in Korea. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of the depressive participants as the hospital-based cohort. Methods Participants were assessed using various instruments including the Clinical Global Impression scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Scale for Suicide Ideation, and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instruments-abbreviated version. Also, personal histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses and the range of socio-epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from each participant. Results One thousand one hundred eighty three participants were recruited from 18 hospitals. The mean age of the participants was 47.9±15.9 year-old, 74.4% were female, 82.9% had been diagnosed of major depressive disorder, 40.9% were experiencing their first depressive episode, and 21.4% had a past history of suicide attempts. The majority (85.3%) of the participants were moderately to severely ill. The average HDRS-17 was 19.8±6.1. Significant gender differences at baseline were shown in age, education, marriage, employment, religion, and first depressive episode. Conclusion The baseline findings in the CRESCEND study showed some different characteristics of depression in Korea, suggesting a possibility of ethnic and cultural factors in depression. PMID:21519530

  12. El fortalecimiento del perfil profesional del egresado de la UACAC de la Universidad Estatal de Milagro En función de la generación de un espíritu emprendedor, como fuente de trabajo autónomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arteaga-Estrella, Yadira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While national universities have promoted entrepreneurship in undergraduates, in the case of the State University of Milagro (UNEMI this has not been seen to have had a great impact on the commitment of graduates to undertake entrepreneurial activities.The central problem is that the contents of the programs are not targeted to ensure the development of the specific competencies of an entrepreneur.The modern world demands that graduates of universities assume their social responsibility and dare to be entrepreneurial, thereby creating jobs that contribute to the development of the local economy and thus contributing to the growth of gross domestic product (GDP and improving the quality of life of the population.This article is the result of a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional field study.Relevant information was collected by updating data sheets and carrying out interviews and surveyswith graduates of the Faculty of Administrative and Commercial Sciences of UNEMI. The objective was to strengthen the professional profile of the graduate of the Faculty of Administrative and Commercial Sciences of UNEMI as part of the process of generation entrepreneurial spirit as a source of self-employment.

  13. Risk factors and outcomes for late presentation for HIV-positive persons in Europe: results from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe Study (COHERE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Casabona, Jordi; Castagna, Antonella; Costagliola, Dominique; Dabis, Francois; De Wit, Stéphane; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Furrer, Hansjakob; Johnson, Anne M; Lazanas, Marios K; Leport, Catherine; Moreno, Santiago; Obel, Niels; Post, Frank A; Reekie, Joanne; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Skaletz-Rorowski, Adriane; Suarez-Lozano, Ignacio; Torti, Carlo; Warszawski, Josiane; Zangerle, Robert; Fabre-Colin, Céline; Kjaer, Jesper; Chene, Genevieve; Grarup, Jesper; Kirk, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have monitored late presentation (LP) of HIV infection over the European continent, including Eastern Europe. Study objectives were to explore the impact of LP on AIDS and mortality. LP was defined in Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) as HIV diagnosis with a CD4 count HIV diagnosis among persons presenting for care between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2011. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with LP and Poisson regression to explore the impact on AIDS/death. 84,524 individuals from 23 cohorts in 35 countries contributed data; 45,488 were LP (53.8%). LP was highest in heterosexual males (66.1%), Southern European countries (57.0%), and persons originating from Africa (65.1%). LP decreased from 57.3% in 2000 to 51.7% in 2010/2011 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.96; 95% CI 0.95-0.97). LP decreased over time in both Central and Northern Europe among homosexual men, and male and female heterosexuals, but increased over time for female heterosexuals and male intravenous drug users (IDUs) from Southern Europe and in male and female IDUs from Eastern Europe. 8,187 AIDS/deaths occurred during 327,003 person-years of follow-up. In the first year after HIV diagnosis, LP was associated with over a 13-fold increased incidence of AIDS/death in Southern Europe (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 13.02; 95% CI 8.19-20.70) and over a 6-fold increased rate in Eastern Europe (aIRR 6.64; 95% CI 3.55-12.43). LP has decreased over time across Europe, but remains a significant issue in the region in all HIV exposure groups. LP increased in male IDUs and female heterosexuals from Southern Europe and IDUs in Eastern Europe. LP was associated with an increased rate of AIDS/deaths, particularly in the first year after HIV diagnosis, with significant variation across Europe. Earlier and more widespread testing, timely referrals after testing positive, and improved retention in care strategies are required to further

  14. Risk factors and outcomes for late presentation for HIV-positive persons in Europe: results from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe Study (COHERE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mocroft

    Full Text Available Few studies have monitored late presentation (LP of HIV infection over the European continent, including Eastern Europe. Study objectives were to explore the impact of LP on AIDS and mortality.LP was defined in Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE as HIV diagnosis with a CD4 count <350/mm(3 or an AIDS diagnosis within 6 months of HIV diagnosis among persons presenting for care between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2011. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with LP and Poisson regression to explore the impact on AIDS/death. 84,524 individuals from 23 cohorts in 35 countries contributed data; 45,488 were LP (53.8%. LP was highest in heterosexual males (66.1%, Southern European countries (57.0%, and persons originating from Africa (65.1%. LP decreased from 57.3% in 2000 to 51.7% in 2010/2011 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.96; 95% CI 0.95-0.97. LP decreased over time in both Central and Northern Europe among homosexual men, and male and female heterosexuals, but increased over time for female heterosexuals and male intravenous drug users (IDUs from Southern Europe and in male and female IDUs from Eastern Europe. 8,187 AIDS/deaths occurred during 327,003 person-years of follow-up. In the first year after HIV diagnosis, LP was associated with over a 13-fold increased incidence of AIDS/death in Southern Europe (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 13.02; 95% CI 8.19-20.70 and over a 6-fold increased rate in Eastern Europe (aIRR 6.64; 95% CI 3.55-12.43.LP has decreased over time across Europe, but remains a significant issue in the region in all HIV exposure groups. LP increased in male IDUs and female heterosexuals from Southern Europe and IDUs in Eastern Europe. LP was associated with an increased rate of AIDS/deaths, particularly in the first year after HIV diagnosis, with significant variation across Europe. Earlier and more widespread testing, timely referrals after testing positive, and

  15. UK and European Union public and charitable funding from 2008 to 2013 for bacteriology and antibiotic research in the UK: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragginton, Eilis C; Piddock, Laura J V

    2014-09-01

    Since the 1990s, the number of new antibacterial drugs has plummeted and the number of antibiotic-resistant infections has risen, which has decreased the effective treatment of many disorders, including sepsis. We aimed to assess whether funding for bacteriology and antibiotic research to UK researchers had increased in response to this global crisis. We systematically searched websites and databases of agencies that fund research in the UK to identify publicly and charitably funded projects from financial years 2008 to 2013 within the specialties of bacteriology and antibiotic research. We created a database to identify the projects funded. Grants awarded in euros were converted to pounds sterling (€1=£0·86). We identified 609 projects within the specialty of bacteriology, 196 (32·2%) of which were on antibiotics. Of £13 846·1 million of available research funding, £269·2 million (1·9%) was awarded to bacteriology projects and £95·0 million (0·7%) was awarded for research on antibiotics. Additionally, £181·4 million in European Union (EU) funding was awarded to antibiotic research consortia including researchers based within the UK, including two EU Innovative Medicines Initiative awards, totalling £85·2 million. To increase awareness of who funds antibiotic research and to facilitate priority setting and funding decisions, funding organisations need to be aware of the breadth and depth of present funding as a baseline by which funding from 2014 onwards can be measured and so that informed decisions about the future level of funding can be made. To resolve the crisis of antibiotic resistance, present levels of funding are inadequate and should be increased substantially. British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Report on 1984 research result on the R and D of observation system for probing resources. 1/2; 1984 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    The 'space development policy outline' of Japan was reexamined in February, 1984, which decided on promoting the earth resources satellite (ERS-1) project. Accordingly, the Government Research Institute decided to implement the 'observation system for probing resources' from fiscal 1984. On January 18, 1985, a technological association for resource remote-sensing system was established and entrusted with the 'R and D of observation system for probing resources' from the Institute. This paper is the summary of the research results submitted as the 'report on the results of 1984 assigned research'. The report outlines, first as the 'introduction', the purpose of the establishment of the research association, details of the establishment, organization of the association, development system, development schedule, etc., and summarized, second as the 'general remarks', the explanation of the results of the 1984 assigned research. This explanation included the objectives of the research, the state of the implementation of the research, and the results of the research, for example. The paper contained, thirdly as the 'itemized explanation', the details of the individual explanation of the result for each assigned research subject. (NEDO)

  17. Coronary heart disease among adult population evacuated from the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP (Descriptive epidemiologic research results. Observation period 1988-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Kapustynskaia

    2015-02-01

    determination and analyses of the dynamics of the evacuated adults sickness rate of the coronary heart disease also including its particular types including of age at the time of the accident sex and from the moment of the accident. The materials of the Ukrainian public register of people who suffered from the Chernobyl accident (UPR and the statistical data of the Ministry of Healthcare about the sickness of the Ukrainian population are used in the article. Subject of inquiry: adult population at the time of the accident avacuated from the 30-km Zone of the Chernobyl APP. Object of research - Coronary heart disease. The research was made on the coronary heart disease in whole and also due to nosological forms: angina pectoris; cardiac infarction; chronic coronary heart disease. Descriptive epidemiologic research was made for the period of 1988-2010 years. The cohort of adult avacuated population constituted 55022 people, 22056 men and 32966 women off them. For the comparison the statistic data about the sickness of adult population of Ukraine were used. In the article was also used the method of inner comparison, which allows to evaluate the credibility of the sickness rate figures difference for the periods of observation. The analisys is carried through following five periods (1988-1992 years, 1993-1997 years, 1998-2002 years, 2003-2008 years, 2009-2010 years. In accordance with the 24-years medical observation was determined that the coronary heart disease incidence of the adult evacuated population has significant differences due to age, sex and time. The increase in the coronary heart disease incidence regardless age at the moment of the accident is to be considered for the period of 12-22 years. The peak of the sickness for those, who were 40-60 at the time of the accident, was registered for the third period of observation, i. e. after 12-16 years from the moment of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP, for those, evacuated at the age of 18-39 – after 17-22 years and

  18. Using Multiple Control Groups and Matching to Address Unobserved Biases in Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Observational Study of the Effectiveness of Mental Health Parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Frank B; Huskamp, Haiden A; Busch, Alisa B; Normand, Sharon-Lise T

    2011-06-21

    Studies of large policy interventions typically do not involve randomization. Adjustments, such as matching, can remove the bias due to observed covariates, but residual confounding remains a concern. In this paper we introduce two analytical strategies to bolster inferences of the effectiveness of policy interventions based on observational data. First, we identify how study groups may differ and then select a second comparison group on this source of difference. Second, we match subjects using a strategy that finely balances the distributions of key categorical covariates and stochastically balances on other covariates. An observational study of the effect of parity on the severely ill subjects enrolled in the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program illustrates our methods.

  19. Applications of NASA and NOAA Satellite Observations by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Response to Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports the transition of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasting community. SPoRT emphasizes real-time analysis and prediction out to 48 hours. SPoRT partners with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and National Centers to improve current products, demonstrate future satellite capabilities and explore new data assimilation techniques. Recently, the SPoRT Center has been involved in several activities related to disaster response, in collaboration with NOAA s National Weather Service, NASA s Applied Sciences Disasters Program, and other partners.

  20. Leading a Classroom Discussion: Definition, Supportive Evidence, and Measurement of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series. Research Memorandum No. RM-16-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Margaret; Sykes, Gary; Bell, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a description and rationale for a performance assessment of a teaching practice--leading a classroom discussion (LCD)--included in the ETS® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) assessment series. In this assessment, candidates interact with a small class of virtual students represented by avatars in a…

  1. The Avian Knowledge Network : A partnership to organize, analyze, and visualize bird observation data for education, conservation, research, and land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall Iliff; Leo Salas; Ernesto Ruelas Inzunza; Grant Ballard; Denis Lepage; Steve Kelling

    2009-01-01

    The Avian Knowledge Network (AKN) is an international collaboration of academic, nongovernment, and government institutions with the goal of organizing observations of birds into an interoperable format to enhance access, data visualization and exploration, and scientifi c analyses. The AKN uses proven cyberinfrastructure and informatics techniques as the foundation of...

  2. Definition of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage as an Outcome Event in Clinical Trials and Observational Studies Proposal of a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.; Vermeulen, Marinus; van Gijn, Jan; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.; Muizelaar, J. Paul; Mendelow, A. David; Juvela, Seppo; Yonas, Howard; Terbrugge, Karel G.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Diringer, Michael N.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Dreier, Jens P.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose-In clinical trials and observational studies there is considerable inconsistency in the use of definitions to describe delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A major cause for this inconsistency is the combining of radiographic evidence of

  3. The development of photoemission spectroscopy and its application to the study of semiconductor interfaces Observations on the interplay between basic and applied research (Welch Memorial Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    A sketch is given of the development of photoemission electron spectroscopy (PES) with emphasis on the author's own experience. Emphasis is placed: (1) on the period between 1958-1970; (2) on the various developments which were required for PES to emerge; and (3) on the strong interactions between applied/fundamental and knowledge/empirically based research. A more detailed discussion is given of the recent (1975-present) application of PES to study the interfaces of III-V semiconductors.

  4. Prestigio de la nación vs mirada deconstruyente: las imágenes de Italia en el Festival Internacional de Cine de Venecia desde el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial hasta el "milagro económico" / Nation’s Prestige vs Deconstructive Gaze: The Images of Italy since the End of the Second World War until

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pisu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende investigar qué tipo de imágenes sobre Italia surgieron en el Festival Internacional de Cine de Venecia en el periodo comprendido entre la segunda posguerra europea y los años del llamado «milagro económico». En esos años se abrió una contradicción entre los éxitos conseguidos por las películas italianas –sobre todo en el extranjero– y la imagen de pobredumbre socieconómica que esos films transmitían. El político más influyente para la industria cinematográfica italiana en ese momento, el democristiano Giulio Andreotti, osciló entre el reconocimiento del valor comercial, cultural y diplomático de aquellos éxitos, pese a que las películas retrataban un país pobre, y la irritación explícita por su proyección en Italia y en el extranjero, hasta el punto de intentar censurarlas. Un análisis de la Mostra entre la segunda mitad de los años50 y la primera mitad de los 60, con su función de escaparate del «milagro económico», no permite conformar una única imagen de Italia. Por un lado, el festival de 1959 fue decisivo para relanzar el cine italiano, tanto dentro del país como en el extranjero, por el premio concedido a El general de la Rovere (Il generale dellaRovere, Roberto Rosellini y a La gran guerra (La grande guerra, Mario Monicelli, films que contribuyeron a la promoción de una imagen indulgente de los italianos, representados como astutos y sin embargo buenos, oportunistas pero, en el fondo, buena gente. Por otro lado, la Mostra no solo encumbró ese proceso de desarrollo económico y de modernización que atravesaba Italia; al mismo tiempo –y sobre todo– promovió una representación más problemática del país, de su pasado y de su presente.Palabras clave: Festival Internacional de Cine de Venecia, imágenes de la nación, cine italiano, posguerra, neorrealismo, milagro económico.AbstractThis article intends to investigate what kinds of Italy’s images emerged at the

  5. Ozone production, nitrogen oxides, and radical budgets in Mexico City: observations from Pico de Tres Padres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Kroll, J. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Neuman, J. A.; Seila, R.; Zavala, M.; Knighton, W. B.

    2008-08-01

    Observations at a mountain-top site within the Mexico City basin are used to characterize ozone production and destruction, the nitrogen oxide budget, and the radical budget during the MILAGRO campaign. An ozone production rate of ~50 ppbv/h was observed in a stagnant air mass during the afternoon of 12 March 2006, which is among the highest observed anywhere in the world. Approximately half of the ozone destruction was due to the oxidation of NO2. During this time period ozone production was VOC-limited, deduced by a comparison of the radical production rates and the formation rate of NOx oxidation products (NOz) For [NOx]/[NOy] values between 0.2 and 0.8, gas-phase HNO3 typically accounted for less than 10% of NOz and accumulation-mode particulate nitrate (NO3-(PM)) accounted for 20% 70% of NOz, consistent with high ambient NH3 concentrations. The fraction of NOz accounted for by the sum of HNO3(g) and NO3-(PM) decreased with photochemical processing. This decrease is apparent even when dry deposition of HNO3 is accounted for, and indicates that HNO3 formation decreased relative to other NOx "sink" processes during the first 12 h of photochemistry and/or a significant fraction of the nitrate was associated with the coarse aerosol size mode. The ozone production efficiency of NOx on 11 and 12 March 2006 was approximately 7 on a time scale of one day. A new metric for ozone production efficiency that relates the dilution-adjusted ozone mixing ratio to cumulative OH exposure is proposed.

  6. Study on workloads of human care worker with the introduction of IT system - the characteristics of work loads by observational research and the suggestions for KAIZEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Matsuda, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Motegi, Nobuyuki; Ikegami, Thor; Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristic of workloads on human care worker with the introduction of IT system, and suggested the support measures for KAIZEN in Japan. The investigation method is workflow line and hearing with a focus on work observation. The objects were 8 human care workers of the acute hospital that introduced an electronic system. By the introduction of the electronic chart, the nurse station sojourn time decreased, sickroom sojourn time increased, and time about direct nursing care to a patient increased. In addition, access to patient information became easy, and the offer of the health care service based on correct information came to be possible in real time. By The point of workflow line, it was effect that moving lengths decreased in order to install the electronic chart in patients' rooms. Though, it was a problem that it hasn't formed where to place the instruments such as sphygmomanometer, clinical thermometer and others.

  7. Research Update: Retardation and acceleration of phase separation evaluated from observation of imbalance between structure and valence in LiFePO4/FePO4 electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Tokuda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available LiFePO4 is a potential positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries. We have experimentally observed an imbalance between the valence change of Fe ions and the structure change from the LiFePO4 phase to the FePO4 phase during delithiation by simultaneous in situ XRD and XANES measurements in an LiFePO4/FePO4 electrode. The ratio of structure change to valence change clearly indicates that the phase separation from LiFePO4 to FePO4 is suppressed at the beginning of delithiation, while it is accelerated at the latter stage, which is due to the coherent strain caused by the lattice misfit between the two phases.

  8. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads de Costa Rica, the NASA Airborne Science and Earth Surface & Interior Programs, the Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil de Costa Rica, and FH Düsseldorf for their support.

  9. Pain Assessment in Critically İll Adult Patients: Validity and Reliability Research of the Turkish Version of the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Gündoğan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT and the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS are behavioral pain assessment scales for unconscious intensive care unit (ICU patients. The aim is to determine the validation and reliability of the CPOT in Turkish in mechanically ventilated adult ICU patients. Material and Method: This prospective observational cohort study included 50 mechanically ventilated mixed ICU patients who were unable to report pain. CPOT and BPS was translated into Turkish and language validity was performed by ten intensive care specialists. Pain was assessed in the course of painless and painful routine care procedures using the CPOT and the BPS by a resident and an intensivist concomitantly. Tests reliability, interrater reliability, and validity of the CPOT and the BPS were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 57.4 years and the mean APACHE II score was 18.7. A total of 100 assessments were recorded from 50 patients using CPOT and BPS. Scores of CPOT and BPS during the painful procedures were both significantly higher than painless procedures. The agreement between CPOT and BPS during painful and painless stimuli was ranged as; sensitivity 66.7%-90.3%; specificity 89.7%-97.9%; kappa value 0.712-0.892. The agreement between resident and intensivist during painful and painless stimuli was ranged from 97% to 100% and the kappa value was between 0.904 and 1.0. Conclusion: The Turkish version of the CPOT showed good correlation with the BPS. Interrater reliability between resident and intensivist was good. The study showed that the Turkish version of BPS and CPOT are reliable and valid tools to assess pain in daily clinical practice for intubated and unconscious ICU patients who are mechanically ventilated.

  10. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  11. Extrapolation of short term observations to time periods relevant to the isolation of long lived radioactive waste. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1995-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    This report addresses safety analysis of the whole repository life-cycle that may require long term performance assessment of its components and evaluation of potential impacts of the facility on the environment. Generic consideration of procedures for the development of predictive tools are completed by detailed characterization of selected principles and methods that were applied and presented within the co-ordinated research project (CRP). The project focused on different approaches to extrapolation, considering radionuclide migration/sorption, physical, geochemical and geotechnical characteristics of engineered barriers, irradiated rock and backfill performance, and on corrosion of metallic and vitreous materials. This document contains a comprehensive discussion of the overall problem and the practical results of the individual projects preformed within the CRP. Each of the papers on the individual projects has been indexed separately

  12. Informed consent, and an ethico-legal framework for paediatric observational research and biobanking: the experience of an Italian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccaceli, Virgilia; Serino, Laura; Stazi, Maria Antonietta

    2014-12-01

    Birth cohort studies are important tools for life-course epidemiology, given the spectrum of the environmental, behavioural, and genetic factors that should be considered when making judgements on human health. Biobanks are valuable components of studies designed to investigate the genetic variability of diseases and improve phenotypic characterisation. In studies involving vulnerable populations and biobanks, it is essential to provide ethical reasoning and analyse the legal requirements. We describe the processes and the tools used in the iterative design of an appropriate informed consent model and the ethico-legal framework of the Piccolipiù study. The Piccolipiù study is a prospective population-based study funded by the Italian Ministry of Health that intends to enrol 3,000 newborns and their mothers in five Italian cities, and to store biological samples for future use. To realise these objectives, we performed a thorough evaluation of the literature, of national and international guidelines, and of the impact of the Italian legal requirements for research biobanking. Discussions among stakeholders facilitated the design of the informed consent and the ethico-legal framework. Several topics are addressed, including the suitability of a broad informed consent for paediatric biobanks, infant vulnerability, access to and sharing of data, and the disclosure of individual's genetic results. Discussion of the ethical and legal procedures adopted in epidemiological biobanking might be a fruitful ground for comparison both at the national level, where standardization and homogeneity are lacking, and at the international level, where different regulatory issues are often in the background and might hamper research biobanks networking.

  13. FY 1986 annual report on the research and development of observation systems for resources exploitation. 2/4; 1986 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    Described herein are the FY 1986 results of the researches of the system design management and evaluation techniques, as part of the research and development of observation systems for resources exploitation. The research program for the system design management techniques involves clarification of reviewing the conditions of interfaces with, e.g., dimensions, weight and power consumption, in order to make the synthetic aperture radar compatible with the satellite body. The data transmission circuits and ground system parameters are investigated and clarified, for smooth interfaces between the satellite-borne mission transmitter and ground station. The research program for the system design evaluation techniques involves transformation of the optical sensor data into the images, and reviews of the second draft of the optical sensor design specification evaluation, on the premise of the processes in which geological experts visually extract the geological data. The validation methods, data collecting areas, observation devices, data processing systems and the like are also investigated for the aircraft/space shuttle test plans for the resources exploitation observation systems. (NEDO)

  14. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostetler, Chris [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Ferrare, Richard [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL

  15. A decade of monitoring at Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) sites: can we observe trends in atmospheric acid deposition and in soil solution acidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Thimonier, Anne; Schmitt, Maria; Walthert, Lorenz; Waldner, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Trends in atmospheric acid deposition and in soil solution acidity from 1995 or later until 2007 were investigated at several forest sites throughout Switzerland to assess the effects of air pollution abatements on deposition and the response of the soil solution chemistry. Deposition of the major elements was estimated from throughfall and bulk deposition measurements at nine sites of the Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research network (LWF) since 1995 or later. Soil solution was measured at seven plots at four soil depths since 1998 or later. Trends in the molar ratio of base cations to aluminum (BC/Al) in soil solutions and in concentrations and fluxes of inorganic N (NO(3)-N + NH(4)-N), sulfate (SO(4)-S), and base cations (BC) were used to detect changes in soil solution chemistry. Acid deposition significantly decreased at three out of the nine study sites due to a decrease in total N deposition. Total SO(4)-S deposition decreased at the nine sites, but due to the relatively low amount of SO(4)-S load compared to N deposition, it did not contribute to decrease acid deposition significantly. No trend in total BC deposition was detected. In the soil solution, no trend in concentrations and fluxes of BC, SO(4)-S, and inorganic N were found at most soil depths at five out of the seven sites. This suggests that the soil solution reacted very little to the changes in atmospheric deposition. A stronger reduction in base cations compared to aluminum was detected at two sites, which might indicate that acidification of the soil solution was proceeding faster at these sites.

  16. Report on 1985 research result on the R and D of observation system for probing resources. 1/4; 1985 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 1/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-03-01

    Since fiscal 1984, the technological association for resource remote-sensing system has been entrusted with the 'R and D of observation system for probing resources' from the Government Research Institute and has been carrying out the researches. In 1985, on the basis of the preliminary design implemented in 1984, a design for the exclusive use was worked out for each system, namely, total system, sensor system and data transmission system, towards the development of EM (engineering model) scheduled to start in fiscal 1986, while a trial test was performed simultaneously for the critical components. In addition, in 1985, since the main contractor of the ERS-1 satellite body was decided to be Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. by the National Space Development Agency, a system was established for the purpose of adjusting the wide-ranging interface between the satellite body and the observation system, with a concrete adjusting operation started. In connection with these assigned researches, the intended objectives were mostly achieved through the cooperation by each member of the nine associations, for which the results were summarized in this paper under the contract for research assignment and submitted as the 'report on 1985 results of assigned research'. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1985 annual report on the research and development of observation systems for resources exploitation. 4/4; 1985 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 4/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 1985 results of the research of satellite-borne optical sensors, and research and development of data transmission systems, as part of the research and development of observation systems for resources exploitation. The research program for the satellite-borne optical sensors involves, e.g., plans for development of the optical sensors borne in ERS-1, and studies on the parts therefor, target specifications of the optical sections, light-collection systems, spectroscopic systems, three-dimensional observation, focus adjustment, alignment adjustment, and temperature control. For the detection systems, the efforts are directed to studies on the visible to near-infrared, and short wavelength to infrared detection and calibration systems, in order to develop the detection sections satisfying the target functions and consistent interfaces with, e.g., the satellite. The research and development program for the data transmission systems involves the major functions, interfaces with the satellite, interfaces with the mission transmitters, thermal interfaces, reliability/quality programs, and development plans, for the mission recorder. (NEDO)

  18. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-24

    Sep 24, 2013 ... the observers' lacks of visual research skills, they pay an equal attention to physical and social ... fewer comments' of observers on visual irregularities and diffusions in managing signboards, urban graffiti ..... narrative. Visual ...

  19. Contributing to the debate on categorising shared sanitation facilities as 'unimproved': An account based on field researchers' observations and householders' opinions in three regions, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Khalid; Kilamile, Fadhili; Safari, Emmanuela; Seleman, Amour; Mwakitalima, Anyitike; Balengayabo, Jonas G; Kassile, Telemu; Mangesho, Peter E; Mubyazi, Godfrey M

    2017-01-01

    Health risks associated with poor sanitation behaviours continue to be reported mostly from low-income countries (LICs). Reports show that various factors limit many people from accessing and using improved latrines, forcing some to opt for sharing latrines with neighbours, others practicing open defecation. Meanwhile, debate prevails on whether shared latrines should be categorised as unimproved according to WHO/UNICEF-JMP criteria. We contribute to this debate based on results from a study undertaken in three regions, Tanzania. Data were collected through observations in 1,751 households with latrines, coupled with collection of opinions from heads of such households regarding the latrine-sharing practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between the outcome and possible predictor variables. Of all 1,751 latrines, 14.6% were shared. Among the shared latrines, 74.2% were found being generally clean as compared to 69.2% of the non-shared ones. Comparing the shared and non-shared latrines, the non-shared latrines were significantly less likely to be found with floors built with permanent materials (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.98); washable floors (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.93); and lockable doors (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.95). Shared latrines were less likely to have floors with faecal matter, functional handwashing facilities (HWFs), HWFs with running water, and roofs; albeit the differences in all these scenarios were not statistically significant. Respondents expressed desire for improved latrines, but also did not find it wrong to share latrines if cleanliness was maintained. Having an 'improved' latrine remains important as JMP recommends, but based on our study findings, we argue that possessing a non-shared latrine neither guarantees safety to its users nor its categorisation as 'improved'. Instead, the state of the latrine, the construction technology used and the behaviours of the users may be

  20. Community pharmacists' evaluation of potentially inappropriate prescribing in older community-dwelling patients with polypharmacy: observational research based on the GheOP³S tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommelein, Eline; Mehuys, Els; Van Tongelen, Inge; Petrovic, Mirko; Somers, Annemie; Colin, Pieter; Demarche, Sophie; Van Hees, Thierry; Christiaens, Thierry; Boussery, Koen

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to (i) determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) in community-dwelling older polypharmacy patients using the Ghent Older People's Prescriptions community-Pharmacy Screening (GheOP³S) tool, (ii) identify the items that account for the highest proportion of PIP and (iii) identify the patient variables that may influence the occurrence of PIP. Additionally, pharmacist-physician contacts emerging from PIP screening with the GheOP³S tool and feasibility of the GheOP³S tool in daily practice were evaluated. A prospective observational study was carried out between December 2013 and July 2014 in 204 community pharmacies in Belgium. Patients were eligible if they were (i) ≥70 years, (ii) community-dwelling, (iii) using ≥5 chronic drugs, (iv) a regular visitor of the pharmacy and (v) understanding Dutch or French. Community pharmacists used a structured interview to obtain demographic data and medication use and subsequently screened for PIP using the GheOP³S tool. A Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between different covariates and the number of PIP. In 987 (97%) of 1016 included patients, 3721 PIP items were detected (median of 3 per patient; inter quartile range: 2-5). Most frequently involved with PIP are drugs for the central nervous system such as hypnosedatives, antipsychotics and antidepressants. Risk factors for a higher PIP prevalence appeared to be a higher number of drugs (30% extra PIPs per 5 extra drugs), female gender (20% extra PIPs), higher body mass index (BMI, 20% extra PIPs per 10-unit increase in BMI) and poorer functional status (30% extra PIPs with 6-point increase). The feasibility of the GheOP³S tool was acceptable although digitalization of the tool would improve implementation. Despite detecting at least one PIP in 987 patients, only 39 physicians were contacted by the community pharmacists to discuss the items. A high prevalence of PIP in community

  1. Mapping the isotopic signature of methane in South-Eastern Spain: complementing biogeochemical long-term research with short term observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Àgueda, Alba; Morguí, Josep Anton; Vazquez Garcia, Eusebi; Curcoll, Roger; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2016-04-01

    will be helpful in the validation of transport models. *Corresponding author: Josep Anton Morguí - josep-anton.morgui@ic3.cat "The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) in the InGOS project under grant agreement n° 284274''

  2. The Rofental: a high Alpine research basin (1890–3770 m a.s.l. in the Ötztal Alps (Austria with over 150 years of hydrometeorological and glaciological observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Strasser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive hydrometeorological and glaciological data set is presented, originating from a multitude of glaciological, meteorological, hydrological and laser scanning recordings at research sites in the Rofental (1891–3772 m a.s.l., Ötztal Alps, Austria. The data sets span a period of 150 years and hence represent a unique time series of rich high-altitude mountain observations. Their collection was originally initiated to support scientific investigation of the glaciers Hintereisferner, Kesselwandferner and Vernagtferner. Annual mass balance, glacier front variation, flow velocities and photographic records of the status of these glaciers were recorded. Later, additional measurements of meteorological and hydrological variables were undertaken, and over time a number of autonomous weather stations and runoff gauges were brought into operation; the available data now comprise records of temperature, relative humidity, short- and longwave radiation, wind speed and direction, air pressure, precipitation, and river water levels. Since 2001, a series of distributed (airborne and terrestrial laser scans is available, along with associated digital surface models. In 2016 a permanent terrestrial laser scanner was installed on Im hintern Eis (3244 m a.s.l. to continuously observe almost the entire area of Hintereisferner. The data and research undertaken at the sites of investigation in the Rofental area enable combined research of cryospheric, atmospheric and hydrological processes in complex terrain, and support the development of several state-of-the-art glacier mass balance and hydroclimatological models. The institutions taking part in the Rofental research framework promote their site in several international research initiatives. In INARCH (International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology, http://words.usask.ca/inarch, all original research data sets are now provided to the scientific community according to the

  3. The Rofental: a high Alpine research basin (1890-3770 m a.s.l.) in the Ötztal Alps (Austria) with over 150 years of hydrometeorological and glaciological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Marke, Thomas; Braun, Ludwig; Escher-Vetter, Heidi; Juen, Irmgard; Kuhn, Michael; Maussion, Fabien; Mayer, Christoph; Nicholson, Lindsey; Niedertscheider, Klaus; Sailer, Rudolf; Stötter, Johann; Weber, Markus; Kaser, Georg

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive hydrometeorological and glaciological data set is presented, originating from a multitude of glaciological, meteorological, hydrological and laser scanning recordings at research sites in the Rofental (1891-3772 m a.s.l., Ötztal Alps, Austria). The data sets span a period of 150 years and hence represent a unique time series of rich high-altitude mountain observations. Their collection was originally initiated to support scientific investigation of the glaciers Hintereisferner, Kesselwandferner and Vernagtferner. Annual mass balance, glacier front variation, flow velocities and photographic records of the status of these glaciers were recorded. Later, additional measurements of meteorological and hydrological variables were undertaken, and over time a number of autonomous weather stations and runoff gauges were brought into operation; the available data now comprise records of temperature, relative humidity, short- and longwave radiation, wind speed and direction, air pressure, precipitation, and river water levels. Since 2001, a series of distributed (airborne and terrestrial) laser scans is available, along with associated digital surface models. In 2016 a permanent terrestrial laser scanner was installed on Im hintern Eis (3244 m a.s.l.) to continuously observe almost the entire area of Hintereisferner. The data and research undertaken at the sites of investigation in the Rofental area enable combined research of cryospheric, atmospheric and hydrological processes in complex terrain, and support the development of several state-of-the-art glacier mass balance and hydroclimatological models. The institutions taking part in the Rofental research framework promote their site in several international research initiatives. In INARCH (International Network for Alpine Research Catchment Hydrology, http://words.usask.ca/inarch), all original research data sets are now provided to the scientific community according to the Creative Commons Attribution

  4. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Léna, Pierre; Lebrun, François; Mignard, François; Pelat, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This is the updated, widely revised, restructured and expanded third edition of Léna et al.'s successful work Observational Astrophysics. It presents a synthesis on tools and methods of observational astrophysics of the early 21st century. Written specifically for astrophysicists and graduate students, this textbook focuses on fundamental and sometimes practical limitations on the ultimate performance that an astronomical system may reach, rather than presenting particular systems in detail. In little more than a decade there has been extraordinary progress in imaging and detection technologies, in the fields of adaptive optics, optical interferometry, in the sub-millimetre waveband, observation of neutrinos, discovery of exoplanets, to name but a few examples. The work deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. And it also presents the ambitious concepts behind space missions aimed for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spec...

  5. Observable supertranslations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Porrati, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We show that large gauge transformations in asymptotically flat spacetime can be implemented by sandwiching a shell containing the ingoing hard particles between two finite-width shells of soft gauge excitations. Integration of the graviton Dirac bracket implies that our observable soft degrees of freedom obey the algebra imposed by Strominger et al. on unobservable boundary degrees of freedom. Thus, we provide both a derivation and an observable realization of this algebra. We recently showed that soft charges fail to constrain the hard scattering problem, and so cannot be relevant to the black hole information paradox. By expressing the Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra in terms of observable quantities, the present work shows that this conclusion was not an artifact of working with strictly zero frequency soft modes. The conservation laws associated with asymptotic symmetries are seen to arise physically from free propagation of infrared modes.

  6. Earth tidal and barometric responses observed in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation at ANDRA Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcourt-Honorez, M.; Scholz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Fluid pressure or hydraulic head measured in wells in geological formations can respond to Earth tidal forces and atmospheric pressure variations. At Andra Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory located in Bure (France), water level and fluid pressure are measured in several boreholes in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation (COX) and in overlying geological formations. One of these boreholes (EST207) is equipped with a multi-packer system monitoring 11 intervals, including 8 in the COX. The recorded fluid pressures in EST207 were analyzed to determine possible Earth tidal responses. In this borehole, the fluid pressure and atmospheric pressure variations data are recorded every fifteen minutes and 6.5 years of such data from 2004/06/02 to 2010/12/31 were analyzed. Various perturbed data, gaps, drift and abnormal data were corrected through a data preprocessing process. Data interpolation and filtering processes were performed to have data available every 15 minutes at 0, 15, 30 and 45 minutes on the hour. A spectral analysis (Fast Fourier Transform) of each pressure data series shows amplitude peaks at frequencies corresponding to various Earth tidal frequencies: diurnal and semi diurnal waves can be identified. Spectral analyses were also performed on the atmospheric pressure data. The solar semi diurnal wave (S2) was identified. The 'Earth Tides ETERNA package' was used to separate the waves according to the frequencies bands. The analyses performed using ETERNA are indicated as 'Earth Tidal Analyses' (ETAN). Tidal parameters are estimated from ETAN: amplitudes A and its standard deviation σ(A)[hPa], phase φ for the main waves in diurnal and semi diurnal frequencies bands before and after atmospheric pressure variations correction. The barometric efficiency (BE) and its standard deviation σ (BE) as regression coefficient is calculated. The atmospheric pressure data are also analyzed with ETERNA; the

  7. Observational cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Some sixty years after the development of relativistic cosmology by Einstein and his colleagues, observations are finally beginning to have an important impact on our views of the Universe. The available evidence seems to support one of the simplest cosmological models, the hot Big Bang model. The aim of this paper is to assess the observational support for certain assumptions underlying the hot Big Bang model. These are that the Universe is isobaric and homogeneous on a large scale; that it is expanding from an initial state of high density and temperature; and that the proper theory to describe the dynamics of the Universe is unmodified General Relativity. The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation and recent observations of the abundance of light elements, in particular, support these assumptions. Also examined here are the data bearing on the related questions of the geometry and the future of the Universe (is it ever-expanding, or fated to recollapse). Finally, some difficulties and faults of the standard model are discussed, particularly various aspects of the 'initial condition' problem. It appears that the simplest Big Bang cosmological model calls for a highly specific set of initial conditions to produce the presently observed properties of the Universe. (Auth.)

  8. Flare Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  9. Flare Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Arnold O.

    2017-12-01

    Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays beyond 1 GeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, SOHO, and more recently Hinode and SDO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s) of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting magnetic reconnection as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth's ionosphere. Flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, but every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  10. FY 1986 annual report on the research and development of observation systems for resources exploitation.4/4; 1996 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 4/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Described herein are the FY 1986 results of the research of satellite-borne optical sensors, and research and development of data transmission systems, as part of the research and development of observation systems for resources exploitation. The research program for the satellite-borne optical sensors involves studies on the design specifications, in order to clarify details of the optical sensor systems and visible to near-infrared ray radiation section. The major parts are fabricated on a trial basis and evaluated, in order to review their specifications, and collect the data necessary for the engineering model designs. The items studied for the short wavelength to infrared ray radiation section include the development specifications, and conditions of the interfaces with the satellite and with the cooler/detector sections, which are to be reflected in the design specifications. The research and development program for the data transmission systems involves basic designs of the mission recorder and examinations thereof, to draw the base lines of the satellite-borne systems. The mission transmitter antenna and electronic circuit sections are investigated in detail. (NEDO)

  11. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: Euro Observational Research Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, M. F.; van Hagen, I.; Russo, F.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; van den Berg, M. P.; Roos-Hesselink, J.; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, K. Y.; van der Meer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but potentially life-threatening form of heart failure affecting women late in pregnancy or in the first months after delivery. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is difficult to diagnose and its onset and progression are variable between individuals. The pathophysiology

  12. Peripartum cardiomyopathy : Euro Observational Research Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, M. F.; van Hagen, I.; Russo, F.; Van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Van den Berg, M. P.; Roos-Hesselink, J.; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, K. Y.; van der Meer, P.

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but potentially life-threatening form of heart failure affecting women late in pregnancy or in the first months after delivery. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is difficult to diagnose and its onset and progression are variable between individuals. The pathophysiology

  13. Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: Euro Observational Research Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Hoes; I.M. van Hagen (Iris); F. Russo; D.J. van Veldhuisen (Dirk); M.P. van den Berg (Maarten); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); K.Y. van Spaendonck-Zwarts (Karin); P. van der Meer (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPeripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but potentially life-threatening form of heart failure affecting women late in pregnancy or in the first months after delivery. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is difficult to diagnose and its onset and progression are variable between individuals. The

  14. Observational astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léna, P.; Lebrun, F.; Mignard, F.

    This book is the 2nd edition of an English translation published in 1988 (45.003.105) of the French original "Astrophysique: Méthodes physiques de l'observation" published in 1986 (42.003.048). Written specifically for physicists and graduate students in astronomy, this textbook focuses on astronomical observation and on the basic physical principles that astronomers use to conceive, build and exploit their instruments at their ultimate limits in sensitivity or resolution. This second edition has been entirely restructured and almost doubled in size, in order to improve its clarity and to account for the great progress achieved in the last 15 years. It deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. It presents the new generation of giant ground-based telescopes, with the new methods of optical interferometry and adaptive optics, and also the ambitious concepts behind planned space missions for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum and touches upon the "new astronomies" becoming possible with gravitational waves and neutrinos.

  15. FY 1986 annual report on the research and development of observation systems for resources exploitation. 3/4; 1986 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 3/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Described herein are the FY 1986 results of the research of satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar, as part of the research and development of observation systems for resources exploitation. For the radar antenna, the engineering model is designed and fabricated, and test system is studied, for confirming the electrical functions, and mechanical and electrical interfaces. For the transmitter/receiver, the basic designs of the subsystems and components are drawn, and the models are designed and fabricated for testing serviceability of the high-output amplifiers and long-term stability of the high-stability crystal transmitter/receiver. Their models are also designed and fabricated for confirming their electrical functions, and their electrical, mechanical and thermal interfaces with other systems. For the signal processing section, the interfaces with the intra-SAR, satellite body and mission transmitter are adjusted, and the results are reflected in the related specifications and notes of confirmation. (NEDO)

  16. [A NASA / University Joint Venture in Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Donald C.

    1996-01-01

    MILAGRO is a water-Cherenkov detector for observing cosmic gamma rays over a broad energy range of 100 GeV to 100 TeV. MILAGRO will be the first detector that has sensitivity overlapping both air-Cherenkov and air-shower detectors. With this detector scientists in the collaboration will study previously observed celestial sources at their known emission energies, extend these observations into a new energy regime, and search for new sources at unexplored energies. The diffuse gamma-radiation component in our galaxy, which originates from interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar gas and photons, provides important information about the density, distribution, and spectrum of the cosmic rays that pervade the interstellar medium. Events in the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) are being observed up to about 30 GeV, differing by slightly more than order of magnitude from the low energy threshold of MILAGRO. By looking in coincidence at sources, correlated observations will greatly extend the astrophysics potential of MILAGRO and NASA's GRO. A survey of cosmic-ray observatories is being prepared for scientists and others to provide a resource and reference which describes high energy cosmic-ray research activities around the world. This summary presents information about each research group, such as names of principal investigators, number of persons in the collaboration, energy range, sensitivity, angular resolution, and surface area of detector. Similarly, a survey of gamma-ray telescopes is being prepared to provide a resource and reference which describes gamma-ray telescopes for investigating galactic diffuse gamma-ray flux currently observed in the GeV energy range, but is expected to extend into the TeV range. Two undergraduate students are compiling information about gamma-ray telescopes and high energy cosmic-ray observatories for these surveys. Funding for this project was provided by the Arkansas Space Grant Consortium. Also enclosed Appendix A, B, C, D

  17. Rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) sounding rocket experiments were carried out during the periods of August to September, 1982, January to February and August to September, 1983 and January to February, 1984 with sounding rockets. Among 9 rockets, 3 were K-9M, 1 was S-210, 3 were S-310 and 2 were S-520. Two scientific satellites were launched on February 20, 1983 for solar physics and on February 14, 1984 for X-ray astronomy. These satellites were named as TENMA and OHZORA and designated as 1983-011A and 1984-015A, respectively. Their initial orbital elements are also described. A payload recovery was successfully carried out by S-520-6 rocket as a part of MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Non-linear Interaction Experiment) which is a scientific study of nonlinear plasma phenomena in conjunction with the environmental assessment study for the future SPS project. Near IR observation of the background sky shows a more intense flux than expected possibly coming from some extragalactic origin and this may be related to the evolution of the universe. US-Japan cooperative program of Tether Experiment was done on board US rocket.

  18. Observations on Citation Practices in Mathematics Education Research. Research Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that the field of mathematics education as a whole can and should improve its citation practices. He discusses 4 forms of citation practice and considers how they vary with respect to transparency of voice. He also discusses several ways that citation practices may misrepresent cited authors' ideas. He concludes with suggestions…

  19. Enhanced Research Opportunity to Study the Atmospheric Forcing by High-Energy Particle Precipitation at High Latitudes: Emerging New Satellite Data and the new Ground-Based Observations in Northern Scandinavia, including the EISCAT_3D Incoherent Scatter Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, E. S.; Ulich, T.; Kero, A.; Tero, R.; Verronen, P. T.; Norberg, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S. I.; Saito, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observational and model results on the particle precipitation as source of atmospheric variability challenge us to implement better and continuously monitoring observational infrastructure for middle and upper atmospheric research. An example is the effect of high-energy electron precipitation during pulsating aurora on mesospheric ozone, the concentration of which may be reduced by several tens of percent, similarily as during some solar proton events, which are known to occur more rarely than pulsating aurora. So far the Assessment Reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change did not include explicitely the particle forcing of middle and upper atmosphere in their climate model scenarios. This will appear for the first time in the upcoming climate simulations. We review recent results related to atmospheric forcing by particle precipitation via effects on chemical composition. We also show the research potential of new ground-based radio measurement techniques, such as spectral riometry and incoherent scatter by new phased-array radars, such as EISCAT_3D, which will be a volumetric, 3- dimensionally imaging radar, distributed in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. It is expected to be operational from 2020 onwards, surpassing all the current IS radars of the world in technology. It will be able to produce continuous information of ionospheric plasma parameters in a volume, including 3D-vector plasma velocities. For the first time we will be able to map the 3D electric currents in ionosphere, as well as we will have continuous vector wind measurements in mesosphere. The geographical area covered by the EISCAT_3D measurements can be expanded by suitably selected other continuous observations, such as optical and satellite tomography networks. A new 100 Hz all-sky camera network was recently installed in Northern Scandinavia in order to support the Japanese Arase satellite mission. In near future the ground-based measurement network will also include new

  20. Participation beyond observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    The past decades of child research have seen a rising number of practice-based studies which investigate the children’s perspectives on a multitude of everyday life phenomena. Researchers accompany children around and across contexts, become part of their sociomaterial interactions with peers......, however, the researchers typically uphold the notion that all they methodically engage in is participant observation. The paper argues that important aspects of children’s living and understanding may be lost when considering them mere objects of one’s visual and verbal research practices. First I delve...... into empirical material from my own participatory study in a daycare center in order to discuss how the child researcher ineluctably contributes to co-arranging the children’s lives under scrutiny and thereby the respective study’s insights. Then I draw on Svend Brinkmann & Lene Tanggaard’s critique...

  1. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  2. Measurements and trend analysis of O2, CO2 and δ13C of CO2 from the high altitude research station Junfgraujoch, Switzerland - A comparison with the observations from the remote site Puy de Dome, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino, Francesco L.; Leuenberger, Markus; Uglietti, Chiara; Sturm, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 flask measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, and from the observatory at Puy de Dome, France, are presented. Additionally, the Jungfraujoch δ 13 C record of CO 2 is discussed. The observations on flask samples collected at the Jungfraujoch station show, since 2003, an enhancement of the oxygen trend which amounts to about 45 per meg/year with a corresponding CO 2 increase of around 2.4 ppm/year. This enhancement is comparable with that observed at the Puy de Dome station where oxygen, since mid 2002, has decreased with a rate of about 50 per meg/year whilst the CO 2 increase was of around 1.7 ppm/year but exhibiting a higher variability. Several processes influence δO 2 /N 2 . However, these processes are marked with different oxidation ratios (O 2 :CO 2 ) that can be used to distinguish them. The apparent slopes calculated from correlation plots between de-trended CO 2 and δO 2 /N 2 records as well as between corresponding trends are significantly larger than the observed terrestrial exchange and fossil fuel emission slopes indicating a strong oceanic influence. Since ocean-atmosphere exchange can have very variable O 2 :CO 2 ratios depending on processes within the ocean, it is to our understanding the only possibility to explain our observations. The stability of the δO 2 /N 2 scale is critical in this regard, therefore, it is addressed here and we found no significant scale drift which would influence our trend calculations. In our view more important are criterions on the data selection before trend analysis

  3. Can commonly prescribed drugs be repurposed for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases? Protocol for an observational cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Venexia M; Davies, Neil M; Jones, Tim; Kehoe, Patrick G; Martin, Richard M

    2016-12-13

    Current treatments for Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases have only limited effectiveness meaning that there is an urgent need for new medications that could influence disease incidence and progression. We will investigate the potential of a selection of commonly prescribed drugs, as a more efficient and cost-effective method of identifying new drugs for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease, non-Alzheimer's disease dementias, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Our research will focus on drugs used for the treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and type 2 diabetes, all of which have previously been identified as potentially cerebroprotective and have variable levels of preclinical evidence that suggest they may have beneficial effects for various aspects of dementia pathology. We will conduct a hypothesis testing observational cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Our analysis will consider four statistical methods, which have different approaches for modelling confounding. These are multivariable adjusted Cox regression; propensity matched regression; instrumental variable analysis and marginal structural models. We will also use an intention-to-treat analysis, whereby we will define all exposures based on the first prescription observed in the database so that the target parameter is comparable to that estimated by a randomised controlled trial. This protocol has been approved by the CPRD's Independent Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC). We will publish the results of the study as open-access peer-reviewed publications and disseminate findings through national and international conferences as are appropriate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Building an international network for a primary care research program: reflections on challenges and solutions in the set-up and delivery of a prospective observational study of acute cough in 13 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veen Robert ER

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing a primary care clinical research study in several countries can make it possible to recruit sufficient patients in a short period of time that allows important clinical questions to be answered. Large multi-country studies in primary care are unusual and are typically associated with challenges requiring innovative solutions. We conducted a multi-country study and through this paper, we share reflections on the challenges we faced and some of the solutions we developed with a special focus on the study set up, structure and development of Primary Care Networks (PCNs. Method GRACE-01 was a multi-European country, investigator-driven prospective observational study implemented by 14 Primary Care Networks (PCNs within 13 European Countries. General Practitioners (GPs recruited consecutive patients with an acute cough. GPs completed a case report form (CRF and the patient completed a daily symptom diary. After study completion, the coordinating team discussed the phases of the study and identified challenges and solutions that they considered might be interesting and helpful to researchers setting up a comparable study. Results The main challenges fell within three domains as follows: i selecting, setting up and maintaining PCNs; ii designing local context-appropriate data collection tools and efficient data management systems; and iii gaining commitment and trust from all involved and maintaining enthusiasm. The main solutions for each domain were: i appointing key individuals (National Network Facilitator and Coordinator with clearly defined tasks, involving PCNs early in the development of study materials and procedures. ii rigorous back translations of all study materials and the use of information systems to closely monitor each PCNs progress; iii providing strong central leadership with high level commitment to the value of the study, frequent multi-method communication, establishing a coherent ethos

  5. Research circles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Thomsen, Rie; Möller, Jonas

    lifelong guidance policies. This paper presents `research circles´ as a way to develop guidance practices through long-term research relationships between practice and research. Research circles support a bottom up approach to policy development just like ELGPN considers to be necessary and required...... of their habitual pedagogical role and enables them to observe and analyze their own practice. In conclusion, this methodological approach to the development of guidance practices introduces a combination between theory and practice that meets current needs of practice, policy and research....

  6. Remote Research

    CERN Document Server

    Tulathimutte, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Remote studies allow you to recruit subjects quickly, cheaply, and immediately, and give you the opportunity to observe users as they behave naturally in their own environment. In Remote Research, Nate Bolt and Tony Tulathimutte teach you how to design and conduct remote research studies, top to bottom, with little more than a phone and a laptop.

  7. La historia del milagro que nunca llegó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alcalá-Santaella Oria de Rueda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reseña bibliográfica del libro 'Historia del Ya. Sinfonía con final trágico' escrito por José Antonio Martín Aguado y José Rodríguez Vilamor. Quien espere hallar en este libro un refugio para la nostalgia se va a encontrar con que tendrá entre sus manos una concienzuda investigación en la que, además, late la vida del último de los grandes periódicos de la Editorial Católica (Edica, creada por Ángel Herrera Oria. No es la primera vez que se escribe sobre este diario, pero sí es la primera en que se aborda su etapa final, sin miedo y con realismo, pero sobre todo desde la autoridad y el conocimiento que da haber formado parte de la vida del Ya. Ese es el caso de los autores de esta publicación, dos periodistas del desaparecido diario que analizan su historia desde el conocimiento y el cariño de haber dedicado una parte importante de su vida a ese medio de comunicación.

  8. La Ciudad del Milagro y el Gran Salta

    OpenAIRE

    Vedoya, Elba Elena

    2011-01-01

    p. 35-46 La Ciudad de Salta nació en 1582, en el corazón del Valle, pero al crecer, se disparó peligrosamente hacia el norte y sur no sólo transponiendo y depredando sus propios bordes sino también asimilando sus propias interfases urbanas rurales. Con los siglos, a esa naturaleza se le agregó toda una tecnología urbana –no siempre apropiada–; sin embargo guarda su modelo fundacional: la cuadrícula. La ciudad colonial creció y ha llenado el valle, rozando con sus límites, los límites de lo...

  9. Los milagros de la Mamá Grande

    OpenAIRE

    Palomares Güells, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Análisis de la figura mítica de Carmen Balcells desde el arquetipo de "la Mamá Grande" con el que se la ha identificado en numerosas ocasiones, para observar la relevancia de Balcells en la memoria editorial colectiva del boom latinoamericano. Anàlisi de la figura mítica de Carmen Balcells des de l'arquetip de la "Mamà Gran" amb el que se l'ha identificat en nombroses ocasions per a observar la rellevància de Balcells en la memòria editorial col·lectiva del boom llatinoamericà.

  10. A Primer on Observational Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Jeffrey M; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Observational measurement plays an integral role in a variety of scientific endeavors within biology, psychology, sociology, education, medicine, and marketing. The current article provides an interdisciplinary primer on observational measurement; in particular, it highlights recent advances in observational methodology and the challenges that accompany such growth. First, we detail the various types of instrument that can be used to standardize measurements across observers. Second, we argue for the importance of validity in observational measurement and provide several approaches to validation based on contemporary validity theory. Third, we outline the challenges currently faced by observational researchers pertaining to measurement drift, observer reactivity, reliability analysis, and time/expense. Fourth, we describe recent advances in computer-assisted measurement, fully automated measurement, and statistical data analysis. Finally, we identify several key directions for future observational research to explore.

  11. La inteligencia emocional y su influencia en la gestión personal y productiva de los microempresarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velásquez-Castro, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On several occasions limitations observed in the management of certain entrepreneurs, canton Milagro, Guayas Province, Ecuador, who are far better than others obtained, this generated a process of investigation whose objective was to offer entrepreneurs an opportunity to optimize your through knowledge management and application of emotional intelligence. The research was carried out based on the methodological perspective of the hypothetical-deductive, analytic-synthetic and historical logic model and the type of research exploratory character. Given that there are sufficient local studies on the subject investigated, a suitable sample of 317 people who were surveyed was determined. The results revealed that the entrepreneur knows the canton Milagro benefits of emotional competencies and this becomes a fertile ground for raising structuring strategies to the use and strengthening of Emotional Intelligence by them. The structure of emotional intelligence strategies designed to build microentrepreneurs Milagro canton, aiming that the result of this work would be replicated in counties with similar characteristics, framed in a process of Social Responsibility

  12. NS&T Management Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotto, David [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  13. What Catches the Eye in Class Observation? Observers' Perspectives in a Multidisciplinary Peer Observation of Teaching Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ana Cristina; Lopes, Amélia; Valente, Jorge M. S.; Mouraz, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Peer Observation of Teaching has raised a lot of interest as a device for quality enhancement of teaching. While much research has focused on its models, implementation schemes and feedback to the observed, little attention has been paid to what the observer actually sees and can learn from the observation. A multidisciplinary peer observation of…

  14. Observational methodology in sport sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Anguera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the conceptual framework, the key literature and the methods (observation tools, such as category systems and field formats, and coding software, etc. that should be followed when conducting research from the perspective of observational methodology. The observational designs used by the authors’ research group over the last twenty years are discussed, and the procedures for analysing data and assessing their quality are described. Mention is also made of the latest methodological trends in this field, such as the use of mixed methods.

  15. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-24

    Sep 24, 2013 ... the observers' lacks of visual research skills, they pay an equal attention to physical and social environment even in the absence of social activity facts in the photos. I argued that students used their mental image and memories of the urban space in commentaries about each photos. Besides, they used ...

  16. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    To this effect, two basic research with these research ... In this area, Ho conducted a research on a topic “Effectiveness o .... questioning, making a list, clustering, preparing a scratch .... three data collection instruments by using quantitative and.

  17. Evaluating the Effects of Differences in Group Abilities on the Tucker and the Levine Observed-Score Methods for Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Equating. ACT Research Report Series 2010-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanwei; Cui, Zhongmin; Zhu, Rongchun; Gao, Xiaohong

    2010-01-01

    The most critical feature of a common-item nonequivalent groups equating design is that the average score difference between the new and old groups can be accurately decomposed into a group ability difference and a form difficulty difference. Two widely used observed-score linear equating methods, the Tucker and the Levine observed-score methods,…

  18. Research Facilities | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Facilities Research Facilities NREL's state-of-the-art wind research facilities at the Research Facilities Photo of five men in hard hards observing the end of a turbine blade while it's being tested. Structural Research Facilities A photo of two people silhouetted against a computer simulation of

  19. Nonlinear observer design for a first order hyperbolic PDE: application to the estimation of the temperature in parabolic solar collectors**Research reported in this publication has been supported by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-01-01

    transformation. The objective is to force the estimation error to follow some stable transport dynamics. Convergence conditions are derived in order to determine the observer gain ensuring the stabilization of the estimation error in a finite time. Numerical

  20. Intercomparison of liquid metal fast reactor seismic analysis codes. V. 3: Comparison of observed effects with computer simulated effects on reactor cores from seismic disturbances. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This publication contains the final papers summarizing the validation of the codes on the basis of comparison of observed effects with computer simulated effects on reactor cores from seismic disturbances. Refs, figs tabs

  1. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1991-06-26 to 1991-07-04 (NODC Accession 0115598)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115598 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1991-06-26 to...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1990-10-11 to 1990-10-15 (NODC Accession 0115600)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115600 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1990-10-11 to...

  3. Semantic Observation Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kuhn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the integration of sensor-based information into analysis and decision making has been a research topic for many years, semantic interoperability has not yet been reached. The advent of user-generated content for the geospatial domain, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, makes it even more difficult to establish semantic integration. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrating conventional sensor information and VGI, which is exploited in the context of detecting forest fires. In contrast to common logic-based semantic descriptions, we present a formal system using algebraic specifications to unambiguously describe the processing steps from natural phenomena to value-added information. A generic ontology of observations is extended and profiled for forest fire detection in order to illustrate how the sensing process, and transformations between heterogeneous sensing systems, can be represented as mathematical functions and grouped into abstract data types. We discuss the required ontological commitments and a possible generalization.

  4. Nonlinear observer design for a first order hyperbolic PDE: application to the estimation of the temperature in parabolic solar collectors**Research reported in this publication has been supported by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2016-08-09

    In this paper, the problem of estimating the distributed profile of the temperature along the tube of a concentrated distributed solar collector from boundary measurements is addressed. A nonlinear observer is proposed based on a nonlinear integral transformation. The objective is to force the estimation error to follow some stable transport dynamics. Convergence conditions are derived in order to determine the observer gain ensuring the stabilization of the estimation error in a finite time. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm under different working conditions. (C) 2016, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating the Quality of the Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Direct Support Staff: A Preliminary Application of Three Observation Scales from Parent-Infant Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Ine; Petry, Katja; Lambrechts, Greet; Maes, Bea

    2011-01-01

    Background: Affective and reciprocal interactions with others are essential for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), but it is a challenge to assess their quality. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of instruments from parent-infant research to evaluate these interactions. Method: Eighteen videotaped…

  6. SMM Observations of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnopper, Herbert; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During the past year I have participated in a series of team telecons to I plan our observation of Saturn with SMM. The observation, scheduled for this month (September), was canceled and a new observation is being planned for 2002.

  7. Classroom observation and feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana GOREA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classroom observation is a didactic activity from which both the observer and the observed teacher are to win. The present article comments on and discusses the aims of observation, the stages of observation, the methodological recommendations of offering feedback and the need to introduce a system of classroom observation at institutional or even national level, which would contribute to improving the teaching/learning process.

  8. Research News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research News Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Research News Research News Quarterly Updates Research Call Archive ... Clinical Trials in MS Learn More Become a Research Champion An MS Research Revolution Support MS Research ...

  9. ALMA observing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Biggs, Andy

    2018-01-01

    The ALMA Observing Tool (OT) is a Java-based tool used to prepare ALMA observations. In this talk, I highlight the particular features relevant to setting up single dish observations when these are needed to observe sources where the largest angular scale requires the addition of the total power antennas.

  10. ALMA Observing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Andy

    2018-03-01

    The ALMA Observing Tool (OT) is a Java-based tool used to prepare ALMA observations. In this talk, I highlight the particular features relevant to setting up single dish observations when these are needed to observe sources where the largest angular scale requires the addition of the total power antennas.

  11. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  12. Report on 1988 research result on the R and D of observation system for probing resources. 3/3; 1988 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 3/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This paper explains the 1988 results of the specialized study in the R and D of the observation system for probing resources. In the system development of the synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) to be loaded on the earth resources satellite ERS-1, the basic design was reexamined, with an SAR system test carried out. A combination test was performed for SAR and the mission transmitter. The testing device was also improved and manufactured. The optical sensor needs to be a system that uses a wide wavelength area and that is capable of receiving a image data of a high surface resolution; accordingly, on the basis of 1988 results, it was tested by preparing an engineering model (EM). The mission recording device records the observation data of SAR and the optical sensor in an invisible area, reproduces it in a visible area in the ground station, and obtains data. The EM development test implemented in fiscal 1987 was continued for the electronics part and the transport part, with the specifications and interface control documents established simultaneously. Combination tests with the mission transmitter were carried out. Studies were also stated on the antenna part/transmitter part of the mission transmitter. (NEDO)

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program research and development. Development of photovoltaic power plants (Meteorological observation); 1981 nendo taiyonetsu hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kisho kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-31

    The effort aims to measure environmental factors for the evaluation of plant performance and equipment durability in a test operation of a Nio Solar Heat Test Plant (built on a site formed by reclaiming a salt field at Nio Town, Kagawa Prefecture). Meteorologically observed are the amount of direct solar radiation, amount of solar radiation from unobstructed sky, time of solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, wet-bulb temperature, amount of precipitation, and time of precipitation. Dust fall, sea salt grain, and sulfur oxides are also measured monthly. As for the direct solar radiation (DH) on the horizontal plane, it is determined by conversion of its hourly accumulation on a normal plane. The conversion method is so adjusted as to reduce errors for time belts in the morning and evening when change is great in sun elevation. The amount of sky solar radiation is calculated by subtracting DH from the amount of solar radiation from unobstructed sky. As for the time of solar radiation, it is determined by accumulating by the use of a computer the time at which pyrheliometer output is beyond a threshold of 21mW/cm{sup 2} on the pyrheliometer. A minicomputer is used to analyze and process the observed data. The annual and monthly reports and daily records are also mentioned in this achievement report. (NEDO)

  14. 2009 Observer Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Lincicome, Alexis; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2010-01-01

    The USA‐National Phenology Network (USA‐NPN) seeks to engage volunteer observers in collecting phenological observations of plants and animals using consistent standards and to contribute their observations to a national data repository. In March 2009, the National Coordinating Office staff implemented an online monitoring program for 213 plant species. In this pilot year of the program, 547 observers reported phenology observations on one or more plants via the online interface.

  15. Peer Observation of Teaching: A Decoupled Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John Martyn; D'Artrey, Meriel; Rowe, Deborah-Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article details the findings of research into the academic teaching staff experience of peer observation of their teaching practice. Peer observation is commonly used as a tool to enhance a teacher's continuing professional development. Research participants acknowledged its ability to help develop their teaching practice, but they also…

  16. Observability during planetary approach navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Robert H.; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Thurman, Sam W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an analytic technique to predict the relative navigation capability of different Earth-based radio navigation measurements. In particular, the problem is to determine the relative ability of geocentric range and Doppler measurements to detect the effects of the target planet gravitational attraction on the spacecraft during the planetary approach and near-encounter mission phases. A complete solution to the two-dimensional problem has been developed. Relatively simple analytic formulas are obtained for range and Doppler measurements which describe the observability content of the measurement data along the approach trajectories. An observability measure is defined which is based on the observability matrix for nonlinear systems. The results show good agreement between the analytic observability analysis and the computational batch processing method.

  17. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    organizing mathematics lessons, classroom managemen. Teachers have also ... method at an average level, their obstruction effect was implied that there are ..... non-significant difference between the expected (12) and the observed (12.35) ...

  18. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Twelve gra using simple random sampling technique and an En ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journ. Sci. Technol. ... he quantitative data disclosed lower student scores, .... work on relating the title to students' lives, motivating,.

  19. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    genetic improvement and lack of organized market system are the ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journ. Sci. ... located in Oromia Regional States in the western. Ethiopia ..... district in the western Ethiopia that reported the price of.

  20. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    mountage types (ply wood, cartoon made, Banana leaf, pl leaf montages) and ... at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center in the sericulture ry during 2011-2013 ..... (2009) also study qualitative improvement in terms of economic gained by.

  1. 肿瘤患者机体组成及肌肉减少症的调查%Observational research on body composition and sarcopenia in patients with tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴焱; 凌轶群; 丁慧萍; 钱泳; 汪琼

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe body composition and the occurrence of sarcopenia in tumor patients so as to provide evidence for the early monitoring of their nutritional status .Methods:Bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA) was adopted to analyze the body composition and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) was used to observe the occurrence of sarcopenia to explore the relationship between BMI and sarcopenia in 224 patients with tumor .The body composition of 224 cases of tumor patients was analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA) .The occurrence of sarcopenia was observed with appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) ,and the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sarcopenia was also explored .Results:In 224 tumor patients ,13 .4% (30/224) were underweight ,60 .7% (136/224) were normal weight and 25 .9% (58/224) were overweight or obese .The incidence of sarcopenia was 58 .04% (130/224) ,and 77 .7% (101/130) of the patients with sarcopenia were normal ,overweight or obese .Conclusions:The change of the muscle and its function in cancer patients is as noteworthy as weight loss .Body composition of cancer patients should be timely monitored in order to optimize nutritional risk screening , establish individualized nutritional support , and develop the treatment plan with best tolerance .%目的:观察肿瘤患者的机体组成和肌肉减少症(sarcopenia)的发生情况,为尽早监测肿瘤患者的营养状况提供依据。方法:采用生物电阻抗法(bioelectrical impedance analysis ,BIA )分析224例肿瘤患者的机体组成,利用四肢骨骼肌指数(appendicular skeletal mass index ,ASMI)观察肌肉减少症的发生情况,并探究肿瘤患者体质指数(BMI)与肌肉减少症的关系。结果:224例肿瘤患者中13.4%(30/224)为消瘦,60.7%(136/224)为正常体质量,25.9%(58/224)为超重或肥胖。肌肉减少症发生率为58.04%(130/224) ,77.7

  2. Observing Geohazards from Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cigna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With a wide spectrum of imaging capabilities—from optical to radar sensors, low to very high resolution, continental to local scale, single-image to multi-temporal approaches, yearly to sub-daily acquisition repeat cycles—Earth Observation (EO offers several opportunities for the geoscience community to map and monitor natural and human-induced Earth hazards from space. The Special Issue “Observing Geohazards from Space” of Geosciences gathers 12 research articles on the development, validation, and implementation of satellite EO data, processing methods, and applications for mapping and monitoring of geohazards such as slow moving landslides, ground subsidence and uplift, and active and abandoned mining-induced ground movements. Papers published in this Special Issue provide novel case studies demonstrating how EO and remote sensing data can be used to detect and delineate land instability and geological hazards in different environmental contexts and using a range of spatial resolutions and image processing methods. Remote sensing datasets used in the Special Issue papers encompass satellite imagery from the ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, RADARSAT-1/2, and Sentinel-1 C-band, TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed X-band, and ALOS L-band SAR missions; Landsat 7, SPOT-5, WorldView-2/3, and Sentinel-2 multi-spectral data; UAV-derived RGB and near infrared aerial photographs; LiDAR surveying; and GNSS positioning data. Techniques that are showcased include, but are not limited to, differential Interferometric SAR (InSAR and its advanced approaches such as Persistent Scatterers (PS and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS methods to estimate ground deformation, Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA to identify landslides in high resolution multi-spectral data, UAV and airborne photogrammetry, Structure-from-Motion (SfM for digital elevation model generation, aerial photo-interpretation, feature extraction, and time series analysis. Case studies presented in the papers focus on

  3. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  4. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  5. Bottomfish Observer Database - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data collected by at sea observers in the Bottomfish Observer Program in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from October 2003 - April 2006.

  6. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  7. Radar Weather Observation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  8. OBSCAN Observer Scanning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program deployed on commercial fishing vessels. After the data...

  9. JAPANSE LONGLINE OBSERVER JPLL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data that were collected by trained observers aboard Japanese pelagic longline vessels operating in the US EEZ. Observers collected...

  10. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  11. Observational Learning in the Music Masterclass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to research on music masterclasses through examining learning through observation. It investigates how students are learning as observers in this context; whether and how they will transfer their masterclass learning to their own instrumental/vocal development, and whether they have discussed learning through observation.…

  12. Report on 1988 research result on the R and D of observation system for probing resources. 2/3; 1988 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This paper explains the 1988 results of the specialized study in the R and D of the observation system for probing resources. In the interface with the satellite body, the result of the 1986 basic design was reexamined, elucidating the interface conditions, while the telemetry command items were also rechecked, clarifying the restrictions of the operation. In addition, the combination tests of mission equipment were all put together. Reexamined also were the interface specifications of optical sensors. Concerning the interface between the satellite body and the mission transmitter, examination was made on the detailed design level. In the operation mission analysis, algorithm for acquiring mission equipment data was reviewed, as were the operation analysis program and the data acquiring simulation. With a case examined in which an optical sensor satellite image was used for probing oil, the conclusion was obtained that the present design specifications were sufficient. In the experiment of the on-aircraft multi-channel image sensor, the subject sensor was found much higher than before in the performance for identifying rocks/minerals and was expected to be useful for resource probes. Image analysis of the test site was also performed. (NEDO)

  13. Report on 1985 research result on the R and D of observation system for probing resources. 2/4; 1985 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2/4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-03-01

    This paper explains the result of R and D of the observation system for probing resources in fiscal 1985. Concerning the interface with the satellite body in the system design and control, the design was clarified for the exclusive use of the interface between an on-satellite synthetic-aperture radar and the satellite body, as were the conditions/specifications of the optical part, detector and signal processor of the sensor system, with the studies conducted for the purpose of switching over to the basic design of the following year without difficulty. Then, an examination was carried out for the basic design level of the interface between the satellite body and the transmitter of the mission. A detailed examination was made for the purpose of smoothing the interface between the mission transmitter of the earth resources satellite ERS-1 and the terrestrial station. In the operation mission analysis, an investigation was made into the efficient operation of on-satellite equipment, with studies made on the conditions and specifications of an on-satellite optical sensor. In the studies of the system design evaluation technology, picture quality of the optical sensor was examined, as were sensor specifications suitable for the probe of oil and other underground resources. In addition, aircraft/space shuttle experiment plans were also examined. (NEDO)

  14. Report on 1987 research result on the R and D of observation system for probing resources. 1/3; 1987 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This paper explains the 1987 results of the R and D of the observation system for probing resources. The system is scheduled to be loaded on the earth resources satellite ERS-1 for which launching in 1991 has been set. On the basis of the results until fiscal 1986, technical examination was made continuously. As to the interface with the satellite body, adjustments were made in technical items with the satellite body concerning electrical, mechanical, thermal and environmental interfaces, for example. In the sensor system, the development specifications and interface specifications were reexamined and revised. In addition, an EM (engineering model) was manufactured for each sub-system of the antenna, transmitter/receiver, and a signal processor comprising the on-satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR), with the development test carried out. Each specification was reexamined and revised. On the basis of the basic design of an optical sensor, an EM was manufactured, developed and tested. The related specifications were reexamined and revised. An EM was manufactured for the mission recording device and mission transmitter on the results of the basic design, with the development and the test performed. (NEDO)

  15. Report on 1988 research result on the R and D of observation system for probing resources. 1/3; 1988 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu. 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This paper explains the 1988 results of the R and D of the observation system for probing resources. The system is scheduled to be loaded on earth resources satellite ERS-1 for which launching in 1991 has been set. On the basis of the results until fiscal 1987, 1988, technical examination was made continuously. As to the interface with the satellite body, the specifications were revised by making adjustment in technical items with the satellite body concerning electrical, mechanical, thermal and environmental interfaces, for example. In the sensor system, the technical specifications until now was reexamined and revised. In addition, an EM (engineering model) which was manufactured based on the basic design, was developed, tested and delivered to the satellite body side. In other words, in the studies of the on-satellite synthetic-aperture radar (SAR), the test device was improved and manufactured, with the EM and SAR system developed and tested. In the optical sensor, the test device was also prepared, with the EM manufactured, developed and tested. In the data transmission system, the specifications were revised by developing and testing an EM for the mission recording device. The mission transmitter was tested with EM and also in combination with other mission equipment. (NEDO)

  16. Cloning of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G A

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analysed. (letter to the editor)

  17. Cloning of observables

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analyzed.

  18. Radioactive sampler observation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Norihiko; Saito, Norihisa.

    1996-01-01

    When an object of observation is a fuel rod and if a specimen in a fuel pool is small, it takes much labor for the observation and micro-observation images at a high ratio can not be displayed. A pipe for containing an observing camera in a water-sealed state, a jack capable of adjusting the focus of the observation camera by remote control and a horizontal bed capable of controlling the position of the observation camera for observing the specimen are disposed on a rail formed on lead block shielding walls. The magnification ratio for the observation can be increased by exchanging a die for securing the specimen and a lens, and a transparent acrylic resin plate, or a transparent lead-incorporated glass plate is joined to the bottom of the pipe. Since the sampled specimen can be observed as it is irrespective of the shape or the size of the specimen to be observed, danger of radiation exposure caused such as upon cutting, transportation or fabrication of the radioactive specimen can be reduced. Further, observation underwater can be conducted by the water sealing treatment of the pipe for the observing camera. (N.H.)

  19. Being observed magnifies action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmetz, J.; Xu, Q.; Fishbach, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that people, when observed, perceive their actions as more substantial because they add the audience’s perspective to their own perspective. We find that participants who were observed while eating (Study 1) or learned they were observed after eating (Study 2) recalled eating

  20. Artistic research, context research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Benjamín Toledo Castellanos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some concepts in contemporary art works, dealing with some life aspects and passed through the sensitive and expressive test, are formulated in this paper and shed light on the foundation of researches about singular phenomenons of the existence. For this, it is argued that there are researches belonging to arts, fundamental researches that compromise the certainty of the assumptions where the sense system of a context has its bases (epoch, culture, nation, region. These researches come ahead of the researches of the rational-discursive enunciation fields, given that the last ones haven’t passed any protocol accepted yet by any community. To bring into play the certainty is done by a cognitive movement named by Martin Heidegger unconcealment [Unverborgenheit], and it consist on the interruption of the habituality of the beings who form the (trustworthy family setting to put into perspective the fundamental structures that allow to produce its sense. The unconcealment, typical in art and in creative actions, sets up an event that stops the solidity of the established (social, ethical, technical, scientific, philosophical order, and unleashes conditions for changing the lifestyles hold until then.

  1. Observation of online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana V.; Rask, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of observation to online settings with a special focus on observer roles. It draws on a study of online observation of a virtual community, i.e. an open source software (OSS) community. The paper examines general and specific advantages and disadvantages...... of the observer roles in online settings by relating these roles to the same roles assumed in offline settings. The study suggests that under the right circumstances online and offline observation may benefit from being combined as they complement each other well. Quality issues and factors important to elicit...... trustworthy observational data from online study settings, such as OSS communities, are discussed. A proposition is made concerning how threats to credibility and transferability in relation to online observation (i.e. lack of richness and detail, risk of misunderstandings) can be diminished, while...

  2. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... Multivariate Analysis of Vegetation Data. Classification by means of hierarchical cluster analysis is the most common multivariate technique to analyze community data. Cluster analysis helps to group a set of observations (here plots or vegetation samples) together based on their attributes or floristic ...

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Dale Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Observational Cosmology by Stephen Serjeant fills a niche that was underserved in the textbook market: an up-to-date, thorough cosmology textbook focused on observations, aimed at advanced undergraduates. Not everything about the book is perfect - some subjects get short shrift, in some cases jargon dominates, and there are too few exercises. Still, on the whole, the book is a welcome addition. For decades, the classic textbooks of cosmology have focused on theory. But for every Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect there is a Butcher-Oemler effect; there are as many cosmological phenomena established by observations, and only explained later by theory, as there were predicted by theory and confirmed by observations. In fact, in the last decade, there has been an explosion of new cosmological findings driven by observations. Some are so new that you won't find them mentioned in books just a few years old. So it is not just refreshing to see a book that reflects the new realities of cosmology, it is vital, if students are to truly stay up on a field that has widened in scope considerably. Observational Cosmology is filled with full-color images, and graphs from the latest experiments. How exciting it is that we live in an era where satellites and large experiments have gathered so much data to reveal astounding details about the origin of the universe and its evolution. To have all the latest data gathered together and explained in one book will be a revelation to students. In fact, at times it was to me. I've picked up modern cosmological knowledge through a patchwork of reading papers, going to colloquia, and serving on grant and telescope allocation panels. To go back and see them explained from square one, and summarized succinctly, filled in quite a few gaps in my own knowledge and corrected a few misconceptions I'd acquired along the way. To make room for all these graphs and observational details, a few things had to be left out. For one, there are few derivations

  4. Astrometric Observation of Delta Cepheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Naomi; Wilson, Betsie; Estrada, Chris; Crisafi, Kim; King, Jackie; Jones, Stephany; Salam, Akash; Warren, Glenn; Collins, S. Jananne; Genet, Russell

    2012-04-01

    Members of a Cuesta College astronomy research seminar used a manually-controlled 10-inch Newtonian Reflector telescope to determine the separation and position angle of the binary star Delta Cepheus. It was observed on the night of Saturday, October 29, 2011, at Star Hill in Santa Margarita, California. Their values of 40.2 arc seconds and 192.4 degrees were similar to those reported in the WDS (1910).

  5. Assessing the healthcare resource use associated with inappropriate prescribing of inhaled corticosteroids for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in GOLD groups A or B: an observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, James D; Poole, Chris; Webster, Samantha; Tebboth, Abigail; Dickinson, Scott; Gayle, Alicia

    2018-04-11

    Recent recommendations from the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) position inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing exacerbations (≥ 2 or ≥ 1 requiring hospitalisation); i.e. GOLD groups C and D. However, it is known that ICS is frequently prescribed for patients with less severe COPD. Potential drivers of inappropriate ICS use may be historical clinical guidance or a belief among physicians that intervening early with ICS would improve outcomes and reduce resource use. The objective of this study was to compare healthcare resource use in the UK for COPD patients in GOLD groups A and B (0 or 1 exacerbation not resulting in hospitalisation) who have either been prescribed an ICS-containing regimen or a non-ICS-containing regimen. Linked data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database were used. For the study period (1 July 2005 to 30 June 2015) a total 4009 patients met the inclusion criteria; 1745 receiving ICS-containing therapy and 2264 receiving non-ICS therapy. Treatment groups were propensity score-matched to account for potential confounders in the decision to prescribe ICS, leaving 1739 patients in both treatment arms. Resource use was assessed in terms of frequency of healthcare practitioner (HCP) interactions and rescue therapy prescribing. Treatment acquisition costs were not assessed. Results showed no benefit associated with the addition of ICS, with numerically higher all-cause HCP interactions (72,802 versus 69,136; adjusted relative rate: 1.07 [p = 0.061]) and rescue therapy prescriptions (24,063 versus 21,163; adjusted relative rate: 1.05 [p = 0.212]) for the ICS-containing group compared to the non-ICS group. Rate ratios favoured the non-ICS group for eight of nine outcomes assessed. Outcomes were similar for subgroup analyses surrounding potential influential parameters, including

  6. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    research is to determine the level of interference ... perceived in the foreign language production (Aber. 2013). ... Accordingly, it is important to help learners reduce th ... Official International Journal of Wollega University, Ethiopia .... e learning process, learners .... them to self-evaluate errors and improve their English writing ...

  7. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This research pape of mobile advertising in the mind of customers espec. Delhi, India. Further it also tries to find out the go product / services due to mobile advertising. INTRODUCTION. Mobile advertising is a brand new phenomenon. Yunos et al. (2003) defined mobile advertising as marketing and advertising activities.

  8. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-19

    Jun 19, 2013 ... After collecting knowledge, attitude and behavior inventory questionnaire, the researcher conducted. FGDs that contain 1 male and 1 female student from grade 9, 10, 11 and 12 for 2 hours in two sessions (1 hour for each session) which are selected with the support of room teachers. Due to limited time to ...

  9. Flare Seismology from SDO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Charles; Martinez Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Hudson, Hugh

    2011-10-01

    Some flares release intense seismic transients into the solar interior. These transients are the sole instance we know of in which the Sun's corona exerts a conspicuous influence on the solar interior through flares. The desire to understand this phenomenon has led to ambitious efforts to model the mechanisms by which energy stored in coronal magnetic fields drives acoustic waves that penetrate deep into the Sun's interior. These mechanisms potentially involve the hydrodynamic response of the chromosphere to thick-target heating by high-energy particles, radiative exchange in the chromosphere and photosphere, and Lorentz-force transients to account for acoustic energies estimated up to at 5X10^27 erg and momenta of order 6X10^19 dyne sec. An understanding of these components of flare mechanics promises more than a powerful diagnostic for local helioseismology. It could give us fundamental new insight into flare mechanics themselves. The key is appropriate observations to match the models. Helioseismic observations have identified the compact sources of transient seismic emission at the foot points of flares. The Solar Dynamics Observatory is now giving us high quality continuum-brightness and Doppler observations of acoustically active flares from HMI concurrent with high-resolution EUV observations from AIA. Supported by HXR observations from RHESSI and a broad variety of other observational resources, the SDO promises a leading role in flare research in solar cycle 24.

  10. Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data.

  11. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  12. Geo-neutrino Observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  13. Evaluation of nursing faculty through observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, L H

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess current use and faculty perceptions of classroom observation as a method of faculty evaluation in schools of nursing. Baccalaureate schools of nursing were surveyed to determine current use of classroom observation and its worth from the perception of administrators and faculty. Although most schools used classroom observation as a method of faculty evaluation, further clarification and research is needed in the following areas: purpose of classroom observation; number of observations necessary; weight given to classroom observation in relation to other evaluation methods; and tools used.

  14. Measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pH (on total scale) and other variables collected from water column (discrete) observations using Nondispersive infrared (NDIR) method, Gran titration method, Radiometer pHC2401-7 combination electrode and other instruments from R/V Ocean Researcher I in the East China Sea during the cruise ORI-1086 (EXPOCODE 21OR20140820) from 2014-08-20 to 2014-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0162291)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise is a part of the Long-tern Observation and Research in the East China Sea by Institute of Marine Environmental Chemistry and Ecology National Taiwan...

  15. Observing Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Classroom observation is a crucial aspect of any system of teacher evaluation. No matter how skilled a teacher is in other aspects of teaching--such as careful planning, working well with colleagues, and communicating with parents--if classroom practice is deficient, that individual cannot be considered a good teacher. Classroom observations can…

  16. The observer's sky atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Karkoschka, E

    2007-01-01

    This title includes a short introduction to observing, a thorough description of the star charts and tables, a glossary and much more. It is perfect for both the beginner and seasoned observer. It is fully revised edition of a best-selling and highly-praised sky atlas.

  17. Optimized tomography of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, G.M.; Paris, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    Tomographic measurement of observables is revisited and an adaptive optimization of the kernel functions suggested. The method is based on the existence of a class of null functions, which have zero tomographic average for any state of radiation. The general procedure is illustrated, and application to relevant observables analyzed in details for coherent, squeezed and 'cat' states.(author)

  18. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  19. Does observability affect prosociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Alex; Lawrence, Claire; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2018-03-28

    The observation of behaviour is a key theoretical parameter underlying a number of models of prosociality. However, the empirical findings showing the effect of observability on prosociality are mixed. In this meta-analysis, we explore the boundary conditions that may account for this variability, by exploring key theoretical and methodological moderators of this link. We identified 117 papers yielding 134 study level effects (total n = 788 164) and found a small but statistically significant, positive association between observability and prosociality ( r = 0.141, 95% confidence interval = 0.106, 0.175). Moderator analysis showed that observability produced stronger effects on prosociality: (i) in the presence of passive observers (i.e. people whose role was to only observe participants) versus perceptions of being watched, (ii) when participants' decisions were consequential (versus non-consequential), (iii) when the studies were performed in the laboratory (as opposed to in the field/online), (iv) when the studies used repeated measures (instead of single games), and (v) when the studies involved social dilemmas (instead of bargaining games). These effects show the conditions under which observability effects on prosociality will be maximally observed. We describe the theoretical and practical significance of these results. © 2018 The Authors.

  20. Extraterrestial radioastronomical observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screiber, R.

    1975-01-01

    The review is an attempt to describe the achievements of extraterrestrial radioastronomy during the last 10 years. Substantial progress, especially in the observations of the solar corona and the interplanetary space is reported. Observations of planets and Galaxy are also mentioned. Some remarks concerning the future experiments are briefly outlined. (author)

  1. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  2. Paying for observable luck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feriozzi, F.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines why CEOs are rewarded for luck, namely for observable shocks beyond their control. I propose a simple hidden action model where the agent has implicit incentives to avoid bankruptcy. After signing the contract, but before acting, the agent observes a signal on future luck.

  3. Working Group 1: Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenberth, K.; Angell, J.; Barry, R.; Bradley, R.; Diaz, H.; Elliott, W.; Etkins, R.; Folland, C.; Jenne, R.; Jones, P.; Karl, T.; Levitus, S.; Oort, A.; Parker, D.; Ropelewski, C.; Vinnikov, K.; Wigley, T.

    1991-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: the need for observations; issues in establishing global climate trends; climate variables such as surface air temperature over land, marine temperature, precipitation, circulation, upper air measurements, historical observations, subsurface ocean data, sea level, cryosphere, clouds, solar radiation, and aerosols; future considerations and recommendations which focuses on the establishment of a global benchmark climate monitoring network and data management

  4. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  5. Working Group 1: Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenberth, K.; Angell, J.; Barry, R.; Bradley, R.; Diaz, H.; Elliott, W.; Etkins, R.; Folland, C.; Jenne, R.; Jones, P.; Karl, T.; Levitus, S.; Oort, A.; Parker, D.; Ropelewski, C.; Vinnikov, K.; Wigley, T.

    1990-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: the need for observations; issues in establishing global climate trends; climate variables such as surface air temperature over land, marine temperature, precipitation, circulation, upper air measurements, historical observations, subsurface ocean data, sea level, cryosphere, clouds, solar radiation, and aerosols; future considerations and recommendations which focuses on the establishment of a global benchmark climate monitoring network and data management

  6. Toward observational neutrino astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiba, M.

    1988-01-01

    It is true that: (1) The first observation of the neutrino burst from the supernova SN1987a by Kamiokande-II which was immediately confirmed by IBM; and (2) the first real-time, directional, and spectral observation of solar 8 B neutrinos also by Kamiokande-II could perhaps be considered as signalling the birth of observational astrophysics. The field, however, is still in its infancy and is crying out for tender loving care. Namely, while the construction of astronomy requires the time and the direction of the signal and that of astrophysics requires, in addition to the spectral information, the observations of (1) could not give the directional information and the results of both (1) and (2) are still suffering from the meager statistics. How do we remedy this situation to let this new born science of observational neutrino astrophysics grow healthy. This is what the author addresses in this talk. 15 refs., 8 figs

  7. La Gestión Del Talento Humano Y Su Relación Con Los Riesgos Laborales Del Personal De Enfermería En El Área De Cuidados Intermedios Del Hospital Iess De La Ciudad De Milagro, Provincia Del Guayas

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez Espinoza Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The present research was to analyze the talent management and its relation to occupational hazards of nurses in intermediate care area IESS Hospital City Miracle, The methodology is scientific, descriptive. The scientist because through the conceptualization strategically locate the objectives, goals and values to establish the cause and effect of research in this paper. Field research for which the art, and as an instrument survey, the questionnaire structured and led to a statistically rep...

  8. Observing Convective Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  9. Observations of TT Ari requested in support of MOST observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-08-01

    Dr. Nikolaus Vogt (Universidad de Valparaiso, Chile) requested simultaneous photometry and spectroscopy of the novalike (VY Scl subtype) cataclysmic variable TT Ari in support of upcoming observations with the Canadian Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) satellite 2012 September 13 through October 20. The Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia of the Valparaiso University will carry out photometry with small telescopes in central Chile but the assistance of other observers, particularly in other latitudes and longitudes, is requested. The observations are being carried out to study superhump behavior, which is still not well understood despite the amount of research done in all classes of cataclysmic variables. TT Ari exibits superhumps - both positive (the superhump period is longer than the orbital period) and negative (the superhump period is shorter than the orbital period). While positive superhumps are thought probably to be the result of an eccentric configuration in the accretion disk, the mechanism for negative superhumps is not yet understood except that it may be related to the disk's being warped out of the orbital plane, leading to complex torque phenomena. TT Ari, one of the brightest cataclysmic variables, exhibits occasional fadings of several magnitudes, from its usual high-state (maximum) magnitude of ~10.5V to a low-state magnitude as faint as 16V. These fadings occur every 20-25 years, and last between 500 and 1000 days. According to observations in the AAVSO International Database, TT Ari is currently magnitude 10.5V. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details, particularly regarding goals of the campaign, and observing instructions.

  10. Observation of Quasichanneling Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wistisen, T. N.; Mikkelsen, R. E.; Uggerhoj, University I.; Wienands, University; Markiewicz, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report on the first experimental observations of quasichanneling oscillations, recently seen in simulations and described theoretically. Although above-barrier particles penetrating a single crystal are generally seen as behaving almost as in an amorphous substance, distinct oscillation peaks nevertheless appear for particles in that category. The quasichanneling oscillations were observed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory by aiming 20.35 GeV positrons and electrons at a thin silicon crystal bent to a radius of R = 0.15 m, exploiting the quasimosaic effect. For electrons, two relatively faint quasichanneling peaks were observed, while for positrons, seven quasichanneling peaks were clearly identified.

  11. XMM observations of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C.; McNutt, R.; Dennerl, K.

    2017-10-01

    We have used XMM to observe the Pluto system in late March 2017. Following up on the reported detection of 7 photons representing X-ray emission by Chandra (Lisse et al., Icarus 287, 103), XMM searched for emission from the system, expecting approximately 10 times as many photons in 1/3 the observing time. If the results of the XMM measurements are as expected, then detections of other large KBOs with lossy atmospheres should be possible, ushering in the era of XMM KBO X-ray astronomy. In this talk we describe the preliminary results of our March 2017 XMM Pluto observations.

  12. Informatics Observed [and] Agenda: A Tool for Agenda Setting Research [and] Telos Language Partner: Multimedia Language Learning, Authoring and Customisation [and] Towards a Consumer Perspective on Information Behaviour Research [and] The Digital Library as Access Management Facilitator [and] Knowledge and Information Management (KIM'21) [and] Perspectives of ICT in Professional Development and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkell, Tony; Kok, Yeong Haur; Goh, Angela; Holaday, Duncan; Hoffstaedter, Petra; Kohn, Kurt; Rowley, Jennifer; van Halm, Johan; Pye, Jo

    1999-01-01

    The following collection of articles reprinted from "CD ROM and Online Review" include "a new way of learning." Discuses research and development funding in educational technology and recommends to offer vast sums to investigate the best way of teaching a particular topic, and through that to fund the use of computers as an incidental part of the…

  13. STRengthening analytical thinking for observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, ma...

  14. Peer Observation of Teaching: Enhancing Academic Engagement for New Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Conor; O'Loughlin, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to uncover key motivations, barriers and outcomes associated with first-time users of peer observation of teaching within an Irish higher level academic context. Following preliminary research, a peer observation process was piloted on five self-selected peer observation faculty pairs involving peer observation training and…

  15. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    involvement between NSF and the awardee in carrying out the activity supported by the award. 2Office of Management and Budget , Uniform Administrative...NSF’s Award Cash Management $ervice—NSF’s online approach to award payments and post-award financial processes—does not collect data about indirect...percent. 16NSF’s Award Cash Management $ervice implements the OMB-approved form for awardees to report financial data on their federal awards. The

  16. CHRISTMAS 2012: RESEARCH Why Rudolph's nose is red: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ince, Can; van Kuijen, Anne-Marije; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Yürük, Koray; Folkow, Lars P.; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Blix, Arnoldus S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterise the functional morphology of the nasal microcirculation in humans in comparison with reindeer as a means of testing the hypothesis that the luminous red nose of Rudolph, one of the most well known reindeer pulling Santa Claus's sleigh, is due to the presence of a highly

  17. Simultaneous Marine Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from Naval vessels, primarily American, taken once daily at Greenwich Noon time. Forms are monthly and were captured from records held at the National...

  18. Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...

  19. Observation, innovation and triangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetmar, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    on experiences from a pilot project in three different classrooms methodological possibilities and problems are presented and discussed: 1) educational criticism, including the concepts of positions, perspectives and connoisseurship, 2) classroom observations and 3) triangulation as a methodological tool....

  20. Observations of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Difficulties occurring in the observation of central stars of planetary nebulae are reviewed with emphasis on spectral classifications and population types, and temperature determination. Binary and peculiar central stars are discussed. (U.M.G.)