WorldWideScience

Sample records for research methods electronic

  1. Research on Electronic Transformer Data Synchronization Based on Interpolation Methods and Their Error Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Fubin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin problem of data synchronization is analyzed first, and then three common interpolation methods are introduced to solve the problem. Allowing for the most general situation, the paper divides the interpolation error into harmonic and transient interpolation error components, and the error expression of each method is derived and analyzed. Besides, the interpolation errors of linear, quadratic and cubic methods are computed at different sampling rates, harmonic orders and transient components. Further, the interpolation accuracy and calculation amount of each method are compared. The research results provide theoretical guidance for selecting the interpolation method in the data synchronization application of electronic transformer.

  2. The Electronic Data Methods (EDM) forum for comparative effectiveness research (CER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holve, Erin; Segal, Courtney; Lopez, Marianne Hamilton; Rein, Alison; Johnson, Beth H

    2012-07-01

    AcademyHealth convened the Electronic Data Methods (EDM) Forum to collect, synthesize, and share lessons from eleven projects that are building infrastructure and using electronic clinical data for comparative effectiveness research (CER) and patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR). This paper provides a brief review of participating projects and provides a framework of common challenges. EDM Forum staff conducted a text review of relevant grant programs' funding opportunity announcements; projects' research plans; and available information on projects' websites. Additional information was obtained from presentations provided by each project; phone calls with project principal investigators, affiliated partners, and staff from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ); and six site visits. Projects participating in the EDM Forum are building infrastructure and developing innovative strategies to address a set of methodological, and data and informatics challenges, here identified in a common framework. The eleven networks represent more than 20 states and include a range of partnership models. Projects vary substantially in size, from 11,000 to more than 7.5 million individuals. Nearly all of the AHRQ priority populations and conditions are addressed. In partnership with the projects, the EDM Forum is focused on identifying and sharing lessons learned to advance the national dialogue on the use of electronic clinical data to conduct CER and PCOR. These efforts have the shared goal of addressing challenges in traditional research studies and data sources, and aim to build infrastructure and generate evidence to support a learning health care system that can improve patient outcomes.

  3. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  4. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Vectorization of Advanced Methods for Molecular Electronic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    That there have been remarkable advances in the field of molecular electronic structure during the last decade is clear not only to those working in the field but also to anyone else who has used quantum chemical results to guide their own investiga­ tions. The progress in calculating the electronic structures of molecules has occurred through the truly ingenious theoretical and methodological developments that have made computationally tractable the underlying physics of electron distributions around a collection of nuclei. At the same time there has been consider­ able benefit from the great advances in computer technology. The growing sophistication, declining costs and increasing accessibi­ lity of computers have let theorists apply their methods to prob­ lems in virtually all areas of molecular science. Consequently, each year witnesses calculations on larger molecules than in the year before and calculations with greater accuracy and more com­ plete information on molecular properties. We can surel...

  5. Electronic Mentoring of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Vicki L.

    On July 1, 1991, the ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) Research Committee launched a pilot project to mentor academic librarians in their conduct of research. Since the mentors and protegees were potentially from all over the United States, the decision was made to mentor using the electronic conferencing capability of BITNET…

  6. ELECTRONIC RESEARCH NOTEBOOKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper details the public availability of Electronic notebooks (EN) and an example of a system in use within a research laboratory in the Office of Research and Development. Research notebooks contain intellectual property which must be guarded until it can be disseminated wit...

  7. Review on the application of electron microprobe chemical dating method in the age research of uranium/pitchblende

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Xiangkun; Qin Mingkuan; Fan Guang

    2011-01-01

    Different micro dating methods have been developed in recent years, the advantages and disadvantages are simply introduced at first. The recent development of electron microprobe chemical dating method in the age research of uraninite/pitchblende and the used analytical conditions by the precurser are presented in detail by stages. Finally, the application foreground of this method in the age research of uraninite/pitchblende and the possible problems are systematically investigated and discussed. It is believed that this method will play a big role in the age research of uranium minerals, especially in the micro dating research of tiny uranium minerals (φ < 10 μm) and uranium micro-ores of multi-stage. (authors)

  8. Distilling data – A flexible method for producing research-ready Electronic Health Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hacker

    2017-04-01

    This methodology facilitates validation, comparison and combination of data sources. It enables us to present complex EHR data in a clear and flexible form, allowing researchers to analyse it with ease and confidence.

  9. CALCULATION-EXPERIMENTAL METHOD OF RESEARCH IN A METALLIC CONDUCTOR WITH THE PULSE CURRENT OF ELECTRONIC WAVEPACKAGES AND DE BROGLIE ELECTRONIC HALF-WAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of calculation-experimental method for a discovery and study of electronic wavepackages (EWP and of de Broglie electronic half-waves in a metallic conductor with the pulse axial-flow current of high density. Methodology. Theoretical bases of the electrical engineering, bases of quantum physics, electrophysics bases of technique of high voltage and large pulsecurrents, and also bases of technique of measuring of permanent and variable electric value. Results. On the basis of generalization of results of research of features of the longitudinal wave periodic distributing of negatively charged transmitters of electric current of conductivity in the thin round continuous zincked steel wire offered and approved in the conditions of high-voltage laboratory method for a discovery and direct determination in him of geometrical parameters of «hot» and «cold» longitudinal areas quantized periodic longitudinal EWP and accordingly the mediated determination of values of the quantized lengths formative their de Broglie electronic half-waves. It is shown that results of close quantum mechanical calculations of EWP and quantized lengths λenz/2 of longitudinal de Broglie half-waves for the probed wire long l0 well comport with the results of the executed high temperature experiments on the powerful high-voltage generator of homopolar large pulse current of millisecond duration. Originality. First calculation-experimental a way the important for the theory of electricity fact of existence is set in a round metallic explorer with the impulsive axial-flow current of the quantized coherent de Broglie electronic half-waves, amplitudes of which at the quantum number of n=1,3,9 correspond the middles of «hot» longitudinal areas of EWP. Calculation quantum mechanical correlation of type of λenz/2=l0/n got experimental confirmation, in obedience to which on length of l0 conductor the integer of quantized electronic half-waves is always laid

  10. Tensions and Paradoxes in Electronic Patient Record Research: A Systematic Literature Review Using the Meta-narrative Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Potts, Henry W W; Wong, Geoff; Bark, Pippa; Swinglehurst, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Context: The extensive research literature on electronic patient records (EPRs) presents challenges to systematic reviewers because it covers multiple research traditions with different underlying philosophical assumptions and methodological approaches. Methods: Using the meta-narrative method and searching beyond the Medline-indexed literature, this review used “conflicting” findings to address higher-order questions about how researchers had differently conceptualized and studied the EPR and its implementation. Findings: Twenty-four previous systematic reviews and ninety-four further primary studies were considered. Key tensions in the literature centered on (1) the EPR (“container” or “itinerary”); (2) the EPR user (“information-processer” or “member of socio-technical network”); (3) organizational context (“the setting within which the EPR is implemented” or “the EPR-in-use”); (4) clinical work (“decision making” or “situated practice”); (5) the process of change (“the logic of determinism” or “the logic of opposition”); (6) implementation success (“objectively defined” or “socially negotiated”); and (7) complexity and scale (“the bigger the better” or “small is beautiful”). Conclusions: The findings suggest that EPR use will always require human input to recontextualize knowledge; that even though secondary work (audit, research, billing) may be made more efficient by the EPR, primary clinical work may be made less efficient; that paper may offer a unique degree of ecological flexibility; and that smaller EPR systems may sometimes be more efficient and effective than larger ones. We suggest an agenda for further research. PMID:20021585

  11. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  12. Quantum electronics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Efficiency measurements in the rare gas excimers show that up to 50 percent of the energy deposited in a high-pressure rare gas by an electron beam can be converted to excimer fluorescence. The production kinetics and radiative properties of rare gas oxide excimers have been explored and show that short pulse lasers near 1 percent efficiency with energy storage of 10 J/liter can be constructed. The rare gas-halogen and dihalogen systems have been explored as a class of efficient radiators to complement the rare gas excimers. A Br 2 laser at 292 nm has been demonstrated, and XeBr fluorescence efficiency of 11 percent has been measured. An XeBr excimer-pumped atomic iodine laser has been demonstrated, and the systems considerations involved in scaling atomic iodine lasers to large sizes have been identified and are discussed. Oxygen, sulfur, and selenium have been analyzed as candidates for an optically pumped, visible energy storage laser. The physical and radiative properties of gaseous rare earth compounds, which may be suitable for energy storage lasers, have been measured and are discussed. Scaling considerations have been identified for drivers for large, electron-beam-pumped lasers. Theoretical studies bearing on an understanding of the basic atomic and molecular physics which must be understood for laser development and isotope separation projects have been carried out. These include efforts to develop a theoretical understanding rare-gas halogen structure and kinetics, copper vapor laser kinetics, electron interactions such as dissociative attachment, and other areas

  13. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  14. A normalization method for combination of laboratory test results from different electronic healthcare databases in a distributed research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dukyong; Schuemie, Martijn J; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Dong Ki; Park, Man Young; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Jung, Eun-Young; Park, Dong Kyun; Cho, Soo Yeon; Shin, Dahye; Hwang, Yeonsoo; Park, Rae Woong

    2016-03-01

    Distributed research networks (DRNs) afford statistical power by integrating observational data from multiple partners for retrospective studies. However, laboratory test results across care sites are derived using different assays from varying patient populations, making it difficult to simply combine data for analysis. Additionally, existing normalization methods are not suitable for retrospective studies. We normalized laboratory results from different data sources by adjusting for heterogeneous clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of the data and called this the subgroup-adjusted normalization (SAN) method. Subgroup-adjusted normalization renders the means and standard deviations of distributions identical under population structure-adjusted conditions. To evaluate its performance, we compared SAN with existing methods for simulated and real datasets consisting of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum potassium, and total bilirubin. Various clinico-epidemiologic characteristics can be applied together in SAN. For simplicity of comparison, age and gender were used to adjust population heterogeneity in this study. In simulations, SAN had the lowest standardized difference in means (SDM) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov values for all tests (p normalization performed better than normalization using other methods. The SAN method is applicable in a DRN environment and should facilitate analysis of data integrated across DRN partners for retrospective observational studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Study on the Applicability of Electron Beam Welding Methods to Assembly a Fuel Compact and Al Cover Plate of Research Reactor Plate Type Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae In; Lee, Yoon Sang; Lee, Don Dae; Jeong, Yong Jin; Kwon, Sun Chil; Kim, Soo Sung; Park, Jong Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Among the research reactor plate type fuel fabrication processes, there is an assembly process between fuel meat compact and Al cover plates using a welding method prior to rolling process. The assembly process is such as the Al frame and Al cover plate should be welded properly as shown in Fig. 1. For welding, TIG(Tungsten Inert Gas) welding methods has been used conventionally, but in this study an electron beam welding(EB welding) technique which uses the electron beam of a high velocity for joining two materials is introduced to the assembly. The work pieces are melted as the kinetic energy of the electron beam is transformed into heat to join the two parts of the weld. The welding is often done in the conditions in a vacuum to prevent dispersion of the electron beam. The electron beam welding process has many ad-vantages such as contamination of the welds could be prevented, the penetration of the weld is deep, and also the strain of the welding area is less than other methods. In this study, to find optimal condition of the EB welding process, a welding speed, a beam current and an acceleration voltage were changed. To analyzing the welding results, the shape of the beads and defects of welding area was used. The width and depth of the beads were measured as well

  16. Study on the Applicability of Electron Beam Welding Methods to Assembly a Fuel Compact and Al Cover Plate of Research Reactor Plate Type Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae In; Lee, Yoon Sang; Lee, Don Dae; Jeong, Yong Jin; Kwon, Sun Chil; Kim, Soo Sung; Park, Jong Man

    2012-01-01

    Among the research reactor plate type fuel fabrication processes, there is an assembly process between fuel meat compact and Al cover plates using a welding method prior to rolling process. The assembly process is such as the Al frame and Al cover plate should be welded properly as shown in Fig. 1. For welding, TIG(Tungsten Inert Gas) welding methods has been used conventionally, but in this study an electron beam welding(EB welding) technique which uses the electron beam of a high velocity for joining two materials is introduced to the assembly. The work pieces are melted as the kinetic energy of the electron beam is transformed into heat to join the two parts of the weld. The welding is often done in the conditions in a vacuum to prevent dispersion of the electron beam. The electron beam welding process has many ad-vantages such as contamination of the welds could be prevented, the penetration of the weld is deep, and also the strain of the welding area is less than other methods. In this study, to find optimal condition of the EB welding process, a welding speed, a beam current and an acceleration voltage were changed. To analyzing the welding results, the shape of the beads and defects of welding area was used. The width and depth of the beads were measured as well

  17. Research Methods in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  18. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  19. Using electronic surveys in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2014-11-01

    Computer and Internet use in businesses and homes in the United States has dramatically increased since the early 1980s. In 2011, 76% of households reported having a computer, compared with only 8% in 1984 (File, 2013). A similar increase in Internet use has also been seen, with 72% of households reporting access of the Internet in 2011 compared with 18% in 1997 (File, 2013). This emerging trend in technology has prompted use of electronic surveys in the research community as an alternative to previous telephone and postal surveys. Electronic surveys can offer an efficient, cost-effective method for data collection; however, challenges exist. An awareness of the issues and strategies to optimize data collection using web-based surveys is critical when designing research studies. This column will discuss the different types and advantages and disadvantages of using electronic surveys in nursing research, as well as methods to optimize the quality and quantity of survey responses.

  20. A method for finding D-region electron density distributions from lf broadband pulse measurements. Telecommunications research and engineering report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieder, B.; Espeland, R.H.

    1972-11-01

    A Loran-C transmitter is used as the signal source for the experiment. In the experiment, both the normal and abnormal components of the pulses reflected from the ionosphere are measured, and the reflection coeffeicients are determined as a function of frequency through Fourier analysis of both the groundwave and the skywave signals. The resultant data are then compared with reflection coefficients calculated from a series of test D-region electron density profiles

  1. Computational methods of electron/photon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    A review of computational methods simulating the non-plasma transport of electrons and their attendant cascades is presented. Remarks are mainly restricted to linearized formalisms at electron energies above 1 keV. The effectiveness of various metods is discussed including moments, point-kernel, invariant imbedding, discrete-ordinates, and Monte Carlo. Future research directions and the potential impact on various aspects of science and engineering are indicated

  2. Research on teaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, M H

    1990-01-01

    Research on teaching methods in nursing education was categorized into studies on media, CAI, and other nontraditional instructional strategies. While the research differed, some generalizations may be made from the findings. Multimedia, whether it is used for individual or group instruction, is at least as effective as traditional instruction (lecture and lecture-discussion) in promoting cognitive learning, retention of knowledge, and performance. Further study is needed to identify variables that may influence learning and retention. While learner attitudes toward mediated instruction tended to be positive, investigators failed to control for the effect of novelty. Control over intervening variables was lacking in the majority of studies as well. Research indicated that CAI is as effective as other teaching methods in terms of knowledge gain and retention. Attitudes toward CAI tended to be favorable, with similar problems in measurement as those evidenced in studies of media. Chang (1986) also recommends that future research examine the impact of computer-video interactive instruction on students, faculty, and settings. Research is needed on experimental teaching methods, strategies for teaching problem solving and clinical judgment, and ways of improving the traditional lecture and discussion. Limited research in these areas makes generalizations impossible. There is a particular need for research on how to teach students the diagnostic reasoning process and encourage critical thinking, both in terms of appropriate teaching methods and the way in which those strategies should be used. It is interesting that few researchers studied lecture and lecture-discussion except as comparable teaching methods for research on other strategies. Additional research questions may be generated on lecture and discussion in relation to promoting concept learning, an understanding of nursing and other theories, transfer of knowledge, and development of cognitive skills. Few

  3. Research methods in information

    CERN Document Server

    Pickard, Alison Jane

    2013-01-01

    The long-awaited 2nd edition of this best-selling research methods handbook is fully updated and includes brand new coverage of online research methods and techniques, mixed methodology and qualitative analysis. There is an entire chapter contributed by Professor Julie McLeod, Sue Childs and Elizabeth Lomas focusing on research data management, applying evidence from the recent JISC funded 'DATUM' project. The first to focus entirely on the needs of the information and communications community, it guides the would-be researcher through the variety of possibilities open to them under the heading "research" and provides students with the confidence to embark on their dissertations. The focus here is on the 'doing' and although the philosophy and theory of research is explored to provide context, this is essentially a practical exploration of the whole research process with each chapter fully supported by examples and exercises tried and tested over a whole teaching career. The book will take readers through eac...

  4. Research on backward traveling wave electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huaibi; Zheng Shuxin; Ding Xiaodong; Lin Yuzheng

    1999-01-01

    Future electron linacs require high gradient acceleration. The studies on the high shunt impedance backward traveling wave electron linac accelerating structure (BTW) are presented. At first, the characteristics of BTW are researched. The option of mode and optimal design methods of accelerating cavity for BTW are studied. A physical design method for BTW accelerators, including longitudinal and transversal particle dynamics, is given. Based on above studies, a 9 MeV BTW accelerating tube at 3π/4 mode with frequency 2856 MHz for inspecting large container as radiation source at customs is designed, and a comparison with disk-loaded waveguide accelerating tube is made. The result of research leads to the conclusion that backward traveling wave accelerating structure is preferable. Because BTW has higher effective shunt impedance, shorter filling time and more stable operation

  5. Ergonomics research methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  6. Power Electronics Thermal Management | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power Electronics Thermal Management Power Electronics Thermal Management A photo of water boiling in liquid cooling lab equipment. Power electronics thermal management research aims to help lower the investigates and develops thermal management strategies for power electronics systems that use wide-bandgap

  7. Innovative electron transport methods in EGS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielajew, A.F.; Wilderman, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    The initial formulation of a Monte Carlo scheme for the transport of high-energy (>≅ 100 keV) electrons was established by Berger in 1963. Calling his method the 'condensed history theory', Berger combined the theoretical results of the previous generation of research into developing approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation with numerical algorithms for exploiting the power of computers to permit iterative, piece-wise solution of the transport equation in a computationally intensive but much less approximate fashion. The methods devised by Berger, with comparatively little modification, provide the foundation of all present day Monte Carlo electron transport simulation algorithms. Only in the last 15 years, beginning with the development and publication of the PRESTA algorithm, has there been a significant revisitation of the problem of simulating electron transport within the condensed history framework. Research in this area is ongoing, highly active, and far from complete. It presents an enormous challenge, demanding derivation of new analytical transport solutions based on underlying fundamental interaction mechanisms, intuitive insight in the development of computer algorithms, and state of the art computer science skills in order to permit deployment of these techniques in an efficient manner. The EGS5 project, a modern ground-up rewrite of the EGS4 code, is now in the design phase. EGS5 will take modern photon and electron transport algorithms and deploy them in an easy-to-maintain, modern computer language-ANSI-standard C ++. Moreover, the well-known difficulties of applying EGS4 to practical geometries (geometry code development, tally routine design) should be made easier and more intuitive through the use of a visual user interface being designed by Quantum Research, Inc., work that is presented elsewhere in this conference. This report commences with a historical review of electron transport models culminating with the proposal of a

  8. Using Electronic Mail to Conduct Survey Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Liz

    1995-01-01

    Describes public and private online networks and the characteristics of electronic mail. Reviews the literature on survey research conducted via electronic mail, and examines the issues of design, implementation, and response. A table displays advantages and disadvantages of electronic mail surveys. (AEF)

  9. Research Methods Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and qualitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  10. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  11. Mixed methods research for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James; Farr, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Defining and discussing the relevance of theoretical and practical issues involved in mixed methods research. Covering the basics of research methodology, this textbook shows you how to choose and combine quantitative and qualitative research methods to b

  12. Mixed methods for telehealth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Liam J; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Wade, Victoria

    2017-10-01

    Mixed methods research is important to health services research because the integrated qualitative and quantitative investigation can give a more comprehensive understanding of complex interventions such as telehealth than can a single-method study. Further, mixed methods research is applicable to translational research and program evaluation. Study designs relevant to telehealth research are described and supported by examples. Quality assessment tools, frameworks to assist in the reporting and review of mixed methods research, and related methodologies are also discussed.

  13. Investigation of using shrinking method in construction of Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences Electron Linear Accelerator TW-tube (IPM TW-Linac tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, F.; Abbasi Davani, F.

    2015-06-01

    Due to Iran's growing need for accelerators in various applications, IPM's electron Linac project has been defined. This accelerator is a 15 MeV energy S-band traveling-wave accelerator which is being designed and constructed based on the klystron that has been built in Iran. Based on the design, operating mode is π /2 and the accelerating chamber consists of two 60cm long tubes with constant impedance and a 30cm long buncher. Amongst all construction methods, shrinking method is selected for construction of IPM's electron Linac tube because it has a simple procedure and there is no need for large vacuum or hydrogen furnaces. In this paper, different aspects of this method are investigated. According to the calculations, linear ratio of frequency alteration to radius change is 787.8 MHz/cm, and the maximum deformation at the tube wall where disks and the tube make contact is 2.7μ m. Applying shrinking method for construction of 8- and 24-cavity tubes results in satisfactory frequency and quality factor. Average deviations of cavities frequency of 8- and 24-cavity tubes to the design values are 0.68 MHz and 1.8 MHz respectively before tune and 0.2 MHz and 0.4 MHz after tune. Accelerating tubes, buncher, and high power couplers of IPM's electron linac are constructed using shrinking method.

  14. METHOD OF ELECTRON BEAM PROCESSING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    As a rule, electron beam welding takes place in a vacuum. However, this means that the workpieces in question have to be placed in a vacuum chamber and have to be removed therefrom after welding. This is time−consuming and a serious limitation of a process the greatest advantage of which is the o......As a rule, electron beam welding takes place in a vacuum. However, this means that the workpieces in question have to be placed in a vacuum chamber and have to be removed therefrom after welding. This is time−consuming and a serious limitation of a process the greatest advantage of which...... is the option of welding workpieces of large thicknesses. Therefore the idea is to guide the electron beam (2) to the workpiece via a hollow wire, said wire thereby acting as a prolongation of the vacuum chamber (4) down to workpiece. Thus, a workpiece need not be placed inside the vacuum chamber, thereby...... exploiting the potential of electron beam processing to a greater degree than previously possible, for example by means of electron beam welding...

  15. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research

    OpenAIRE

    Cezar, A.; Ögüt, H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore online hotel booking behaviors of domestic and international customers. We examine the impact of review rating (location rating and service rating), review volume and hotel characteristics on the proportion of online domestic bookings. Using data from London and Paris hotels, we evaluate a variety of models to explain fractional dependent variables. 225-240

  16. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  17. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Martin R.; Blomster, Juuso I.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, J?rg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P.; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the pr...

  18. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.

  19. Methods in mummy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as minima......Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well...... as minimally-destructive chemical, physical and biological methods for, e.g., stable isotopes, trace metals and DNA....

  20. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  1. Integration of clinical research documentation in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Debra

    2015-04-01

    Clinical trials of investigational drugs and devices are often conducted within healthcare facilities concurrently with clinical care. With implementation of electronic health records, new communication methods are required to notify nonresearch clinicians of research participation. This article reviews clinical research source documentation, the electronic health record and the medical record, areas in which the research record and electronic health record overlap, and implications for the research nurse coordinator in documentation of the care of the patient/subject. Incorporation of clinical research documentation in the electronic health record will lead to a more complete patient/subject medical record in compliance with both research and medical records regulations. A literature search provided little information about the inclusion of clinical research documentation within the electronic health record. Although regulations and guidelines define both source documentation and the medical record, integration of research documentation in the electronic health record is not clearly defined. At minimum, the signed informed consent(s), investigational drug or device usage, and research team contact information should be documented within the electronic health record. Institutional policies should define a standardized process for this integration in the absence federal guidance. Nurses coordinating clinical trials are in an ideal position to define this integration.

  2. Dating method by electron spin resonance at the 'Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle'. Twenty years of methodological researches and geochronological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahain, J.J.

    2007-12-01

    The Electronic Spin Resonance (ESR) dating method has considerably evolved since its first uses in France at the early 1980's. The samples classically used until the middle part of the 1990's, carbonates and bones, were forsaken progressively and replaced by teeth and bleached quartz. Analytical progresses and methodological developments related to the study of these two materials have considerably increase on one hand the precision and the accuracy of the obtained results, allowing a comparison with those derived from other geochronological techniques, and on the other hand the chronological range of application of the ESR method. Even if the ESR method experiences still today many methodological developments, it has an undeniable geochronological potential and it is one of the rare methods permitting the direct dating of the Lower and Middle Pleistocene layers in non volcanic areas. Then its application is of a considerable importance for the study of the first human settlements of Eurasia and the possibility to date various types of materials carried out from the same archaeological level, jointly by ESR and different other geochronological techniques, by allowing a intercalibration of the results, offers in addition a tool to evaluate the reliability of the obtained ages. Some of the most significant results obtained at the Department of Prehistory of the National Museum of Natural History are evoked in this memory and illustrates both the potential and the current limits of this method. (author)

  3. Drafting method of electricity and electron design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gungbon, Junchun

    1989-11-01

    This book concentrates on drafting of electricity and electron design. It deals with The meaning of electricity and electron drafting JIS standard regulation the types of drafting and line and letter, basics drafting with projection drafting method, plan projection and development elevation, Drafting method of shop drawing, practical method of design and drafting, Design and drafting of technic and illustration, Connection diagram, Drafting of wiring diagram for light and illumination, Drafting of development connection diagram for sequence control, Drafting of logic circuit sign of flow chart and manual, drafting for a electron circuit diagram and Drawing of PC board.

  4. Regression methods for medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Tai, Bee Choo

    2013-01-01

    Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the

  5. Tourism research and audio methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    • Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....

  6. Multiple purpose research complex on the basis of electron accelerators and terahertz free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulipanov, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    In this report the basic positioning parameters of multiple purpose research complex are presented, the list of potential experiments and technological uses on the example of results received in the multiuser center of G.I. Budker Institut of nuclear physics Siberian department of the Russian Academy of Sciences is discussed. This research complex is directed on work in the big universities and nano technology centers. Electron accelerators is intended for development of electron-beam technologies different material modification, for production of nano powder, nano materials and solution of ecological tasks. In this work the project of multiple purpose research complex on the basis of new generation electron accelerator Il-14 and workable terahertz free electron laser is suggested. Terahertz free electron laser will be used for researches in the sphere of physics and chemistry, biology and medicine, nanotechnology engineering and different methods of nanodiagnostics.

  7. Survey of electronic payment methods and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helme, A.; Verbraeck, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an overview of electronic payment methods and systems is given. This survey is done as part of the Moby Dick project. Electronic payment systems can be grouped into three broad classes: traditional money transactions, digital currency and creditdebit payments. Such payment systems have

  8. Participatory Methods in Arctic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Louise

    2018-01-01

    collection, analysis and conclusions and / or knowledge dissemination. The book aims to collect and share experiences from researchers active in engaging research in the Arctic. The articles reflect on the inclusive methods used in the Arctic research, on the cause and purpose thereof, while the methods......This book is a collection of articles written by researchers at Aalborg University, affiliated with AAU Arctic. The articles are about how the researchers in their respective projects work with stakeholders and citizens in different ways, for example in connection with problem formulation, data...... are exemplified to serve as inspiration for other researchers....

  9. Electronics engineering research proposals for FY78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, L.L.; Ekstrom, M.P.; Miller, E.K.

    1977-01-01

    Since most of the Electronics Engineering Research expenditures are in the Engineering Research Division (ERD), the two are inseparable when discussing plans. A reorganization of ERD aimed at further expanding LLL capabilities and being more responsive to LLL needs is now complete. Six discipline related groups constitute the research elements in ERD. Three groups remained unchanged, one group was modified slightly, two groups were added, and one group was dissolved. The technical activities of each of the six research-oriented groups within ERD are reported

  10. Growing electronic documents created by researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Weiss

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world technology is an indispensable element, both in personal and professional sphere. Despite the fact, that we do not attach significance to it in our everyday lives, the technological development engulfed us and still reminds us about that. In the face of dynamically growing digitization there occurred a new form of document – an electronic document. The study concerns the growing electronic documentation among researchers working at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. The analysis of surveys and interviews resulted in thesis, that researchers use e-document more frequently than analog documentation. Flexibility and accessibility of this type of documents become a problem in personal papers which will be archived in the future – maybe in most part in the form of electronic documentation.

  11. Experimental Methods in Media Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Handke (Christian); C. Herzog (Christian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCausal effects are a prime concern in media policy research, and experimental research designs are widely regarded as the most effective way to identify and gauge causality. Nevertheless, explicit applications of experimental methods are rare in media policy research. This chapter

  12. Electron Microscopist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives. The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR). The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and genetics. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - THIS POSITION IS CONTINGENT UPON FUNDING APPROVAL The Electron Microscopist will: Operate ultramicrotomes (Leica) and other instrumentation related to the preparation of embedded samples for EM (TEM and SEM) Operate TEM microscopes, (specifically Hitachi, FEI T20 and FEI T12) as well as SEM microscopes (Hitachi); task will include loading samples, screening, and performing data collection for a variety of samples: from cells to proteins Manage maintenance for the TEM and SEM microscopes Provide technical advice to investigators on sample preparation and data collection

  13. Method of fabricating a cooled electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-02-11

    A method of fabricating a liquid-cooled electronic system is provided which includes an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold rail at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader to couple the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  14. Two-stage free electron laser research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, S. B.

    1984-10-01

    KMS Fusion, Inc. began studying the feasibility of two-stage free electron lasers for the Office of Naval Research in June, 1980. At that time, the two-stage FEL was only a concept that had been proposed by Luis Elias. The range of parameters over which such a laser could be successfully operated, attainable power output, and constraints on laser operation were not known. The primary reason for supporting this research at that time was that it had the potential for producing short-wavelength radiation using a relatively low voltage electron beam. One advantage of a low-voltage two-stage FEL would be that shielding requirements would be greatly reduced compared with single-stage short-wavelength FEL's. If the electron energy were kept below about 10 MeV, X-rays, generated by electrons striking the beam line wall, would not excite neutron resonance in atomic nuclei. These resonances cause the emission of neutrons with subsequent induced radioactivity. Therefore, above about 10 MeV, a meter or more of concrete shielding is required for the system, whereas below 10 MeV, a few millimeters of lead would be adequate.

  15. Electron-beam-excited gas laser research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.W.; Gerardo, J.B.; Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.; Rice, J.K.; Bingham, F.W.

    1975-01-01

    Net energy gain in laser fusion places requirements on the laser that are not realized by any existing laser. Utilization of relativistic electron beams (REB's), a relatively new source for the excitation of gas laser media, may lead to new lasers that could satisfy these requirements. Already REB's have been utilized to excite gas laser media and produce gas lasers that have not been produced as successfully any other way. Electron-beam-excitation has produced electronic-transition dimer lasers that have not yet been produced by any other excitation scheme (for example, Xe 2 / sup *(1)/, Kr:O(2 1 S)/sup 2/, KrF/sup *(3)/). In addition, REB's have initiated chemical reactions to produce HF laser radiation with unique and promising results. Relativistic-electron-beam gas-laser research is continuing to lead to new lasers with unique properties. Results of work carried out at Sandia Laboratories in this pioneering effort of electron-beam-excited-gas lasers are reviewed. (U.S.)

  16. Electronics Engineering Research. Final report, FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenberger, S.

    1980-01-01

    Accomplishments in Electronics Engineering Research (EER) during FY79 spanned a broad range of technologies, from high-speed microelectronics to digital image enhancement; from underground probing with electromagnetic waves to detecting neutrons with a small solid-state device; and from computer systems to aid engineers, to software tools to aid programmers. This report describes the overall EER program and its objectives, summarizes progress made in FY79, and outlines plans for FY80

  17. Nuclear methods in coal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear methods, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA) provide useful information about elemental constituents in coal and fly ash, but often other techniques are required to supplement NAA data. Spark source mass spectrometry and atomic absorption have been studied as methods for determination of certain elements in coal that are not easily measured by NAA. In work concerned with the chemical speciation of elements in fly ash, a number of analytical techniques have been used; these include NAA, chemical etching and separation, optical and electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction

  18. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  19. Superconducting analogue electronics for research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, D

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review of superconducting electronics in research and industry. Examples will show how science benefits from the development and how superconducting devices have found their way into industry and to some commercial products. Impact in terms of enabling new research in other fields (e.g. radio astronomy, medicine), in industry (certification, safety, metrology, etc) and in terms of market will be addressed. From the examples, two fields will be emphasized: superconducting detectors for astronomy and the superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) employed for different applications

  20. Methods for fabrication of flexible hybrid electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mei, Ping; Krusor, Brent; Ready, Steve E.; Zhang, Yong; Schwartz, David E.; Pierre, Adrien; Doris, Sean E.; Russo, Beverly; Kor, Siv; Veres, Janos

    2017-08-01

    Printed and flexible hybrid electronics is an emerging technology with potential applications in smart labels, wearable electronics, soft robotics, and prosthetics. Printed solution-based materials are compatible with plastic film substrates that are flexible, soft, and stretchable, thus enabling conformal integration with non-planar objects. In addition, manufacturing by printing is scalable to large areas and is amenable to low-cost sheet-fed and roll-to-roll processes. FHE includes display and sensory components to interface with users and environments. On the system level, devices also require electronic circuits for power, memory, signal conditioning, and communications. Those electronic components can be integrated onto a flexible substrate by either assembly or printing. PARC has developed systems and processes for realizing both approaches. This talk presents fabrication methods with an emphasis on techniques recently developed for the assembly of off-the-shelf chips. A few examples of systems fabricated with this approach are also described.

  1. Using mixed methods when researching communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Bertha M N; Meetoo, Danny

    2015-09-01

    To argue for the use of mixed methods when researching communities. Although research involving minority communities is now advanced, not enough effort has been made to formulate methodological linkages between qualitative and quantitative methods in most studies. For instance, the quantitative approaches used by epidemiologists and others in examining the wellbeing of communities are usually empirical. While the rationale for this is sound, quantitative findings can be expanded with data from in-depth qualitative approaches, such as interviews or observations, which are likely to provide insights into the experiences of people in those communities and their relationships with their wellbeing. Academic databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, INTERNURSE, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge and PubMed. An iterative process of identifying eligible literature was carried out by comprehensively searching electronic databases. Using mixed-methods approaches is likely to address any potential drawbacks of individual methods by exploiting the strengths of each at the various stages of research. Combining methods can provide additional ways of looking at a complex problem and improve the understanding of a community's experiences. However, it is important for researchers to use the different methods interactively during their research. The use of qualitative and quantitative methods is likely to enrich our understanding of the interrelationship between wellbeing and the experiences of communities. This should help researchers to explore socio-cultural factors and experiences of health and healthcare practice more effectively.

  2. Leveraging electronic health records for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sudha R; Curtis, Lesley H; Temple, Robert; Andersson, Tomas; Ezekowitz, Justin; Ford, Ian; James, Stefan; Marsolo, Keith; Mirhaji, Parsa; Rocca, Mitra; Rothman, Russell L; Sethuraman, Barathi; Stockbridge, Norman; Terry, Sharon; Wasserman, Scott M; Peterson, Eric D; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2018-04-30

    Electronic health records (EHRs) can be a major tool in the quest to decrease costs and timelines of clinical trial research, generate better evidence for clinical decision making, and advance health care. Over the past decade, EHRs have increasingly offered opportunities to speed up, streamline, and enhance clinical research. EHRs offer a wide range of possible uses in clinical trials, including assisting with prestudy feasibility assessment, patient recruitment, and data capture in care delivery. To fully appreciate these opportunities, health care stakeholders must come together to face critical challenges in leveraging EHR data, including data quality/completeness, information security, stakeholder engagement, and increasing the scale of research infrastructure and related governance. Leaders from academia, government, industry, and professional societies representing patient, provider, researcher, industry, and regulator perspectives convened the Leveraging EHR for Clinical Research Now! Think Tank in Washington, DC (February 18-19, 2016), to identify barriers to using EHRs in clinical research and to generate potential solutions. Think tank members identified a broad range of issues surrounding the use of EHRs in research and proposed a variety of solutions. Recognizing the challenges, the participants identified the urgent need to look more deeply at previous efforts to use these data, share lessons learned, and develop a multidisciplinary agenda for best practices for using EHRs in clinical research. We report the proceedings from this think tank meeting in the following paper. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François; Bullen, Chris; Flouris, Andreas D; Laugesen, Murray; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been a wide range of regulatory responses ranging from no regulation to complete bans. The empirical basis for these regulatory decisions is uncertain, and more research on ENDS must be conducted in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, health care providers and consumers are based on science. However, there is a dearth of scientific research on these products, including safety, abuse liability and efficacy for smoking cessation. The authors, who cover a broad range of scientific expertise, from basic science to public health, suggest research priorities for non-clinical, clinical and public health studies. They conclude that the first priority is to characterize the safety profile of these products, including in long-term users. If these products are demonstrated to be safe, their efficacy as smoking cessation aids should then be tested in appropriately designed trials. Until these studies are conducted, continued marketing constitutes an uncontrolled experiment and the primary outcome measure, poorly assessed, is user health. Potentially, this research effort, contributing to the safety and efficacy of new smoking cessation devices and to the withdrawal of dangerous products, could save many lives.

  4. Numerical methods in electron magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soernes, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    The focal point of the thesis is the development and use of numerical methods in the analysis, simulation and interpretation of Electron Magnetic Resonance experiments on free radicals in solids to uncover the structure, the dynamics and the environment of the system

  5. Numerical methods in electron magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soernes, A.R

    1998-07-01

    The focal point of the thesis is the development and use of numerical methods in the analysis, simulation and interpretation of Electron Magnetic Resonance experiments on free radicals in solids to uncover the structure, the dynamics and the environment of the system.

  6. Methods for measurement of electron emission yield under low energy electron-irradiation by collector method and Kelvin probe method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondu, Thomas; Belhaj, Mohamed; Inguimbert, Virginie [Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France and Fondation STAE, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234-31432, Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Onera, DESP, 2 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2010-09-15

    Secondary electron emission yield of gold under electron impact at normal incidence below 50 eV was investigated by the classical collector method and by the Kelvin probe method. The authors show that biasing a collector to ensure secondary electron collection while keeping the target grounded can lead to primary electron beam perturbations. Thus reliable secondary electron emission yield at low primary electron energy cannot be obtained with a biased collector. The authors present two collector-free methods based on current measurement and on electron pulse surface potential buildup (Kelvin probe method). These methods are consistent, but at very low energy, measurements become sensitive to the earth magnetic field (below 10 eV). For gold, the authors can extrapolate total emission yield at 0 eV to 0.5, while a total electron emission yield of 1 is obtained at 40{+-}1 eV.

  7. Methods for measurement of electron emission yield under low energy electron-irradiation by collector method and Kelvin probe method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondu, Thomas; Belhaj, Mohamed; Inguimbert, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    Secondary electron emission yield of gold under electron impact at normal incidence below 50 eV was investigated by the classical collector method and by the Kelvin probe method. The authors show that biasing a collector to ensure secondary electron collection while keeping the target grounded can lead to primary electron beam perturbations. Thus reliable secondary electron emission yield at low primary electron energy cannot be obtained with a biased collector. The authors present two collector-free methods based on current measurement and on electron pulse surface potential buildup (Kelvin probe method). These methods are consistent, but at very low energy, measurements become sensitive to the earth magnetic field (below 10 eV). For gold, the authors can extrapolate total emission yield at 0 eV to 0.5, while a total electron emission yield of 1 is obtained at 40±1 eV.

  8. High speed electronic imaging application in aeroballistic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.R.; Parker, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Physical and temporal restrictions imposed by modern aeroballistics have pushed imaging technology to the point where special photoconductive surfaces and high-speed support electronics are dictated. Specifications for these devices can be formulated by a methodical analysis of critical parameters and how they interact. In terms of system theory, system transfer functions and state equations can be used in optimal coupling of devices to maximize system performance. Application of these methods to electronic imaging at the Eglin Aeroballistics Research Facility is described in this report. 7 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  9. Who Sends the Email? Using Electronic Surveys in Violence Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Sutherland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Students aged 16–24 years are at greatest risk for interpersonal violence and the resulting short and long-term health consequences. Electronic survey methodology is well suited for research related to interpersonal violence. Yet methodological questions remain about best practices in using electronic surveys. While researchers often indicate that potential participants receive multiple emails as reminders to complete the survey, little mention is made of the sender of the recruitment email. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the response rates from three violence-focused research studies when the recruitment emails are sent from a campus office, researcher or survey sampling firm. Methods: Three violence-focused studies were conducted about interpersonal violence among college students in the United States. Seven universities and a survey sampling firm were used to recruit potential participants to complete an electronic survey. The sender of the recruitment emails varied within and across the each of the studies depending on institutional review boards and university protocols.Results: An overall response rate of 30% was noted for the 3 studies. Universities in which researcher initiated recruitment emails were used had higher response rates compared to universities where campus officials sent the recruitment emails. Researchers found lower response rates to electronic surveys at Historically Black Colleges or Universities and that other methods were needed to improve response rates.Conclusion: The sender of recruitment emails for electronic surveys may be an important factor in response rates for violence-focused research. For researchers identification of best practices for survey methodology is needed to promote accurate disclosure and increase response rates. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:363–369.

  10. Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that the research literature has expanded greatly, particularly in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science. Interestingly, this scientific work has made use of a wide variety of different methods without much consensus on how one might in fact measure subjective consciousness. This situation makes...

  11. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  12. EDM 1.0: electron direct methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilaas, R; Marks, L D; Own, C S

    2005-02-01

    A computer program designed to provide a number of quantitative analysis tools for high-resolution imaging and electron diffraction data is described. The program includes basic image manipulation, both real space and reciprocal space image processing, Wiener-filtering, symmetry averaging, methods for quantification of electron diffraction patterns and two-dimensional direct methods. The program consists of a number of sub-programs written in a combination of C++, C and Fortran. It can be downloaded either as GNU source code or as binaries and has been compiled and verified on a wide range of platforms, both Unix based and PC's. Elements of the design philosophy as well as future possible extensions are described.

  13. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical

  14. Who sends the email? Using electronic surveys in violence research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Melissa A; Amar, Angela F; Laughon, Kathryn

    2013-08-01

    Students aged 16-24 years are at greatest risk for interpersonal violence and the resulting short and long-term health consequences. Electronic survey methodology is well suited for research related to interpersonal violence. Yet methodological questions remain about best practices in using electronic surveys. While researchers often indicate that potential participants receive multiple emails as reminders to complete the survey, little mention is made of the sender of the recruitment email. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the response rates from three violence-focused research studies when the recruitment emails are sent from a campus office, researcher or survey sampling firm. Three violence-focused studies were conducted about interpersonal violence among college students in the United States. Seven universities and a survey sampling firm were used to recruit potential participants to complete an electronic survey. The sender of the recruitment emails varied within and across the each of the studies depending on institutional review boards and university protocols. An overall response rate of 30% was noted for the 3 studies. Universities in which researcher-initiated recruitment emails were used had higher response rates compared to universities where campus officials sent the recruitment emails. Researchers found lower response rates to electronic surveys at Historically Black Colleges or Universities and that other methods were needed to improve response rates. The sender of recruitment emails for electronic surveys may be an important factor in response rates for violence-focused research. For researchers identification of best practices for survey methodology is needed to promote accurate disclosure and increase response rates.

  15. Methods and apparatus for cooling electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Shawn Anthony; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent

    2014-12-02

    Methods and apparatus are provided for choosing an energy-efficient coolant temperature for electronics by considering the temperature dependence of the electronics' power dissipation. This dependence is explicitly considered in selecting the coolant temperature T.sub.0 that is sent to the equipment. To minimize power consumption P.sub.Total for the entire system, where P.sub.Total=P.sub.0+P.sub.Cool is the sum of the electronic equipment's power consumption P.sub.0 plus the cooling equipment's power consumption P.sub.Cool, P.sub.Total is obtained experimentally, by measuring P.sub.0 and P.sub.Cool, as a function of three parameters: coolant temperature T.sub.0; weather-related temperature T.sub.3 that affects the performance of free-cooling equipment; and computational state C of the electronic equipment, which affects the temperature dependence of its power consumption. This experiment provides, for each possible combination of T.sub.3 and C, the value T.sub.0* of T.sub.0 that minimizes P.sub.Total. During operation, for any combination of T.sub.3 and C that occurs, the corresponding optimal coolant temperature T.sub.0* is selected, and the cooling equipment is commanded to produce it.

  16. Scanning probe methods applied to molecular electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlicek, Niko

    2013-08-01

    Scanning probe methods on insulating films offer a rich toolbox to study electronic, structural and spin properties of individual molecules. This work discusses three issues in the field of molecular and organic electronics. An STM head to be operated in high magnetic fields has been designed and built up. The STM head is very compact and rigid relying on a robust coarse approach mechanism. This will facilitate investigations of the spin properties of individual molecules in the future. Combined STM/AFM studies revealed a reversible molecular switch based on two stable configurations of DBTH molecules on ultrathin NaCl films. AFM experiments visualize the molecular structure in both states. Our experiments allowed to unambiguously determine the pathway of the switch. Finally, tunneling into and out of the frontier molecular orbitals of pentacene molecules has been investigated on different insulating films. These experiments show that the local symmetry of initial and final electron wave function are decisive for the ratio between elastic and vibration-assisted tunneling. The results can be generalized to electron transport in organic materials.

  17. Electronic biomedical literature search for budding researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Subhash B; Thakre S, Sushama S; Thakre, Amol D

    2013-09-01

    Search for specific and well defined literature related to subject of interest is the foremost step in research. When we are familiar with topic or subject then we can frame appropriate research question. Appropriate research question is the basis for study objectives and hypothesis. The Internet provides a quick access to an overabundance of the medical literature, in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary literature. It is accessible through journals, databases, dictionaries, textbooks, indexes, and e-journals, thereby allowing access to more varied, individualised, and systematic educational opportunities. Web search engine is a tool designed to search for information on the World Wide Web, which may be in the form of web pages, images, information, and other types of files. Search engines for internet-based search of medical literature include Google, Google scholar, Scirus, Yahoo search engine, etc., and databases include MEDLINE, PubMed, MEDLARS, etc. Several web-libraries (National library Medicine, Cochrane, Web of Science, Medical matrix, Emory libraries) have been developed as meta-sites, providing useful links to health resources globally. A researcher must keep in mind the strengths and limitations of a particular search engine/database while searching for a particular type of data. Knowledge about types of literature, levels of evidence, and detail about features of search engine as available, user interface, ease of access, reputable content, and period of time covered allow their optimal use and maximal utility in the field of medicine. Literature search is a dynamic and interactive process; there is no one way to conduct a search and there are many variables involved. It is suggested that a systematic search of literature that uses available electronic resource effectively, is more likely to produce quality research.

  18. Superconducting microwave electronics at Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Joseph D.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Leonard, Regis F.

    Over the last three years, NASA Lewis Research Center has investigated the application of newly discovered high temperature superconductors to microwave electronics. Using thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-delta and Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3Ox deposited on a variety of substrates, including strontium titanate, lanthanum gallate, lanthanum aluminate and magnesium oxide, a number of microwave circuits have been fabricated and evaluated. These include a cavity resonator at 60 GHz, microstrip resonators at 35 GHz, a superconducting antenna array at 35 GHz, a dielectric resonator at 9 GHz, and a microstrip filter at 5 GHz. Performance of some of these circuits as well as suggestions for other applications are reported.

  19. Superconducting Microwave Electronics at Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Joseph D.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Leonard, Regis F.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last three years, NASA Lewis Research Center has investigated the application of newly discovered high temperature superconductors to microwave electronics. Using thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-delta and Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3Ox deposited on a variety of substrates, including strontium titanate, lanthanum gallate, lanthanum aluminate and magnesium oxide, a number of microwave circuits have been fabricated and evaluated. These include a cavity resonator at 60 GHz, microstrip resonators at 35 GHz, a superconducting antenna array at 35 GHz, a dielectric resonator at 9 GHz, and a microstrip filter at 5 GHz. Performance of some of these circuits as well as suggestions for other applications are reported.

  20. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  1. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the...

  2. Standardless quantification methods in electron probe microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trincavelli, Jorge, E-mail: trincavelli@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Limandri, Silvina, E-mail: s.limandri@conicet.gov.ar [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Bonetto, Rita, E-mail: bonetto@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge Ronco, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 47 N° 257, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-11-01

    The elemental composition of a solid sample can be determined by electron probe microanalysis with or without the use of standards. The standardless algorithms are quite faster than the methods that require standards; they are useful when a suitable set of standards is not available or for rough samples, and also they help to solve the problem of current variation, for example, in equipments with cold field emission gun. Due to significant advances in the accuracy achieved during the last years, product of the successive efforts made to improve the description of generation, absorption and detection of X-rays, the standardless methods have increasingly become an interesting option for the user. Nevertheless, up to now, algorithms that use standards are still more precise than standardless methods. It is important to remark, that care must be taken with results provided by standardless methods that normalize the calculated concentration values to 100%, unless an estimate of the errors is reported. In this work, a comprehensive discussion of the key features of the main standardless quantification methods, as well as the level of accuracy achieved by them is presented. - Highlights: • Standardless methods are a good alternative when no suitable standards are available. • Their accuracy reaches 10% for 95% of the analyses when traces are excluded. • Some of them are suitable for the analysis of rough samples.

  3. 31 CFR 203.10 - Electronic payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic payment methods. 203.10... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM Electronic Federal Tax Payments § 203.10 Electronic payment methods. (a) General. Electronic payment methods for Federal tax payments available under this subpart include ACH debit entries...

  4. Methods and Methods' Debates within Consumption Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2017-01-01

    This chapter takes an open look at how researchers are using new topographies, technologies, and technocultural rituals and routines in order to reconceptualize what market actors are and do, and most especially, how they should be studied. We are interested in the latest developments in consumer...... ethnography, as we have experienced and visualized them being practices in our native fields of anthropology, marketing and consumer research, and as it has touched upon industry market researchers and their workings. We do not rehash classic treatments easily available to interested scholars (e.g. Arnould...

  5. Power Electronics and Electric Machines | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power Electronics and Electric Machines NREL's power electronics and electric machines research helping boost the performance of power electronics components and systems, while driving down size, weight technical barriers to EDV commercialization. EDVs rely heavily on power electronics to distribute the proper

  6. Sanitation methods using high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levaillant, C.; Gallien, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Short recycling of waste water and the use of liquid or dehydrated sludge as natural manure for agriculture or animal supplement feed is of great economical and ecological interest. It implies strong biological and chemical disinfection. Ionizing radiations produced by radioactive elements or linear accelerators can be used as a complement of conventional methods in the treatment of liquid and solid waste. An experiment conducted with high-energy electron-beam linear accelerators is presented. Degradation of undesirable metabolites in water occurs for a dose of 50 kRad. Undesirable seeds present in sludge are destroyed with a 200 kRad dose. A 300 kRad dose is sufficient for parasitic and bacterial disinfection (DL 90). Destruction of polio virus (DL 90) is obtained for 400 kRad. Higher doses (1000 to 2000 kRad) produce mineralization of toxic organic mercury, reduce some chemical toxic pollutants present in sludge and improve flocculation. (author)

  7. Basic Research in Electronics (JSEP) Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    34 IEEE J. Quantum Electronics, vol. 2E-22, pp. 544-551, April 1986. 41. T. Tamir and F.Y. Kou, "Classification of leaky waves supported by multilayered...34Photoemisslon from Single Electrodynamically Levitated Microparticles," Rev. Sci. Inst. §. 1088 (1985). 7. K.M. Leung, "P-Polarized Nonlinear...for a Single Electrodynamically Levitated Micropartcle," Rev. Sci. Inst., §L 2250 (1986). 10. S. Arnold, K.M. Leung and A.B. Pluchino, "The Optical

  8. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J. R. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    The topics considered in the seven sessions were nuclear methods in atmospheric research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in tracer applications; energy exploration, production, and utilization; nuclear methods in environmental monitoring; nuclear methods in water research; and nuclear methods in biological research. Individual abstracts were prepared for each paper. (JSR)

  9. Electron accelerator technology research in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianqiao; Ye Mingyang; Zhang Yue; Yang Bin; Xu Tao; Kong Xiangshan

    2014-01-01

    Electronic accelerator was applied to instead of cobalt sources for food irradiation, to keep food quality and to improve the effect of the treatment. Appropriate accelerator parameters lead to optimal technique. The irradiation effect is associated with the relationship between uniformity and irradiating speed, the effect of cargo size on radiation penetration, as well as other factors that affect the irradiation effects. Industrialization of electron accelerator irradiation will be looked to the future. (authors)

  10. Electronic device and method of manufacturing an electronic device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An electronic device comprising at least one die stack having at least a first die (D1) comprising a first array of light emitting units (OLED) for emitting light, a second layer (D2) comprising a second array of via holes (VH) and a third die (D3) comprising a third array of light detecting units

  11. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  12. [SciELO: method for electronic publishing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laerte Packer, A; Rocha Biojone, M; Antonio, I; Mayumi Takemaka, R; Pedroso García, A; Costa da Silva, A; Toshiyuki Murasaki, R; Mylek, C; Carvalho Reisl, O; Rocha F Delbucio, H C

    2001-01-01

    It describes the SciELO Methodology Scientific Electronic Library Online for electronic publishing of scientific periodicals, examining issues such as the transition from traditional printed publication to electronic publishing, the scientific communication process, the principles which founded the methodology development, its application in the building of the SciELO site, its modules and components, the tools use for its construction etc. The article also discusses the potentialities and trends for the area in Brazil and Latin America, pointing out questions and proposals which should be investigated and solved by the methodology. It concludes that the SciELO Methodology is an efficient, flexible and wide solution for the scientific electronic publishing.

  13. The synthesis method for design of electron flow sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexahin, Yu I.; Molodozhenzev, A. Yu

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis method to design a relativistic magnetically - focused beam source is described in this paper. It allows to find a shape of electrodes necessary to produce laminar space charge flows. Electron guns with shielded cathodes designed with this method were analyzed using the EGUN code. The obtained results have shown the coincidence of the synthesis and analysis calculations [1]. This method of electron gun calculation may be applied for immersed electron flows - of interest for the EBIS electron gun design.

  14. The application of electron paramagnetic resonance in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Ximei; Wang Liqin; Zhang Wenyi; Liu Zhongchao; Cui Songye; Feng Xin; Jiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance technique has been found more than half a century, for free radicals detection application, it has been applied to various research studies, and promotes the development of the biomedicine. This article summarized the various free radicals measurement by the electron paramagnetic resonance in biology tissue, and the application of the spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging technology in biomedicine. (authors)

  15. ADDRESSING RESEARCH DESIGN PROBLEM IN MIXED METHODS RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed ALAVI; Patrycja HĄBEK

    2016-01-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be...

  16. Joint Services Electronics Program - JSEP. Research in Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-30

    5 6 7’ TIME (SEC) T5us 󈨇 5C .4 6. 3[ 13 s ua -5 os 4 .7 4 C T7 r 4 9 Torr SU8 6200C P - 1 𔄃 lcF To AS1 0 c- .9-S p 7 -9 . 4 co - * 9 ’V...Lightwave Technology. Other studies have involved measuring polymer film waveguides using a leaky waveguide method, published by Ding and Garmire

  17. Basic research on flue gas smoke treatment by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Hideki

    1995-01-01

    Recently, accompanying the increase of the use of fossil fuel, the environment destruction due to the sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in combustion smoke has become a serious problem. The development of flue gas smoke treatment technology by using electron beam was started in Japan, and attention has been paid worldwide as the promising dry type simultaneous desulfurizing and denitrating process. In this process, by adding ammonia to smoke, and irradiating electron beam on it, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate are formed. As to the reaction mechanism of denitration and desulfurization, radical formation, radical reaction, denitration mechanism, desulfurization mechanism, the particle size distribution of the formed aerosol, the amounts of denitration and desulfurization by electron beam smoke treatment process, the improvement of the denitration efficiency by multi-stage irradiation method and the improvement of the desulfurization rate by low temperature irradiation, and the basic test toward the pilot test are explained. The basic research for putting this system to practical use was carried out jointly by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., and Ebara Seisakusho for standard coal burning smoke in Japan. The verifying test at the pilot plant in Shinnagoya Thermal Power Station was carried out, and it was verified that this process can be used practically for treating coal-burning smoke. (K.I.)

  18. A summary of high-temperature electronics research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, F.V.; King, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Current and future needs in automative, aircraft, space, military, and well logging industries require operation of electronics at higher temperatures than today's accepted limit of 395 K. Without the availability of high-temperature electronics, many systems must operate under derated conditions or must accept severe mass penalties required by coolant systems to maintain electronic temperatures below critical levels. This paper presents ongoing research and development in the electronics community to bring high-temperature electronics to commercial realization. Much of this work was recently reviewed at the First International High-Temperature Electronics Conference held 16--20 June 1991 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 4 refs., 1 tab

  19. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research

  20. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J R [ed.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  1. 14 CFR 1260.69 - Electronic funds transfer payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Government by electronic funds transfer through the Treasury Fedline Payment System (FEDLINE) or the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic funds transfer payment methods... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.69 Electronic funds transfer payment methods...

  2. Using mixed methods in health research.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, S.; Woodman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed method...

  3. Method for surface treatment by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Doehler, H.; Bartel, R.; Ardenne, T. von.

    1985-01-01

    The invention has been aimed at simplifying the technology and saving energy in modifying surfaces with the aid of electron beams. The described beam-object geometry allows to abandon additional heat treatments. It can be used for surface hardening

  4. Teaching Qualitative Research Methods Using "Undercover Boss"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, LaKresha; Schuwerk, Tara J.

    2017-01-01

    Course(s): Research Methods, Qualitative Research Methods, Organizational Communication, Business Communication. Objectives: After completing this class exercise, students should be able to identify the major components of a qualitative research study, along with the ethical dilemmas that come with doing qualitative research.

  5. Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

  6. Addressing Research Design Problem in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamed; Hąbek, Patrycja

    2016-03-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be theoretically related to it. Second is that concurrent approach of mixed research method to inductive and deductive research logic provides researchers with opportunity to generate theory and test hypothesis in one study simultaneously. In addition, it provides a better justification for chosen method of investigation and higher validity for obtained answers to research questions. Despite increasing popularity of mixed research methods among management scholars, there is still need for a comprehensive approach to research design typology and process in mixed research method from the perspective of management science. The authors in this paper try to explain fundamental principles of mixed research method, its typology and different steps in its design process.

  7. Thermophysical methods in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, M.

    2003-01-01

    Thermophysical properties, namely the thermal conductivity, diffusivity and the heat capacity determine the behavior of every material under heat load. Therefore these properties are important not only for design purposes but also for the development of advanced materials. Within this contribution an overview will be given about measurement techniques for thermophysical properties. Some aspects of materials characterization and process development will be highlighted using selected research results. (orig.)

  8. New methods for trigger electronics development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The large and complex nature of RHIC experiments and the tight time schedule for their construction requires that new techniques for designing the electronics should be employed. This is particularly true of the trigger and data acquisition electronics which has to be ready for turn-on of the experiment. We describe the use of the Workview package from VIEWlogic Inc. for design, simulation, and verification of a flash ADC readout system. We also show how field-programmable gate arrays such as the Xilinx 4000 might be employed to construct or prototype circuits with a large number of gates while preserving flexibility.

  9. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping...... studies (a method framework). The aims of this debate article are: (1) to present a method framework to inform the design and evaluation of subgrouping research in low back pain, (2) to describe method options when investigating prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and (3) to discuss...... the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies....

  10. Qualitative Methods in Drug Utilization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Bastholm Rahmner, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research methods derive from the social sciences. Their use in drug utilization research is increasingly widespread, especially in understanding patient and prescriber perspectives. The main focus in qualitative research is exploration of a given phenomenon in order to get a wider...... understanding of why and how it appears. Qualitative research methods build on various theoretical underpinnings/schools of thought. The same validity and quality criteria cannot be used for both qualitative and quantitative methods....

  11. Contribution to a research on electron beam welding of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.

    1964-03-01

    The electron beam welding of metals is performed by the travelling of the focusing point along the junction of two pieces to be connected. Welding parameters are the electron gun power W, the value of the electron impact surface S, the welding speed s. From the beginning of our research in 1954, the preponderant part played by specific power W/s on the shape of the welded zone and the penetrating depth, became evident. A more methodical research has been undertaken in the laboratories of C.E.N. under the patronage of Professor CHAUDRON, in order to define in a better way the importance of the different welding parameters and to determine their influence on the metallurgical qualities of welded assemblies. This research induced us to define an electron gun adapted as well as possible to the performance of weldings, not only from the point of view of behaviour, especially during the passage from the atmospheric to a low pressure at 10 -5 Torr, necessary for the carrying out of a welding, but also from the point of view of adjustment conveniences of the different welding parameters, indispensable to the intended research work. The variations of welding parameters show that the shape of the molten zone turns from a circle segment to that of a very high triangle, which implies a continual change of the mode of heat transmission. Tests have been made, in order to confirm this way of looking, especially in order to achieve isotherms in dynamic operating and also the comparison of these isotherms with that recorded while using a method of argon arc welding. The thermal balance of energy supplied to the part, the necessary welding energy, and the energy loss (through conduction, radiation and evaporation) has also been established. These results proved that almost the whole of energy has been used for melting, that the different losses are negligible and that heat transmission can not occur by thermal conduction through the part during 'welding' time, when operating under

  12. 14 CFR 1274.931 - Electronic funds transfer payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cooperative agreement will be made by the Government by electronic funds transfer through the Treasury Fedline... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic funds transfer payment methods... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.931 Electronic...

  13. Geometric reconstruction methods for electron tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, Andreas; Gardner, Richard J.; König, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Electron tomography is becoming an increasingly important tool in materials science for studying the three-dimensional morphologies and chemical compositions of nanostructures. The image quality obtained by many current algorithms is seriously affected by the problems of missing wedge artefacts...... and discuss several algorithms from the mathematical fields of geometric and discrete tomography. The algorithms incorporate geometric prior knowledge (mainly convexity and homogeneity), which also in principle considerably reduces the number of tilt angles required. Results are discussed...

  14. Methods in Lexicography and Dictionary Research | Schierholz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods are used in every stage of dictionary-making and in every scientific analysis which is carried out in the field of dictionary research. This article presents some general considerations on methods in philosophy of science, gives an overview of many methods used in linguistics, in lexicography, dictionary research as ...

  15. The Delphi Method for Graduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmoski, Gregory J.; Hartman, Francis T.; Krahn, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process…

  16. Electronic battlespace facility for research, develoment and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jense, Hans; Kuijpers, N.H.L.; Elias, R.J.D.

    1997-01-01

    In order to support its research, development and engineering activities in the area of distributed simulation for training and command & control, TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory has developed (and continues to enhance) an Electronic Battlespace Facility (EBF). This paper presents an overview

  17. Electronic Publishing: Research Issues for Academic Librarians and Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the need for further research into three important areas of electronic publishing: how the change to digital information sources is affecting the scholarly work of college and university students; when libraries select electronic journals, how products offered to them or the delivery models they choose influence scholarship and the way…

  18. Using Q Method in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pnina Shinebourne PhD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author outlines the features of Q method and assesses its suitability as a qualitative research method. She discusses the process of using the method and its particular approach to researching the range and diversity of subjective understandings, beliefs, and experiences. Q method is particularly suitable for identifying commonality and diversity and has a powerful capacity for thematic identification and analysis. In the author's view, Q method makes a contribution to expanding the repertoire of qualitative research methods.

  19. Research and Development Issues for Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricci, Katrina

    2002-01-01

    ... technologies to support Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs). A workshop was conducted at the NAVAIR Orlando, Training Systems Division to discuss the domain and to present current research in this area...

  20. DANBIO-powerful research database and electronic patient record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund

    2011-01-01

    an overview of the research outcome and presents the cohorts of RA patients. The registry, which is approved as a national quality registry, includes patients with RA, PsA and AS, who are followed longitudinally. Data are captured electronically from the source (patients and health personnel). The IT platform...... as an electronic patient 'chronicle' in routine care, and at the same time provides a powerful research database....

  1. Geometric reconstruction methods for electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpers, Andreas, E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching bei München (Germany); Gardner, Richard J., E-mail: Richard.Gardner@wwu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225-9063 (United States); König, Stefan, E-mail: koenig@ma.tum.de [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching bei München (Germany); Pennington, Robert S., E-mail: robert.pennington@uni-ulm.de [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Boothroyd, Chris B., E-mail: ChrisBoothroyd@cantab.net [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Houben, Lothar, E-mail: l.houben@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E., E-mail: rdb@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Joost Batenburg, Kees, E-mail: Joost.Batenburg@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, NL-1098XG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands and Vision Lab, Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2013-05-15

    Electron tomography is becoming an increasingly important tool in materials science for studying the three-dimensional morphologies and chemical compositions of nanostructures. The image quality obtained by many current algorithms is seriously affected by the problems of missing wedge artefacts and non-linear projection intensities due to diffraction effects. The former refers to the fact that data cannot be acquired over the full 180° tilt range; the latter implies that for some orientations, crystalline structures can show strong contrast changes. To overcome these problems we introduce and discuss several algorithms from the mathematical fields of geometric and discrete tomography. The algorithms incorporate geometric prior knowledge (mainly convexity and homogeneity), which also in principle considerably reduces the number of tilt angles required. Results are discussed for the reconstruction of an InAs nanowire. - Highlights: ► Four algorithms for electron tomography are introduced that utilize prior knowledge. ► Objects are assumed to be homogeneous; convexity and regularity is also discussed. ► We are able to reconstruct slices of a nanowire from as few as four projections. ► Algorithms should be selected based on the specific reconstruction task at hand.

  2. Geometric reconstruction methods for electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpers, Andreas; Gardner, Richard J.; König, Stefan; Pennington, Robert S.; Boothroyd, Chris B.; Houben, Lothar; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Joost Batenburg, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Electron tomography is becoming an increasingly important tool in materials science for studying the three-dimensional morphologies and chemical compositions of nanostructures. The image quality obtained by many current algorithms is seriously affected by the problems of missing wedge artefacts and non-linear projection intensities due to diffraction effects. The former refers to the fact that data cannot be acquired over the full 180° tilt range; the latter implies that for some orientations, crystalline structures can show strong contrast changes. To overcome these problems we introduce and discuss several algorithms from the mathematical fields of geometric and discrete tomography. The algorithms incorporate geometric prior knowledge (mainly convexity and homogeneity), which also in principle considerably reduces the number of tilt angles required. Results are discussed for the reconstruction of an InAs nanowire. - Highlights: ► Four algorithms for electron tomography are introduced that utilize prior knowledge. ► Objects are assumed to be homogeneous; convexity and regularity is also discussed. ► We are able to reconstruct slices of a nanowire from as few as four projections. ► Algorithms should be selected based on the specific reconstruction task at hand

  3. Integrating Research Skills Training into Non--Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Research skills are a valued commodity by industry and university administrators. Despite the importance placed on these skills students typically dislike taking research method courses where these skills are learned. However, training in research skills does not necessarily have to be confined to these courses. In this study participants at a…

  4. [Internet research methods: advantages and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Tien, Yueh-Hsuan

    2009-12-01

    Compared to traditional research methods, using the Internet to conduct research offers a number of advantages to the researcher, which include increased access to sensitive issues and vulnerable / hidden populations; decreased data entry time requirements; and enhanced data accuracy. However, Internet research also presents certain challenges to the researcher. In this article, the advantages and challenges of Internet research methods are discussed in four principle issue areas: (a) recruitment, (b) data quality, (c) practicality, and (d) ethics. Nursing researchers can overcome problems related to sampling bias and data truthfulness using creative methods; resolve technical problems through collaboration with other disciplines; and protect participant's privacy, confidentiality and data security by maintaining a high level of vigilance. Once such issues have been satisfactorily addressed, the Internet should open a new window for Taiwan nursing research.

  5. Miscellaneous standard methods for Apis mellifera research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Human, Hannelie; Brodschneider, Robert; Dietemann, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    A variety of methods are used in honey bee research and differ depending on the level at which the research is conducted. On an individual level, the handling of individual honey bees, including the queen, larvae and pupae are required. There are different methods for the immobilising, killing an...

  6. e-Learning Business Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a generic Business Research Methods course from a simple name in a box to a full e-Learning web based module. It highlights particular issues surrounding the nature of the discipline and the integration of a large number of cross faculty subject specific research methods courses into a single generic module.…

  7. Optimizing How We Teach Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvancara, Kristen E.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Research Methods (undergraduate or graduate level). Objective: The aim of this exercise is to optimize the ability for students to integrate an understanding of various methodologies across research paradigms within a 15-week semester, including a review of procedural steps and experiential learning activities to practice each method, a…

  8. Exploring methods in information literacy research

    CERN Document Server

    Lipu, Suzanne; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an overview of approaches to assist researchers and practitioners to explore ways of undertaking research in the information literacy field. The first chapter provides an introductory overview of research by Dr Kirsty Williamson (author of Research Methods for Students, Academics and Professionals: Information Management and Systems) and this sets the scene for the rest of the chapters where each author explores the key aspects of a specific method and explains how it may be applied in practice. The methods covered include those representing qualitative, quantitative and mix

  9. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  10. Survey Research: Methods, Issues and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Wang, Victor C. X.

    2015-01-01

    Survey research is prevalent among many professional fields. Both cost effective and time efficient, this method of research is commonly used for the purposes of gaining insight into the attitudes, thoughts, and opinions of populations. Additionally, because there are several types of survey research designs and data collection instruments, the…

  11. Future methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-01-01

    research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...... of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. © 2016, Springer International Publishing.......This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...

  12. Using observational methods in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jenny

    2015-07-08

    Observation is a research data-collection method used generally to capture the activities of participants as well as when and where things are happening in a given setting. It checks description of the phenomena against what the researcher perceives to be fact in a rich experiential context. The method's main strength is that it provides direct access to the social phenomena under consideration. It can be used quantitatively or qualitatively, depending on the research question. Challenges in using observation relate to adopting the role of participant or non-participant researcher as observer. This article discusses some of the complexities involved when nurse researchers seek to collect observational data on social processes in naturalistic settings using unstructured or structured observational methods in qualitative research methodology. A glossary of research terms is provided.

  13. Research methods for English language teachers

    CERN Document Server

    McDonough, Jo

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a lively introduction to the research methods and techniques available to English language teachers who wish to investigate aspects of their own practice. It covers qualitative and quantitative methodology and includes sections on observation, introspection, diary studies, experiments, interviews, questionnaires, numerical techniques and case study research. Each method is illustrated with examples in language teaching contexts, and techniques of data collection and analysis are introduced. The authors focus particularly on research in the classroom, on tests, materials, the

  14. Review of data and methods recommended in the international code of practice for dosimetry IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 381, The Use of Plane Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon beams. Final report of the co-ordinated research project on dose determination with plane parallel ionization chambers in therapeutic electron and photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusautoy, A.; Roos, M.; Svensson, H.; Andreo, P.

    2000-01-01

    An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project was designed to validate the data and procedures included in the International Code of Practice Technical Reports Series (TRS) No. 381, ''The Use of Plane Parallel Ionization Chambers in High Energy Electron and Photon Beams''. This work reviews and analyses the procedures used and the data obtained by the participants of the project. The analysis shows that applying TRS-381 generally produces reliable results. The determination of absorbed dose to water using the electron method in reference conditions is within the stated uncertainties (2.9%). Comparisons have shown TRS-381 is consistent with the AAPM TG-39 protocol within 1% for measurements made in water. Based on the analysis, recommendations are given with respect to: (i) the use of plane parallel ionization chambers of the Markus type, (ii) the values for the fluence correction factor for cylindrical chambers, (iii) the value of the wall correction factor for the Roos chamber in 60 Co beams, and (iv) the use of plastic phantoms and the values of the fluence correction factors. (author)

  15. Methods of Analysis of Electronic Money in Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychenko Oleksandr V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies methods of analysis of electronic money, formalises its instruments and offers an integral indicator, which should be calculated by issuing banks and those banks, which carry out operations with electronic money, issued by other banks. Calculation of the integral indicator would allow complex assessment of activity of the studied bank with electronic money and would allow comparison of parameters of different banks by the aggregate of indicators for the study of the electronic money market, its level of development, etc. The article presents methods which envisage economic analysis of electronic money in banks by the following directions: solvency and liquidity, efficiency of electronic money issue, business activity of the bank and social responsibility. Moreover, the proposed indicators by each of the directions are offered to be taken into account when building integral indicators, with the help of which banks are studied: business activity, profitability, solvency, liquidity and so on.

  16. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  17. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  18. Qualitative and quantitative methods in health research

    OpenAIRE

    V?zquez Navarrete, M. Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Research in the area of health has been traditionally dominated by quantitative research. However, the complexity of ill-health, which is socially constructed by individuals, health personnel and health authorities have motivated the search for other forms to approach knowledge. Aim To discuss the complementarities of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the generation of knowledge. Contents The purpose of quantitative research is to measure the magnitude of an event,...

  19. Numerical simulation methods for electron and ion optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes currently used techniques for simulation and computer-aided design in electron and ion beam optics. Topics covered include: field computation, methods for computing optical properties (including Paraxial Rays and Aberration Integrals, Differential Algebra and Direct Ray Tracing), simulation of Coulomb interactions, space charge effects in electron and ion sources, tolerancing, wave optical simulations and optimization. Simulation examples are presented for multipole aberration correctors, Wien filter monochromators, imaging energy filters, magnetic prisms, general curved axis systems and electron mirrors.

  20. Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dane (Inventor); Wang, Guoan (Inventor); Kingsley, Nickolas D. (Inventor); Papapolymerou, Ioannis (Inventor); Tentzeris, Emmanouil M. (Inventor); Bairavasubramanian, Ramanan (Inventor); DeJean, Gerald (Inventor); Li, RongLin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture are provided. In this regard, an exemplary system comprises a first layer of liquid crystal polymer (LCP), first electronic components supported by the first layer, and a second layer of LCP. The first layer is attached to the second layer by thermal bonds. Additionally, at least a portion of the first electronic components are located between the first layer and the second layer.

  1. Efficient electronic structure methods applied to metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth

    of efficient approaches to density functional theory and the application of these methods to metal nanoparticles. We describe the formalism and implementation of localized atom-centered basis sets within the projector augmented wave method. Basis sets allow for a dramatic increase in performance compared....... The basis set method is used to study the electronic effects for the contiguous range of clusters up to several hundred atoms. The s-electrons hybridize to form electronic shells consistent with the jellium model, leading to electronic magic numbers for clusters with full shells. Large electronic gaps...... and jumps in Fermi level near magic numbers can lead to alkali-like or halogen-like behaviour when main-group atoms adsorb onto gold clusters. A non-self-consistent NewnsAnderson model is used to more closely study the chemisorption of main-group atoms on magic-number Au clusters. The behaviour at magic...

  2. NIH electronic cigarette workshop: developing a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kevin M; Abrams, David B; Bailey, William C; Clark, David; Connolly, Gregory N; Djordjevic, Mirjana V; Eissenberg, Thomas E; Fiore, Michael C; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Haverkos, Lynne; Hecht, Stephen S; Henningfield, Jack E; Hughes, John R; Oncken, Cheryl A; Postow, Lisa; Rose, Jed E; Wanke, Kay L; Yang, Lucie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their effects on human behavior, physiology, and health need to be understood. This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health-sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes. Discussion topics included e-cigarette risks and abuse potential; the potential role for e-cigarettes in harm reduction and smoking cessation; unintended consequences of e-cigarette use, such as becoming a gateway to conventional cigarettes; and dual use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. The research needs identified by the workshop participants included the following: standards to measure the contents and emissions of e-cigarettes; biomarkers of exposure; physiological effects of e-cigarettes on tissues and organ systems, including pulmonary and cardiovascular; information on e-cigarette users, how the devices are used, and identification of the best tools to assess these measures; factors that drive use and influence patterns of use; and appropriate methods for evaluating a potential role for e-cigarettes in smoking or nicotine cessation. To understand fully the challenges and the opportunities that e-cigarettes represent, expertise will be needed in basic, behavioral, translational, and clinical sciences. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Determination of the Electronics Charge--Electrolysis of Water Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachar, Arun C.

    1985-01-01

    Presents an alternative method for measuring the electronic charge using data from the electrolysis of acidified distilled water. The process (carried out in a commercially available electrolytic cell) has the advantage of short completion time so that students can determine electron charge and mass in one laboratory period. (DH)

  4. Research of the Electron Cyclotron Emission with Vortex Property excited by high power high frequency Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuki; Kubo, Shin; Tsujimura, Tohru; Takubo, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the radiation from a single electron in cyclotron motion has vortex property. Although the cyclotron emission exists universally in nature, the vortex property has not been featured because this property is normally cancelled out due to the randomness in gyro-phase of electrons and the development of detection of the vortex property has not been well motivated. In this research, we are developing a method to generate the vortex radiation from electrons in cyclotron motion with controlled gyro-phase. Electron that rotates around the uniform static magnetic field is accelerated by right-hand circular polarized (RHCP) radiation resonantly when the cyclotron frequency coincides with the applied RHCP radiation frequency. A large number of electrons can be coherently accelerated in gyro-phase by a RHCP high power radiation so that these electrons can radiate coherent emission with vortex feature. We will show that vortex radiation created by purely rotating electrons for the first time.

  5. Statistics of electron multiplication in multiplier phototube: iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Ortiz Sanchez, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    An iterative method is applied to study the variation of dynode response in the multiplier phototube. Three different situations are considered that correspond to the following ways of electronic incidence on the first dynode: incidence of exactly one electron, incidence of exactly r electrons and incidence of an average anti-r electrons. The responses are given for a number of steps between 1 and 5, and for values of the multiplication factor of 2.1, 2.5, 3 and 5. We study also the variance, the skewness and the excess of jurtosis for different multiplication factors. (author)

  6. Statistics of electron multiplication in a multiplier phototube; Iterative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, J. F.; Grau, A.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper an iterative method is applied to study the variation of dynode response in the multiplier phototube. Three different situation are considered that correspond to the following ways of electronic incidence on the first dynode: incidence of exactly one electron, incidence of exactly r electrons and incidence of an average r electrons. The responses are given for a number of steps between 1 and 5, and for values of the multiplication factor of 2.1, 2.5, 3 and 5. We study also the variance, the skewness and the excess of jurtosis for different multiplication factors. (Author) 11 refs

  7. Maintenance of electronic equipment at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicheportiche, Armand; Raoult, Norbert.

    1975-06-01

    The Test-Repair Group of the Saclay Electronics Services ensures the maintenance of electronic equipment available to users of the Saclay site. The more and more frequent use of microelectronics in these instruments increases the electronic operator density and the working and data transmission sequences are becoming difficult to understand. This leads to complications in the adjustment, testing and repairs. Ways and means are studied to facilitate maintenance while reducing the immobilization time of the equipment and the repair costs. The Saclay Electronics Services have developed a method of systematic test sequence formulation and breakdown diagnosis based on the properties of binary analysis. This method is used by a supplier of the CEA which has built the corresponding test equipment. Owing to the test programmmes established for each component of an apparatus it is possible for example to locate a faulty element on a plan including more than 100 integrated circuits and to replace it in no more than 10 minutes [fr

  8. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, A. L., E-mail: a.vasiliev56@gmail.com; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  9. Several cases of electronics and the measuring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardiyono, Bb.; Kamadi, J.; Suparmono, M.; Indarto.

    1980-01-01

    Several cases of electronics and the measuring methods, covering electric conductivity and electric potential of analog systems, electric current, electric conductivity and electric potential of semiconductor diodes, and characteristics of transistors are described. (SMN)

  10. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-11-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient "nanotechnologies"; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  11. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  12. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl

    Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...

  13. Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Phenomenon of Being-in-Community as Experienced by Two Individuals Who Have Participated in a Community Building Workshop.

  14. Food studies: an introduction to research methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Jeff; Deutsch, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    .... Designed for the classroom as well as for the independent scholar, the book details the predominant research methods in the field, provides a series of interactive questions and templates to help...

  15. Method of determining the position of an irradiated electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Wataru.

    1967-01-01

    The present invention relates to the method of determining the position of a radiated electron beam, in particular, the method of detecting the position of a p-n junction by a novel method when irradiating the electron beam on to the semi-conductor wafer, controlling the position of the electron beam from said junction. When the electron beam is irradiated on to the semi-conductor wafer which possesses the p-n junction, the position of the p-n junction may be ascertained to determine the position of the irradiated electron beam by detecting the electromotive force resulting from said p-n junction with a metal disposed in the proximity of but without mechanical contact with said semi-conductor wafer. Furthermore, as far as a semi-conductor wafer having at least one p-n junction is concerned, the present invention allows said p-n junction to be used to determine the position of an irradiated electron beam. Thus, according to the present invention, the electromotive force of the electron beam resulting from the p-n junction may easily be detected by electrostatic coupling, enabling the position of the irradiated electron beam to be accurately determined. (Masui, R.)

  16. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  17. The Delphi Method in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Ramos, Robinson; Leahy, Michael; Estrada Hernandez, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers have found in the application of the Delphi method a more sophisticated way of obtaining consensus from experts in the field on certain matters. The application of this research methodology has affected and certainly advanced the body of knowledge of the rehabilitation counseling practice. However, the rehabilitation…

  18. NIH Electronic Cigarette Workshop: Developing a Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, David B.; Bailey, William C.; Clark, David; Connolly, Gregory N.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Haverkos, Lynne; Hecht, Stephen S.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Hughes, John R.; Oncken, Cheryl A.; Postow, Lisa; Rose, Jed E.; Wanke, Kay L.; Yang, Lucie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their effects on human behavior, physiology, and health need to be understood. Purpose: This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health–sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes. Discussion topics included e-cigarette risks and abuse potential; the potential role for e-cigarettes in harm reduction and smoking cessation; unintended consequences of e-cigarette use, such as becoming a gateway to conventional cigarettes; and dual use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. Results and Conclusions: The research needs identified by the workshop participants included the following: standards to measure the contents and emissions of e-cigarettes; biomarkers of exposure; physiological effects of e-cigarettes on tissues and organ systems, including pulmonary and cardiovascular; information on e-cigarette users, how the devices are used, and identification of the best tools to assess these measures; factors that drive use and influence patterns of use; and appropriate methods for evaluating a potential role for e-cigarettes in smoking or nicotine cessation. To understand fully the challenges and the opportunities that e-cigarettes represent, expertise will be needed in basic, behavioral, translational, and clinical sciences. PMID:25335949

  19. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  1. Use of electronic monitoring in clinical nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailinger, Rita L; Black, Patricia L; Lima-Garcia, Natalie

    2008-05-01

    In the past decade, the introduction of electronic monitoring systems for monitoring medication adherence has contributed to the dialog about what works and what does not work in monitoring adherence. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) in a study of patients receiving isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection. Three case examples from the study illustrate the data that are obtained from the electronic device compared to self-reports and point to the disparities that may occur in electronic monitoring. The strengths and limitations of using the MEMS and ethical issues in utilizing this technology are discussed. Nurses need to be aware of these challenges when using electronic measuring devices to monitor medication adherence in clinical nursing practice and research.

  2. Students' perspectives of undergraduate research methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: in this study we used a model of adult learning to explore undergraduate students' views on how to improve the teaching of research methods and biostatistics. Methods: this was a secondary analysis of survey data of 600 undergraduate students from three medical schools in Uganda. The analysis looked at ...

  3. Using Replication Projects in Teaching Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G.; Grenier, Manuel; Lane, Erica A.; Roberts, Meigan S.; Sykes, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that replication projects may be valuable in teaching research methods, and also address the current need in psychology for more independent verification of published studies. Their use in an undergraduate methods course is described, involving student teams who performed direct replications of four well-known experiments, yielding…

  4. Methods for recovering metals from electronic waste, and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Tedd E; Parkman, Jacob A; Diaz Aldana, Luis A; Clark, Gemma; Dufek, Eric J; Keller, Philip

    2017-10-03

    A method of recovering metals from electronic waste comprises providing a powder comprising electronic waste in at least a first reactor and a second reactor and providing an electrolyte comprising at least ferric ions in an electrochemical cell in fluid communication with the first reactor and the second reactor. The method further includes contacting the powders within the first reactor and the second reactor with the electrolyte to dissolve at least one base metal from each reactor into the electrolyte and reduce at least some of the ferric ions to ferrous ions. The ferrous ions are oxidized at an anode of the electrochemical cell to regenerate the ferric ions. The powder within the second reactor comprises a higher weight percent of the at least one base metal than the powder in the first reactor. Additional methods of recovering metals from electronic waste are also described, as well as an apparatus of recovering metals from electronic waste.

  5. A simultaneous electron energy and dosimeter calibration method for an electron beam irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sunaga, H.; Kojima, T.

    1991-01-01

    In radiation processing using electron accelerators, the reproducibility of absorbed dose in the product depends not only on the variation of beam current and conveyor speed, but also on variations of other accelerator parameters. This requires routine monitoring of the beam current and the scan width, and also requires periodical calibration of routine dosimeters usually in the shape of film, electron energy, and other radiation field parameters. The electron energy calibration is important especially for food processing. The dose calibration method using partial absorption calorimeters provides only information about absorbed dose. Measurement of average electron current density provides basic information about the radiation field formed by the beam scanning and scattering at the beam window, though it does not allow direct dose calibration. The total absorption calorimeter with a thick absorber allows dose and dosimeter calibration, if the depth profile of relative dose in a reference absorber is given experimentally. It also allows accurate calibration of the average electron energy at the surface of the calorimeter core, if electron fluence received by the calorimeter is measured at the same time. This means that both electron energy and dosimeters can be simultaneously calibrated by irradiation of a combined system including the calorimeter, the detector of the electron current density meter, and a thick reference absorber for depth profile measurement of relative dose. We have developed a simple and multifunctional system using the combined calibration method for 5 MeV electron beams. The paper describes a simultaneous calibration method for electron energy and film dosimeters, and describes the electron current density meter, the total absorption calorimeter, and the characteristics of this method. (author). 13 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Social Experiments and Participatory Research as Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways to d...... practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. ...... to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope......Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways...

  7. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....

  8. A Reliability-Oriented Design Method for Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Reliability is a crucial performance indicator of power electronic systems in terms of availability, mission accomplishment and life cycle cost. A paradigm shift in the research on reliability of power electronics is going on from simple handbook based calculations (e.g. models in MIL-HDBK-217F h...... and reliability prediction models are provided. A case study on a 2.3 MW wind power converter is discussed with emphasis on the reliability critical component IGBT modules....

  9. An electron moiré method for a common SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.M.Xing; S.Kishimoto; Y.R.Zhao

    2006-01-01

    In the electron moiré method,a high-frequency grating is used to measure microscopic deformation,which promises significant potential applications for the method in the microscopic analysis of materials.However,a special beam scanning control device is required to produce a grating and generate a moiré fringe pattern for the scanning electron microscope (SEM).Because only a few SEMs used in the material science studies are equipped with this device,the use of the electron moiré method is limited.In this study,an electron moiré method for a common SEM without the beam control device is presented.A grating based on a multi-scanning concept is fabricated in any observing mode.A real-time moiré pattern can also be generated in the SEM or an optical filtering system.Without the beam control device being a prerequisite,the electron moiré method can be more widely used.The experimental results from three different types of SEMS show that high quality gratings with uniform lines and less pitch error can be fabricated by this method,and moiré patterns can also be correctly generated.

  10. Using ethnographic methods in software engineering research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Helen, C.; Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the role of ethnography in Software Engineering research. It describes the use of ethnographic methods as a means to provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding everyday software development practice. The knowledge gained......-depth discussion of methods for data collection and analysis used in ethnographic studies. It then describes how these methods can be and have been used by software engineering researchers to understand developers' work practices, to inform the development of processes, methods and tools and to evaluate...... can be used to improve processes, methods and tools as well as develop observed industrial practices. The tutorial begins with a brief historical account of ethnography in the fields of Software Engineering, CSCW, Information Systems and other related areas. This sets the stage for a more in...

  11. Electron paramagnetic resonance: A new method of quaternary dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Rossi, A.; Teles, M.M.; Danon, J.

    1984-01-01

    Significant progress has occurred in the last years in quaternary geochronology. One of this is the emergence of a new dating approach, the Electron Spin Resonance Method. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the method and discuss some aspects of the work at CBPF. (Author) [pt

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance: a new method of quaternary dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Rossi, A.; Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro; Telles, M.; Danon, J.

    1984-01-01

    Significant progress has occurred in the last years in quaternary geochronology. One of this is the emergence of a new dating approach, the Electron Spin Resonance Method. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the method and discuss some aspects of the work at CBPF. (Author) [pt

  13. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology: Survey and Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nasia; Abbo, Lilian M; Knobloch, Mary Jo; Seo, Susan K

    2016-11-01

    Surveys are one of the most frequently employed study designs in healthcare epidemiology research. Generally easier to undertake and less costly than many other study designs, surveys can be invaluable to gain insights into opinions and practices in large samples and may be descriptive and/or be used to test associations. In this context, qualitative research methods may complement this study design either at the survey development phase and/or at the interpretation/extension of results stage. This methods article focuses on key considerations for designing and deploying surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antibiotic stewardship, including identification of whether or not de novo survey development is necessary, ways to optimally lay out and display a survey, denominator measurement, discussion of biases to keep in mind particularly in research using surveys, and the role of qualitative research methods to complement surveys. We review examples of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship and review the pros and cons of methods used. A checklist is provided to help aid design and deployment of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  14. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  15. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  16. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  17. Apparatus and method for generating high density pulses of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Oettinger, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for the production of high density pulses of electrons using a laser energized emitter. Caesium atoms from a low pressure vapour atmosphere are absorbed on and migrate from a metallic target rapidly heated by a laser to a high temperature. Due to this heating time being short compared with the residence time of the caesium atoms adsorbed on the target surface, copious electrons are emitted which form a high current density pulse. (U.K.)

  18. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-01-01

    Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and q...

  19. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Articles were reviewed, analyzed, and coded through a qualitative content analysis approach. Overall trends are presented with respect to the entire collection of articles followed by an analysis of mixed methods research approaches identified in the subset of 55 studies. The most commonly used research approaches involved collecting data from people through interview, focus group, and survey methodologies. Content analysis was the second most commonly used approach whereby researchers use Facebook posts, Tweets (Twitter posts, YouTube videos, or other social media content as a data source. Many of the studies involving combinations of quantitative and qualitative data followed a design resembling Creswell and Plano Clark’s basic mixed methods typology (e.g., convergent parallel, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential.

  20. ''In situ'' electronic testing method of a neutron detector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Levai, F.

    1987-01-01

    The method allows detection of any important change in the electrical characteristics of a neutron sensor channel. It checks the response signal produced by an electronic detector circuit when a pulse generator is connected as input signal in the high voltage supply. The electronic circuit compares the detector capacitance value, previously measured, against a reference value, which is adjusted in a window type comparator electronic circuit to detect any important degrading condition of the capacitance value in a detector-cable system. The ''in-situ'' electronic testing method of neutron detector performance has been verified in a laboratory atmosphere to be a potential method to detect any significant change in the capacitance value of a nuclear sensor and its connecting cable, also checking: detector disconnections, cable disconnections, length changes of the connecting cable, electric short-opened circuits in the sensor channel, and any electrical trouble in the detector-connector-cable system. The experimental practices were carried out by simulation of several electric changes in a nuclear sensor-cable system from a linear D.C. channel which measures reactor power during nuclear reactor operation. It was made at the Training Reactor Electronic Laboratory. The results and conclusions obtained at the Laboratory were proved, satisfactorily, in the Electronic Instrumentation of Budapest Technical University Training Reactor, Hungary

  1. Mixed Methods Designs for Sports Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Melissa C; Kucera, Kristen L

    2018-07-01

    Mixed methods research is a relatively new approach in the field of sports medicine, where the benefits of qualitative and quantitative research are combined while offsetting the other's flaws. Despite its known and successful use in other populations, it has been used minimally in sports medicine, including studies of the clinician perspective, concussion, and patient outcomes. Therefore, there is a need for this approach to be applied in other topic areas not easily addressed by one type of research approach in isolation, such as the retirement from sport, effects of and return from injury, and catastrophic injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Camden & Islington Research Database: Using electronic mental health records for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbeloff, Nomi; Osborn, David P J; Patel, Rashmi; Taylor, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Broadbent, Matthew; Hayes, Joseph F

    2018-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are widely used in mental health services. Case registers using EHRs from secondary mental healthcare have the potential to deliver large-scale projects evaluating mental health outcomes in real-world clinical populations. We describe the Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust (C&I) Research Database which uses the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) tool to extract and de-identify routinely collected clinical information from a large UK provider of secondary mental healthcare, and demonstrate its capabilities to answer a clinical research question regarding time to diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder. The C&I Research Database contains records from 108,168 mental health patients, of which 23,538 were receiving active care. The characteristics of the patient population are compared to those of the catchment area, of London, and of England as a whole. The median time to diagnosis of bipolar disorder was 76 days (interquartile range: 17-391) and median time to treatment was 37 days (interquartile range: 5-194). Compulsory admission under the UK Mental Health Act was associated with shorter intervals to diagnosis and treatment. Prior diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders were associated with longer intervals to diagnosis, though prior diagnoses of schizophrenia and related disorders were associated with decreased time to treatment. The CRIS tool, developed by the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC), functioned very well at C&I. It is reassuring that data from different organizations deliver similar results, and that applications developed in one Trust can then be successfully deployed in another. The information can be retrieved in a quicker and more efficient fashion than more traditional methods of health research. The findings support the secondary use of EHRs for large-scale mental health research in naturalistic samples and settings investigated across large

  3. Phenomenography: A Missed Method in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assarroudi Abdolghader

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research is an approach with which human beings can attempt to answer questions and discover the unknowns. Research methodology is something that is determined by the researcher’s attitude toward the universe as well as by the question he is trying to answer. Some essential questions regarding the research process are: “What is the nature of reality?”, “What is the nature of the relationship between the scholar and the subject of interest?”, and “How can one understand the subject, and what are the methods?”. Research approaches can be categorized as quantitative and qualitative. In the former, measurement, prediction, and control are the bases, while in the latter, exploring, describing, and explaining the phenomena are fundamental. Among qualitative research methods, phenomenography is one of the newest methods. However, in spite of proving to be useful in various disciplines, it has yet to become popular, and many scholars mistake it for phenomenology. The focus of phenomenography is on what is known as the second-order perspective and the different ways that people can experience the same phenomenon, while phenomenology primarily emphasizes the first-order perspective and the similar essences that are derived from various experiences. This article aims to provide a better understanding of phenomenography through explaining it and comparing it with phenomenology in order to facilitate its proper and timely application in medical studies.

  4. System for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics, method for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Yu, Wenhua; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan

    2017-11-21

    The invention provides a single radiator cooling system for use in hybrid electric vehicles, the system comprising a surface in thermal communication with electronics, and subcooled boiling fluid contacting the surface. The invention also provides a single radiator method for simultaneously cooling electronics and an internal combustion engine in a hybrid electric vehicle, the method comprising separating a coolant fluid into a first portion and a second portion; directing the first portion to the electronics and the second portion to the internal combustion engine for a time sufficient to maintain the temperature of the electronics at or below 175.degree. C.; combining the first and second portion to reestablish the coolant fluid; and treating the reestablished coolant fluid to the single radiator for a time sufficient to decrease the temperature of the reestablished coolant fluid to the temperature it had before separation.

  5. Reliability and risk analysis methods research plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This document presents a plan for reliability and risk analysis methods research to be performed mainly by the Reactor Risk Branch (RRB), Division of Risk Analysis and Operations (DRAO), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. It includes those activities of other DRAO branches which are very closely related to those of the RRB. Related or interfacing programs of other divisions, offices and organizations are merely indicated. The primary use of this document is envisioned as an NRC working document, covering about a 3-year period, to foster better coordination in reliability and risk analysis methods development between the offices of Nuclear Regulatory Research and Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It will also serve as an information source for contractors and others to more clearly understand the objectives, needs, programmatic activities and interfaces together with the overall logical structure of the program

  6. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-05-01

    To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are 'eco-friendly' or 'green', despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern.

  7. Mixed methods research: a design for emergency care research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon; Porter, Jo; Endacott, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    This paper follows previous publications on generic qualitative approaches, qualitative designs and action research in emergency care by this group of authors. Contemporary views on mixed methods approaches are considered, with a particular focus on the design choice and the amalgamation of qualitative and quantitative data emphasising the timing of data collection for each approach, their relative 'weight' and how they will be mixed. Mixed methods studies in emergency care are reviewed before the variety of methodological approaches and best practice considerations are presented. The use of mixed methods in clinical studies is increasing, aiming to answer questions such as 'how many' and 'why' in the same study, and as such are an important and useful approach to many key questions in emergency care.

  8. Creative Research Methods - a reflective online discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Leary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In November 2013, the Institute of Advanced Studies (University of Warwick hosted a meeting of interdisciplinary colleagues interested in Creative Research Methods. The aspirations were to kick-start the debate at Warwick and create a platform from which researchers can develop projects that embrace new forms of intellectual enquiry and knowledge production. Following the meeting, several of the attendees agreed to develop some of the discussion points and briefly responded to a number of questions in an online document over a period of a few weeks. This paper is the result of that real space and online collaboration.

  9. Use of electronic medical records in oncology outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gena Kanas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Gena Kanas1, Libby Morimoto1, Fionna Mowat1, Cynthia O’Malley2, Jon Fryzek3, Robert Nordyke21Exponent, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA; 2Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 3MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Oncology outcomes research could benefit from the use of an oncology-specific electronic medical record (EMR network. The benefits and challenges of using EMR in general health research have been investigated; however, the utility of EMR for oncology outcomes research has not been explored. Compared to current available oncology databases and registries, an oncology-specific EMR could provide comprehensive and accurate information on clinical diagnoses, personal and medical histories, planned and actual treatment regimens, and post-treatment outcomes, to address research questions from patients, policy makers, the pharmaceutical industry, and clinicians/researchers. Specific challenges related to structural (eg, interoperability, data format/entry, clinical (eg, maintenance and continuity of records, variety of coding schemes, and research-related (eg, missing data, generalizability, privacy issues must be addressed when building an oncology-specific EMR system. Researchers should engage with medical professional groups to guide development of EMR systems that would ultimately help improve the quality of cancer care through oncology outcomes research.Keywords: medical informatics, health care, policy, outcomes

  10. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    together with the patients. Participatory design is a research design and methodology that encourages the participation of users in the design process of technological solutions. Therefore, it has a potential for designing technologies that actually reflect the needs of the users, why it is relevant within...... telemedicine. The aim of this presentation is to explain the process and theoretical framework of a PD project; give an example of a project including the applied methods, and to determine its application to telemedicine with focus on the rationale for genuine participation. Theory: Participation implies....... Methods: Key activities of a Participatory Design project comprise methods such as fieldwork; literature reviewing; development and testing, and user activities as workshops. Methods that support telling, making, enacting. For instance telling activities as drivers for participation, where practitioners...

  11. New Combined Electron-Beam Methods of Wastewater Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Kartasheva, L.I.; Podzorova, E.A.; Chulkov, V.N.; Han, B.; Kim, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is a brief review of the results obtained with the participation of the authors from the study on combined electron-beam methods for purification of some wastewaters. The data on purification of wastewaters containing dyes or hydrogen peroxide and municipal wastewater in the aerosol flow are considered

  12. Improved coating and fixation methods for scanning electron microscope autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A simple apparatus for emulsion coating is described. The apparatus is inexpensive and easily assembled in a standard glass shop. Emulsion coating for scanning electron microscope autoradiography with this apparatus consistently yields uniform layers. When used in conjunction with newly described fixation methods, this new approach produces reliable autoradiographs of undamaged specimens

  13. Using nationwide ‘big data’ from linked electronic health records to help improve outcomes in cardiovascular diseases:33 studies using methods from epidemiology, informatics, economics and social science in the ClinicAl disease research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records (CALIBER) programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hemingway, Harry; Feder, Gene; Fitzpatrick, Natalie; Denaxas, Spiros; Shah, Amit; Timmis, A D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Electronic health records (EHRs), when linked across primary and secondary care and curated for research use, have the potential to improve our understanding of care quality and outcomes.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate new opportunities arising from linked EHRs for improving quality of care and outcomes for patients at risk of or with coronary disease across the patient journey.DESIGN:Epidemiological cohort, health informatics, health economics and ethnographic approaches were used.SETTING:2...

  14. Planar, Faceted and Curved Array Antenna Research at TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    An overview is presented of research carried out at TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory in the field of phased anay antennas. Started is with a brief historical overview and a presentation of the antenna measurement facilities. Then full wave analysis methods for infinite planar waveguide arrays

  15. Thick-Restart Lanczos Method for Electronic Structure Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Horst D.; Wang, L.-W.; Wu, Kesheng

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes two recent innovations related to the classic Lanczos method for eigenvalue problems, namely the thick-restart technique and dynamic restarting schemes. Combining these two new techniques we are able to implement an efficient eigenvalue problem solver. This paper will demonstrate its effectiveness on one particular class of problems for which this method is well suited: linear eigenvalue problems generated from non-self-consistent electronic structure calculations

  16. Variational methods in electron-atom scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nesbet, Robert K

    1980-01-01

    The investigation of scattering phenomena is a major theme of modern physics. A scattered particle provides a dynamical probe of the target system. The practical problem of interest here is the scattering of a low­ energy electron by an N-electron atom. It has been difficult in this area of study to achieve theoretical results that are even qualitatively correct, yet quantitative accuracy is often needed as an adjunct to experiment. The present book describes a quantitative theoretical method, or class of methods, that has been applied effectively to this problem. Quantum mechanical theory relevant to the scattering of an electron by an N-electron atom, which may gain or lose energy in the process, is summarized in Chapter 1. The variational theory itself is presented in Chapter 2, both as currently used and in forms that may facilitate future applications. The theory of multichannel resonance and threshold effects, which provide a rich structure to observed electron-atom scattering data, is presented in Cha...

  17. Statistical methods in personality assessment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, J A; LaLone, L; Broeckel, J A

    1997-06-01

    Emerging models of personality structure and advances in the measurement of personality and psychopathology suggest that research in personality and personality assessment has entered a stage of advanced development, in this article we examine whether researchers in these areas have taken advantage of new and evolving statistical procedures. We conducted a review of articles published in the Journal of Personality, Assessment during the past 5 years. Of the 449 articles that included some form of data analysis, 12.7% used only descriptive statistics, most employed only univariate statistics, and fewer than 10% used multivariate methods of data analysis. We discuss the cost of using limited statistical methods, the possible reasons for the apparent reluctance to employ advanced statistical procedures, and potential solutions to this technical shortcoming.

  18. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  19. Proteomics in pulmonary research: selected methodical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Petrek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years witness rapid expansion of applications of proteomics to clinical research including non-malignant lung disorders. These developments bring along the need for standardisation of proteomic experiments. This paper briefly reviews basic methodical aspects of appliedproteomic studies using SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform as example but also emphasizes general aspects of quality assurance in proteomics. Key-words: lung proteome, quality assurance, SELDI-TOF MS

  20. Modified Monte Carlo method for study of electron transport in degenerate electron gas in the presence of electron-electron interactions, application to graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2017-07-01

    Standard computational methods used to take account of the Pauli Exclusion Principle into Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron transport in semiconductors may give unphysical results in low field regime, where obtained electron distribution function takes values exceeding unity. Modified algorithms were already proposed and allow to correctly account for electron scattering on phonons or impurities. Present paper extends this approach and proposes improved simulation scheme allowing including Pauli exclusion principle for electron-electron (e-e) scattering into MC simulations. Simulations with significantly reduced computational cost recreate correct values of the electron distribution function. Proposed algorithm is applied to study transport properties of degenerate electrons in graphene with e-e interactions. This required adapting the treatment of e-e scattering in the case of linear band dispersion relation. Hence, this part of the simulation algorithm is described in details.

  1. Research into real-option evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Tsuyoshi; Wakamatsu, Hitoshi

    2002-03-01

    As an evaluational method for valuation of a corporation, an investment project, a research and development, or the evaluation technique of an enterprise strategy, a real option analysis attracts attention instead of conventional Discount Cash Flow method. The reason is that it can divert the technique for the option valuation in financial engineering to the decision-making process performed according to change in investment environment. Related references, the analysis tools, the application examples, etc. were investigated about the decision-making technique using real option analysis, and this investigation considered the application method to decision-making of the research and development at Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. Consequently, since the feature is in real option analysis being the evaluation technique on condition of that business conditions and business itself also change, the real option analysis fits for evaluation of a research and development that business conditions were opaque and it turns out that the businesses are highly flexible. Moreover, it turns out that it fits also for evaluation of a capital concentration type investment issue like power plants. (author)

  2. DANBIO-powerful research database and electronic patient record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund

    2011-01-01

    is based on open-source software. Via a unique personal identification code, linkage with various national registers is possible for research purposes. Since the year 2000, more than 10,000 patients have been included. The main focus of research has been on treatment efficacy and drug survival. Compared...... an overview of the research outcome and presents the cohorts of RA patients. The registry, which is approved as a national quality registry, includes patients with RA, PsA and AS, who are followed longitudinally. Data are captured electronically from the source (patients and health personnel). The IT platform...... with RA patients, who were on conventional treatment with DMARDs, the patients who started biological treatment were younger, had longer disease duration, higher disease activity, tried more DMARDs and received more prednisolone. Also, more patients on biological therapy were seropositive and had erosive...

  3. Smart Electronic Laboratory Notebooks for the NIST Research Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Richard S; McLean, Mark J; Osborn, William A

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory notebooks have been a staple of scientific research for centuries for organizing and documenting ideas and experiments. Modern laboratories are increasingly reliant on electronic data collection and analysis, so it seems inevitable that the digital revolution should come to the ordinary laboratory notebook. The most important aspect of this transition is to make the shift as comfortable and intuitive as possible, so that the creative process that is the hallmark of scientific investigation and engineering achievement is maintained, and ideally enhanced. The smart electronic laboratory notebooks described in this paper represent a paradigm shift from the old pen and paper style notebooks and provide a host of powerful operational and documentation capabilities in an intuitive format that is available anywhere at any time.

  4. Fast electronic structure methods for strongly correlated molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head-Gordon, Martin; Beran, Gregory J O; Sodt, Alex; Jung, Yousung

    2005-01-01

    A short review is given of newly developed fast electronic structure methods that are designed to treat molecular systems with strong electron correlations, such as diradicaloid molecules, for which standard electronic structure methods such as density functional theory are inadequate. These new local correlation methods are based on coupled cluster theory within a perfect pairing active space, containing either a linear or quadratic number of pair correlation amplitudes, to yield the perfect pairing (PP) and imperfect pairing (IP) models. This reduces the scaling of the coupled cluster iterations to no worse than cubic, relative to the sixth power dependence of the usual (untruncated) coupled cluster doubles model. A second order perturbation correction, PP(2), to treat the neglected (weaker) correlations is formulated for the PP model. To ensure minimal prefactors, in addition to favorable size-scaling, highly efficient implementations of PP, IP and PP(2) have been completed, using auxiliary basis expansions. This yields speedups of almost an order of magnitude over the best alternatives using 4-center 2-electron integrals. A short discussion of the scope of accessible chemical applications is given

  5. Development and application of advanced methods for electronic structure calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Per Simmendefeldt

    . For this reason, part of this thesis relates to developing and applying a new method for constructing so-called norm-conserving PAW setups, that are applicable to GW calculations by using a genetic algorithm. The effect of applying the new setups significantly affects the absolute band positions, both for bulk......This thesis relates to improvements and applications of beyond-DFT methods for electronic structure calculations that are applied in computational material science. The improvements are of both technical and principal character. The well-known GW approximation is optimized for accurate calculations...... of electronic excitations in two-dimensional materials by exploiting exact limits of the screened Coulomb potential. This approach reduces the computational time by an order of magnitude, enabling large scale applications. The GW method is further improved by including so-called vertex corrections. This turns...

  6. Spirituality in Nursing: An Overview of Research Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Martins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality has been widely considered important for patients’ health and for healthcare practice and is related to connectedness, meaning in life, and transcendence. Research concerning spirituality is growing rapidly, and the implementation of spiritual care should be based on evidence. This literature review aims to describe the methods that have been used in nursing research focusing on spirituality. The electronic search on databases through EBSCOhost identified 2091 citations, and a total of 231 studies were included. The methods used in research on spirituality in nursing are mostly quantitative (52.4%, but some are qualitative (42.8% and mixed (4.8%. Regarding the quantitative research, most studies are observational (90.9%, and these are mainly descriptive (82.7% and correlational (17.3%. Most studies used a cross-sectional design (98.7%, and few used longitudinal design (1.3%. The qualitative research is descriptive (39.4%, phenomenological (26.3%, and grounded theory (14.1%. Research on spirituality in nursing is based on both main paradigms (quantitative and qualitative, but also on mixed methods. Studies have mainly been conducted using cross-sectional designs when compared to longitudinal designs. The latter seem to constitute a gap in nursing knowledge and evidence regarding the changes of spirituality over time, which is particularly important for nurses’ delivery of spiritual care.

  7. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Adaptive multiresolution method for MAP reconstruction in electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Erman, E-mail: erman.acar@tut.fi [Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 553, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Tampere University of Technology, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Peltonen, Sari; Ruotsalainen, Ulla [Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 553, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Tampere University of Technology, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    3D image reconstruction with electron tomography holds problems due to the severely limited range of projection angles and low signal to noise ratio of the acquired projection images. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods have been successful in compensating for the missing information and suppressing noise with their intrinsic regularization techniques. There are two major problems in MAP reconstruction methods: (1) selection of the regularization parameter that controls the balance between the data fidelity and the prior information, and (2) long computation time. One aim of this study is to provide an adaptive solution to the regularization parameter selection problem without having additional knowledge about the imaging environment and the sample. The other aim is to realize the reconstruction using sequences of resolution levels to shorten the computation time. The reconstructions were analyzed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency using a simulated biological phantom and publically available experimental datasets of electron tomography. The numerical and visual evaluations of the experiments show that the adaptive multiresolution method can provide more accurate results than the weighted back projection (WBP), simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT), and sequential MAP expectation maximization (sMAPEM) method. The method is superior to sMAPEM also in terms of computation time and usability since it can reconstruct 3D images significantly faster without requiring any parameter to be set by the user. - Highlights: • An adaptive multiresolution reconstruction method is introduced for electron tomography. • The method provides more accurate results than the conventional reconstruction methods. • The missing wedge and noise problems can be compensated by the method efficiently.

  9. Applied nursing informatics research - state-of-the-art methodologies using electronic health record data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung In; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Westra, Bonnie L; Delaney, Connie W

    2014-01-01

    With the pervasive implementation of electronic health records (EHR), new opportunities arise for nursing research through use of EHR data. Increasingly, comparative effectiveness research within and across health systems is conducted to identify the impact of nursing for improving health, health care, and lowering costs of care. Use of EHR data for this type of research requires use of national and internationally recognized nursing terminologies to normalize data. Research methods are evolving as large data sets become available through EHRs. Little is known about the types of research and analytic methods for applied to nursing research using EHR data normalized with nursing terminologies. The purpose of this paper is to report on a subset of a systematic review of peer reviewed studies related to applied nursing informatics research involving EHR data using standardized nursing terminologies.

  10. Ab initio methods for electron-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, L.A.; Schneider, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    This review concentrates on the recent advances in treating the electronic aspect of the electron-molecule interaction and leaves to other articles the description of the rotational and vibrational motions. Those methods which give the most complete treatment of the direct, exchange, and correlation effects are focused on. Such full treatments are generally necessary at energies below a few Rydbergs (≅ 60 eV). This choice unfortunately necessitates omission of those active and vital areas devoted to the development of model potentials and approximate scattering formulations. The ab initio and model approaches complement each other and are both extremely important to the full explication of the electron-scattering process. Due to the rapid developments of recent years, the approaches that provide the fullest treatment are concentrated on. 81 refs

  11. Electronic Versus Manual Data Processing: Evaluating the Use of Electronic Health Records in Out-of-Hospital Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgard, Craig D.; Zive, Dana; Jui, Jonathan; Weathers, Cody; Daya, Mohamud

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare case ascertainment, agreement, validity, and missing values for clinical research data obtained, processed, and linked electronically from electronic health records (EHR), compared to “manual” data processing and record abstraction in a cohort of out-ofhospital trauma patients. Methods This was a secondary analysis of two sets of data collected for a prospective, population-based, out-of-hospital trauma cohort evaluated by 10 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies transporting to 16 hospitals, from January 1, 2006 through October 2, 2007. Eighteen clinical, operational, procedural, and outcome variables were collected and processed separately and independently using two parallel data processing strategies, by personnel blinded to patients in the other group. The electronic approach included electronic health record data exports from EMS agencies, reformatting and probabilistic linkage to outcomes from local trauma registries and state discharge databases. The manual data processing approach included chart matching, data abstraction, and data entry by a trained abstractor. Descriptive statistics, measures of agreement, and validity were used to compare the two approaches to data processing. Results During the 21-month period, 418 patients underwent both data processing methods and formed the primary cohort. Agreement was good to excellent (kappa 0.76 to 0.97; intraclass correlation coefficient 0.49 to 0.97), with exact agreement in 67% to 99% of cases, and a median difference of zero for all continuous and ordinal variables. The proportions of missing out-of-hospital values were similar between the two approaches, although electronic processing generated more missing outcomes (87 out of 418, 21%, 95% CI = 17% to 25%) than the manual approach (11 out of 418, 3%, 95% CI = 1% to 5%). Case ascertainment of eligible injured patients was greater using electronic methods (n = 3,008) compared to manual methods (n = 629). Conclusions In this

  12. The validity of the density scaling method in primary electron transport for photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, M.K.; Cunningham, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    In the convolution/superposition method of photon beam dose calculations, inhomogeneities are usually handled by using some form of scaling involving the relative electron densities of the inhomogeneities. In this paper the accuracy of density scaling as applied to primary electrons generated in photon interactions is examined. Monte Carlo calculations are compared with density scaling calculations for air and cork slab inhomogeneities. For individual primary photon kernels as well as for photon interactions restricted to a thin layer, the results can differ significantly, by up to 50%, between the two calculations. However, for realistic photon beams where interactions occur throughout the whole irradiated volume, the discrepancies are much less severe. The discrepancies for the kernel calculation are attributed to the scattering characteristics of the electrons and the consequent oversimplified modeling used in the density scaling method. A technique called the kernel integration technique is developed to analyze the general effects of air and cork inhomogeneities. It is shown that the discrepancies become significant only under rather extreme conditions, such as immediately beyond the surface after a large air gap. In electron beams all the primary electrons originate from the surface of the phantom and the errors caused by simple density scaling can be much more significant. Various aspects relating to the accuracy of density scaling for air and cork slab inhomogeneities are discussed

  13. Application of electron back-scatter diffraction to texture research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, V.

    1996-01-01

    The application of electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) to materials research is reviewed. A brief history of the technique is given, followed by a description of present-day operation. The methodology of 'microtexture', i.e. spatially specific orientations, is described and recent examples of its application using EBSD are given, in particular to interstitial-free steel processing, growth of phases in a white iron and grain boundary phenomena in a superplastic alloy. The advantages and disadvantages of EBSD compared to use of X-rays for texture determination are discussed in detail

  14. Radiation methods in research of ancient monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kubelik, M.; Musilek, L.; Pavlik, Milan

    2000-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Monument Research' is being built at the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be investigated. In the first phase, two radiation methods are being established, but it is set up in such a way, that various other methods can readily be added in its future development. The radiation methods chosen for the initial development of the laboratory are: thermoluminescence dating and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The design of the automated TL-reader, built in our laboratories, is adjusted for the purpose of dating of historic brick architecture (which, of course, does not exclude applications for ceramics and other materials). The investigation of renaissance architecture in southern Bohemia and Moravia is under preparation as the first large campaign of this kind in the Czech Republic. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis has been chosen as the basic analytical method in the laboratory. The possibility of analyses of paintings and fired building materials (bricks, roof tiles) have been investigated. The first results in both the areas are very promising

  15. Research on high performance mirrors for free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitatani, Fumito

    1996-01-01

    For the stable functioning of free electron laser, high performance optical elements are required because of its characteristics. In particular in short wavelength free electron laser, since its gain is low, the optical elements having very high reflectivity are required. Also in free electron laser, since high energy noise light exists, the optical elements must have high optical breaking strength. At present in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, the research for heightening the performance of dielectric multi-layer film elements for short wavelength is carried out. For manufacturing such high performance elements, it is necessary to develop the new materials for vapor deposition, new vapor deposition process, and the techniques of accurate substrate polishing and inspection. As the material that satisfies the requirements, there is diamond-like carbon (DLC) film, of which the properties are explained. As for the manufacture of the DLC films for short wavelength optics, the test equipment for forming the DLC films, the test of forming the DLC films, the change of the film quality due to gas conditions, discharge conditions and substrate materials, and the measurement of the optical breaking strength are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Educational research methods for researching innovations in teaching, learning and assessment: The nursing lecturer as researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Maran, Diane

    2015-11-01

    The author, who has had previous experience as a nurse researcher, has been engaged in helping nurse lecturers to undertake evaluation research studies into innovations in their teaching, learning and assessment methods. In order to undertake this work successfully, it was important to move from thinking like a nurse researcher to thinking like an educational researcher and developing the role of the nursing lecturer as researcher of their teaching. This article explores the difference between evaluation and evaluation research and argues for the need to use educational research methods when undertaking evaluation research into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment. A new model for educational evaluation research is presented together with two case examples of the model in use. The model has been tested on over 30 research studies into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment over the past 8 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electron Bernstein Wave Research on CDX-U and NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Jones, B.; Hosea, J.C.; Kaita, R.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Majeski, R.; Munsat, T.; Phillips, C.K.; Spaleta, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Rasmussen, D.; Bell, G.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carter, M.D.; Swain, D.W.; Wilgen, J.B.; Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.; Harvey, R.W.; Forest, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Mode-converted electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) potentially allow the measurement of local electron temperature (Te) and the implementation of local heating and current drive in spherical torus (ST) devices, which are not directly accessible to low harmonic electron cyclotron waves. This paper reports on the measurement of X-mode radiation mode-converted from EBWs observed normal to the magnetic field on the midplane of the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) spherical torus plasmas. The radiation temperature of the EBW emission was compared to Te measured by Thomson scattering and Langmuir probes. EBW mode-conversion efficiencies of over 20% were measured on both CDX-U and NSTX. Sudden increases of mode-conversion efficiency, of over a factor of three, were observed at high-confinement-mode transitions on NSTX, when the measured edge density profile steepened. The EBW mode-conversion efficiency was found to depend on the density gradient at the mode-conversion layer in the plasma scrape-off, consistent with theoretical predictions. The EBW emission source was determined by a perturbation technique to be localized at the electron cyclotron resonance layer and was successfully used for radial transport studies. Recently, a new in-vessel antenna and Langmuir probe array were installed on CDX-U to better characterize and enhance the EBW mode-conversion process. The probe incorporates a local adjustable limiter to control and maximize the mode-conversion efficiency in front of the antenna by modifying the density profile in the plasma scrape-off where fundamental EBW mode conversion occurs. Initial results show that the mode-conversion efficiency can be increased to ∼100% when the local limiter is inserted near the mode-conversion layer. Plans for future EBW research, including EBW heating and current-drive studies, are discussed

  18. Electron beam treatment planning: A review of dose computation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.; Riley, R.; Laughlin, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of dose computations are reviewed. The equivalent path length methods used to account for body curvature and internal structure are not adequate because they ignore the lateral diffusion of electrons. The Monte Carlo method for the broad field three-dimensional situation in treatment planning is impractical because of the enormous computer time required. The pencil beam technique may represent a suitable compromise. The behavior of a pencil beam may be described by the multiple scattering theory or, alternatively, generated using the Monte Carlo method. Although nearly two orders of magnitude slower than the equivalent path length technique, the pencil beam method improves accuracy sufficiently to justify its use. It applies very well when accounting for the effect of surface irregularities; the formulation for handling inhomogeneous internal structure is yet to be developed

  19. Nondestructive testing method for a new generation of electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Anton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Smart City system needs reliable and smoothly operating electronic equipment. The study is aimed at developing a nondestructive testing method for electronic equipment and its components. This method can be used to identify critical design defects of printed circuit boards (PCB and to predict their service life, taking into account the nature of probable operating loads. The study uses an acoustic emission method to identify and localize critical design defects of printed circuit boards. Geometric dimensions of detected critical defects can be determined by the X-ray tomography method. Based on the results of the study, a method combining acoustic emission and X-ray tomography was developed for nondestructive testing of printed circuit boards. The stress-strain state of solder joints containing detected defects was analyzed. This paper gives an example of using the developed method for estimating the degree of damage to joints between PCB components and predicting the service life of the entire PCB.

  20. Electronic-projecting Moire method applying CBR-technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, O. N.; Lapteva, U. V.; Andreeva, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Electronic-projecting method based on Moire effect for examining surface topology is suggested. Conditions of forming Moire fringes and their parameters’ dependence on reference parameters of object and virtual grids are analyzed. Control system structure and decision-making subsystem are elaborated. Subsystem execution includes CBR-technology, based on applying case base. The approach related to analysing and forming decision for each separate local area with consequent formation of common topology map is applied.

  1. Thermodynamics, Gibbs Method and Statistical Physics of Electron Gases Gibbs Method and Statistical Physics of Electron Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Askerov, Bahram M

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical thermodynamics and the statistical physics of electron and particle gases. While treating the laws of thermodynamics from both classical and quantum theoretical viewpoints, it posits that the basis of the statistical theory of macroscopic properties of a system is the microcanonical distribution of isolated systems, from which all canonical distributions stem. To calculate the free energy, the Gibbs method is applied to ideal and non-ideal gases, and also to a crystalline solid. Considerable attention is paid to the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein quantum statistics and its application to different quantum gases, and electron gas in both metals and semiconductors is considered in a nonequilibrium state. A separate chapter treats the statistical theory of thermodynamic properties of an electron gas in a quantizing magnetic field.

  2. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  3. Comparison of optimization methods for electronic-structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, J.; Das, S.G.; Min, B.I.; Woodward, C.; Benedek, R.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of several local-optimization methods for calculating electronic structure is compared. The fictitious first-order equation of motion proposed by Williams and Soler is integrated numerically by three procedures: simple finite-difference integration, approximate analytical integration (the Williams-Soler algorithm), and the Born perturbation series. These techniques are applied to a model problem for which exact solutions are known, the Mathieu equation. The Williams-Soler algorithm and the second Born approximation converge equally rapidly, but the former involves considerably less computational effort and gives a more accurate converged solution. Application of the method of conjugate gradients to the Mathieu equation is discussed

  4. Monte Carlo methods in electron transport problems. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleri, F.

    1989-01-01

    The condensed-history Monte Carlo method for charged particles transport is reviewed and discussed starting from a general form of the Boltzmann equation (Part I). The physics of the electronic interactions, together with some pedagogic example will be introduced in the part II. The lecture is directed to potential users of the method, for which it can be a useful introduction to the subject matter, and wants to establish the basis of the work on the computer code RECORD, which is at present in a developing stage

  5. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  6. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  7. Electron Bernstein Wave Research on NSTX and PEGASUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diem, S. J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Taylor, G.; Caughman, J. B.; Bigelow, T.; Wilgen, J. B.; Garstka, G. D.; Harvey, R. W.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    , supporting a launcher placed near the midplane. Current was driven on axis primarily via the Fisch-Boozer mechanism. The PEGASUS experiment provides an attractive opportunity to investigate EBW heating and current drive physics at the fundamental electron cyclotron frequency in an ST plasma, and will complement the EBW research planned for NSTX

  8. Electronic properties of antiferromagnetic UBi2 metal by exact exchange for correlated electrons method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ghasemikhah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the electronic properties of antiferromagnetic UBi2 metal by using ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT, employing the augmented plane waves plus local orbital method. We used the exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE method to calculate the exchange-correlation energy under a variety of hybrid functionals. Electric field gradients (EFGs at the uranium site in UBi2 compound were calculated and compared with the experiment. The EFGs were predicted experimentally at the U site to be very small in this compound. The EFG calculated by the EECE functional are in agreement with the experiment. The densities of states (DOSs show that 5f U orbital is hybrided with the other orbitals. The plotted Fermi surfaces show that there are two kinds of charges on Fermi surface of this compound.

  9. First-principles method for electron-phonon coupling and electron mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels; Stokbro, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    We present density functional theory calculations of the phonon-limited mobility in n-type monolayer graphene, silicene, and MoS2. The material properties, including the electron-phonon interaction, are calculated from first principles. We provide a detailed description of the normalized full......-band relaxation time approximation for the linearized Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) that includes inelastic scattering processes. The bulk electron-phonon coupling is evaluated by a supercell method. The method employed is fully numerical and does therefore not require a semianalytic treatment of part...... of the problem and, importantly, it keeps the anisotropy information stored in the coupling as well as the band structure. In addition, we perform calculations of the low-field mobility and its dependence on carrier density and temperature to obtain a better understanding of transport in graphene, silicene...

  10. Simple method for generating adjustable trains of picosecond electron bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muggli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, passive method for producing an adjustable train of picosecond electron bunches is demonstrated. The key component of this method is an electron beam mask consisting of an array of parallel wires that selectively spoils the beam emittance. This mask is positioned in a high magnetic dispersion, low beta-function region of the beam line. The incoming electron beam striking the mask has a time/energy correlation that corresponds to a time/position correlation at the mask location. The mask pattern is transformed into a time pattern or train of bunches when the dispersion is brought back to zero downstream of the mask. Results are presented of a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating this novel technique that was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. This technique allows for easy tailoring of the bunch train for a particular application, including varying the bunch width and spacing, and enabling the generation of a trailing witness bunch.

  11. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bilić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheapest and the simplest form of business communication. The aim of this paper is to investigate relationship between three groups of different criteria; including main characteristics of performed electronic recruiting, corporate communication and selected financial performances. Selected companies were ranked separately by each group of criteria by usage of multicriteria decision making method PROMETHEE II. The main idea is to research whether companies which are the highest performers by certain group of criteria obtain the similar results regarding other group of criteria or performing results.

  12. Investigation of the Use of Ecodesign Methods and Tools in the Electrical and Electronics Industries of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This investigation strives to determine the level of ecodesign awareness as well as to map the use of methods and tools for this concept in the electrical and electronics industries of Thailand. The foundation of the thesis is eight semi-structured qualitative research interviews performed with various people at Thai organisations, an electronics manufacturer in Thailand, and experts from Swedish, Danish and Thai universities. The research method has yielded the following results: The level o...

  13. Trojan Horse Method: A tool to explore electron screening effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R G; Spitaleri, C; Cherubini, S; Cognata, M La; Lamia, L; Romano, S; Sergi, M L [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy) and Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Rolfs, C; Strieder, F [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Burjan, V; Kroha, V; Mrazek, J [Cyclotron Institute, Academy of Science, Rez (Czech Republic); Li, C; Wen, Q; Zhou, S [CIAE, Beijing (China); Tumino, A, E-mail: rgpizzone@lns.infn.i [Universita Kore, Erma (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure reaction rates for charged particle induced reactions. Moreover due to the presence of the electron screening effect in direct measurements, the relevant nuclear input for astrophysics, i.e. the bare nucleus S(E)-factor, can hardly be extracted. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is an unique: indirect technique which allows one to measure reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest down the thermal energies typical of the different scenarios. The basic principle and a review of the main applications of the Trojan Horse Method are given. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

  14. The Documentary Method in Intercultural Research Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Evers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The documentary method appears to be especially suitable for preventing possible ethnocentrisms in the interpretation of data in reconstructive research, as well as for precluding concessions with a statistic and normative cultural concept. As an illustration of this thesis, this article presents a study—undertaken at the Bremen University of Applied Sciences—in which the effects of an intercultural contact programme between international students and German families are analysed. Special emphasis is placed on the question of the students' emotional and cognitive changes, called educational processes ("Bildung" in the educational science. The theoretical and methodological background of the study and exemplary results are presented. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901478

  15. Power Electronics and Thermal Management | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power Electronics and Thermal Management Power Electronics and Thermal Management This is the March Gearhart's testimony. Optical Thermal Characterization Enables High-Performance Electronics Applications New vehicle electronics systems are being developed at a rapid pace, and NREL is examining strategies to

  16. HIF research on the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishek, R.A.; Bernal, S.; Cui, Y.; Godlove, T.F.; Haber, I.; Harris, J.; Huo, Y.; Li, H.; O'Shea, P.G.; Quinn, B.; Reiser, M.; Walter, M.; Wilson, M.; Zou, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The understanding of collective interactions of particles in an intense beam by means of long-range forces is crucial for the successful development of heavy ion inertial fusion. Designs for heavy ion fusion drivers call for beam brightness and intensity surpassing traditional limits. Collective effects such as halo formation and emittance growth impose stringent limits on the driver and can raise the costs of the machine. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), currently near completion, is designed to be a scaled model (3.6-m diameter) for exploring the dynamics of such intense beams. The ring configuration permits the investigation of dispersion and other effects that would occur in bends and a recirculator machine, in addition to those occurring in a straight lattice. Using a 10 keV electron beam, other parameters are scaled to mimic those of much larger ion accelerators, except at much lower cost. An adjustable current in the 0.1-100 mA range provides a range of intensities unprecedented for a circular machine. By design, UMER provides a low-cost, well-diagnosed research platform for driver physics, and for beam physics in general. UMER is augmented with a separate setup, the Long Solenoid Experiment (LSE), for investigating the longitudinal beam dynamics and the evolution of energy spread due to Coulomb collisions in a straight geometry

  17. Research on nonlinearity effect of secondary electron multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xingjian; Liao Junsheng; Deng Dachao; Yu Chunrong; Yuan Li

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinearity of secondary electron multiplier (SEM) of a thermal ionization mass spectrometer has been researched by using UTB-500 uranium isotope reference material and multi-collecting technique. The results show that the nonlinearity effect of SEM exists in the whole ion counting range, and there is an extreme point of the nonlinearity when the ion counting rate is about 20000 cps. The deviation between measured value of the extreme point and the reference value of the reference sample can be up to 3%, and the nonlinearity obeys logarithm linearity law on both sides of extreme point. A kind of mathematics model of nonlinearity calibration has been put forward. Using this model, the nonlinearity of SEM of TIMS can be calibrated. (authors)

  18. Applications and research on nano power electronics: an adventure beyond quantum electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Emadi, Ali

    2005-06-01

    This paper is a roadmap to the exhaustive role of the newly emerging field of nanotechnology in various application and research areas. Some of the today's important topics are plasma, dielectric layer semiconductor, and carbon nanoparticle based technologies. Carbon nanotubes are very useful for the purpose of fabricating nano opto power devices. The basic concept behind tunneling of electrons has been utilized to define another scope of this technology, and thus came many quantum scale tunneling devices and elements. Fabrication of crystal semiconductors of high quality along with oxides of nano aspect would give rise to superior device performance and find applications such as LEDs, LASER, VLSI technology and also in highly efficient solar cells. Many nano-research based organizations are fully devoted to develop nano power cells, which would give birth to new battery cells, tunneling devises, with high power quality, longer lives, and higher activation rates. Different electronics industries as well as the military organizations would be largely benefited due to this major component and system design ideas of 'Smart Power' technologies. The contribution of nano scale power electronics would be realized in various fields like switching devices, electromechanical systems and quantum science. Such a sophisticated technology will have great impact on the modernization of robotics; space systems, automotive systems and many other fields. The highly emerging field of nanomedicine according to specialists would bring a dramatic revolution in the present century. However nanomedicine is nothing but an integration of biology, medicine and technology. Thermoelectric materials as been referred earlier also are used in case of implantable medical equipments for generation of electric power sufficient for those equipments.

  19. Pretreatment of Cellulose By Electron Beam Irradiation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusri, N. A. A.; Azizan, A.; Ibrahim, N.; Salleh, R. Mohd; Rahman, M. F. Abd

    2018-05-01

    Pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) to produce biofuel has been conducted by using various methods including physical, chemical, physicochemical as well as biological. The conversion of bioethanol process typically involves several steps which consist of pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation and separation. In this project, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used in replacement of LCB since cellulose has the highest content of LCB for the purpose of investigating the effectiveness of new pretreatment method using radiation technology. Irradiation with different doses (100 kGy to 1000 kGy) was conducted by using electron beam accelerator equipment at Agensi Nuklear Malaysia. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were studied to further understand the effect of the suggested pretreatment step to the content of MCC. Through this method namely IRR-LCB, an ideal and optimal condition for pretreatment prior to the production of biofuel by using LCB may be introduced.

  20. Research on fuzzy PID control to electronic speed regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-gang; Chen, Xue-hui; Zheng, Sheng-guo

    2007-12-01

    As an important part of diesel engine, the speed regulator plays an important role in stabilizing speed and improving engine's performance. Because there are so many model parameters of diesel-engine considered in traditional PID control and these parameters present non-linear characteristic.The method to adjust engine speed using traditional PID is not considered as a best way. Especially for the diesel-engine generator set. In this paper, the Fuzzy PID control strategy is proposed. Some problems about its utilization in electronic speed regulator are discussed. A mathematical model of electric control system for diesel-engine generator set is established and the way of the PID parameters in the model to affect the function of system is analyzed. And then it is proposed the differential coefficient must be applied in control design for reducing dynamic deviation of system and adjusting time. Based on the control theory, a study combined control with PID calculation together for turning fuzzy PID parameter is implemented. And also a simulation experiment about electronic speed regulator system was conducted using Matlab/Simulink and the Fuzzy-Toolbox. Compared with the traditional PID Algorithm, the simulated results presented obvious improvements in the instantaneous speed governing rate and steady state speed governing rate of diesel-engine generator set when the fuzzy logic control strategy used.

  1. Quantitative methods for the analysis of electron microscope images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skands, Peter Ulrik Vallø

    1996-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is an general introduction to quantitative methods for the analysis of digital microscope images. The images presented are primarily been acquired from Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) and interfermeter microscopes (IFM). The topic is approached though several examples...... foundation of the thesis fall in the areas of: 1) Mathematical Morphology; 2) Distance transforms and applications; and 3) Fractal geometry. Image analysis opens in general the possibility of a quantitative and statistical well founded measurement of digital microscope images. Herein lies also the conditions...

  2. Method for coating a resinous coating material. [electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, T; Fujioka, S; Mibae, J; Takahashi, M

    1968-07-13

    The strength, flexibility and durability of a vinyl chloride resin, acryl resin and the like are improved. This method of application comprises the steps of applying and thereafter radically curing a mixture composed of a polymer (II) having double bond(s) on its side chain and an ethylenic unsaturated monomer, said polymer (II) being obtained by the reaction between an unsaturated carboxylic acid or anhydride represented by the formula XCH = CHY (X = (CH/sub 2/)sub(n)COOH, where 0 <= n <= 2, Y = COOR/sub 1/ or R/sub 2/(R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are hydrogen or an alkyl group having from 1 to 10 atoms of carbon)) and the acrylic copolymer (I), containing a hydroxyl group, obtained by copolymerization of 10 to 50% by weight of at least one selected from the group of beta-hydroxy alkyl acrylate, beta-hydroxy alkyl methacrylate, N-methylol acrylamide and N-methylol methacryl amide with at least one selected from the group of acrylic ester, methacrylic ester and stylene. The copolymer (I) can be obtained by the usual radical polymerization such as bulk polymerization, solution polymerization, suspension polymerization or the like. The polymer (II) is dissolved in the ethylenic unsaturated monomer and radically cured with radical polymerization catalysts or electron beams, etc. The energy range of the electron beams may be 0.1 to 3 MeV. Any type of electron accelerator may be used.

  3. Issues in electronic research publishing: implications for occupational health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy I

    2003-11-01

    Electronic publishing (e-publishing) is a global effort to make new scientific findings freely available to the public at the earliest possible time in a centralized Internet repository. Several journals modeled after the PubMedCentral concept offer central and efficient access to biomedical literature while balancing open communication with publishing obligations. Supporters of e-publishing indicate that convenient access to the most current scientific literature in multimedia formats affords occupational and other health care providers tools to supplement practice, answer clinical questions, and network with other professionals. Non-supporters claim that e-publishing may compromise the peer review process, promote weak research and the use of non-scientifically endorsed information, and present technical difficulties to users. Accepting e-publishing requires considering all users and producers of scientific information as potential vehicles to conduct, communicate, disseminate, and retrieve scientific research. The transition will occur more smoothly if standards, including costs, for e-publishing are established and implemented.

  4. Electronic Commerce publications and research in Australia: Implications of the Research Quality Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helana Scheepers

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Australian universities and academics will soon see a major change in the way research is reported and funded. It is expected that by 2008, according to the most recent timetable (Bishop 2006, the Research Quality Framework (RQF will be implemented. The result of the announcement has been an increased activity within universities focusing on the proposed criteria. The proposed RQF will seek to have research assessed according to quality and impact. Part of both quality and impact relates to where research is published. For academics it will be increasingly important to target high quality journals if the research is to be rated as high quality. The question this raises for Information Systems academics is where do we publish for maximum impact? The Information Systems (IS field is diverse with researchers working in many areas and a publication outlet for one area may not be relevant for another. One area where many Australian IS researchers have focused their research interest is the field of electronic commerce (e-commerce. The research reported in this paper identified the publication outlets that would be regarded as amongst the highest quality for researchers wishing to publish e-commerce research. The authors analysed e-commerce research papers by Australian researchers published in the period 2000 to 2005. The results describe where Australian researchers are publishing in this field. The paper also provides guidance to those working in the e-commerce field on which journals and conferences to target to ensure their work rates highly in terms of the RQF.

  5. A narrative method for consciousness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José-Luis

    2013-01-01

    Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools

  6. A narrative method for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis eDíaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Some types of first person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological parliaments and texts, such as internal monologue statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monologue in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1 The relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2 Some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3 A preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monologue excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno is presented using some

  7. A narrative method for consciousness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José-Luis

    2013-01-01

    Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce's Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools.

  8. Privacy, security, and the public health researcher in the era of electronic health record research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Neal D; Sarwate, Anand D

    2016-01-01

    Health data derived from electronic health records are increasingly utilized in large-scale population health analyses. Going hand in hand with this increase in data is an increasing number of data breaches. Ensuring privacy and security of these data is a shared responsibility between the public health researcher, collaborators, and their institutions. In this article, we review the requirements of data privacy and security and discuss epidemiologic implications of emerging technologies from the computer science community that can be used for health data. In order to ensure that our needs as researchers are captured in these technologies, we must engage in the dialogue surrounding the development of these tools.

  9. Spectral-Product Methods for Electronic Structure Calculations (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Mills, J. E; Boatz, J. A

    2006-01-01

    .... The spectral-product approach to molecular electronic structure avoids the repeated evaluations of the one- and two-electron integrals required in construction of polyatomic Hamiltonian matrices...

  10. Spectral-Product Methods for Electronic Structure Calculations (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Hinde, R. J; Mills, J. D; Boatz, J. A

    2007-01-01

    .... The spectral-product approach to molecular electronic structure avoids the repeated evaluations of the one- and two-electron integrals required in construction of polyatomic Hamiltonian matrices...

  11. Generalized Hartree-Fock method for electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the widely used Hartree-Fock procedure for atomic structure calculations, trial functions in the form of linear combinations of Slater determinants are constructed and the Rayleigh-Ritz minimum principle is applied to determine the best in that class. A generalization of this approach, applicable to low-energy electron-atom scattering, is developed here. The method is based on a unique decomposition of the scattering wave function into open- and closed-channel components, so chosen that an approximation to the closed-channel component may be obtained by adopting it as a trial function in a minimum principle, whose rigor can be maintained even when the target wave functions are imprecisely known. Given a closed-channel trial function, the full scattering function may be determined from the solution of an effective one-body Schroedinger equation. Alternatively, in a generalized Hartree-Fock approach, the minimum principle leads to coupled integrodifferential equations to be satisfied by the basis functions appearing in a Slater-determinant representation of the closed-channel wave function; it also provides a procedure for optimizing the choice of nonlinear parameters in a variational determination of these basis functions. Inclusion of additional Slater determinants in the closed-channel trial function allows for systematic improvement of that function, as well as the calculated scattering parameters, with the possibility of spurious singularities avoided. Electron-electron correlations can be important in accounting for long-range forces and resonances. These correlation effects can be included explicitly by suitable choice of one component of the closed-channel wave function; the remaining component may then be determined by the generalized Hartree-Fock procedure. As a simple test, the method is applied to s-wave scattering of positrons by hydrogen. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Selected Methods For Increases Reliability The Of Electronic Systems Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paś Jacek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues related to the different methods to increase the reliability of electronic security systems (ESS for example, a fire alarm system (SSP. Reliability of the SSP in the descriptive sense is a property preservation capacity to implement the preset function (e.g. protection: fire airport, the port, logistics base, etc., at a certain time and under certain conditions, e.g. Environmental, despite the possible non-compliance by a specific subset of elements this system. Analyzing the available literature on the ESS-SSP is not available studies on methods to increase the reliability (several works similar topics but moving with respect to the burglary and robbery (Intrusion. Based on the analysis of the set of all paths in the system suitability of the SSP for the scenario mentioned elements fire events (device critical because of security.

  13. Method of electroplating a conversion electron emitting source on implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Suresh C [Setauket, NY; Gonzales, Gilbert R [New York, NY; Adzic, Radoslav [East Setauket, NY; Meinken, George E [Middle Island, NY

    2012-02-14

    Methods for preparing an implant coated with a conversion electron emitting source (CEES) are disclosed. The typical method includes cleaning the surface of the implant; placing the implant in an activating solution comprising hydrochloric acid to activate the surface; reducing the surface by H.sub.2 evolution in H.sub.2SO.sub.4 solution; and placing the implant in an electroplating solution that includes ions of the CEES, HCl, H.sub.2SO.sub.4, and resorcinol, gelatin, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, before tin plating, a seed layer is formed on the surface. The electroplated CEES coating can be further protected and stabilized by annealing in a heated oven, by passivation, or by being covered with a protective film. The invention also relates to a holding device for holding an implant, wherein the device selectively prevents electrodeposition on the portions of the implant contacting the device.

  14. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gail D. Caruth

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research. A review of the literature revealed that it has been gaining acceptance among researchers, researchers have begun using mixed methods research, it ...

  15. ASPECTS REGARDING NEUROMARKETING SPECIFIC RESEARCH METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA-CRISTINA VOICU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must posses. Some informations are hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer. Neuromarketing helps us find what is inside of the black box without troubling the consumer with questions that he doesn’t want to answer or that he can’t answer. Today because of an extensive research in mapping cortical and subcortical activity in association with behaviors and thoughts, the confidence in neurological data is growing. Thanks to discoveries in perceptual sciences we can identify the parts of the brain that are responsible for the phenomena that we experience daily. For all those interested in information obtained through neuromarketing techniques it becomes evident that there are corresponding neural substrates of consumer decision making process and these substrates can be observed, measured, and possibly manipulated. The following paper reveals some important aspects of the use of neuromarketing in studying consumer behavior by presenting the concepts, methods and techniques used under this sophisticated name, the limitations and advantages of using neuromarketing techniques and the importance of this type of information in decision making process at a company level.

  16. Exploring Reticence in Research Methods: The Experience of Studying Psychological Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Barbara E.; Robertson, Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental element of any psychology degree, the teaching and learning of research methods is repeatedly brought into sharp focus, and it is often regarded as a real challenge by undergraduate students. The reasons for this are complex, but frequently attributed to an aversion of maths. To gain a more detailed understanding of students'…

  17. Evaluation on Electronic Securities Settlements Systems by AHP Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Kiyoyuki; Komoda, Norihisa

    Accompanying the spread of Internet and the change of business models, electronic commerce expands buisness areas. Electronic finance commerce becomes popular and especially online security tradings becoome very popular in this area. This online securitiy tradings have some good points such as less mistakes than telephone calls. In order to expand this online security tradings, the transfer of the security paper is one the largest problems to be solved. Because it takes a few days to transfer the security paper from a seller to a buyer. So the dematerialization of security papers is one of the solutions. The demterilization needs the information systems for setteling security. Some countries such as France, German, United Kingdom and U.S.A. have been strating the dematerialization projects. The legacy assesments on these projects focus from the viewpoint of the legal schemes only and there is no assessment from system architectures. This paper focuses on the information system scheme and valuates these dematerlization projects by AHP methods from the viewpoints of “dematerializaion of security papers", “speed of transfer", “usefulness on the system" and “accumulation of risks". This is the first case of valuations on security settlements systems by AHP methods, especially four counties’ systems.

  18. Research and design of electron gun of electrocurtain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pengfei; Zhang Mingchao; Li Xinmin; Wang Yuhong

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics of the electron beam current transport in the electron gun of the electrocurtain accelerator were studied and the origin of the influence on longitudinal uniformity of beam current was analysed. The deflection of the cathode is considered under the boundary condition of perfect constraint. Then a newly designed electron gun is introduced with longitudinal uniformity of current within +-10%

  19. Qualitative methods: a research approach worth considering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative research forms part of the classical cycle of research. ... putting aside any preconceived ideas and “intuiting”- focusing on the ... that is, no new information is obtained. ... and communication with the scientific community are adhered.

  20. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  1. Perspectives on electronic medical records adoption: electronic medical records (EMR in outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Belletti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dan Belletti1, Christopher Zacker1, C Daniel Mullins21Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Health information technology (HIT is engineered to promote improved quality and efficiency of care, and reduce medical errors. Healthcare organizations have made significant investments in HIT tools and the electronic medical record (EMR is a major technological advance. The Department of Veterans Affairs was one of the first large healthcare systems to fully implement EMR. The Veterans Health Information System and Technology Architecture (VistA began by providing an interface to review and update a patient’s medical record with its computerized patient record system. However, since the implementation of the VistA system there has not been an overall substantial adoption of EMR in the ambulatory or inpatient setting. In fact, only 23.9% of physicians were using EMRs in their office-based practices in 2005. A sample from the American Medical Association revealed that EMRs were available in an office setting to 17% of physicians in late 2007 and early 2008. Of these, 17% of physicians with EMR, only 4% were considered to be fully functional EMR systems. With the exception of some large aggregate EMR databases the slow adoption of EMR has limited its use in outcomes research. This paper reviews the literature and presents the current status of and forces influencing the adoption of EMR in the office-based practice, and identifies the benefits, limitations, and overall value of EMR in the conduct of outcomes research in the US.Keywords: electronic medical records, health information technology, medical errors

  2. An ontology-based method for secondary use of electronic dental record data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Titus KL; Ruttenberg, Alan; Duncan, William; Haendel, Melissa; Torniai, Carlo; Acharya, Amit; Song, Mei; Thyvalikakath, Thankam P.; Liu, Kaihong; Hernandez, Pedro

    A key question for healthcare is how to operationalize the vision of the Learning Healthcare System, in which electronic health record data become a continuous information source for quality assurance and research. This project presents an initial, ontology-based, method for secondary use of electronic dental record (EDR) data. We defined a set of dental clinical research questions; constructed the Oral Health and Disease Ontology (OHD); analyzed data from a commercial EDR database; and created a knowledge base, with the OHD used to represent clinical data about 4,500 patients from a single dental practice. Currently, the OHD includes 213 classes and reuses 1,658 classes from other ontologies. We have developed an initial set of SPARQL queries to allow extraction of data about patients, teeth, surfaces, restorations and findings. Further work will establish a complete, open and reproducible workflow for extracting and aggregating data from a variety of EDRs for research and quality assurance. PMID:24303273

  3. An ontology-based method for secondary use of electronic dental record data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Titus Kl; Ruttenberg, Alan; Duncan, William; Haendel, Melissa; Torniai, Carlo; Acharya, Amit; Song, Mei; Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Liu, Kaihong; Hernandez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    A key question for healthcare is how to operationalize the vision of the Learning Healthcare System, in which electronic health record data become a continuous information source for quality assurance and research. This project presents an initial, ontology-based, method for secondary use of electronic dental record (EDR) data. We defined a set of dental clinical research questions; constructed the Oral Health and Disease Ontology (OHD); analyzed data from a commercial EDR database; and created a knowledge base, with the OHD used to represent clinical data about 4,500 patients from a single dental practice. Currently, the OHD includes 213 classes and reuses 1,658 classes from other ontologies. We have developed an initial set of SPARQL queries to allow extraction of data about patients, teeth, surfaces, restorations and findings. Further work will establish a complete, open and reproducible workflow for extracting and aggregating data from a variety of EDRs for research and quality assurance.

  4. ANALYSIS METHOD OF RESEARCH PAPERS PUBLISHED FOR AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREAVU-ȘERBAN VALERICĂ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Representing a strong instrument of control and feedback used by top management executives, regulators institutions or independent bodies, the audit, its methods and techniques incite the interest of specialists, professionals, professors and researchers from all socio-economic activities. The way domain experts write about audit itself is often reflected in the manner in which they choose the keywords for the title and for the article. This study is a detailed analysis of assignment to the specific thematic areas of articles published in "Financial Audit" journal, for all public appearances in electronic format from the period 2003-2015. The study is different from other similar researches by the methodology and the type of information extracted addressed. The main purpose is to identify the most used keywords in the title and content of articles published over time and insight traceability to future research directions. The conclusions of the analysis from this article give a comprehensive picture of audit multidisciplinary, thus providing researchers, on several economic fields, an image about the content of the publication, quality information for readers, authors and future authors.

  5. Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Harry T.; Judd, Charles M.

    2000-03-01

    This volume provides an overview of research methods in contemporary social psychology. Coverage includes conceptual issues in research design, methods of research, and statistical approaches. Because the range of research methods available for social psychology have expanded extensively in the past decade, both traditional and innovative methods are presented. The goal is to introduce new and established researchers alike to new methodological developments in the field.

  6. Toward a Conceptualization of Mixed Methods Phenomenological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Mayoh, Joanne; Onwuegbuzie, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are recognizing the benefits of expanding research designs that are rooted in one tradition (i.e., monomethod design) into a design that incorporates or interfaces with the other tradition. The flexibility of phenomenologically driven methods provides one such example. Indeed, phenomenological research methods work extremely well as a component of mixed methods research approaches. However, to date, a mixed methods version of phenomenological research has not been fo...

  7. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  8. Research on lightning stroke model and characteristics of electronic transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the reliability of power supply, a large number of electronic voltage and current transformers are used in digital substations. In this paper, the mathematical model of the electronic transformer is analyzed firstly, and its circuit model is given. According to the difference of working characteristics between voltage transformer and current transformer, the circuit model of voltage type electronic transformer and current type electronic transformer is given respectively. By analyzing their broadband transmission characteristics, the accuracy of the model is verified, and their lightning analysis models are obtained.

  9. Debriefing Research Games : Context, Substance and Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoogen, J.; Lo, J.C.; Meijer, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Debriefing is an intrinsic part of games for learning and proper
    debriefing can also be beneficial to research games. However, the literature
    on how to debrief research games is sparse and only provides the professional
    with an abstract topic guide.
    Aim. The purpose of

  10. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  11. Methodical Problems in Organic Farming Research

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    Workshop presentation with particular focus on values, transferability and praxis relevance of organic farming research. Examples from agricultural engineering lead to the conclusion, that prototype farming, goal oriented project management, participative decision making and funding, coaching of co-operation, and coaching of conflict management may enhance long term, holistic and interdisciplinary research.

  12. Basic Research Methods for Librarians, Fifth Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-nine percent of the respondents to a 2000 survey reported that their master's programs had not adequately prepared them to conduct research, something that has not changed much in the ensuing decade. Yet, many library and information services (LIS) practitioners are routinely called upon to conducted job-related research. Where can they turn for the guidance they need?

  13. Specific surface area evaluation method by using scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, Camelia; Petrescu, Cristian; Axinte, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Ceramics are among the most interesting materials for a large category of applications, including both industry and health. Among the characteristic of the ceramic materials, the specific surface area is often difficult to evaluate.The paper presents a method of evaluation for the specific surface area of two ceramic powders by means of scanning electron microscopy measurements and an original method of computing the specific surface area.Cumulative curves are used to calculate the specific surface area under assumption that the values of particles diameters follow a normal logarithmic distribution. For two powder types, X7R and NPO the results are the following: - for the density ρ (g/cm 2 ), 5.5 and 6.0, respectively; - for the average diameter D bar (μm), 0.51 and 0.53, respectively; - for σ, 1.465 and 1.385, respectively; - for specific surface area (m 2 /g), 1.248 and 1.330, respectively. The obtained results are in good agreement with the values measured by conventional methods. (authors)

  14. Research on heightening of performance of optical system for free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoshiyuki; Toyada, Koichi

    1996-01-01

    Free electron laser will become in future the center of industrial laser technology as a high efficiency, high power output laser. For the development of free electron laser, the development of the elementary technologies such as accelerator, wiggler, optical system and so on must be carried out. For the stable functioning of free electron laser for long hours, the innovative technical development of the optical technology has been strongly desired. In this research, the development of the method of manufacturing a new high performance, multilayer film reflection mirror and the research on compound optical damage by new high energy photon generation process were advanced. The research on the formation of aluminum oxide thin films by using surface reaction, the development of the technology for forming high accuracy, multi-layer thin films and the evaluation of the optical performance of multi-layer films are reported. The constitution of compound optical damage evaluation system, the calculation of the luminance of high energy photons and the experiment on the generation of photons by a carbon dioxide gas laser are described regarding the compound optical damage research. (K.I.)

  15. Advanced cluster methods for correlated-electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Andre

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis, quantum cluster methods are used to calculate electronic properties of correlated-electron systems. A special focus lies in the determination of the ground state properties of a 3/4 filled triangular lattice within the one-band Hubbard model. At this filling, the electronic density of states exhibits a so-called van Hove singularity and the Fermi surface becomes perfectly nested, causing an instability towards a variety of spin-density-wave (SDW) and superconducting states. While chiral d+id-wave superconductivity has been proposed as the ground state in the weak coupling limit, the situation towards strong interactions is unclear. Additionally, quantum cluster methods are used here to investigate the interplay of Coulomb interactions and symmetry-breaking mechanisms within the nematic phase of iron-pnictide superconductors. The transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic phase is accompanied by a significant change in electronic properties, while long-range magnetic order is not established yet. The driving force of this transition may not only be phonons but also magnetic or orbital fluctuations. The signatures of these scenarios are studied with quantum cluster methods to identify the most important effects. Here, cluster perturbation theory (CPT) and its variational extention, the variational cluster approach (VCA) are used to treat the respective systems on a level beyond mean-field theory. Short-range correlations are incorporated numerically exactly by exact diagonalization (ED). In the VCA, long-range interactions are included by variational optimization of a fictitious symmetry-breaking field based on a self-energy functional approach. Due to limitations of ED, cluster sizes are limited to a small number of degrees of freedom. For the 3/4 filled triangular lattice, the VCA is performed for different cluster symmetries. A strong symmetry dependence and finite-size effects make a comparison of the results from different clusters difficult

  16. A method to study electron heating during ICRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.G.; Hellsten, T.

    1989-01-01

    Collisionless absorption of ICRF waves occurs either by ion cyclotron absorption or by electron Landau (ELD) and transit damping (TTMP). Both ion cyclotron absorption, and direct electron absorption results in electron heating. Electron heating by minority ions occurs after a high energy tail of the resonating ions has been formed i.e. typically after 0.2-1s in present JET experiments. Electron heating through ELD, and TTMP, takes place on the timescale given by electron-electron collisions which is typically of the order of ms. This difference in the timescales can be used to separate the two damping mechanisms. This can be done by measuring the time derivatives of the electron temperature after sawtooth crashes during ramp-up and ramp-down of the RF-power. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  17. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    The combined use of case study and systems theory is rarely discussed in the ... Scott, 2002), the main benefit of doing qualitative research is the patience ..... Teaching ICT to teacher candidates ... English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.

  18. Empirical Bayes methods in road safety research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelesang, R.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Road safety research is a wonderful combination of counting fatal accidents and using a toolkit containing prior, posterior, overdispersed Poisson, negative binomial and Gamma distributions, together with positive and negative regression effects, shrinkage estimators and fiercy debates concerning

  19. Nuclear physics methods in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The brochure contains the abstracts of the papers presented at the 7th EPS meeting 1980 in Darmstadt. The main subjects were: a) Neutron scattering and Moessbauer effect in materials research, b) ion implantation in micrometallurgy, c) applications of nuclear reactions and radioisotopes in research on solids, d) recent developments in activation analysis and e) pions, positrons, and heavy ions applied in solid state physics. (RW) [de

  20. Quality; Research of method; Consumer of satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamir da Silva Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The customers' evaluation is an indicator used by the concerned organizations with the quality services. Starting from a research of evaluation of the quality services of a company of public cleaning, accomplished the denizen close to, we decided to elaborate this paper to present the found results and a critical analysis of the methodology used by the company. The research outcomes indicate a positive evaluation of the services. However, some changes are suggested on the adopted procedures.

  1. IMPLEMENTING AND AUDITING ELECTRONIC RECORDKEEPING SYSTEMS USED IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic recordkeeping is increasingly replacing hadwritten records in the course of "normal business." As this trend continues, it is important that organizations develop and implement electronic recordkeeping policies and procedures. This is especially true for Research and...

  2. Modern trends in international researches in the sphere of electronic governance (in the case of publications of the international journal Electronic Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Dreshpak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current trends of studying the problems of electronic government by world scientific community have been revealed in the article using the analysis of publications in the international journal Electronic Government. It has been noted that the peculiarity of modern research in the sphere of electronic government is that this sphere is changing constantly and dynamically under the influence of many factors and is being modernized together with the development of information and communication technologies and social relations. This requires a bigger degree of integration of Ukrainian researches in the sphere of public administration with the global scientific context, more active introduction of the foreign researches’ materials on electronic government issues to the scientific Ukrainian use, study of foreign approaches on publications in scientific periodicals of the industry. The survey was conducted on the basis of Electronic Government, an International Journal, which has been published since 2004 in the UK and is submitted to the international Scientometrics Scopus database and publishes materials in the sphere of «Public administration». It has been found that the key topics of the journal relate to the current practice and studies of various aspects of electronic government in different countries. In particular, the analyzed publications of 2015 - 2017 years provide a broad picture of the situation with e-government in the world and reveal specific problems of different states according to the level of development of their e-government powers. The authors of these articles are scientists from 24 countries. They have studied the problems of electronic government in 14 states and the global problems of electronic government. For example, the magazine focuses on issues related to technological, social and humanitarian components of functioning and development of electronic governance, issues of methodology and methods of implementation of

  3. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for ... show the effectiveness of the research method. ... qualitative data before quantitative datasets ..... whereby both types of data are collected simultaneously.

  4. Display methods of electronic patient record screens: patient privacy concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Yukari; Ota, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    To provide adequate care, medical professionals have to collect not only medical information but also information that may be related to private aspects of the patient's life. With patients' increasing awareness of information privacy, healthcare providers have to pay attention to the patients' right of privacy. This study aimed to clarify the requirements of the display method of electronic patient record (EPR) screens in consideration of both patients' information privacy concerns and health professionals' information needs. For this purpose, semi-structured group interviews were conducted of 78 medical professionals. They pointed out that partial concealment of information to meet patients' requests for privacy could result in challenges in (1) safety in healthcare, (2) information sharing, (3) collaboration, (4) hospital management, and (5) communication. They believed that EPRs should (1) meet the requirements of the therapeutic process, (2) have restricted access, (3) provide convenient access to necessary information, and (4) facilitate interprofessional collaboration. This study provides direction for the development of display methods that balance the sharing of vital information and protection of patient privacy.

  5. Using mixed methods research in medical education: basic guidelines for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Karen E; Reed, Virginia A

    2009-07-01

    Mixed methods research involves the collection, analysis and integration of both qualitative and quantitative data in a single study. The benefits of a mixed methods approach are particularly evident when studying new questions or complex initiatives and interactions, which is often the case in medical education research. Basic guidelines for when to use mixed methods research and how to design a mixed methods study in medical education research are not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to remedy that situation by providing an overview of mixed methods research, research design models relevant for medical education research, examples of each research design model in medical education research, and basic guidelines for medical education researchers interested in mixed methods research. Mixed methods may prove superior in increasing the integrity and applicability of findings when studying new or complex initiatives and interactions in medical education research. They deserve an increased presence and recognition in medical education research.

  6. Research method of nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Dan; Gao An'na; Sun Chenglin; Wang Lei; You Xinfeng

    2010-01-01

    When faced with a huge amount of nuclear patent information, the key to effective research include: (1) Choose convenient way to search, quick access to nuclear technology related patents; (2) To overcome the language barrier, analysis the technical content of patent information; (3) Organize the publication date of retrieved patent documents, analysis the status and trends of nuclear technology development; (4) Research the patented technology of main applicants; (5) Always pay attention to the legal status of patent information, free use the invalid patents, at the same time avoid the patent infringement. Summary, patent information is important to obtain the latest technical information source, and the research work of patent information is a comprehensive understanding and mastery way for advanced nuclear technology. (authors)

  7. Project objectives and progress at the Research Laboratory of Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.

    1983-01-01

    Molecule microscopy, semiconductor surface studies, atomic resonance and scattering, reaction dynamics at semiconductor surfaces, X-ray diffuse scattering, phase transitions in chemisorbed systems, optics and quantum electronics, photonics, optical spectroscopy of disordered materials and X-ray scattering from surfaces, infrared nonlinear optics, quantum optics and electronics, microwave and millimeter wave techniques, microwave and quantum magnetics, radio astronomy, electromagnetic wave theory and remote sensing, electronic properties of amorphous silicon dioxide, photon correlation spectroscopy and applications, submicron structures fabrication, plasma dynamics, optical propagation and communication, digital signal processing, speech communication, linguistics, cognitive information processing, custom integrated circuits, communications biophysics, and physiology, are discussed

  8. The use of mixed methods research in interdisciplinary educational journals

    OpenAIRE

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Molina Azorín, José Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming increasingly important in several scientific areas. The analysis of prevalence rates is a new line of research that has emerged in mixed methods research, and this methodological approach has only been applied carefully in a handful of journals. The purpose of this article was to analyse the prevalence of mixed methods research in interdisciplinary educational journals. Moreover, the main characteristics of the mixed methods articles identified were examined...

  9. Nuclear physics methods in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Baumann, H.; Jex, H.; Rauch, F.

    1980-01-01

    Proceedings of the seventh divisional conference of the Nuclear Physics Division held at Darmstadt, Germany, from 23rd through 26th of September, 1980. The scope of this conference was defined as follows: i) to inform solid state physicists and materials scientists about the application of nuclear physics methods; ii) to show to nuclear physicists open questions and problems in solid state physics and materials science to which their methods can be applied. According to the intentions of the conference, the various nuclear physics methods utilized in solid state physics and materials science and especially new developments were reviewed by invited speakers. Detailed aspects of the methods and typical examples extending over a wide range of applications were presented as contributions in poster sessions. The Proceedings contain all the invited papers and about 90% of the contributed papers. (orig./RW)

  10. [Research on the preparative method of Arctigenin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ying; Yang, Yi-Shun; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Yue; Cai, Zhen-Zhen; Tao, Jian-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    To research on the preparation of Arctigenin in vitro. Took enzyme concentration, time course and substrate concentration as investigation factors, used Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis path of Arctigenin. The best operational path for Arctigenin was as follows: the temperature was 50 degrees C, pH was 4.8, enzyme concentration was 0.44 U/mL, time course was 46.81 min, substrate concentration was 0.29 mg/mL, the conversion rate was 90.94%. This research can be regarded as a referencein preparing Arctigenin in vitro.

  11. Diversified Research Methods Education in LIS: Thinking outside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lili

    2017-01-01

    A small number of LIS degree programs have adopted a diversified approach to research methods education, including offering an array of specialized research methods courses in addition to a general introductory course. The current study conducted an in-depth investigation of the diversified research methods curriculum of the LIS program at San…

  12. Development of a Research Methods and Statistics Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C.; Chapman, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are core courses in the undergraduate psychology major. To assess learning outcomes, it would be useful to have a measure that assesses research methods and statistical literacy beyond course grades. In two studies, we developed and provided initial validation results for a research methods and statistical knowledge…

  13. Critical Debates in Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores some of the critical debates in social science research methods education and is set out in three parts. The first section introduces the importance and relevance of research methods to the social sciences. It then outlines the problems and challenges experienced in the teaching and learning of research methods, which are…

  14. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  15. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  16. A Synthesis of the Literature on Research Methods Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis is to examine the current research on teaching and learning research methods. The aims are to understand the themes present in the current literature and identify gaps in our understanding of how we teach, and how students learn, research methods. A synthesis of 89 studies generated three themes: (1)…

  17. Market Research Methods for Improving College Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Paul G.

    1979-01-01

    Essential elements of a good marketing plan for higher education institutions are described. What market research is and how the modern concept of marketing differs from the traditional sales approach are discussed as well as market analysis and definition. Also included is a discussion of marketing for proposed new programs. (Author/SF)

  18. Innovations in Second Language Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on two approaches to research in second language acquisition: (1) various types of acceptability judgments or probes aimed at assessing acquisition of syntactic structure; and (2) various types of stimulated recall designed to gather learners' accounts of their own thought processes. (Author/VWL)

  19. Methodologies and Methods for User Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiling

    1999-01-01

    Discusses methodological issues in empirical studies of information-related behavior in six specific research areas: information needs and uses; information seeking; relevance judgment; online searching (including online public access catalog, online database, and the Web); human-system interactions; and reference transactions. (Contains 191…

  20. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  1. Method for pulse to pulse dose reproducibility applied to electron linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ighigeanu, D.; Martin, D.; Oproiu, C.; Cirstea, E.; Craciun, G.

    2002-01-01

    An original method for obtaining programmed beam single shots and pulse trains with programmed pulse number, pulse repetition frequency, pulse duration and pulse dose is presented. It is particularly useful for automatic control of absorbed dose rate level, irradiation process control as well as in pulse radiolysis studies, single pulse dose measurement or for research experiments where pulse-to-pulse dose reproducibility is required. This method is applied to the electron linear accelerators, ALIN-10 of 6.23 MeV and 82 W and ALID-7, of 5.5 MeV and 670 W, built in NILPRP. In order to implement this method, the accelerator triggering system (ATS) consists of two branches: the gun branch and the magnetron branch. ATS, which synchronizes all the system units, delivers trigger pulses at a programmed repetition rate (up to 250 pulses/s) to the gun (80 kV, 10 A and 4 ms) and magnetron (45 kV, 100 A, and 4 ms).The accelerated electron beam existence is determined by the electron gun and magnetron pulses overlapping. The method consists in controlling the overlapping of pulses in order to deliver the beam in the desired sequence. This control is implemented by a discrete pulse position modulation of gun and/or magnetron pulses. The instabilities of the gun and magnetron transient regimes are avoided by operating the accelerator with no accelerated beam for a certain time. At the operator 'beam start' command, the ATS controls electron gun and magnetron pulses overlapping and the linac beam is generated. The pulse-to-pulse absorbed dose variation is thus considerably reduced. Programmed absorbed dose, irradiation time, beam pulse number or other external events may interrupt the coincidence between the gun and magnetron pulses. Slow absorbed dose variation is compensated by the control of the pulse duration and repetition frequency. Two methods are reported in the electron linear accelerators' development for obtaining the pulse to pulse dose reproducibility: the method

  2. The laddering method in service innovation research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe

    2017-01-01

    The laddering method is a qualitative interview technique applied in a situation with one interviewer and one informant with the aim of creating an understanding of the value that business-to-consumer (B2C) customers extract from product attributes. Thus, this methodology aims to depict a mental ...

  3. Pollination Research Methods with Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes field and lab procedures for doing experiments on honey bee pollination. Most of the methods apply to any insect for whom pollen vectoring capacity is the question. What makes honey bee pollination distinctive is its historic emphasis on agricultural applications; hence one fi...

  4. Research Investigation of Information Access Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, John H.; Sharkey, Thomas W.; Lim, Jeen-Su

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the satisfaction of library users at Wayne State University who utilize alternative information access methods. The LibQUAL+[TM] desired and perceived that satisfaction ratings are used to determine the user's "superiority gap." By focusing limited library resources to address "superiority gap" issues identified by each…

  5. Mixed Methods and Action Research: similar or different?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiśniewska, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to analyse and compare ELT studies grounded solely in mixed methods and ELT action research studies based on a mixed methods approach in order to identify to what degree action research studies combining different methods in a single study comply with the principles of rigorous mixed methods study.

  6. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  7. Electron backscatter diffraction as a useful method for alloys microstructure characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, Leszek; Pietrzyk, Bozena

    2004-11-17

    Microstructure examination of cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy is presented in this paper. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the alloy were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). An identification of alloy phases was carried out using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Two different kinds of precipitates in metallic matrix were found. They were identified as MC and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type of carbides in Co-lattice solid solution. The advantages and limits of the EBSD method are described. It is presented that EBSD, as excellent tool for phase identification, is a valuable supplementary method for materials research.

  8. Electron Microscopy-Data Analysis Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives.  The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for

  9. Innovative Methods: Resources for Research, Publishing, and Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Mary; Chrisler, Joan C.; LoCicero, Alice

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of innovative methods congenial to research in feminist psychology and describes undergraduate and graduate courses that emphasize these methods in their curricula. Contains a bibliography of over 300 entries organized by type of innovative method. (SLD)

  10. Using Blogs in Qualitative Educational Research: An Exploration of Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harricharan, Michelle; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2014-01-01

    When compared with wider social research, qualitative educational research has been relatively slow to take up online research methods (ORMs). There is some very notable research in the area but, in general, ORMs have not achieved wide applicability in qualitative educational contexts apart from research that is inherently linked to the Internet,…

  11. Electron Bernstein Wave Research on NSTX and CDX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Jones, B.; Bell, G.L.; Bers, A.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carter, M.D.; Harvey, R.W.; Ram, A.K.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Smirnov, A.P.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wilson, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Studies of thermally emitted electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) on CDX-U and NSTX, via mode conversion (MC) to electromagnetic radiation, support the use of EBWs to measure the Te profile and provide local electron heating and current drive (CD) in overdense spherical torus plasmas. An X-mode antenna with radially adjustable limiters successfully controlled EBW MC on CDX-U and enhanced MC efficiency to ∼ 100%. So far the X-mode MC efficiency on NSTX has been increased by a similar technique to 40-50% and future experiments are focused on achieving * 80% MC. MC efficiencies on both machines agree well with theoretical predictions. Ray tracing and Fokker-Planck modeling for NSTX equilibria are being conducted to support the design of a 3 MW, 15 GHz EBW heating and CD system for NSTX to assist non-inductive plasma startup, current ramp up, and to provide local electron heating and CD in high beta NSTX plasmas

  12. Mixed-methods research in nursing - a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Valentina; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Timmins, Fiona; Barisone, Michela; Bianchi, Monica; Pellegrini, Ramona; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-10-01

    To review the use of mixed-methods research in nursing with a particular focus on the extent to which current practice informs nurse researchers. It also aimed to highlight gaps in current knowledge, understanding and reporting of this type of research. Mixed-methods research is becoming increasingly popular among nurses and healthcare professionals. Emergent findings from this type of research are very useful for nurses in practice. The combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a scientific base for practice but also richness from the qualitative enquiry. However, at the same time mixed-methods research is underdeveloped. This study identified mixed-methods research papers and critically evaluated their usefulness for research practice. To support the analysis, we performed a two-stage search using CINAHL to find papers with titles that included the key term 'mixed method'. An analysis of studies that used mixed-methods research revealed some inconsistencies in application and reporting. Attempts to use two distinct research methods in these studies often meant that one or both aspects had limitations. Overall methods were applied in a less rigorous way. This has implications for providing somewhat limited direction for novice researchers. There is also potential for application of evidence in healthcare practice that limited validity. This study highlights current gaps in knowledge, understanding and reporting of mixed-methods research. While these methods are useful to gain insight into clinical problems nurses lack guidance with this type of research. This study revealed that the guidance provided by current mixed-methods research is inconsistent and incomplete and this compounds the lack of available direction. There is an urgent need to develop robust guidelines for using mixed-methods research so that findings may be critically implemented in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nuclear physics research requirements for electron and heavy ion machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1983-03-01

    There has been a great deal of interest in a variety of new machines intended to probe atomic nuclei for hadronic and quark aspects which lie beyond the familiar shell model view of nuclei. This paper gives the physics perspective within which the proposals for such machines have arisen and discusses the two classes of tools - high energy cw electron machines and relativistic heavy ion machines - which lie at opposite ends of the arsenal being gathered for the pursuit of QCD in nuclei. The electron machines present a reasoned analytic approach to the simplest systems and the heavy ion machines a major thrust for starting new physics in the quark-gluon sea

  14. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric High-energy physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Mnatsakanyan, E.

    2016-01-01

    The observation of the numerous Thunderstorm ground Enhancements (TGEs), i.e. enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth’s surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it helped to establish a new scientific topic - high-energy physics in the atmosphere. The Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiated high-energy processes in the thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Aragats Mt. in Armenia during strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma ray energy spectra proved that RREA is a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the “beams” of “electron accelerators” operated in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking at May-June and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. The key method employed is that all the relevant information is being gathered, including the data on the particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mt. Aragats on the 28th of August 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes. (author)

  15. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-pretreatment methods. Discriminant Factorial Analysis was used to visualize the different categories of rice samples; however, radial basis function (RBF artificial neural network with leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed for prediction modeling. The collected signal data were first compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT and then significant features were extracted from the voltammetric signals. The experimental results indicated that the sample solutions obtained by the non-crushed pretreatment method could efficiently meet the effect of discrimination and recognition. The satisfactory prediction results of voltammetric electronic tongue based on RBF artificial neural network were obtained with less than five-fold dilution of the sample solution. The main objective of this study was to develop primary research on the application of an electronic tongue system for the discrimination and prediction of solid foods and provide an objective assessment tool for the food industry.

  16. Statistical Methods for Single-Particle Electron Cryomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is a form of transmission electron microscopy, aimed at reconstructing the 3D structure of a macromolecular complex from a large set of 2D projection images, as they exhibit a very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In the single-particle reconstruction (SPR) probl...

  17. Application of maximum entropy method for the study of electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in terms of the computing power of the machine on which it runs. Since the electron ... Table 1. The Debye–Waller factors of individual atoms and the reliability indices of three sulphides. .... The size of the electron cloud indicates the size of the ...

  18. Machine Learning and Data Mining Methods in Diabetes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakiotis, Ioannis; Tsave, Olga; Salifoglou, Athanasios; Maglaveras, Nicos; Vlahavas, Ioannis; Chouvarda, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    The remarkable advances in biotechnology and health sciences have led to a significant production of data, such as high throughput genetic data and clinical information, generated from large Electronic Health Records (EHRs). To this end, application of machine learning and data mining methods in biosciences is presently, more than ever before, vital and indispensable in efforts to transform intelligently all available information into valuable knowledge. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined as a group of metabolic disorders exerting significant pressure on human health worldwide. Extensive research in all aspects of diabetes (diagnosis, etiopathophysiology, therapy, etc.) has led to the generation of huge amounts of data. The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review of the applications of machine learning, data mining techniques and tools in the field of diabetes research with respect to a) Prediction and Diagnosis, b) Diabetic Complications, c) Genetic Background and Environment, and e) Health Care and Management with the first category appearing to be the most popular. A wide range of machine learning algorithms were employed. In general, 85% of those used were characterized by supervised learning approaches and 15% by unsupervised ones, and more specifically, association rules. Support vector machines (SVM) arise as the most successful and widely used algorithm. Concerning the type of data, clinical datasets were mainly used. The title applications in the selected articles project the usefulness of extracting valuable knowledge leading to new hypotheses targeting deeper understanding and further investigation in DM.

  19. 2012 Gordon Research Conference, Electron donor-acceptor interactions, August 5-10 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCusker, James [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2012-08-10

    The upcoming incarnation of the Gordon Research Conference on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions will feature sessions on classic topics including proton-coupled electron transfer, dye-sensitized solar cells, and biological electron transfer, as well as emerging areas such as quantum coherence effects in donor-acceptor interactions, spintronics, and the application of donor-acceptor interactions in chemical synthesis.

  20. Research project AUS-10370/CF: electron impact ionization and surface induced reactions of edge plasma constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    In order to better understand elementary reactions which are taking place at the plasma edge of thermonuclear fusion devices, three areas of research were persuaded: I) Experimental studies about electron ionization of neutrals and ions and electron attachment to molecules, II) Theoretical studies about electron ionisation of neutrals and ions and III) Reactive interaction of molecular ions with surfaces

  1. Research on new methods in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovicj, D.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron transport theory is the basis for development of reactor theory and reactor calculational methods. It has to be acknowledged that recent applications of these disciplines have influenced considerably the development of power reactor concepts and technology. However, these achievements were implemented in a rather heuristic way, since the satisfaction of design demands were of utmost importance. Often this kind of approach turns out to be very restrictive and not even adequate for rather typical reactor applications. Many aspects and techniques of reactor theory and calculations ought to be reevaluated and/or reformulated on the more sound physical and mathematical foundations. At the same time, new reactor concepts and operational demands give rise to more sophisticated and complex design requirements. These new requirements can be met only by the development of new design techniques, which in the case of reactor neutronic calculation lead directly to the advanced transport theory methods. In addition, the rapid development of computer technology opens new opportunities for applications of advanced transport theory in practical calculations

  2. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  3. Implementing and evaluating a fictitious electron dynamics method for the calculation of electronic structure: Application to the Si(100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M J H; Claassens, C H

    2006-01-01

    A density matrix based fictitious electron dynamics method for calculating electronic structure has been implemented within a semi-empirical quantum chemistry environment. This method uses an equation of motion that implicitly ensures the idempotency constraint on the density matrix. Test calculations showed that this method has potential of being combined with simultaneous atomic dynamics, in analogy to the popular Car-Parrinello method. In addition, the sparsity of the density matrix and the sophisticated though flexible way of ensuring idempotency conservation while integrating the equation of motion creates the potential of developing a fast linear scaling method

  4. Qualitative Methods in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Barg, Frances K; Esmail, Laura; Edmundson, Lauren; Girard, Samantha; Perfetti, A Ross

    2017-02-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), created to fund research guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader health care community, offers a new research venue. Many (41 of 50) first funded projects involved qualitative research methods. This study was completed to examine the current state of the science of qualitative methodologies used in PCORI-funded research. Principal investigators participated in phenomenological interviews to learn (a) how do researchers using qualitative methods experience seeking funding for, implementing and disseminating their work; and (b) how may qualitative methods advance the quality and relevance of evidence for patients? Results showed the experience of doing qualitative research in the current research climate as "Being a bona fide qualitative researcher: Staying true to research aims while negotiating challenges," with overlapping patterns: (a) researching the elemental, (b) expecting surprise, and (c) pushing boundaries. The nature of qualitative work today was explicitly described and is rendered in this article.

  5. Research on electron beam welding technology of steel HR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Peng; Guan Kai

    2001-01-01

    The electron beam weldability of HR- 4 steels (J75 and J90) is studied and the welding parameters needed for design and usage are presented. The assessment on the effect of mechanical properties by different processing order of welding and heat-treatment is made

  6. Experimental research of double-pulse linear induction electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Shuqing; Cheng Cheng; Zheng Shuxin; Tang Chuanxiang; Lin Yuzheng; Jing Xiaobing; Mu Fan; Pan Haifeng

    2009-01-01

    The Mini-LIA is a double-pulse linear induction electron accelerator with megahertz repetition rates, which consists of a double-pulse power system, a thermal cathode electron gun, two induction cells, beam transportation systems and diagnosis systems, etc. Experiments of the Mini-LIA have been conducted. The double-pulse high voltage was obtained with several hundred nanosecond pulse intervals (i. e. megahertz repetition rate) and each pulse had an 80 kV amplitude with a FWHM of 80 ns. In the gap of the induction cell, the double-pulse accelerating electric field was measured via E-field probes, and the double-pulse electron beam with a current about 1.1 A has been obtained at the Mini-LIA exit. These experimental results show that the double-pulse high voltage with megahertz repetition rates can be generated by an insulation and junction system. And they also indicate that the induction cell with metglas as the ferromagnetic material and the LaB 6 thermal cathode electron gun suit the double-pulse operation with megahertz repetition rates. (authors)

  7. Research of the internal electron-positron pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenyes, Tibor

    1985-01-01

    The phenomenon of internal electron-positron pair production by excited nuclei is briefly reviewed. The advantages of this phenomenon in nuclear structure investigations are pointed. The new Si(Li)-Si(Li) electron spectrometer with superconducting magnetic transporter (SMS) built at ATOMKI, Hungary, was tested for detection of internal electron-positron pair production events. Proton beam of a Van de Graaff accelerator of 5 MV was used to excite the target nuclei of sup(27)Al, sup(42)Ca and sup(19)F. The internal pair production coefficients were measured and compared with the data of literature. The detection efficiency of SMS is calculated to be (37+-7)%. The test proved that the SMS is suitable for nuclear structure investigations producing electron-positron pairs. The SMS of ATOMKI is recently the top instrument all over the world in this field: its detection efficiency, energy resolution and applicability for multipolarity identification are much better than these properties of other detectors. (D.Gy.)

  8. New pbysical methods used in the study of composition, electronic properties and surface phenomena of solid substances. I. Electronic spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toderean, A; Ilonca, Gh.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of different kinds of interactions between solids and fotonic, respectively electronic and ionic beams, leads to the development of many new, very sensitive, physical methods for the study of solids. This monograph tries to present some of these methods, useful in compositional analysis, in the study of electronic properties and of the surface processes of solid substances. This is done from the point of view both of physical phenomena underlying them and of the information obtainable with such methods. But the whole monograph is limited only to the methods based on the electronic properties of the elements existing in the solid probes studied and this paper presents only those of them in which the detected beam is an electronic one, like: ELS, DAPS, ILS, AES, AEAPS, INS, TSS, XPS and UPS. (authors)

  9. Innovative Methods and Applications in Mucoadhesion Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Alan; Goycoolea, Francisco M.; Menchicchi, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    The present review is aimed at elucidating relatively new aspects of mucoadhesion/mucus interaction and related phenomena that emerged from a Mucoadhesion workshop held in Munster on 2–3 September 2015 as a satellite event of the ICCC 13th—EUCHIS 12th. After a brief outline of the new issues......, the focus is on mucus description, purification, and mucus/mucin characterization, all steps that are pivotal to the understanding of mucus related phenomena and the choice of the correct mucosal model for in vitro and ex vivo experiments, alternative bio/mucomimetic materials are also presented....... Then a selection of preparative techniques and testing methods are described (at molecular as well as micro and macroscale) that may support the pharmaceutical development of mucus interactive systems and assist formulators in the scale-up and industrialization steps. Recent applications of mucoadhesive systems...

  10. New method of ionization energy calculation for two-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for calculation of the ionization energy of two-electron ions is proposed. The method is based on the calculation of the energy of second electron interaction with the field of an one-electron ion the potential of which is well known

  11. Study of distribution of electron density in heteropolymolybdates by method of X-ray electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchanov, V.N.; Kazanskij, L.P.; Torchenkova, E.A.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    X-ray electron spectra of some iso- and heteropolymolybdates relating to different structure types are investigated to study electron structure of complex polyoxyion-heteropolyanions. Binding energies of Modsub(5/2) and 01s-electrons in iso- and heteropolycompounds line are measured and their interdependence is detected. The effective charge of oxygen and molybdenum atoms in heteropolymolybdates increases with decreasing a number of external sphere cations per an oxygen atom and a number of Mo=0 multiple bonds

  12. Empowering and Engaging Students in Learning Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Breit, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to conduct research is essential for university graduates to survive and thrive in their future career. However, research methods courses have often been considered by students as "abstract", "uninteresting", and "hard". Thus, motivating students to engage in the process of learning research methods has become a crucial challenge for…

  13. Strategy to Promote Active Learning of an Advanced Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Hilary J.; Dovey, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    Research methods courses aim to equip students with the knowledge and skills required for research yet seldom include practical aspects of assessment. This reflective practitioner report describes and evaluates an innovative approach to teaching and assessing advanced qualitative research methods to final-year psychology undergraduate students. An…

  14. Research and Design of Rootkit Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leian; Yin, Zuanxing; Shen, Yuli; Lin, Haitao; Wang, Hongjiang

    Rootkit is one of the most important issues of network communication systems, which is related to the security and privacy of Internet users. Because of the existence of the back door of the operating system, a hacker can use rootkit to attack and invade other people's computers and thus he can capture passwords and message traffic to and from these computers easily. With the development of the rootkit technology, its applications are more and more extensive and it becomes increasingly difficult to detect it. In addition, for various reasons such as trade secrets, being difficult to be developed, and so on, the rootkit detection technology information and effective tools are still relatively scarce. In this paper, based on the in-depth analysis of the rootkit detection technology, a new kind of the rootkit detection structure is designed and a new method (software), X-Anti, is proposed. Test results show that software designed based on structure proposed is much more efficient than any other rootkit detection software.

  15. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  17. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  18. Design Patterns for Mixed-Method Research in HCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert Holwerda; Arthur Bennis; Lambert Zaad; René Bakker; Sabine Craenmehr; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Dick Lenior; Marjolein Jacobs; Koen van Turnhout; Ralph Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss mixed-method research in HCI. We report on an empirical literature study of the NordiCHI 2012 proceedings which aimed to uncover and describe common mixed-method approaches, and to identify good practices for mixed-methods research in HCI. We present our results as

  19. System and method for compressive scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W

    2015-01-13

    A scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) system is disclosed. The system may make use of an electron beam scanning system configured to generate a plurality of electron beam scans over substantially an entire sample, with each scan varying in electron-illumination intensity over a course of the scan. A signal acquisition system may be used for obtaining at least one of an image, a diffraction pattern, or a spectrum from the scans, the image, diffraction pattern, or spectrum representing only information from at least one of a select subplurality or linear combination of all pixel locations comprising the image. A dataset may be produced from the information. A subsystem may be used for mathematically analyzing the dataset to predict actual information that would have been produced by each pixel location of the image.

  20. Power Electronics Thermal Management Research: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The objective for this project is to develop thermal management strategies to enable efficient and high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronic systems (e.g., emerging inverter and DC-DC converter). Reliable WBG devices are capable of operating at elevated temperatures (≥ 175 °Celsius). However, packaging WBG devices within an automotive inverter and operating them at higher junction temperatures will expose other system components (e.g., capacitors and electrical boards) to temperatures that may exceed their safe operating limits. This creates challenges for thermal management and reliability. In this project, system-level thermal analyses are conducted to determine the effect of elevated device temperatures on inverter components. Thermal modeling work is then conducted to evaluate various thermal management strategies that will enable the use of highly efficient WBG devices with automotive power electronic systems.

  1. Managing electronic records methods, best practices, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate guide to electronic records management, featuring a collaboration of expert practitioners including over 400 cited references documenting today's global trends, standards, and best practices Nearly all business records created today are electronic, and are increasing in number at breathtaking rates, yet most organizations do not have the policies and technologies in place to effectively organize, search, protect, preserve, and produce these records. Authored by an internationally recognized expert on e-records in collaboration with leading subject matter experts worldwide

  2. Research and Assessment of Learning Environments through Photoelicitation: Graduate Student Perceptions of Electronics Manufacturing in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Catherine G. P.; Cox, Monica F.

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the positive and negative perceptions of graduate students from the United States studying issues of sustainable electronics and electronics manufacturing in India as part of a National Science Foundation Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the…

  3. Electronic Mentoring of LIS Research Utilizing BITNET: An ACRL Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Vicki L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an ACRL (American College and Research Libraries) project that utilized the electronic conferencing facility of BITNET to provide a system of mentoring for academic librarians conducting research. Results of an electronic mail survey of participants that examined experience levels, attitudes, problems, and communication patterns are…

  4. [Application of Delphi method in traditional Chinese medicine clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.

  5. Using mixed methods in music therapy health care research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    »Mixed methods« (or »multiple methods») is a fairly new concept in music therapy research. It is inspired by recent methodological developments in social science, covering the interaction of quantitative and qualitative methods in one and the same research study. Mixed methods are not the same...... as the diversity or pluralism of methods advocated by many scholars who are critical towards the principles of evidence-based medicine. This article presents a concrete example of mixed methods in music therapy research: a psycho-social study of music therapy with female cancer survivors. Problems related...

  6. Simulated annealing method for electronic circuits design: adaptation and comparison with other optimization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthiau, G.

    1995-10-01

    The circuit design problem consists in determining acceptable parameter values (resistors, capacitors, transistors geometries ...) which allow the circuit to meet various user given operational criteria (DC consumption, AC bandwidth, transient times ...). This task is equivalent to a multidimensional and/or multi objective optimization problem: n-variables functions have to be minimized in an hyper-rectangular domain ; equality constraints can be eventually specified. A similar problem consists in fitting component models. In this way, the optimization variables are the model parameters and one aims at minimizing a cost function built on the error between the model response and the data measured on the component. The chosen optimization method for this kind of problem is the simulated annealing method. This method, provided by the combinatorial optimization domain, has been adapted and compared with other global optimization methods for the continuous variables problems. An efficient strategy of variables discretization and a set of complementary stopping criteria have been proposed. The different parameters of the method have been adjusted with analytical functions of which minima are known, classically used in the literature. Our simulated annealing algorithm has been coupled with an open electrical simulator SPICE-PAC of which the modular structure allows the chaining of simulations required by the circuit optimization process. We proposed, for high-dimensional problems, a partitioning technique which ensures proportionality between CPU-time and variables number. To compare our method with others, we have adapted three other methods coming from combinatorial optimization domain - the threshold method, a genetic algorithm and the Tabu search method - The tests have been performed on the same set of test functions and the results allow a first comparison between these methods applied to continuous optimization variables. Finally, our simulated annealing program

  7. The effect of electron range on electron beam induced current collection and a simple method to extract an electron range for any generation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahreche, A.; Beggah, Y.; Corkish, R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electron range on electron beam induced current (EBIC) is demonstrated and the problem of the choice of the optimal electron ranges to use with simple uniform and point generation function models is resolved by proposing a method to extract an electron range-energy relationship (ERER). The results show that the use of these extracted electron ranges remove the previous disagreement between the EBIC curves computed with simple forms of generation model and those based on a more realistic generation model. The impact of these extracted electron ranges on the extraction of diffusion length, surface recombination velocity and EBIC contrast of defects is discussed. It is also demonstrated that, for the case of uniform generation, the computed EBIC current is independent of the assumed shape of the generation volume. -- Highlights: → Effect of electron ranges on modeling electron beam induced current is shown. → A method to extract an electron range for simple form of generation is proposed. → For uniform generation the EBIC current is independent of the choice of it shape. → Uses of the extracted electron ranges remove some existing literature ambiguity.

  8. Improving electronic structure methods to predict nano-optoelectronics and nano-catalyst functions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ida Marie B.; Marzari, Nicola (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Shelnutt, John Allen; Kulik, Heather J. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Medforth, Craig John (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Leung, Kevin

    2009-10-01

    This report focuses on quantum chemistry and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations applied to elucidate the mechanism of the multi-step, 2-electron, electrochemical reduction of the green house gas molecule carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to carbon monoxide (CO) in aqueous media. When combined with H{sub 2} gas to form synthesis ('syn') gas, CO becomes a key precursor to methane, methanol, and other useful hydrocarbon products. To elucidate the mechanism of this reaction, we apply computational electrochemistry which is a fledgling, important area of basic science critical to energy storage. This report highlights several approaches, including the calculation of redox potentials, the explicit depiction of liquid water environments using AIMD, and free energy methods. While costly, these pioneering calculations reveal the key role of hydration- and protonation-stabilization of reaction intermediates, and may inform the design of CO{sub 2}-capture materials as well as its electrochemical reduction. In the course of this work, we have also dealt with the challenges of identifying and applying electronic structure methods which are sufficiently accurate to deal with transition metal ion complex-based catalyst. Such electronic structure methods are also pertinent to the accurate modeling of actinide materials and therefore to nuclear energy research. Our multi-pronged effort towards achieving this titular goal of the LDRD is discussed.

  9. Novel simulation method of space charge effects in electron optical systems including emission of electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinka, Jiří; Oral, Martin; Radlička, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 184, JAN (2018), s. 66-76 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : space charge * self-consistent simulation * aberration polynomial * electron emission Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  10. Method and electronic database search engine for exposing the content of an electronic database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an electronic database search engine comprising an electronic memory device suitable for storing and releasing elements from the database, a display unit, a user interface for selecting and displaying at least one element from the database on the display unit, and control

  11. The imagework method in health and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, I R

    1999-03-01

    Existing alongside the traditional forms of qualitative social science research, there is a set of potential research methods that derive from experiential groupwork and the humanistic human potential movement and are only slightly used by researchers. Social science research has barely begun to use these powerful strategies that were developed originally for personal and group change but that are potentially applicable to the research domain. This article will locate these methods within the qualitative research domain and propose a novel view of their value. The study of the actual and potential use of one of these methods, imagework, will be the particular focus of this article. References to the use of artwork, sculpting, psychodrama, gestalt, and dreamwork will also be made. The hypothesis underpinning the author's approach is that experiential research methods such as imagework can elicit implicit knowledge and self-identifies of respondents in a way that other methods cannot.

  12. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...... as applied research and on evaluation of devel-oped products in the field or in the lab. Also, we find that much research is conducted in natural setting environments with strong focus on field studies....

  13. Travelling Methods: Tracing the Globalization of Qualitative Communication Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan C. Taylor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing discussion of the relationships between globalization, communication research, and qualitative methods emphasizes two images: the challenges posed by globalization to existing communication theory and research methods, and the impact of post-colonial politics and ethics on qualitative research. We draw in this paper on a third image – qualitative research methods as artifacts of globalization – to explore the globalization of qualitative communication research methods. Following a review of literature which tentatively models this process, we discuss two case studies of qualitative research in the disciplinary subfields of intercultural communication and media audience studies. These cases elaborate the forces which influence the articulation of national, disciplinary, and methodological identities which mediate the globalization of qualitative communication research methods.

  14. Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed Methods Research (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed Methods Research designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed Methods Research to study complex human phenomena.

  15. Method for controlling low-energy high current density electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.N.; Oswald, R.B. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for controlling the angle of incidence of low-energy, high current density electron beams are disclosed. The apparatus includes a current generating diode arrangement with a mesh anode for producing a drifting electron beam. An auxiliary grounded screen electrode is placed between the anode and a target for controlling the average angle of incidence of electrons in the drifting electron beam. According to the method of the present invention, movement of the auxiliary screen electrode relative to the target and the anode permits reliable and reproducible adjustment of the average angle of incidence of the electrons in low energy, high current density relativistic electron beams

  16. A data driven method to measure electron charge mis-identification rate

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhshiansohi, Hamed

    2009-01-01

    Electron charge mis-measurement is an important challenge in analyses which depend on the charge of electron. To estimate the probability of {\\it electron charge mis-measurement} a data driven method is introduced and a good agreement with MC based methods is achieved.\\\\ The third moment of $\\phi$ distribution of hits in electron SuperCluster is studied. The correlation between this variable and the electron charge is also investigated. Using this `new' variable and some other variables the electron charge measurement is improved by two different approaches.

  17. Children's Literature in the Undergraduate Course on Communication Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Students will develop positive attitudes toward communication research by linking new values and principles with the familiar values and principles contained in children's literature. Course: Communication Research Methods.

  18. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  19. Colloquy: The Methods and Merits of Pornography Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Daniel; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Daniel Linz and Edward Donnerstein criticize the research methods and conclusions of pornography researchers Dolf Zillmann and Jennings Bryant (who allege that consumption of pornography results in antisocial effects). Zillman and Bryant respond. (ARH)

  20. The Design Social: Framing social research methods for design postgraduates.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses approaches for framing social research methods within postgraduate design curricula, details the responses of postgraduate design students to the possibilities presented by social research methods, and concludes with a case study of the adoption experiences of PhD students in design when engaging with social research methods. Analysis of semi-structured interviews is employed to draw out perceptions and experiences of design postgraduates when engaging with social researc...

  1. Why, and how, mixed methods research is undertaken in health services research in England: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Murphy, Elizabeth; Nicholl, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been a surge of international interest in combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study – often called mixed methods research. It is timely to consider why and how mixed methods research is used in health services research (HSR). Methods Documentary analysis of proposals and reports of 75 mixed methods studies funded by a research commissioner of HSR in England between 1994 and 2004. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers sampled from these studies. Results 18% (119/647) of HSR studies were classified as mixed methods research. In the documentation, comprehensiveness was the main driver for using mixed methods research, with researchers wanting to address a wider range of questions than quantitative methods alone would allow. Interviewees elaborated on this, identifying the need for qualitative research to engage with the complexity of health, health care interventions, and the environment in which studies took place. Motivations for adopting a mixed methods approach were not always based on the intrinsic value of mixed methods research for addressing the research question; they could be strategic, for example, to obtain funding. Mixed methods research was used in the context of evaluation, including randomised and non-randomised designs; survey and fieldwork exploratory studies; and instrument development. Studies drew on a limited number of methods – particularly surveys and individual interviews – but used methods in a wide range of roles. Conclusion Mixed methods research is common in HSR in the UK. Its use is driven by pragmatism rather than principle, motivated by the perceived deficit of quantitative methods alone to address the complexity of research in health care, as well as other more strategic gains. Methods are combined in a range of contexts, yet the emerging methodological contributions from HSR to the field of mixed methods research are currently limited to the single

  2. Structure, electronic and magnetic properties of Ca-doped chromium oxide studied by the DFT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Frank; Rivera, Richard; Stashans, Arvids

    2012-01-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations within the generalised gradient approximation (GGA) as well as GGA+U method we study Ca-doped α-Cr 2 O 3 crystal. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties due to the singular impurity incorporation have been investigated and discussed in detail. Atomic shifts as well as computed Bader charges on atoms imply the importance of ionic nature in the atomic interactions in chromium oxide. The study improves our knowledge on how the crystalline lattice reacts on the presence of a Ca dopant. According to our research it is found that Ca impurity incorporation produces some local changes upon the electronic band structure of the material without occurrence of local states within the band-gap. It is found that Ca incorporation produces change in magnetic behaviour of the crystal: it becomes ferromagnetic.

  3. Structure, electronic and magnetic properties of Ca-doped chromium oxide studied by the DFT method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, Frank; Rivera, Richard [Grupo de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador); Stashans, Arvids, E-mail: arvids@utpl.edu.ec [Grupo de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador)

    2012-04-15

    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations within the generalised gradient approximation (GGA) as well as GGA+U method we study Ca-doped {alpha}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties due to the singular impurity incorporation have been investigated and discussed in detail. Atomic shifts as well as computed Bader charges on atoms imply the importance of ionic nature in the atomic interactions in chromium oxide. The study improves our knowledge on how the crystalline lattice reacts on the presence of a Ca dopant. According to our research it is found that Ca impurity incorporation produces some local changes upon the electronic band structure of the material without occurrence of local states within the band-gap. It is found that Ca incorporation produces change in magnetic behaviour of the crystal: it becomes ferromagnetic.

  4. Theoretical-methodical Fundamentals of industrial marketing research

    OpenAIRE

    Butenko, N.

    2009-01-01

    The article proves the necessity to research theoretical and methodical fundamentals of industrial marketing and defines main key aspects of relationship management with the customers on industrial market.

  5. NEW METHOD TO ATTACH WEARABLE ELECTRONICS TO CLOTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERRI PASCUAL Josué

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of electronic devices and sensors into textiles has many different potential applications. Textile fabrics, from clothing to upholstery and home textiles, are an integral part of daily life and the ability to combine electronics into textiles means that a huge range of valuable data can be collected and used by the wearer to monitor their health, performance and wellbeing, among other uses. One of the most pressing challenges is that of interconnecting electronic components via the textile fibres in a robust and reliable way. Another aspect to be studied is the ability for the electronics to be connected and disconnected when necessary; for example, when charging the batteries or washing the garment. It is this aspect that has been considered by this development to facilitate ease-of-use among the older people. In addition, the complete package must be comfortable enough not to restrict movement, and must be unobtrusive so as to avoid any embarrassment to the wearer. The present paper presents a new solution for the connection of electronic measuring and monitoring devices to textile sensors to monitor variables such as movement, temperature, heart rate and breathing.

  6. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menad, N., E-mail: n.menad@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Guignot, S. [BRGM, 3 av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); Houwelingen, J.A. van, E-mail: recy.cling@iae.nl [Recycling Consult, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A novel method of characterisation of components contained in WEEE has been developed. ► This technique was applied on several samples generated from different recycling plants. ► Handheld NIR and XRF were used to determine types of plastics and flame retardants. ► WEEE processing flow-sheet was suggested. - Abstract: Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20 mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink–float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC–ABS, PS and rest product. The

  7. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menad, N.; Guignot, S.; Houwelingen, J.A. van

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel method of characterisation of components contained in WEEE has been developed. ► This technique was applied on several samples generated from different recycling plants. ► Handheld NIR and XRF were used to determine types of plastics and flame retardants. ► WEEE processing flow-sheet was suggested. - Abstract: Innovative separation and beneficiation techniques of various materials encountered in electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE) is a major improvement for its recycling. Mechanical separation-oriented characterisation of WEEE was conducted in an attempt to evaluate the amenability of mechanical separation processes. Properties such as liberation degree of fractions (plastics, metals ferrous and non-ferrous), which are essential for mechanical separation, are analysed by means of a grain counting approach. Two different samples from different recycling industries were characterised in this work. The first sample is a heterogeneous material containing different types of plastics, metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), printed circuit board (PCB), rubber and wood. The second sample contains a mixture of mainly plastics. It is found for the first sample that all aluminium particles are free (100%) in all investigated size fractions. Between 92% and 95% of plastics are present as free particles; however, 67% in average of ferromagnetic particles are liberated. It can be observed that only 42% of ferromagnetic particles are free in the size fraction larger than 20 mm. Particle shapes were also quantified manually particle by particle. The results show that the particle shapes as a result of shredding, turn out to be heterogeneous, thereby complicating mechanical separation processes. In addition, the separability of various materials was ascertained by a sink–float analysis and eddy current separation. The second sample was separated by automatic sensor sorting in four different products: ABS, PC–ABS, PS and rest product. The

  8. Inverse free electron laser beat-wave accelerator research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.C.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    1993-09-01

    A calculation on the stabilization of the sideband instability in the free electron laser (FEL) and inverse FEL (IFEL) was completed. The issue arises in connection with the use of a tapered (''variable-parameter'') undulator of extended length, such as might be used in an ''enhanced efficiency'' traveling-wave FEL or an IFEL accelerator. In addition, the FEL facility at Columbia was configured as a traveling wave amplifier for a 10-kW signal from a 24-GHz magnetron. The space charge field in the bunches of the FEL was measured. Completed work has been published

  9. Research on distributed virtual reality system in electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qiang; Wang, Jiening; Sun, Jizhou

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, Distributed Virtual Reality (DVR) technology applied in Electronical Commerce (EC) is discussed. DVR has the capability of providing a new means for human being to recognize, analyze and resolve the large scale, complex problems, which makes it develop quickly in EC fields. The technology of CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) and middleware is introduced into the development of EC-DVR system to meet the need of a platform which can provide the necessary cooperation and communication services to avoid developing the basic module repeatedly. Finally, the paper gives a platform structure of EC-DVR system.

  10. Research of the radiation effects distributing rule for electron element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yanyin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the theory of testing way for statistical distribution is researched, and using the irradiation date on trial, application of Shapiro-wilk and construct way to radiation reinforce element checking and accepting is explained and authenticated. (authors)

  11. Research and Development Issues for Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricci, Katrina

    2002-01-01

    .... While there is a wide range of research issues associated with technical manuals, the focus of the Intelligent Performance Support and Training effort is the development and evaluation of various...

  12. A typology of health marketing research methods--combining public relations methods with organizational concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Wan, Thomas T H; Liberman, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Research plays a critical role throughout virtually every conduit of the health services industry. The key terms of research, public relations, and organizational interests are discussed. Combining public relations as a strategic methodology with the organizational concern as a factor, a typology of four different research methods emerges. These four health marketing research methods are: investigative, strategic, informative, and verification. The implications of these distinct and contrasting research methods are examined.

  13. Adapting Western research methods to indigenous ways of knowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Christopher, Suzanne

    2013-12-01

    Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid.

  14. Modified Monte Carlo method for study of electron transport in degenerate electron gas in the presence of electron–electron interactions, application to graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Standard computational methods used to take account of the Pauli Exclusion Principle into Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron transport in semiconductors may give unphysical results in low field regime, where obtained electron distribution function takes values exceeding unity. Modified algorithms were already proposed and allow to correctly account for electron scattering on phonons or impurities. Present paper extends this approach and proposes improved simulation scheme allowing including Pauli exclusion principle for electron–electron (e–e) scattering into MC simulations. Simulations with significantly reduced computational cost recreate correct values of the electron distribution function. Proposed algorithm is applied to study transport properties of degenerate electrons in graphene with e–e interactions. This required adapting the treatment of e–e scattering in the case of linear band dispersion relation. Hence, this part of the simulation algorithm is described in details.

  15. Modified Monte Carlo method for study of electron transport in degenerate electron gas in the presence of electron–electron interactions, application to graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowik, Piotr, E-mail: pborow@poczta.onet.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Thobel, Jean-Luc, E-mail: jean-luc.thobel@iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies, UMR CNRS 8520, Université Lille 1, Avenue Poincaré, CS 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cédex (France); Adamowicz, Leszek, E-mail: adamo@if.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland)

    2017-07-15

    Standard computational methods used to take account of the Pauli Exclusion Principle into Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron transport in semiconductors may give unphysical results in low field regime, where obtained electron distribution function takes values exceeding unity. Modified algorithms were already proposed and allow to correctly account for electron scattering on phonons or impurities. Present paper extends this approach and proposes improved simulation scheme allowing including Pauli exclusion principle for electron–electron (e–e) scattering into MC simulations. Simulations with significantly reduced computational cost recreate correct values of the electron distribution function. Proposed algorithm is applied to study transport properties of degenerate electrons in graphene with e–e interactions. This required adapting the treatment of e–e scattering in the case of linear band dispersion relation. Hence, this part of the simulation algorithm is described in details.

  16. Protecting the privacy of individual general practice patient electronic records for geospatial epidemiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Konings, Paul; Hewett, Michael; Bagheri, Nasser; McRae, Ian; Del Fante, Peter

    2014-12-01

    General practitioner (GP) practices in Australia are increasingly storing patient information in electronic databases. These practice databases can be accessed by clinical audit software to generate reports that inform clinical or population health decision making and public health surveillance. Many audit software applications also have the capacity to generate de-identified patient unit record data. However, the de-identified nature of the extracted data means that these records often lack geographic information. Without spatial references, it is impossible to build maps reflecting the spatial distribution of patients with particular conditions and needs. Links to socioeconomic, demographic, environmental or other geographically based information are also not possible. In some cases, relatively coarse geographies such as postcode are available, but these are of limited use and researchers cannot undertake precision spatial analyses such as calculating travel times. We describe a method that allows researchers to implement meaningful mapping and spatial epidemiological analyses of practice level patient data while preserving privacy. This solution has been piloted in a diabetes risk research project in the patient population of a practice in Adelaide. The method offers researchers a powerful means of analysing geographic clinic data in a privacy-protected manner. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. A Mixed Methods Survey Research Study of Novice Special Education Teachers: Investigation of Reading Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Mary P.

    2017-01-01

    Novice special education teachers have become an integral part of the public and private school systems throughout Pennsylvania. This mixed-methods research study explored the expertise and preparedness of current novice special education teachers. A combination of an electronic survey questionnaire and phone and face-to-face interviews were…

  18. The Experimental Stand for Research of Wakefield Method of Charged Particles Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Onishchenko, N.I.; Sotnikov, G.V.; Uskov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The experimental installation and diagnostic equipment with motivation to use for various researches of wakefield method of charged particles acceleration both in plasma and in dielectric structure has been described. The main parameters of a sequence of short relativistic electron bunch and values of physical characteristics of slow-down structures have been presented

  19. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  20. An Efficient Method for Electron-Atom Scattering Using Ab-initio Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuan; Yang, Yonggang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang [Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China)

    2017-02-15

    We present an efficient method based on ab-initio calculations to investigate electron-atom scatterings. Those calculations profit from methods implemented in standard quantum chemistry programs. The new approach is applied to electron-helium scattering. The results are compared with experimental and other theoretical references to demonstrate the efficiency of our method.

  1. Ground state of the electron gas by a stochastic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceperley, D.M.; Alder, B.J.

    1980-05-01

    An exact stochastic simulation of the Schroedinger equation for charged Bosons and Fermions was used to calculate the correlation energies, to locate the transitions to their respective crystal phases at zero temperature within 10%, and to establish the stability at intermediate densities of a ferromagnetic fluid of electrons

  2. CLOPW; a mixed basis set full potential electronic structure method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, H.G.; Bekker, Hermie Gerhard

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of the full potental CLOPW package for electronic structure calculations. Chapter 1 provides the necessary background in the theory of solid state physics. It gives a short overview of the effective one particle model as commonly used in solid state physics. It

  3. International Conference on Emerging Research in Electronics, Computer Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sheshadri, Holalu; Padma, M

    2014-01-01

    PES College of Engineering is organizing an International Conference on Emerging Research in Electronics, Computer Science and Technology (ICERECT-12) in Mandya and merging the event with Golden Jubilee of the Institute. The Proceedings of the Conference presents high quality, peer reviewed articles from the field of Electronics, Computer Science and Technology. The book is a compilation of research papers from the cutting-edge technologies and it is targeted towards the scientific community actively involved in research activities.

  4. Final Technical Report for Photovoltaic Power Electronics Research Initiative (PERI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Jordan, Charlie [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); batarseh, Issa [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The Power Electronics team at the University of Central Florida (UCF) has developed a novel three-phase micro-inverter for photovoltaic (PV) distributed applications. Based on a new advanced topology and control methodology, the developed inverter is small in size, and achieved DoE targeted power density, cost and efficiency specifications. Today’s inverters are widely used in PV based energy harvesting systems, but are based on single-phase design with limited application to large installations. These micro-inverters have been shown to have advantageous over their string inverter counterparts in both grid-tied PV energy harvesting and standalone micro-grid systems with energy storage. Some of these are simplified installation, no high voltage DC wiring, no single point of failure and improved energy harvesting. Several patents have been issued and this new solar conversion technology has been licensed to the private sector.

  5. Consumer-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce: A Distinct Research Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Kiku Jones; Lori N.K. Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is a growing area of e-commerce. However, according to a meta-analysis of critical themes of e-commerce, C2C e-commerce was only represented in the area of online auctions (Wareham, Zheng, & Straub, 2005). C2C e-commerce can encompass much more than just auctions. The question then becomes, “is C2C e-commerce a different research area that deserves its own stream of research?†This study adapts constructs from a business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce st...

  6. Invisible nursing research: thoughts about mixed methods research and nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    In this this essay, the author addresses the close connection between mixed methods research and nursing practice. If the assertion that research and practice are parallel processes is accepted, then nursing practice may be considered "invisible mixed methods research," in that almost every encounter between a nurse and a patient involves collection and integration of qualitative (word) and quantitative (number) information that actually is single-case mixed methods research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Graduate Students' Expectations of an Introductory Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    While there is a scattered literature base on teaching research methods courses, there is very little literature that speaks to what and how students learn in research methods courses. Students are often described as coming to the course not seeing its relevance, bringing negative attitudes and low motivation with them. The purpose of this…

  8. Take It or Leave It: Students' Attitudes about Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisecup, Allison K.

    2017-01-01

    This study employs a cross-sectional design to explore sociology majors' attitudes toward research methods. Survey data from a convenience sample of students enrolled in 16 departments are used to compare the attitudes of students who have and have not completed a research methods course. Despite consistent anecdotal claims that students harbor…

  9. Mixed-methods approaches in health research in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Simkhada, Padam; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Sathian, B.

    2014-01-01

    Combining and integrating a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods in one single study is widely used in health and social care research in high-income countries. This editorial adds a few words of advice to the novice mixed-methods researcher in Nepal.

  10. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  11. Triangulation, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…

  12. Mixed Methods in Intervention Research: Theory to Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of mixed methods research designs to multiyear programmatic research and development projects whose goals include integration of cultural specificity when generating or translating evidence-based practices. The authors propose a set of five mixed methods designs related to different…

  13. Electron-spin-resonance techniques in fuel research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-01

    E.s.r. techniques provide a sensitive means of identifying the free radicals present in pyrolytic and combustion reactions, and determining their concentration. This article explains the theoretical basis of these techniques and indicates the scope of the work recently initiated with the e.s.r. spectrometer at the Division of Coal Research.

  14. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carla A; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings.

  15. Teaching Psychological Research Methods through a Pragmatic and Programmatic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Patrick; Fielden, Amy; Tzemou, Effy

    2014-01-01

    Research methods teaching in psychology is pivotal in preparing students for the transition from student as learner to independent practitioner. We took an action research approach to re-design, implement and evaluate a module guiding students through a programmatic and pragmatic research cycle. These revisions allow students to experience how…

  16. Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

    1989-01-01

    Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)

  17. Rhetorical Structure of Education Research Article Methods Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoya; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rhetorical move structure of the education research article genre within the framework of Swales' (1981, 1990, 2004) move analysis. A corpus of 120 systematically sampled empirical education research articles served as data input for the analysis. The results indicate that the education research article methods section…

  18. Research and development of radioactive waste treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Nang

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) uses the reactor for research, training, isotope production and activation analyses. NRI generates about 150 m 3 of liquid and 5 m 3 of solid wastes every year. The researched methods applied to treatment of radwastes are coagulation-precipitation and two steps ion-exchange for liquid waste and compaction for solid waste are described. (author)

  19. Mixed Methods Research: What Are the Key Issues to Consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajashi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research (MMR) is increasingly becoming a popular methodological approach in several fields due to the promise it holds for comprehensive understanding of complex problems being researched. However, researchers interested in MMR often lack reference to a guide that can explain the key issues pertaining to the paradigm wars…

  20. Towards Multi-Method Research Approach in Empirical Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Vladimir; Markkula, Jouni; Oivo, Markku

    This paper presents results of a literature analysis on Empirical Research Approaches in Software Engineering (SE). The analysis explores reasons why traditional methods, such as statistical hypothesis testing and experiment replication are weakly utilized in the field of SE. It appears that basic assumptions and preconditions of the traditional methods are contradicting the actual situation in the SE. Furthermore, we have identified main issues that should be considered by the researcher when selecting the research approach. In virtue of reasons for weak utilization of traditional methods we propose stronger use of Multi-Method approach with Pragmatism as the philosophical standpoint.

  1. Inventory of research methods for librarianship and informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan D

    2004-01-01

    This article defines and describes the rich variety of research designs found in librarianship and informatics practice. Familiarity with the range of methods and the ability to make distinctions between those specific methods can enable authors to label their research reports correctly. The author has compiled an inventory of methods from a variety of disciplines, but with attention to the relevant applications of a methodology to the field of librarianship. Each entry in the inventory includes a definition and description for the particular research method. Some entries include references to resource material and examples.

  2. Storytelling as a way for humanizing research methods

    OpenAIRE

    Grenness, Tor

    2016-01-01

    This is an Open Access journal. The article is aslo available from www.idrcentre.org This article examines how the use of storytelling can serve as a pedagogical strategy in the teaching of research methods. Research methods and statistics anxiety is fairly widespread among students in higher education. Introducing storytelling has been found to decrease this anxiety. The term “humanizing research methods” implies a focus on students’ needs that goes beyond transferring knowledge of the co...

  3. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R. Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent desig...

  4. Status on the heavy elements research using the DV-DFS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Masaru; Bastug, T.; Sekine, Rika; Onoe, Jun; Nakamatsu, Hirohide; Mukoyama, Takeshi

    1999-03-01

    In this review report, we describe recent progress on the heavy elements research using the discrete-variational Dirac-Fock-Slater (DV-DFS) method which is being improved by Kyoto University, Shizuoka University, RIKEN and JAERI. The DV-DFS is a versatile method for interpreting spectroscopic data and predicting chemical bonding of polyatomic systems including heavy elements. This review is based on the lectures given in 74th spring meeting of chemical Society of Japan (March, 1998) and also at the workshop on the XAFS-relativistic electronic structure calculation for the actinides research which was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI (November, 1998). (author)

  5. Final report for the Department of Energy funded cooperative agreement ''Electronic Research Demonstration Project'' [University electronic research administration demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, John

    1998-07-31

    This is the final report for the Department of Energy (DOE) funded cooperative agreement ''Electronic Research Demonstration Project (DE-FC02-92ER35180)'' for the period August 1994-July 1998. The goal of the project, referred to as NewERA, was to demonstrate the use of open standards for electronic commerce to support research administration, otherwise referred to as Electronic Research Administration (ERA). The NewERA demonstration project provided a means to test interagency standards developed within the Federal Grant Electronic Commerce Committee, a group comprised of federal granting agencies. The NewERA program was initiated by DOE. NewERA was comprised of three separate, but related, ERA activities in preaward administration, postaward administration, and secure Internet commerce. The goal of New ERA was to demonstrate an open standard implementation of ERA using electronic data interchange, e-mail and Internet transaction security between grant applicants and DOE, along with t h e other participating agencies.

  6. RLE (Research Laboratory of Electronics) Progress Report Number 130

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Ippen, James G. Fujimoto, Wei-Zhu Lin, Beat Zysset, Robert W. Schoenlein, 4 Michael J. Lagasse The investigation of transient carrier dynamics in GaAs...G. Fujimoto, Wei-Zhu Lin, Reginald Birngruber, Beat Zysset, Robert W. Schoenleln Working in collaboration with researchers at the Massachusetts Eye... Binaural Hearing National Institutes of Health (Grant 5 RO 1 NS 10916) H. Steven Colburn, Nathaniel 1. Durlach, Patrick M. Zurek 17 Brooklyn College14 141

  7. RLE (Research Laboratory of Electronics) Progress Report Number 126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Loudness 184 26.3 Binaural Hearing 186 S.26.4 Hearing Aid Research 188 26.5 Discrimination of Spectral Shape 191 26.6 Tactile Perception of Speech... beating in the pulse. It is these high intensities which are responsible for large A.C. Stark shifts and ionization RLE P.R. No. 126 12 * . . . Atomic...Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1984. 26.3 Binaural Hearing National Institutes of Health (Grant

  8. Electron Bernstein Wave Research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Bers, A.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carter, M.D.; Caughman, J.B.; Decker, J.; Diem, S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ershov, N.M.; Fredd, E.; Harvey, R.W.; Hosea, J.; Jaeger, F.; Preinhaelter, J.; Ram, A.K.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Smirnov, A.P.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wilson, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Off-axis electron Bernstein wave current drive (EBWCD) may be critical for sustaining noninductive high-beta National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas. Numerical modeling results predict that the ∼100 kA of off-axis current needed to stabilize a solenoid-free high-beta NSTX plasma could be generated via Ohkawa current drive with 3 MW of 28 GHz EBW power. In addition, synergy between EBWCD and bootstrap current may result in a 10% enhancement in current-drive efficiency with 4 MW of EBW power. Recent dual-polarization EBW radiometry measurements on NSTX confirm that efficient coupling to EBWs can be readily accomplished by launching elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves oblique to the confining magnetic field, in agreement with numerical modeling. Plans are being developed for implementing a 1 MW, 28 GHz proof-of-principle EBWCD system on NSTX to test the EBW coupling, heating and current-drive physics at high radio-frequency power densities

  9. Electron accelerators for research at the frontiers of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.; Corneliussen, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    Electron accelerators for the frontiers of nuclear physics must provide high duty factor (>80%) for coincidence measurements; few-hundred-MeV through few-GeV energy for work in the nucleonic, hadronic, and confinement regimes; energy resolution of ∼10 -4 ; and high current (≥ 100 μA). To fulfill these requirements new machines and upgrades of existing ones are being planned or constructed. Representative microtron-based facilities are the upgrade of MAMI at the University of Mainz (West Germany), the proposed two-stage cascaded microtron at the University of Illinois (USA), and the three-stage Troitsk ''polytron'' (USSR). Representative projects to add pulse stretcher rings to existing linacs are the upgrades at MIT-Bates (USA) and at NIKHEF-K (Netherlands). Recent advances in superconducting rf technology, especially in cavity design and fabrication, have made large superconducting cw linacs become feasible. Recirculating superconducting cw linacs are under construction at the University of Darmstadt (West Germany) and at CEBAF (USA), and a proposal is being developed at Saclay (France). 31 refs

  10. SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS IN FEMINIST'S PERSPECTIVE: A NEW WAY IN DOING SOCIOLINGUISTIC QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuntjara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional research methods have been dominated by positivism which assumes the importance of objectivity, contextual independency, linear causality and value free research. Feminist researchers found that such methods do not suit their inquisitive needs especially in the study of women. Naturalistic research methods, however, do not only suit them but they are also able to voice women's problems. Two methods, i.e. interviewing and ethnography are discussed as to how they are commonly used by feminist researchers on many social studies on women, including the linguistic studies of gender.

  11. Using the Delphi expert consensus method in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F

    2015-10-01

    The article gives an introductory overview of the use of the Delphi expert consensus method in mental health research. It explains the rationale for using the method, examines the range of uses to which it has been put in mental health research, and describes the stages of carrying out a Delphi study using examples from the literature. To ascertain the range of uses, a systematic search was carried out in PubMed. The article also examines the implications of 'wisdom of crowds' research for how to conduct Delphi studies. The Delphi method is a systematic way of determining expert consensus that is useful for answering questions that are not amenable to experimental and epidemiological methods. The validity of the approach is supported by 'wisdom of crowds' research showing that groups can make good judgements under certain conditions. In mental health research, the Delphi method has been used for making estimations where there is incomplete evidence (e.g. What is the global prevalence of dementia?), making predictions (e.g. What types of interactions with a person who is suicidal will reduce their chance of suicide?), determining collective values (e.g. What areas of research should be given greatest priority?) and defining foundational concepts (e.g. How should we define 'relapse'?). A range of experts have been used in Delphi research, including clinicians, researchers, consumers and caregivers. The Delphi method has a wide range of potential uses in mental health research. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Participatory methods in pediatric participatory research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijes, Hanneke A; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W

    2016-05-01

    Meaningful child participation in medical research is seen as important. In order to facilitate further development of participatory research, we performed a systematic literature study to describe and assess the available knowledge on participatory methods in pediatric research. A search was executed in five databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Cochrane. After careful screening of relevant papers, finally 24 documents were included in our analysis. Literature on participatory methods in pediatric research appears generally to be descriptive, whereby high-quality evidence is lacking. Overall, five groups of participatory methods for children could be distinguished: observational, verbal, written, visual, and active methods. The choice for one of these methods should be based on the child's age, on social and demographic characteristics, and on the research objectives. To date, these methods are still solely used for obtaining data, yet they are suitable for conducting meaningful participation. This may result in a successful partnership between children and researchers. Researchers conducting participatory research with children can use this systematic review in order to weigh the current knowledge about the participatory methods presented.

  13. 10 best resources on ... mixed methods research in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-05-01

    Mixed methods research has become increasingly popular in health systems. Qualitative approaches are often used to explain quantitative results and help to develop interventions or survey instruments. Mixed methods research is especially important in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, where understanding social, economic and cultural contexts are essential to assess health systems performance. To provide researchers and programme managers with a guide to mixed methods research in health systems, we review the best resources with a focus on LMICs. We selected 10 best resources (eight peer-reviewed articles and two textbooks) based on their importance and frequency of use (number of citations), comprehensiveness of content, usefulness to readers and relevance to health systems research in resource-limited contexts. We start with an overview on mixed methods research and discuss resources that are useful for a better understanding of the design and conduct of mixed methods research. To illustrate its practical applications, we provide examples from various countries (China, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and India) across different health topics (tuberculosis, malaria, HIV testing and healthcare costs). We conclude with some toolkits which suggest what to do when mixed methods findings conflict and provide guidelines for evaluating the quality of mixed methods research.

  14. The mass angular scattering power method for determining the kinetic energies of clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blais, N.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    A method for determining the kinetic energy of clinical electron beams is described, based on the measurement in air of the spatial spread of a pencil electron beam which is produced from the broad clinical electron beam. As predicted by the Fermi-Eyges theory, the dose distribution measured in air on a plane, perpendicular to the incident direction of the initial pencil electron beam, is Gaussian. The square of its spatial spread is related to the mass angular scattering power which in turn is related to the kinetic energy of the electron beam. The measured spatial spread may thus be used to determine the mass angular scattering power, which is then used to determine the kinetic energy of the electron beam from the known relationship between mass angular scattering power and kinetic energy. Energies obtained with the mass angular scattering power method agree with those obtained with the electron range method. (author)

  15. Electronics department progress report. Basic and applied research activity 1975-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The electronics department at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark, comprises about 80 people and is made up of essentially two main divisions. One deals with the provision of instrumentation and measurement expertise for the different groups at Risoe who conduct basic research or technological R and D. This division employs a group of scientific electronics consultants, a production group, a maintenance facility and a central instrument pool for the complete site. The other division, whose work is reported here, is engaged in both basic and applied research in topics and areas of direct interest to the department itself. These involve the development and evaluation of methods, for example, in the field of plant reliability and safety as well as in a group engaged in nuclear geophysical activities - including mineral prospecting in Greenland. Another team is working with man-machine problems in highly automated systems and the associated needs for computer support in connection with proper job allocation and design. Finally, a group is active in the field of applied laser physics. The time period covered is 1975-1977. (author/BP)

  16. Implementation of Electronic Consent at a Biobank: An Opportunity for Precision Medicine Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie T. Boutin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize the potential benefits and challenges of electronic informed consent (eIC as a strategy for rapidly expanding the reach of large biobanks while reducing costs and potentially enhancing participant engagement. The Partners HealthCare Biobank (Partners Biobank implemented eIC tools and processes to complement traditional recruitment strategies in June 2014. Since then, the Partners Biobank has rigorously collected and tracked a variety of metrics relating to this novel recruitment method. From June 2014 through January 2016, the Partners Biobank sent email invitations to 184,387 patients at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. During the same time period, 7078 patients provided their consent via eIC. The rate of consent of emailed patients was 3.5%, and the rate of consent of patients who log into the eIC website at Partners Biobank was 30%. Banking of biospecimens linked to electronic health records has become a critical element of genomic research and a foundation for the NIH’s Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI. eIC is a feasible and potentially game-changing strategy for these large research studies that depend on patient recruitment.

  17. Autoethnography as a research method: Advantages, limitations and criticisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G. Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review the literature  on autoethnography as a research method. It will first describe what is meant by autoethnography, or evocative narratives, and consider the particular features of this type of method. The paper will go on to explore the advantages, limitations and criticisms this research method has endured since its emergence during the 1980s. Finally, the different approaches to the evaluation of autoethnography will be reviewed.

  18. [Application and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Intervention Studies in Rehabilitation Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. [Mixed methods research in public health: issues and illustration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Pommier, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    For many years, researchers in a range of fields have combined quantitative and qualitative methods. However, the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods has only recently been conceptualized and defined as mixed methods research. Some authors have described the emerging field as a third methodological tradition (in addition to the qualitative and quantitative traditions). Mixed methods research combines different perspectives and facilitates the study of complex interventions or programs, particularly in public health, an area where interdisciplinarity is critical. However, the existing literature is primarily in English. By contrast, the literature in French remains limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the emergence of mixed methods research for francophone public health specialists. A literature review was conducted to identify the main characteristics of mixed methods research. The results provide an overall picture of the mixed methods approach through its history, definitions, and applications, and highlight the tools developed to clarify the approach (typologies) and to implement it (integration of results and quality standards). The tools highlighted in the literature review are illustrated by a study conducted in France. Mixed methods research opens new possibilities for examining complex research questions and provides relevant and promising opportunities for addressing current public health issues in France.

  20. Focus Group Interview in Family Practice Research: Implementing a qualitative research method

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Marjorie L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus group interviews, described as a qualitative research method with good potential in family medicine, are traced from their origins in market research to their growing role in sociology and medicine. Features of this method are described, including design, conduct, and analysis. Both proven and potential areas for primary care research using focus groups are outlined.

  1. Contextual and Analytic Qualities of Research Methods Exemplified in Research on Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lennart; Doumas, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss contextual and analytic qualities of research methods. The arguments are specified in relation to research on teaching. A specific investigation is used as an example to illustrate the general methodological approach. It is argued that research methods should be carefully grounded in an understanding of…

  2. RLE (Research Laboratory of Electronics) Progress Report Number 125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    gate and inverter. POLARIZER 4L® Ic ’ / LOUTPUT TRUTH TABLE Figure 7-1 We have demonstrated operation of the device fabricated in LiNbO3 as a...Scattering," J. Phys. Chem. 87, 1653 (1983). Bendedouch, D. and S.-H. Chen, "Structure and Interparticle Interactions of Bovine Serum Albumin in Solution...were drawn. Conventional Bayesian estimation methods, when applied to these problems, would typically require a numerically unpleasant multi

  3. Writing a Mixed Methods Report in Social Work Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Laura R.; Kovacs, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the development of mixed methods research and its use in social work. We then move onto a discussion of terms and designs, reasons for (and for not) using mixed methods. Drawing upon exemplars, we address how to write up a mixed methods study when (1) the sample is single; single for one part, with a subset for the…

  4. Neutron spectrometric methods for core inventory verification in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellinger, A.; Filges, U.; Hansen, W.; Knorr, J.; Schneider, R.

    2002-01-01

    In consequence of the Non-Proliferation Treaty safeguards, inspections are periodically made in nuclear facilities by the IAEA and the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate. The inspection methods are permanently improved. Therefore, the Core Inventory Verification method is being developed as an indirect method for the verification of the core inventory and to check the declared operation of research reactors

  5. Research on psychological evaluation method for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2007-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative psychology evaluation methods to the nuclear power plant operators were analyzed and discussed in the paper. The comparison analysis to the scope and result of application was carried out between method of outline figure fitted and method of fuzzy synthetic evaluation. The research results can be referenced to the evaluation of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  6. Qualitative methods in radiography research: a proposed framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.; Smith, T.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: While radiography is currently developing a research base, which is important in terms of professional development and informing practice and policy issues in the field, the amount of research published by radiographers remains limited. However, a range of qualitative methods offer further opportunities for radiography research. Purpose: This paper briefly introduces a number of key qualitative methods (qualitative interviews, focus groups, observational methods, diary methods and document/text analysis) and sketches one possible framework for future qualitative work in radiography research. The framework focuses upon three areas for study: intra-professional issues; inter-professional issues; and clinical practice, patient and health delivery issues. While the paper outlines broad areas for future focus rather than providing a detailed protocol for how individual pieces of research should be conducted, a few research questions have been chosen and examples of possible qualitative methods required to answer such questions are outlined for each area. Conclusion: Given the challenges and opportunities currently facing the development of a research base within radiography, the outline of key qualitative methods and broad areas suitable for their application is offered as a useful tool for those within the profession looking to embark upon or enhance their research career

  7. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  8. Mixed methods research - the best of both worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Hubert; Moore, Ann P; Hall, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    There has been a bias towards quantitative research approaches within manual therapy, which may have resulted in a narrow understanding of manual therapy practice. The aim of this Masterclass is to make a contribution to the expansion of methodologies used in manual therapy enquiry by discussing mixed methods research (MMR), a methodology which utilises both qualitative and quantitative methods within a single study in order to provide more comprehensive insights. To review rationales for MMR, as well as some of the common design options and potential difficulties. The paper also discusses theoretical frameworks that have been used to underpin qualitative and quantitative research, and ongoing debates about the possibility of combining them. Complexities associated with health and manual therapy cannot always be investigated satisfactorily by using a single research method. Some issues require a more comprehensive understanding, which may be provided by combining the strengths of quantitative and qualitative methods in a mixed methods study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving the Development of Student's Research Questions and Hypotheses in an Introductory Business Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, Lauria; Knowles, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In an introductory research methods course, students often develop research questions and hypotheses that are vague or confusing, do not contain measurable concepts, and are too narrow in scope or vision. Because of this, the final research projects often fail to provide useful information or address the overall research problem. A Lesson Study…

  10. Doing Mixed Methods Research Pragmatically: Implications for the Rediscovery of Pragmatism as a Research Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilzer, Martina Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the practical relevance of pragmatism as a research paradigm through the example of a piece of pragmatic research that not only used both quantitative and qualitative research methods but also exploited the inherent duality of the data analyzed. Thus, the article aims to make the case that pragmatism as a research paradigm…

  11. Creating and supporting a mixed methods health services research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Barbara; Cohen, Lauren W; Elliot, Amy E; Grabowski, David C; Fishman, Nancy W; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Horn, Susan D; Kemper, Peter

    2013-12-01

    To use the experience from a health services research evaluation to provide guidance in team development for mixed methods research. The Research Initiative Valuing Eldercare (THRIVE) team was organized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to evaluate The Green House nursing home culture change program. This article describes the development of the research team and provides insights into how funders might engage with mixed methods research teams to maximize the value of the team. Like many mixed methods collaborations, the THRIVE team consisted of researchers from diverse disciplines, embracing diverse methodologies, and operating under a framework of nonhierarchical, shared leadership that required new collaborations, engagement, and commitment in the context of finite resources. Strategies to overcome these potential obstacles and achieve success included implementation of a Coordinating Center, dedicated time for planning and collaborating across researchers and methodologies, funded support for in-person meetings, and creative optimization of resources. Challenges are inevitably present in the formation and operation of effective mixed methods research teams. However, funders and research teams can implement strategies to promote success. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. A CTSA Agenda to Advance Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Mark; Tunis, Sean; Whitlock, Evelyn P.; Pauker, Stephen G.; Basu, Anirban; Chilingerian, Jon; Harrell Jr., Frank E.; Meltzer, David O.; Montori, Victor M.; Shepard, Donald S.; Kent, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clinical research needs to be more useful to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. To meet this need, more research should focus on patient‐centered outcomes, compare viable alternatives, and be responsive to individual patients’ preferences, needs, pathobiology, settings, and values. These features, which make comparative effectiveness research (CER) fundamentally patient‐centered, challenge researchers to adopt or develop methods that improve the timeliness, relevance, and practical application of clinical studies. In this paper, we describe 10 priority areas that address 3 critical needs for research on patient‐centered outcomes (PCOR): (1) developing and testing trustworthy methods to identify and prioritize important questions for research; (2) improving the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical research studies; and (3) linking the process and outcomes of actual practice to priorities for research on patient‐centered outcomes. We argue that the National Institutes of Health, through its clinical and translational research program, should accelerate the development and refinement of methods for CER by linking a program of methods research to the broader portfolio of large, prospective clinical and health system studies it supports. Insights generated by this work should be of enormous value to PCORI and to the broad range of organizations that will be funding and implementing CER. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 188–198 PMID:21707950

  13. Assessment of change in knowledge about research methods among delegates attending research methodology workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Shrivastava

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: There was increase in knowledge of the delegates after attending research methodology workshops. Participatory research methodology workshops are good methods of imparting knowledge, also the long term effects needs to be evaluated.

  14. More than Method?: A Discussion of Paradigm Differences within Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that mixed methods research (MMR) constitutes a coherent research paradigm and explores how different research paradigms exist within MMR. Tracing paradigmatic differences at the level of methods, ontology, and epistemology, two MMR strategies are discussed: nested analysis, recently presented by the American…

  15. Mixed ionic-electronic conductor-based radiation detectors and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Adam; Beck, Patrick R; Graff, Robert T; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J; Payne, Stephen A; Voss, Lars; Kim, Hadong

    2015-04-07

    A method of fabricating a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (e.g. TlBr)-based radiation detector having halide-treated surfaces and associated methods of fabrication, which controls polarization of the mixed ionic-electronic MIEC material to improve stability and operational lifetime.

  16. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  17. Methods That Matter: Integrating Mixed Methods for More Effective Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M. Cameron, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    To do research that really makes a difference--the authors of this book argue--social scientists need questions and methods that reflect the complexity of the world. Bringing together a consortium of voices across a variety of fields, "Methods that Matter" offers compelling and successful examples of mixed methods research that do just…

  18. Mixed Methods in Biomedical and Health Services Research

    OpenAIRE

    Curry, Leslie A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; O’Cathain, Alicia; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods studies, in which qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single program of inquiry, can be valuable in biomedical and health services research, where the complementary strengths of each approach can yield greater insight into complex phenomena than either approach alone. Although interest in mixed methods is growing among science funders and investigators, written guidance on how to conduct and assess rigorous mixed methods studies is not readily accessible to th...

  19. Time-Dependent Close-Coupling Methods for Electron-Atom/Molecule Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, James

    2014-01-01

    The time-dependent close-coupling (TDCC) method centers on an accurate representation of the interaction between two outgoing electrons moving in the presence of a Coulomb field. It has been extensively applied to many problems of electrons, photons, and ions scattering from light atomic targets. Theoretical Description: The TDCC method centers on a solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for two interacting electrons. The advantages of a time-dependent approach are two-fold; one treats the electron-electron interaction essentially in an exact manner (within numerical accuracy) and a time-dependent approach avoids the difficult boundary condition encountered when two free electrons move in a Coulomb field (the classic three-body Coulomb problem). The TDCC method has been applied to many fundamental atomic collision processes, including photon-, electron- and ion-impact ionization of light atoms. For application to electron-impact ionization of atomic systems, one decomposes the two-electron wavefunction in a partial wave expansion and represents the subsequent two-electron radial wavefunctions on a numerical lattice. The number of partial waves required to converge the ionization process depends on the energy of the incoming electron wavepacket and on the ionization threshold of the target atom or ion.

  20. Quantitative High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM): a novel approach towards application oriented basic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisielowski, Christian; Weber, Eicke R.; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments of microscopic methods that base on a quantitative analysis of electron micrographs to access subsurface systems at the atomic scale. It focuses on non-equilibrium diffusion processes that are observed in nano structured MBE grown materials if a low growth temperature was used and on local deviations from a stoichiometric composition of materials. As examples we investigate Ga As/Al As and Si/Ge Si heterostructures and Ga N single crystals. The purpose of the research is twofold. On the one hand it helps understanding physical processes at the atomic scale. On the other hand we can use the results to link basic physical knowledge with the performance of semiconductor devices made from nano structured materials. (author). 28 refs., 15 figs

  1. A simplified method for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahar, A.; Lasher, R.

    1980-01-01

    The combination of autoradiography with SEM provides a valuable tool for the study of labeled biological materials, but the previously described methods are complicated because they call first for the removal of gelatin from the film emulsion and this is then followed by deposition of gold vapor on the specimen. The authors describe a much simpler method which can easily be adapted to routine examination of cell cultures. In this method, gelatin is not removed; the film is coated with vaporized carbon only. This procedure permits visualization of both cellular image and distribution of silver grains. (Auth.)

  2. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  3. New developments in radiation protection instrumentation via active electronic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    New developments in electronics and radiation detectors are improving on real-time data acquisition of radiation exposure and contamination conditions. Recent developments in low power circuit designs, hybrid and integrated circuits, and microcomputers have all contributed to smaller and lighter radiation detection instruments that are, at the same time, more sensitive and provide more information (e.g., radioisotope identification) than previous devices. New developments in radiation detectors, such as cadmium telluride, gas scintillation proportional counters, and imaging counters (both charged particle and photon) promise higher sensitivities and expanded uses over present instruments. These developments are being applied in such areas as health physics, waste management, environmental monitoring, in vivo measurements, and nuclear safeguards

  4. Method for secure electronic voting system: face recognition based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, M. Affan; Baig, Misbah M.; Mehboob, Shahzain; Naseem, Imran

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework for low cost secure electronic voting system based on face recognition. Essentially Local Binary Pattern (LBP) is used for face feature characterization in texture format followed by chi-square distribution is used for image classification. Two parallel systems are developed based on smart phone and web applications for face learning and verification modules. The proposed system has two tire security levels by using person ID followed by face verification. Essentially class specific threshold is associated for controlling the security level of face verification. Our system is evaluated three standard databases and one real home based database and achieve the satisfactory recognition accuracies. Consequently our propose system provides secure, hassle free voting system and less intrusive compare with other biometrics.

  5. On some methods to produce high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    Some methods of production of high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons are considered. These methods are based on transfer by protons of a part of their energy to the polarized electrons of a thin target placed inside the working volume of the synchrotron. It is suggested to use as a polarized electron target a magnetized crystalline iron in which proton channeling is realized, polarized atomic beams and the polarized plasma. It is shown that by this method one can produce polarized electron beams with energy approximately 100 GeV, energy spread +- 5 % and intensity approximately 10 7 electron/c, polarization approximately 30% and with intensity approximately 10 4 -10 5 electron/c, polarization approximately 100% [ru

  6. Discrete variational methods and their application to electronic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Some general concepts concerning Discrete Variational methods are developed and applied to problems of determination of eletronic spectra, charge densities and bonding of free molecules, surface-chemisorbed species and bulk solids. (M.W.O.) [pt

  7. Pieced Together: Collage as an Artist's Method for Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Vaughan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As a visual artist undertaking doctoral studies in education, the author required a research method that integrated her studio practice into her research process, giving equal weight to the visual and the linguistic. Her process of finding such a method is outlined in this article, which touches on arts-based research and practice-led research, and her ultimate approach of choice, collage. Collage, a versatile art form that accommodates multiple texts and visuals in a single work, has been proposed as a model for a “borderlands epistemology”: one that values multiple distinctive understandings and that deliberately incorporates nondominant modes of knowing, such as visual arts. As such, collage is particularly suited to a feminist, postmodern, postcolonial inquiry. This article offers a preliminary theorizing of collage as a method and is illustrated with images from the author's research/visual practice.

  8. Challenges in Exploratory Methods for Tuberculosis Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Helen; Abney, Kate; Abrams, Amber; Truyts, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Haunted by a legacy of apartheid governance that left millions in material poverty, South Africa has among the highest tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality rates in the world. Our Social Markers of TB research project shared a vision of working with ethnographic research methods to understand TB-infected persons, their families, care providers, and social networks. We argue that felt and enacted TB stigma and the related HIV-TB stigma impaired our ability to collect the necessary data for a full portrait of TB-infected persons and their lived conditions. To circumvent this limitation, each researcher improvised and augmented conventional anthropological methods with more creative, directed, and at times destabilizing methods. We present three case studies as useful illustrations of the complexities and challenges we encountered in our attempts to conduct ethically sound TB research. We discuss the implications of our call for "improvisation" for the politics of research and ethical oversight. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Methods, measures and indicators for evaluating benefits of transportation research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, Louw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide updated information by identifying and discussing methods, measures and indicators for evaluating benefits appropriate for transportation-related research facilities/programmes. The information has been...

  10. Measuring methods, registration and signal processing for magnetic field research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiello, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Some measuring methods and signal processing systems based on analogue and digital technics, which have been applied in magnetic field research using magnetometers with ferromagnetic transducers, are presented. (author)

  11. [Baseflow separation methods in hydrological process research: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei-Lei; Liu, Jing-Lin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2011-11-01

    Baseflow separation research is regarded as one of the most important and difficult issues in hydrology and ecohydrology, but lacked of unified standards in the concepts and methods. This paper introduced the theories of baseflow separation based on the definitions of baseflow components, and analyzed the development course of different baseflow separation methods. Among the methods developed, graph separation method is simple and applicable but arbitrary, balance method accords with hydrological mechanism but is difficult in application, whereas time series separation method and isotopic method can overcome the subjective and arbitrary defects caused by graph separation method, and thus can obtain the baseflow procedure quickly and efficiently. In recent years, hydrological modeling, digital filtering, and isotopic method are the main methods used for baseflow separation.

  12. On a method for high-energy electron beam production in proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested to produce high-energy electron beams in such a way that the ultrarelativistic protons give an amount of their kinetic energy to the electrons of a thin target, placed inside the working volume of the proton synchrotron. The kinematics of the elastic scattering of relativistic protons on electrons at rest is treated. Evaluation of a number of elastically-scattered electrons by 1000 GeV and 3000 GeV proton beams is presented. The method under consideration is of certain practical interest and may appear to be preferable in a definite energy range of protons and electrons

  13. Qualitative research methods in renal medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Selman, Lucy; Murtagh, Fliss E M

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methodologies are becoming increasingly widely used in health research. However, within some specialties, including renal medicine, qualitative approaches remain under-represented in the high-impact factor journals. Qualitative research can be undertaken: (i) as a stand-alone research method, addressing specific research questions; (ii) as part of a mixed methods approach alongside quantitative approaches or (iii) embedded in clinical trials, or during the development of complex interventions. The aim of this paper is to introduce qualitative research, including the rationale for choosing qualitative approaches, and guidance for ensuring quality when undertaking and reporting qualitative research. In addition, we introduce types of qualitative data (observation, interviews and focus groups) as well as some of the most commonly encountered methodological approaches (case studies, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, thematic analysis, framework analysis and content analysis). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. Trend of Energy Saving in Electronic Devices for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmayanti R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In electronic industry, energy saving is one of the performance indicators of competitiveness beside price, speed, bandwidth and reliability. This affects research and development (R&D activity in mechatronic systems which uses electronic components and electronic systems. A review of trend of electronic devices technology development has been conducted with focus on energy saving. This review includes electronic devices, semiconductor, and nanotechnology. It can be concluded that the trend in electronic devices is mainly dictated by semiconductor technology development. The trend can be concluded as smaller size, lower voltage leading to energy saving, less heat, higher speed, more reliable, and cheaper. In accordance to such technology development, R&D activities in mechatronics especially in Indonesia is being pushed to make proper alignment.Some of such alignment actions are surface mount technology (SMT for installing surface mount devices components (SMD, design layout and SMD troubleshooting tools as well as human resources training and development.

  15. How are qualitative methods used in diabetes research? A 30-year systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennink, Monique M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Sekar, Swathi; Griswold, Emily P; Ali, Mohammed K

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe how qualitative methods are used in global research on diabetes and identify opportunities whereby qualitative methods could further benefit our understanding of the human experience of diabetes and interventions to address it. We conducted a systematic review of National Library of Medicine, EMBASE, and Web of Science electronic databases to identify original research articles that used qualitative methods to study diabetes between 1980 and 2011. We identified 554 eligible articles and categorised these by geographic region, year of publication, study population, study design, research question, qualitative data collection methods, and journal type. Results show low use of qualitative methods in diabetes research over the past 30 years. The majority of articles (75%) reported using substantive qualitative research, while mixed-methods research has remained underutilised. Eighty-five per cent of articles reported studies conducted in North America or Europe, with few studies in developing countries. Most articles reported recruiting clinic-based populations (58%). Over half (54%) of research questions focused on patient experience and 24% on diabetes management. Qualitative methods can provide important insights about socio-cultural aspects of disease to improve disease management. However, they remain underutilised for understanding the diabetes experience, especially in Africa and Asia and amongst non-clinic populations.

  16. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  17. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  18. Bead Collage: An Arts-Based Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, "bead collage," an arts-based research method that invites participants to reflect, communicate and construct their experience through the manipulation of beads and found objects is explained. Emphasizing the significance of one's personal biography and experiences as a researcher, I discuss how my background as an…

  19. Book Review: Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Mcginn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (2nd edition By Mark Bray, Bob Adamson and Mark Mason (Eds. (2014, 453p ISBN: 978-988-17852-8-2, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre and Springer

  20. The research methods and model of protein turnover in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xilin; Yang Feng

    2002-01-01

    The author discussed the concept and research methods of protein turnover in animal body. The existing problems and the research results of animal protein turnover in recent years were presented. Meanwhile, the measures to improve the models of animal protein turnover were analyzed

  1. Credible Phenomenological Research: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Stephen V.; Korcuska, James S.

    2018-01-01

    The authors conducted a 3-phase investigation into the credible standards for phenomenological research practices identified in the literature and endorsed by a sample of counselor education qualitative research experts. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, the findings offer evidence that professional counseling has a distinctive format in which…

  2. The Documentary Research Method – Using Documentary Sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociologists in particular and social scientists in general tend to quickly turn to social surveys to collect data for their research projects. This stems from mainstream social science research tradition that is dominated by positivist and empiricist tradition that emphasizes quantification. There is however another method of data ...

  3. Ethnographic Decision Tree Modeling: A Research Method for Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kirk A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes ethnographic decision tree modeling (EDTM; C. H. Gladwin, 1989) as a mixed method design appropriate for counseling psychology research. EDTM is introduced and located within a postpositivist research paradigm. Decision theory that informs EDTM is reviewed, and the 2 phases of EDTM are highlighted. The 1st phase, model…

  4. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for investigating complex problems, but it has not been extensively used in construction management research. In South Africa, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital responsibility since the government called upon the ...

  5. Multidisciplinary Methods in Educational Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, there has been much dialogue, and debate, about the conduct of educational technology research and development. In this brief volume, the author helps clarify that dialogue by theoretically and empirically charting the research methods used in the field and provides much practical information on how to conduct…

  6. Moving Beyond a Deficit Perspective with Qualitative Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzul, Margaret; Evans, Judith F.; King, Rita; Tellier-Robinson, Dora

    2001-01-01

    Four researchers argue the merits of qualitative methodology and its particular relevance to those in special education who seek to move beyond a deficit perspective. Unconstrained by defined variables and decontextualized settings, qualitative methods allowed the researchers to extend the scope of their studies beyond originally stated research…

  7. Complexity, Methodology and Method: Crafting a Critical Process of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines a theoretical framework aiming to support the actions and reflections of researchers looking for a "method" in order to critically conceive the complexity of a scientific process of research. First, it starts with a brief overview of the core assumptions framing Morin's "paradigm of complexity" and Le…

  8. Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, J.R.; Bailey, L.; Ball, B.V.; Blanchard, P.; Budge, G.E.; Chejanovsky, N.; Chen, Y.P.; Gauthier, L.; Genersch, E.; Graaf, de D.C.; Ribiere, M.; Ryabov, E.; Smet, de L.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee virus research is an enormously broad area, ranging from subcellular molecular biology through physiology and behaviour, to individual and colony-level symptoms, transmission and epidemiology. The research methods used in virology are therefore equally diverse. This article covers those

  9. Prevalence of Mixed Methods Research in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amanda A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In wake of federal legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 that have called for "scientifically based research in education," this study examined the possible trends in mixed methods research articles published in 2 peer-reviewed mathematics education journals (n = 87) from 2002 to 2006. The study also illustrates how…

  10. Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Amy B.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methods research by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitative research, as well as…

  11. Deterministic operations research models and methods in linear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rader, David J

    2013-01-01

    Uniquely blends mathematical theory and algorithm design for understanding and modeling real-world problems Optimization modeling and algorithms are key components to problem-solving across various fields of research, from operations research and mathematics to computer science and engineering. Addressing the importance of the algorithm design process. Deterministic Operations Research focuses on the design of solution methods for both continuous and discrete linear optimization problems. The result is a clear-cut resource for understanding three cornerstones of deterministic operations resear

  12. Study on the Filament Yarns Spreading Techniques and Assessment Methods of the Electronic Fiberglass Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Chen, Shouhui; Zheng, Tianyong; Ning, Xiangchun; Dai, Yifei

    2018-03-01

    The filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric were developed in the past few years in order to meet the requirements of the development of electronic industry. Copper clad laminate (CCL) requires that the warp and weft yarns of the fabric could be spread out of apart and formed flat. The penetration performance of resin could be improved due to the filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric, the same as peeling strength of CCL and drilling performance of printed circuit board (PCB). This paper shows the filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric from several aspects, such as methods and functions, also with the assessment methods of their effects.

  13. Analysis of Plane-Parallel Electron Beam Propagation in Different Media by Numerical Simulation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloichikova, I. A.; Bespalov, V. I.; Krasnykh, A. A.; Stuchebrov, S. G.; Cherepennikov, Yu. M.; Dusaev, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    Simulation by the Monte Carlo method is widely used to calculate the character of ionizing radiation interaction with substance. A wide variety of programs based on the given method allows users to choose the most suitable package for solving computational problems. In turn, it is important to know exactly restrictions of numerical systems to avoid gross errors. Results of estimation of the feasibility of application of the program PCLab (Computer Laboratory, version 9.9) for numerical simulation of the electron energy distribution absorbed in beryllium, aluminum, gold, and water for industrial, research, and clinical beams are presented. The data obtained using programs ITS and Geant4 being the most popular software packages for solving the given problems and the program PCLab are presented in the graphic form. A comparison and an analysis of the results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of application of the program PCLab for simulation of the absorbed energy distribution and dose of electrons in various materials for energies in the range 1-20 MeV.

  14. Analysis of individual environmental particles using modern methods of electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, A.; Cowin, J.P.; Iedema, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the composition of particles in the atmosphere is critical because of their health effects and their direct and indirect effects on radiative forcing, and hence on climate. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the utility of single particle off-line analysis to investigate the chemistry of individual atmospheric particles using modern, state-of-the-art electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry techniques. We show that these methods provide specific, detailed data on particle composition, chemistry, morphology, phase and internal structure. This information is crucial for evaluating hygroscopic properties of aerosols, understanding aerosol aging and reactivity, and correlating the characteristics of aerosols with their optical properties. The manuscript presents a number of analytical advances in methods of electron probe particle analysis along with a brief review of a number of the research projects carried out in the authors' laboratory on the chemical characterization of environmental particles. The obtained data offers a rich set of qualitative and quantitative information on the particle chemistry, composition and the mechanisms of gas-particle interactions which are of high importance to atmospheric processes involving particulate matter and air pollution

  15. Adaptive Electronic Quizzing Method for Introductory Electrical Circuit Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Batarseh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactive technical electronic book, TechEBook, currently under development at the University of Central Florida, provides a useful tool for engineers and scientists through unique features compared to the most used traditional electrical circuit textbooks available in the market. TechEBook has comprised the two worlds of classical circuit books and an interactive operating platform such as laptops and desktops utilizing Java Virtual Machine operator. The TechEBook provides an interactive applets screen that holds many modules, in which each had a specific application in the self learning process. This paper describes one of the interactive techniques in the TechEBook known as, QuizMe, for evaluating the readers’ performance and the overall understanding for all subjects at any stage. The QuizMe will be displayed after each section in the TechEBook for the user to evaluate his/her understanding, which introduces the term me-learning, as a comprehensive full experience for self or individualized education. In this paper, a practical example of applying the QuizMe feature is discussed as part of a basic electrical engineering course currently given at the University of Central Florida.

  16. Dose evaluation due to electron spin resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dosimeter has been developed with free radical created in sucrose. Free radical was observed with using the electron spin resonance (ESR) equipment. The ESR absorption due to free radical in sucrose appeared at the magnetic field between the third and fourth ESR ones of Mn +2 standard sample. Sucrose as radiation dosimeter can linearly measure the dose from 5 x 10 -3 Gy to 10 5 Gy. If the new model of the ESR equipment is used and ESR observation is carried out at lower temperature such as liquid nitrogen or liquid helium temperature, the sucrose ESR dosimeter will be detectable about 5 x 10 -4 Gy or less. Fading of the free radicals in the irradiated sucrose was scarcely obtained about six months after irradiation and in the irradiated sucrose stored at 55deg C and 100deg C for one hour or more also scarcely observed. It is concluded from these radiation property that sucrose is useful for the accidental or emergency dosimeter for the inhabitants. (author)

  17. Using an electron paramagnetic resonance method for testing motor oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krais, S; Tkac, T

    1982-01-01

    Using an ER-9 spectrometer from the Karl Zeiss company, the relative effectiveness is studied of antioxidation additives. Motor oils of the E group, M6AD, 465, M6AD, 466, M6AD 467, 15 W/40, S-3/2 M/4, R-950, which contain the antioxidation additive were tested in Petter AV-1 motors at a temperature of 50 degrees for 120 hours and Petter AVB at a temperature of 90 degrees for 53 hours. To measure the concentration of free radicals of the antioxidation additives one part of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine (I), which forms stable dimagnetic products with the radicals of the antioxidation additives was introduced into each three parts of the oil. The reduction in the intensity of the signal of I was the measure of the radical concentration. The spectrum was taken for 1 to 2 minutes. The graphs of the dependence of the electron paramagnetic resonance on the test time and the concentration of I are built. The beginning and end of the induction period of oxidation of the oils and the change in the hourly activity of the PP was recorded.

  18. Successful adaptation of a research methods course in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Leonardo; Vasquez, Diego; Loor, Cecilia; Palacio, Ana

    2017-01-01

    South America has low research productivity. The lack of a structured research curriculum is one of the barriers to conducting research. To report our experience adapting an active learning-based research methods curriculum to improve research productivity at a university in Ecuador. We used a mixed-method approach to test the adaptation of the research curriculum at Universidad Catolica Santiago de Guayaquil. The curriculum uses a flipped classroom and active learning approach to teach research methods. When adapted, it was longitudinal and had 16-hour programme of in-person teaching and a six-month follow-up online component. Learners were organized in theme groups according to interest, and each group had a faculty leader. Our primary outcome was research productivity, which was measured by the succesful presentation of the research project at a national meeting, or publication in a peer-review journal. Our secondary outcomes were knowledge and perceived competence before and after course completion. We conducted qualitative interviews of faculty members and students to evaluate themes related to participation in research. Fifty university students and 10 faculty members attended the course. We had a total of 15 groups. Both knowledge and perceived competence increased by 17 and 18 percentage points, respectively. The presentation or publication rate for the entire group was 50%. The qualitative analysis showed that a lack of research culture and curriculum were common barriers to research. A US-based curriculum can be successfully adapted in low-middle income countries. A research curriculum aids in achieving pre-determined milestones. UCSG: Universidad Catolica Santiago de Guayaquil; UM: University of Miami.

  19. Comparative Research: An Approach to Teaching Research Methods in Political Science and Public Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Trent A

    2016-01-01

    The teaching of research methods has been at the core of public administration education for almost 30 years. But since 1990, this journal has published only two articles on the teaching of research methods. Given the increasing emphasis on data driven decision-making, greater insight is needed into the best practices for teaching public…

  20. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  1. Synthesis method for using in the design of an electron gun for gyrotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.A.B.

    1987-09-01

    In this work a synthesis method is applied to the design of an electron gun for a 94GHz gyrotron. Using the synthesis method, it is found the shape of the electrodes compatible with the laminar flow which minimizes the action of space change on the electron velocity dispersion. A sistematic procedure is presented to fuid the parameters of the synthesis method which, in turn, are closely related to the characteristics of the aptoclechonic system. (author) [pt

  2. Comparison of Electronic Data Capture (EDC) with the Standard Data Capture Method for Clinical Trial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Brigitte; Hossin, Safayet; Townend, John; Abernethy, Neil; Parker, David; Jeffries, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditionally, clinical research studies rely on collecting data with case report forms, which are subsequently entered into a database to create electronic records. Although well established, this method is time-consuming and error-prone. This study compares four electronic data capture (EDC) methods with the conventional approach with respect to duration of data capture and accuracy. It was performed in a West African setting, where clinical trials involve data collection from urban, rural and often remote locations. Methodology/Principal Findings Three types of commonly available EDC tools were assessed in face-to-face interviews; netbook, PDA, and tablet PC. EDC performance during telephone interviews via mobile phone was evaluated as a fourth method. The Graeco Latin square study design allowed comparison of all four methods to standard paper-based recording followed by data double entry while controlling simultaneously for possible confounding factors such as interview order, interviewer and interviewee. Over a study period of three weeks the error rates decreased considerably for all EDC methods. In the last week of the study the data accuracy for the netbook (5.1%, CI95%: 3.5–7.2%) and the tablet PC (5.2%, CI95%: 3.7–7.4%) was not significantly different from the accuracy of the conventional paper-based method (3.6%, CI95%: 2.2–5.5%), but error rates for the PDA (7.9%, CI95%: 6.0–10.5%) and telephone (6.3%, CI95% 4.6–8.6%) remained significantly higher. While EDC-interviews take slightly longer, data become readily available after download, making EDC more time effective. Free text and date fields were associated with higher error rates than numerical, single select and skip fields. Conclusions EDC solutions have the potential to produce similar data accuracy compared to paper-based methods. Given the considerable reduction in the time from data collection to database lock, EDC holds the promise to reduce research-associated costs

  3. Comparison of electronic data capture (EDC with the standard data capture method for clinical trial data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Walther

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditionally, clinical research studies rely on collecting data with case report forms, which are subsequently entered into a database to create electronic records. Although well established, this method is time-consuming and error-prone. This study compares four electronic data capture (EDC methods with the conventional approach with respect to duration of data capture and accuracy. It was performed in a West African setting, where clinical trials involve data collection from urban, rural and often remote locations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three types of commonly available EDC tools were assessed in face-to-face interviews; netbook, PDA, and tablet PC. EDC performance during telephone interviews via mobile phone was evaluated as a fourth method. The Graeco Latin square study design allowed comparison of all four methods to standard paper-based recording followed by data double entry while controlling simultaneously for possible confounding factors such as interview order, interviewer and interviewee. Over a study period of three weeks the error rates decreased considerably for all EDC methods. In the last week of the study the data accuracy for the netbook (5.1%, CI95%: 3.5-7.2% and the tablet PC (5.2%, CI95%: 3.7-7.4% was not significantly different from the accuracy of the conventional paper-based method (3.6%, CI95%: 2.2-5.5%, but error rates for the PDA (7.9%, CI95%: 6.0-10.5% and telephone (6.3%, CI95% 4.6-8.6% remained significantly higher. While EDC-interviews take slightly longer, data become readily available after download, making EDC more time effective. Free text and date fields were associated with higher error rates than numerical, single select and skip fields. CONCLUSIONS: EDC solutions have the potential to produce similar data accuracy compared to paper-based methods. Given the considerable reduction in the time from data collection to database lock, EDC holds the promise to reduce research

  4. Symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective for multiple method research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, K M; Allen, M N

    2001-02-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research rely on different epistemological assumptions about the nature of knowledge. However, the majority of nurse researchers who use multiple method designs do not address the problem of differing theoretical perspectives. Traditionally, symbolic interactionism has been viewed as one perspective underpinning qualitative research, but it is also the basis for quantitative studies. Rooted in social psychology, symbolic interactionism has a rich intellectual heritage that spans more than a century. Underlying symbolic interactionism is the major assumption that individuals act on the basis of the meaning that things have for them. The purpose of this paper is to present symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective for multiple method designs with the aim of expanding the dialogue about new methodologies. Symbolic interactionism can serve as a theoretical perspective for conceptually clear and soundly implemented multiple method research that will expand the understanding of human health behaviour.

  5. [Integration of fundamental and applied medical and technical research made at the department of the biomedical systems, Moscow State Institute of Electronic Engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selishchev, S V

    2004-01-01

    The integration results of fundamental and applied medical-and-technical research made at the chair of biomedical systems, Moscow state institute of electronic engineering (technical university--MSIEE), are described in the paper. The chair is guided in its research activity by the traditions of higher education in Russia in the field of biomedical electronics and biomedical engineering. Its activities are based on the extrapolation of methods of electronic tools, computer technologies, physics, biology and medicine with due respect being paid to the requirements of practical medicine and to topical issues of research and design.

  6. Data Mining and Machine Learning Methods for Dementia Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Patient data in clinical research often includes large amounts of structured information, such as neuroimaging data, neuropsychological test results, and demographic variables. Given the various sources of information, we can develop computerized methods that can be a great help to clinicians to discover hidden patterns in the data. The computerized methods often employ data mining and machine learning algorithms, lending themselves as the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool that assists clinicians in making diagnostic decisions. In this chapter, we review state-of-the-art methods used in dementia research, and briefly introduce some recently proposed algorithms subsequently.

  7. Linear electron accelerator body and method of its manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landa, V.; Maresova, V.; Lucek, J.; Prusa, F.

    1988-01-01

    The accelerator body consists of a hollow casing made of a high electric conductivity metal. The inside is partitioned with a system of resonators. The resonator body is made of one piece of the same metal as the casing or a related one (e.g., copper -coper, silver-copper, copper-copper alloy). The accelerator body is manufactured using the cathodic process on the periphery of a system of metal partitions and negative models of resonator cavities fitted to a metal pin. The pin is then removed from the system and the soluble models of the cavities are dissolved in a solvent. The advantage of the design and the method of manufacture is that the result is a compact, perfectly tight body with a perfectly lustre surface. The casing wall can be very thin, which improves accelerator performance. The claimed method can also be used in manufacturing miniature accelerators. (E.J.). 1 fig

  8. The research on business rules classification and specification methods

    OpenAIRE

    Baltrušaitis, Egidijus

    2005-01-01

    The work is based on the research of business rules classification and specification methods. The basics of business rules approach are discussed. The most common business rules classification and modeling methods are analyzed. Business rules modeling techniques and tools for supporting them in the information systems are presented. Basing on the analysis results business rules classification method is proposed. Templates for every business rule type are presented. Business rules structuring ...

  9. The challenge of conceptual stretching in multi-method research

    OpenAIRE

    Ahram, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Multi-method research (MMR) has gained enthusiastic support among political scientists in recent years. Much of the impetus for MMR has been based on the seemingly intuitive logic of convergent triangulation: two tests are better than one, since a hypothesis that had survived a series of tests with different methods would be regarded as more valid than a hypothesis tested only a single method. In their seminal Design-ing Social Inquiry, King, Keohane, and Verba (1994) argue that combining qu...

  10. Machine Learning Methods to Extract Documentation of Breast Cancer Symptoms From Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alexander W; Barzilay, Regina; Hughes, Kevin S; Lui, Dickson; Lorenz, Karl A; Enzinger, Andrea; Tulsky, James A; Lindvall, Charlotta

    2018-02-27

    Clinicians document cancer patients' symptoms in free-text format within electronic health record visit notes. Although symptoms are critically important to quality of life and often herald clinical status changes, computational methods to assess the trajectory of symptoms over time are woefully underdeveloped. To create machine learning algorithms capable of extracting patient-reported symptoms from free-text electronic health record notes. The data set included 103,564 sentences obtained from the electronic clinical notes of 2695 breast cancer patients receiving paclitaxel-containing chemotherapy at two academic cancer centers between May 1996 and May 2015. We manually annotated 10,000 sentences and trained a conditional random field model to predict words indicating an active symptom (positive label), absence of a symptom (negative label), or no symptom at all (neutral label). Sentences labeled by human coder were divided into training, validation, and test data sets. Final model performance was determined on 20% test data unused in model development or tuning. The final model achieved precision of 0.82, 0.86, and 0.99 and recall of 0.56, 0.69, and 1.00 for positive, negative, and neutral symptom labels, respectively. The most common positive symptoms were pain, fatigue, and nausea. Machine-based labeling of 103,564 sentences took two minutes. We demonstrate the potential of machine learning to gather, track, and analyze symptoms experienced by cancer patients during chemotherapy. Although our initial model requires further optimization to improve the performance, further model building may yield machine learning methods suitable to be deployed in routine clinical care, quality improvement, and research applications. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceptions of physiotherapists towards research: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J; Hale, L; Mirfin-Veitch, B; Harland, T

    2016-06-01

    To explore the perceptions of physiotherapists towards the use of and participation in research. Concurrent mixed methods research, combining in-depth interviews with three questionnaires (demographics, Edmonton Research Orientation Survey, visual analogue scales for confidence and motivation to participate in research). One physiotherapy department in a rehabilitation hospital, consisting of seven specialised areas. Twenty-five subjects {four men and 21 women, mean age 38 [standard deviation (SD) 11] years} who had been registered as a physiotherapist for a mean period of 15 (SD 10) years participated in this study. They were registered with the New Zealand Board of Physiotherapy, held a current practising certificate, and were working as a physiotherapist or physiotherapy/allied health manager at the hospital. The primary outcome measure was in-depth interviews and the secondary outcome measures were the three questionnaires. Physiotherapists were generally positive towards research, but struggled with the concept of research, the available literature and the time to commit to research. Individual confidence and orientation towards research seemed to influence how these barriers were perceived. This study showed that physiotherapists struggle to implement research in their daily practice and become involved in research. Changing physiotherapists' conceptions of research, making it more accessible and providing dedicated research time could facilitate increased involvement in the physiotherapy profession. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. From research methods to methodical researcher: Making use of the student voice towards a more comprehensive module evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hast, Michael

    2015-01-01

    It is not uncommon for undergraduate students to feel aversion towards research methods teaching. This does not change the fact that research methods play a key role in their education. Targeting module design is imperative to ensure success. However, end-of-module student evaluations may provide a false sense of security regarding satisfaction and learnt knowledge. In order to approach module design more effectively it may instead be necessary to view module evaluations from a delayed perspe...

  13. Method for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Ilinski, Petr; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2009-05-15

    We describe a novel technique to characterize ultrashort electron bunches in Xray Free-Electron Lasers. Namely, we propose to use coherent Optical Transition Radiation to measure three-dimensional (3D) electron density distributions. Our method relies on the combination of two known diagnostics setups, an Optical Replica Synthesizer (ORS) and an Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) imager. Electron bunches are modulated at optical wavelengths in the ORS setup.When these electron bunches pass through a metal foil target, coherent radiation pulses of tens MW power are generated. It is thereafter possible to exploit advantages of coherent imaging techniques, such as direct imaging, diffractive imaging, Fourier holography and their combinations. The proposed method opens up the possibility of real-time, wavelength-limited, single-shot 3D imaging of an ultrashort electron bunch. (orig.)

  14. Research Circles - a method for developing guidance practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This video reports on our work with using research circles to improve our understanding of how to provide guidance and counseling to help young people in danger of dropping out of school. The video is based on the paper: Research Circles -- a method for developing guidance practices, and was pres......This video reports on our work with using research circles to improve our understanding of how to provide guidance and counseling to help young people in danger of dropping out of school. The video is based on the paper: Research Circles -- a method for developing guidance practices......, and was presented at the Conference for Social Justice, Prosperity and Sustainable Employment 2012 by assistant professor Helle Merete Nordentoft from DPU (http://edu.au.dk/). The film communicating the research paper was created by Mie Nørgaard...

  15. Mixed-Methods Research in Nutrition and Dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Harris, Jeffrey E

    2017-05-01

    This work focuses on mixed-methods research (MMR) and is the 11th in a series exploring the importance of research design, statistical analysis, and epidemiologic methods as applied to nutrition and dietetics research. MMR research is an investigative technique that applies both quantitative and qualitative data. The purpose of this article is to define MMR; describe its history and nature; provide reasons for its use; describe and explain the six different MMR designs; describe sample selection; and provide guidance in data collection, analysis, and inference. MMR concepts are applied and integrated with nutrition-related scenarios in real-world research contexts and summary recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Methods in Entrepreneurship Education Research: A Review and Integrative Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per; Trolle Elmholdt, Stine; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    2014-01-01

    is fragmented both conceptually and methodologically. Findings suggest that the methods applied in entrepreneurship education research cluster in two groups: 1. quantitative studies of the extent and effect of entrepreneurship education, and 2. qualitative single case studies of different courses and programmes....... It integrates qualitative and quantitative techniques, the use of research teams consisting of insiders (teachers studying their own teaching) and outsiders (research collaborators studying the education) as well as multiple types of data. To gain both in-depth and analytically generalizable studies...... a variety of helpful methods, explore the potential relation between insiders and outsiders in the research process, and discuss how different types of data can be combined. The integrated framework urges researchers to extend investments in methodological efforts and to enhance the in-depth understanding...

  17. Application of Macro Response Monte Carlo method for electron spectrum simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perles, L.A.; Almeida, A. de

    2007-01-01

    During the past years several variance reduction techniques for Monte Carlo electron transport have been developed in order to reduce the electron computation time transport for absorbed dose distribution. We have implemented the Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method to evaluate the electron spectrum which can be used as a phase space input for others simulation programs. Such technique uses probability distributions for electron histories previously simulated in spheres (called kugels). These probabilities are used to sample the primary electron final state, as well as the creation secondary electrons and photons. We have compared the MRMC electron spectra simulated in homogeneous phantom against the Geant4 spectra. The results showed an agreement better than 6% in the spectra peak energies and that MRMC code is up to 12 time faster than Geant4 simulations

  18. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial.

  19. Electron synchrotron as the most appropriate investment into research and development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozubek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1a (2008), s11-s12 ISSN 1211-5894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : electron Synchrotron * research and development * structural funds of EU Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  20. Mixed methods in psychotherapy research: A review of method(ology) integration in psychotherapy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Theodore T; Lockard, Allison J

    2018-06-13

    Mixed methods can foster depth and breadth in psychological research. However, its use remains in development in psychotherapy research. Our purpose was to review the use of mixed methods in psychotherapy research. Thirty-one studies were identified via the PRISMA systematic review method. Using Creswell & Plano Clark's typologies to identify design characteristics, we assessed each study for rigor and how each used mixed methods. Key features of mixed methods designs and these common patterns were identified: (a) integration of clients' perceptions via mixing; (b) understanding group psychotherapy; (c) integrating methods with cases and small samples; (d) analyzing clinical data as qualitative data; and (e) exploring cultural identities in psychotherapy through mixed methods. The review is discussed with respect to the value of integrating multiple data in single studies to enhance psychotherapy research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.