WorldWideScience

Sample records for research linking chronic

  1. Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How Are They Linked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan He

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is extensively verified that continued oxidative stress and oxidative damage may lead to chronic inflammation, which in turn can mediate most chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, neurological, inflammatory bowel disease and pulmonary diseases. Curcumin, a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric, shows strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities when used as a remedy for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. How oxidative stress activates inflammatory pathways leading to the progression of chronic diseases is the focus of this review. Thus, research to date suggests that chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and most chronic diseases are closely linked, and the antioxidant properties of curcumin can play a key role in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation diseases.

  2. Linking research to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto-Correia, T.; Kristensen, L.

    2013-01-01

    , questions on the changes affecting the rural, addressed by society to the scientific community, are of a, new character and require novel research approaches. This paper argues that landscape based, approaches can be useful basis for the required conceptual innovation. The paper presents and, discusses...... a set of examples of practice driven research developments, in contrasting regions of Europe. And it proposes a conceptual model which aims to contextualize empirical research driven by, problems set up in practice, and combining the ecological and structural dimensions with the socioeconomic...

  3. Linking Research to Practice

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An overview of ethics in ICTD research suggests a comprehensive canon is absent. ... And our home, the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, .... For example, global media coverage focused on the advent of commercially ...

  4. Link between rheumatoid arthritis and chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kaczyński

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis is an infectious disease associated with the progressive destruction of periodontal tissues. In recent years, more and more data indicate an existing relationship between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The link between both diseases has been confirmed in multiple studies. Despite the fact that this association might be based on shared environmental and genetic risk factors, a possible causal relation was advocated by experimental, epidemiological and interventional studies, with the leading role of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Individuals with chronic periodontitis are at an increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, as well as rheumatoid arthritis patients are at an increased risk of chronic periodontitis and more severe forms of periodontitis. Furthermore, there is a correlation between the activity in both diseases – patients with more severe periodontitis suffer from more active rheumatoid arthritis. Intervention attempts were also performed, which demonstrated that eliminating periodontal infection and inflammation can affect the severity of rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, we review the current knowledge about the link between both diseases, focusing on its clinical implications. Will periodontal treatment become a part of standard therapy for rheumatoid arthritis?

  5. Forging Links for Health Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The central objective of GFHR is "to help correct the 10/90 gap" (GFHR 1999, p. ...... reports on health inequities as mediated by gender, ethnic group, and geography, ...... Yet, research with strong elements of community participation may be ...

  6. Chronic Inflammation Links Cancer and Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming eLi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of genetic studies suggest that the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD and cancer share common genes, pathways, and mechanisms. Despite a disruption in a wide range of similar biological processes, the end result is very different: uncontrolled proliferation and early neurodegeneration. Thus, the links between the molecular mechanisms that cause PD and cancer remain to be elucidated. We propose that chronic inflammation in neurons and tumors contributes to a microenvironment that favors the accumulation of DNA mutations and facilitates disease formation. This article appraises the key role of microglia, establishes the genetic role of COX2 and CARD15 in PD and cancer, and discusses prevention and treatment with this new perspective in mind. We examine the evidence that chronic inflammation is an important link between cancer and PD.

  7. Strengthening links between waterfowl research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anthony J.; Eadie, John M.; Howerter, David; Johnson, Fred A.; Nichols, James; Runge, Michael C.; Vrtiska, Mark; Williams, Byron K.

    2018-01-01

    Waterfowl monitoring, research, regulation, and adaptive planning are leading the way in supporting science-informed wildlife management. However, increasing societal demands on natural resources have created a greater need for adaptable and successful linkages between waterfowl science and management. We presented a special session at the 2016 North American Duck Symposium, Annapolis, Maryland, USA on the successes and challenges of linking research and management in waterfowl conservation, and we summarize those thoughts in this commentary. North American waterfowl management includes a diversity of actions including management of harvest and habitat. Decisions for waterfowl management are structured using decision analysis by incorporating stakeholder values into formal objectives, identifying research relevant to objectives, integrating scientific knowledge, and choosing an optimal strategy with respect to objectives. Recently, the consideration of the value of information has been proposed as a means to evaluate the utility of research designed to meet objectives. Despite these advances, the ability to conduct waterfowl research with direct management application may be increasingly difficult in research institutions for several reasons including reduced funding for applied research and the lower perceived value of applied versus theoretical research by some university academics. In addition, coordination between researchers and managers may be logistically constrained, and communication may be ineffective between the 2 groups. Strengthening these links would help develop stronger and more coordinated approaches for the conservation of waterfowl and the wetlands upon which they depend.

  8. Multiple chronic health conditions and their link with wealth assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah J; Callander, Emily J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Passey, Megan E; Kelly, Simon J; Percival, Richard

    2015-04-01

    There has been little research on the economic status of those with multiple health conditions, particularly on the relationship between multiple health conditions and wealth. This paper will assess the difference in the value and type of wealth assets held by Australians who have multiple chronic health conditions. Using Health&WealthMOD, a microsimulation model of the 45-64-year-old Australian population in 2009, a counterfactual analysis was undertaken. The actual proportion of people with different numbers of chronic health conditions with any wealth, and the value of this wealth was estimated. This was compared with the counterfactual values had the individuals had no chronic health conditions. There was no change in the proportion of people with one health condition who actually had any wealth, compared to the counterfactual proportion had they had no chronic health conditions. Ninety-four percent of those with four or more health conditions had some accumulated wealth; however, under the counterfactual, 100% would have had some accumulated wealth. There was little change in the value of non-income-producing assets under the counterfactual, regardless of number of health conditions. Those with four or more chronic health conditions had a mean value of $17 000 in income-producing assets; under the counterfactual, the average would have been $78 000. This study has highlighted the variation in the value of wealth according to number of chronic health conditions, and hence the importance of considering multiple morbidities when discussing the relationship between health and wealth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Linking acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease: the missing links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaballo, Mohammed A; Elsayed, Mohamed E; Stack, Austin G

    2017-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is considered to be a major public health problem around the globe, and it is associated with major adverse clinical outcomes and significant health care costs. There is growing evidence suggesting that AKI is associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). While recovery of kidney function occurs in the majority of patients surviving an AKI episode, a large number of patients do not recover completely. Similarly, CKD is a well-known risk factor for the development of AKI. Recent studies suggest that both AKI and CKD are not separate disease entities but are in fact components of a far more closely interconnected disease continuum. However, the true nature of this relationship is complex and poorly understood. This review explores potential relationships between AKI and CKD, and seeks to uncover a number of "missing links" in this tentative emerging relationship.

  10. Linking the microbiota, chronic disease and the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Timothy W.; Vujkovic-Cvijin, Ivan; Ridaura, Vanessa K.; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases are the most important causes of mortality in the world today and are on the rise. We now know that immune-driven inflammation is critical in the etiology of these diseases, though the environmental triggers and cellular mechanisms that lead to their development are still mysterious. Many chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with significant shifts in the microbiota towards inflammatory configurations, which can affect the host both by inducing local and systemic inflammation and by alterations in microbiota-derived metabolites. This review discusses recent findings suggesting that shifts in the microbiota may contribute to chronic disease via effects on the immune system. PMID:27623245

  11. Dietary fatty acids linking postprandial metabolic response and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Almudena; Varela, Lourdes M; Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are by far one of the main causes of mortality in the world. One of the current global recommendations to counteract disability and premature death resulting from chronic diseases is to decrease the consumption of energy-dense high-fat diets, particularly those rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA). The most effective replacement for SFA in terms of risk factor outcomes for chronic disease are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The biochemical basis for healthy benefits of such a dietary pattern has been widely evaluated under fasting conditions. However, the increasing amount of data available from multiple studies suggest that the postprandial state, i.e., "the period that comprises and follows a meal", plays an important, yet underappreciated, role in the genesis of numerous pathological conditions. In this review, the potential of MUFA, PUFA, and SFA to postprandially affect selected metabolic abnormalities related to chronic diseases is discussed.

  12. Anemia and pregnancy: a link to maternal chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Raja; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Keith, Louis

    2011-11-01

    Anemia is a global public health problem. It has serious short- and long-term consequences during pregnancy and beyond. The anemic condition is often worsened by the presence of other chronic diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and diabetes. Untreated anemia also leads to increased morbidity and mortality from these chronic conditions as well. It is surprising that despite these chronic conditions (such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV) often being preventable, they still pose a real threat to public health. This article aims to review the current understanding of the pathophysiology, risks, prevention, and treatment of anemia in the light of these chronic conditions. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Links between Conflict Management Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the implications of my research on conflict management for self improvement and for practitioners who work to improve the conflict management of others. I also note how my experiences with practitioners have informed my research.

  14. Linking ecosystem services with cultural landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Biding, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services facilitates the valuation of the multiple services from ecosystems and landscapes, the identification of trade-offs between different land use scenarios, and also informs decision making in land use planning. Unfortunately, cultural services have been mostly...... neglected within the ecosystem services framework. This could result in trade-off assessments which are biased and mislead ecosystem management and landscape planning. However, cultural landscape research approaches have proven valuable in the assessment of different nonmaterial landscape values...... and cultural services. In this paper, we compare the objectives, approaches, and methodologies adopted by ecosystem services research and cultural landscape research through a bibliographic research. Both research communities investigate the human dimension of ecosystems and landscapes and, hence, study...

  15. DANTE announces new research and education link to India

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Research networking organization DANTE (Delivery of Advanced Network Technology to Europe) has announced that high-speed communication links for students and researchers between India and Europe are now live." (1 page)

  16. Linking Emerging Infectious Diseases Research and Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In China and Southeast Asia, the lack of policy or regulation enforcements means that the use of antibiotics ... Building on past research on avian influenza and ongoing ... Chinese Academy of Sciences. Pays d' institution. China. Site internet.

  17. A Link between Education, Research and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael Rene; Jochumsen, Henrik; Wick, Peter Josef

    One major challenge in entrepreneurship education in a non-business school university context is the lack of relation to the teacher’s own research field. Teaching is typically conducted by teachers whose research activities are connected to another subject area than entrepreneurship. Consequently...... entrepreneurship as both relevant and useful; the transformation towards a more entrepreneurial education is not supported by incentives, neither at the institutional or individual level – in contrast to research and publication (see e.g. West III, Gatewood & Shaver, 2009). On this basis we will explore...... the following questions: • How do we achieve a constructive and creative interaction between education, research and entrepreneurship? • In what contexts it is possible to integrate the three areas? • What specific organizational and didactic modalities can be used to support integration? • What benefits can...

  18. [Chronic mild inflammation links obesity, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis and diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andel, M; Polák, J; Kraml, P; Dlouhý, P; Stich, V

    2009-01-01

    Chronic low grade inflammation is relatively new concept in metabolic medicine. This concept describes the relations between the inflammation and adipose tissue, insulin resistence, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Macrophages and lymphocytes deposed in adipose tissue produce proinflammatory cytokines which directly or through the CRP liver secretion are targeting endothelial cells, hepatocytes and beta cells of Langerhans islets of pancreas. The dysfunction of these cells follows often further disturbances and in case of beta cells - the cell death. The connection between the adipose tissue insulin resistence, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes was earlier described with endocrine and metabolic descriptors. The concept of chronic low grade inflammation creates also another description of multilateral connections in metabolic syndome. The salicylates and the drugs related to them seem to have some glucose lowering properties. The recent development in the field ofchronic low grade inflammation represents also certain therapeutic hope for antiinflammatory intervention in type 2 diabetes.

  19. CCAA research-to-policy links

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    interaction with policymaking bodies at the local, national or regional level. In some ... Monitoring Centre in Harare which serves the Southern African Development Community). • Local or ... Agricultural Research Corporation. Ethiopia .... Urban Interactions: the Case Study of Aba ... Network to Pioneer Climate Adaptation.

  20. Linking African Researchers with Adaptation Policy Spaces | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linking African Researchers with Adaptation Policy Spaces. Poor understanding of policy processes tends to reduce the value of research results and the ability of researchers to influence policy. One of the main goals of IDRC's Climate Change Adaptation in Africa (CCAA) program is to build the capacity of researchers to ...

  1. The link between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Sarmad; Hernandez, German T

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a strong risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the excess risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD is only partially explained by the presence of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. Chronic kidney disease even in its early stages can cause hypertension and potentiate the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the practice of intensive blood pressure lowering was criticized in recent systematic reviews. Available evidence is inconclusive but does not prove that a blood pressure target of less than 130/80 mmHg as recommended in the guidelines improves clinical outcomes more than a target of less than 140/90 mmHg in adults with CKD. The association between CKD and CVD has been extensively documented in the literature. Both CKD and CVD share common traditional risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. However, cardiovascular disease remains often underdiagnosed und undertreated in patients with CKD. It is imperative that as clinicians, we recognize that patients with CKD are a group at high risk for developing CVD and cardiovascular events. Additional studies devoted to further understand the risk factors for CVD in patients with CKD are necessary to develop and institute preventative and treatment strategies to reduce the high morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD.

  2. FAA airborne data link human factors research plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This report contains a five-year plan to perform research of human factors issues and topics : related to Data Link implementations in general aviation and transport category aircraft. : Elements such as resource allocation and management and coordin...

  3. Strengthening health systems through linking research evidence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    informed policies. Accordingly, a critical way of addressing these challenges facing health systems in the region is through the linking of health research findings to policy. Keywords: Evidence; Sub-Saharan Africa; Health Policy; Health Systems ...

  4. Chronic periaortitis and antiphospholipid syndrome: is there a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Carneiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periaortitis (CP is a rare fibro-inflammatory disease characterized by periaortic fibrosis and/or aortic aneurysms formation, mostly localized in retroperitoneum and occasionally in the mediastinum. Recent studies have shown its common association with autoimmune diseases, therefore autoimmunity has been proposed as a contributing factor. Herein, we describe the second case in the literature of CP associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. A 64-year-old man with history of open surgery for inflammatory thoracic aneurysm and recurrent deep vein thrombosis was referred for abdominal pain and weight loss in the last 6 months. Further investigation revealed elevated acute-phase reactant levels, positive antiphospholipid autoantibodies, radiological and histological evidence of periaortic fibrosis and inflammation causing abdominal aneurysm and ureteral obstruction. Diagnosis of CP and antiphospholipid syndrome were made and steroid therapy was implemented with clinical and radiological improvement. The present report further supports the potentially immune-mediated origin of CP, highlighting its possible linkage with antiphospholipid syndrome.

  5. Genetic association in chronic periodontitis through dermatoglyphics: An unsolved link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Astekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because dermatoglyphic features are strongly affected by genetic and environmental factors, using it as supportive evidence in the diagnosis of hereditary disorders becomes a reality. Offspring of patients suffering from chronic periodontitis have a high prevalence rate of periodontal breakdown, suggesting strong familial influence. Aims: The present study intends to evaluate and compare the dermatoglyphic patterns in controls and periodontally compromised patients. Settings and Design: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted, including a total of 60 individuals, divided into study and control groups of 30 each. The study group included clinically diagnosed periodontitis patients.Materials and Methods: The digital prints were collected using biometric scanner and palmer prints using digital flatbed scanner. Care was taken to ensure that full prints of ridges were obtained. The periodontal status of all 60 participants was assessed clinically for attachment level and pocket depth. Later, Russell's periodontal index was also calculated. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using chi square and Student's t-test. Results: Among the finger ridge patterns, whorl pattern was found to be the most common in the study group whereas loop pattern was the most common in the control group. Mean total finger ridge count in the study group (165.69 ± 25.30 was significantly higher (P = 0.001 than the control group (125.4 ± 16.38. Mean dat angle was significantly higher (P = 0.039 in the study group (60.60 ± 2.76 than the control group (59.20 ± 2.62. Conclusion: Dermatoglyphics may serve as an early predictor in identifying high risk group individuals of developing diseases like periodontitis.

  6. From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to Sustainable Agriculture. Research on climate change and its impact on the ... Outputs. Journal articles. Factors affecting households vulnerability to climate change in Swaziland : a case of Mpolonjeni Area Development Programme (ADP). Download PDF ...

  7. Adaptation Finance: Linking Research, Policy, and Business | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adaptation Finance: Linking Research, Policy, and Business. This project will train up to 36 emerging climate change leaders in the field of adaptation finance, which funds efforts to adapt to climate change impacts. The goal is to bring together participants from research, policy, and private sector backgrounds to equip them ...

  8. Linked Data: Opportunities and Challenges in Disability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, Emma J.; Hussain, Rafat

    2008-01-01

    Background: Disability research data often exist in the form of individual records located within discrete registers that may extend across sensitive political boundaries. Method: This paper discusses the opportunities and challenges associated with using linked health and administrative data for disability research, with examples from research…

  9. Discoid lupus erythematosus-like lesions in carriers of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillevis Smitt, J. H.; Weening, R. S.; Krieg, S. R.; Bos, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 16 carriers of the X-linked cytochrome-b558 negative variant of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Of the 15 who answered the questionnaire and from data of one additional case, 70% reported recurrent aphthous stomatitis and 63% had recurrent skin eruptions. Five of the

  10. The link between weight shift asymmetry and gait disturbances in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopa A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrzej Szopa,1 Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa,2 Anetta Lasek-Bal,3 Amadeusz Żak3 1Department of Physiotherapy, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, 3Department of Neurology, Professor Leszek Giec Upper Silesian Medical Centre, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Introduction: While the asymmetry of body posture and the asymmetrical nature of hemiparetic gait in poststroke (PS patients are well documented, the role of weight shift asymmetry in gait disorders after stroke remains unclear. Objective: We examined the association of weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA between paretic and nonparetic lower limbs during quiet standing with the degree of deviation of hemiplegic gait from normal gait evaluated by the Gillette Gait Index (GGI incorporating 16 distinct clinically important kinematic and temporal parameters in chronic PS patients.Participants and methods: Twenty-two ambulatory patients with chronic stroke aged between 50 and 75 years were included in this study. Fourteen patients had hemiparesis on the nondominant side and 8 on the dominant side. The mean time PS was 2 years and 6 months. The reference group consisted of 22 students from the University of the Third Age presenting no neurological disorders. The examination consisted of posturographic weight-bearing (WB distribution and 3-dimensional gait analyses.Results: A significant positive relationship between WBA and GGI was revealed. Moreover, we observed a significant negative association between WBA and paretic step length and walking speed. With regard to kinematic data, the range of motion of knee flexion and peak dorsiflexion in the swing phase of the paretic leg were significantly negatively associated with WBA.Conclusion: Although further research is needed to determine a causal link between postural control asymmetry and gait disturbance in hemiplegics, our findings support the inclusion of WB measurements between paretic and

  11. A review of the evidence linking adult attachment theory and chronic pain: presenting a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela; Ownsworth, Tamara; Strong, Jenny

    2008-03-01

    It is now well established that pain is a multidimensional phenomenon, affected by a gamut of psychosocial and biological variables. According to diathesis-stress models of chronic pain, some individuals are more vulnerable to developing disability following acute pain because they possess particular psychosocial vulnerabilities which interact with physical pathology to impact negatively upon outcome. Attachment theory, a theory of social and personality development, has been proposed as a comprehensive developmental model of pain, implicating individual adult attachment pattern in the ontogenesis and maintenance of chronic pain. The present paper reviews and critically appraises studies which link adult attachment theory with chronic pain. Together, these papers offer support for the role of insecure attachment as a diathesis (or vulnerability) for problematic adjustment to pain. The Attachment-Diathesis Model of Chronic Pain developed from this body of literature, combines adult attachment theory with the diathesis-stress approach to chronic pain. The evidence presented in this review, and the associated model, advances our understanding of the developmental origins of chronic pain conditions, with potential application in guiding early pain intervention and prevention efforts, as well as tailoring interventions to suit specific patient needs.

  12. Teaching and Research: Establishing Link in Studio-Based Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ozdemyr

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The compelling ideal of modern architectural education associated with Boyer’s (1990 framework is a scholarly collaboration by a relationship between teaching and research. Research enhances teaching through the introduction of new topics and methodologies. Research-based teaching stimulates better communication between students and lecturers as researchers. Students’ comments and questions can improve the subject of future research. A model of research-based teaching can be structured to teach both research findings and processes. This model can be well integrated to current curriculum with emphasis on research-oriented teaching in which students take part in the research process. In this process, instructors use their research experience during their interactions with students. This paper discusses the establishment of the link between research and teaching in the built environment with cases from studio-based learning in Landscape Architecture discipline. The argument is that studio-based education should be accepted as a pedagogical method to take part in teaching research to make connections between architecture and other disciplines. This effort will position the education into a research-based setting and make proposals to re-orient curriculum so that researchers can teach what and how they research.

  13. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C

    2015-01-01

    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations...

  14. Action research in rehabilitation with chronic stroke recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene; Bundgaard, Tina H; Zeeman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic stroke patients are primarily referred to general rehabilitation, rather than to specific neurorehabilitation. Currently, there are no Danish clinical guidelines for chronic stroke, but recent research in neuroplasticity has contributed to possible rehabilitation interventions....... CONCLUSIONS: This report indicates that a specific neuroplastic focus in combination with action research has an impact on the participants with chronic stroke. However, there is still no clarity regarding what type of rehabilitation methods can be considered the most efficacious in promoting neuroplasticity...... for these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this project is to describe the use of a specialized neuroplastic approach in combination with an already existing training program. METHODS: The project is designed as an action research project concerning four participants with chronic stroke. Through ten intervention...

  15. Linking international trademark databases to inform IP research and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, P.

    2016-07-01

    Researchers and policy makers are concerned with many international issues regarding trademarks, such as trademark squatting, cluttering, and dilution. Trademark application data can provide an evidence base to inform government policy regarding these issues, and can also produce quantitative insights into economic trends and brand dynamics. Currently, national trademark databases can provide insight into economic and brand dynamics at the national level, but gaining such insight at an international level is more difficult due to a lack of internationally linked trademark data. We are in the process of building a harmonised international trademark database (the “Patstat of trademarks”), in which equivalent trademarks have been identified across national offices. We have developed a pilot database that incorporates 6.4 million U.S., 1.3 million Australian, and 0.5 million New Zealand trademark applications, spanning over 100 years. The database will be extended to incorporate trademark data from other participating intellectual property (IP) offices as they join the project. Confirmed partners include the United Kingdom, WIPO, and OHIM. We will continue to expand the scope of the project, and intend to include many more IP offices from around the world. In addition to building the pilot database, we have developed a linking algorithm that identifies equivalent trademarks (TMs) across the three jurisdictions. The algorithm can currently be applied to all applications that contain TM text; i.e. around 96% of all applications. In its current state, the algorithm successfully identifies ~ 97% of equivalent TMs that are known to be linked a priori, as they have shared international registration number through the Madrid protocol. When complete, the internationally linked trademark database will be a valuable resource for researchers and policy-makers in fields such as econometrics, intellectual property rights, and brand policy. (Author)

  16. Micronutrient malnutrition, obesity, and chronic disease in countries undergoing the nutrition transition: potential links and program/policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhardt, Cara L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential long-term effects of micronutrient malnutrition in early childhood on obesity and related disease outcomes. The links between early micronutrient malnutrition, stunting, and subsequent short adult stature — emerging risk factors for obesity and associated chronic diseases—are reviewed. This paper also explores recent literature linking micronutrient malnutrition in adults to increased risk and severity of chronic disease. Finally, this paper discusses the pr...

  17. Educability as a Link of Contemporary Civil Experience: Research Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Groppa Aquino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This text argues that the educability of citizens is objectified in terms of a demand for diffuse and perpetual training, which has become a foundational link of social existence. This statement is based upon the results of twelve researches carried out by a group from the school of Education of the University of São Paulo, devoted to Foucaultian studies in education. It is an effort to analyze the relationship between contemporary governmentality and certain ongoing educational imperatives from different social fields.

  18. Validation and discovery of genotype-phenotype associations in chronic diseases using linked data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Kiefer, Richard; Freimuth, Robert; Chute, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates federated SPARQL queries over Linked Open Data (LOD) in the Semantic Web to validate existing, and potentially discover new genotype-phenotype associations from public datasets. In particular, we report our preliminary findings for identifying such associations for commonly occurring chronic diseases using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and Database for SNPs (dbSNP) within the LOD knowledgebase and compare them with Gene Wiki for coverage and completeness. Our results indicate that Semantic Web technologies can play an important role for in-silico identification of novel disease-gene-SNP associations, although additional verification is required before such information can be applied and used effectively.

  19. Utopia documents: linking scholarly literature with research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, T K; Kell, D B; McDermott, P; Marsh, J; Pettifer, S R; Thorne, D

    2010-09-15

    In recent years, the gulf between the mass of accumulating-research data and the massive literature describing and analyzing those data has widened. The need for intelligent tools to bridge this gap, to rescue the knowledge being systematically isolated in literature and data silos, is now widely acknowledged. To this end, we have developed Utopia Documents, a novel PDF reader that semantically integrates visualization and data-analysis tools with published research articles. In a successful pilot with editors of the Biochemical Journal (BJ), the system has been used to transform static document features into objects that can be linked, annotated, visualized and analyzed interactively (http://www.biochemj.org/bj/424/3/). Utopia Documents is now used routinely by BJ editors to mark up article content prior to publication. Recent additions include integration of various text-mining and biodatabase plugins, demonstrating the system's ability to seamlessly integrate on-line content with PDF articles. http://getutopia.com.

  20. Self-Regulatory Fatigue: A Missing Link in Understanding Fibromyalgia and Other Chronic MultiSymptom Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nes, Lise Solberg; Ehlers, Shawna L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Patients with chronic multisymptom illnesses such as fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are experiencing a multitude of physical and mental challenges. Facing such challenges may drain capacity to self-regulate, and research suggests patients with these illnesses may experience self-regulatory fatigue (SRF). This study sought to examine whether SRF can be associated with quality of life (QoL) in patients with FMS. Patients (N = 258) diagnosed with FMS completed self-report measures related to demographics, SRF (Self-Regulatory Fatigue 18 [SRF-18]), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire [GAD-7]), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]), physical fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI]), symptoms related to FMS (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire [FIQ]), and QoL (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36]). Hierarchical regressions showed higher SRF to be associated with lower QoL in terms of lower overall physical QoL, with subscales related to physical functioning, role limitations-physical, bodily pain, and general health (all P's > 0.001), as well as lower overall mental QoL, with subscales related to vitality, social functioning, role limitations-emotional, and mental health (all P's > 0.001). Including traditional predictors such as anxiety, depression, physical fatigue, and FMS-related symptoms as covariates in the analyses reduced the link between SRF and QoL somewhat, but the associations remained generally strong, particularly for SRF and mental QoL. This is the first study to show higher SRF relating to lower QoL for patients with FMS. Results suggest that SRF is distinct from anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and predicts QoL above and beyond these traditional factors in the area of chronic multisymptom illnesses such as FMS. SRF may be a "missing link" in understanding the complex nature of chronic multisymptom illnesses. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Participatory Research for Chronic Disease Prevention in Inuit Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes…

  2. Oxidized-low density lipoprotein in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with chronic periodontitis: a possible link to atherogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rucha; Thomas, Raison; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2014-02-01

    To investigate a possible link between periodontitis and atherogenesis by examining the levels of anti-oxidized low density lipoprotien (ox LDL) and low density lipoprotien (LDL) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients. Sixty male subjects (35-55 years) were grouped into 30 healthy individuals and 30 subjects with chronic periodontitis. Serum and GCF samples were obtained from each subject and were assessed for anti-ox LDL and LDL levels. A significant difference (p chronic periodontitis groups. Also the ratio of GCF anti-ox LDL to GCF LDL was significantly higher (p chronic periodontitis patients as compared to the healthy group. A significant rise in ox LDL level in otherwise systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients may put these subjects at an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  3. Development of Two Antibody Detection Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Serodiagnosis of Human Chronic Fascioliasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabán-Hernández, Kimberly; Gaudier, José F.; Ruiz-Jiménez, Caleb

    2014-01-01

    Coprological examination based on egg detection in stool samples is currently used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis. However, this method is not effective during the acute phase of the disease and has poor sensitivity during the chronic phase. Serodiagnosis has become an excellent alternative to coprological examination in efforts to combat the effects of fascioliasis on human and animal health. Two novel recombinant Fasciola hepatica proteins, i.e., a ferritin (FhFtn-1) and a tegument-associated protein (FhTP16.5), were used as antigens to develop in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. The assays were optimized and validated using 152 serum samples from humans with a known infection status, including healthy subjects, patients with chronic fascioliasis, and patients with other parasitic diseases. The FhFtn-1 ELISA was shown to be 96.6% sensitive and 95.7% specific; the respective parameters for the FhTP16.5 ELISA were 91.4% and 92.4%. The performances of the FhFtn-1 and FhTP16.5 ELISAs were compared with that of an available commercial test (the DRG test) using a subset of serum samples. Our in-house tests were slightly more sensitive than the DRG test in detecting antibodies against F. hepatica, but the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for the potential of the FhFtn-1 and FhTP16.5 ELISAs as diagnostic tools for human fascioliasis, as might be implemented in conjunction with standard assays for large-scale screenings in areas where the disease is endemic and for the detection of occasional cases in clinical laboratories. PMID:24353000

  4. Development of two antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serodiagnosis of human chronic fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabán-Hernández, Kimberly; Gaudier, José F; Ruiz-Jiménez, Caleb; Espino, Ana M

    2014-03-01

    Coprological examination based on egg detection in stool samples is currently used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of human fascioliasis. However, this method is not effective during the acute phase of the disease and has poor sensitivity during the chronic phase. Serodiagnosis has become an excellent alternative to coprological examination in efforts to combat the effects of fascioliasis on human and animal health. Two novel recombinant Fasciola hepatica proteins, i.e., a ferritin (FhFtn-1) and a tegument-associated protein (FhTP16.5), were used as antigens to develop in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. The assays were optimized and validated using 152 serum samples from humans with a known infection status, including healthy subjects, patients with chronic fascioliasis, and patients with other parasitic diseases. The FhFtn-1 ELISA was shown to be 96.6% sensitive and 95.7% specific; the respective parameters for the FhTP16.5 ELISA were 91.4% and 92.4%. The performances of the FhFtn-1 and FhTP16.5 ELISAs were compared with that of an available commercial test (the DRG test) using a subset of serum samples. Our in-house tests were slightly more sensitive than the DRG test in detecting antibodies against F. hepatica, but the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for the potential of the FhFtn-1 and FhTP16.5 ELISAs as diagnostic tools for human fascioliasis, as might be implemented in conjunction with standard assays for large-scale screenings in areas where the disease is endemic and for the detection of occasional cases in clinical laboratories.

  5. Symptom research on chronic cough: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R S; Madison, J M

    2001-05-01

    This review provides a perspective on how research on the management of cough has evolved, looks at key methodologic lessons that have been learned from this research and how they may relate to the management of other symptoms, identifies important methodologic challenges that remain to be solved, and lists important questions that still need to be answered. Three important methodologic lessons have been learned. First, cough must be evaluated systematically and according to a neuroanatomic framework. Second, the response to specific therapy must be noted to determine the cause or causes of cough and to characterize the strengths and limitations of diagnostic testing. Third, multiple conditions can simultaneously cause cough. Among the three methodologic challenges that still need to be solved are 1) definitively determining the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and how best to interpret pH test results, 2) definitively determining the role of nonacid reflux in cough due to gastroesophageal reflux disease, and 3) developing reliable and reproducible subjective and objective methods with which to assess the efficacy of cough therapy. Numerous important clinical questions are still unanswered: What role do empirical therapeutic trials play in diagnosing the cause of chronic cough? What is the most cost-effective approach to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough: empirical therapeutic trials or laboratory testing-directed therapeutic trials? How often is environmental air pollution, unrelated to allergies or smoking, responsible for chronic cough?

  6. Research progress of therapeutic vaccines for treating chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiang; Bao, Mengru; Ge, Jun; Ren, Sulin; Zhou, Tong; Qi, Fengchun; Pu, Xiuying; Dou, Jia

    2017-05-04

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of Hepadnavirus family, which leads to chronic infection in around 5% of patients with a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. 1 Despite the availability of prophylactic vaccines against hepatitis B for over 3 decades, there are still more than 2 billion people have been infected and 240 million of them were chronic. Antiviral therapies currently used in the treatment of CHB (chronic hepatitis B) infection include peg-interferon, standard α-interferon and nucleos/tide analogs (NAs), but none of them can provide sustained control of viral replication. As an alternative strategy, therapeutic vaccines for CHB patients have been widely studied and showed some promising efficacies in dozens of preclinical and clinical trials. In this article, we review current research progress in several types of therapeutic vaccines for CHB treatment, including protein-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, live vector-based vaccines, peptide-based vaccines and cell-based therapies. These researches may provide some clues for developing new treatments in CHB infection.

  7. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Bargiela, Rafael

    2015-06-29

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P < 0.05) with both temperature and chemical diversity. Furthermore, we observed a link between temperature and chemical and biological diversity that was stronger in chronically polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills.

  8. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Bargiela, Rafael; Mapelli, Francesca; Rojo, David; Chouaia, Bessem; Torné s, Jesú s; Borin, Sara; Richter, Michael; Del Pozo, Mercedes V.; Cappello, Simone; Gertler, Christoph; Genovese, Marí a; Denaro, Renata; Martí nez-Martí nez, Mó nica; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Amer, Ranya A.; Bigazzi, David; Han, Xifang; Chen, Jianwei; Chernikova, Tatyana N.; Golyshina, Olga V.; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Jaouanil, Atef; Benzha, Fatima; Magagnini, Mirko; Hussein, Emad; Al-Horani, Fuad; Cherif, Ameur; Blaghen, Mohamed; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R.; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Barbas, Coral; Malkawi, Hanan I.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Yakimov, Michail M.; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P < 0.05) with both temperature and chemical diversity. Furthermore, we observed a link between temperature and chemical and biological diversity that was stronger in chronically polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills.

  9. Linking Research to Practice: Strengthening ICT for Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Jan 1, 2012 ... The program supports interdisciplinary ICTD research through the ... experienced mentors with deserving early-career Asian researchers in an ... University, and assistant director of the Singapore Internet Research Centre.

  10. Linking Civil Engineering Education And Research With Industry (Session Keynote)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virdi, Kuldeep

    Linking engineering education with industry has been a basic aim of educators almost from the beginning of modern degree programmes. In the USA, reference is often made to ‘co-operative education’, where students spend periods in industry within the duration of their stay in a university. Indeed...

  11. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  12. Forging Links for Health Research: Perspectives from the Council on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As part of the lead up to the October 2000 International Conference on Health Research for Development in Bangkok, the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) called upon its associates around the world to reflect on achievements and setbacks in the 1990s. This book is the result of those reflections.

  13. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Gunn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and reporting. The use of learning design as a strategy to develop and test theories in practice is integral to our argument. We conclude by supporting other researchers who recommend educational design research as a theory focused methodology to move the field forward in productive and consistent ways. The challenge of changing common practice will be involved. However, the potential to raise the profile of learning technology research and improve educational outcomes justifies the effort required.

  14. Linking plastic ingestion research with marine wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Borrelle, Stephanie B; Provencher, Jennifer F

    2018-05-16

    Plastic is an increasingly pervasive marine pollutant. Concomitantly, the number of studies documenting plastic ingestion in wildlife is accelerating. Many of these studies aim to provide a baseline against which future levels of plastic ingestion can be compared, and are motivated by an underlying interest in the conservation of their study species and ecosystems. Although this research has helped to raise the profile of plastic as a pollutant of emerging concern, there is a disconnect between research examining plastic pollution and wildlife conservation. We present ideas to further discussion about how plastic ingestion research could benefit wildlife conservation by prioritising studies that elucidates the significance of plastic pollution as a population-level threat, identifies vulnerable populations, and evaluates strategies for mitigating impacts. The benefit of plastic ingestion research to marine wildlife can be improved by establishing a clearer understanding of how discoveries will be integrated into conservation and policy actions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Enhanced Publications Linking Publications and Research Data in Digital Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    Vernooy-Gerritsen, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    The traditional publication will be overhauled by the 'Enhanced Publication'. This is a publication that is enhanced with research data, extra materials, post publication data, and database records. It has an object-based structure with explicit l

  16. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Gunn; Caroline Steel

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and repor...

  17. Lesbian, gay, & bisexual older adults: linking internal minority stressors, chronic health conditions, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to: (1) test whether the minority stressors disclosure of sexual orientation; and (2) internalized heterosexism are predictive of chronic physical health conditions; and (3) depression; (4) to test direct and indirect relationships between these variables; and (5) whether chronic physical health conditions are further predictive of depression, net of disclosure of sexual orientation and internalized heterosexism. Secondary analysis of national, community-based surveys of 2349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 and older residing in the US utilizing structural equation modeling. Congruent with minority stress theory, disclosure of sexual orientation is indirectly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, mediated by internalized heterosexism with a suppressor effect. Internalized heterosexism is directly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, and further indirectly associated with depression mediated by chronic physical health conditions. Finally, chronic physical health conditions have an additional direct relationship with depression, net of other predictor variables. Minority stressors and chronic physical health conditions independently and collectively predict depression, possibly a synergistic effect. Implications for depression among older sexual minority adults are discussed.

  18. Research explores links between social protection and poverty ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Their research is contributing to the debate on the role of social protection and ... It stresses the relevance of cash-transfer programs on inequality and poverty ... is the focus of a recent article in The Economist that builds on Gasparini's work.

  19. Linking Theory to Practice in Learning Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only…

  20. Linking research with the other missions of the University

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cdaffe

    leaving the problems of Africa's industrial, economic and social development ... The approach to doctoral studies is being called into question, especially as ... existing mechanisms of cooperation among universities to respond to these needs? ... research networks operating at sub-regional or continental levels, and set up ...

  1. Linking research with the other missions of the university | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Dec 15, 2010 ... He could have added a third conclusion: the results of research are not sufficiently used in programming teaching and the definition of course content dispensed to students. The objective of this concept note is not to discuss all the problems facing the African university. It will be limited to just one aspect of ...

  2. Optogenetically inspired deep brain stimulation: linking basic with clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, Christian; Pollak, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, optogenetics has revolutionised the neurosciences. The technique, which allows for cell-type specific excitation and inhibition of neurons in the brain of freely moving rodents, has been used to tighten the links of causality between neural activity and behaviour. Optogenetics is also enabling an unprecedented characterisation of circuits and their dysfunction in a number of brain diseases, above all those conditions that are not caused by neurodegeneration. Notable progress has been made in addiction, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, as well as other anxiety disorders. By extension, the technique has also been used to propose blueprints for innovative rational treatment of these diseases. The goal is to design manipulations that disrupt pathological circuit function or restore normal activity. This can be achieved by targeting specific projections in order to apply specific stimulation protocols validated by ex-vivo analysis of the mechanisms underlying the dysfunction. In a number of cases, specific forms of pathological synaptic plasticity have been implicated. For example, addictive drugs via strong increase of dopamine trigger a myriad of alterations of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid transmission, also called drug-evoked synaptic plasticity. This opens the way to the design of optogenetic reversal protocols, which might restore normal transmission with the hope to abolish the pathological behaviour. Several proof of principle studies for this approach have recently been published. However, for many reasons, optogenetics will not be translatable to human applications in the near future. Here, we argue that an intermediate step is novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) protocols that emulate successful optogenetic approaches in animal models. We provide a roadmap for a translational path to rational, optogenetically inspired DBS protocols to refine existing approaches and expand to novel indications.

  3. Two X-linked chronic granulomatous disease patients with unusual NADPH oxidase properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolach, Baruch; Broides, Arnon; Zeeli, Tal; Gavrieli, Ronit; de Boer, Martin; van Leeuwen, Karin; Levy, Jacov; Roos, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an immune deficiency syndrome caused by defects in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, the enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytizing leukocytes. This study evaluates the NADPH oxidase capacity in two

  4. Access and preservation of digital research content: Linked open data services - A research library perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Angelina; Sens, Irina; Löwe, Peter; Dreyer, Britta

    2016-04-01

    Globally resolvable, persistent digital identifiers have become an essential tool to enable unambiguous links between published research results and their underlying digital resources. In addition, this unambiguous identification allows citation. In an ideal research world, any scientific content should be citable and the coherent content, as well as the citation itself, should be persistent. However, today's scientists do not just produce traditional research papers - they produce comprehensive digital collections of objects which, alongside digital texts, include digital resources such as research data, audiovisual media, digital lab journals, images, statistics and software code. Researchers start to look for services which allow management of these digital resources with minimum time investment. In light of this, we show how the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) develops supportive frameworks to accompany the life cycle of scientific knowledge generation and transfer. This includes technical infrastructures for • indexing, cataloguing, digital preservation, DOI names and licencing for text and digital objects (the TIB DOI registration, active since 2004) and • a digital repository for the deposition and provision of accessible, traceable and citeable research data (RADAR). One particular problem for the management of data originating from (collaborating) research infrastructures is their dynamic nature in terms of growth, access rights and quality. On a global scale, systems for access and preservation are in place for the big data domains (e.g. environmental sciences, space, climate). However, the stewardship for disciplines without a tradition of data sharing, including the fields of the so-called long tail, remains uncertain. The RADAR - Research Data Repository - project establishes a generic end-point data repository, which can be used in a collaborative way. RADAR enables clients to upload, edit, structure and describe their

  5. Information center as a link between basic and applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, S.

    1976-01-01

    The National Neutron Cross Section Center (NNCSC) concerns itself with neutron physics information of a basic and applied nature. Computerized files of bibliography to the neutron physics literature, and of experimental and evaluated neutron data are maintained. The NNCSC coordinates a national effort, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) with participants from government, private, and academic institutions, to establish a computerized reference data base Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B) for national programs. The ENDF/B is useful to basic research because it contains recommended values based on the best available measurements and is often used as reference data for normalization and analysis of experiments. For applied use the reference data are extended through nuclear model calculations or nuclear systematics to include all data of interest with standardized processing codes facilitating the use of ENDF/B in certain types of computations. Initially the main application of ENDF/B was power reactor and shield design and only neutron data were evaluated but due to the fact that for many applications both neutron and nonneutron data are required, ENDF/B has been extended in scope to include radioactive decay data and radiation spectra for the burnup and after decay heat of fission products and photon interaction data for gamma ray transport calculations. Cooperation with other centers takes place both nationally and internationally

  6. Science priorities for seamounts: research links to conservation and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R Clark

    Full Text Available Seamounts shape the topography of all ocean basins and can be hotspots of biological activity in the deep sea. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts (CenSeam was a field program that examined seamounts as part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML initiative from 2005 to 2010. CenSeam progressed seamount science by collating historical data, collecting new data, undertaking regional and global analyses of seamount biodiversity, mapping species and habitat distributions, challenging established paradigms of seamount ecology, developing new hypotheses, and documenting the impacts of human activities on seamounts. However, because of the large number of seamounts globally, much about the structure, function and connectivity of seamount ecosystems remains unexplored and unknown. Continual, and potentially increasing, threats to seamount resources from fishing and seabed mining are creating a pressing demand for research to inform conservation and management strategies. To meet this need, intensive science effort in the following areas will be needed: 1 Improved physical and biological data; of particular importance is information on seamount location, physical characteristics (e.g. habitat heterogeneity and complexity, more complete and intensive biodiversity inventories, and increased understanding of seamount connectivity and faunal dispersal; 2 New human impact data; these shall encompass better studies on the effects of human activities on seamount ecosystems, as well as monitoring long-term changes in seamount assemblages following impacts (e.g. recovery; 3 Global data repositories; there is a pressing need for more comprehensive fisheries catch and effort data, especially on the high seas, and compilation or maintenance of geological and biodiversity databases that underpin regional and global analyses; 4 Application of support tools in a data-poor environment; conservation and management will have to increasingly rely on predictive

  7. Science priorities for seamounts: research links to conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm R; Schlacher, Thomas A; Rowden, Ashley A; Stocks, Karen I; Consalvey, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Seamounts shape the topography of all ocean basins and can be hotspots of biological activity in the deep sea. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts (CenSeam) was a field program that examined seamounts as part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML) initiative from 2005 to 2010. CenSeam progressed seamount science by collating historical data, collecting new data, undertaking regional and global analyses of seamount biodiversity, mapping species and habitat distributions, challenging established paradigms of seamount ecology, developing new hypotheses, and documenting the impacts of human activities on seamounts. However, because of the large number of seamounts globally, much about the structure, function and connectivity of seamount ecosystems remains unexplored and unknown. Continual, and potentially increasing, threats to seamount resources from fishing and seabed mining are creating a pressing demand for research to inform conservation and management strategies. To meet this need, intensive science effort in the following areas will be needed: 1) Improved physical and biological data; of particular importance is information on seamount location, physical characteristics (e.g. habitat heterogeneity and complexity), more complete and intensive biodiversity inventories, and increased understanding of seamount connectivity and faunal dispersal; 2) New human impact data; these shall encompass better studies on the effects of human activities on seamount ecosystems, as well as monitoring long-term changes in seamount assemblages following impacts (e.g. recovery); 3) Global data repositories; there is a pressing need for more comprehensive fisheries catch and effort data, especially on the high seas, and compilation or maintenance of geological and biodiversity databases that underpin regional and global analyses; 4) Application of support tools in a data-poor environment; conservation and management will have to increasingly rely on predictive modelling

  8. Linking behavior in the physics education research coauthorship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Katharine A.; Crespi, Matthew; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2017-06-01

    There is considerable long-term interest in understanding the dynamics of collaboration networks, and how these networks form and evolve over time. Most of the work done on the dynamics of social networks focuses on well-established communities. Work examining emerging social networks is rarer, simply because data are difficult to obtain in real time. In this paper, we use thirty years of data from an emerging scientific community to look at that crucial early stage in the development of a social network. We show that when the field was very young, islands of individual researchers labored in relative isolation, and the coauthorship network was disconnected. Thirty years later, rather than a cluster of individuals, we find a true collaborative community, bound together by a robust collaboration network. However, this change did not take place gradually—the network remained a loose assortment of isolated individuals until the mid 2000s, when those smaller parts suddenly knit themselves together into a single whole. In the rest of this paper, we consider the role of three factors in these observed structural changes: growth, changes in social norms, and the introduction of institutions such as field-specific conferences and journals. We have data from the very earliest years of the field, a period which includes the introduction of two different institutions: the first field-specific conference, and the first field-specific journals. We also identify two relevant behavioral shifts: a discrete increase in coauthorship coincident with the first conference, and a shift among established authors away from collaborating with outsiders, towards collaborating with each other. The interaction of these factors gives us insight into the formation of collaboration networks more broadly.

  9. Linking behavior in the physics education research coauthorship network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine A. Anderson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable long-term interest in understanding the dynamics of collaboration networks, and how these networks form and evolve over time. Most of the work done on the dynamics of social networks focuses on well-established communities. Work examining emerging social networks is rarer, simply because data are difficult to obtain in real time. In this paper, we use thirty years of data from an emerging scientific community to look at that crucial early stage in the development of a social network. We show that when the field was very young, islands of individual researchers labored in relative isolation, and the coauthorship network was disconnected. Thirty years later, rather than a cluster of individuals, we find a true collaborative community, bound together by a robust collaboration network. However, this change did not take place gradually—the network remained a loose assortment of isolated individuals until the mid 2000s, when those smaller parts suddenly knit themselves together into a single whole. In the rest of this paper, we consider the role of three factors in these observed structural changes: growth, changes in social norms, and the introduction of institutions such as field-specific conferences and journals. We have data from the very earliest years of the field, a period which includes the introduction of two different institutions: the first field-specific conference, and the first field-specific journals. We also identify two relevant behavioral shifts: a discrete increase in coauthorship coincident with the first conference, and a shift among established authors away from collaborating with outsiders, towards collaborating with each other. The interaction of these factors gives us insight into the formation of collaboration networks more broadly.

  10. Science Priorities for Seamounts: Research Links to Conservation and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm R.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Stocks, Karen I.; Consalvey, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Seamounts shape the topography of all ocean basins and can be hotspots of biological activity in the deep sea. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts (CenSeam) was a field program that examined seamounts as part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML) initiative from 2005 to 2010. CenSeam progressed seamount science by collating historical data, collecting new data, undertaking regional and global analyses of seamount biodiversity, mapping species and habitat distributions, challenging established paradigms of seamount ecology, developing new hypotheses, and documenting the impacts of human activities on seamounts. However, because of the large number of seamounts globally, much about the structure, function and connectivity of seamount ecosystems remains unexplored and unknown. Continual, and potentially increasing, threats to seamount resources from fishing and seabed mining are creating a pressing demand for research to inform conservation and management strategies. To meet this need, intensive science effort in the following areas will be needed: 1) Improved physical and biological data; of particular importance is information on seamount location, physical characteristics (e.g. habitat heterogeneity and complexity), more complete and intensive biodiversity inventories, and increased understanding of seamount connectivity and faunal dispersal; 2) New human impact data; these shall encompass better studies on the effects of human activities on seamount ecosystems, as well as monitoring long-term changes in seamount assemblages following impacts (e.g. recovery); 3) Global data repositories; there is a pressing need for more comprehensive fisheries catch and effort data, especially on the high seas, and compilation or maintenance of geological and biodiversity databases that underpin regional and global analyses; 4) Application of support tools in a data-poor environment; conservation and management will have to increasingly rely on predictive modelling

  11. Impaired Hippocampal Neuroligin-2 Function by Chronic Stress or Synthetic Peptide Treatment is Linked to Social Deficits and Increased Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Kooij, Michael A; Fantin, Martina; Kraev, Igor

    2014-01-01

    and are related to similar abnormalities in animal models. Chronic stress increases the likelihood for affective disorders and has been shown to induce changes in neural structure and function in different brain regions, with the hippocampus being highly vulnerable to stress. Previous studies have shown evidence......Neuroligins (NLGNs) are cell adhesion molecules that are important for proper synaptic formation and functioning and are critical regulators of the balance between neural excitation/inhibition (E/I). Mutations in NLGNs have been linked to psychiatric disorders in humans involving social dysfunction...

  12. Hematologically important mutations: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (third update)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Dirk; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Maddalena, Anne; Roesler, Joachim; Lopez, Juan Alvaro; Ariga, Tadashi; Avcin, Tadej; de Boer, Martin; Bustamante, Jacinta; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Di Matteo, Gigliola; He, Jianxin; Hill, Harry R.; Holland, Steven M.; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Köker, M. Yavuz; Kondratenko, Irina; van Leeuwen, Karin; Malech, Harry L.; Marodi, László; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Stasia, Marie-José; Ventura, Anna Maria; Witwer, Carl T.; Wolach, Baruch; Gallin, John I.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. The disease is caused by a lack of superoxide production by the leukocyte enzyme NADPH oxidase. Superoxide is used to kill phagocytosed micro-organisms in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes

  13. An aberrant parasympathetic response: a new perspective linking chronic stress and itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hei Sung; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-04-01

    Perceived stress has long been known to alter the dynamic equilibrium established between the nervous, endocrine and immune system and is widely recognised to trigger or enhance pruritus. However, the exact mechanism of how the major stress response systems, such as the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system induce or aggravate chronic itch, has not been elucidated. The limbic regions of the brain such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus are deeply involved in the regulation of the stress response and intersect with circuits that are responsible for memory and reward. According to the 'Polyvagal Theory', certain limbic structures that serve as a 'higher brain equivalent of the parasympathetic nervous system' play a foremost role in maintaining body homoeostasis by functioning as an active vagal brake. In addition, the limbic system has been postulated to regulate two distinct, yet related aspects of itch: (i) the sensory-discriminative aspect; and (ii) the affective-cognitive aspect. Chronic stress-induced itch is hypothesised to be caused by stress-related changes in limbic structure with subsequent rewiring of both the peripheral and central pruriceptive circuits. Herein, we review data suggesting that a dysfunctional parasympathetic nervous system associated with chronic stress may play a critical role in the regulatory control of key candidate molecules, receptors and brain structures involved in chronic itch. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Chronic Condition Data Warehouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) provides researchers with Medicare and Medicaid beneficiary, claims, and assessment data linked by beneficiary across...

  15. Unusual late presentation of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease in an adult female with a somatic mosaic for a novel mutation in CYBB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolach, Baruch; Scharf, Yitshak; Gavrieli, Ronit; de Boer, Martin; Roos, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Most patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have mutations in the X-linked CYBB gene that encodes gp91(phox), a component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. The resulting X-linked form of CGD is usually manifested in boys. Rarely, X-CGD is encountered in female carriers with extreme

  16. Chronic sustained inflammation links to left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic valve sclerosis: a new link between S100/RAGE and FGF23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ling; Bowman, Marion A Hofmann

    dysfunction in hBAC-S100 mice with CKD. We suggest that S100/RAGE-mediated chronic sustained systemic inflammation is linked to pathological cardiac remodeling via direct up regulation of FGF23 in cardiac fibroblasts, thereby providing a new mechanistic understanding for the common association between CKD, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy with diastolic dysfunction.

  17. Linking Hospital and Tax data to support research on the economic impacts of hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sanmartin

    2017-04-01

    This project has created a unique linked database that will support research on the economic consequences of ‘health shocks’ for individuals and their families, and the implications for income, labour and health policies. This database represents a new and unique resource that will fill an important national data gap, and enable a wide range of relevant research.

  18. Hepatic inflammatory biomarkers and its link with obesity and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Volp, Ana Carolina; Santos Silva, Fernanda Cacilda; Bressan, Josefina

    2015-05-01

    The low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance are two events that could be present in varying degrees, on obesity and chronic diseases. The degree of subclinical inflammation can be gauged by measuring the concentrations of some inflammatory biomarkers, including the hepatic origin ones. Some of those biomarkers are sialic acid, α1-antitrypsin and the C-terminal fragment of alpha1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, homocystein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. To approach the relation between adiposity and hepatic inflammatory markers, and to assess the possible associations between hepatic inflammatory biomarkers and obesity, as well as their capacity of predicting chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and atherotrombotic cardiovascular diseases. We used electronic scientific databases to select articles without restricting publication year. The sialic acid predicts the chance increase to become type 2 diabetic independently of BMI. Moreover, the α1-antitripsin, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen and haptoglobulin biomarkers, seem predict the chance increase to become type 2 diabetic, dependently, of BMI. So, this process could be aggravated by obesity. The concentrations of fibrinogen, homocystein and PAI-1 increase proportionally to insulin resistance, showing its relation with metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance state) and with type 2 diabetes. In relation to cardiovascular diseases, every biomarkers reported in this review seem to increase the risk, becoming useful in add important prognostic. This review integrates the knowledge concerning the possible interactions of inflammatory mediators, in isolation or in conjunction, with obesity and chronic diseases, since these biomarkers play different functions and follow diverse biochemical routes in human body metabolism. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Recruitment bias in chronic pain research: whiplash as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Jo; Inghelbrecht, Els; Daenen, Liesbeth; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Hens, Luc; Willems, Bert; Roussel, Nathalie; Cras, Patrick; Wouters, Kristien; Bernheim, Jan

    2011-11-01

    In science findings which cannot be extrapolated to other settings are of little value. Recruitment methods vary widely across chronic whiplash studies, but it remains unclear whether this generates recruitment bias. The present study aimed to examine whether the recruitment method accounts for differences in health status, social support, and personality traits in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Two different recruitment methods were compared: recruiting patients through a local whiplash patient support group (group 1) and local hospital emergency department (group 2). The participants (n=118) filled in a set of questionnaires: the Neck Disability Index, Medical Outcome Study Short-Form General Health Survey, Anamnestic Comparative Self-Assessment measure of overall well-being, Symptom Checklist-90, Dutch Personality Questionnaire, and the Social Support List. The recruitment method (either through the local emergency department or patient support group) accounted for the differences in insufficiency, somatization, disability, quality of life, self-satisfaction, and dominance (all p values recruitment methods generated chronic WAD patients comparable for psychoneurotism, social support, self-sufficiency, (social) inadequacy, rigidity, and resentment (p>.01). The recruitment of chronic WAD patients solely through patient support groups generates bias with respect to the various aspects of health status and personality, but not social support. In order to enhance the external validity of study findings, chronic WAD studies should combine a variety of recruitment procedures.

  20. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and bronchial asthma: Is there a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Besides well-defined environmental causes, accumulating evidence suggests that respiratory tract infections play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Among these Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been discussed as possibly inducing the development of asthma. Methods: This study was designed to investigate the presence of anti chlamydial IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies by ELISA in serum samples of 60 adults with a clinical history of asthma and 100 healthy age and sex matched controls. All the samples positive for Chlamydial genus specific IgG antibodies were then subjected to Chlamydia pneumoniae species specific IgG antibody ELISA. Results: The IgG anti chlamydial antibody-positivity rate in the patients with bronchial asthma (80% was significantly higher in all age groups than that in the healthy age and sex matched controls (59%. No significant association was observed for IgA and IgM anti chlamydial antibodies. C. pneumoniae species specific IgG antibody seroprevalence was also found to be significantly higher in all age groups in comparison to controls (61.66% vs 38%. Conclusions: Serological evidence of chronic infection with C. pneumoniae was more frequent in patients with asthma compared with control subjects. Our results support the correlation of bronchial asthma and chronic infection with C. pneumoniae in Indian population.

  1. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and infection risk in the era of targeted therapies: Linking mechanisms with infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Talal; Gea Banacloche, Juan C; Leis, Jose F

    2018-03-16

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in the world. Patient with CLL are at particular risk for infections due to inherent disease-related immune dysfunction in addition to the effect of certain systemic therapies on the immune system. The advent of B-cell receptor (BCR) inhibitors such as ibrutinib and idelalisib has led to a practice change that utilizes these targeted agents in the treatment of CLL, either in place of chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) or in later line settings. In this paper, we review the pathophysiology of immune dysfunction in CLL, the spectrum of immunodeficiency with the various therapeutic agents along with prevention strategies with a focus on targeted therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C; Farrar, John T; Fillingim, Roger B; Gilron, Ian; Markman, John D; Oaklander, Anne Louise; Polydefkis, Michael J; Raja, Srinivasa N; Robinson, James P; Woolf, Clifford J; Ziegler, Dan; Ashburn, Michael A; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; George, Steven Z; Goli, Veeraindar; Graff, Ole X; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Katz, Joel; Kehlet, Henrik; Kitt, Rachel A; Kopecky, Ernest A; Malamut, Richard; McDermott, Michael P; Palmer, Pamela; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Steigerwald, Ilona; Tobias, Jeffrey; Walco, Gary A

    2015-07-01

    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment, outcomes, timing of assessment, and adjusting for risk factors in the analyses. We provide a detailed examination of 4 models of chronic pain prevention (ie, chronic postsurgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, chronic low back pain, and painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy). The issues discussed can, in many instances, be extrapolated to other chronic pain conditions. These examples were selected because they are representative models of primary and secondary prevention, reflect persistent pain resulting from multiple insults (ie, surgery, viral infection, injury, and toxic or noxious element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have the potential to reduce the prevalence of chronic pain in the population. Additionally, standardization of outcomes in prevention clinical trials will facilitate meta-analyses and systematic reviews and improve detection of preventive strategies emerging from clinical trials.

  3. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Chronic Insomnia: Clinical and Research Challenges - An Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemann, D.; Spiegelhalder, K.; Espie, C.; Pollmacher, T.; Leger, D.; Bassetti, C.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic insomnia afflicts up to 10% of the population in Western industrialized countries. It is characterized by delayed sleep onset, problems in maintaining sleep, early morning awakening or the feeling of non-restorative sleep coupled with significant daytime impairments on an emotional, social

  5. Antimicrobial Peptide Human Neutrophil Peptide 1 as a Potential Link Between Chronic Inflammation and Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausch, Thomas; Adolph, Sarah; Felix, Klaus; Bauer, Andrea S; Bergmann, Frank; Werner, Jens; Hartwig, Werner

    Defensins are antimicrobial peptides playing a role in innate immunity, in epithelial cell regeneration, and in carcinogenesis of inflammation-triggered malignancies. We analyzed this role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in the context of its association with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Human tissue of healthy pancreas, CP, and PDAC was screened for defensins by immunohistochemistry. Defensin α 1 (human neutrophil peptide 1 [HNP-1]) expression was validated using mass spectrometry and microarray analysis. Human neutrophil peptide 1 expression and influences of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interferon γ) were studied in human pancreatic cancer cells (Colo 357, T3M4, PANC-1) and normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE). Accumulation of HNP-1 in malignant pancreatic ductal epithelia was seen. Spectrometry showed increased expression of HNP-1 in CP and even more in PDAC. At RNA level, no significant regulation was found. In cancer cells, HNP-1 expression was significantly higher than in HPDE. Proinflammatory cytokines significantly led to increased HNP-1 levels in culture supernatants and decreased levels in lysates of cancer cells. In HPDE cytokines significantly decreased HNP-1 levels. Inflammatory regulation of HNP-1 in PDAC tissue and cells indicates that HNP-1 may be a link between chronic inflammation and malignant transformation in the pancreas.

  6. Association between periodontitis and mortality in stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease: NHANES III and linked mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen; Dietrich, Thomas; Ferro, Charles J; Cockwell, Paul; Chapple, Iain L C

    2016-02-01

    Periodontitis may add to the systemic inflammatory burden in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), thereby contributing to an increased mortality rate. This study aimed to determine the association between periodontitis and mortality rate (all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related) in individuals with stage 3-5 CKD, hitherto referred to as "CKD". Survival analysis was carried out using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and linked mortality data. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to assess the association between periodontitis and mortality, in individuals with CKD. This association was compared with the association between mortality and traditional risk factors in CKD mortality (diabetes, hypertension and smoking). Of the 13,784 participants eligible for analysis in NHANES III, 861 (6%) had CKD. The median follow-up for this cohort was 14.3 years. Adjusting for confounders, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate for individuals with CKD increased from 32% (95% CI: 29-35%) to 41% (36-47%) with the addition of periodontitis. For diabetes, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate increased to 43% (38-49%). There is a strong, association between periodontitis and increased mortality in individuals with CKD. Sources of chronic systemic inflammation (including periodontitis) may be important contributors to mortality in patients with CKD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay versuspolymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Chagas disease diagnosis relies on laboratory tests due to its clinical characteristics. The aim of this research was to review commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR diagnostic test performance. Performance of commercial ELISA or PCR for the diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease were systematically searched in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ISI Web, and LILACS through the bibliography from 1980-2014 and by contact with the manufacturers. The risk of bias was assessed with QUADAS-2. Heterogeneity was estimated with the I2 statistic. Accuracies provided by the manufacturers usually overestimate the accuracy provided by academia. The risk of bias is high in most tests and in most QUADAS dimensions. Heterogeneity is high in either sensitivity, specificity, or both. The evidence regarding commercial ELISA and ELISA-rec sensitivity and specificity indicates that there is overestimation. The current recommendation to use two simultaneous serological tests can be supported by the risk of bias analysis and the amount of heterogeneity but not by the observed accuracies. The usefulness of PCR tests are debatable and health care providers should not order them on a routine basis. PCR may be used in selected cases due to its potential to detect seronegative subjects.

  8. Cognitive Biases in Children and Adolescents With Chronic Pain: A Review of Findings and a Call for Developmental Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Heathcote, Lauren C; Beale, Sarah; Gray, Suzy; Jacobs, Konrad; Wilkinson, Nick; Crombez, Geert

    2018-06-01

    Cognitive biases that emphasize bodily harm, injury, and illness could play a role in the maintenance of chronic pain by facilitating fear and avoidance. Whereas extensive research has established attention, interpretation, and memory biases in adults with chronic pain, far less is known about these same biases in children and adolescents with pain. Studying cognitive biases in attention, interpretation, and memory in relation to pain occurring in youth is important because youth is a time when pain can first become chronic, and when relationships between cognitive biases and pain outcomes emerge and stabilize. Thus, youth potentially offers a time window for the prevention of chronic pain problems. In this article, we summarize the growing corpus of data that have measured cognitive biases in relation to pediatric pain. We conclude that although biases in attention, interpretation, and memory characterize children and adolescents with varying pain experiences, questions regarding the direction, magnitude, nature, and role of these biases remain. We call for independent extension of cognitive bias research in children and adolescents, using well powered longitudinal studies with wide age ranges and psychometrically sound experimental measures to clarify these findings and any developmental trends in the links between cognitive biases and pain outcomes. This article provides a rationale for the theoretical and practical importance of studying the role of cognitive biases in children and adolescents with chronic pain, which has to date, been relatively understudied. Existing findings are reviewed critically, and recommendations for future research are offered. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sodium-Glucose Linked Transporter-2 Inhibitors in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zanoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SGLT2 inhibitors are new antihyperglycaemic agents whose ability to lower glucose is directly proportional to GFR. Therefore, in chronic kidney disease (CKD the blood glucose lowering effect is reduced. Unlike many current therapies, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is independent of insulin action or beta-cell function. In addition, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is complementary and not alternative to other antidiabetic agents. SGLT2 inhibitors could be potentially effective in attenuating renal hyperfiltration and, consequently, the progression of CKD. Moreover, the reductions in intraglomerular pressure, systemic blood pressure, and uric acid levels induced by SGLT inhibition may potentially be of benefit in CKD subjects without diabetes. However, at present, only few clinical studies were designed to evaluate the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in CKD. Consequently, safety and potential efficacy beyond blood glucose lowering should be better clarified in CKD. In this paper we provide an updated review of the use of SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical practice, with particular attention on subjects with CKD.

  10. Onco-nephrology: an appraisal of the cancer and chronic kidney disease links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzedine, Hassan; Perazella, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    A bidirectional relationship has been observed for kidney disease and cancer. On the one hand, cancer is an important complication noted in kidney disease as well as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this group. On the other hand, improved cancer treatment has prolonged survival, but also increased the development of acute and chronic kidney disease. The combination of cancer and kidney disease makes it challenging for clinicians to provide comprehensive and safe therapies for this group of patients. As such, clinicians caring for this group must develop expertise and become competent in the practice of a newly evolving subspecialty of nephrology known as 'onco-nephrology'. This brief narrative review will focus on the cancer risk in patients with underlying kidney disease, the therapies such as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents on cancer progression and other outcomes, and the appropriate dosing of anti-cancer agents in patients with underlying kidney disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  11. Possible Link between Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in the Development of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosaku Nitta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a clinical syndrome that consists of visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired insulin sensitivity. Although individual components of MetS have been implicated in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD, few studies have examined the effect of combinations of the components of MetS on the development of CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. The prevalence of MetS is increasing worldwide in both developing and developed countries, and early detection and treatment of MetS would be a cost-effective strategy for preventing the development of CKD. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are two important features of MetS that may be associated with renal damage. Lifestyle modifications, including caloric restriction and exercise, are necessary to treat MetS. Initial antihypertensive therapy should consist of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. An improved understanding of the mechanism responsible for the association between MetS and renal damage should be helpful in determining the treatment regimens directed at cardiovascular and renal protection.

  12. Development of the Galaxy Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Model Using Data from ECLIPSE: Internal Validation of a Linked-Equations Cohort Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew H; Baker, Timothy; Risebrough, Nancy A; Chambers, Mike; Gonzalez-McQuire, Sebastian; Ismaila, Afisi S; Exuzides, Alex; Colby, Chris; Tabberer, Maggie; Muellerova, Hana; Locantore, Nicholas; Rutten van Mölken, Maureen P M H; Lomas, David A

    2017-05-01

    The recent joint International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research / Society for Medical Decision Making Modeling Good Research Practices Task Force emphasized the importance of conceptualizing and validating models. We report a new model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (part of the Galaxy project) founded on a conceptual model, implemented using a novel linked-equation approach, and internally validated. An expert panel developed a conceptual model including causal relationships between disease attributes, progression, and final outcomes. Risk equations describing these relationships were estimated using data from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study, with costs estimated from the TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) study. Implementation as a linked-equation model enabled direct estimation of health service costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for COPD patients over their lifetimes. Internal validation compared 3 years of predicted cohort experience with ECLIPSE results. At 3 years, the Galaxy COPD model predictions of annual exacerbation rate and annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second fell within the ECLIPSE data confidence limits, although 3-year overall survival was outside the observed confidence limits. Projections of the risk equations over time permitted extrapolation to patient lifetimes. Averaging the predicted cost/QALY outcomes for the different patients within the ECLIPSE cohort gives an estimated lifetime cost of £25,214 (undiscounted)/£20,318 (discounted) and lifetime QALYs of 6.45 (undiscounted/5.24 [discounted]) per ECLIPSE patient. A new form of model for COPD was conceptualized, implemented, and internally validated, based on a series of linked equations using epidemiological data (ECLIPSE) and cost data (TORCH). This Galaxy model predicts COPD outcomes from treatment effects on disease attributes such as lung function

  13. Digging in to Link Analysis Researches in Iran and all around the World: a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nooshinfard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing websites quantity, specially scientific websites, there were many researches with concern of link analysis using webometrics by librarian and other scholars in different academic majors around the world. The purpose of this article was link analysis of all link analysis related papers from the beginning to February 19th 2009. The research based on Weiner, Amick, and Lee searching model in 2008, this study included 96 refereed papers extracted from international databases like Springer, Proquest, Sage, Emerald, IEEE, Science Direct and national databases such as Magiran and SID. These papers were studied focusing on their different parts like authors, affiliated organizations, purpose, methods, tools, keywords, date of publishing, publication, indexing databases and their suggestions. Moreover, analyzing those papers and studying any related models were the other purposes of the current article. The findings have been categorized and analyses in ten different sections.

  14. Research progress in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Guoying

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral therapy is the most important treatment for chronic hepatitis C. This paper reviews the progress in antiviral treatment over recent years, including the combination therapy with polyethylene glycol-Interferon (PEG-IFN and ribavirin (RBV, specific target therapy, and gene therapy. The paper believes that the anti-hepatitis C virus treatment needs more effective drug combination therapies, shorter courses, less side effect, higher drug resistance threshold, etc.

  15. Empirical Scientific Research and Legal Studies Research--A Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Robert J., III

    2016-01-01

    This article begins with an overview of what is meant by empirical scientific research in the context of legal studies. With that backdrop, the argument is presented that without engaging in normative, theoretical, and doctrinal research in tandem with empirical scientific research, the role of legal studies scholarship in making meaningful…

  16. Enabling cross-disciplinary research by linking data to Open Access publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, N.

    2012-04-01

    OpenAIREplus focuses on the linking of research data to associated publications. The interlinking of research objects has implications for optimising the research process, allowing the sharing, enrichment and reuse of data, and ultimately serving to make open data an essential part of first class research. The growing call for more concrete data management and sharing plans, apparent at funder and national level, is complemented by the increasing support for a scientific infrastructure that supports the seamless access to a range of research materials. This paper will describe the recently launched OpenAIREplus and will detail how it plans to achieve its goals of developing an Open Access participatory infrastructure for scientific information. OpenAIREplus extends the current collaborative OpenAIRE project, which provides European researchers with a service network for the deposit of peer-reviewed FP7 grant-funded Open Access publications. This new project will focus on opening up the infrastructure to data sources from subject-specific communities to provide metadata about research data and publications, facilitating the linking between these objects. The ability to link within a publication out to a citable database, or other research data material, is fairly innovative and this project will enable users to search, browse, view, and create relationships between different information objects. In this regard, OpenAIREplus will build on prototypes of so-called "Enhanced Publications", originally conceived in the DRIVER-II project. OpenAIREplus recognizes the importance of representing the context of publications and datasets, thus linking to resources about the authors, their affiliation, location, project data and funding. The project will explore how links between text-based publications and research data are managed in different scientific fields. This complements a previous study in OpenAIRE on current disciplinary practices and future needs for infrastructural

  17. Linking Research and Practice through Teacher Communities: A Place Where Formal and Practical Knowledge Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; Ormel, Bart J. B.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterises the links between research and practice across 12 projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities (TCs). Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants' roles and knowledge generated by the teacher community. Three patterns emerged pertaining…

  18. Linking research and practice through teacher communities: A place where formal and practical knowledge meet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Ormel, Bart; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke; Pieters, Jules

    2015-01-01

    This study characterizes the links between research and practice across twelve projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities. Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants’ roles, and knowledge generated by the teacher

  19. The Links between Academic Research and Economic Development in Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Nega Kahsay

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the major issues concerning the links between academic research and economic development in Ethiopia by considering the Addis Ababa University as a case. The paper is based on two premises. The first pertains to the idea that universities being one of the actors in knowledge production plays a central role in enhancing…

  20. Higher prevalence of chronic endometritis in women with endometriosis: a possible etiopathogenetic link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicinelli, Ettore; Trojano, Giuseppe; Mastromauro, Marcella; Vimercati, Antonella; Marinaccio, Marco; Mitola, Paola Carmela; Resta, Leonardo; de Ziegler, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the association between endometriosis end chronic endometritis (CE) diagnosed by hysteroscopy, conventional histology, and immunohistochemistry. Case-control study. University hospital. Women with and without endometriosis who have undergone hysterectomy. Retrospective evaluation of 78 women who have undergone hysterectomy and were affected by endometriosis and 78 women without endometriosis. CE diagnosed based on conventional histology and immunohistochemistry with anti-syndecan-1 antibodies to identify CD138 cells. The prevalence of CE was statistically significantly higher in the women with endometriosis as compared with the women who did not have endometriosis (33 of 78, 42.3% vs. 12 of 78, 15.4% according to hysteroscopy; and 30 of 78, 38.5% vs. 11 of 78, 14.1% according to histology). The women were divided into two groups, 115 patients without CE and 41 patients with CE. With univariate analysis, parity was associated with a lower risk for CE, and endometriosis was associated with a statistically significantly elevated risk of CE. Using multivariate analysis, parity continued to be associated with a lower incidence of CE, whereas endometriosis was associated with a 2.7 fold higher risk. The diagnosis of CE is more frequent in women with endometriosis. Although no etiologic relationships between CE and endometriosis can be established, this study suggests that CE should be considered and if necessary ruled out in women with endometriosis, particularly if they have abnormal uterine bleeding. Identification and appropriate treatment of CE may avoid unnecessary surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bridging two translation gaps: a new informatics research agenda for telemonitoring of chronic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardisty, A.R.; Peirce, S.C.; Preece, A.; Bolton, C.E.; Conley, E.C.; Gray, W.A.; Rana, O.F.; Yousef, Z.; Elwyn, G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose a research agenda that addresses technological and other knowledge gaps in developing telemonitoring solutions for patients with chronic diseases, with particular focus on detecting deterioration early enough to intervene effectively. DESIGN: A mixed methods approach

  2. Should academic journals publish e-cigarette research linked to tobacco companies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M; Etter, Jean-François; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-08-01

    Electronic cigarettes are currently polarizing professional opinion. Some public health experts regard them as an effective smoking cessation aid and a vital means of reducing active and passive smoking, while others regard them as another attempt by the tobacco industry to create new customers and addicts. These different attitudes unsurprisingly yield different conclusions regarding both the appropriate regulation of e-cigarettes and the ethical status of research funded by, or conducted in, cooperation with the tobacco industry. This paper examines whether e-cigarette research linked to the tobacco industry should be regarded as an exception to the rule that tobacco industry research is so tainted by conflicts of interest that journals should refuse to publish them, or at the very least treat them as a special case for scrutiny. Despite the fact that e-cigarettes can be used for smoking cessation, most of the conflicts of interest that apply to other tobacco research also apply to e-cigarette research linked to that industry. Journals that currently refuse to publish findings from studies linked to tobacco companies have no reason to make an exception in the case of e-cigarettes. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Process research on Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples: linking theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Paul S; Johnson, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this article is on the link among theory, process, and outcome in the practice of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples. We describe the EFT model of change and the EFT perspective on adult love as the reflection of underlying attachment processes. We outline the manner in which theory and research inform EFT interventions. This leads into a detailed review of the literature on the processes of change in EFT. We highlight the client responses and therapist operations that have emerged from process research and their relation to treatment outcomes. We discuss the implications of this body of research for clinical practice and training. © FPI, Inc.

  4. Linking clinical quality indicators to research evidence - a case study in asthma management for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Miew Keen; Tsafnat, Guy; Hibbert, Peter; Runciman, William B; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-07-21

    Clinical quality indicators are used to monitor the performance of healthcare services and should wherever possible be based on research evidence. Little is known however about the extent to which indicators in common use are based on research. The objective of this study is to measure the extent to which clinical quality indicators used in asthma management in children with outcome measurements can be linked to results in randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) reports. This work is part of a broader research program to trial methods that improve the efficiency and accuracy of indicator development. National-level indicators for asthma management in children were extracted from the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse database and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence quality standards by two independent appraisers. Outcome measures were extracted from all published English language RCT reports for asthma management in children below the age of 12 published between 2005 and 2014. The two sets were then linked by manually mapping both to a common set of Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts. The analysis identified 39 indicators and 562 full text RCTs dealing with asthma management in children. About 95% (37/39) of the indicators could be linked to RCT outcome measures. It is possible to identify relevant RCT reports for the majority of indicators used to assess the quality of asthma management in childhood. The methods reported here could be automated to more generally support assessment of candidate indicators against the research evidence.

  5. Research in architecture : reflection on three approaches linking research and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, B.J.F.; Pereira Roders, A.R.; Veldpaus, L.; Fidanoglu, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Research in Architecture is not new, it is usually known as analysis or pre-design stage. Architects get acquainted with program requirements, project context and/or other inspiring works, including concepts on theory, philosophy or history. Seldom are the architects who design without any

  6. Progress of research on corneal collagen cross-linking for corneal melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Ren Xiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal collagen cross-linking(CXLcould increase the mechanical strength, biological stability and halt ectasia progression due to covalent bond formed by photochemical reaction between ultraviolet-A and emulsion of riboflavin between collagen fibers in corneal stroma. Corneal melting is an autoimmune related noninfectious corneal ulcer. The mechanism of corneal melting, major treatment, the basic fundamental of ultraviolet-A riboflavin induced CXL and the clinical researches status and experiment in CXL were summarized in the study.

  7. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meaning, action and interaction, self and perspectives. As research design incorporates both methodology and methods, the authors aim to expose the linkages between the 16 assumptions and essential grounded theory methods, highlighting the application of the latter in light of the former. Analyzing the links between symbolic interactionism and essential grounded theory methods provides novice researchers and researchers new to grounded theory with a foundation from which to design an evolved grounded theory research study.

  8. Innovative Approaches in Chronic Disease Management: Health Literacy Solutions and Opportunities for Research Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaire, Michael; Gonzalez, Diana Peña; Johnson, Kirby L

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the need for innovative health literacy solutions to combat extensive chronic disease prevalence and costs. The authors explore the intersection of chronic disease management and health literacy. They provide specific examples of successful health literacy interventions for managing several highly prevalent chronic diseases. This is followed by suggestions on pairing research and practice to support effective disease management programs. In addition, the authors discuss strategies for collection and dissemination of knowledge gained from collaborations between researchers and practitioners. They identify current challenges specific to disseminating information from the health literacy field and offer potential solutions. The chapter concludes with a brief look at future directions and organizational opportunities to integrate health literacy practices to address the need for effective chronic disease management.

  9. Disease management projects and the Chronic CareModel in action: Baseline qualitative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Hipple Walters (Bethany); S.A. Adams (Samantha); A.P. Nieboer (Anna); R.A. Bal (Roland)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Disease management programs, especially those based on the Chronic Care Model (CCM),are increasingly common in the Netherlands. While disease management programs have beenwell-researched quantitatively and economically, less qualitative research has been done. Theoverall aim

  10. Researching of cardos activity for chronic heart failure treatment in case of concomitant chronic kidney disease (stage V, conventional hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepurina N.G.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: comparative investigation of cardos (antibodies to angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 (AT., C-terminal fragment, diovan (Valsartan or both drug combination effects (changing of clinical picture, physical exertion tolerance and quality of life for treatment chronic heart failure (CHF patients. Methods. 12-month open-label randomized research was performed. CHF patients (NYHA Class l-ll, n=30 with concomitant chronic kidney disease (stage V, conventional hemodialysis were randomized (10 patients in each group for 6-month treatment by cardos (group I, average dose 1,8g/day, diovan (group II, average dose 80mg/dayorboth drug combination (group III, cardos 1,8g/day and diovan 80mg/day. CHD basic treatment was prescribed for all patients. In a 6-month drug crossover between groups I and I was performed, group III was divided into 2 subgroups (subgroup IIIA— cardos, subgroup NIB — diovan followed by next 6-month treatment. Results. Long-term treatment by cardos has improved functional class (NYHA of CHF patients with concomitant chronic kidney disease (stage V, conventional hemodialysis. cardos, diovan and both drug combination have demonstrated improvement of physical exertion tolerance, quality of life and patient clinical status during 6-min walking test. Conclusion. Cardos and diovan have shown the same efficacy. Cardos can be used as real alternative in case of ARA administration necessity

  11. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Nunn, Amy; Bastos, Leonardo; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite de; Kerr, Ligia; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Dourado, Inês

    2016-11-03

    Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and time-location sampling (TLS) offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic.

  12. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Nunn, Amy; Bastos, Leonardo; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Kerr, Ligia; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Dourado, Inês

    2018-01-01

    Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and time-location sampling (TLS) offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic. PMID:27828609

  13. Increasing chronic disease research capacity in Guatemala through a mentoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Monzon, Jose C; Colditz, Graham A

    2013-09-12

    The Chronic Disease Research Fellowship Program (RFP) aims to build the research capacity of recent medical graduates to support the development of chronic disease control strategies. Guatemala is undergoing an epidemiologic transition. However, given the way universities and the health care system are structured, it lacks an environment that fosters research careers and generates the required knowledge to implement sound public health policies and clinical strategies. The RFP was implemented at the Cardiovascular Unit of Guatemala. This 4-year Program recruited two one-year fellows and provided funding to define a research topic, write a protocol and implement the research. Strong emphasis is placed on developing skills in knowledge translation and exchange to bridge the "know-do" gap. Close mentoring relationships between the Principal Investigator and former and current fellows are fostered through the Program. The mentoring Program has generated strategic data to support the implementation of sound chronic disease control strategies, mainly related to tobacco control. Results have been presented nationally and internationally. Research training has included principles of biostatistics and epidemiology, and a journal club. The Program is increasingly generating interest among medical graduates to pursue further research training abroad and is building local research capacity. Fellows and research assistants have created a research network in Guatemala and abroad. The main obstacle the Program faces is ensuring long-term sustainability. A mentoring program can lead to an increase in research interest and capacity in a low-income country with little research infrastructure.

  14. A synthesis of convergent reflections, tensions and silences in linking gender and global environmental change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Ravera, Federica; Buechler, Stephanie; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Fernández-Giménez, María E; Reed, Maureen G; Thompson-Hall, Mary; Wilmer, Hailey; Aregu, Lemlem; Cohen, Philippa; Djoudi, Houria; Lawless, Sarah; Martín-López, Berta; Smucker, Thomas; Villamor, Grace B; Wangui, Elizabeth Edna

    2016-12-01

    This synthesis article joins the authors of the special issue "Gender perspectives in resilience, vulnerability and adaptation to global environmental change" in a common reflective dialogue about the main contributions of their papers. In sum, here we reflect on links between gender and feminist approaches to research in adaptation and resilience in global environmental change (GEC). The main theoretical contributions of this special issue are threefold: emphasizing the relevance of power relations in feminist political ecology, bringing the livelihood and intersectionality approaches into GEC, and linking resilience theories and critical feminist research. Empirical insights on key debates in GEC studies are also highlighted from the nine cases analysed, from Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa and the Pacific. Further, the special issue also contributes to broaden the gender approach in adaptation to GEC by incorporating research sites in the Global North alongside sites from the Global South. This paper examines and compares the main approaches adopted (e.g. qualitative or mixed methods) and the methodological challenges that derive from intersectional perspectives. Finally, key messages for policy agendas and further research are drawn from the common reflection.

  15. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Linking and Integrating Data for Oceanographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Shepherd, A.; Moore, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. We have published the entire R2R Catalog as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage linking and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by providing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation. We are leveraging or adopting existing community-standard concepts and vocabularies, particularly concepts from the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) ontology and terms from the pan-European SeaDataNet vocabularies, and continually re-publish resources as new concepts and terms are mapped. 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire data lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to (ultimately) global syntheses and journal articles. We are implementing globally unique and persistent identifiers at the collection, dataset, and granule levels, and encoding these citable identifiers directly into the Linked Data resources. 3.) We facilitate linking and integration with other repositories that publish Linked Data collections for the U.S. academic fleet, such as BCO-DMO and the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS). We are initially mapping datasets at the resource level, and plan to eventually implement rule-based mapping at the concept level. We work collaboratively with partner repositories to develop best practices for URI patterns and consensus on shared vocabularies. The R2R Linked Data collection is implemented as a

  16. Impact of a chronic disease self-management program on health care utilization in rural communities: a retrospective cohort study using linked administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglal, Susan B; Guilcher, Sara J T; Hawker, Gillian; Lou, Wendy; Salbach, Nancy M; Manno, Michael; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2014-05-01

    Internationally, chronic disease self-management programs (CDSMPs) have been widely promoted with the assumption that confident, knowledgeable patients practicing self-management behavior will experience improved health and utilize fewer healthcare resources. However, there is a paucity of published data supporting this claim and the majority of the evidence is based on self-report. We used a retrospective cohort study using linked administrative health data. Data from 104 tele-CDSMP participants from 13 rural and remote communities in the province of Ontario, Canada were linked to administrative databases containing emergency department (ED) and physician visits and hospitalizations. Patterns of health care utilization prior to and after participation in the tele-CDSMP were compared. Poisson Generalized Estimating Equations regression was used to examine the impact of the tele-CDSMP on health care utilization after adjusting for covariates. There were no differences in patterns of health care utilization before and after participating in the tele-CDSMP. Among participants ≤ 66 years, however, there was a 34% increase in physician visits in the 12 months following the program (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.11-1.61) and a trend for decreased ED visits in those >66 years (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.33-1.06). This is the first study to examine health care use following participation in the CDSMP in a Canadian population and to use administrative data to measure health care utilization. Similar to other studies that used self-report measures to evaluate health care use we found no differences in health care utilization before and after participation in the CDSMP. Future research needs to confirm our findings and examine the impact of the CDSMP on health care utilization in different age groups to help to determine whether these interventions are more effective with select population groups.

  17. Linking international research to global health equity: the limited contribution of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2013-05-01

    Health research has been identified as a vehicle for advancing global justice in health. However, in bioethics, issues of global justice are mainly discussed within an ongoing debate on the conditions under which international clinical research is permissible. As a result, current ethical guidance predominantly links one type of international research (biomedical) to advancing one aspect of health equity (access to new treatments). International guidelines largely fail to connect international research to promoting broader aspects of health equity - namely, healthier social environments and stronger health systems. Bioethical frameworks such as the human development approach do consider how international clinical research is connected to the social determinants of health but, again, do so to address the question of when international clinical research is permissible. It is suggested that the narrow focus of this debate is shaped by high-income countries' economic strategies. The article further argues that the debate's focus obscures a stronger imperative to consider how other types of international research might advance justice in global health. Bioethics should consider the need for non-clinical health research and its contribution to advancing global justice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisudhan Thanukrishnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. Cytisus scoparius (CS Link, (Family: Leguminosae, also called Sarothamnus scoparius, has been shown in invitro experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate CS for its anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-oxidant activity in stressed rats. Methods 60% methanolic extract of CS was quantified for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS was employed to induce stress in rats. CS (125 and 250 mg/kg, p.o and diazepam (DZM (2 mg/kg, p.o was administered during the 21 day stress exposure period. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of CS were assessed in open field exploratory and behavioural despair paradigms, respectively. Plasma glucose and total lipids; endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT; non-enzymic-ascorbic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were measured in brain, kidneys and adrenals using standard protocols to assess the effect of CS. Results Total phenolic content of CS was found to be 8.54 ± 0.16% w/w. CMS produced anxiogenic and depressive behaviour in experimental rats with metabolic disturbance. Significant decrease in SOD, CAT levels and increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in stressed rats. CS administration for 21 days during stress exposure significantly increased the ambulatory behaviour and decreased the freezing time in open field behaviour. In behavioural despair test no significant alteration in the immobility period was observed. CS also improved SOD, CAT, and ascorbic acid level and controlled the lipid peroxidation in different tissues

  19. Linking contemporary research to the classics: Celebrating 125 years at APA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, James T; Becker, Stefanie I; Brockmole, James; Castelhano, Monica; Creem-Regehr, Sarah; Gray, Rob; Hecht, Heiko; Juhasz, Barbara; Philbeck, John; Woodman, Geoffrey

    2017-10-01

    APA is celebrating 125 years this year and at the journal we are commemorating this milestone with a special issue. The inspiration came from our editorial team, who wished to acknowledge the links between game-changing articles that have influenced our research community in the past-we call them classics for short-and contemporary works. The main idea was to feature the work of nine contemporary research teams, while at the same time drawing readers' attention to their links with the classics. In this introduction, we have organized the articles according to several broad themes: active perception, perception for action, action alters perception, perception of our bodies in action, and acting on selective perceptions. As all who have read and contributed to the journal over the past few years have come to realize, it is no longer possible to study perception without considering its role in action. Nor is it possible to study action (formerly called performance , as reflected in the journal title) without understanding the perceptual contributions to action. These nine articles each exemplify, in their own way, how these dynamic interactions play out in contemporary research in our field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Link between Corporate Environmental and Corporate Financial Performance—Viewpoints from Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bergmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For more than 40 years, a tremendous number of studies have empirically explored the relationship between Corporate Environmental Performance (CEP and Corporate Financial Performance (CFP. This study considers the relationship from a new perspective—via a qualitative research approach based on expert interviews. First, practitioners are queried for their view on the link between CEP and CFP and how to measure it. Since the vast majority see a positive relationship, this study contributes with a new form of evidence that it pays to be green. The chosen qualitative approach also allows a more detailed analysis of underlying cause-and-effect mechanisms. For instance, interviewed practitioners emphasize a direct and indirect impact from CEP on CFP. Second, the study conducts interviews with experts from research and associations (non-practitioners and compares the viewpoints of the two interview groups. One prevalent difference refers to the fact that non-practitioners do not focus on the two impact levels. Moreover, business experts perceive the link between CEP and CFP as much less complex and reveal more pragmatically oriented considerations. The study then discusses how the interview results and identified differences can be used to direct future research and to support corporations in their move towards sustainability.

  1. The G4R GMES Academy - linking research, academia, service providers and local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeil, Peter; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    The GMES Academy intends to enhance the role of the academic and R&D communities in the evolution of EO & GI services. The GMES4Regions G4R initiative, aiming to strengthen the link between GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and European regions, inaugurated the GMES Academy at the University Mozarteum of Salzburg (Austria) on 13th - 14th September 2012. This academy has been created with the objective of fostering a dialogue among the private sector, Local and Regional Administration (LRA) and the academic and research community, in order to improve the development of Earth Observation (EO) and Geographic Information (GI) services. On this occasion, Z_GIS, the Interfaculty Department of Geoinformatics of Salzburg University, hosted the round table "Fostering Downstream Services for the Regions - contributions from Research & Academia," during which the participants had the opportunity to discuss with representatives of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA) the future role of the academic community in this domain. Stakeholders from the academic and R&D world adopted the 'Salzburg Declaration on GMES related Research', calling for strengthening connections between research activities and educational programmes to improve GMES services. The Declaration calls mainly for: • fostering education and training on GMES • ensuring cooperation among the academic and research community through the GMES Academy • maintaining a political commitment towards the implementation of such academic initiatives. The GMES Academy is established as a platform with six components: GATEWAY - the directory of Universities and Research Centres BRIDGE - an inventory of research briefs documenting the latest offerings from research to effective applications FACILITATOR - a portal to seek or propose internships or contract research across Europe and addressing outreach and advocacy: LINK - Access to the repository of on-going GMES related

  2. Creating a social work link to the burn community: a research team goes to burn camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nancy R; Reeves, Patricia M; Cox, Ellen R; Call, Serena B

    2004-01-01

    Social work faculty and graduate students conducted focus groups with 52 burn-injured adolescents from three burn camps to explore perceptions of their camp experience. Three themes emerged from data analysis that suggest burn camps play an important role in participants' lives. Camp is a place where burn-injured adolescents: (1) feel "normal" and accepted; (2) acquire insight in regard to self and meaning in life; and (3) gain confidence, increase self-esteem, and develop empathy. This project highlights how the use of qualitative research methods with grassroots organizations such as burn camps can serve as a link to greater social work involvement with this community.

  3. The custodian administered research extract server: "improving the pipeline" in linked data delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitelhuber, Tom; Davis, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    At Western Australia's Data Linkage Branch (DLB) the extraction of linked data has become increasingly complex over the past decade and classical methods of data delivery are unsuited to the larger extractions which have become the norm. The Custodian Administered Research Extract Server (CARES) is a fast, accurate and predictable approach to linked data extraction. The Data Linkage Branch (DLB) creates linkage keys within and between datasets. To comply with the separation principal, these keys are sent to applicable data collection agencies for extraction. Routing requests through multiple channels is inefficient and makes it hard to monitor work and predict delivery times. CARES was developed to address these shortcomings and involved ongoing consultation with the Custodians and staff of collections, plus challenges of hardware, programming, governance and security. The introduction of CARES has reduced the workload burden of linked data extractions, while improving the efficiency, stability and predictability of turnaround times. As the scope of a linkage system broadens, challenges in data delivery are inevitable. CARES overcomes multiple obstacles with no sacrifice to the integrity, confidentiality or security of data. CARES is a valuable component of linkage infrastructure that is operable at any scale and adaptable to many data environments.

  4. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Collaborative Development of Linked Data for Oceanographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Stocks, Karen; Smith, Shawn; Clark, Paul; Shepherd, Adam; Moore, Carla; Beaulieu, Stace

    2013-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from U.S. academic oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. The entire R2R Catalog is published online as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage discovery and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by publishing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation; 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to journal articles and global syntheses, by publishing Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for datasets and encoding them directly into our Linked Data resources; and 3.) We facilitate federation with other repositories such as the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO), InterRidge Vents Database, and Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS), by reciprocal linking between RDF resources and supporting the RDF Query Language. R2R participates in the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), a joint European-U.S.-Australian partnership to facilitate the sharing of data and documentation across international borders. We publish our controlled vocabularies as a Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concept collection, and are working toward alignment with SeaDataNet and other community-standard terms using the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). http://rvdata.us/

  5. Measurement of Platelet-derived Microparticle Levels in the Chronic Phase of Cerebral Infarction Using an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Shirafuji, Toshihiko; Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Kanda, Fumio

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of platelet function is a critical component of the treatment andsecondary prevention of cerebral infarction, and measurement of platelet-derivedmicroparticle (PDMP) levels using flow cytometry may be a good indicator of plateletfunction. However, the flow cytometric analysis is not feasible in a variety of clinicalsituations. The goal of the present study was to measure PDMP levels using anenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in chronic cerebral infarction patientsand to dete...

  6. Earth2Class Overview: An Innovative Program Linking Classroom Educators and Research Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M.; Iturrino, G. J.; Baggio, F. D.; Assumpcao, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Earth2Class (E2C) workshops, held at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), provide an effective model for improving knowledge, teaching, and technology skills of middle and high school science educators through ongoing interactions with research scientists and educational technology. With support from an NSF GeoEd grant, E2C has developed monthly workshops, web-based resources, and summer institutes in which classroom teachers and research scientists have produced exemplar curriculum materials about a wide variety of cutting-edge geoscience investigations suitable for dissemination to teachers and students. Some of the goals of this program are focused to address questions such as: (1) What aspects of the E2C format and educational technology most effectively connect research discoveries with classroom teachers and their students? (2) What benefits result through interactions among teachers from highly diverse districts and backgrounds with research scientists, and what benefits do the scientists gain from participation? (3) How can the E2C format serve as a model for other research institution-school district partnerships as a mechanism for broader dissemination of scientific discoveries? E2C workshops have linked LDEO scientists from diverse research specialties-seismology, marine geology, paleoclimatology, ocean drilling, dendrochronology, remote sensing, impact craters, and others-with teachers from schools in the New York metropolitan area. Through the workshops, we have trained teachers to enhance content knowledge in the Earth Sciences and develop skills to incorporate new technologies. We have made a special effort to increase the teaching competency of K-12 Earth Sciences educators serving in schools with high numbers of students from underrepresented groups, thereby providing greater role models to attract students into science and math careers. E2C sponsored Earth Science Teachers Conferences, bringing together educators from New York and New

  7. [Research progress of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors on healing of chronic diabetic foot ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunyi; Liang, Yujie; Ran, Xingwu

    2018-05-01

    To review the effect of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on the wound healing and its mechanisms in chronic diabetic foot ulcers. The latest literature concerning DPP-4 inhibitors for chronic diabetic foot ulcers was extensively reviewed, as well as the potential benefit and mechanism of DPP-4 inhibitors on wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers was analyzed thoroughly. DPP-4 inhibitors can accelerated the ulcer healing. The mechanisms probably include inhibiting the expression of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and restoring the balance of the wound MMP and the tissue inhibitors of MMP; promoting recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells and augmenting angiogenesis; optimizing extracellular matrix construction and the immune response to persistent hypoxia in chronic diabetes wounds, and so on. At present, clinical researches show that DPP-4 inhibitors may be considered as an adjuvant treatment for chronic diabetic foot ulcers. DPP-4 inhibitors show promise in the local wound healing of chronic diabetic foot ulcers. However, more strictly designed, adequately powered, long-term follow-up, and high-quality randomized control trials are needed to further verify their efficacy and safety for chronic diabetic foot ulcers.

  8. Mapping publication status and exploring hotspots in a research field: chronic disease self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Li, Zheng; Arthur, David

    2014-08-01

    To provide insight into the characteristics of chronic disease self-management by mapping publication status and exploring hotspots. Chronic disease is becoming a major public health issue worldwide, highlighting the importance of self-management in this area. Despite the volume and variety of publications, little is known about how 'chronic disease self-management' has developed, since the first publication 40 years ago. Such is the number of publications in the area, that there is a need for a systematic bibliographic examination to enable clinicians and researchers to navigate this literature. A bibliometric analysis of publications was used. Publication status was achieved using BICOMB software, whereas hotspots were identified with Ucinet software. A search of PubMed was conducted for papers published between 1971-2012. By 2011, the number of publications reached 696, a fourfold increase from the previous 10 years, of which 75% came from the USA and UK. There were 1284 journals, which published chronic disease self-management research, involving various disciplines. The research hotspots highlighted various self-management strategies for the following: diabetes; cardiac vascular and pulmonary chronic disease; pain relief for neoplasms; and obesity. Psychological adjustment was a permeating theme in self-management processes as was using internet-based interventions. Self-management in chronic disease publication has been most evident in developed countries. The bibliographic mapping and identification of publication hotspots provides scholars and practitioners with key target journals, as well as a rigorous overview of the field for use in further research, evidence-based practice and health policy development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Follow the link: Digital Tracings of a Multi-Sited Space of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    The paper discusses the use of digital methods as an alternative way of generating what George Marcus calls 'posited logics of association' for use in multi-sited fieldwork. I draw on cases from an ongoing research project on the new nordic food movement and its on- and off-line assemblages. I do...... doing so I demonstrate how methods which are native to the digital domain - such as the link or the like as a valuation metric - may be re-appropriated as strategies in more ethnographic styles of work.......The paper discusses the use of digital methods as an alternative way of generating what George Marcus calls 'posited logics of association' for use in multi-sited fieldwork. I draw on cases from an ongoing research project on the new nordic food movement and its on- and off-line assemblages. I...

  10. Linking the spare parts management with the total costs of ownership: An agenda for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, O.; Roda, I.; Macchi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This manuscript explores the link between Spare Parts Management and Total Costs of Ownership or Life Cycle Costs (LCC). Design/methodology/approach: First, this work enumerates the different managerial decisions instances in spare parts management that are present during the life cycle of a physical asset. Second, we analyse how those decision instances could affect the TCO of a physical asset (from the economic point of view). Finally, we propose a conceptual framework for incorporating the spare parts management into a TCO model. Findings: The recent literature lacks discussions on the integration of spare parts management with the Total Costs of Ownership (TCO). Based in an extensive literature revision we can declare that the computation of costs related to spare parts management has been neglected by TCO models. Originality/value: The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, a literature review and identification of a series of spare parts management decision instances and its relationship with TCOs is presented in this paper. Second, a conceptual framework is suggested for linking those decisions instances to a total cost of ownership perspective. Some research questions and future research challenges are presented at the end of this work.

  11. Linking the spare parts management with the total costs of ownership: An agenda for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, O.; Roda, I.; Macchi, M.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: This manuscript explores the link between Spare Parts Management and Total Costs of Ownership or Life Cycle Costs (LCC). Design/methodology/approach: First, this work enumerates the different managerial decisions instances in spare parts management that are present during the life cycle of a physical asset. Second, we analyse how those decision instances could affect the TCO of a physical asset (from the economic point of view). Finally, we propose a conceptual framework for incorporating the spare parts management into a TCO model. Findings: The recent literature lacks discussions on the integration of spare parts management with the Total Costs of Ownership (TCO). Based in an extensive literature revision we can declare that the computation of costs related to spare parts management has been neglected by TCO models. Originality/value: The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, a literature review and identification of a series of spare parts management decision instances and its relationship with TCOs is presented in this paper. Second, a conceptual framework is suggested for linking those decisions instances to a total cost of ownership perspective. Some research questions and future research challenges are presented at the end of this work.

  12. Linking the spare parts management with the total costs of ownership: An agenda for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Duran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This manuscript explores the link between Spare Parts Management and Total Costs of Ownership or Life Cycle Costs (LCC. Design/methodology/approach: First, this work enumerates the different managerial decisions instances in spare parts management that are present during the life cycle of a physical asset. Second, we analyse how those decision instances could affect the TCO of a physical asset (from the economic point of view. Finally, we propose a conceptual framework for incorporating the spare parts management into a TCO model. Findings: The recent literature lacks discussions on the integration of spare parts management with the Total Costs of Ownership (TCO. Based in an extensive literature revision we can declare that the computation of costs related to spare parts management has been neglected by TCO models. Originality/value: The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, a literature review and identification of a series of spare parts management decision instances and its relationship with TCOs is presented in this paper. Second, a conceptual framework is suggested for linking those decisions instances to a total cost of ownership perspective. Some research questions and future research challenges are presented at the end of this work.

  13. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal

  14. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal

  15. Chronic wound repair and healing in older adults: current status and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Lisa; Abadir, Peter; Brem, Harold; Carter, Marissa; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Davidson, Jeff; DiPietro, Luisa; Falanga, Vincent; Fife, Caroline; Gardner, Sue; Grice, Elizabeth; Harmon, John; Hazzard, William R; High, Kevin P; Houghton, Pamela; Jacobson, Nasreen; Kirsner, Robert S; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Margolis, David; McFarland Horne, Frances; Reed, May J; Sullivan, Dennis H; Thom, Stephen; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Walston, Jeremy; Whitney, Jo Anne; Williams, John; Zieman, Susan; Schmader, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Older adults are more likely to have chronic wounds than younger people, and the effect of chronic wounds on quality of life is particularly profound in this population. Wound healing slows with age, but the basic biology underlying chronic wounds and the influence of age-associated changes on wound healing are poorly understood. Most studies have used in vitro approaches and various animal models, but observed changes translate poorly to human healing conditions. The effect of age and accompanying multimorbidity on the effectiveness of existing and emerging treatment approaches for chronic wounds is also unknown, and older adults tend to be excluded from randomized clinical trials. Poorly defined outcomes and variables; lack of standardization in data collection; and variations in the definition, measurement, and treatment of wounds also hamper clinical studies. The Association of Specialty Professors, in conjunction with the National Institute on Aging and the Wound Healing Society, held a workshop, summarized in this article, to explore the current state of knowledge and research challenges, engage investigators across disciplines, and identify research questions to guide future study of age-associated changes in chronic wound healing. © 2015 by the American Geriatrics Society and the Wound Healing Society.

  16. Chronic Wound Repair and Healing in Older Adults: Current Status and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Lisa; Abadir, Peter; Brem, Harold; Carter, Marissa; Conner-Kerr, Teresa; Davidson, Jeff; DiPietro, Luisa; Falanga, Vincent; Fife, Caroline; Gardner, Sue; Grice, Elizabeth; Harmon, John; Hazzard, William R.; High, Kevin P.; Houghton, Pamela; Jacobson, Nasreen; Kirsner, Robert S.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Margolis, David; Horne, Frances McFarland; Reed, May J.; Sullivan, Dennis H.; Thom, Stephen; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Walston, Jeremy; Whitney, Jo Anne; Williams, John; Zieman, Susan; Schmader, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are more likely to have chronic wounds than younger people, and the effect of chronic wounds on quality of life is particularly profound in this population. Wound healing slows with age, but the basic biology underlying chronic wounds and the influence of age-associated changes on wound healing are poorly understood. Most studies have used in vitro approaches and various animal models, but observed changes translate poorly to human healing conditions. The effect of age and accompanying multimorbidity on the effectiveness of existing and emerging treatment approaches for chronic wounds is also unknown, and older adults tend to be excluded from randomized clinical trials. Poorly defined outcomes and variables; lack of standardization in data collection; and variations in the definition, measurement, and treatment of wounds also hamper clinical studies. The Association of Specialty Professors, in conjunction with the National Institute on Aging and the Wound Healing Society, held a workshop, summarized in this article, to explore the current state of knowledge and research challenges, engage investigators across disciplines, and identify research questions to guide future study of age-associated changes in chronic wound healing. PMID:25753048

  17. Variables As Currency: Linking Meta-Analysis Research and Data Paths in Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses are studies that bring together data or results from multiple independent studies to produce new and over-arching findings. Current data curation systems only partially support meta-analytic research. Some important meta-analytic tasks, such as the selection of relevant studies for review and the integration of research datasets or findings, are not well supported in current data curation systems. To design tools and services that more fully support meta-analyses, we need a better understanding of meta-analytic research. This includes an understanding of both the practices of researchers who perform the analyses and the characteristics of the individual studies that are brought together. In this study, we make an initial contribution to filling this gap by developing a conceptual framework linking meta-analyses with data paths represented in published articles selected for the analysis. The framework focuses on key variables that represent primary/secondary datasets or derived socio-ecological data, contexts of use, and the data transformations that are applied. We introduce the notion of using variables and their relevant information (e.g., metadata and variable relationships as a type of currency to facilitate synthesis of findings across individual studies and leverage larger bodies of relevant source data produced in small science research. Handling variables in this manner provides an equalizing factor between data from otherwise disparate data-producing communities. We conclude with implications for exploring data integration and synthesis issues as well as system development.

  18. Preparing linked population data for research: cohort study of prisoner perinatal health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Hilder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study of pregnancy outcomes related to pregnancy in prison in New South Wales, Australia, designed a two stage linkage to add maternal history of incarceration and serious mental health morbidity, neonatal hospital admission and infant congenital anomaly diagnosis to birth data. Linkage was performed by a dedicated state-wide data linkage authority. This paper describes use of the linked data to determine pregnancy prison exposure pregnancy for a representative population of mothers. Methods Researchers assessed the quality of linked records; resolved multiple-matched identities; transformed event-based incarceration records into person-based prisoner records and birth records into maternity records. Inconsistent or incomplete records were censored. Interrogation of the temporal relationships of all incarceration periods from the prisoner record with pregnancies from birth records identified prisoner maternities. Interrogation of maternities for each mother distinguished prisoner mothers who were incarcerated during pregnancy, from prisoner control mothers with pregnancies wholly in the community and a subset of prisoner mothers with maternities both types of maternity. Standard descriptive statistics are used to provide population prevalence of exposures and compare data quality across study populations stratified by mental health morbidity. Results Women incarcerated between 1998 and 2006 accounted for less than 1 % of the 404,000 women who gave birth in NSW between 2000 and 2006, while women with serious mental health morbidity accounted for 7 % overall and 68 % of prisoners. Rates of false positive linkage were within the predicted limits set by the linkage authority for non-prisoners, but were tenfold higher among prisoners (RR 9.9; 95%CI 8.2, 11.9 and twice as high for women with serious mental health morbidity (RR 2.2; 95%CI 1.9, 2.6. This case series of 597 maternities for 558 prisoners pregnant while in prison

  19. Preparing linked population data for research: cohort study of prisoner perinatal health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Lisa; Walker, Jane R; Levy, Michael H; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-16

    A study of pregnancy outcomes related to pregnancy in prison in New South Wales, Australia, designed a two stage linkage to add maternal history of incarceration and serious mental health morbidity, neonatal hospital admission and infant congenital anomaly diagnosis to birth data. Linkage was performed by a dedicated state-wide data linkage authority. This paper describes use of the linked data to determine pregnancy prison exposure pregnancy for a representative population of mothers. Researchers assessed the quality of linked records; resolved multiple-matched identities; transformed event-based incarceration records into person-based prisoner records and birth records into maternity records. Inconsistent or incomplete records were censored. Interrogation of the temporal relationships of all incarceration periods from the prisoner record with pregnancies from birth records identified prisoner maternities. Interrogation of maternities for each mother distinguished prisoner mothers who were incarcerated during pregnancy, from prisoner control mothers with pregnancies wholly in the community and a subset of prisoner mothers with maternities both types of maternity. Standard descriptive statistics are used to provide population prevalence of exposures and compare data quality across study populations stratified by mental health morbidity. Women incarcerated between 1998 and 2006 accounted for less than 1 % of the 404,000 women who gave birth in NSW between 2000 and 2006, while women with serious mental health morbidity accounted for 7 % overall and 68 % of prisoners. Rates of false positive linkage were within the predicted limits set by the linkage authority for non-prisoners, but were tenfold higher among prisoners (RR 9.9; 95%CI 8.2, 11.9) and twice as high for women with serious mental health morbidity (RR 2.2; 95%CI 1.9, 2.6). This case series of 597 maternities for 558 prisoners pregnant while in prison (of whom 128 gave birth in prison); and 2

  20. The link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes and histological subtypes of lung cancer: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,* Mengshuang Xie,* Shuang Dou, Liwei Cui, Chunyan Zheng, Wei Xiao Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: COPD is considered an independent risk factor for lung cancer. COPD and lung cancer are both very heterogeneous diseases, and the study herein investigates the link between COPD phenotypes and specific histological subtypes of lung cancer.Methods: This case–control study comprised 2,283 patients with newly diagnosed pathological lung cancer and 2,323 non-lung cancer controls. All participants underwent pulmonary function tests. The diagnosis of COPD was based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Subtypes of the two diseases were categorized according to 2015 World Health Organization classification of lung cancer and computer quantification of airway collapse on maximum expiratory flow volume. ORs were estimated using logistic regression analysis.Results: The prevalence of COPD was higher (32.8% in lung cancer patients compared to controls (16.0%. After adjustment for age, sex, body-mass index, and smoking status, the presence of COPD significantly increased the risk of lung cancer (OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.48–3.34 and all common histological subtypes (ORs 2.04–5.26. Both emphysema-predominant and non-emphysema-predominant phenotypes of COPD significantly increased the risk of lung cancer (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.85–6.88; OR 2.82, 95% CI 2.40–3.31. Higher risk of squamous-cell carcinoma and small-cell lung cancer was observed in patients with the emphysema-predominant than the non-emphysema-predominant phenotype (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03–2.89; OR 3.74, 95% CI 1.64–8.53. Conclusion: COPD was an independent risk factor for lung cancer and all common histological subtypes. Both emphysema-predominant and non-emphysema-predominant phenotypes of COPD significantly increased the risk of lung cancer

  1. Linking Research, Education and Public Engagement in Geoscience: Leadership and Strategic Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    By their very nature, the geosciences address societal challenges requiring a complex interplay between the research community, geoscience educators and public engagement with the general population to build their knowledge base and convince them to act appropriately to implement policies guided by scientific understanding. The most effective responses to geoscience challenges arise when strong collaborative structures connecting research, education and the public are in place to afford rapid communication and trust at all stages of the investigative and policy implementation processes. Educational programs that involve students and scientists via service learning exploring high profile issues of community interest and outreach to teachers through professional development build the network of relationships with geoscientists to respond rapidly to solve societal problems. These pre-existing personal connections simultaneously hold wider credibility with the public than unfamiliar scientific experts less accustomed to speaking to general audiences. The Geological Society of America is leveraging the research and educational experience of its members to build a self-sustaining state/regional network of K-12 professional development workshops designed to link the academic, research, governmental and industrial communities. The goal is not only to improve the content knowledge and pedagogical skills which teachers bring to their students, but also to build a diverse community of trust capable of responding to geoscience challenges in a fashion relevant to local communities. Dr. Moosavi is building this program by drawing on his background as a biogeochemistry researcher with 20 years experience focused on use of place-based approaches in general education and pre- and in-service teacher preparation in Research 1 and comprehensive universities, liberal arts and community colleges and high school. Experience with K-12 professional development working with the Minnesota

  2. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah MacCarthy

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS and time-location sampling (TLS offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic.

  3. Opening Up Climate Research: A Linked Data Approach to Publishing Data Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Shaon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the formal scientific output in most fields of natural science has been limited to peer-reviewed academic journal publications, with less attention paid to the chain of intermediate data results and their associated metadata, including provenance. In effect, this has constrained the representation and verification of the data provenance to the confines of the related publications. Detailed knowledge of a dataset’s provenance is essential to establish the pedigree of the data for its effective re-use, and to avoid redundant re-enactment of the experiment or computation involved. It is increasingly important for open-access data to determine their authenticity and quality, especially considering the growing volumes of datasets appearing in the public domain. To address these issues, we present an approach that combines the Digital Object Identifier (DOI – a widely adopted citation technique – with existing, widely adopted climate science data standards to formally publish detailed provenance of a climate research dataset as an associated scientific workflow. This is integrated with linked-data compliant data re-use standards (e.g. OAI-ORE to enable a seamless link between a publication and the complete trail of lineage of the corresponding dataset, including the dataset itself.

  4. Linked Data Applications Through Ontology Based Data Access in Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock-Schoppenhauer, Ann-Kristin; Kamann, Christian; Ulrich, Hannes; Duhm-Harbeck, Petra; Ingenerf, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Clinical care and research data are widely dispersed in isolated systems based on heterogeneous data models. Biomedicine predominantly makes use of connected datasets based on the Semantic Web paradigm. Initiatives like Bio2RDF created Resource Description Framework (RDF) versions of Omics resources, enabling sophisticated Linked Data applications. In contrast, electronic healthcare records (EHR) data are generated and processed in diverse clinical subsystems within hospital information systems (HIS). Usually, each of them utilizes a relational database system with a different proprietary schema. Semantic integration and access to the data is hardly possible. This paper describes ways of using Ontology Based Data Access (OBDA) for bridging the semantic gap between existing raw data and user-oriented views supported by ontology-based queries. Based on mappings between entities of data schemas and ontologies data can be made available as materialized or virtualized RDF triples ready for querying and processing. Our experiments based on CentraXX for biobank and study management demonstrate the advantages of abstracting away from low level details and semantic mediation. Furthermore, it becomes clear that using a professional platform for Linked Data applications is recommended due to the inherent complexity, the inconvenience to confront end users with SPARQL, and scalability and performance issues.

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure: research and clinical practice in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chiumeo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and comorbidities, increasing with age, is the challenge that nowadays health care systems are facing to better care treat these patients. For this reason a clinical trial was conducted in the province of Trento by a group of 30 volunteer general practitioners members of SNAMID (Scientific Society for Continuing Medical Education of General Practitioners. The objectives were to identify: i prevalence of COPD in patients (65-98 years in the province of Trento; ii presence and incidence of heart failure (HF in COPD patients; iii early detection of other chronic diseases; and iv improving electronic medical records (EMR as an innovation way of professional care management. From May 2011 to October 2013, 17 doctors completed the two-year work using the EMR. The studied patients were men and women (65-98 years, suffering from COPD; the considered data included: anthropometric information, smoking status, International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 diagnosis of COPD, HF and chronic diseases, specific blood and instrumental tests. The extracted results were then linked with data of sentinel therapies, collected by the EMR. The database obtained identified patients with COPD or HF not previously recognized with ICD-9 diagnosis. The study identified the sentinel drugs chosen for COPD and HF, excluding other drugs not selective for the study or confusing for a proper statistical evaluation.

  6. Validation of two novel electronic devices to time-link transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and pain report in patients with chronic back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Edward J; Rentowl, Patricia; Watson, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    The analgesic effectiveness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is uncertain. Negative findings, interpreted as ineffectiveness, might be due to poor methodological quality. Monitoring is necessary to differentiate between ineffectiveness and low implementation fidelity. Electronic data-logging devices, "TLOG" and "TSCORE," were developed to monitor and time-link TENS and pain report. TLOG records the time and duration of TENS use and output parameters; TSCORE records time-stamped pain scores. The purpose was to determine the accuracy, reliability, and acceptability of the devices. Forty-two outpatients with chronic back pain consented to use TENS daily for 2 weeks. Treatment times and durations were recorded in paper diaries and compared with TLOG data. Using TSCORE, patients reported pain before, during, and after TENS. Pain scores, reported using TSCORE or paper numerical rating scale at the beginning and end of 2 study visits, were compared using Bland-Altman methodology. The mean (SD) difference between paper and TSCORE pain scores was -0.05 (0.81). Limits of agreement (mean difference ± 1.96 SD) were -1.65 to 1.55. Test-retest reliabilities of paper and TSCORE were comparable: Paper mean (SD) difference was -0.33 (0.66), limits of agreement were -1.62 to 0.96; TSCORE mean (SD) difference was -0.10 (0.31), limits were -0.7 to 0.5. TLOG recorded TENS use accurately and worked reliably for 2 weeks in 84% of cases. An overall 79% of participants preferred TSCORE to paper numerical rating scale. TLOG and TSCORE are accurate, reliable, and acceptable devices for monitoring TENS implementation fidelity and pain outcome, with potential for improving TENS research methodology and clinical application.

  7. Linking Costs and Survival in the Treatment of Older Adults With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: An Analysis of SEER-Medicare Data From 1995 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Jung; Winn, Aaron N; Parsons, Susan K; Neumann, Peter J; Weiss, Elisa S; Cohen, Joshua T

    2016-04-01

    The high prices of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) therapy are well recognized, but less discussion has focused on the value of health care spending on the disease. This study examined whether the added costs have been "worth" the benefits among older adults with CML. We analyzed trends in health care costs and survival over time of 2164 CML patients over age 65 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare-linked database. We estimated life expectancy over a 15-year duration after diagnosis using a Weibull survival model and projected the corresponding costs using a 2-part model, adjusting for patient characteristics. We estimated population-level survival, total health care costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (expressed as cost per life year gained) over the period of 1995-2007. We found that therapeutic improvements in the treatment of CML have been associated with survival gains among older adults. Mean life expectancy was 2.2 years in 1995 and increased to 4.2 years in 2007. During the same timeframe, CML care costs have increased, from $127,000 in 1995 to $278,000 in 2007 (2010 dollars), mostly due to increasing tyrosine kinase inhibitor costs. The aggregated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $74,000/life year gained. Our findings showed that, despite high costs, CML care may provide reasonable value for money among older patients between 1995-2007. Our study sheds light on the value of health care spending on CML by considering both the costs and the benefits. Future research should investigate strategies to improve treatment adherence to maximize the value of CML care.

  8. The research of Proactive Coping Behavior of Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija A. Yaroslavskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the patterns of using proactive coping and adherences to it's different types in patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases. Participants of the study (N=180 were 30 to 60 years old. The Proactive Coping Inventory was used to assess the patients' psychological status. According to the results of the study patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases use dif-ferent types of proactive coping behavior while solving problematic and stressful situations. The research revealed that patients with bronchial asthma don't have the skills of independent decision making, definition of objectives, considering of options in solving conflicts or other inconvenient situations sufficiently developed. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are less satisfied with the emotional support that they receive from their relatives and closest people, it's harder for them to reveal their feelings and emotions than for those who suffer from bronchial asthma and healthy ones. The results of the study may be useful in developing educational systems of proactive coping behavior skills for patients with chronic non-specific lung diseases for their health and well-being support.

  9. A cloud computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic diseases collaborative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Mu-Hsing; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hung, Shu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a Cloud Computing based platform for sleep behavior and chronic disease collaborative research. The platform consists of two main components: (1) a sensing bed sheet with textile sensors to automatically record patient's sleep behaviors and vital signs, and (2) a service-oriented cloud computing architecture (SOCCA) that provides a data repository and allows for sharing and analysis of collected data. Also, we describe our systematic approach to implementing the SOCCA. We believe that the new cloud-based platform can provide nurse and other health professional researchers located in differing geographic locations with a cost effective, flexible, secure and privacy-preserved research environment.

  10. Report of the NIH Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, Richard A.; Dworkin, Samuel F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Andersson, Gunnar; Borenstein, David; Carragee, Eugene; Carrino, John; Chou, Roger; Cook, Karon; DeLitto, Anthony; Goertz, Christine; Khalsa, Partap; Loeser, John; Mackey, Sean; Panagis, James; Rainville, James; Tosteson, Tor; Turk, Dennis; Von Korff, Michael; Weiner, Debra K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing intervention, functional disability due to chronic low back pain (cLBP) has increased in recent decades. We often cannot identify mechanisms to explain the major negative impact cLBP has on patients’ lives. Such cLBP is often termed non-specific, and may be due to multiple biologic and behavioral etiologies. Researchers use varied inclusion criteria, definitions, baseline assessments, and outcome measures, which impede comparisons and consensus. The NIH Pain Consortium therefore charged a Research Task Force (RTF) to draft standards for research on cLBP. The resulting multidisciplinary panel recommended using 2 questions to define cLBP; classifying cLBP by its impact (defined by pain intensity, pain interference, and physical function); use of a minimal data set to describe research participants (drawing heavily on the PROMIS methodology); reporting “responder analyses” in addition to mean outcome scores; and suggestions for future research and dissemination. The Pain Consortium has approved the recommendations, which investigators should incorporate into NIH grant proposals. The RTF believes these recommendations will advance the field, help to resolve controversies, and facilitate future research addressing the genomic, neurologic, and other mechanistic substrates of chronic low back pain. We expect the RTF recommendations will become a dynamic document, and undergo continual improvement. Perspective A Task Force was convened by the NIH Pain Consortium, with the goal of developing research standards for chronic low back pain. The results included recommendations for definitions, a minimal dataset, reporting outcomes, and future research. Greater consistency in reporting should facilitate comparisons among studies and the development of phenotypes. PMID:26388962

  11. REPORT OF THE NIH TASK FORCE ON RESEARCH STANDARDS FOR CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, Richard A.; Dworkin, Samuel F.; Amtmann, Dagmar; Andersson, Gunnar; Borenstein, David; Carragee, Eugene; Carrino, John; Chou, Roger; Cook, Karon; DeLitto, Anthony; Goertz, Christine; Khalsa, Partap; Loeser, John; Mackey, Sean; Panagis, James; Rainville, James; Tosteson, Tor; Turk, Dennis; Von Korff, Michael; Weiner, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing intervention, functional disability due to chronic low back pain (cLBP) has increased in recent decades. We often cannot identify mechanisms to explain the major negative impact cLBP has on patients’ lives. Such cLBP is often termed non-specific, and may be due to multiple biologic and behavioral etiologies. Researchers use varied inclusion criteria, definitions, baseline assessments, and outcome measures, which impede comparisons and consensus. The NIH Pain Consortium therefore charged a Research Task Force (RTF) to draft standards for research on cLBP. The resulting multidisciplinary panel recommended using 2 questions to define cLBP; classifying cLBP by its impact (defined by pain intensity, pain interference, and physical function); use of a minimal data set to describe research participants (drawing heavily on the PROMIS methodology); reporting “responder analyses” in addition to mean outcome scores; and suggestions for future research and dissemination. The Pain Consortium has approved the recommendations, which investigators should incorporate into NIH grant proposals. The RTF believes these recommendations will advance the field, help to resolve controversies, and facilitate future research addressing the genomic, neurologic, and other mechanistic substrates of chronic low back pain. We expect the RTF recommendations will become a dynamic document, and undergo continual improvement. Perspective A Task Force was convened by the NIH Pain Consortium, with the goal of developing research standards for chronic low back pain. The results included recommendations for definitions, a minimal dataset, reporting outcomes, and future research. Greater consistency in reporting should facilitate comparisons among studies and the development of phenotypes. PMID:24787228

  12. Adaptations of Personal Health Record Platform for Medical Research on Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krukowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on experiences in e-Health platforms and services for supporting medical research into the causes and relationships among physiological parameters and health problems concerning different chronic diseases. The Personal Health Record (PHR is a way of standardizing electronic management of medical information between patients and their physicians, including medical bodies collaborating in providing integrated medical care services. We describe roles and aims behind electronic health records, follow with applicable legal and standardizations frameworks and relevant European activities, leading to the presentation of common commercial and open-source implementations of such systems, concluding with the indication of specific adaptations enabling a use of stored personal health data for scientific research into causes and evaluation of chronic illnesses. We describe ethical and privacy concerns that are relevant to using and exchanging electronic health information.

  13. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiela, Rafael; Mapelli, Francesca; Rojo, David; Chouaia, Bessem; Tornés, Jesús; Borin, Sara; Richter, Michael; Del Pozo, Mercedes V; Cappello, Simone; Gertler, Christoph; Genovese, María; Denaro, Renata; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Amer, Ranya A; Bigazzi, David; Han, Xifang; Chen, Jianwei; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Golyshina, Olga V; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Jaouanil, Atef; Benzha, Fatima; Magagnini, Mirko; Hussein, Emad; Al-Horani, Fuad; Cherif, Ameur; Blaghen, Mohamed; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Barbas, Coral; Malkawi, Hanan I; Golyshin, Peter N; Yakimov, Michail M; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-06-29

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills.

  14. Living with chronic low back pain: a metasynthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelgrove, Sherrill; Liossi, Christina

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this qualitative metasynthesis is to articulate the knowledge gained from a review of qualitative studies of patients' experiences of chronic low back pain. METHODS Meta-ethnographic methodology guided the review of 33 articles representing 28 studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2012. A systematic comparison of the main themes from each study was conducted and 'synthesised' to create superordinate themes. RESULTS Three overarching interrelated themes were identified: the impact of chronic low back pain on self; relationships with significant others that incorporated two streams - health professionals and the organisation of care and relationships with family and friends; coping with chronic low back pain. Coping strategies were predominantly physical therapies, medication and avoidance behaviours with very few successful strategies reported. Professional and family support, self-efficacy, motivation, work conditions and exercise opportunities influenced pain experiences. Review authors' recommendations included psychological therapies, education, the facilitation of self-management strategies and support groups. DISCUSSION The review substantiates chronic low back pain as complex, dynamic and multidimensional, underpinned by experiences of persistent distressing pain, loss, and lowered self-worth, stigma, depression, premature aging, fear of the future. Future research should address the paucity of longitudinal studies, loss and issues of ethnicity, gender, ageing.

  15. Monocyte and plasma expression of TAM ligand and receptor in renal failure: Links to unregulated immunity and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iris J; Hilliard, Brendan A; Ulas, Mehriban; Yu, Daohai; Vangala, Chandan; Rao, Swati; Lee, Jean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Cohen, Philip L

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Specific immune mechanisms and pathways that drive and maintain chronic inflammation in CKD are not well described. The TAM ligands (Gas6 and protein S) and receptors (Axl and Mer) have been recently recognized as playing a prominent role in immune regulation. The receptors exist in both soluble and cell-bound forms; the soluble receptors (sAxl and sMer) are believed to compete with the bound receptors and thus inhibit their function. In this study, we determined the expression of cell-bound and soluble TAM proteins in patients with CKD. CKD patients had significantly lower expression of Mer in monocytes, yet increased expression of soluble TAM receptors sAxl and sMer in plasma compared to controls. The metalloproteinase ADAM 17, responsible for cleavage of Mer to its soluble form, was increased in patient monocytes. Elevated levels of soluble TAM receptors were more evident in patients with progressive renal failure. These observations suggest that functional deficiency of TAM receptor-mediated regulation of inflammation may contribute to chronic inflammation in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD): A Cyberinfrastructure for Mesoscale Meteorology Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droegemeier, K.

    2004-12-01

    A new National Science Foundation Large Information Technology Research (ITR) grant - known as Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) - has been funded to facilitate the identification, access, preparation, assimilation, prediction, management, analysis, mining, and visualization of a broad array of meteorological data and model output, independent of format and physical location. A transforming element of LEAD is dynamic workflow orchestration and data management, which will allow use of analysis tools, forecast models, and data repositories as dynamically adaptive, on-demand systems that can a) change configuration rapidly and automatically in response to weather; b) continually be steered by new data; c) respond to decision-driven inputs from users; d) initiate other processes automatically; and e) steer remote observing technologies to optimize data collection for the problem at hand. Having been in operation for slightly more than a year, LEAD has created a technology roadmap and architecture for developing its capabilities and placing them within the academic and research environment. Further, much of the LEAD infrastructure being developed for the WRF model, particularly workflow orchestration, will play a significant role in the nascent WRF Developmental Test Bed Center located at NCAR. This paper updates the status of LEAD (e.g., the topics noted above), its ties with other community activities (e.g., CONDUIT, THREDDS, MADIS, NOMADS), and the manner in which LEAD technologies will be made available for general use. Each component LEAD application is being created as a standards-based Web service that can be run in stand-alone configuration or chained together to build an end-to-end environment for on-demand, real time NWP. We describe in this paper the concepts, implementation plans, and expected impacts of LEAD, the underpinning of which will be a series of interconnected, heterogeneous virtual IT "Grid environments" designed to provide a

  17. Research strategies and the use of nutrient biomarkers in studies of diet and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ross L; Sugar, Elizabeth; Wang, C Y; Neuhouser, Marian; Patterson, Ruth

    2002-12-01

    To provide an account of the state of diet and chronic disease research designs and methods; to discuss the role and potential of aggregate and analytical observational studies and randomised controlled intervention trials; and to propose strategies for strengthening each type of study, with particular emphasis on the use of nutrient biomarkers in cohort study settings. Observations from diet and disease studies conducted over the past 25 years are used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various study designs that have been used to associate nutrient consumption with chronic disease risk. It is argued that a varied research programme, employing multiple study designs, is needed in response to the widely different biases and constraints that attend aggregate and analytical epidemiological studies and controlled intervention trials. Study design modifications are considered that may be able to enhance the reliability of aggregate and analytical nutritional epidemiological studies. Specifically, the potential of nutrient biomarker measurements that provide an objective assessment of nutrient consumption to enhance analytical study reliability is emphasised. A statistical model for combining nutrient biomarker data with self-report nutrient consumption estimates is described, and related ongoing work on odds ratio parameter estimation is outlined briefly. Finally, a recently completed nutritional biomarker study among 102 postmenopausal women in Seattle is mentioned. The statistical model will be applied to biomarker data on energy expenditure, urinary nitrogen, selected blood fatty acid measurements and various blood micronutrient concentrations, and food frequency self-report data, to identify study subject characteristics, such as body mass, age or socio-economic status, that may be associated with the measurement properties of food frequency nutrient consumption estimates. This information will be crucial for the design of a potential larger nutrient

  18. Cameco engineered tailings program: linking research with industrial processes for improved tailings performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.; Hendry, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The waste product from uranium mining and milling that generates the greatest public and regulatory concern is tailings. The tailings contain all of the mined material except uranium plus a host of processing reagents. These minerals and compounds have the potential to harm the local environment if not deposited in a fashion that is both geochemically and geotechnically stable. Environmental leadership impels Cameco Corporation to ensure that the methods used to dispose of tailings are at the forefront of best available technologies whereby tailings production results in a product with geotechnical and geochemical characteristics that minimize the environmental impact associated with long-term storage of this product. Cameco has developed an Engineered Tailings (ET) program to ensure optimization of long-term tailings performance and minimal impacts of elements of concern (EOCs) to the receiving environment, regardless of the ore being milled. Within this program chemical and physical performance of tailings from geochemical and geotechnical investigations and baseline environmental data, integrated with regulatory requirements and corporate commitments, will be used to evaluate and set criteria for mill- and tailings management facilities-based chemical and physical tailings characteristics, identify key knowledge gaps, prioritize areas of concern and implement appropriate responses. This paper provides an overview of the Engineered Tailings program, the research being conducted as part of the ET program, and how it links with present and future Cameco operations. (author)

  19. Stakeholder priorities for comparative effectiveness research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Jerry A; Lindenauer, Peter K; Au, David H; Carson, Shannon S; Lee, Todd A; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Naureckas, Edward T; Vollmer, William M; Mularski, Richard A

    2013-02-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is intended to address the expressed needs of patients, clinicians, and other stakeholders. Representatives of 54 stakeholder groups with an interest in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participated in workshops convened by the COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness and Research Translation (CONCERT) over a 2-year period. Year 1 focused on chronic care and care coordination. Year 2 focused on acute care and transitions in care between healthcare settings. Discussions and provisional voting were conducted via teleconferences and e-mail exchanges before the workshop. Final prioritization votes occurred after in-person discussions at the workshop. We used a modified Delphi approach to facilitate discussions and consensus building. To more easily quantify preferences and to evaluate the internal consistency of rankings, the Analytic Hierarchy Process was incorporated in Year 2. Results of preworkshop and final workshop voting often differed, suggesting that prioritization efforts relying solely on requests for topics from stakeholder groups without in-person discussion may provide different research priorities. Research priorities varied across stakeholder groups, but generally focused on studies to evaluate different approaches to healthcare delivery (e.g., spirometry for diagnosis and treatment, integrated healthcare strategies during transitions in care) rather than head-to-head comparisons of medications. This research agenda may help to inform groups intending to respond to CER funding opportunities in COPD. The methodologies used, detailed in the online supplement, may also help to inform prioritization efforts for CER in other health conditions.

  20. Stakeholder Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenauer, Peter K.; Au, David H.; Carson, Shannon S.; Lee, Todd A.; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Naureckas, Edward T.; Vollmer, William M.; Mularski, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is intended to address the expressed needs of patients, clinicians, and other stakeholders. Representatives of 54 stakeholder groups with an interest in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participated in workshops convened by the COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness and Research Translation (CONCERT) over a 2-year period. Year 1 focused on chronic care and care coordination. Year 2 focused on acute care and transitions in care between healthcare settings. Discussions and provisional voting were conducted via teleconferences and e-mail exchanges before the workshop. Final prioritization votes occurred after in-person discussions at the workshop. We used a modified Delphi approach to facilitate discussions and consensus building. To more easily quantify preferences and to evaluate the internal consistency of rankings, the Analytic Hierarchy Process was incorporated in Year 2. Results of preworkshop and final workshop voting often differed, suggesting that prioritization efforts relying solely on requests for topics from stakeholder groups without in-person discussion may provide different research priorities. Research priorities varied across stakeholder groups, but generally focused on studies to evaluate different approaches to healthcare delivery (e.g., spirometry for diagnosis and treatment, integrated healthcare strategies during transitions in care) rather than head-to-head comparisons of medications. This research agenda may help to inform groups intending to respond to CER funding opportunities in COPD. The methodologies used, detailed in the online supplement, may also help to inform prioritization efforts for CER in other health conditions. PMID:23155144

  1. Evaluation of super-link system theory for spinal cord injury patients using participatory action research in a rehabilitation hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Yu; Wu, Tzu-Jung; Cheng, Mei-Li; Sung, Hsi-Hui

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and evaluate the spinal cord injury rehabilitation nursing theory named Super-Link System Theory using participatory action research. Data were collected from October 2007 to September 2008 in a rehabilitation hospital by means of interviews, participant observations, documentary resources, case conferences and reports, and participants' self-reflective inquiries. The Super-Link System Theory was introduced to 31 rehabilitation nurses. The nurses selected a key reference group including the researcher to facilitate the participatory action research process to implement and evaluate the theory. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings shows that several key concepts were clarified and specific nursing interventions were identified. Furthermore, an integrated link system from the hospital to the community through both rehabilitation nurses and discharge planners was established. The study demonstrated an evidence base for an evolving theory of care, and empowered nurses to make sustainable changes to their practice. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  2. Cell protein cross-linking by erbstatin and related compounds | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The scheme depicts a possible mechanism of cross-linking by erbstatin and related analogues. A mechanism of action is proposed which involves initial oxidation to reactive quinone intermediates that subsequently cross-link protein nucleophiles via multiple 1,4-Michael-type additions. Similar alkylation of protein by protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as herbimycin A, has

  3. Research on Shore-Ship Photonic Link Performance for Two- Frequency-Band Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yanqin; Cong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Ka and Ku bands links for shore-ship communications suffer limited bandwidth and high loss. In this paper, photonics-based links are proposed and modeled. The principle of phase modulation (PM) is elaborated and analyzed. It is showed that PM can effectively suppress high-order inter-modulation distortion (IMD), reduce the insert loss and improve the reliability of the system.

  4. Science for Energy Technology: Strengthening the Link Between Basic Research and Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-01

    The nation faces two severe challenges that will determine our prosperity for decades to come: assuring clean, secure, and sustainable energy to power our world, and establishing a new foundation for enduring economic and jobs growth. These challenges are linked: the global demand for clean sustainable energy is an unprecedented economic opportunity for creating jobs and exporting energy technology to the developing and developed world. But achieving the tremendous potential of clean energy technology is not easy. In contrast to traditional fossil fuel-based technologies, clean energy technologies are in their infancy, operating far below their potential, with many scientific and technological challenges to overcome. Industry is ultimately the agent for commercializing clean energy technology and for reestablishing the foundation for our economic and jobs growth. For industry to succeed in these challenges, it must overcome many roadblocks and continuously innovate new generations of renewable, sustainable, and low-carbon energy technologies such as solar energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear energy, electricity delivery and efficiency, solid state lighting, batteries and biofuels. The roadblocks to higher performing clean energy technology are not just challenges of engineering design but are also limited by scientific understanding.Innovation relies on contributions from basic research to bridge major gaps in our understanding of the phenomena that limit efficiency, performance, or lifetime of the materials or chemistries of these sustainable energy technologies. Thus, efforts aimed at understanding the scientific issues behind performance limitations can have a real and immediate impact on cost, reliability, and performance of technology, and ultimately a transformative impact on our economy. With its broad research base and unique scientific user facilities, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) is ideally positioned to address these needs. BES has laid

  5. Delimiting family in syntheses of research on childhood chronic conditions and family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafl, Kathleen; Leeman, Jennifer; Havill, Nancy; Crandell, Jamie; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-03-01

    Synthesis of family research presents unique challenges to investigators who must delimit what will be included as a family study in the proposed review. In this paper, the authors discuss the conceptual and pragmatic challenges of conducting systematic reviews of the literature on the intersection between family life and childhood chronic conditions. A proposed framework for delimiting the family domain of interest is presented. The framework addresses both topical salience and level of relevance and provides direction to future researchers, with the goal of supporting the overall quality of family research synthesis efforts. For users of synthesis studies, knowledge of how investigators conceptualize the boundaries of family research is important contextual information for understanding the limits and applicability of the results. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  6. Integrated, Team-Based Chronic Pain Management: Bridges from Theory and Research to High Quality Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Mary A; Kerns, Robert D

    Chronic pain is a significant public health concern. For many, chronic pain is associated with declines in physical functioning and increases in emotional distress. Additionally, the socioeconomic burden associated with costs of care, lost wages and declines in productivity are significant. A large and growing body of research continues to support the biopsychosocial model as the predominant framework for conceptualizing the experience of chronic pain and its multiple negative impacts. The model also informs a widely accepted and empirically supported approach for the optimal management of chronic pain. This chapter briefly articulates the historical foundations of the biopsychosocial model of chronic pain followed by a relatively detailed discussion of an empirically informed, integrated, multimodal and interdisciplinary treatment approach. The role of mental health professionals, especially psychologists, in the management of chronic pain is particularly highlighted.

  7. The link between research, development and demonstration and stakeholder confidence: the perspective of an academic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, Ghislain de

    2006-01-01

    The author contributed to the discussion by providing a presentation from the perspective of an academic. In reviewing the role of science, the author focused on the important roles of science and R and D following a siting process. Science and R and D is essential for understanding the physical systems, displaying and demonstrating processes involved, measuring key parameters, and assessing areas of residual uncertainty. He outlined a number of factors that are key to making a strong case to stakeholders, to demonstrate that the system is well understood: - explaining the past history of the site; - explaining unexpected features or occurrences (such as seismic anomalies); - ensuring the capacity to observe and note unexpected features; - having the capacity to introduce new measurements that can inform the system; - deriving scientific validation of theory (noting the example of WIPP); - maintaining the capacity to be at the frontier of science; and - having the ability to answer unexpected questions from any party. It was suggested that credibility and stakeholder confidence is linked, in part, to credibility of the research in the eyes of the scientific community. The scientific community must be engaged to address questions of interest to the public. The role of peer review is essential in establishing the credibility of researchers, and within academic circles, publications in the scientific literature is highly valued. It is important for both implementers and regulators to retain their own capabilities and competence to be credible in the eyes of stakeholders. The experience of Andra was noted, in underscoring the importance of having high-level scientists internal to the implementing organization to ensure momentum and institutional knowledge. Thesis students also offer ways of promoting science in areas of interest concerning radioactive waste management. Demonstration plays an essential and distinct role from R and D. It offers tangible insight to

  8. Disease management projects and the Chronic Care Model in action: baseline qualitative research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Disease management programs, especially those based on the Chronic Care Model (CCM), are increasingly common in the Netherlands. While disease management programs have been well-researched quantitatively and economically, less qualitative research has been done. The overall aim of the study is to explore how disease management programs are implemented within primary care settings in the Netherlands; this paper focuses on the early development and implementation stages of five disease management programs in the primary care setting, based on interviews with project leadership teams. Methods Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted at the five selected sites with sixteen professionals interviewed; all project directors and managers were interviewed. The interviews focused on each project’s chosen chronic illness (diabetes, eating disorders, COPD, multi-morbidity, CVRM) and project plan, barriers to development and implementation, the project leaders’ action and reactions, as well as their roles and responsibilities, and disease management strategies. Analysis was inductive and interpretive, based on the content of the interviews. After analysis, the results of this research on disease management programs and the Chronic Care Model are viewed from a traveling technology framework. Results This analysis uncovered four themes that can be mapped to disease management and the Chronic Care Model: (1) changing the health care system, (2) patient-centered care, (3) technological systems and barriers, and (4) integrating projects into the larger system. Project leaders discussed the paths, both direct and indirect, for transforming the health care system to one that addresses chronic illness. Patient-centered care was highlighted as needed and a paradigm shift for many. Challenges with technological systems were pervasive. Project leaders managed the expenses of a traveling technology, including the social, financial, and administration involved

  9. Disease management projects and the Chronic Care Model in action: baseline qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Bethany Hipple; Adams, Samantha A; Nieboer, Anna P; Bal, Roland

    2012-05-11

    Disease management programs, especially those based on the Chronic Care Model (CCM), are increasingly common in The Netherlands. While disease management programs have been well-researched quantitatively and economically, less qualitative research has been done. The overall aim of the study is to explore how disease management programs are implemented within primary care settings in The Netherlands; this paper focuses on the early development and implementation stages of five disease management programs in the primary care setting, based on interviews with project leadership teams. Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted at the five selected sites with sixteen professionals interviewed; all project directors and managers were interviewed. The interviews focused on each project's chosen chronic illness (diabetes, eating disorders, COPD, multi-morbidity, CVRM) and project plan, barriers to development and implementation, the project leaders' action and reactions, as well as their roles and responsibilities, and disease management strategies. Analysis was inductive and interpretive, based on the content of the interviews. After analysis, the results of this research on disease management programs and the Chronic Care Model are viewed from a traveling technology framework. This analysis uncovered four themes that can be mapped to disease management and the Chronic Care Model: (1) changing the health care system, (2) patient-centered care, (3) technological systems and barriers, and (4) integrating projects into the larger system. Project leaders discussed the paths, both direct and indirect, for transforming the health care system to one that addresses chronic illness. Patient-centered care was highlighted as needed and a paradigm shift for many. Challenges with technological systems were pervasive. Project leaders managed the expenses of a traveling technology, including the social, financial, and administration involved. At the sites, project leaders served

  10. A chronic toxicity test protocol using Caridina nilotica (Decapoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinization of freshwater resources is an increasing global problem, yet there is a paucity of chronic salinity tolerance data linked to very few chronic toxicity test protocols. This research aimed to generate a chronic toxicity test protocol and protective salinity tolerance data for the indigenous South African freshwater shrimp ...

  11. Linking genomic responses of gonads with reproductive impairment in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed chronically to the chemopreventive and antifouling agent, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lianguo [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China); Au, Doris W.T. [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Hu, Chenyan [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Weipeng [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China); Zhou, Bingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Cai, Lin [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Qian, Pei-Yuan, E-mail: boqianpy@ust.hk [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Marine medaka were exposed chronically to low-doses of DIM. • Toxicogenomic responses of gonads were profiled at transcript and protein levels. • Molecular initiating events were linked to adverse apical outcomes. • VTG mobilization was blocked by lower abundance of cathepsin enzyme in ovary. • Eggshell proteins were more indicative of reproductive failure than VTG. - Abstract: 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been promoted as an effective chemopreventive and antifouling additive. However, the concurrent risks or side effects of DIM are not fully understood, especially on tissues responsive to estrogen. Therefore, this study employed marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a test model to evaluate relative safety and explore mechanisms of toxic action of DIM on development and function of gonad after chronic (28 days) aqueous exposure to relatively low doses (0 μg/L or 8.5 μg/L). Integration of comprehensive toxicogenomic analysis at the transcriptome and proteome levels with apical endpoints, such as production of eggs and swimming performance of larvae, elucidated the molecular linkage in gonad from bottom up along the reproductive adverse outcome pathway. A series of sequential changes at the transcript and protein levels were linked to lesser fecundity and viability of larvae exposed to DIM. Anomalous production of vitellogenin (VTG) and eggshell proteins in testis confirmed the estrogenic potency of DIM. In the ovary, although storage of VTG was greater, lesser expressions of cathepsin enzymes blocked cleavage and incorporation of VTG into oocytes as yolk, which acted together with lower eggshell proteins to inhibit maturation of primary oocyte and thus contributed to impairment of fecundity. Overall, this study demonstrated that exposure to DIM impaired reproductive fitness. Diverse molecular initiating changes in gonads were linked to apical endpoints that could be used in assessment of risks posed by DIM on gametogenesis. In

  12. Linking genomic responses of gonads with reproductive impairment in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed chronically to the chemopreventive and antifouling agent, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lianguo; Au, Doris W.T.; Hu, Chenyan; Zhang, Weipeng; Zhou, Bingsheng; Cai, Lin; Giesy, John P.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Marine medaka were exposed chronically to low-doses of DIM. • Toxicogenomic responses of gonads were profiled at transcript and protein levels. • Molecular initiating events were linked to adverse apical outcomes. • VTG mobilization was blocked by lower abundance of cathepsin enzyme in ovary. • Eggshell proteins were more indicative of reproductive failure than VTG. - Abstract: 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been promoted as an effective chemopreventive and antifouling additive. However, the concurrent risks or side effects of DIM are not fully understood, especially on tissues responsive to estrogen. Therefore, this study employed marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a test model to evaluate relative safety and explore mechanisms of toxic action of DIM on development and function of gonad after chronic (28 days) aqueous exposure to relatively low doses (0 μg/L or 8.5 μg/L). Integration of comprehensive toxicogenomic analysis at the transcriptome and proteome levels with apical endpoints, such as production of eggs and swimming performance of larvae, elucidated the molecular linkage in gonad from bottom up along the reproductive adverse outcome pathway. A series of sequential changes at the transcript and protein levels were linked to lesser fecundity and viability of larvae exposed to DIM. Anomalous production of vitellogenin (VTG) and eggshell proteins in testis confirmed the estrogenic potency of DIM. In the ovary, although storage of VTG was greater, lesser expressions of cathepsin enzymes blocked cleavage and incorporation of VTG into oocytes as yolk, which acted together with lower eggshell proteins to inhibit maturation of primary oocyte and thus contributed to impairment of fecundity. Overall, this study demonstrated that exposure to DIM impaired reproductive fitness. Diverse molecular initiating changes in gonads were linked to apical endpoints that could be used in assessment of risks posed by DIM on gametogenesis. In

  13. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2011-10-29

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007-10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007-09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·38, 95% CI -0·55 to -0·20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (-0·36, -0·83 to 0·10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD -0·24, -0·40 to -0·09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007–10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007–09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] −0.38, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (−0.36, −0.83 to 0.10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD −0.24, −0.40 to −0.09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428

  15. MyGeneFriends: A Social Network Linking Genes, Genetic Diseases, and Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allot, Alexis; Chennen, Kirsley; Nevers, Yannis; Poidevin, Laetitia; Kress, Arnaud; Ripp, Raymond; Thompson, Julie Dawn; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile

    2017-06-16

    The constant and massive increase of biological data offers unprecedented opportunities to decipher the function and evolution of genes and their roles in human diseases. However, the multiplicity of sources and flow of data mean that efficient access to useful information and knowledge production has become a major challenge. This challenge can be addressed by taking inspiration from Web 2.0 and particularly social networks, which are at the forefront of big data exploration and human-data interaction. MyGeneFriends is a Web platform inspired by social networks, devoted to genetic disease analysis, and organized around three types of proactive agents: genes, humans, and genetic diseases. The aim of this study was to improve exploration and exploitation of biological, postgenomic era big data. MyGeneFriends leverages conventions popularized by top social networks (Facebook, LinkedIn, etc), such as networks of friends, profile pages, friendship recommendations, affinity scores, news feeds, content recommendation, and data visualization. MyGeneFriends provides simple and intuitive interactions with data through evaluation and visualization of connections (friendships) between genes, humans, and diseases. The platform suggests new friends and publications and allows agents to follow the activity of their friends. It dynamically personalizes information depending on the user's specific interests and provides an efficient way to share information with collaborators. Furthermore, the user's behavior itself generates new information that constitutes an added value integrated in the network, which can be used to discover new connections between biological agents. We have developed MyGeneFriends, a Web platform leveraging conventions from popular social networks to redefine the relationship between humans and biological big data and improve human processing of biomedical data. MyGeneFriends is available at lbgi.fr/mygenefriends. ©Alexis Allot, Kirsley Chennen, Yannis

  16. Animal models of chronic wound care: the application of biofilms in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trøstrup H

    2016-11-01

    be refined and replaced whenever possible, and reproducibility and clinical relevance should be strived. This review aimed at giving an overview of the model systems and major findings for inspiration for clinicians and researchers involved in handling chronic nonhealing wounds. Relevant animal models on wound repair are discussed, and our novel wound model on the host/pathogen interplay is presented. In this model, murine wounds are stuck in a polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocyte-dominated inflammation due to the presence of visually confirmed Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm located in the dermis and subcutaneous fatty tissue. Keywords: pathogen interplay, chronic wound science, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm

  17. Ecological Momentary Assessment Methodology in Chronic Pain Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Marcella; Junghaenel, Doerte U; Ono, Masakatsu; Stone, Arthur A; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-01-31

    Self-reported pain intensity assessments are central to chronic pain research. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodologies are uniquely positioned to collect these data, and are indeed being used in the field. However, EMA protocols are complex, and many decisions are necessary in the design of EMA research studies. A systematic literature review identified 105 articles drawing from 62 quantitative EMA research projects examining pain intensity in adult chronic pain patients. Study characteristics were tabulated to summarize and describe the use of EMA, with an emphasis placed on various dimensions of decision-making involved in executing EMA methodologies. Most identified studies considered within-person relationships between pain and other variables, and a few examined interventions on chronic pain. There was a trend toward the use of smartphones as EMA data collection devices more recently, and completion rates were not reported in nearly one third of studies. Pain intensity items varied widely with respect to number of scale points, anchor labels, and length of reporting period; most used numeric rating scales. Recommendations are provided for reporting to improve reproducibility, comparability, and interpretation of results, and for opportunities to clarify the importance of design decisions. Studies that use EMA methodologies to assess pain intensity are heterogeneous. Aspects of protocol design, including data input modality and pain item construction, have the potential to influence the data collected. Thorough reporting on design features and completion rates therefore facilitates reproducibility, comparability, and interpretation of study results. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A synthesis of qualitative research exploring the barriers to staying in work with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Seers, Kate; Allcock, Nick; Briggs, Michelle; Carr, Eloise; Barker, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research can help to advance our understanding, management and prevention of work disability. Our aim was to integrate qualitative research findings in order to increase our understanding of barriers to stay in work with chronic pain. We searched five electronic bibliographic databases until September 2012, supplemented by citation tracking and hand-searching. We used meta-ethnography to synthesis our findings. Central to meta-ethnography is identifying “concepts” and developing a conceptual model. Concepts were compared and organised into categories. The following categories can have an impact on the decision to remain in work: struggling to affirm myself as a good worker; balancing life and work in the face of unpredictable symptoms; my work colleagues don't believe me; the system does not facilitate return to work; the battle for legitimacy. Our innovation is to present an internationally relevant model based on a conceptual synthesis. This model highlights the adversarial work experience of people with chronic. The papers span 15 years of qualitative research. A significant finding is that these themes continue to pervade the current work environment for those in pain, and this has clear implications for education, social care and policy. People with chronic pain face an adversarial struggle to maintain their credibility at work. Strategies to maintain personal credibility can have an adverse effect on working lives. Changes at a systems level are needed to facilitate continuance and return to work. Cultural changes in the way that we view people with pain would help to keep people in work.

  19. The research gap in chronic paediatric pain: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulkedid, R; Abdou, A Y; Desselas, E; Monégat, M; de Leeuw, T G; Avez-Couturier, J; Dugue, S; Mareau, C; Charron, B; Alberti, C; Kaguelidou, F

    2018-02-01

    Chronic pain is associated with significant functional and social impairment. The objective of this review was to assess the characteristics and quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating pain management interventions in children and adolescents with chronic pain. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library up to July 2017. We included RCTs that involved children and adolescents (3 months-18 years) and evaluated the use of pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention(s) in the context of pain persisting or re-occurring for more than 3 months. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) Tool. A total of 58 RCTs were identified and numbers steadily increased over time. The majority were conducted in single hospital institutions, with no information on study funding. Median sample size was 47.5 participants (Q1,Q3: 32, 70). Forty-five percent of RCTs included both adults and children and the median of the mean ages at inclusion was 12.9 years (Q1,Q3: 11, 15). Testing of non-pharmacological interventions was predominant and only 5 RCTs evaluated analgesics or co-analgesics. Abdominal pain, headache/migraine and musculoskeletal pain were the most common types of chronic pain among participants. Methodological quality was poor with 90% of RCTs presenting a high or unclear ROB. Evaluation of analgesics targeting chronic pain relief in children and adolescents through RCTs is marginal. Infants and children with long-lasting painful conditions are insufficiently represented in RCTs. We discuss possible research constraints and challenges as well as methodologies to circumvent them. There is a substantial research gap regarding analgesic interventions for children and adolescents with chronic pain. Most clinical trials in the field focus on the evaluation of non-pharmacological interventions and are of low methodological quality. There is also a specific lack of trials involving infants

  20. Identification of novel non-invasive biomarkers of urinary chronic pelvic pain syndrome: findings from the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Adelle; Curatolo, Adam; Sachdev, Monisha; Stephens, Alisa J; Mullins, Chris; Landis, J Richard; van Bokhoven, Adrie; El-Hayek, Andrew; Froehlich, John W; Briscoe, Andrew C; Roy, Roopali; Yang, Jiang; Pontari, Michel A; Zurakowski, David; Lee, Richard S; Moses, Marsha A

    2017-07-01

    To examine a series of candidate markers for urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS), selected based on their proposed involvement in underlying biological processes so as to provide new insights into pathophysiology and suggest targets for expanded clinical and mechanistic studies. Baseline urine samples from Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network study participants with UCPPS (n = 259), positive controls (PCs; chronic pain without pelvic pain, n = 107) and healthy controls (HCs, n = 125) were analysed for the presence of proteins that are suggested in the literature to be associated with UCPPS. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, MMP-9/neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) complex (also known as Lipocalin 2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGF-R1) and NGAL were assayed and quantitated using mono-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for each protein. Log-transformed concentration (pg/mL or ng/mL) and concentration normalized to total protein (pg/μg) values were compared among the UCPPS, PC and HC groups within sex using the Student's t-test, with P values adjusted for multiple comparisons. Multivariable logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic curves assessed the utility of the biomarkers in distinguishing participants with UCPPS and control participants. Associations of protein with symptom severity were assessed by linear regression. Significantly higher normalized concentrations (pg/μg) of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and MMP-9 in men and VEGF concentration (pg/mL) in women were associated with UCPPS vs HC. These proteins provided only marginal discrimination between UCPPS participants and HCs. In men with UCCPS, pain severity was significantly positively associated with concentrations of MMP-9 and MMP-9/NGAL complex, and urinary severity was significantly positively associated with MMP-9, MMP-9/NGAL complex and VEGF-R1. In women with UCPPS, pain

  1. Research Priorities to Advance the Health and Health Care of Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisminetzky, Mayra; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Magaziner, Jay S; Allore, Heather G; Anzuoni, Kathryn; Boyd, Cynthia M; Gill, Thomas M; Go, Alan S; Greenspan, Susan L; Hanson, Leah R; Hornbrook, Mark C; Kitzman, Dalane W; Larson, Eric B; Naylor, Mary D; Shirley, Benjamin E; Tai-Seale, Ming; Teri, Linda; Tinetti, Mary E; Whitson, Heather E; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2017-07-01

    To prioritize research topics relevant to the care of the growing population of older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). Survey of experts in MCC practice, research, and policy. Topics were derived from white papers, funding announcements, or funded research projects relating to older adults with MCCs. Survey conducted through the Health Care Systems Research Network (HCSRN) and Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAICs) Advancing Geriatrics Infrastructure and Network Growth Initiative, a joint endeavor of the HCSRN and OAICs. Individuals affiliated with the HCSRN or OAICs and national MCC experts, including individuals affiliated with funding agencies having MCC-related grant portfolios. A "top box" methodology was used, counting the number of respondents selecting the top response on a 5-point Likert scale and dividing by the total number of responses to calculate a top box percentage for each of 37 topics. The highest-ranked research topics relevant to the health and healthcare of older adults with MCCs were health-related quality of life in older adults with MCCs; development of assessment tools (to assess, e.g., symptom burden, quality of life, function); interactions between medications, disease processes, and health outcomes; disability; implementation of novel (and scalable) models of care; association between clusters of chronic conditions and clinical, financial, and social outcomes; role of caregivers; symptom burden; shared decision-making to enhance care planning; and tools to improve clinical decision-making. Study findings serve to inform the development of a comprehensive research agenda to address the challenges relating to the care of this "high-need, high-cost" population and the healthcare delivery systems responsible for serving it. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for industry from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and training (VET) and…

  3. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Qualification & Approval Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary pulls together the relevant key findings for qualification and approval bodies from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education…

  4. Clinical Criteria Versus a Possible Research Case Definition in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A; McManimen, Stephanie; Sunnquist, Madison; Newton, Julia L; Strand, Elin Bolle

    2017-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently developed clinical criteria for what had been known as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Given the broad nature of the clinical IOM criteria, there is a need for a research definition that would select a more homogenous and impaired group of patients than the IOM clinical criteria. At the present time, it is unclear what will serve as the research definition. The current study focused on a research definition which selected homebound individuals who met the four IOM criteria, excluding medical and psychiatric co-morbidities. Our research criteria were compared to those participants meeting the IOM criteria. Those not meeting either of these criteria sets were placed in a separate group defined by 6 or more months of fatigue. Data analyzed were from the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire and the SF-36. Due to unequal sample sizes and variances, Welch's F tests and Games-Howell post hoc tests were conducted. Using a large database of over 1,000 patients from several countries, we found that those meeting a more restrictive research definition were even more impaired and more symptomatic than those meeting criteria for the other two groups. Deciding on a particular research case definition would allow researchers to select more comparable patient samples across settings, and this would represent one of the most significant methodologic advances for this field of study.

  5. Multisite, multimodal neuroimaging of chronic urological pelvic pain: Methodology of the MAPP Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffry R. Alger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network is an ongoing multi-center collaborative research group established to conduct integrated studies in participants with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS. The goal of these investigations is to provide new insights into the etiology, natural history, clinical, demographic and behavioral characteristics, search for new and evaluate candidate biomarkers, systematically test for contributions of infectious agents to symptoms, and conduct animal studies to understand underlying mechanisms for UCPPS. Study participants were enrolled in a one-year observational study and evaluated through a multisite, collaborative neuroimaging study to evaluate the association between UCPPS and brain structure and function. 3D T1-weighted structural images, resting-state fMRI, and high angular resolution diffusion MRI were acquired in five participating MAPP Network sites using 8 separate MRI hardware and software configurations. We describe the neuroimaging methods and procedures used to scan participants, the challenges encountered in obtaining data from multiple sites with different equipment/software, and our efforts to minimize site-to-site variation.

  6. Chronic Pancreatitis in the 21st Century - Research Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uc, Aliye; Andersen, Dana K.; Bellin, Melena D.; Bruce, Jason I.; Drewes, Asbjørn M.; Engelhardt, John F.; Forsmark, Christopher E.; Lerch, Markus M.; Lowe, Mark E.; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A.; O’Keefe, Stephen J.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Pasricha, Pankaj; Saluja, Ashok K.; Singh, Vikesh K.; Szigethy, Eva M.; Whitcomb, David C.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Conwell, Darwin L.

    2016-01-01

    A workshop was sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) to focus on research gaps and opportunities in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and its sequelae. This conference marked the 20th year anniversary of the discovery of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene mutation for hereditary pancreatitis. The event was held on July 27, 2016, and structured into 4 sessions: (1) pathophysiology; (2) exocrine complications; (3) endocrine complications; and (4) pain. The current state of knowledge was reviewed; many knowledge gaps and research needs were identified that require further investigation. Common themes included the need to design better tools to diagnose CP and its sequelae early and reliably, identify predisposing risk factors for disease progression, develop standardized protocols to distinguish type 3c diabetes mellitus from other types of diabetes and design effective therapeutic strategies through novel cell culture technologies, animal models mimicking human disease, and pain management tools. Gene therapy and cystic fibrosis conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators as possible treatments for CP were discussed. Importantly, the need for chronic pancreatitis endpoints and intermediate targets for future drug trials was emphasized. PMID:27748719

  7. Educational Reform and Educational Research: New Challenges in Linking Research, Information and Decision Making. Final Report of the International Meeting (Tokyo, Japan, September 4-14, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This document summarizes proceedings of a meeting held in September 1995. The purpose of the meeting was to gather educators and policymakers in order to establish criteria concerning links between educational research and decision making. Twenty participants from the following countries attended: Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Botswana, Brazil,…

  8. Making Connections: Linking Cognitive Psychology and Intervention Research to Improve Comprehension of Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Espin, Christine A.; van den Broek, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of reading comprehension interventions for struggling readers, including students with learning disabilities. Yet, some readers continue to struggle with comprehension despite receiving these interventions. In this article, we argue that an explicit link between cognitive psychology and intervention…

  9. Establishing and sustaining research partnerships in Africa: a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Graft Aikins Ama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in establishing and sustaining north–south research partnerships in Africa through a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease. Established in 2006 with seed funding from the British Academy, the partnership aimed to bring together multidisciplinary chronic disease researchers based in the UK and Africa to collaborate on research, inform policymaking, train and support postgraduates and create a platform for research dissemination. We review the partnership’s achievements and challenges, applying established criteria for developing successful partnerships. During the funded period we achieved major success in creating a platform for research dissemination through international meetings and publications. Other goals, such as engaging in collaborative research and training postgraduates, were not as successfully realised. Enabling factors included trust and respect between core working group members, a shared commitment to achieving partnership goals, and the collective ability to develop creative strategies to overcome funding challenges. Barriers included limited funding, administrative support, and framework for monitoring and evaluating some goals. Chronic disease research partnerships in low-income regions operate within health research, practice, funding and policy environments that prioritise infectious diseases and other pressing public health and developmental challenges. Their long-term sustainability will therefore depend on integrated funding systems that provide a crucial capacity building bridge. Beyond the specific challenges of chronic disease research, we identify social capital, measurable goals, administrative support, creativity and innovation and funding as five key ingredients that are essential for sustaining research partnerships.

  10. Establishing and sustaining research partnerships in Africa: a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in establishing and sustaining north–south research partnerships in Africa through a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease. Established in 2006 with seed funding from the British Academy, the partnership aimed to bring together multidisciplinary chronic disease researchers based in the UK and Africa to collaborate on research, inform policymaking, train and support postgraduates and create a platform for research dissemination. We review the partnership’s achievements and challenges, applying established criteria for developing successful partnerships. During the funded period we achieved major success in creating a platform for research dissemination through international meetings and publications. Other goals, such as engaging in collaborative research and training postgraduates, were not as successfully realised. Enabling factors included trust and respect between core working group members, a shared commitment to achieving partnership goals, and the collective ability to develop creative strategies to overcome funding challenges. Barriers included limited funding, administrative support, and framework for monitoring and evaluating some goals. Chronic disease research partnerships in low-income regions operate within health research, practice, funding and policy environments that prioritise infectious diseases and other pressing public health and developmental challenges. Their long-term sustainability will therefore depend on integrated funding systems that provide a crucial capacity building bridge. Beyond the specific challenges of chronic disease research, we identify social capital, measurable goals, administrative support, creativity and innovation and funding as five key ingredients that are essential for sustaining research partnerships. PMID:22897937

  11. Elastic dynamic research of high speed multi-link precision press considering structural stiffness of rotation joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Feng Feng; Sun, Yu; Peng, Bin Bin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2016-10-15

    An elastic dynamic model of high-speed multi-link precision press considering structural stiffness of rotation joints was established by the finite element method. In the finite element model, rotation joint was established by four bar elements with equivalent stiffness, and connected link was established by beam element. Then, the elastic dynamics equation of the system was established, and modal superposition method was used to solve the dynamic response. Compared with the traditional elastic dynamic model with perfect constraint of the rotation joints, the elastic dynamic response value of the improved model is larger. To validate the presented new method of elastic dynamics analysis with stiffness of rotation joints, a related test of slider Bottom dead center (BDC) position in different speed was designed. The test shows that the model with stiffness of rotation joints is more reasonable. So it provides a reasonable theory and method for dynamic characteristics research of such a multi-link machine.

  12. How Elsevier is supporting the value and usefulness of data with Cross-linking and Research Data Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Bethan; Koers, Hylke; Marques, David

    2013-04-01

    Research in the Earth & Planetary Sciences is characterized by a wealth of observational data - ranging from observations by satellites orbiting the Earth, to borehole measurements at the bottom of the ocean, and also includes data from projects like the Rover Curiosity Landing. Thanks to technological advancements, it has become much easier for researchers over the last few decades to gather large volumes of data, analyze, and share with other researchers inside and outside the lab. With data serving such an important role in the way research is carried out, it becomes a crucial task to archive, maintain, organize, and disseminate research data in a dependable and structured manner. Subject-specific data repositories, often driven by the scientific community, are taking an increasingly prominent role in this domain, getting traction amongst researchers as the go-to place to deposit raw research data. At the same time, the scientific article remains an essential resource of scientific information. At Elsevier, we strive to continuously adapt the article format to meet the needs of modern-day researchers. This includes better support for digital content (see, e.g., http://www.elsevier.com/googlemaps), but also bidirectional linking between online articles and data repositories. In this spirit, Elsevier is collaborating with several leading data repositories, such as PANGAEA, IEDA, and NERC, to interlink articles and data for improved visibility and discoverability of both primary research data and research articles. In addition, Elsevier has formed a new group, Research Data Services, with three primary goals: • help increase the sharing and archiving of research data in discipline-specific repositories • help increase the value of shared data, particularly with annotation and provenance metadata and linking discipline-specific datasets together • help create a credit and impact assessment infrastructure to make research data independently important in its own

  13. Improving Care And Research Electronic Data Trust Antwerp (iCAREdata): a research database of linked data on out-of-hours primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliers, Annelies; Bartholomeeusen, Stefaan; Remmen, Roy; Coenen, Samuel; Michiels, Barbara; Bastiaens, Hilde; Van Royen, Paul; Verhoeven, Veronique; Holmgren, Philip; De Ruyck, Bernard; Philips, Hilde

    2016-05-04

    Primary out-of-hours care is developing throughout Europe. High-quality databases with linked data from primary health services can help to improve research and future health services. In 2014, a central clinical research database infrastructure was established (iCAREdata: Improving Care And Research Electronic Data Trust Antwerp, www.icaredata.eu ) for primary and interdisciplinary health care at the University of Antwerp, linking data from General Practice Cooperatives, Emergency Departments and Pharmacies during out-of-hours care. Medical data are pseudonymised using the services of a Trusted Third Party, which encodes private information about patients and physicians before data is sent to iCAREdata. iCAREdata provides many new research opportunities in the fields of clinical epidemiology, health care management and quality of care. A key aspect will be to ensure the quality of data registration by all health care providers. This article describes the establishment of a research database and the possibilities of linking data from different primary out-of-hours care providers, with the potential to help to improve research and the quality of health care services.

  14. Evaluation of cytotoxic effects and acute and chronic toxicity of aqueous extract of the seeds of Calycotome villosa (Poiret) Link (subsp. intermedia) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoussi, Badiaa; Cherkaoui Tangi, Khadija; Morel, Nicole; Haddad, Mohamed; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle

    2018-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the safety of an aqueous extract of the seeds of Calycotome villosa (Poiret) Link (subsp. intermedia) by determining its cytotoxicity and potential toxicity after acute and sub-chronic administration in rodents. Cytotoxic activity was tested in cancer and non-cancer cell lines HeLa, Mel-5, HL-60 and 3T3. Acute toxicity tests were carried out in mice by a single oral administration of Calycotome seed-extract (0 - 12 g/kg) as well as intraperitoneal doses of 0 - 5 g/kg. Sub-chronic studies were conducted in Wistar rats by administration of oral daily doses for up to 90 days. Changes in body and vital organ weights, mortality, haematology, clinical biochemistry and histologic morphology were evaluated. The lyophilized aqueous extract of C. villosa exhibited a low cytotoxicity in all cell lines tested with an IC 50 > 100 µg/ml. In the acute study in mice, intra-peritoneal administration caused dose-dependent adverse effects and mortality with an LD 50 of 4.06 ± 0.01 g/kg. In the chronic tests, neither mortality nor visible signs of lethality was seen in rats. Even AST and ALT were not affected while a significant decrease in serum glucose levels, at 300 and 600 mg/kg was detected. Histopathological examination of the kidney and liver did not show any alteration or inflammation at the end of treatment. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of C. villosa seed appeared to be non-toxic and did not produce mortality or clinically significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters in rats.

  15. Evaluation of a therapy for Idiopathic Chronic Enterocolitis in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta and linked microbial community correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Taylor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE. All treated animals showed a significant and long-lasting improvement in stool consistency over time when compared to untreated and healthy controls. Microbiome analysis revealed trends associating bacterial community composition with ICE, particularly lineages of the Lactobacillaceae family. Sequencing of DNA from macaque food biscuits revealed that fungal sequences recovered from stool were dominated by yeast-derived food additives; in contrast, bacteria in stool appeared to be authentic gut residents. In conclusion, while validation in larger cohorts is needed, the treatment described here was associated with significantly improved clinical signs; results suggested possible correlates of microbiome structure with disease, though no strong associations were detected between single microbes and ICE.

  16. Forging a Link between Research and Pedagogy: A Holistic Framework for Evaluating Business English Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Clarice S. C.

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, a great deal of applied linguistics research has been conducted in different areas of business English. However, despite many highly relevant research findings, the interface between research and pedagogy remains weak. One reason behind this lack of interface is that research findings from different studies are rarely…

  17. Management of Chronic Daily Headache and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities by Lifestyle Modification: Participatory Action Research Combining New Communication Media

    OpenAIRE

    Faizi, Fakhrudin; Tavallaee, Abbas; Rahimi, Abolfazl; Saghafinia, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Background Lifestyle modification has a significant role in chronic daily headache (CDH) management. Participatory action research (PAR) can play an important role in managing chronic medical conditions. However, it has been scarcely used in CDH management. Objectives This study aimed to empower patients with CDH to modify their lifestyle in order to reduce both their headache and related psychiatric co-morbidities in a multidisciplinary headache clinic at Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, IR Ir...

  18. Intestinal congestion and right ventricular dysfunction: a link with appetite loss, inflammation, and cachexia in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Miroslava; von Haehling, Stephan; Bauditz, Juergen; Doehner, Wolfram; Ebner, Nicole; Bekfani, Tarek; Elsner, Sebastian; Sliziuk, Veronika; Scherbakov, Nadja; Murín, Ján; Anker, Stefan D; Sandek, Anja

    2016-06-01

    Mechanisms leading to cachexia in heart failure (HF) are not fully understood. We evaluated signs of intestinal congestion in patients with chronic HF and their relationship with cachexia. Of the 165 prospectively enrolled outpatients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, 29 (18%) were cachectic. Among echocardiographic parameters, the combination of right ventricular dysfunction and elevated right atrial pressure (RAP) provided the best discrimination between cachectic and non-cachectic patients [area under the curve 0.892, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.832-0.936]. Cachectic patients, compared with non-cachectic, had higher prevalence of postprandial fullness, appetite loss, and abdominal discomfort. Abdominal ultrasound showed a larger bowel wall thickness (BWT) in the entire colon and terminal ileum in cachectic than in non-cachectic patients. Bowel wall thickness correlated positively with gastrointestinal symptoms, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, RAP, and truncal fat-free mass, the latter serving as a marker of the fluid content. Logistic regression analysis showed that BWT was associated with cachexia, even after adjusting for cardiac function, inflammation, and stages of HF (odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8; P-value = 0.03). Among the cardiac parameters, only RAP remained significantly associated with cachexia after multivariable adjustment. Cardiac cachexia was associated with intestinal congestion irrespective of HF stage and cardiac function. Gastrointestinal discomfort, appetite loss, and pro-inflammatory activation provide probable mechanisms, by which intestinal congestion may trigger cardiac cachexia. However, our results are preliminary and larger studies are needed to clarify the intrinsic nature of this relationship. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. In-home air pollution is linked to respiratory morbidity in former smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Nadia N; McCormack, Meredith C; Belli, Andrew J; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Peng, Roger D; Aloe, Charles; Paulin, Laura; Williams, D'Ann L; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N

    2013-05-15

    The effect of indoor air pollutants on respiratory morbidity among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in developed countries is uncertain. The first longitudinal study to investigate the independent effects of indoor particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentrations on COPD morbidity in a periurban community. Former smokers with COPD were recruited and indoor air was monitored over a 1-week period in the participant's bedroom and main living area at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. At each visit, participants completed spirometry and questionnaires assessing respiratory symptoms. Exacerbations were assessed by questionnaires administered at clinic visits and monthly telephone calls. Participants (n = 84) had moderate or severe COPD with a mean FEV1 of 48.6% predicted. The mean (± SD) indoor PM(2.5) and NO(2) concentrations were 11.4 ± 13.3 µg/m(3) and 10.8 ± 10.6 ppb in the bedroom, and 12.2 ± 12.2 µg/m(3) and 12.2 ± 11.8 ppb in the main living area. Increases in PM(2.5) concentrations in the main living area were associated with increases in respiratory symptoms, rescue medication use, and risk of severe COPD exacerbations. Increases in NO(2) concentrations in the main living area were independently associated with worse dyspnea. Increases in bedroom NO(2) concentrations were associated with increases in nocturnal symptoms and risk of severe COPD exacerbations. Indoor pollutant exposure, including PM(2.5) and NO(2), was associated with increased respiratory symptoms and risk of COPD exacerbation. Future investigations should include intervention studies that optimize indoor air quality as a novel therapeutic approach to improving COPD health outcomes.

  20. The Link between Distributed Leadership and Educational Outcomes: An Overview of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eliophotou Menon

    2013-01-01

    School leadership is commonly considered to have a significant influence on school effectiveness and improvement. Effective school leaders are expected to successfully introduce and support change and innovation at the school unit. Despite an abundance of studies on educational leadership, very few studies have provided evidence on the link between leadership models, and specific educational and school outcomes. This is true of a popular contemporary approach to leadershi...

  1. Low Prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease among Workers at a Nuclear Weapons Research and Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomandi, M; Seward, J P; Gotway, M B; Nishimura, S; Fulton, G P; Thundiyil, J; King, T E; Harber, P; Balmes, J R

    2010-01-11

    To study the prevalence of beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in a cohort of workers from a nuclear weapons research and development facility. We evaluated 50 workers with BeS with medical and occupational histories, physical examination, chest imaging with HRCT (N=49), and pulmonary function testing. Forty of these workers also underwent bronchoscopy for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies. The mean duration of employment at the facility was 18 yrs and the mean latency (from first possible exposure) to time of evaluation was 32 yrs. Five of the workers had CBD at the time of evaluation (based on histology or HRCT); three others had evidence of probable CBD. These workers with BeS, characterized by a long duration of potential Be exposure and a long latency, had a low prevalence of CBD.

  2. Linking research and education: an undergraduate research apprenticeship focusing on geologic and ecological impacts of the Elwha River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A. S.; Eidam, E.; Webster, K. L.; Hale, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    Experiential learning is becoming well-rooted in undergraduate curriculum as a means of stimulating interest in STEM fields, and of preparing students for future careers in scientific research and communication. To further these goals in coastal sciences, an intensive, research-focused course was developed at the UW Friday Harbor Labs. The course revolved around an active NSF-funded research project concerning the highly publicized Elwha River Restoration project. Between 2008 and 2014, four groups of research "apprentices" spent their academic quarter in residence at a small, coastal marine lab in a learning environment that integrated interdisciplinary lectures, workshops on data analysis and laboratory methods, and the research process from proposal to oceanographic research cruise to publication. This environment helped students gain important skills in fieldwork planning and execution, laboratory and digital data analyses, and manuscript preparation from start to finish—all while elevating their knowledge of integrated earth science topics related to a coastal restoration project. Students developed their own research proposals and pursued their individual interests within the overall research topic, thereby expanding the overall breadth of the NSF-funded research program. The topics of student interest were often beyond the researcher's expertise, which ultimately led to more interdisciplinary findings beyond the quarter-long class. This also provided opportunities for student creativity and leadership, and for collaboration with fellow course participants and with students from many other disciplines in residence at the marine lab. Tracking the outcomes of the diverse student group undertaking this program indicates that these undergraduate (and post-bac) students are generally attending graduate school at a high rate, and launching careers in education, coastal management, and other STEM fields.

  3. Genetic Variation Linked to Lung Cancer Survival in White Smokers | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR investigators have discovered evidence that links lung cancer survival with genetic variations (called single nucleotide polymorphisms) in the MBL2 gene, a key player in innate immunity. The variations in the gene, which codes for a protein called the mannose-binding lectin, occur in its promoter region, where the RNA polymerase molecule binds to start transcription, and in the first exon that is responsible for the correct structure of MBL. The findings appear in the September 19, 2007, issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  4. Linking a research register to clinical records in older adults' mental health services:a mixed-methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Robotham, Dan; Evans, Joanne; Watson, Andrew; Perdue, Iain; Craig, Thomas; Rose, Diana; Wykes, Til

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients can provide consent to have their clinical records linked to a research register, a process known as consent for contact (C4C). There is evidence about how to engage people with mental illness in C4C, but nothing specific to older adults. This is a priority area for research (for example, dementia trials), although sign-up rates to C4C are lower than for younger populations. Through this study we seek to understand these disparities.METHODS: This was a two-stage cross-s...

  5. Experiences of chronic low back pain: a meta-ethnography of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeela, Padraig; Doyle, Catherine; O'Gorman, David; Ruane, Nancy; McGuire, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is associated with a number of costly disability-related outcomes. It has received increasing attention from qualitative researchers studying its consequences for personal, social, and health care experiences. As research questions and methods diversify, there is a growing need to integrate findings emerging from these studies. A meta-ethnography was carried out to synthesise the findings of 38 separate qualitative articles published on the subjective experience of CLBP between 1994 and 2011. Studies were identified following a literature search and quality appraisal. Four themes were proposed after a process of translating the meaning of text extracts from the findings sections across all the articles. The themes referred to the undermining influence of pain, its disempowering impact on all levels, unsatisfying relationships with health care professionals, and learning to live with the pain. The findings are dominated by wide-ranging distress and loss but also acknowledge self-determination and resilience. Implications of the meta-ethnography for clinicians and future qualitative research are outlined, including the need to study relatively unexamined facets of subjective experience such as illness trajectory and social identity.

  6. Advancing research collaborations among agencies through the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee: A necessary step for linking science to policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaValley, M.; Starkweather, S.; Bowden, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is changing rapidly as average temperatures rise. As an Arctic nation, the United States is directly affected by these changes. It is imperative that these changes be understood to make effective policy decisions. Since the research needs of the Arctic are large and wide-ranging, most Federal agencies fund some aspect of Arctic research. As a result, the U.S. government regularly works to coordinate Federal Arctic research in order to reduce duplication of effort and costs, and to enhance the research's system perspective. The government's Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) accomplishes this coordination through its policy-driven five-year Arctic Research Plans and collaboration teams (CTs), which are research topic-oriented teams tasked with implementing the plans. The policies put forth by IARPC thus inform science, however IARPC has been less successful of making these science outcomes part of an iterative decision making process. IARPC's mandate to facilitate coordinated research through information sharing communities can be viewed a prerequisite step in the science-to- decision making process. Research collaborations and the communities of practice facilitated by IARPC allow scientists to connect with a wider community of scientists and stakeholders and, in turn, the larger issues in need of policy solutions. These connections help to create a pathway through which research may increasingly reflect policy goals and inform decisions. IARPC has been growing into a more useful model for the science-to-decision making interface since the publication of its Arctic Research Plan FY2017-2021, and it is useful to evaluate how and why IARPC is progressing in this realm. To understand the challenges facing interagency research collaboration and the progress IARPC has made, the Chukchi Beaufort and Communities CTs, were evaluated as case studies. From the case studies, several recommendations for enhancing collaborations across Federal

  7. Linking collaborative R&D strategies with the research and innovation performance of SMEs in peripheral regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Alecke, Björn; Reinkowski, Janina

    2015-01-01

    We examine the empirical link between collaborative R&D strategies and the research and innovation performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises in peripheral locations. Using a survey of German firms combined with time series information on patent applications obtained from the European...... Patent Office, we apply a comparison-group approach and estimate different “treatment effect” models to assess the notion of causality underlying this relationship. Besides accounting for observed and unobserved firm-specific heterogeneity, we thereby also control for the likely endogeneity of R......&D collaboration as a strategic choice in the course of research and innovation activities. Our results for the period 2001–2007 indicate that engaging in R&D collaboration vis-á-vis a non-collaborative research strategy is related to higher outcome levels for a firm’s key research and innovation indicators...

  8. Stance and Engagement in Pure Mathematics Research Articles: Linking Discourse Features to Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lisa; Kuteeva, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Recent ESP research into academic writing has shown how writers convey their stance and interact with readers across different disciplines. However, little research has been carried out into the disciplinary writing practices of the pure mathematics academic community from an ESP genre analysis perspective. This study begins to address this gap by…

  9. Linking Research and Practice: Effective Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jihyun

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a pivotal role in the ESL classroom. Whereas a considerable amount of research has examined effective ESL vocabulary teaching and learning, missing are studies that provide examples of how to put various research findings into practice: that is, apply them to real texts including target vocabulary items. In order to close the gap…

  10. Linking Theory and Practice: Teacher Research in History and Geography Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Buijs, Maartje; Claessens, Wout; Honing, Terence; Karkdijk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The impact of scholarly research in education on the educational practice in secondary school is low. Academics examine problems that teachers in school perceive as irrelevant, want to publish in peer-reviewed journals instead of disseminate their work, and aim at generalizing insights rather than improving school practice. Teacher research might…

  11. Linking Teacher Evaluation to Professional Development: Focusing on Improving Teaching and Learning. Research & Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Laura; Biggers, Kietha; Croft, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recently, teacher evaluation has become a major focus in educational policy debates and research efforts. This increased attention to teacher evaluation has raised questions about the relationship between evaluation and student outcomes. Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain (2005) and others have demonstrated with value-added research that there are…

  12. Parents of children with chronic health problems: programs of nursing research and their relationship to developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Margaret Shandor

    2003-01-01

    This review identified nurse researchers and research teams that have current programs of research focused on parents and parenting of children with chronic health problems. Researchers were included if they had at least five publications since 1990, with at least three of these articles first-authored. These programs of research were critiqued from a developmental science perspective. Multiple methods were used for the search, including examination of previous review articles, hand search of journals, online computer searches, and review of the curriculum vitae of authors. Seven programs of research were identified. Two programs of research focused on childhood cancer--Ida M. Martinson et al. and Marsha H. Cohen. Three programs of research used a noncategorical approach encompassing a variety of childhood chronic conditions--Katherine A. Knafl and Janet A. Deatrick, Sharon O. Burke, and Ann Garwick. One program focused primarily on parents of children with Down syndrome and disabilities--Marsha Van Riper--and another on parents of infants with a variety of chronic health problems--Margaret S. Miles and Diane Holditch-Davis. Diverse theories and conceptual frameworks were used, and most had some focus on ecological systems that might affect parents and parenting. Many used a family perspective and included fathers. Still broader aspects of the family and community ecology and the health care were not generally included. Few examined the bidirectionality of the relationship between the child and aspects of the child's illness and parental responses. There was variability in the extent to which ethnicity and socioeconomic status were considered. Studies provide important insight into the responses of parents and their parenting of children with chronic health problems. The studies provide a sound base for continuing to build a developmentally sensitive body of knowledge related to parents and parenting of the child with chronic health problems.

  13. Linking Research, Education and Public Engagement in Geoscience: Leadership and Strategic Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, K.

    2017-12-01

    A changing climate has impacted Alaska communities at unprecedented rates, and the need for efficient and effective climate change learning in the Boreal and Arctic regions is urgent. Learning programs that can both increase personal understanding and connection to climate change science and also inform large scale scientific research about climate change are an attractive option for building community adaptive capacity at multiple scales. Citizen science has emerged as a powerful tool for facilitating learning across scales, and for building partnerships across natural sciences research, education, and outreach disciplines. As an early career scientist and interdisciplinary researcher, citizen science has become the centerpiece of my work and has provided some of the most rewarding moments of my career. I will discuss my early career journey building a research and leadership portfolio integrating climate change research, learning research, and public outreach through citizen science. I will share key experiences from graduate student to early career PI that cultivated my leadership skills and ability to build partnerships necessary to create citizen science programs that emphasize synergy between climate change research and education.

  14. Linking the Intercultural and Grounded Theory: Methodological Issues in Migration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sheridan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Connecting intercultural research with Grounded Theory was advocated in the early history of intercultural theorising and includes the development of researchers' intercultural competencies. Such competency comes to the fore where intercultural theory places an equal emphasis on home and host cultures in migration research. In this context we have found a Grounded Theory approach particularly suitable for disentangling complex interlinkings within migration experiences and their individual outcomes. Grounded Theory allows for the exploration of various theories in different fields and the emergence of new or deeper interpretations of intercultural experiences, including where research has not engaged deeply with or avoided intercultural contexts. The use of software, based on Grounded Theory, provides the resource for systematically exploring the inter-related nature of data. In addition, engaging in intercultural research, in particular, raises questions around our practice as social science researchers: adherence to ethics guidelines, for instance, can be in some conflict with the relations we build with members of communities whose cultural values, for instance around friendship or trust, impact on the norms of both our own and institutional expectations. This leads to reflection on the relationship with research participants in terms of our own intercultural experiences and position. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901363

  15. Partnership research on nutrition transition and chronic diseases in West Africa - trends, outcomes and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Hélène; Agueh, Victoire; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2011-11-08

    Nutrition-related chronic diseases (NRCD) are rising quickly in developing countries, and the nutrition transition is a major contributor. Low-income countries have not been spared. Health issues related to nutritional deficiencies also persist, creating a double burden of malnutrition (DBM). There is still a major shortage of data on NRCD and DBM in Sub-Saharan Africa. A research program has been designed and conducted in partnership with West African institutions since 2003 to determine how the nutrition transition relates to NRCD and the DBM in order to support prevention efforts. In Benin, cross-sectional studies among apparently healthy adults (n=540) from urban, semi-urban and rural areas have examined cardiometabolic risk (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance) in relation to diet and lifestyle, also factoring in socio-economic status (SES). Those studies were followed by a longitudinal study on how risk evolves, opening the way for mutual aid groups to develop a prevention strategy within an action research framework. In Burkina Faso, a cross-sectional study on the nutritional status and dietary patterns of urban school-age children (n=650) represented the initial stages of an action research project to prevent DBM in schools. A cross-sectional study among adults (n=330) from the capital of Burkina Faso explored the coexistence, within these individuals, of cardiometabolic risk factors and nutritional deficiencies (anemia, vitamin A deficiency, chronic energy deficiency), as they relate to diet, lifestyle and SES. The studies have shown that the prevalence of NRCD is high among the poor, thereby exacerbating social inequalities. The hypothesis of a positive socio-economic (and rural-urban) gradient was confirmed only for obesity, whereas the prevalence of hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia did not prove to be higher among affluent city dwellers. Women were particularly affected by abdominal obesity, at 48% compared to 6% of

  16. Partnership research on nutrition transition and chronic diseases in West Africa – trends, outcomes and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayomi Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition-related chronic diseases (NRCD are rising quickly in developing countries, and the nutrition transition is a major contributor. Low-income countries have not been spared. Health issues related to nutritional deficiencies also persist, creating a double burden of malnutrition (DBM. There is still a major shortage of data on NRCD and DBM in Sub-Saharan Africa. A research program has been designed and conducted in partnership with West African institutions since 2003 to determine how the nutrition transition relates to NRCD and the DBM in order to support prevention efforts. Methods In Benin, cross-sectional studies among apparently healthy adults (n=540 from urban, semi-urban and rural areas have examined cardiometabolic risk (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance in relation to diet and lifestyle, also factoring in socio-economic status (SES. Those studies were followed by a longitudinal study on how risk evolves, opening the way for mutual aid groups to develop a prevention strategy within an action research framework. In Burkina Faso, a cross-sectional study on the nutritional status and dietary patterns of urban school-age children (n=650 represented the initial stages of an action research project to prevent DBM in schools. A cross-sectional study among adults (n=330 from the capital of Burkina Faso explored the coexistence, within these individuals, of cardiometabolic risk factors and nutritional deficiencies (anemia, vitamin A deficiency, chronic energy deficiency, as they relate to diet, lifestyle and SES. Results The studies have shown that the prevalence of NRCD is high among the poor, thereby exacerbating social inequalities. The hypothesis of a positive socio-economic (and rural–urban gradient was confirmed only for obesity, whereas the prevalence of hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia did not prove to be higher among affluent city dwellers. Women were particularly

  17. Examination of the Link Between Medication Adherence and Use of Mail-Order Pharmacies in Chronic Disease States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Elena V; McDaniel, Jennifer A; Carroll, Norman V

    2016-11-01

    selecting mail-order pharmacies) depends on how well the statistical controls adjusted for the substantial differences between the mail and retail samples. While the research strongly indicates that consumers who use mail-order pharmacies are more likely to be adherent, more research is needed before it can be conclusively determined that use of mail-order pharmacies causes higher adherence. No outside funding supported this study. Fernandez was partially funded by a Virginia Commonwealth University School of Pharmacy PharmD/PhD Summer Fellowship for work on this project. The authors declare no other potential conflicts of interest. Study concept and design were contributed by Carroll and Fernandez. Fernandez took the lead in data collection, along with Carroll and McDaniel, and data interpretation was performed by Carroll and Fernandez. The manuscript was written and revised by Carroll and Fernandez, with assistance from McDaniel.

  18. Implementation of a virtual link between power system testbeds at Marshall Spaceflight Center and Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv

    1990-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) owns and operates a space station module power management and distribution (SSM-PMAD) testbed. This system, managed by expert systems, is used to analyze and develop power system automation techniques for Space Station Freedom. The Lewis Research Center (LeRC), Cleveland, Ohio, has developed and implemented a space station electrical power system (EPS) testbed. This system and its power management controller are representative of the overall Space Station Freedom power system. A virtual link is being implemented between the testbeds at MSFC and LeRC. This link would enable configuration of SSM-PMAD as a load center for the EPS testbed at LeRC. This connection will add to the versatility of both systems, and provide an environment of enhanced realism for operation of both testbeds.

  19. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I production and trade of agricultural goods; (II foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis, but adaptation to

  20. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-01-01

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  1. A cyber-linked undergraduate research experience in computational biomolecular structure prediction and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Rebecca F; Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Gonzales, Lynda; Dolan, Erin L; Gray, Jeffrey J

    2017-12-01

    Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field, and many computational biology research projects involve distributed teams of scientists. To accomplish their work, these teams must overcome both disciplinary and geographic barriers. Introducing new training paradigms is one way to facilitate research progress in computational biology. Here, we describe a new undergraduate program in biomolecular structure prediction and design in which students conduct research at labs located at geographically-distributed institutions while remaining connected through an online community. This 10-week summer program begins with one week of training on computational biology methods development, transitions to eight weeks of research, and culminates in one week at the Rosetta annual conference. To date, two cohorts of students have participated, tackling research topics including vaccine design, enzyme design, protein-based materials, glycoprotein modeling, crowd-sourced science, RNA processing, hydrogen bond networks, and amyloid formation. Students in the program report outcomes comparable to students who participate in similar in-person programs. These outcomes include the development of a sense of community and increases in their scientific self-efficacy, scientific identity, and science values, all predictors of continuing in a science research career. Furthermore, the program attracted students from diverse backgrounds, which demonstrates the potential of this approach to broaden the participation of young scientists from backgrounds traditionally underrepresented in computational biology.

  2. A cyber-linked undergraduate research experience in computational biomolecular structure prediction and design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca F Alford

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field, and many computational biology research projects involve distributed teams of scientists. To accomplish their work, these teams must overcome both disciplinary and geographic barriers. Introducing new training paradigms is one way to facilitate research progress in computational biology. Here, we describe a new undergraduate program in biomolecular structure prediction and design in which students conduct research at labs located at geographically-distributed institutions while remaining connected through an online community. This 10-week summer program begins with one week of training on computational biology methods development, transitions to eight weeks of research, and culminates in one week at the Rosetta annual conference. To date, two cohorts of students have participated, tackling research topics including vaccine design, enzyme design, protein-based materials, glycoprotein modeling, crowd-sourced science, RNA processing, hydrogen bond networks, and amyloid formation. Students in the program report outcomes comparable to students who participate in similar in-person programs. These outcomes include the development of a sense of community and increases in their scientific self-efficacy, scientific identity, and science values, all predictors of continuing in a science research career. Furthermore, the program attracted students from diverse backgrounds, which demonstrates the potential of this approach to broaden the participation of young scientists from backgrounds traditionally underrepresented in computational biology.

  3. The Community Child Health Network Life Stress Interview: a brief chronic stress measure for community health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner Stapleton, Lynlee R; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Dooley, Larissa N; Guardino, Christine M; Huynh, Jan; Paek, Cynthia; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Schafer, Peter; Woolard, Richard; Lanzi, Robin Gaines

    2016-07-01

    Chronic stress is implicated in many theories as a contributor to a wide range of physical and mental health problems. The current study describes the development of a chronic stress measure that was based on the UCLA Life Stress Interview (LSI) and adapted in collaboration with community partners for use in a large community health study of low-income, ethnically diverse parents of infants in the USA (Community Child Health Network [CCHN]). We describe the instrument, its purpose and adaptations, implementation, and results of a reliability study in a subsample of the larger study cohort. Interviews with 272 mothers were included in the present study. Chronic stress was assessed using the CCHN LSI, an instrument designed for administration by trained community interviewers to assess four domains of chronic stress, each rated by interviewers. Significant correlations ranging from small to moderate in size between chronic stress scores on this measure, other measures of stress, biomarkers of allostatic load, and mental health provide initial evidence of construct and concurrent validity. Reliability data for interviewer ratings are also provided. This relatively brief interview (15 minutes) is available for use and may be a valuable tool for researchers seeking to measure chronic stress reliably and validly in future studies with time constraints.

  4. Morphological state of aorta in the fetuses and newborns suffered from chronic intrauterine hypoxia (experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kaluzhina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system in newborns with chronic hypoxia is affected in 40–70%. Aim. To investigate morphological state of aorta in the fetuses and newborns suffered from chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Methods and results. Aortic wall was investigated with modern morphological methods in 34 laboratory animals in order to identify the morphological features of the fetuses and newborns’ vessel affected by this pathogenic factor. It was established that chronic hypoxia leads to endothelial trophics deterioration, its flattening, dystrophic processes with following cells desquamation, density reduction of smooth muscle cells, thickening of the intima-media. Conclusion. It shows alterative-sclerotic changes in aorta in cases with chronic hypoxia influence.

  5. The Work-family Field: Gaps and Missing Links as Opportunities for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherina Kuschel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a synthesis and a critique of the development of the existing workfamily (WF literature during the last decade in order to highlight gaps and limitations in current research. The study revises 83 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters and conference presentations (2004-2014 related to WF in economics, management and psychology disciplines, and classifies the current research into three broad themes for future research paths: i definitions and theories; ii background and outcomes of wf conflict, balance and enrichment; and iii methodological gaps. Advances have been made this decade on meta-analysis and the understanding of the positive side of WF interface. Future research opportunities in this field will include a deeper understanding of how to effectively cope with WF conflict, how to achieve WF enrichment, the use of different methods (qualitative, longitudinal and experimental studies on samples of new occupations, and how researchers could address methodological problems (causality, endogeneity, simultaneity, effect size, and self-selection bias to better handle the complexity of WF issues.

  6. Linking didactics and research in instructional material: A new structural model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, Stefan Ting

    2009-01-01

    How can research in instructional materials become more relevant for didactics and instruction planning? And how can general didactics reflect questions developed from a media perspective. These are the guiding questions of the article, which assumes a gap between general didactics and research...... and theory of instructional material. General didactics does not sufficiently incorporate a theory of media, and research and theory in instructional material do not recognise general didactics and apply very different conceptions of instruction in their studies – if at all. Through two approaches we argue...... for a new basic structure in didactics in order to bridge the gap when relevant conclusions for pragmatic didactics are in question. The first approach accounts for the place and status of media in the most known structural theories in general didactics. The second approach argues from another angle...

  7. A South African Perspective on Entrepreneurship and Business Creation, and its Links to Research Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comins, N. R.

    Transition from the Industrial to the Information Age is creating a paradigm shift for business, education, and research and development. The entrenched culture of corporate R&D groups in developed countries is increasingly complemented by innovative and nimble small and medium high-tech enterprises, dramatically changing many economies. Entrepreneurial trends amongst research students, able to exploit modern information technology for networking, collaboration and business, are increasing. South Africa has emerged into this global economy without these trends being well established. This paper will describe and contrast developments and detail initiatives such as The Innovation Hub.

  8. Bibliometric performance analysis of publications from Danish researchers linked to FP6 and FP7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Ryan, Thomas Kjeldager

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an analysis29 of the impact of Danish scientific publications that were the result of FP6 or FP7 funding. The purpose is to gain an insight into the scientific impact researchers can achieve when participating in FP6 and FP7. In order to look at impact we have identified cit...... Foundation (DNRF) and the Danish Council for Independent Research (DFF). Finally the analyses also explore the impact at the level of programme themes under FP6 and FP7....

  9. Sodium-Glucose Linked Cotransporter-2 Inhibition Does Not Attenuate Disease Progression in the Rat Remnant Kidney Model of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Zhang

    Full Text Available Pharmacological inhibition of the proximal tubular sodium-glucose linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2 leads to glycosuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic settings. As a consequence of their ability to modulate tubuloglomerular feedback, SGLT2 inhibitors, like agents that block the renin-angiotensin system, reduce intraglomerular pressure and single nephron GFR, potentially affording renoprotection. To examine this further we administered the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, to 5/6 (subtotally nephrectomised rats, a model of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD that like CKD in humans is characterised by single nephron hyperfiltration and intraglomerular hypertension and where angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are demonstrably beneficial. When compared with untreated rats, both sham surgery and 5/6 nephrectomised rats that had received dapagliflozin experienced substantial glycosuria. Nephrectomised rats developed hypertension, heavy proteinuria and declining GFR that was unaffected by the administration of dapagliflozin. Similarly, SGLT2 inhibition did not attenuate the extent of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis or overexpression of the profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor-ß1 mRNA in the kidneys of 5/6 nephrectomised rats. While not precluding beneficial effects in the diabetic setting, these findings indicate that SGLT2 inhibition does not have renoprotective effects in this classical model of progressive non-diabetic CKD.

  10. Using sediment transport and river restoration to link research and education, and promote K-12 female involvement in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, E. M.; Bradley-Eitel, K.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of this CAREER award is to better understand and predict the mechanics of sediment transport, to link research and education through courses and shared field sites, and to increase female interest in STEM fields. To accomplish the education component of this proposal we have focused on the following three activities: 1) a Keystone course on the scientific method, 2) a Women Outside with Science (WOWS) camp and 3) a permanent field site for research and education on river processes. In the Keystone Course, students investigated the impact of roughness addition, in sediment-starved river reaches (e.g. downstream of dams), on the retention of gravel used for spawning. They developed research questions and hypotheses, designed and conducted a set of scaled laboratory flume experiments, analyzed their data and wrote a draft manuscript of their results. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive on the merits of this course, which included hands-on learning of the following: basic sediment transport and fluvial geomorphology, applied statistics, laboratory methods, and scientific writing skills. Students sometimes struggled when flume experiments did not progress as planned, and in the analysis and interpretation of complex data. Some of the students in the course have reanalyzed data, conducted additional experiments and are currently rewriting the manuscript for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. Such a course fundamentally links research and teaching, and provides an introduction to research for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. We have also run one summer WOWS camp, which was a ten day camping and inquiry based research experience for 20 female junior-high and high-school students. The girls studied climate change and water related issues, worked on a restoration project on the Little Salmon River, met with a fish biologist and did fish habitat surveys and studied water quality along the North Fork of the Payette River while on a

  11. The Canadian minimum dataset for chronic low back pain research: a cross-cultural adaptation of the National Institutes of Health Task Force Research Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Anaïs; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Parent, Alexandre J; Noushi, Nioushah; Odenigbo, Chúk; Pagé, Gabrielle; Beaudet, Nicolas; Choinière, Manon; Stone, Laura S; Ware, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    To better standardize clinical and epidemiological studies about the prevalence, risk factors, prognosis, impact and treatment of chronic low back pain, a minimum data set was developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back Pain. The aim of the present study was to develop a culturally adapted questionnaire that could be used for chronic low back pain research among French-speaking populations in Canada. The adaptation of the French Canadian version of the minimum data set was achieved according to guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation of self-reported measures (double forward-backward translation, expert committee, pretest among 35 patients with pain in the low back region). Minor cultural adaptations were also incorporated into the English version by the expert committee (e.g., items about race/ethnicity, education level). This cross-cultural adaptation provides an equivalent French-Canadian version of the minimal data set questionnaire and a culturally adapted English-Canadian version. Modifications made to the original NIH minimum data set were minimized to facilitate comparison between the Canadian and American versions. The present study is a first step toward the use of a culturally adapted instrument for phenotyping French- and English-speaking low back pain patients in Canada. Clinicians and researchers will recognize the importance of this standardized tool and are encouraged to incorporate it into future research studies on chronic low back pain.

  12. Putting Empirical Knowledge to Work: Linking Research and Programming on Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Higginbotham, Brian; Lamke, Leanne

    2004-01-01

    When selecting a marriage education curriculum, educators can turn to programs that have been evaluated for effectiveness; however, few curricula have undergone such study. An alternative approach, consistent with best practices, is to ensure a research base for program content. A translation process model is offered as an initial attempt to…

  13. Classifying Australian PhD Theses: Linking Research and Library Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Peter; Evans, Terry; Pearson, Margot

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on the findings from, and the methods and approach used in the provision of a database of Australian PhD thesis records for the period 1987 to 2006, coded by Research Fields, Courses and Disciplines (RFCD) fields of study. Importantly, the project was not merely the creation of yet another database but something that constitutes…

  14. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun; Jane Mills; Kim Usher

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meanin...

  15. Middle Grades to High School: Mending a Weak Link. Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Sondra; Bottoms, Gene

    This research brief describes a study of the readiness for high school of eighth-graders who participated in the Southern Regional Education Board's (SREB) Middle Grades Assessment in spring 2000. The assessment included testing in reading, math, and science, and surveys of students and teachers. Following the 2000-01 school year, SREB gathered…

  16. Research and development of a low cost expandable grid-linked inverter system: PG2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakin, R.A.

    2000-07-01

    The overall aim of the project was to research and develop an inverter for use in the conversion of solar energy into mains electricity, which is low-cost in volume manufacture and flexible in terms of expendability to meet different power level needs. (author)

  17. New linked data on research investments: scientific workforce, productivity, and public value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Julia; Owen-Smith, Jason; Rosen, Rebecca; Weinberg, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Longitudinal micro-data derived from transaction level information about wage and vendor payments made by federal grants on multiple U.S. campuses are being developed in a partnership involving researchers, university administrators, representatives of federal agencies, and others. This paper describes the UMETRICS data initiative that has been implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation. The resulting data set reflects an emerging conceptual framework for analyzing the process, products, and impact of research. It grows from and engages the work of a diverse and vibrant community. This paper situates the UMETRICS effort in the context of research evaluation and ongoing data infrastructure efforts in order to highlight its novel and valuable features. Refocusing data construction in this field around individuals, networks, and teams offers dramatic possibilities for data linkage, the evaluation of research investments, and the development of rigorous conceptual and empirical models. Two preliminary analyses of the scientific workforce and network approaches to characterizing scientific teams ground a discussion of future directions and a call for increased community engagement.

  18. Study Links Learning Design to Changes in Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors. Lessons from Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Joellen

    2015-01-01

    In this study of 16 teachers in two primary schools in the Netherlands, researchers built on findings from previous studies to demonstrate that a thoughtfully designed professional development program can be "effective and sustainable, if certain conditions are met" (p. 772) in changing teachers' knowledge, beliefs, perceived problems,…

  19. Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the International Ankle Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribble, P.A.; Delahunt, E.; Bleakley, C.M.; Caulfield, B.; Docherty, C.L.; Fong, D.T.; Fourchet, F.; Hertel, J.; Hiller, C.E.; Kaminski, T.W.; McKeon, P.O.; Refshauge, K.M.; Wees, P.J. van der; Vicenzino, W.; Wikstrom, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    While research on chronic ankle instability (CAI) and awareness of its impact on society and health care systems has grown substantially in the last 2 decades, the inconsistency in participant or patient selection criteria across studies presents a potential obstacle to addressing the problem

  20. Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the International Ankle Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribble, P.A.; Delahunt, E.; Bleakley, C.; Caulfield, B.; Docherty, C.; Fourchet, F.; Fong, D.T.; Hertel, J.; Hiller, C.; Kaminski, T.; McKeon, P.; Refshauge, K.; Wees, P.J. van der; Vincenzino, B.; Wikstrom, E.

    2014-01-01

    While research on chronic ankle instability (CAI) and awareness of its impact on society and health care systems has grown substantially in the last 2 decades, the inconsistency in participant/patient selection criteria across studies presents a potential obstacle to addressing the problem properly.

  1. Advancing the Science of Behavioral Self-Management of Chronic Disease: The Arc of a Research Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrante, John P.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes advances in the behavioral self-management of chronic disease from the perspective of a 25-year trajectory of National Institute of Health-funded research in arthritis and cardiopulmonary diseases that has sought to develop a transdisciplinary understanding of how applied behavioral science can be used to improve health…

  2. Establishing and sustaining research partnerships in Africa: a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Arhinful, Daniel K.; Pitchforth, Emma; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Allotey, Pascale; Agyemang, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in establishing and sustaining north-south research partnerships in Africa through a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease. Established in 2006 with seed funding from the British Academy, the partnership aimed to

  3. ZIKV - CDB: A Collaborative Database to Guide Research Linking SncRNAs and ZIKA Virus Disease Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Satler Pylro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In early 2015, a ZIKA Virus (ZIKV infection outbreak was recognized in northeast Brazil, where concerns over its possible links with infant microcephaly have been discussed. Providing a causal link between ZIKV infection and birth defects is still a challenge. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression by translational repression, and play important roles in viral pathogenesis and brain development. The potential for flavivirus-mediated miRNA signalling dysfunction in brain-tissue development provides a compelling hypothesis to test the perceived link between ZIKV and microcephaly.Here, we applied in silico analyses to provide novel insights to understand how Congenital ZIKA Syndrome symptoms may be related to an imbalance in miRNAs function. Moreover, following World Health Organization (WHO recommendations, we have assembled a database to help target investigations of the possible relationship between ZIKV symptoms and miRNA-mediated human gene expression.We have computationally predicted both miRNAs encoded by ZIKV able to target genes in the human genome and cellular (human miRNAs capable of interacting with ZIKV genomes. Our results represent a step forward in the ZIKV studies, providing new insights to support research in this field and identify potential targets for therapy.

  4. Linking research, education and public engagement in geoscience: Leadership and strategic partnerships (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, P.

    2017-12-01

    Addressing the urgent issue of climate change requires mitigation and adaptation actions on individual to global scales, and appropriate action must be based upon geoscience literacy across population sectors. The NSF-funded MADE CLEAR (Maryland and Delaware Climate Change Education, Assessment, and Research) project provides a coordinated approach to embed climate change into education programs at the university level, in formal K12 classrooms, and among informal educators. We have worked with state agencies, university systems, non-profit organizations, and community groups to establish and support research-based education about climate change. In this panel I will describe how MADE CLEAR approached the task of infusing climate change education across sectors in the highly diverse states of Delaware and Maryland. I will share the characteristics of our strongest alliances, an analysis of significant barriers to climate change education, and our perspective on the outlook for the future of climate change education.

  5. Lean and Global Technology Start-ups: Linking the Two Research Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemminger, Roy; Svendsen, Lars Limkilde; Zijdemans, Erik

    2014-01-01

    stream is well established focuses on International New Ventures (INVs) or Born Global (BG) firms (Oviatt & McDougall, 1994; Knight and Cavusgil, 1996); the second one is in the process of emerging and deals with lean start-ups (Ries, 2011; Blank, 2013). It is our intention to show that the problems...... these two groups of firms face during the early stages of their existence are to a large extent identical and could, from a theoretical point of view, be analyzed in a unified way. Integrating the two research perspectives above gives rise to a number of interesting research questions that could...... be summarized as follows: a) How do new technology start-ups narrow down the scope of their business activities by effectuating the global dimensions of their businesses? What are the reasons for such firms to look for global resources, partnerships or markets right from inception? b) What makes it possible...

  6. Obesity-Linked Mouse Models of Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy Stauffer, Ph.D., and colleagues working with Robert  Wiltrout, Ph.D., in CCR’s Cancer and Inflammation Program, along with collaborators in the Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, have developed a novel mouse model that demonstrates how fat-producing phenotypes can influence the development of hepatic cancer.   The team recently reported their findings in Cancer Research.

  7. BIBFRAME and Linked Data practices for the stewardship of research knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Casalini , Michele

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This article considers need for more visible, available, accessible, innovative and shared bibliographic data in the internet age and the subsequent benefits of these transformations for galleries, libraries, archives and museums. Recent and ongoing research and development activities in the following fields are explored: entity identification, reconciliation, data enrichment, MARC records enriched with URIs, conversion to RDF, creation of relationship criteria for the...

  8. What can animal research tell us about the link between androgens and social competition in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Trainor, Brian C; Marler, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The relationship between androgenic hormones, like testosterone (T), and aggression is extensively studied in human populations. Yet, while this work has illuminated a variety of principals regarding the behavioral and phenotypic effects of T, it is also hindered by inherent limitations of performing research on people. In these instances, animal research can be used to gain further insight into the complex mechanisms by which T influences aggression. Here, we explore recent studies on T and aggression in numerous vertebrate species, although we focus primarily on males and on a New World rodent called the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). This species is highly territorial and monogamous, resembling the modern human social disposition. We review (i) how baseline and dynamic T levels predict and/or impact aggressive behavior and disposition; (ii) how factors related to social and physical context influence T and aggression; (iii) the reinforcing or "rewarding" aspects of aggressive behavior; and (iv) the function of T on aggression before and during a combative encounter. Included are areas that may need further research. We argue that animal studies investigating these topics fill in gaps to help paint a more complete picture of how androgenic steroids drive the output of aggressive behavior in all animals, including humans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Quantifying the role of online news in linking conservation research to Facebook and Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papworth, S K; Nghiem, T P L; Chimalakonda, D; Posa, M R C; Wijedasa, L S; Bickford, D; Carrasco, L R

    2015-06-01

    Conservation science needs to engage the general public to ensure successful conservation interventions. Although online technologies such as Twitter and Facebook offer new opportunities to accelerate communication between conservation scientists and the online public, factors influencing the spread of conservation news in online media are not well understood. We explored transmission of conservation research through online news articles with generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information theoretic approach. In particular, we assessed differences in the frequency conservation research is featured on online news sites and the impact of online conservation news content and delivery on Facebook likes and shares and Twitter tweets. Five percent of articles in conservation journals are reported in online news, and the probability of reporting depended on the journal. There was weak evidence that articles on climate change and mammals were more likely to be featured. Online news articles about charismatic mammals with illustrations were more likely to be shared or liked on Facebook and Twitter, but the effect of news sites was much larger. These results suggest journals have the greatest impact on which conservation research is featured and that news site has the greatest impact on how popular an online article will be on Facebook and Twitter. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Linking research to practice: the rise of evidence-based health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joanne Gard

    2014-01-01

    The lecture explores the origins of evidence-based practice (EBP) in health sciences librarianship beginning with examples from the work of Janet Doe and past Doe lecturers. Additional sources of evidence are used to document the rise of research and EBP as integral components of our professional work. FOUR SOURCES OF EVIDENCE ARE USED TO EXAMINE THE RISE OF EBP: (1) a publication by Doe and research-related content in past Doe lectures, (2) research-related word usage in articles in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association between 1961 and 2010, (3) Medical Library Association activities, and (4) EBP as an international movement. These sources of evidence confirm the rise of EBP in health sciences librarianship. International initiatives sparked the rise of evidence-based librarianship and continue to characterize the movement. This review shows the emergence of a unique form of EBP that, although inspired by evidence-based medicine (EBM), has developed its own view of evidence and its application in library and information practice. Health sciences librarians have played a key role in initiating, nurturing, and spreading EBP in other branches of our profession. Our close association with EBM set the stage for developing our own EBP. While we relied on EBM as a model for our early efforts, we can observe the continuing evolution of our own unique approach to using, creating, and applying evidence from a variety of sources to improve the quality of health information services.

  11. 'Biologizing' Psychopathy: Ethical, Legal, and Research Implications at the Interface of Epigenetics and Chronic Antisocial Conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamatea, Armon J

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics, a field that links genetics and environmental influences on the expression of phenotypic traits, offers to increase our understanding of the development and trajectory of disease and psychological disorders beyond that thought of traditional genetic research and behavioural measures. By extension, this new perspective has implications for risk and risk management of antisocial behaviour where there is a biological component, such as psychopathy. Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with repeat displays of antisocial behaviour, and is associated with the disproportionate imposition of harm on communities. Despite advances in our knowledge of psychopathic individuals, the construct remains complex and is hampered by a lack of integration across a range of fundamental domains. The clinical and forensic research on psychopathy is brought into conversation with the emerging field of epigenetics to highlight critical issues of (1) clinical definition and diagnosis, (2) assessment, (3) aetiology of psychopathic phenotypes, and (4) treatment and rehabilitation approaches. Broader ethical and legal questions of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the management of psychopathy beyond the criminal justice arena are also outlined. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Falls in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a call for further research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, M; Eng, JJ; MacIntyre, DL; Road, JD; Reid, WD.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease that results in airflow limitation and respiratory distress. The effects of COPD, however, are not exclusively limited to respiratory function and people with COPD face many non-respiratory manifestations that affect both function and mobility. Deficits in function and mobility have been associated with an increased risk for falling in older adults. The purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical framework to identify risks factors for falls in people with COPD. We have analyzed the literature to identify possible relationships between pathophysiological changes observed in COPD and common risk factors for falls. Well-established fall risk factors in people with COPD include lower limb muscle weakness and impaired activities of daily living. Other intrinsic risk factors such as gait and balance deficits, nutritional depletion, malnutrition, depression, cognitive impairments and medications are possible risk factors that need to be confirmed with more studies. There is no evidence that visual deficits are common in COPD. The role that precipitating factors such as syncope and postural hypotension may have on fall risk is unclear. Exacerbations and dyspnea do not have a precipitating effect on fall risk but they contribute to the progressive physical deterioration that may theoretically increase the risk for falls. While these results suggest that people with COPD might have an increased susceptibility to fall compared to their healthy peers, further research is needed to determine the prevalence of falls and specific risk factors for falls in people living with COPD. PMID:19419852

  13. Using Visual Scene Displays as Communication Support Options for People with Chronic, Severe Aphasia: A Summary of AAC Research and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukelman, David R; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; McKelvey, Miechelle; Weissling, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Research about the effectiveness of communicative supports and advances in photographic technology has prompted changes in the way speech-language pathologists design and implement interventions for people with aphasia. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of photographic images as a basis for developing communication supports for people with chronic aphasia secondary to sudden-onset events due to cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). Topics include the evolution of AAC-based supports as they relate to people with aphasia, the development and key features of visual scene displays (VSDs), and future directions concerning the incorporation of photographs into communication supports for people with chronic and severe aphasia.

  14. Concept Elicitation Within Patient-Powered Research Networks: A Feasibility Study in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrier, Kelly P; Bull, Scott; Fleming, Sarah; Simacek, Kristina; Wicks, Paul; Cella, David; Pierson, Renee

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of using social media-based patient networks to gather qualitative data on patient-reported outcome (PRO) concepts relevant to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Between August and November 2013, US-residing members of the PatientsLikeMe online CLL patient community completed open-ended web-based surveys designed to elicit descriptions of CLL symptoms, impacts, and treatment-related perceptions. Qualitative telephone follow-up interviews were conducted with a subsample of respondents. Survey responses and interview transcripts were coded for qualitative analysis using Atlas.ti. Fifty survey responses were included in the analyses. Participants were age 60.5 ± 6.9 years, 54% female, and 96% white. When surveyed, 20% were receiving current treatment, 16% were in remission, and 64% were treatment-naïve. Among respondents, 369 descriptions of CLL symptoms were coded. Fatigue-related symptoms were expressed most frequently, with 54% reporting "fatigue," "tiredness," or both in their responses. These concepts were followed by night sweats (38%), swollen lymph nodes (32%), and frequent infections (28%). Among impacts of CLL, worry and fear (66% of respondents), depressed feelings (52%), and work limitations (50%) were noted most frequently. Survey results identified constitutional symptoms of CLL included in existing PRO instruments and the literature. Although the findings suggest that qualitative data obtained through social media applications can be potentially useful in supporting concept identification for newly developed PRO instruments, they also indicate that online approaches alone may not be sufficient to achieve efficient and exhaustive concept elicitation. Further research is needed to identify whether the results can support content validity in the same way as established qualitative research methods. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Linking research to practice: the rise of evidence-based health sciences librarianship*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joanne Gard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The lecture explores the origins of evidence-based practice (EBP) in health sciences librarianship beginning with examples from the work of Janet Doe and past Doe lecturers. Additional sources of evidence are used to document the rise of research and EBP as integral components of our professional work. Methods: Four sources of evidence are used to examine the rise of EBP: (1) a publication by Doe and research-related content in past Doe lectures, (2) research-related word usage in articles in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association between 1961 and 2010, (3) Medical Library Association activities, and (4) EBP as an international movement. Results: These sources of evidence confirm the rise of EBP in health sciences librarianship. International initiatives sparked the rise of evidence-based librarianship and continue to characterize the movement. This review shows the emergence of a unique form of EBP that, although inspired by evidence-based medicine (EBM), has developed its own view of evidence and its application in library and information practice. Implications: Health sciences librarians have played a key role in initiating, nurturing, and spreading EBP in other branches of our profession. Our close association with EBM set the stage for developing our own EBP. While we relied on EBM as a model for our early efforts, we can observe the continuing evolution of our own unique approach to using, creating, and applying evidence from a variety of sources to improve the quality of health information services. PMID:24415915

  16. Action research in rehabilitation with chronic stroke recovery: A case report with a focus on neural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Malene; Bundgaard, Tina H; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R; Sørensen, Peter M B; Berro, Hamza M; Larsson, Bodil W

    2016-06-27

    Chronic stroke patients are primarily referred to general rehabilitation, rather than to specific neurorehabilitation. Currently, there are no Danish clinical guidelines for chronic stroke, but recent research in neuroplasticity has contributed to possible rehabilitation interventions for these patients. The purpose of this project is to describe the use of a specialized neuroplastic approach in combination with an already existing training program. The project is designed as an action research project concerning four participants with chronic stroke. Through ten intervention, a neuroplastic focus has been added to their group training program including daily home training. Participants were tested before and after the intervention with MAS, DGI, 6MWT, SSQLS. All four participants improved their functional levels and their quality of life following the intervention. This report indicates that a specific neuroplastic focus in combination with action research has an impact on the participants with chronic stroke. However, there is still no clarity regarding what type of rehabilitation methods can be considered the most efficacious in promoting neuroplasticity. This case report serves as a pilot project for further studies of how to implement neuroplasticity in physical therapy.

  17. Linking Government to Academic Research: Lessons from the American Progressive Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Filip

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore why and how the U.S. government involved academic scholars in the policy-making process during the Progressive Era, with a focus on President Woodrow Wilson‘s formation and use of the Inquiry. It further attempts to draw upon the lessons learned from this case study in history in order to stimulate new thinking with regard to the interest of the governmental decision-makers in exploiting academic potential. The paper rests mainly on the research dedicated to Progressivism and Wilsonianism and it consists of an analysis based on the literature review and the case study of The Inquiry. The conclusions highlight the impact that the intellectual potential from within universities and research centres might have in informing policies, revealing alternative tracks and finally supporting the process as a whole. Thus, the paper aims to offer ―food for thought‖ for further debates, raise the awareness on the issue of benefiting from a stronger and deeper government-academia relationship and nurture the mutual interest for partnership and even possible integration.

  18. International linking of research and development on the model of Laser Centre Hanover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowitzki, Klaus-Dieter; Boedecker, Olaf

    2005-10-01

    Asia is becoming one of the most important regions in the world from the political, economic and scientific point of view. Germany believes that it is becoming increasingly necessary to cooperate with certain Asian countries especially for scientific and technological reasons. Above and beyond exchanges of scientists, the scientific and technological cooperation will be organized to cover projects with specific targets and to find solutions to important problems. International economic development is characterized by a mixture of competition and cooperation within the context of growing globalization. Germany, being one of the world's largest exporting nation, must therefore combine its active role in cooperation with these countries in the fields of education, research and innovation with economic cooperation. The Laser Centre Hanover pursues the goal of establishing and operating a Chinese German center for training and further education in laser technology and setting up a joint platform for long-term German Chinese cooperation in laser technology. An optimized training infrastructure combined with modern production processes support consequently long-term German businesses in China and secures their market-shares. LZH establishes Laser academies for skilled workers and technical decision makers in Shanghai and Changchun together with local universities and German partners. Due to the economic growth, Russia records since more than two years, the economic conditions are improving the cooperation between Germany and Russia step-by-step. The main goal of Russian science-politics is to stabilize an efficient scientific-technical potential with better chances in the global competition. The German-Russian scientific and technological cooperation plays an important role in this context. It has considerably increased in the last years in terms of width and depth and virtually includes all areas of science and technology at present. The region around Moscow is regarded

  19. Schroedinger’s Code: A Preliminary Study on Research Source Code Availability and Link Persistence in Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; Teuben, Peter J.; Ryan, P. Wesley

    2018-05-01

    We examined software usage in a sample set of astrophysics research articles published in 2015 and searched for the source codes for the software mentioned in these research papers. We categorized the software to indicate whether the source code is available for download and whether there are restrictions to accessing it, and if the source code is not available, whether some other form of the software, such as a binary, is. We also extracted hyperlinks from one journal’s 2015 research articles, as links in articles can serve as an acknowledgment of software use and lead to the data used in the research, and tested them to determine which of these URLs are still accessible. For our sample of 715 software instances in the 166 articles we examined, we were able to categorize 418 records as according to whether source code was available and found that 285 unique codes were used, 58% of which offered the source code for download. Of the 2558 hyperlinks extracted from 1669 research articles, at best, 90% of them were available over our testing period.

  20. Linking Environmental Sustainability, Health, and Safety Data in Health Care: A Research Roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Susan B; Forst, Linda

    2017-08-01

    Limited but growing evidence demonstrates that environmental sustainability in the health-care sector can improve worker and patient health and safety. Yet these connections are not appreciated or understood by decision makers in health-care organizations or oversight agencies. Several studies demonstrate improvements in quality of care, staff satisfaction, and work productivity related to environmental improvements in the health-care sector. A pilot study conducted by the authors found that already-collected data could be used to evaluate impacts of environmental sustainability initiatives on worker and patient health and safety, yet few hospitals do so. Future research should include a policy analysis of laws that could drive efforts to integrate these areas, elucidation of organizational models that promote sharing of environmental and health and safety data, and development of tools and methods to enable systematic linkage and evaluation of these data to expand the evidence base and improve the hospital environment.

  1. The EU as a Normative Power and the Research on External Perceptions: the Missing Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    perception offer some findings that are central for the NPE debate. This article’s argument is that the external perceptions literature points to a limited (if still identifiable) perception of the EU as a normative power depending on the geographical area. By comparison, the image of a powerful economic......In research on European foreign policy two important axes of debate have been running relatively independently of each other for more than a decade: the study of the European Union as a normative power (NPE) and the study of external perceptions of the EU. However, the studies of external...... actor is prevalent. The article raises the question of whether the thin and geographically varied character of the perceptions relating to the EU as a normative power justifies the general designation of NPE.Anew agenda focusing on geographical differences and interaction with other sources of power...

  2. Cameco engineered tailings program: linking applied research with industrial processes for improved tailings performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Mine tailings at Cameco's operations are by-products of milling uranium ore having variable concentrations of uranium, metals, oxyanions and trace elements or elements of concern (EOC). Cameco has undertaken an Engineered Tailings (ET) program to optimize tailings performance and minimize environmental EOC impacts, regardless of the milled ore source. Applied geochemical and geotechnical tailings research is key within the ET program. In-situ drilling and experimental programs are used to understand long-term tailings behaviour and help validate source term predictions. Within this, the ET program proactively aids in the development of mill-based processes for production of tailings having improved long-term stability. (author)

  3. Considerations in relation to some research on the possible neural underpinnings linked to visual artworks observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Bartoli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the observations conducted by Freedberg & Gallese (2007 on neural processes implication in organizing the empathetic/aesthetic response, some recent research carried out by neuroscientists and art historians are analyzed, as they demonstrated cortical sensorimotor activation during the observation of abstract artworks (2012, 2013. The role of the “embodied simulation” of artist’s gesture in the empathic perception of artworks is hereby confirmed. These results are commented in light of psychological studies about aesthetic experience, with special regard to those based on a phenomenological methodology. The intention is to further explore possible interactions between neurosciences and phenomenological psychology, in accordance with their respective theoretical and methodological differences.

  4. Multiple literacies: Linking the research on bilingualism and biliteracies to the practical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Therese; Masny, Diana

    2006-11-01

    The present article addresses the fundamental developmental differences between monolingualism and bilingualism, as outlined in the literature. It takes into account research using qualitative and quantitative methodologies and reviews the advantages and possible disadvantages of bilingualism in preschool children. It then moves on to biliteracies in early childhood education. The questions addressed are: Will the early learning of a second language delay a child's language development? What effect does bilingualism have on the development of phonemic awareness, and does that have an impact on reading development? Do bilingual children have an advantage over monolingual children? What happens when a child with language impairment is called upon to develop two languages? What are some challenges regarding the acquisition of biliteracies? The present article concludes with recommendations for physicians who counsel bilingual families regarding early childhood literacy promotion and development.

  5. Infrared Astronomy and Education: Linking Infrared Whole Sky Mapping with Teacher and Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, Bryan; Thaller, Michelle; Gorjian, Varoujan; Borders, Kyla; Pitman, Peter; Pereira, Vincent; Sepulveda, Babs; Stark, Ron; Knisely, Cindy; Dandrea, Amy; Winglee, Robert; Plecki, Marge; Goebel, Jeri; Condit, Matt; Kelly, Susan

    The Spitzer Space Telescope and the recently launched WISE (Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer) observe the sky in infrared light. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars, and the most luminous galaxies. Secondary students can do authentic research using infrared data. For example, students will use WISE data to mea-sure physical properties of asteroids. In order to prepare students and teachers at this level with a high level of rigor and scientific understanding, the WISE and the Spitzer Space Tele-scope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop in infrared astronomy.The lessons learned from the Spitzer and WISE teacher and student pro-grams can be applied to other programs engaging them in authentic research experiences using data from space-borne observatories such as Herschel and Planck. Recently, WISE Educator Ambassadors and NASA Explorer School teachers developed and led an infrared astronomy workshop at Arecibo Observatory in PuertoRico. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance and age of objects in the Universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and the Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. We will outline specific steps for sec-ondary astronomy professional development, detail student involvement in infrared telescope data analysis, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional secondary professional development and student involvement in infrared astronomy. Funding was

  6. Research and realization implementation of monitor technology on illegal external link of classified computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, with the continuous development and application of network technology, network security has gradually entered people's field of vision. The host computer network external network of violations is an important reason for the threat of network security. At present, most of the work units have a certain degree of attention to network security, has taken a lot of means and methods to prevent network security problems such as the physical isolation of the internal network, install the firewall at the exit. However, these measures and methods to improve network security are often not comply with the safety rules of human behavior damage. For example, the host to wireless Internet access and dual-network card to access the Internet, inadvertently formed a two-way network of external networks and computer connections [1]. As a result, it is possible to cause some important documents and confidentiality leak even in the the circumstances of user unaware completely. Secrecy Computer Violation Out-of-band monitoring technology can largely prevent the violation by monitoring the behavior of the offending connection. In this paper, we mainly research and discuss the technology of secret computer monitoring.

  7. Excused and Unexcused--The Value of Labeling an Absence. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 4 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This four part series of research briefs summarized detailed analysis of attendance and chronic absenteeism in Oregon. Brief 1 highlighted the importance of tracking chronic absenteeism rather than average daily attendance. The second brief in this series focused on student outcomes and attendance. Research suggests, and Oregon Department of…

  8. Utility of linking primary care electronic medical records with Canadian census data to study the determinants of chronic disease: an example based on socioeconomic status and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Suzanne; Williamson, Tyler; Leggett, Jannet Ann; Barber, David; Morkem, Rachael; Moore, Kieran; Belanger, Paul; Mosley, Brian; Janssen, Ian

    2016-03-11

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) used in primary care contain a breadth of data that can be used in public health research. Patient data from EMRs could be linked with other data sources, such as a postal code linkage with Census data, to obtain additional information on environmental determinants of health. While promising, successful linkages between primary care EMRs with geographic measures is limited due to ethics review board concerns. This study tested the feasibility of extracting full postal code from primary care EMRs and linking this with area-level measures of the environment to demonstrate how such a linkage could be used to examine the determinants of disease. The association between obesity and area-level deprivation was used as an example to illustrate inequalities of obesity in adults. The analysis included EMRs of 7153 patients aged 20 years and older who visited a single, primary care site in 2011. Extracted patient information included demographics (date of birth, sex, postal code) and weight status (height, weight). Information extraction and management procedures were designed to mitigate the risk of individual re-identification when extracting full postal code from source EMRs. Based on patients' postal codes, area-based deprivation indexes were created using the smallest area unit used in Canadian censuses. Descriptive statistics and socioeconomic disparity summary measures of linked census and adult patients were calculated. The data extraction of full postal code met technological requirements for rendering health information extracted from local EMRs into anonymized data. The prevalence of obesity was 31.6 %. There was variation of obesity between deprivation quintiles; adults in the most deprived areas were 35 % more likely to be obese compared with adults in the least deprived areas (Chi-Square = 20.24(1), p primary health care interventions and services.

  9. Linking sustainable use policies to novel economic incentives to stimulate antibiotic research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Theuretzbacher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is now global recognition that antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health threat. Policy initiatives are underway to provide concrete suggestions for overcoming important obstacles in the fight against antibiotic resistance, like the alarming current paucity of antibacterial innovation. New economic models are needed as incentives for the discovery and development of novel antibacterial therapies especially for infections with too few patients today to justify private sector research and development (R&D investments. These economic models should focus on rewarding the innovation, not the consumption of the antibiotic since sustainable use policies will reduce selection pressure and slow the emergence of resistance. To effectively stimulate greater innovation, the size of the reward must be commensurate with revenues from other therapeutic areas, estimated at about a billion dollar total pay-out. Otherwise R&D investment will continue to move away from antibiotics to areas where returns are more attractive. A potential sizeable public investment, if implemented, must be protected to ensure that the resulting antibiotics have a lengthy and positive impact on human health. Therefore, public investments in innovation should be bound to sustainable use policies, i.e., policies targeted at a range of actors to ensure the preservation of the novel antibiotics. These policies would be targeted not only at the innovating pharmaceutical companies in exchange for the reward payments, but also at governments in countries which receive the novel antibiotics at reasonable prices due to the reward payment. This article provides some suggestions of sustainable use policies in order to initiate the discussions. These are built on planned policies in the US, EU, WHO and have been expanded to address One Health and environmental aspects to form One World approaches. While further discussion and analyses are needed, it is likely that strong

  10. Linking research, education and public engagement in geoscience: Leadership and strategic partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    As a research scientist I have always been interested in sharing whatever I knew with the general public and with teachers, who have the responsibility of forming young people, our ambassadors to the future. The turning point in my educational activities was in 2002, when the European Geosciences Union (EGU) welcomed my proposition to develop a Committee on Education. One of the committee's main activities is the organisation of GIFT (Geosciences Information for Teachers) workshops, held annually during the EGU General Assembly. Typically, these workshops bring together about 80 teachers from 20-25 different countries around a general theme that changes every year. Teachers are offered a mixture of keynote presentations by renowned scientists, and participate to classroom hands-on activities led by high-class educators. They also participate to a poster session, open to every participant to the GA, in which they can show to everyone the activities they have developed in their classroom. Therefore, EGU GIFT workshops spread first-hand scientific information to science teachers, and also offer teachers an exceptional way to networking with fellow teachers worldwide. Speakers are chosen from the academic world, national geosciences organisations such as BGS (UK), BRGM (France), INGV (Italy), the European Space Agency (ESA), CEA (France), from private companies (Total), or from International Organizations for policy makers such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), and IPCC. Since 2010, EGU GIFT workshops have been organized beyond Europe, in connection with EGU Alexander von Humboldt Conferences and other major International Conferences, or in collaboration with local or international organisations. A `Teachers at Sea' program has also been developed for teachers to be able to take part in an Oceanographic cruise. Also, in collaboration with the media manager of EGU the Committee has participated in "Planet Press", a program of geoscience press releases for

  11. Twenty years research of chronic gamma-ray irradiation on seed crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1983-01-01

    Twenty years of the works on the chronic gamma-ray irradiation of seed crops are summarized. Radiosensitivity and the mutation rate per unit exposure varies not only with the genetic factor but also depend on whether treatment is given to seeds or growing plants. The relation between the radiosensitivity of seeds and growing plants also varies with plant species. In Hordeum, Avena and Nicotiana, the highest mutation rate obtained by the chronic irradiation of growing plants is similar to that in seed irradiation, but in Oryza and Setalia, chronic irradiation was two to three times more effective for attaining a higher mutation rate. The mutation spectrum also varies with the mutagen, the factors modifying the effects of mutagen, and the dose of mutagen. The suitability of a particular mutagenic treatment to a species should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of mutagenic treatment. For instance, NaN 3 is highly mutagenic to barley, but less mutagenic to rice. The gene ea7 controlling the maturing earliness of barley seems to be mutable in chronic irradiation, and the mutants obtained by chronic irradiation are healthy. The author emphasized that the chronic irradiation at the gamma-field is a useful mutagenic treatment, even though some negative results have been reported in European countries. (Kaihara, S.)

  12. CKD.QLD: chronic kidney disease surveillance and research in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuthurupalli, Sree K.; Hoy, Wendy E.; Healy, Helen G.; Salisbury, Anne; Fassett, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a major public health problem in Australia with significant mortality, morbidity and economic burden. However, there is no comprehensive surveillance programme to collect, collate and analyse data on CKD in a systematic way. Methods We describe an initiative called CKD Queensland (CKD.QLD), which was established in 2009 to address this deficiency, and outline the processes and progress made to date. The foundation is a CKD Registry of all CKD patients attending public health renal services in Queensland, and patient recruitment and data capture have started. Results We have established through early work of CKD.QLD that there are over 11 500 CKD patients attending public renal services in Queensland, and these are the target population for our registry. Progress so far includes conducting two CKD clinic site surveys, consenting over 3000 patients into the registry and initiation of baseline data analysis of the first 600 patients enrolled at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) site. In addition, research studies in dietary intake and CKD outcomes and in models of care in CKD patient management are underway. Conclusions Through the CKD Registry, we will define the distribution of CKD patients referred to renal practices in the public system in Queensland by region, remoteness, age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. We will define the clinical characteristics of those patients, and the CKD associations, stages, co-morbidities and current management. We will follow the course and outcomes in individuals over time, as well as group trends over time. Through our activities and outcomes, we are aiming to provide a nidus for other states in Australia to join in a national CKD registry and network. PMID:23115138

  13. Creativity and psychiatric illness: the search for a missing link--an historical context for current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, E; Sabbe, B; De Hert, M

    2013-01-01

    Creativity is an important human quality upon which many achievements of humankind are based. Defined as the ability to produce something that is novel and useful or meaningful, it is difficult to operationalize for research. This text provides an overview of the historical and cultural context of this research. The assumption that creativity is related to psychiatric vulnerability dates back to antiquity. The modern interest in the subject stems from the romantic era and gained a scientific aura in the 19th century. In the 20th century, a further entanglement of creativity and psychopathology came about through the influence of patient artists on regular art. Psychometric, psychodiagnostic and genetic research supports a connection between creativity and psychiatric illness within the bipolar-psychotic continuum, with schizotypy/thymotypy as prototypes of creativity-related disorders. Evolutionary hypotheses link the schizophrenia paradox to a survival advantage through enhanced creative ability. The relevance of scientific research in this complex and heterogeneous area can be increased if creativity and psychopathology are further operationalized and if underlying art concepts are made explicit and placed in a broader cultural context. There is a continuing need for meaningful definitions and measures, as well as a multidisciplinary collaboration. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Linking research, education and public engagement in geoscience: Leadership and strategic partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud and aerosol feedbacks remain the largest source of uncertainty in understanding and predicting Earth's climate (IPCC, 2013), and are the focus of multiple ongoing research studies. Clouds are a challenge because of their extreme variability and diversity. This is also what makes them interesting to people. Clouds may be the only essential climate variable with an Appreciation Society (https://cloudappreciationsociety.org/). As a result, clouds led me into a multi-decade effort to engage a wider public in observing and understanding our planet. A series of experiences in the mid-1990's led to a meeting with educators that resulted in the creation of the Students' Cloud Observations On-Line Project (S'COOL), which I directed for about 2 decades, and which engaged students around the world in ground truth observation and data analysis for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instruments. Beginning around 2003, I developed a contrail observation protocol for the GLOBE Program to serve a similar function for additional audiences. Starting in 2004, I worked with an interdisciplinary team to launch the MY NASA DATA Project, an effort to make the vast trove of NASA Earth Science data actually usable in K-12 classrooms and student projects. Later I gained key experiences around strategic partnerships as I worked from 2008 onward with tri-agency partners at NOAA and NSF to integrate activities around climate change education. Currently I serve as Program Scientist for Education & Communication in the Earth Science Division at NASA, where I have the privilege to oversee and guide these and related activities in education and public engagement around Earth system science. As someone who completed advanced degrees in aerospace engineering without ever taking an Earth science class, this ongoing engagement is very important to me. Understanding Earth processes should be integral to how all people choose to live on our planet. In my experience

  15. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  16. Enriching the Preparation of Education Researchers and Practitioner-Scholars: Linking School District Research Priorities and University-Based Policy Evaluation Research Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malen, Betty

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes a novel effort to strengthen the preparation of both practitioner-scholars and education researchers. It describes a university-district partnership that offers graduate students the opportunity to develop research understandings and skills through participation in a "real" research project and provides district…

  17. Sociodemographic variations in the amount, duration and cost of potentially preventable hospitalisation for chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: a period prevalence study of linked public hospital data

    OpenAIRE

    Banham, David; Chen, Tenglong; Karnon, Jonathan; Brown, Alex; Lynch, John

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine disparities in rates, length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs of potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) for selected chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians (SA), then examine associations with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness. Setting Period prevalence study using linked, administrative public hospital records. Participants Participants included all SA residents in 2005–2006 to 2010–2011. Analysis focused on...

  18. Anxiety-linked attentional bias and its modification: Illustrating the importance of distinguishing processes and procedures in experimental psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Colin; Grafton, Ben

    2016-11-01

    In this review of research concerning anxiety-linked attentional bias, we seek to illustrate a general principle that we contend applies across the breadth of experimental psychopathology. Specifically, we highlight how maintenance of a clear distinction between process and procedure serves to enhance the advancement of knowledge and understanding, while failure to maintain this distinction can foster confusion and misconception. We show how such clear differentiation has permitted the continuous refinement of assessment procedures, in ways that have led to growing confidence in the existence of the putative attentional bias process of interest, and also increasing understanding of its nature. In contrast, we show how a failure to consistently differentiate between process and procedure has contributed to confusion concerning whether or not attentional bias modification reliably alters anxiety vulnerability and dysfunction. As we demonstrate, such confusion can be avoided by distinguishing the process of attentional bias modification from the procedures that have been employed with the intention of evoking this target process. Such an approach reveals that procedures adopted with the intention of eliciting the attentional bias modification process do not always do so, but that successful evocation of the attentional bias modification process quite reliably alters anxiety symptomatology. We consider some of the specific implications for future research concerning attentional bias modification, while also pointing to the broader implications for experimental psychopathology research in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Chronic CO poisoning. Use of generator gas during the second world war and recent research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedt, B; Kjuus, H

    1997-06-30

    The consequences of long-lasting and low-grade exposure to carbon monoxide are a matter of debate. During the second world war, lack of petrol led to widespread use of wood as fuel (generator gas vehicles), especially in the Nordic countries. This caused many cases of "acute" or "chronic" carbon monoxide poisoning. Typical symptoms of "chronic poisoning" were headache, dizziness and tiredness. Usually the symptoms disappeared after some weeks or month, but in some patients probably became permanent. The experiences from the generator gas era are now almost forgotten, and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning is easily overlooked. The authors describe two cases of such poisoning. A crane driver at a smelting works developed permanent symptoms after twenty years of exposure. A faulty oil-fired central heating system caused long-lasting symptoms in four members of a family.

  20. Chronic kidney-disease screening service quality: questionnaire survey research evidence from Taichung city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Robert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a serious public health problem in Taiwan and the world. The most effective, affordable treatments involve early prevention/detection/intervention, requiring screening. Successfully implementing CKD programs requires good patient participation, affected by patient perceptions of screening service quality. Service quality improvements can help make such programs more successful. Thus, good tools for assessing service quality perceptions are important. Aim: to investigate using a modified SERVQUAL questionnaire in assessing patient expectations, perceptions, and loyalty towards kidney disease screening service quality. Method 1595 kidney disease screening program patients in Taichung City were requested to complete and return a modified kidney disease screening SERVQUAL questionnaire. 1187 returned them. Incomplete ones (102 were culled and 1085 were chosen as effective for use. Paired t-tests, correlation tests, ANOVA, LSD test, and factor analysis identified the characteristics and factors of service quality. The paired t-test tested expectation score and perception score gaps. A structural equation modeling system examined satisfaction-based components' relationships. Results The effective response rate was 91.4%. Several methods verified validity. Cronbach's alpha on internal reliability was above 0.902. On patient satisfaction, expectation scores are high: 6.50 (0.82, but perception scores are significantly lower 6.14 (1.02. Older patients' perception scores are lower than younger patients'. Expectation and perception scores for patients with different types of jobs are significantly different. Patients higher on education have lower scores for expectation (r = -0.09 and perception (r = -0.26. Factor analysis identified three factors in the 22 item SERVQUAL form, which account for 80.8% of the total variance for the expectation scores and 86.9% of the total variance for the satisfaction

  1. Chronic kidney-disease screening service quality: questionnaire survey research evidence from Taichung City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Juin; Li, Ya-Hsin; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Sheu, Ing-Cheau; Glen, Robert; Chou, Ming-Jen; Lee, Ching-Yi

    2009-12-19

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious public health problem in Taiwan and the world. The most effective, affordable treatments involve early prevention/detection/intervention, requiring screening. Successfully implementing CKD programs requires good patient participation, affected by patient perceptions of screening service quality. Service quality improvements can help make such programs more successful. Thus, good tools for assessing service quality perceptions are important. to investigate using a modified SERVQUAL questionnaire in assessing patient expectations, perceptions, and loyalty towards kidney disease screening service quality. 1595 kidney disease screening program patients in Taichung City were requested to complete and return a modified kidney disease screening SERVQUAL questionnaire. 1187 returned them. Incomplete ones (102) were culled and 1085 were chosen as effective for use. Paired t-tests, correlation tests, ANOVA, LSD test, and factor analysis identified the characteristics and factors of service quality. The paired t-test tested expectation score and perception score gaps. A structural equation modeling system examined satisfaction-based components' relationships. The effective response rate was 91.4%. Several methods verified validity. Cronbach's alpha on internal reliability was above 0.902. On patient satisfaction, expectation scores are high: 6.50 (0.82), but perception scores are significantly lower 6.14 (1.02). Older patients' perception scores are lower than younger patients'. Expectation and perception scores for patients with different types of jobs are significantly different. Patients higher on education have lower scores for expectation (r = -0.09) and perception (r = -0.26). Factor analysis identified three factors in the 22 item SERVQUAL form, which account for 80.8% of the total variance for the expectation scores and 86.9% of the total variance for the satisfaction scores. Expectation and perception score gaps in all 22

  2. International differences in chronic kidney disease prevalence: a key public health and epidemiologic research issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Vianda S.; Brück, Katharina; Fraser, Simon; Zoccali, Carmine; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J.

    2017-01-01

    In this narrative review, we studied the association of risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CKD prevalence at an ecological level and describe potential reasons for international differences in estimated CKD prevalence across European countries. We found substantial variation in risk

  3. Microbiome manupulation in the management of acute and chronic colitis : A preclinical research approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, B.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect all parts of the intestinal tract. This disease has a large impact on both the social and personal life, since it dramatically reduces the quality of life and work capability of the patients. The last fifty years,

  4. Patients’ Online Access to Their Primary Care Electronic Health Records and Linked Online Services: Implications for Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda Mold

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The challenges for practice are the impact of online services on workload and the quality and safety of health care. Health professionals are concerned about the impact on workload, especially from email or other online enquiry systems, as well as risks to privacy. Patients report how online access provides a convenient means through which to access their health provider and may offer greater satisfaction if they get a timely response from a clinician. Online access and services may also result in unforeseen consequences and may change the nature of the patient-clinician interaction. Research challenges include: (1 Ensuring privacy, including how to control inappropriate carer and guardian access to medical records; (2 Whether online access to records improves patient safety and health outcomes; (3 Whether record access increases disparities across social classes and between genders; and (4 Improving efficiency. The challenges for practice are: (1 How to incorporate online access into clinical workflow; (2 The need for a business model to fund the additional time taken. Creating a sustainable business model for a safe, private, informative, more equitable online service is needed if online access to records is to be provided outside of pay-for-service systems.

  5. A cross-sectional multicenter study of osteogenesis imperfecta in North America - results from the linked clinical research centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R M; Nagamani, S C S; Cuthbertson, D; Campeau, P M; Krischer, J P; Shapiro, J R; Steiner, R D; Smith, P A; Bober, M B; Byers, P H; Pepin, M; Durigova, M; Glorieux, F H; Rauch, F; Lee, B H; Hart, T; Sutton, V R

    2015-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common skeletal dysplasia that predisposes to recurrent fractures and bone deformities. In spite of significant advances in understanding the genetic basis of OI, there have been no large-scale natural history studies. To better understand the natural history and improve the care of patients, a network of Linked Clinical Research Centers (LCRC) was established. Subjects with OI were enrolled in a longitudinal study, and in this report, we present cross-sectional data on the largest cohort of OI subjects (n = 544). OI type III subjects had higher prevalence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, severe scoliosis, and long bone deformities as compared to those with OI types I and IV. Whereas the mean lumbar spine area bone mineral density (LS aBMD) was low across all OI subtypes, those with more severe forms had lower bone mass. Molecular testing may help predict the subtype in type I collagen-related OI. Analysis of such well-collected and unbiased data in OI can not only help answering questions that are relevant to patient care but also foster hypothesis-driven research, especially in the context of 'phenotypic expansion' driven by next-generation sequencing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Cross-sectional Multicenter Study of Osteogenesis Imperfecta in North America – Results from the Linked Clinical Research Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak M; Nagamani, Sandesh CS; Cuthbertson, David; Campeau, Philippe M; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Shapiro, Jay R; Steiner, Robert D; Smith, Peter A; Bober, Michael B; Byers, Peter H; Pepin, Melanie; Durigova, Michaela; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank; Lee, Brendan H; Smith, Tracy; Sutton, V. Reid

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is the most common skeletal dysplasia that predisposes to recurrent fractures and bone deformities. In spite of significant advances in understanding the genetic basis of OI, there have been no large-scale natural history studies. To better understand the natural history and improve the care of patients, a network of Linked Clinical Research Centers (LCRC) was established. Subjects with OI were enrolled in a longitudinal study, and in this report, we present cross-sectional data on the largest cohort of OI subjects (n=544). OI type III subjects had higher prevalence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, severe scoliosis, and long bone deformities as compared to those with OI types I and IV. Whereas the mean LS aBMD was low across all OI subtypes, those with more severe forms had lower bone mass. Molecular testing may help predict the subtype in type I collagen-related OI. Analysis of such well-collected and unbiased data in OI can not only help answer questions that are relevant to patient care but also foster hypothesis-driven research, especially in the context of “phenotypic expansion” driven by next-generation sequencing. PMID:24754836

  7. Systematically linking tranSMART, Galaxy and EGA for reusing human translational research data [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The availability of high-throughput molecular profiling techniques has provided more accurate and informative data for regular clinical studies. Nevertheless, complex computational workflows are required to interpret these data. Over the past years, the data volume has been growing explosively, requiring robust human data management to organise and integrate the data efficiently. For this reason, we set up an ELIXIR implementation study, together with the Translational research IT (TraIT programme, to design a data ecosystem that is able to link raw and interpreted data. In this project, the data from the TraIT Cell Line Use Case (TraIT-CLUC are used as a test case for this system. Within this ecosystem, we use the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA to store raw molecular profiling data; tranSMART to collect interpreted molecular profiling data and clinical data for corresponding samples; and Galaxy to store, run and manage the computational workflows. We can integrate these data by linking their repositories systematically. To showcase our design, we have structured the TraIT-CLUC data, which contain a variety of molecular profiling data types, for storage in both tranSMART and EGA. The metadata provided allows referencing between tranSMART and EGA, fulfilling the cycle of data submission and discovery; we have also designed a data flow from EGA to Galaxy, enabling reanalysis of the raw data in Galaxy. In this way, users can select patient cohorts in tranSMART, trace them back to the raw data and perform (reanalysis in Galaxy. Our conclusion is that the majority of metadata does not necessarily need to be stored (redundantly in both databases, but that instead FAIR persistent identifiers should be available for well-defined data ontology levels: study, data access committee, physical sample, data sample and raw data file. This approach will pave the way for the stable linkage and reuse of data.

  8. Librarians as Advocates of Social Media for Researchers: A Social Media Project Initiated by Linköping University Library, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sassa; Svenningsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at Linköping University help researchers keep abreast of developments in their fields and to increase the visibility of their work. Strategic, professional use of social media ought to be an essential part of a researcher's communication strategy. This article investigates the level of awareness of the professional use of social media…

  9. Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Williams

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of research to local health policy. Objective: To increase research training capacity in public health programs by providing targeted training to students and increasing the accessibility of existing data. Design: This report is a case study of an approach to linking public health research and training at the University of the Witwatersrand. We discuss the development of a sample training database from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System in South Africa and outline a concordant transnational intensive short course on longitudinal data analysis offered by the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Colorado-Boulder. This case study highlights ways common barriers to linking research and training can be overcome. Results and Conclusions: This collaborative effort demonstrates that linking training to ongoing data collection can improve student research, accelerate student training, and connect students to an international network of scholars. Importantly, the approach can be adapted to other partnerships between schools of public health and longitudinal research sites.

  10. Skewing of X-chromosome inactivation in three generations of carriers with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease within one family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köker, M. Y.; Sanal, O.; de Boer, M.; Tezcan, I.; Metin, A.; Tan, C.; Ersoy, F.; Roos, D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the innate immune system characterized by impairment of intracellular microbicidal activity of phagocytes. Mutations in one of the four known NADPH-oxidase components preclude generation of superoxide and related

  11. Falls in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a call for further research

    OpenAIRE

    Roig, M; Eng, JJ; MacIntyre, DL; Road, JD; Reid, WD.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease that results in airflow limitation and respiratory distress. The effects of COPD, however, are not exclusively limited to respiratory function and people with COPD face many non-respiratory manifestations that affect both function and mobility. Deficits in function and mobility have been associated with an increased risk for falling in older adults. The purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical framework to identif...

  12. Clinical research on alterations of brain MRI and 1H-MRS in chronic hepatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Liling; Li Xiangrong; Hong Zhongkui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the abnormal findings and metabolic alterations of the brain in chronic hepatic disease with MRI and 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) for better understanding the clinical significance of pallidal hyperintensity and the role in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Methods: Brain MRI and 1 H-MRS examination were performed in 50 patients with chronic hepatic disease and 20 healthy volunteers. The pallidus index (PI) was calculated and the height of resonance peaks of Glx was measured. The correlation between PI and Child/Pugh classification, and the association between blood ammonia and the spectroscopic alterations were studied. Pre-and post-therapeutic comparative study was also conducted in 5 cases with chronic HE. Results: PI was gradually increased from healthy volunteers to patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis (1.01± 0.04, 1.06±0.09, and 1.18±0.09), and the differences in PI value among them were significant (F=22.294, P 1 -weighted MRI disappeared and the abnormal metabolic alterations returned to normal range 5 to 6 months after successful liver transplantation. However, the normalization of 1 H-MRS alterations preceded the disappearance of pallidal hyperintensities. Conclusion: PI can be an index of reference for liver dysfunction. Glx is more sensitive than blood ammonia in detecting the brain dysfunction. MRI and 1 H-MRS are reliable techniques in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy for hepatic encephalopathy. (authors)

  13. Research on acute and chronic toxity of the experimental drug Аmprolinsyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gutyj

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The drug Amprolinsyl is a is a mixture of hydrochloric amprolium (12.5 g and milled fruits of the milk thistle (up to 100 g, designed to prevent and treat protozoonoses in birds, especially when mixed associative invasions occur. The fruits of the milk thistle contain the natural vitamins (A, C, E, B and the minerals (copper, iron, cobalt and other factors that significantly expand and enhance the pharmacological effect of the drug Amprolinsyl. We found that when the drug Amprolinsyl was administered intra gastrically to white rats at a dose of 5000 mg/kg and higher clinical signs of toxicity occurred after 4–5 hours. Damage to motor activity and tremors of individual muscles of these animals was observed. The rats died after 1–4 days. A direct relationship was found between the drug at a specific dosage and the death of rats. After intra gastric administration of the drug Amprolinsyl to white rats clinical signs of toxicity appeared after 5–6 hours at a dose of 4000 mg/kg body weight. These animals attempted to gather in groups and to hide in the bedding. The death of the mice occured in 1–3 days. Thus, LD50 drug of Amprolinsyl following intra gastric administration to white rats (5917 mg/kg and for white mice (5167 mg/kg. After studying the cumulative properties of Amprolinsyl, it was found that the total drug administered in avarage doses was 831 mg/kg, and the cumulative rate – 8.31. Long-term daily intragastric administration of Amprolinsyl over 24 days affected the functional state of the liver and kidneys. The magnitude of weight ratios of lungs, heart and spleen during the research period was the same as in the control group of rats. Significant changes were found only after analyzing the leukocyte profile. A reduction was observed in the number of neutrophils to 54.7% and an increase in the number of lymphocytes to 9.2%. Following prolonged daily administration of increasing doses Amprolinsyl causes a slight degradation of the

  14. The link between teachers’ perception of autonomy in school and their behaviour towards students: An overview of contemporary research studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pedagogical literature suggests that teachers often motivate students to get involved in class activities and to adhere to work instructions by using power-based procedures and hence jeopardise the sense of autonomy in students. The paper points to the necessity of re-examining the contextual and interpersonal factors that determine teachers’ behaviour in the classroom. We provide an overview of the results of relevant research studies in the field in order to gain an insight into and establish the correlates of teachers’ controlling style towards students from the perspective of the self-determination theory. Previous studies have shown that teachers who are exposed to pressure at work tend to transfer this pressure to their students by applying controlling procedures. The link between the feeling of pressure and teachers’ controlling style arises indirectly via teachers’ work motivation and the sense of fulfilment of their basic needs in school. Teachers will most likely be intrinsically motivated for school work if they think that a wider social context and other persons in their work environment support the fulfilment of their need for autonomy. The concluding part emphasises the necessity of planning education policies and future studies in this area, along with presenting the possibilities and strategies for creating the conditions to support work motivation of autonomous teachers. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179020: Koncepcije i strategije obezbeđivanja kvaliteta bazičnog obrazovanja i vaspitanja

  15. Development of a browser application to foster research on linking climate and health datasets: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajat, Shakoor; Whitmore, Ceri; Sarran, Christophe; Haines, Andy; Golding, Brian; Gordon-Brown, Harriet; Kessel, Anthony; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-01-01

    Improved data linkages between diverse environment and health datasets have the potential to provide new insights into the health impacts of environmental exposures, including complex climate change processes. Initiatives that link and explore big data in the environment and health arenas are now being established. To encourage advances in this nascent field, this article documents the development of a web browser application to facilitate such future research, the challenges encountered to date, and how they were addressed. A 'storyboard approach' was used to aid the initial design and development of the application. The application followed a 3-tier architecture: a spatial database server for storing and querying data, server-side code for processing and running models, and client-side browser code for user interaction and for displaying data and results. The browser was validated by reproducing previously published results from a regression analysis of time-series datasets of daily mortality, air pollution and temperature in London. Data visualisation and analysis options of the application are presented. The main factors that shaped the development of the browser were: accessibility, open-source software, flexibility, efficiency, user-friendliness, licensing restrictions and data confidentiality, visualisation limitations, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability. Creating dedicated data and analysis resources, such as the one described here, will become an increasingly vital step in improving understanding of the complex interconnections between the environment and human health and wellbeing, whilst still ensuring appropriate confidentiality safeguards. The issues raised in this paper can inform the future development of similar tools by other researchers working in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Faeh, David; Bopp, Matthias; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors linked to cancer offer great potential for prevention. Previous studies suggest an association between adherence to recommendations on healthy lifestyle and cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is associated with reduced all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality. We built a lifestyle score that included 3 categories, based on the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality; in addition, we included cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We used census- and death registry-linked survey data allowing a mortality follow-up for ≤32 y. Our analysis included 16,722 participants. Information on lifestyle score components and confounders was collected at baseline. Over a mean follow-up of 21.7 y, 3730 deaths were observed (1332 cancer deaths). Comparing best with poorest category of the lifestyle score showed an inverse association with all-cause (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.89) and total cancer (men only, HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.84) mortality. We estimated that ∼13% of premature cancer deaths in men would have been preventable if lifestyle score levels had been high. Inverse associations were observed for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, and prostate cancer mortality [men and women combined, HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.92; HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.83; HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82 (men only), respectively]. CVD mortality was not associated with the lifestyle score (men and women combined, HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). Our results support the importance of adhering to recommendations for a healthy lifestyle with regard to all-cause and cancer mortality. To reduce the burden of cancer in the

  17. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. academic research fleet is an essential mobile observing platform for ocean science. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is working with the fleet community to routinely document, assess, and preserve data from the underway sensor systems on each vessel. The R2R facility maintains a master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, and data sets. In less than two years, the catalog has grown to over 2,000 cruises including unique identifiers for vessel deployments, project titles, chief scientists, dates, ports, survey targets, and navigation tracks. This master catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in organizing, extending, and quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources. R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems routinely harvest and reuse our content. R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

  18. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A "Linked Data" Approach for the U.S. Academic Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R.; Chandler, C.; Clark, P.; Milan, A.; Mize, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; http://rvdata.us/) program is developing infrastructure to routinely document, assess, and preserve the underway sensor data from U.S. academic research vessels. The R2R master catalog of vessels, instrument systems, operating institutions, cruises, personnel, data sets, event logs, and field reports has grown to over 2,200 cruises in less than two years, and is now accessible via Web services. This catalog is of great value to peer data systems, ranging from large inter/national data centers to small disciplinary data offices, as an aid in quality controlling their own collections and finding related data from authoritative sources. R2R breaks with the tradition of stovepipe portals built around complex search interfaces tightly bound to backend databases. Instead, we have adopted a Linked Data approach to publish our catalog content, based on the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). Our data model is published as a collection of W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concepts, mapped to partner vocabularies such as those developed by the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) and the pan-European SeaDataNet partnership, and our catalog content is published as collections of RDF resources with globally unique and persistent identifiers. The combination of exposing our data model, mapping local terms to community-wide vocabularies, and using reliable identifiers improves interoperability and reduces ambiguity. R2R's metric of success is the degree to which peer data systems harvest and reuse our content. R2R is working collaboratively with the NOAA National Data Centers and the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) on a range of Linked Data pilot applications, including production of ISO-compliant metadata and deployment of a RDF Query Language (SPARQL) interface. Our objective is to support a distributed, loosely federated network of

  19. A Research Synthesis of Therapeutic Interventions for Whiplash-Associated Disorder (WAD: Part 4 – Noninvasive Interventions for Chronic WAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence for various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks, subacute (two to 12 weeks or chronic (longer than 12 weeks WAD. The present article, the fourth in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for noninvasive interventions initiated during the chronic phase of WAD. Twenty-two studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, 12 of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodological quality (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6. For the treatment of chronic WAD, there is evidence to suggest that exercise programs are effective in relieving whiplash-related pain, at least over the short term. While the majority of a subset of nine studies supported the effectiveness of interdisciplinary interventions, the two randomized controlled trials provided conflicting results. Finally, there was limited evidence, consisting of one supportive case series each, that both manual joint manipulation and myofeedback training may provide some benefit. Based on the available research, exercise programs were the most effective noninvasive treatment for patients with chronic WAD, although many questions remain regarding the relative effectiveness of various exercise regimens.

  20. Computerized clinical decision support systems for chronic disease management: a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanov, Pavel S; Misra, Shikha; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Garg, Amit X; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Mackay, Jean A; Weise-Kelly, Lorraine; Navarro, Tamara; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2011-08-03

    The use of computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) may improve chronic disease management, which requires recurrent visits to multiple health professionals, ongoing disease and treatment monitoring, and patient behavior modification. The objective of this review was to determine if CCDSSs improve the processes of chronic care (such as diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of disease) and associated patient outcomes (such as effects on biomarkers and clinical exacerbations). We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews database, Inspec, and reference lists for potentially eligible articles published up to January 2010. We included randomized controlled trials that compared the use of CCDSSs to usual practice or non-CCDSS controls. Trials were eligible if at least one component of the CCDSS was designed to support chronic disease management. We considered studies 'positive' if they showed a statistically significant improvement in at least 50% of relevant outcomes. Of 55 included trials, 87% (n = 48) measured system impact on the process of care and 52% (n = 25) of those demonstrated statistically significant improvements. Sixty-five percent (36/55) of trials measured impact on, typically, non-major (surrogate) patient outcomes, and 31% (n = 11) of those demonstrated benefits. Factors of interest to decision makers, such as cost, user satisfaction, system interface and feature sets, unique design and deployment characteristics, and effects on user workflow were rarely investigated or reported. A small majority (just over half) of CCDSSs improved care processes in chronic disease management and some improved patient health. Policy makers, healthcare administrators, and practitioners should be aware that the evidence of CCDSS effectiveness is limited, especially with respect to the small number and size of studies measuring patient outcomes.

  1. Linking a research register to clinical records in older adults' mental health services: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Dan; Evans, Joanne; Watson, Andrew; Perdue, Iain; Craig, Thomas; Rose, Diana; Wykes, Til

    2015-01-01

    Patients can provide consent to have their clinical records linked to a research register, a process known as consent for contact (C4C). There is evidence about how to engage people with mental illness in C4C, but nothing specific to older adults. This is a priority area for research (for example, dementia trials), although sign-up rates to C4C are lower than for younger populations. Through this study we seek to understand these disparities. This was a two-stage cross-sectional observational study. In phase one, focus groups with service users, carers and clinicians informed a framework for clinicians to explain C4C to those on their caseload. In phase two, clinicians explained C4C to 26 service users (and carers where applicable). These conversations were recorded, and their content was analysed. Service users and carers were then interviewed to provide further feedback on their conversations with clinicians. A total of 31 service users, 24 carers and 13 clinical staff took part across the two phases. In phase one, service users and carers sought assurance of the right to refuse participation in further studies (after joining C4C). Clinicians expressed concerns over legal and practical implications of ascertaining mental capacity and best interest. In phase two, clinicians' explanations were less thorough than similar explanations given to younger adults with psychosis. Clinicians omitted details of service users' right to stipulate contact arrangements, which was significantly associated with whether service users/carers agreed to join. Common reasons for joining C4C included altruism and the chance to speak to new people. Few participants refused to join, but reasons included avoidance of stress (potentially alleviated through the presence of a carer). Implementing C4C in older adults' services requires clinicians to deliver concise, simple explanations to individuals and their carers where applicable. Older adults can be suspicious of unsolicited contact; thus

  2. Chronic pain, depression and cardiovascular disease linked through a shared genetic predisposition: Analysis of a family-based cohort and twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Porteous, David J.; Burri, Andrea V.; Tanaka, Haruka; Williams, Frances M. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Depression and chronic pain are the two most important causes of disability (Global Burden of Disease Study 2013). They occur together more frequently than expected and both conditions have been shown to be co-morbid with cardiovascular disease. Although shared socio-demographic risk factors (e.g. gender, deprivation) might explain the co-morbidity of these three conditions, we hypothesised that these three long-term, highly prevalent conditions co-occur and may be due to shared familial risk, and/or genetic factors. Methods and findings We employed three different study designs in two independent cohorts, namely Generation Scotland and TwinsUK, having standardised, validated questionnaire data on the three traits of interest. First, we estimated the prevalence and co-occurrence of chronic pain, depression and angina among 24,024 participants of a population-based cohort of extended families (Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study), adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking status, and deprivation. Secondly, we compared the odds of co-morbidity in sibling-pairs with the odds in unrelated individuals for the three conditions in the same cohort. Lastly, examination of similar traits in a sample of female twins (TwinsUK, n = 2,902), adjusting for age and BMI, allowed independent replication of the findings and exploration of the influence of additive genetic (A) factors and shared (C) and non-shared (E) environmental factors predisposing to co-occurring chronic widespread pain (CWP) and cardiovascular disease (hypertension, angina, stroke, heart attack, elevated cholesterol, angioplasty or bypass surgery). In the Generation Scotland cohort, individuals with depression were more than twice as likely to have chronic pain as those without depression (adjusted OR 2·64 [95% CI 2·34–2·97]); those with angina were four times more likely to have chronic pain (OR 4·19 [3·64–4·82]); those with depression were twice as likely to have angina

  3. Chronic pain, depression and cardiovascular disease linked through a shared genetic predisposition: Analysis of a family-based cohort and twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver van Hecke

    Full Text Available Depression and chronic pain are the two most important causes of disability (Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. They occur together more frequently than expected and both conditions have been shown to be co-morbid with cardiovascular disease. Although shared socio-demographic risk factors (e.g. gender, deprivation might explain the co-morbidity of these three conditions, we hypothesised that these three long-term, highly prevalent conditions co-occur and may be due to shared familial risk, and/or genetic factors.We employed three different study designs in two independent cohorts, namely Generation Scotland and TwinsUK, having standardised, validated questionnaire data on the three traits of interest. First, we estimated the prevalence and co-occurrence of chronic pain, depression and angina among 24,024 participants of a population-based cohort of extended families (Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study, adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking status, and deprivation. Secondly, we compared the odds of co-morbidity in sibling-pairs with the odds in unrelated individuals for the three conditions in the same cohort. Lastly, examination of similar traits in a sample of female twins (TwinsUK, n = 2,902, adjusting for age and BMI, allowed independent replication of the findings and exploration of the influence of additive genetic (A factors and shared (C and non-shared (E environmental factors predisposing to co-occurring chronic widespread pain (CWP and cardiovascular disease (hypertension, angina, stroke, heart attack, elevated cholesterol, angioplasty or bypass surgery. In the Generation Scotland cohort, individuals with depression were more than twice as likely to have chronic pain as those without depression (adjusted OR 2·64 [95% CI 2·34-2·97]; those with angina were four times more likely to have chronic pain (OR 4·19 [3·64-4·82]; those with depression were twice as likely to have angina (OR 2·20 [1·90-2·54

  4. A Statewide Look at Attendance and Chronic Absenteeism in Elementary Schools in Oregon. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 1 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This brief highlights the importance of using a measure like chronic absenteeism, rather than average daily attendance, in order to identify concerning patterns in elementary attendance rates. The chronic absenteeism measurement is better able to shine a light on the number of individual students struggling with attendance. Subsequent briefs in…

  5. Personal prayer in patients dealing with chronic illness: a review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jors, Karin; Büssing, Arndt; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Baumann, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prayer is commonly used among patients for health purposes. Therefore, this review focused on three main questions: (1) why do people turn to prayer in times of illness?, (2) what are the main topics of their prayers?, and (3) how do they pray? Method. We undertook a systematic review of the literature by searching the databases PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) participants in the study were patients dealing with an illness, (2) the study examined the use of private rather than intercessory prayer, and (3) the content and purpose of prayer rather than its effects were investigated. Results. 16 articles were included in the final review. Participants suffered from a variety of chronic diseases, mostly cancer. Five main categories for the reasons and topics of prayer were found: (1) disease-centered prayer, (2) assurance-centered prayer, (3) God-centered prayer, (4) others-centered prayer, and (5) lamentations. Among these, disease-centered prayer was most common. Conclusions. Although most patients with chronic diseases do pray for relief from their physical and mental suffering, the intention of their prayers is not only for healing. Rather, prayer can be a resource that allows patients to positively transform the experience of their illness.

  6. Personal Prayer in Patients Dealing with Chronic Illness: A Review of the Research Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Jors

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prayer is commonly used among patients for health purposes. Therefore, this review focused on three main questions: (1 why do people turn to prayer in times of illness?, (2 what are the main topics of their prayers?, and (3 how do they pray? Method. We undertook a systematic review of the literature by searching the databases PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1 participants in the study were patients dealing with an illness, (2 the study examined the use of private rather than intercessory prayer, and (3 the content and purpose of prayer rather than its effects were investigated. Results. 16 articles were included in the final review. Participants suffered from a variety of chronic diseases, mostly cancer. Five main categories for the reasons and topics of prayer were found: (1 disease-centered prayer, (2 assurance-centered prayer, (3 God-centered prayer, (4 others-centered prayer, and (5 lamentations. Among these, disease-centered prayer was most common. Conclusions. Although most patients with chronic diseases do pray for relief from their physical and mental suffering, the intention of their prayers is not only for healing. Rather, prayer can be a resource that allows patients to positively transform the experience of their illness.

  7. Psychological Pathways Linking Social Support to Health Outcomes: A Visit with the “Ghosts” of Research Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Bert N.; Bowen, Kimberly; Carlisle, McKenzie; Birmingham, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models postulate the importance of psychological mechanisms linking perceived and received social support to physical health outcomes. In this review, we examine studies that directly tested the potential psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and health-relevant physiological processes (1980s to 2010). Inconsistent with existing theoretical models, no evidence was found that psychological mechanisms such as depression, perceived stress, and other affective processes are directly responsible for links between support and health. We discuss the importance of considering statistical/design issues, emerging conceptual perspectives, and limitations of our existing models for future research aimed at elucidating the psychological mechanisms responsible for links between social support and physical health outcomes. PMID:22326104

  8. Quantifying the impact of chronic conditions on a diagnosis of major depressive disorder in adults: a cohort study using linked electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Euijung; Chamberlain, Alanna M; Pendegraft, Richard S; Petterson, Tanya M; Bobo, William V; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2016-04-26

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often comorbid with other chronic mental and physical health conditions. Although the literature widely acknowledges the association of many chronic conditions with the risk of MDD, the relative importance of these conditions on MDD risk in the presence of other conditions is not well investigated. In this study, we aimed to quantify the relative contribution of selected chronic conditions to identify the conditions most influential to MDD risk in adults and identify differences by age. This study used electronic health record (EHR) data on patients empanelled with primary care at Mayo Clinic in June 2013. A validated EHR-based algorithm was applied to identify newly diagnosed MDD patients between 2000 and 2013. Non-MDD controls were matched 1:1 to MDD cases on birth year (±2 years), sex, and outpatient clinic visits in the same year of MDD case diagnosis. Twenty-four chronic conditions defined by Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse were ascertained in both cases and controls using diagnosis codes within 5 years of index dates (diagnosis dates for cases, and the first clinic visit dates for matched controls). For each age group (45 years or younger, between 46 and 60, and over 60 years), conditional logistic regression models were used to test the association between each condition and subsequent MDD risk, adjusting for educational attainment and obesity. The relative influence of these conditions on the risk of MDD was quantified using gradient boosting machine models. A total of 11,375 incident MDD cases were identified between 2000 and 2013. Most chronic conditions (except for eye conditions) were associated with risk of MDD, with different association patterns observed depending on age. Among 24 chronic conditions, the greatest relative contribution was observed for diabetes mellitus for subjects aged ≤ 60 years and rheumatoid arthritis/osteoarthritis for those over 60 years. Our results suggest that specific chronic

  9. Sociodemographic variations in the amount, duration and cost of potentially preventable hospitalisation for chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: a period prevalence study of linked public hospital data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, David; Chen, Tenglong; Karnon, Jonathan; Brown, Alex; Lynch, John

    2017-10-15

    To determine disparities in rates, length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs of potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) for selected chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians (SA), then examine associations with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness. Period prevalence study using linked, administrative public hospital records. Participants included all SA residents in 2005-2006 to 2010-2011. Analysis focused on those individuals experiencing chronic PPH as defined by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Number and rates (unadjusted, then adjusted for sex and age) of chronic PPH, total LOS and direct hospital costs by Aboriginality. Aboriginal SAs experienced higher risk of index chronic PPH compared with non-Aboriginals (11.5 and 6.2 per 1000 persons per year, respectively) and at younger ages (median age 48 vs 70 years). Once hospitalised, Aboriginal people experienced more chronic PPH events, longer total LOS with higher costs than non-Aboriginal people (2.6 vs 1.9 PPH per person; 11.7 vs 9.0 days LOS; at $A17 928 vs $A11 515, respectively). Compared with population average LOS, the standardised rate ratio of LOS among Aboriginal people increased by 0.03 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.07) as disadvantage rank increased and 1.04 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.44) as remoteness increased. Non-Aboriginal LOS also increased as disadvantage increased but at a lower rate (0.01 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.01)). Costs of Aboriginal chronic PPH increased by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.06) for each increase in disadvantage and 1.18 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.55) for increased remoteness. Non-Aboriginal costs also increased as disadvantage increased but at lower rates (0.01 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.01)). Aboriginal people's heightened risk of chronic PPH resulted in more time in hospital and greater cost. Systematic disparities in chronic PPH by Aboriginality, area disadvantage and remoteness highlight the need for improved uptake of effective primary care. Routine

  10. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  11. Management of Chronic Daily Headache and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities by Lifestyle Modification: Participatory Action Research Combining New Communication Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizi, Fakhrudin; Tavallaee, Abbas; Rahimi, Abolfazl; Saghafinia, Masoud

    2017-04-01

    Lifestyle modification has a significant role in chronic daily headache (CDH) management. Participatory action research (PAR) can play an important role in managing chronic medical conditions. However, it has been scarcely used in CDH management. This study aimed to empower patients with CDH to modify their lifestyle in order to reduce both their headache and related psychiatric co-morbidities in a multidisciplinary headache clinic at Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, IR Iran. In the PAR plan, 37 patients (27 females) diagnosed with CDH were selected using purposeful sampling. Along with face-to-face group sessions, all available communication means such as phone calls, emails, short message system (SMS), and social media (Telegram) were used to facilitate the process. Questionnaires of health promotion lifestyle profile (HPLPІІ), visual analog scale (VAS), and depression-anxiety-stress scale (DASS21) were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Mean age of the patients was 38.33 (± 9.7) years. Both "general pain" and "the worst imaginable pain" reduced (mean of reduction: 2.56 ± 2.7 and 2.3 ± 2.9, respectively, P 50% of pain reduction occurred in "the worst imaginable pain" category (-1.45 ± 2.02, P communication tools helped the CDH patients better handle their lifestyle, reduce their headache, and lower their symptoms. Further studies with better use of currently available communication tools and social media are recommended for action research to be more applicable.

  12. Provider Experiences with Chronic Care Management (CCM) Services and Fees: A Qualitative Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Ann S; Sarwar, Rumin; Keith, Rosalind; Balke, Patrick; Ma, Sai; McCall, Nancy

    2017-12-01

    Support for ongoing care management and coordination between office visits for patients with multiple chronic conditions has been inadequate. In January 2015, Medicare introduced the Chronic Care Management (CCM) payment policy, which reimburses providers for CCM activities for Medicare beneficiaries occurring outside of office visits. To explore the experiences, facilitators, and challenges of practices providing CCM services, and their implications going forward. Semi-structured telephone interviews from January to April 2016 with 71 respondents. Sixty billing and non-billing providers and practice staff knowledgeable about their practices' CCM services, and 11 professional society representatives. Practice respondents noted that most patients expressed positive views of CCM services. Practice respondents also perceived several patient benefits, including improved adherence to treatment, access to care team members, satisfaction, care continuity, and care coordination. Facilitators of CCM provision included having an in-practice care manager, patient-centered medical home recognition, experience developing care plans, patient trust in their provider, and supplemental insurance to cover CCM copayments. Most billing practices reported few problems obtaining patients' consent for CCM, though providers felt that CMS could better facilitate consent by marketing CCM's goals to beneficiaries. Barriers reported by professional society representatives and by billing and non-billing providers included inadequacy of CCM payments to cover upfront investments for staffing, workflow modification, and time needed to manage complex patients. Other barriers included inadequate infrastructure for health information exchange with other providers and limited electronic health record capabilities for documenting and updating care plans. Practices owned by hospital systems and large medical groups faced greater bureaucracy in implementing CCM than did smaller, independent practices

  13. Research Participation Decision-Making Among Youth and Parents of Youth With Chronic Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano-Therrien, Jesica; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan

    The aims of this qualitative descriptive study were to describe how past experiences with research (including communication, information, values, and support) may contribute to research fatigue among youth and parents of youth with HIV, cystic fibrosis, and Type 1 diabetes. Eighteen parents and youth were purposively recruited from outpatient subspecialty clinics at a major academic medical center. They took part in qualitative interviews and completed a demographics form and the Decisional Conflict Scale. Youth participants also completed the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory. Two major themes emerged: Blurred Lines and Hope for the Future. Research fatigue was not found in this sample. Results point to challenges with informed consent in settings where research and clinical care are integrated and suggest that protective factors allow for continued participation without excess burden on youth and parents. Strategies to minimize research fatigue and support engagement in research are offered. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SciLite: a platform for displaying text-mined annotations as a means to link research articles with biological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talo, Francesco; Ide-Smith, Michele; Gobeill, Julien; Carter, Jacob; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Ananiadou, Sophia; Ruch, Patrick; McEntyre, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous growth in biological data has resulted in an increase in the number of research papers being published. This presents a great challenge for scientists in searching and assimilating facts described in those papers. Particularly, biological databases depend on curators to add highly precise and useful information that are usually extracted by reading research articles. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find ways to improve linking literature to the underlying data, thereby minimising the effort in browsing content and identifying key biological concepts.   As part of the development of Europe PMC, we have developed a new platform, SciLite, which integrates text-mined annotations from different sources and overlays those outputs on research articles. The aim is to aid researchers and curators using Europe PMC in finding key concepts more easily and provide links to related resources or tools, bridging the gap between literature and biological data. PMID:28948232

  15. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  16. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Tertiary Education Providers & School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for tertiary education providers and school educators from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between…

  17. Use of market research data by state chronic disease programs, Illinois, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerson, Nancy L; Arbise, Benjamin S; Kelly, Nora K; Traore, Elizabeth

    2014-09-25

    Market research data complement traditional epidemiologic data by allowing users to examine health behavior and patterns by census block or census tract. Market research data can identify products and behaviors that align or do not align with public health program goals. Illinois is a recipient of an award from the Directors of Health Promotion and Education to use industry market research data collected by The Nielsen Company for public health purposes. Illinois creates customized community profiles using market research data on tobacco use characteristics to describe the demographics, habits, and media preferences of smokers in certain locations. Local agencies use profiles to plan and target marketing initiatives, reach disparate groups within overall community populations, and restructure program objectives and policy initiatives. Local market research data provide detailed information on the characteristics of smokers, allowing Illinois communities to design public health programs without having to collect data on their own.

  18. Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the International Ankle Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Phillip A; Delahunt, Eamonn; Bleakley, Chris; Caulfield, Brian; Docherty, Carrie; Fourchet, François; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Hertel, Jay; Hiller, Claire; Kaminski, Thomas; McKeon, Patrick; Refshauge, Kathryn; van der Wees, Philip; Vincenzino, Bill; Wikstrom, Erik

    2014-07-01

    While research on chronic ankle instability (CAI) and awareness of its impact on society and health care systems has grown substantially in the last 2 decades, the inconsistency in participant/patient selection criteria across studies presents a potential obstacle to addressing the problem properly. This major gap within the literature limits the ability to generalise this evidence to the target patient population. Therefore, there is a need to provide standards for patient/participant selection criteria in research focused on CAI with justifications using the best available evidence. The International Ankle Consortium provides this position paper to present and discuss an endorsed set of selection criteria for patients with CAI based on the best available evidence to be used in future research and study designs. These recommendations will enhance the validity of research conducted in this clinical population with the end goal of bringing the research evidence to the clinician and patient. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' experience with pulmonary rehabilitation: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Pinto, Juliana Maria; Martín-Nogueras, Ana María; Morano, Maria Tereza Aguiar Pessoa; Macêdo, Tereza Efigênia Pessoa Morano; Arenillas, José Ignacio Calvo; Troosters, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to give an in-depth consideration of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients' subjective view of the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on their lives. A systematic review in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsychInfo databases yielded 3306 articles, of which 387 were duplicates, 263 remained after screening abstract and title; of them, 4 were excluded (editorial or due to lacking of full text) remaining a total of 259 for full text reading. Among these, eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were finally included. The meta-ethnography approach synthesized an understanding of the studies, which focused on constructing interpretations and developed a 'line-of-argument' synthesis. The psychosocial support of PR contributes to the patients' strength and desire for participation and the health education leads to illness-perception learning. Both psychosocial support and health education develop patients' empowerment, while PR promotes opportunities to health transitions. The empowerment experienced by the patients in taking advantage of these opportunities leads to positive impacts over time. If they do not exploit these occasions, negative impacts arise in their life, which make the treatment assistance or follow-up more difficult. The COPD patients' feedback revealed that PR promotes a better 'way of life', well-being and important behavioural changes towards health promotion.

  1. A multicenter family practitioners' research on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease screening using the COPD Assessment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Eniste, Koncuy; Basaran, Ebru Onuker; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Tuna, Sumeyye

    2017-11-01

    Spirometry is known to be a gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is an eight-item questionnaire currently in use to evaluate patients with COPD. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate if CAT is an adequate tool for screening COPD. In total, 600 persons aging ⩾40 years old were randomly selected from three different family practice units located in the city center. CAT was asked to the participants and a spirometry was used to assess pulmonary obstruction. Pulmonary obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in first second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC)COPD diagnosis was confirmed with the reversibility test. The relationship between CAT results and pulmonary function test values was evaluated. In this sampling, the prevalence of COPD was 4.2%. Reliability of the CAT in the study group was acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.84). The CAT scores was significantly higher in patients with COPD (PCOPD. CAT is a reliable questionnaire and there is an apparent relationship between the total CAT scores and COPD. However, CAT's ability to screen COPD is limited since it may miss the symptom-free cases.

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test scores corresponding to modified Medical Research Council grades among COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    In assigning patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to subgroups according to the updated guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, discrepancies have been noted between the COPD assessment test (CAT) criteria and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) criteria. We investigated the determinants of symptom and risk groups and sought to identify a better CAT criterion. This retrospective study included COPD patients seen between June 20, 2012, and December 5, 2012. The CAT score that can accurately predict an mMRC grade ≥ 2 versus COPD patients, the percentages of patients classified into subgroups A, B, C, and D were 24.5%, 47.2%, 4.2%, and 24.1% based on CAT criteria and 49.3%, 22.4%, 8.9%, and 19.4% based on mMRC criteria, respectively. More than 90% of the patients who met the mMRC criteria for the 'more symptoms group' also met the CAT criteria. AUROC and CART analyses suggested that a CAT score ≥ 15 predicted an mMRC grade ≥ 2 more accurately than the current CAT score criterion. During follow-up, patients with CAT scores of 10 to 14 did not have a different risk of exacerbation versus those with CAT scores COPD patients.

  3. Applications of systems science in biomedical research regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic diseases: opportunities, promise, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Liu, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the application of systems science (SS) in biomedical research, particularly regarding obesity and noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) research, has been growing rapidly over the past decade. SS is a broad term referring to a family of research approaches that include modeling. As an emerging approach being adopted in public health, SS focuses on the complex dynamic interaction between agents (e.g., people) and subsystems defined at different levels. SS provides a conceptual framework for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches that address complex problems. SS has unique advantages for studying obesity and NCD problems in comparison to the traditional analytic approaches. The application of SS in biomedical research dates back to the 1960s with the development of computing capacity and simulation software. In recent decades, SS has been applied to addressing the growing global obesity epidemic. There is growing appreciation and support for using SS in the public health field, with many promising opportunities. There are also many challenges and uncertainties, including methodologic, funding, and institutional barriers. Integrated efforts by stakeholders that address these challenges are critical for the successful application of SS in the future. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Definition of chronic kidney disease and measurement of kidney function in original research papers: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jocelyn; Glynn, Liam G

    2011-09-01

    Over the past decade, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become an area of intensive clinical and epidemiological research. Despite the clarity provided by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines, there appears to be within the CKD research literature significant disagreement on how to define CKD and measure kidney function. The objectives of this study were to investigate the variety of methods used to define CKD and to measure kidney function in original research papers as well as to investigate whether the quality of the journal had any effect on the quality of the methodology used. This was a descriptive review and not a meta-analysis. Information was extracted from each article including publication details (including the journal's impact factor), definition of CKD, method used to estimate kidney function and quantity of serum creatinine readings used to define CKD. An electronic search of MEDLINE through OVID was completed using the search term CKD. The search was limited to articles in English published in 2009. Studies were included in the review only if they were original research articles including patients with CKD. Articles were excluded if they reported data from a paediatric population, a population solely on dialysis or if there was no full-text access through OVID. Each article was assessed for quality with respect to using KDOQI CKD definition criteria. A description of the pooled data was completed and chi-square tests were used to investigate the relation between article quality and journal quality. Analysis was carried out using SPSS (15.0) and a P-value of definitions are being used in original research articles to define CKD and measure kidney function which calls into question the validity and reliability of such research findings and associated clinical guidelines. International consensus is urgently required to improve validity and generalizability of CKD research findings.

  5. Data cleaning and management protocols for linked perinatal research data: a good practice example from the Smoking MUMS (Maternal Use of Medications and Safety) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Havard, Alys; Jorm, Louisa R

    2017-07-11

    Data cleaning is an important quality assurance in data linkage research studies. This paper presents the data cleaning and preparation process for a large-scale cross-jurisdictional Australian study (the Smoking MUMS Study) to evaluate the utilisation and safety of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy. Perinatal records for all deliveries (2003-2012) in the States of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia were linked to State-based data collections including hospital separation, emergency department and death data (mothers and babies) and congenital defect notifications (babies in NSW) by State-based data linkage units. A national data linkage unit linked pharmaceutical dispensing data for the mothers. All linkages were probabilistic. Twenty two steps assessed the uniqueness of records and consistency of items within and across data sources, resolved discrepancies in the linkages between units, and identified women having records in both States. State-based linkages yielded a cohort of 783,471 mothers and 1,232,440 babies. Likely false positive links relating to 3703 mothers were identified. Corrections of baby's date of birth and age, and parity were made for 43,578 records while 1996 records were flagged as duplicates. Checks for the uniqueness of the matches between State and national linkages detected 3404 ID clusters, suggestive of missed links in the State linkages, and identified 1986 women who had records in both States. Analysis of content data can identify inaccurate links that cannot be detected by data linkage units that have access to personal identifiers only. Perinatal researchers are encouraged to adopt the methods presented to ensure quality and consistency among studies using linked administrative data.

  6. Challenges in linking health research to policy: a commentary on developing a multi-stakeholder response to orphans and vulnerable children in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anakwah Kwadwo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Research and Development Division (RDD of the Ghana Health Service (GHS has a remit to build research capacity and conduct policy relevant research. By being situated within the GHS, RDD has good access to directors and programme managers, within and beyond the Ministry of Health. This structure has been facilitating collaboration through research cycles for 20 years, from agenda setting to discussions on policy relevance. This approach has been applied to research activities within the Addressing the Balance of Burden in AIDS (ABBA Research Programme Consortium to tackle the challenges facing HIV affected orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs. The government strategy on OVCs recommends they should be encouraged to live in their home communities rather than in institutions. We present lessons here on efforts to use research to build a response across different agencies to address the problems that communities and families face in caring for these children in their communities. This approach to building consensus on research priorities points to the value of collaboration and dialogue with multiple stakeholders as a means of fostering ownership of a research process and supporting the relevance of research to different groups. Our experience has shown that if the context within which researchers, policy makers and stakeholders work were better understood, the links between them were improved and research were communicated more effectively, then better policy making which links across different sectors may follow. At the same time, collaboration among these different stakeholders to ensure that research meets social needs, must also satisfy the requirements of scientific rigour.

  7. Acute and chronic effects of NMDA receptor antagonists in rodents, relevance to negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a translational link to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Joanna C; Harte, Michael K; Haddad, Peter M; Lydall, Emma S; Dwyer, Dominic M

    2014-05-01

    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need as they are common, persistent, respond poorly to existing treatments and lead to disability. Blunted affect, alogia, asociality, anhedonia and avolition are regarded as key negative symptoms despite DSM-IV-TR specifying a more limited range. The key to development of improved therapies is improved animal models that mimic the human condition in terms of behaviour and pathology and that predict efficacy of novel treatments in patients. Accumulating evidence shows that NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists mimic cognitive deficits of relevance to schizophrenia in animals, along with associated pathological changes. This review examines evidence for the ability of NMDAR antagonists to mimic anhedonia and asociality, two negative symptoms of schizophrenia, in animals. The use of various species, paradigms and treatment regimens are reviewed. We conclude that sub-chronic treatment with NMDAR antagonists, typically PCP, induces social withdrawal in animals but not anhedonia. NMDAR antagonists have further effects in paradigms such as motivational salience that may be useful for mimicking other aspects of negative symptoms but these require further development. Sub-chronic treatment regimens of NMDAR antagonists also have some neurobiological effects of relevance to negative symptoms. It is our view that a sub-chronic treatment regime with NMDAR antagonists, particularly PCP, with animals tested following a wash-out period and in a battery of tests to assess certain behaviours of relevance to negative symptoms and social withdrawal (the animal equivalent of asociality) is valuable. This will enhance our understanding of the psycho and neuropathology of specific negative symptom domains and allow early detection of novel pharmacological targets. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP All rights reserved.

  8. Connecting Attendance and Academic Outcomes. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 2 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report highlights several trends in Oregon that show the correlation between chronic absenteeism and various academic outcomes. Oregon student patterns follow the national trend in that students with better attendance have better outcomes. Fifth-grade chronic absenteeism is a moderately strong predictor of chronic absenteeism in subsequent…

  9. Association of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and X-linked chronic granulomatous disease in a child with anemia and recurrent infections

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo-Florez, P.; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares [UNIFESP; Lopez, J. A.; Redher, J.; Newburger, P. E.; Alla-Saad, S. T.; Condino-Neto, A.

    2004-01-01

    Patients with severe leukocyte G6PD deficiency may present with impairment of NADPH oxidase activity and a history of recurrent infections, mimicking the phenotype of chronic granulomatous disease. We report herein a child with recurrent infections who initially received the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency. His erythrocyte G6PD activity was reduced: 1.8 U/g Hb (normal: 12.1 +/- 2.1 U/g Hb). Further studies revealed that G6PD activity in neutrophils, mononuclear leukocytes, and Epstein-Barr virus...

  10. Post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain: links between psycho and patho(logie - Trastorno de estrés postraumático y dolor crónico: nexos entre psico y pato(logía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia E. López Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this paper is to provide a brief review of the existing literature investigating the relationship between chronic pain and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD. There is a growing body of research that indicates that PSTD and chronic pain frequently co-occur, and that both conditions may interact in such a way as to negatively impact the course and outcome of the treatment of either disorder. People with both health problems tend to have greater distress and impairment compared to those with only one of these conditions. In recent years, several important conceptual developments and potential mechanisms have been proposed on how and why these disorders often co-occur and how they can interact with one another. The research suggests that variables such as fear and avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, and catastrophizing, as well as general and specific psychological and biological features, may help account for the development and maintenance of both conditions.

  11. Chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  12. In their own words: the value of qualitative research to improve the care of children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Camilla S; Craig, Jonathan C; Tong, Allison

    2017-09-01

    Patient- and family-centered care is hailed as a hallmark of high-quality pediatric care. This partnership between patients, families and their healthcare providers is central to caring for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), given the long-term and profound impact of the disease and its treatment on the development and quality of life of these children. This paradigm hinges on a comprehensive and detailed understanding of the needs, beliefs and values of children with CKD and their families. However, their perspectives may remain undisclosed during time-limited clinical consultations and because of beliefs that if they did disclose their concerns, their care would be jeopardized. Qualitative research provides an avenue for children and families to articulate their perspectives and experiences and thereby to generate relevant, in-depth and often compelling insights to inform care. Yet, qualitative studies remain sparse in biomedical journals. Increasing both our awareness of the role of qualitative research in improving care and outcomes for children and adolescents with CKD and our understanding of the conduct and rigor of qualitative studies is required. This article will outline how qualitative research can generate relevant evidence to inform practice and policy in children with CKD, provide an overview of qualitative methods and introduce a framework to appraise qualitative research. More evidence derived from qualitative research is needed to inform shared decision-making and the development of interventions and policies that address the preferences and priorities of children with CKD and their families. Ultimately, this strategy may help to improve the outcomes that they regard as critical to their care.

  13. THE NARRATIVE OF A CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE CLIENT: ORAL HISTORY AS RESEARCH STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Schleder Gonçalves Kobus

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to understand the meanings of the failure kidney for a client whofor twelve years is in hemodialisys treatment. The study was developed from November, 2002 through March,2003.The Oral History as a research strategy showed the following categories: The failure kidney sick diagnosticdiscovery and the routine with it; The hemodialisy treatment and its limitation; The concerns about self image; Thehopeness for a kidney transplant; The relationship with health professionals team; The family support; Newprojects of life; Attempts to feel itself useful. The patient’s narrative showed how difficult is the treatment, dealingchallenges daily, discoveries and hopes, a constant effort to fight against the limits, but demonstrating capacity toexceed the suffering. It was evident the positive and trustful relationship established with the health professionalteam, strengthening its social and ethical commitment in co-responsibility relationship, involvement, cooperation,consensus, dialogue and participative feelings. This study presents how important is to perceive each person as asingular one and the way that this person lives and deals with illness situation.

  14. Estimation of minimal clinically important change of the Japanese version of EQ-5D in patients with chronic noncancer pain: a retrospective research using real-world data

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa, Kazutake; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fujie, Motoko; Ogawa, Yoshimasa; Yajima, Tsutomu; Kawai, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) is routinely assessed and evaluated in medical research. However, in Japan, there is a lack of solid cutoff criteria for evaluating QoL improvement in chronic noncancer pain management. The present study was conducted to identify the minimal clinically important change (MCIC) of the Japanese version of EuroQol-5D 3L(EQ-5D) utility score and numeric rating scale (NRS) with an emphasis on chronic noncancer pain. Methods The data source for this post hoc research...

  15. Proteomic investigation of the ventral rat hippocampus links DRP-2 to escitalopram treatment resistance and SNAP to stress resilience in the chronic mild stress model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Christina; Jayatissa, Magdalena N; Enghild, Jan J

    2007-01-01

    etiology and recovery. Thus two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis was employed to compare the ventral hippocampal proteomes between different treatment groups in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. The CMS paradigm induces anhedonic behaviour, which is a major symptom......The development of depression as well as recovery from depression is most likely accompanied by a change in protein expression profiles. The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively investigate global protein expression differences independent of any hypothesis describing depression...... of depression, by exposing rats to a series of mild stressors for 7 weeks, with antidepressant treatment during the last 4 weeks. In the CMS model, animals were split into six different groups at the end of treatment; unchallenged control escitalopram (n = 12), unchallenged control vehicle (n = 12), CMS vehicle...

  16. DNA methylation and potential multigenerational epigenetic effects linked to uranium chronic low-dose exposure in gonads of males and females rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmhiri, G; Gloaguen, C; Grison, S; Kereselidze, D; Elie, C; Tack, K; Benderitter, M; Lestaevel, P; Legendre, A; Souidi, M

    2018-01-05

    An increased health problem in industrialised countries is the contemporary concern of public and scientific community as well. This has been attributed in part to accumulated environmental pollutants especially radioactive substances and the use of nuclear power plants worldwide. However, the outcome of chronic exposure to low doses of a radionuclide such as uranium remains unknown. Recently, a paradigm shift in the perception of risk of radiotoxicology has emerged through investigating the possibility of transmission of biological effects over generations, in particular by epigenetic pathways. These processes are known for their crucial roles associated with the development of several diseases. The current work investigates the epigenetic effect of chronic exposure to low doses of uranium and its inheritance across generations. Materials and Methods To test this proposition, a rodent multigenerational model, males and females, were exposed to a non-toxic concentration of uranium (40mgL -1 drinking water) for nine months. The uranium effects on were evaluated over three generations (F0, F1 and F2) by analysing the DNA methylation profile and DNMT genes expression in ovaries and testes tissues. Here we report a significant hypermethylation of testes DNA (p <0.005) whereas ovaries showed hypomethylated DNA (p <0.005). Interestingly, this DNA methylation profile was significantly maintained across generations F0, F1 and F2. Furthermore, qPCR results of both tissues imply a significant change in the expression of DNA methyltransferase genes (DNMT 1 and DNMT3a/b) as well. Altogether, our work demonstrates for the first time a sex-dependance and inheritance of epigenetic marks, DNA methylation, as a biological response to the exposure to low doses of uranium. However, it is not clear which type of reproductive cell type is more responsive in this context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum uric acid is a GFR-independent long-term predictor of acute and chronic renal insufficiency: the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Kidney disease is commonly accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, the contribution of serum uric acid (SUA) to kidney injury is debated. Our objective was to assess the long-term prediction of renal failure by SUA. Methods. Visit 2 participants in the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort with normal baseline kidney function were followed for 24–28 years. SUA levels were assessed for associations with acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) as defined by hospital discharge records, and mortality, ascertained through linkage with the national population registry. Results. Among 2449 eligible participants (1470 men, 979 women aged 35–78 years in 1976–79), SUA was positively linked with male sex, serum creatinine and components of the metabolic syndrome but was lower in smokers and in diabetic subjects. The 22- to 25-year incidence of hospital-diagnosed kidney failure (145 first events, 67% CRF) and the 24- to 28-year mortality (587 events) were higher in subject with hyperuricemia (>6.5 mg/dL in men and >5.3 mg/dL in women, reflecting the upper quintiles), independent of baseline kidney function and covariates. Hyperuricemia conferred adjusted hazard ratios of 1.36 (P = 0.003), 2.14 (P < 0.001) and 2.87 (P = 0.003) for mortality, CRF and ARF, respectively. Conclusions. SUA predicts renal failure incidence and all-cause mortality independently of demographic and clinical covariates. These results lend support to the undertaking of clinical trials to examine the effect of uric acid-lowering strategies on kidney outcomes. PMID:21220750

  18. Post-traumatic stress symptoms in children and adolescents with chronic pain: A topical review of the literature and a proposed framework for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, A.L.; Wilson, A.C.; Noel, M.; Palermo, T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective The co-occurrence of chronic pain and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has gained increasing research attention. Studies on associations among pain and PTSS or PTSD in youth have largely been conducted in the context of acute injury or trauma. Less is known about the risk for co-occurrence with paediatric chronic pain. In this review, we (1) propose a conceptual framework to outline factors salient during childhood that may be associated with symptom severity, co-occurrence and mutual maintenance, (2) present relevant literature on PTSS in youth with acute and chronic pain and identify research gaps and (3) provide recommendations to guide paediatric research examining shared symptomatology. Databases and data treatment Electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) were used to identify relevant articles using the search terms ‘child, adolescent, paediatric, chronic pain, acute pain, post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder’. Studies were retrieved and reviewed based on relevance to the topic. Results Our findings revealed that existing biobehavioural and ecological models of paediatric chronic pain lack attention to traumatic events or the potential development of PTSS. Paediatric studies are also limited by lack of a conceptual framework for understanding the prevalence, risk and trajectories of PTSS in youth with chronic pain. Conclusions Our new developmentally informed framework highlights individual symptoms and shared contextual factors that are important when examining potential associations among paediatric chronic pain and PTSS. Future studies should consider bidirectional and mutually maintaining associations, which will be aided by prospective, longitudinal designs. PMID:27275585

  19. Executive Functions, Memory, and Social Cognitive Deficits and Recovery in Chronic Alcoholism: A Critical Review to Inform Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholism is a complex and dynamic disease, punctuated by periods of abstinence and relapse, and influenced by a multitude of vulnerability factors. Chronic excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cognitive deficits, ranging from mild to severe, in executive functions, memory, and metacognitive abilities, with associated impairment in emotional processes and social cognition. These deficits can compromise efforts in initiating and sustaining abstinence by hampering efficacy of clinical treatment and can obstruct efforts in enabling good decision making success in interpersonal/social interactions, and awareness of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. Despite evidence for differences in recovery levels of selective cognitive processes, certain deficits can persist even with prolonged sobriety. Herein is presented a review of alcohol-related cognitive impairments affecting component processes of executive functioning, memory, and the recently investigated cognitive domains of metamemory, social cognition, and emotional processing; also considered are trajectories of cognitive recovery with abstinence. Finally, in the spirit of critical review, limitations of current knowledge are noted and avenues for new research efforts are proposed that focus on (i) the interaction among emotion-cognition processes and identification of vulnerability factors contributing to the development of emotional and social processing deficits and (ii) the time line of cognitive recovery by tracking alcoholism's dynamic course of sobriety and relapse. Knowledge about the heterochronicity of cognitive recovery in alcoholism has the potential of indicating at which points during recovery intervention may be most beneficial. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. 车载系统MirrorLink方案的研究%Research of head-unit MirrorLink solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元文; 陈玮

    2013-01-01

    介绍了车载系统的MirrorLink方案,分析了它的协议架构,对其两个主要内容——VNC架构和音视频传输架构做了介绍.分析了VNC架构中的核心RFB协议的过程和实现,RFB协议是负责MirrorLink系统中的界面传输和控制信号的传递,对它的编码要求进行分析,提出了更加优化的编码方式;在音视频架构中,提出了一种改进的可应用于车载MirrorLink中的UPnp视音频传输方案.%This paper presents the ear' s MirrorLink solution,analyses the protocol architecture. It simply introduced the two main content-VNC architecture and audio & video transmission architecture. In VNC architecture introduced the core protocol-RFB protocol implementation, it used to transfer the HMI screen and the control signals, analyzed coding requirements and proposed more optimized coding methods. In audio & video transmission architecture it proposed an improved UPnp video and audio transmission scheme ,it can be applied to the vehicle MirrorLink solution.

  1. Prefrontal cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission and cognitive function: drawing links to schizophrenia from preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Maric T; Piantadosi, Patrick T; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is one of the most pervasive and debilitating aspects of the disorder. Among the numerous neural abnormalities that may contribute to schizophrenia symptoms, perturbations in markers for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), particularly within the frontal lobes, are some of the most reliable alterations observed at postmortem examination. However, how prefrontal GABA dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia remains unclear. We provide an overview of postmortem GABAergic perturbations in the brain affected by schizophrenia and describe circumstantial evidence linking these alterations to cognitive dysfunction. In addition, we conduct a survey of studies using neurodevelopmental, genetic, and pharmacologic rodent models that induce schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments, highlighting the convergence of these mechanistically distinct approaches to prefrontal GABAergic disruption. We review preclinical studies that have directly targeted prefrontal cortical GABAergic transmission using local application of GABAA receptor antagonists. These studies have provided an important link between GABA transmission and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia because they show that reducing prefrontal inhibitory transmission induces various cognitive, emotional, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble aspects of the disorder. These converging clinical and preclinical findings provide strong support for the idea that perturbations in GABA signaling drive certain forms of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Future studies using this approach will yield information to refine further a putative "GABA hypothesis" of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stages of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  3. A cross sectional observational study of research activity of allied health teams: is there a link with self-reported success, motivators and barriers to undertaking research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Rachel J; Mickan, Sharon; Bisset, Leanne

    2017-02-06

    Team-based approaches to research capacity building (RCB) may be an efficient means to promote allied health research participation and activity. In order to tailor such interventions, a clearer understanding of current patterns of research participation within allied health teams is needed. Different self-report measures exist which evaluate a team's research capacity and participation, as well as associated barriers and motivators. However, it remains unclear how such measures are associated with a team's actual research activity (e.g., journal publications, funding received). In response, this observational study aimed to identify the research activity, self-reported success, and motivations and barriers to undertaking research of eight allied health professional (AHP) teams and to explore whether any relationships exist between the self-reported measures and actual research activity within each team. A total of 95 AHPs from eight teams completed the research capacity and culture survey to evaluate team success, barriers and motivators to undertaking research, and an audit of research activity from January 2013 to August 2014 was undertaken within each team. Kendell's correlation coefficients were used to determine the association between research activity (i.e., number of journal publications, ethically approved projects and funding received) and the self-reported measures. Seven out of eight teams rated their teams as having average success in research and demonstrated some form of research activity including at least two ethically approved projects. Research activity varied between teams, with funding received ranging from $0 to over $100,000, and half the teams not producing any journal publications. Team motivators demonstrated a stronger association with research activity compared to barriers, with the motivator "enhancing team credibility" being significantly associated with funding received. No significant association between self-reported research

  4. Constitution of a group of Czech and French uranium miners in order to estimate lung cancer risk linked to low chronic exposure to radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Tomasek, L.

    1996-01-01

    West Bohemian and French uranium miners are characterized by a long duration of exposure to radon and its decay products, in comparison to most of the other groups of miners, studied in the recent international joint analysis by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. This analysis has confirmed the linearly increasing risk of lung cancer by cumulative radon exposure, describing the different factors that may influence this dose-response relationship. One of the main factors presently discussed is the influence of the exposure-rate effect: in other words, has the same cumulated exposure spread over 10 years the same risk of lung cancer as if it is cumulated in 2 years? The implication of an inverse exposure-rate effect for low chronic exposures as well as some methodological approaches will be discussed and tested by using the data of the Czech and French cohorts. These two cohorts present annual exposures varying by a factor of 5 to 10, French exposure rates being close or even less than 0.1 Working Level during the last 20 years. The project is integrated in a larger European project on uranium miners, co-ordinated by IPSN. (author)

  5. Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance consensus treatment plans for juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated and idiopathic chronic anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Han, Sheila T; Lo, Mindy S; Henderson, Lauren A; Lerman, Melissa A; Abramson, Leslie; Cooper, Ashley M; Parsa, Miriam F; Zemel, Lawrence S; Ronis, Tova; Beukelman, Timothy; Cox, Erika; Sen, H Nida; Holland, Gary N; Brunner, Hermine I; Lasky, Andrew; Rabinovich, C Egla

    2018-05-28

    Systemic immunosuppressive treatment of pediatric chronic anterior uveitis (CAU), both juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated and idiopathic varies, making it difficult to identify best treatments. The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) developed consensus treatment plans (CTPs) for CAU for the purpose of reducing practice variability and allowing future comparison of treatments by comparative effectiveness analysis techniques. A core group of pediatric rheumatologists, ophthalmologists with uveitis expertise, and a lay advisor comprised the CARRA uveitis workgroup who performed literature review on pharmacologic treatments, held teleconferences, and developed a case-based survey administered to the CARRA membership to delineate treatment practices. We utilized 3 face-to-face consensus meetings using nominal group technique to develop CTPs. The survey identified areas of treatment practice variability. We developed 2 CTPs for the treatment of CAU, case definitions, and monitoring parameters. The first CTP is directed at children naïve to steroid-sparing medication, and the second at children initiating biologic therapy with options for methotrexate, adalimumab and infliximab. We defined a core dataset and outcome measures with data collection at 3 and 6 months after therapy initiation. The CARRA membership voted acceptance of the CTPs with a >95% (N = 233) approval. Using consensus methodology, two standardized CTPs were developed for systemic immunosuppressive treatment of CAU. These CTPs are not meant as treatment guidelines, but are designed for further pragmatic research within the CARRA research network. Use of these CTPs in a prospective comparison effectiveness study should improve outcomes by identifying best practice options. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing a survey instrument to assess the readiness of primary care data, genetic and disease registries to conduct linked research: TRANSFoRm International Research Readiness (TIRRE survey instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Leppenwell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Clinical data are collected for routine care in family practice; there are also a growing number of genetic and cancer registry data repositories. The Translational Research and Patient Safety in Europe (TRANSFoRm project seeks to facilitate research using linked data from more than one source. We performed a requirements analysis which identified a wide range of data and business process requirements that need to be met before linking primary care and either genetic or disease registry data.Objectives To develop a survey to assess the readiness of data repositories to participate in linked research – the Transform International Research Readiness (TIRRE survey.Method We develop the questionnaire based on our requirement analysis; with questions at micro-, meso- and macro levels of granularity, study-specific questions about diabetes and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD, and research track record. The scope of the data required was extensive. We piloted this instrument, conducting ten preliminary telephone interviews to evaluate the response to the questionnaire.Results Using feedback gained from these interviews we revised the questionnaire; clarifying questions that were difficult to answer and utilising skip logic to create different series of questions for the various types of data repository. We simplified the questionnaire replacing free-text responses with yes/no or picking list options, wherever possible. We placed the final questionnaire online and encouraged its use (www.clininf.eu/jointirre/info.html.Conclusion Limited field testing suggests that TIRRE is capable of collecting comprehensive and relevant data about the suitability and readiness of data repositories to participate in linked data research.

  7. Interactive design of farm conversion : linking agricultural research and farmer learning for sustainable small scale horticulture production in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: interactive conversion design / vegetable production / small farms / sustainable farming / Colombia / learning processes / facilitation / agricultural research methods

  8. Treatment choices for the glycaemic management of patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease: Analysis of the SAIL patient linked dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Thinzar; Davies, Gareth I; Rice, Sam; Chess, James; Stephens, Jeffrey W

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in type 2 diabetes and limits the treatment choices for glycaemic control. Our aim was to examine real-world prescribing for managing hyperglycaemia in the presence of CKD. The SAIL (Secure Anonymised Information Linkage) databank was used to examine prescribing during the period from the 1st of January to 30th December 2014. CKD was defined as:- none or mild CKD, eGFR ≥60mL/min/1.73m 2 ; moderate CKD eGFR <60mL/min/1.73m 2 ; and severe CKD eGFR <30mL/min/1.73m 2 or requiring dialysis. We identified 9585 subjects who received any form of glucose lowering therapy (8363 had no/mild CKD; 1137 moderate CKD; 85 severe CKD). There was a linear association between insulin use and CKD severity with approximately 54% of those with severe CKD receiving insulin. Sulphonylureas use did not differ among the CKD groups and was approximately 40%. Metformin showed a linear decrease across the groups, however approximately 21% in the severe CKD group received metformin. The use of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) was approximately 20% and did not differ among groups. The DPP-4 inhibitor choice was:- 1% vildagliptin, 9% saxagliptin, 58% sitagliptin, and 32% linaglitpin. With respect to sitagliptin and saxagliptin, 72% and 62% received an inappropriately high dose in the setting of CKD. We observed that a considerable proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD were receiving metformin and non dose-adjusted DPP-4 inhibitors. Careful consideration of medication use and dosaging is required in the setting of CKD and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Linking Environmental Research and Practice: Lessons From The Integration of Climate Science and Water Management in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Rice, J.; Woodhouse, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts to better connect scientific research with people and organizations involved in environmental decision making are receiving increased interest and attention. Some of the challenges we currently face, however—including complex questions associated with climate change—present unique challenges because of their scale and scope. Focused research on the intersections between environment and society has provided substantial insight into dynamics of large-scale environmental change and the related impacts on people, natural resources, and ecosystems, yet our ability to connect this research to real-world decision making remains limited. Addressing these complex environmental problems requires broad cooperation between scientists and those who may apply research results in decision making, but there are few templates for guiding the growing number of scientists and practitioners now engaging in this kind of cooperative work. This presentation will offer a set of heuristics for carrying out collaborative work between scientists and practitioners. These heuristics were derived from research that examined the direct experiences of water resources professionals and climate researchers who have been working to integrate science and practice.

  10. A comparison of research into cachexia, wasting and related skeletal muscle syndromes in three chronic disease areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Coats, Andrew J; Shewan, Louise G

    2017-05-15

    We compared the frequency of cancer, heart and lung related cachexia and cachexia-related research articles in the specialist journal, Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM) to those seen in a leading European journal in each specialist area during 2015 and 2016 to assess whether work on cachexia and related fields is relatively over or under represented in each specialist area. In the dedicated journal, Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, there were 44 references related to cancer, 5 related to respiratory disease, 5 related to heart failure, and 21 related to more than one of these chronic diseases. Despite this cancer preponderance, in the European Journal of Cancer in the two publication years, there were only 5 relevant publications (0.67% of the journal output), compared to 16 (1.41%) in the European Respiratory Journal and 10 (2.19%) in the European Journal of Heart Failure. There is considerable under-representation of cancer cachexia-related papers in the major European Cancer journal despite a high proportion in the dedicated cachexia journal. The under-representation is even more marked when expressed as a percentage, 0.67%, compared to 1.41% and 2.19% of the lung and heart journals respectively. These results are consistent with a worrying lack of interest in, or publication of, cachexia and related syndromes research in the cancer literature in Europe compared to its importance as a clinical syndrome. Greater interest is shown in lung and cardiology journals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Airway oxidative stress and inflammation markers in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases(COPD) patients are linked with exposure to traffic-related air pollution: a panel study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Zhao, Q; Liu, B B; Wang, J; Xu, H B; Zhang, Y; Song, X M; He, B; Huang, W

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effects of short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on airway oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) patients. A panel of forty-five diagnosed COPD patients were recruited and followed with repeated measurements of biomarkers reflecting airway oxidative stress and inflammation in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), including nitrate and nitrite, 8-isoprostane, interleukin-8 and acidity of EBC (pH), between 5(th) September in 2014 and 26(th) May in 2015. The associations between air pollution and biomarkers were analyzed with mixed-effects models, controlling for confounding covariates. The concentration of PM2.5, black carbon, NO2 and number concentration of particles with diameter less than 100 nm (PNC100), and particles in size ranges between 100 nm to 200 nm (PNC100-200) during the first follow-up were (156.5±117.7), (10.7±0.7), (165.9±66.0)μg/m(3) and 397 521±96 712, 79 421±44 090 per cubic meter, respectively; the concentration were (67.9±29.6), (3.4±1.3), (126.1±10.9) μg/m(3) and (295 682±39 430), (24 693±12 369) per cubic meter, respectively during the second follow-up. The differences were of significance, with t value being 3.10, 4.42, 2.61, 4.02, 5.12, respectively and P value being 0.005,stress. For an IQR increase in PM2.5, black carbon and PNC100-200, respective increases of 0.17 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.02-0.33), 0.12 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.01-0.24) and 0.13 ng/ml (95% CI:0.02-0.24) in interleukin-8 in EBC reflecting airway inflammation were also observed. An IQR increase in ozone was also associated with a 0.24 (95%CI: 0.05-0.42) decrease in pH of EBC reflecting increased airway inflammation. No significant association observed between air pollution and 8-isoprostane in EBC in COPD patients. Our results suggested that short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution was responsible for exacerbation of airway oxidative stress and inflammation in COPD patients.

  12. If It Goes up, Must It Come Down? Chronic Stress and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenocortical Axis in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Zhou, Eric S.

    2007-01-01

    The notion that chronic stress fosters disease by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis is featured prominently in many theories. The research linking chronic stress and HPA function is contradictory, however, with some studies reporting increased activation, and others reporting the opposite. This meta-analysis showed…

  13. Childhood Poverty, Chronic Stress, and Young Adult Working Memory: The Protective Role of Self-Regulatory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research shows that childhood poverty as well as chronic stress can damage children's executive functioning (EF) capacities, including working memory. However, it is also clear that not all children suffer the same degree of adverse consequences from risk exposure. We show that chronic stress early in life (ages 9-13) links childhood…

  14. Establishing an Empirical Link between Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) and SLA: A Meta-Analysis of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huifen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on interactionist and socio-cultural theories, tools provided in computer-mediated communication (CMC) environments have long been considered able to create an environment that shares many communicative features with face-to-face communication. Over the past two decades, researchers have employed a variety of strategies to examine the…

  15. The Link between Classroom Ethnic Diversity and Civic Attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany. Research Briefing No. 75

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief in educational circles that ethnically mixed schools contribute to inter-ethnic tolerance and community cohesion by making sustained inter-ethnic contact possible. This research explores the relation between classroom ethno-racial diversity and civic attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany using data from the…

  16. Harmonising and linking biomedical and clinical data across disparate data archives to enable integrative cross-biobank research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Spjuth (Ola); M. Krestyaninova (Maria); J. Hastings (Janna); H.-Y. Shen (Huei-Yi); J. Heikkinen (Jani); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); A. Langhammer (Arnulf); C. Ladenvall (Claes); T. Esko (Tõnu); M.-A. Persson (Mats-Ake); J. Heggland (Jon); J. Dietrich (Joern); S. Ose (Sandra); C. Gieger (Christian); J.S. Ried (Janina); A. Peters; I. Fortier (Isabel); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); J. Klovins (Janis); L. Zaharenko (Linda); G. Willemsen (Gonneke); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J.-E. Litton (Jan-Eric); J. Karvanen (Juha); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); L. Groop (Leif); J. Rung (Johan); J. Palmgren (Juni); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Hveem (Kristian); A. Metspalu (Andres); S. Ripatti (Samuli); I. Prokopenko (Inga); J.R. Harris (Jennifer)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractA wealth of biospecimen samples are stored in modern globally distributed biobanks. Biomedical researchers worldwide need to be able to combine the available resources to improve the power of large-scale studies. A prerequisite for this effort is to be able to search and access

  17. How the Arrow of Feedback Links the Theories of Organisational Change: A Multi-Method Use of Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. R.; Ranjan, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the implementation of "5S"--a Japanese concept of housekeeping--through action research methodology. The organisational issue it tackles is the cultural inhibition among the Indian population against cleaning. It uses soft systems methodology (SSM), action science and Schein's idea of clinical enquiry to bring about an…

  18. What Current Literature Tells Us about Sustainable Diets: Emerging Research Linking Dietary Patterns, Environmental Sustainability, and Economics12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), “Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations.” Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. PMID:25593141

  19. What current literature tells us about sustainable diets: emerging research linking dietary patterns, environmental sustainability, and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auestad, Nancy; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of sustainable diets, although not new, is gaining increased attention across the globe, especially in relation to projected population growth and growing concerns about climate change. As defined by the FAO (Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium, Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets 2010; FAO 2012), "Sustainable diets are those diets with low environmental impacts which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life for present and future generations." Consistent and credible science that brings together agriculture, food systems, nutrition, public health, environment, economics, culture, and trade is needed to identify synergies and trade-offs and to inform guidance on vital elements of healthy, sustainable diets. The aim of this article is to review the emerging research on environmental and related economic impacts of dietary patterns, including habitual eating patterns, nutritionally balanced diets, and a variety of different dietary scenarios. Approaches to research designs, methodologies, and data sources are compared and contrasted to identify research gaps and future research needs. To date, it is difficult to assimilate all of the disparate approaches, and more concerted efforts for multidisciplinary studies are needed. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Links between the built environment, climate and population health: interdisciplinary environmental change research in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joyce Klein; Sclar, Elliott D; Kinney, Patrick L; Knowlton, Kim; Crauderueff, Robert; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

    2007-10-01

    Global climate change is expected to pose increasing challenges for cities in the following decades, placing greater stress and impacts on multiple social and biophysical systems, including population health, coastal development, urban infrastructure, energy demand, and water supplies. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanisation of poverty exists, with increased challenges for urban populations and local governance to protect and sustain the wellbeing of growing cities. In the context of these 2 overarching trends, interdisciplinary research at the city scale is prioritised for understanding the social impacts of climate change and variability and for the evaluation of strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive responses to climate change. This article discusses 2 recent initiatives of The Earth Institute at Columbia University (EI) as examples of research that integrates the methods and objectives of several disciplines, including environmental health science and urban planning, to understand the potential public health impacts of global climate change and mitigative measures for the more localised effects of the urban heat island in the New York City metropolitan region. These efforts embody 2 distinct research approaches. The New York Climate & Health Project created a new integrated modeling system to assess the public health impacts of climate and land use change in the metropolitan region. The Cool City Project aims for more applied policy-oriented research that incorporates the local knowledge of community residents to understand the costs and benefits of interventions in the built environment that might serve to mitigate the harmful impacts of climate change and variability, and protect urban populations from health stressors associated with summertime heat. Both types of research are potentially useful for understanding the impacts of environmental change at the urban scale, the policies needed to address these

  1. Estimation of minimal clinically important change of the Japanese version of EQ-5D in patients with chronic noncancer pain: a retrospective research using real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Kazutake; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fujie, Motoko; Ogawa, Yoshimasa; Yajima, Tsutomu; Kawai, Koji

    2016-03-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is routinely assessed and evaluated in medical research. However, in Japan, there is a lack of solid cutoff criteria for evaluating QoL improvement in chronic noncancer pain management. The present study was conducted to identify the minimal clinically important change (MCIC) of the Japanese version of EuroQol-5D 3L(EQ-5D) utility score and numeric rating scale (NRS) with an emphasis on chronic noncancer pain. The data source for this post hoc research was the post-marketing surveillance (PMS) data for a tramadol/acetaminophen combination tablet, which was previously conducted in real-world settings. The parameters extracted from the PMS data were sociodemographic characteristics, NRS, EQ-5D, and dichotomous physician's global impression of treatment effectiveness (PGI). The optimal cutoff points of MCIC for EQ-5D utility and NRS scores were evaluated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. An anchor-based approach using PGI was applied. Data of 710 patients with chronic noncancer pain were extracted from the PMS database. The NRS score decreased by 2.7 (standard deviation, 2.3) points, whereas the EQ-5D score increased by 0.16 (0.20) points at 4 weeks from baseline. The changes from baseline in NRS and EQ-5D were significantly correlated (r = 0.53, p 0.80 in both analyses. These results demonstrated novel cutoff criteria for the Japanese version of EQ-5D, focusing on patients with chronic noncancer pain. The obtained criteria were fairly consistent and can be confidently utilized as an evaluation tool in medical research on chronic noncancer pain in Japan, with additional functionality and usability for QoL assessment in pain management practice. The data source of this post hoc research was a PMS study with the identifier number UMIN000015901 at umin.ac.jp, UMIN clinical trial registry (UMIN-CTR).

  2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Searching for the Cause and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome became known nationally in l985 with a pseudoepidemic in a Nevada resort community. Initially and erroneously linked to the Epstein-Barr virus, the cause of this puzzling syndrome and the mind-body connection are areas of controversy and research. (Author/SM)

  3. Identification of incident poisoning, fracture and burn events using linked primary care, secondary care and mortality data from England: implications for research and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ruth; Tata, Laila J; Kendrick, Denise; Orton, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    English national injury data collection systems are restricted to hospitalisations and deaths. With recent linkage of a large primary care database, the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), with secondary care and mortality data, we aimed to assess the utility of linked data for injury research and surveillance by examining recording patterns and comparing incidence of common injuries across data sources. The incidence of poisonings, fractures and burns was estimated for a cohort of 2 147 853 0-24 year olds using CPRD linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality data between 1997 and 2012. Time-based algorithms were developed to identify incident events, distinguishing between repeat follow-up records for the same injury and those for a new event. We identified 42 985 poisoning, 185 517 fracture and 36 719 burn events in linked CPRD-HES-ONS data; incidence rates were 41.9 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 41.4 to 42.4), 180.8 (179.8-181.7) and 35.8 (35.4-36.1), respectively. Of the injuries, 22 628 (53%) poisonings, 139 662 (75%) fractures and 33 462 (91%) burns were only recorded within CPRD. Only 16% of deaths from poisoning (n=106) or fracture (n=58) recorded in ONS were recorded within CPRD and/or HES records. None of the 10 deaths from burns were recorded in CPRD or HES records. It is essential to use linked primary care, hospitalisation and deaths data to estimate injury burden, as many injury events are only captured within a single data source. Linked routinely collected data offer an immediate and affordable mechanism for injury surveillance and analyses of population-based injury epidemiology in England. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Establishing research strategies, methodologies and technologies to link genomics and proteomics to seagrass productivity, community metabolism, and ecosystem carbon fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, Silvia; Björk, M; Beer, S; Felisberto, P; Gobert, S; Procaccini, G; Runcie, J; Silva, J; Borges, A V; Brunet, C; Buapet, P; Champenois, W; Costa, M M; D'Esposito, D; Gullström, M; Lejeune, P; Lepoint, G; Olivé, I; Rasmusson, L M; Richir, J; Ruocco, M; Serra, I A; Spadafora, A; Santos, Rui

    2013-01-01

    A complete understanding of the mechanistic basis of marine ecosystem functioning is only possible through integrative and interdisciplinary research. This enables the prediction of change and possibly the mitigation of the consequences of anthropogenic impacts. One major aim of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES0609 "Seagrasses productivity. From genes to ecosystem management," is the calibration and synthesis of various methods and the development of innovative techniques and protocols for studying seagrass ecosystems. During 10 days, 20 researchers representing a range of disciplines (molecular biology, physiology, botany, ecology, oceanography, and underwater acoustics) gathered at The Station de Recherches Sous-marines et Océanographiques (STARESO, Corsica) to study together the nearby Posidonia oceanica meadow. STARESO is located in an oligotrophic area classified as "pristine site" where environmental disturbances caused by anthropogenic pressure are exceptionally low. The healthy P. oceanica meadow, which grows in front of the research station, colonizes the sea bottom from the surface to 37 m depth. During the study, genomic and proteomic approaches were integrated with ecophysiological and physical approaches with the aim of understanding changes in seagrass productivity and metabolism at different depths and along daily cycles. In this paper we report details on the approaches utilized and we forecast the potential of the data that will come from this synergistic approach not only for P. oceanica but for seagrasses in general.

  5. The Gap in the Current Research on the Link between Health Locus of Control and Multiple Sclerosis: Lessons and Insights from a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic neurological disease whose etiology has not been fully understood yet in detail. Empirical findings show how psychosocial symptoms are very important features of the clinical presentation of MS, having a deep impact on patient's quality of life, and thus psychological coping strategies may play a central role in reducing the burden of the disease and improving patient's satisfaction of life. MS progression and relapses/exacerbations are unpredictable and may depend on factors such as stressor chronicity, frequency, severity, type, and individual patient characteristics such as depression, personality, locus of control (LOC, optimism, and perceived social support. Due to its importance for health-care delivery, rehabilitation, and nursing, here, we make a systematic review on the current state-of-the-art studies concerning the relationship between LOC and MS, according to the PRISMA guidelines, and we assess the quality and the completeness of the studies using the CONSORT instrument, underpinning their limitations, and suggesting how to fill the gap in this research field.

  6. Link practical-oriented research and education: New training tools for a sustainable use of plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchettini, G; Calliera, M

    2017-02-01

    In the Horizon 2020 work programme 2016-17 it is stated that in 2010, 71% of European farm managers were operating on the basis of practical experience only. Education levels greatly vary depending on country, farm managers' age and gender, or farm structures, and this can hamper innovation. Transition towards a more sustainable agriculture requires a renewal and strengthening of the technical skills of all the actors involved and - as a consequence - of the educational system. The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU, 128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides. The objective of this study is to develop new training tools for operators, addressing the new legal requirements and taking into account what is already available. For this reason, the outcomes of different European and national research projects developed by the Opera Research Centre were used, involving stakeholders in the decision making process, but also considering the real behaviours and perceptions of the final users. As a result, an e-learning tool able to build personalized training programmes, by collecting and integrating existing training material on Plant Protection Products use was developed, together with an e-learning course, with the aim to help operators, advisors and distributors to get prepared for their national certificate test. This work highlights the opportunity to create long-term added value through enhanced collaboration between educators and researchers, and identifies a common set of priorities that has to be taken into account in order to nudge the changes required to achieve a more sustainable use of pesticide and, more in general, sustainable development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Animal abuse and intimate partner violence: researching the link and its significance in ireland - a veterinary perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2008-10-01

    Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets\\' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens\\' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.

  8. Animal abuse and intimate partner violence: researching the link and its significance in ireland - a veterinary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.

  9. The future of monitoring in clinical research - a holistic approach: linking risk-based monitoring with quality management principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Eva B; Hecht, Arthur; Henn, Doris K; Leptien, Sabine; Stelzer, Hans Günther

    2013-01-01

    Since several years risk-based monitoring is the new "magic bullet" for improvement in clinical research. Lots of authors in clinical research ranging from industry and academia to authorities are keen on demonstrating better monitoring-efficiency by reducing monitoring visits, monitoring time on site, monitoring costs and so on, always arguing with the use of risk-based monitoring principles. Mostly forgotten is the fact, that the use of risk-based monitoring is only adequate if all mandatory prerequisites at site and for the monitor and the sponsor are fulfilled.Based on the relevant chapter in ICH GCP (International Conference on Harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use - Good Clinical Practice) this publication takes a holistic approach by identifying and describing the requirements for future monitoring and the use of risk-based monitoring. As the authors are operational managers as well as QA (Quality Assurance) experts, both aspects are represented to come up with efficient and qualitative ways of future monitoring according to ICH GCP.

  10. Establishing research strategies, methodologies and technologies to link genomics and proteomics to seagrass productivity, community metabolism and ecosystem carbon fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eMazzuca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the mechanistic basis of marine ecosystem functioning is only possible through integrative and interdisciplinary research. This enables the prediction of change and possibly the mitigation of the consequences of anthropogenic impacts. One major aim of the COST Action ES0609 Seagrasses productivity. From genes to ecosystem management, is the calibration and synthesis of various methods and the development of innovative techniques and protocols for studying seagrass ecosystems.During ten days, twenty researchers representing a range of disciplines (molecular biology, physiology, botany, ecology, oceanography, underwater acoustics gathered at the marine station of STARESO (Corsica to study together the nearby Posidonia oceanica meadow. The Station de Recherches Sous-marine et Océanographiques (STARESO is located in an oligotrophic area classified as "pristine site" where environmental disturbances caused by anthropogenic pressure are exceptionally low. The healthy P. oceanica meadow, that grows in front of the lab, colonizes the sea bottom from the surface to 37 m depth. During the study, genomic and proteomic approaches were integrated with ecophysiological and physical approaches with the aim of understanding changes in seagrass productivity and metabolism at different depths and along daily cycles. In this paper we report details on the approaches utilized and we forecast the potential of the data that will come from this synergistic approach not only for P. oceanica but for seagrasses in general.

  11. Special conference of the American Association for Cancer Research on molecular imaging in cancer: linking biology, function, and clinical applications in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Gary D

    2002-04-01

    The AACR Special Conference on Molecular Imaging in Cancer: Linking Biology, Function, and Clinical Applications In Vivo, was held January 23-27, 2002, at the Contemporary Hotel, Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL. Co-Chairs David Piwnica-Worms, Patricia Price and Thomas Meade brought together researchers with diverse expertise in molecular biology, gene therapy, chemistry, engineering, pharmacology, and imaging to accelerate progress in developing and applying technologies for imaging specific cellular and molecular signals in living animals and humans. The format of the conference was the presentation of research that focused on basic and translational biology of cancer and current state-of-the-art techniques for molecular imaging in animal models and humans. This report summarizes the special conference on molecular imaging, highlighting the interfaces of molecular biology with animal models, instrumentation, chemistry, and pharmacology that are essential to convert the dreams and promise of molecular imaging into improved understanding, diagnosis, and management of cancer.

  12. The utility of linked cancer registry and health administration data for describing system-wide outcomes and research: a BreastScreen example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Elizabeth S; Sullivan, Tom; Farshid, Gelareh; Hiller, Janet E; Roder, David M

    2016-10-01

    Stratification of women with screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer (IBC) could assist treatment planning and selection of surveillance protocols that accord with risk. We assessed the utility of routinely collected administrative data for stratifying by IBC risk following DCIS detection in a population-based screening programme to inform ongoing surveillance protocols. A retrospective cohort design was used, employing linked data from the South Australian breast screening programme and cancer registry. Women entered the study at screening commencement and were followed until IBC diagnosis, death or end of the study period (1 December 2010), whichever came first. Routinely collected administrative data were analyzed to identify predictors of invasive breast cancer. Proportional hazards regression confirmed that the DCIS cohort had an elevated risk of IBC after adjustment for relevant confounders (HR = 4.0 (95% CL 3.4, 4.8)), which accorded with previous study results. Within the DCIS cohort, conservative breast surgery and earlier year of screening commencement were both predictive of an elevated invasive breast cancer risk. These linked cancer registry and administrative data gave plausible estimates of IBC risk following DCIS diagnosis, but were limited in coverage of key items for further risk stratification. It is important that the research utility of administrative datasets is maximized in their design phase in collaboration with researchers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  14. The status of and future research into Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: the need of accurate diagnosis, objective assessment, and acknowledging biological and clinical subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twisk, Frank N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) are used interchangeably, the diagnostic criteria define two distinct clinical entities. Cognitive impairment, (muscle) weakness, circulatory disturbances, marked variability of symptoms, and, above all, post-exertional malaise: a long-lasting increase of symptoms after a minor exertion, are distinctive symptoms of ME. This latter phenomenon separates ME, a neuro-immune illness, from chronic fatigue (syndrome), other disorders and deconditioning. The introduction of the label, but more importantly the diagnostic criteria for CFS have generated much confusion, mostly because chronic fatigue is a subjective and ambiguous notion. CFS was redefined in 1994 into unexplained (persistent or relapsing) chronic fatigue, accompanied by at least four out of eight symptoms, e.g., headaches and unrefreshing sleep. Most of the research into ME and/or CFS in the last decades was based upon the multivalent CFS criteria, which define a heterogeneous patient group. Due to the fact that fatigue and other symptoms are non-discriminative, subjective experiences, research has been hampered. Various authors have questioned the physiological nature of the symptoms and qualified ME/CFS as somatization. However, various typical symptoms can be assessed objectively using standardized methods. Despite subjective and unclear criteria and measures, research has observed specific abnormalities in ME/CFS repetitively, e.g., immunological abnormalities, oxidative and nitrosative stress, neurological anomalies, circulatory deficits and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, to improve future research standards and patient care, it is crucial that patients with post-exertional malaise (ME) and patients without this odd phenomenon are acknowledged as separate clinical entities that the diagnosis of ME and CFS in research and clinical practice is based upon accurate criteria and an objective assessment of characteristic symptoms

  15. Trends in the incidence of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia in the UK, 2001-2013: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Simon M; Bakken, Inger J; Nazareth, Irwin; Crawley, Esther; White, Peter D

    2017-06-01

    Objective Trends in recorded diagnoses of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also known as 'myalgic encephalomyelitis' (ME)) and fibromyalgia (FM) in the UK were last reported more than ten years ago, for the period 1990-2001. Our aim was to analyse trends in incident diagnoses of CFS/ME and FM for the period 2001-2013, and to investigate whether incidence might vary by index of multiple deprivation (IMD) score. Design Electronic health records cohort study. Setting NHS primary care practices in the UK. Participants Participants: Patients registered with general practices linked to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care database from January 2001 to December 2013. Main outcome measure Incidence of CFS/ME, FM, post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS), and asthenia/debility. Results The overall annual incidence of recorded cases of CFS/ME was 14.8 (95% CI 14.5, 15.1) per 100,000 people. Overall annual incidence per 100,000 people for FM was 33.3 (32.8-33.8), for PVFS 12.2 (11.9, 12.5), and for asthenia/debility 7.0 (6.8, 7.2). Annual incidence rates for CFS/ME diagnoses decreased from 17.5 (16.1, 18.9) in 2001 to 12.6 (11.5, 13.8) in 2013 (annual percent change -2.8% (-3.6%, -2.0%)). Annual incidence rates for FM diagnoses decreased from 32.3 (30.4, 34.3) to 27.1 (25.5, 28.6) in 2007, then increased to 38.2 (36.3, 40.1) per 100,000 people in 2013. Overall annual incidence of recorded fatigue symptoms was 2246 (2242, 2250) per 100,000 people. Compared with the least deprived IMD quintile, incidence of CFS/ME in the most deprived quintile was 39% lower (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.61 (0.50, 0.75)), whereas rates of FM were 40% higher (IRR 1.40 (0.95, 2.06)). Conclusion These analyses suggest a gradual decline in recorded diagnoses of CFS/ME since 2001, and an increase in diagnoses of fibromyalgia, with opposing socioeconomic patterns of lower rates of CFS/ME diagnoses in the poorest areas compared with higher rates of FM diagnoses.

  16. Targeting the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 Axis That Links Obesity, Chronic Inflammation, and Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Yamada, Akimitsu; Katsuta, Eriko; Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Huang, Wei-Ching; Terracina, Krista P; Hait, Nitai C; Allegood, Jeremy C; Tsuchida, Junko; Yuza, Kizuki; Nakajima, Masato; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Milstien, Sheldon; Wakai, Toshifumi; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2018-04-01

    Although obesity with associated inflammation is now recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer and distant metastases, the functional basis for these connections remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in breast cancer patients and in animal breast cancer models, obesity is a sufficient cause for increased expression of the bioactive sphingolipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which mediates cancer pathogenesis. A high-fat diet was sufficient to upregulate expression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), the enzyme that produces S1P, along with its receptor S1PR1 in syngeneic and spontaneous breast tumors. Targeting the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 axis with FTY720/fingolimod attenuated key proinflammatory cytokines, macrophage infiltration, and tumor progression induced by obesity. S1P produced in the lung premetastatic niche by tumor-induced SphK1 increased macrophage recruitment into the lung and induced IL6 and signaling pathways important for lung metastatic colonization. Conversely, FTY720 suppressed IL6, macrophage infiltration, and S1P-mediated signaling pathways in the lung induced by a high-fat diet, and it dramatically reduced formation of metastatic foci. In tumor-bearing mice, FTY720 similarly reduced obesity-related inflammation, S1P signaling, and pulmonary metastasis, thereby prolonging survival. Taken together, our results establish a critical role for circulating S1P produced by tumors and the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 axis in obesity-related inflammation, formation of lung metastatic niches, and breast cancer metastasis, with potential implications for prevention and treatment. Significance: These findings offer a preclinical proof of concept that signaling by a sphingolipid may be an effective target to prevent obesity-related breast cancer metastasis. Cancer Res; 78(7); 1713-25. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Smartphones and Cognition: A Review of Research Exploring the Links between Mobile Technology Habits and Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Henry H.; Sherman, Lauren E.; Chein, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    While smartphones and related mobile technologies are recognized as flexible and powerful tools that, when used prudently, can augment human cognition, there is also a growing perception that habitual involvement with these devices may have a negative and lasting impact on users’ ability to think, remember, pay attention, and regulate emotion. The present review considers an intensifying, though still limited, area of research exploring the potential cognitive impacts of smartphone-related habits, and seeks to determine in which domains of functioning there is accruing evidence of a significant relationship between smartphone technology and cognitive performance, and in which domains the scientific literature is not yet mature enough to endorse any firm conclusions. We focus our review primarily on three facets of cognition that are clearly implicated in public discourse regarding the impacts of mobile technology – attention, memory, and delay of gratification – and then consider evidence regarding the broader relationships between smartphone habits and everyday cognitive functioning. Along the way, we highlight compelling findings, discuss limitations with respect to empirical methodology and interpretation, and offer suggestions for how the field might progress toward a more coherent and robust area of scientific inquiry. PMID:28487665

  18. Smartphones and Cognition: A Review of Research Exploring the Links between Mobile Technology Habits and Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Chein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While smartphones and related mobile technologies are recognized as flexible and powerful tools that, when used prudently, can augment human cognition, there is also a growing perception that habitual involvement with these devices may have a negative and lasting impact on users’ ability to think, remember, pay attention, and regulate emotion. The present review considers an intensifying, though still limited, area of research exploring the potential cognitive impacts of smartphone-related habits, and seeks to determine in which domains of functioning there is accruing evidence of a significant relationship between smartphone technology and cognitive performance, and in which domains the scientific literature is not yet mature enough to endorse any firm conclusions. We focus our review primarily on three facets of cognition that are clearly implicated in public discourse regarding the impacts of mobile technology – attention, memory, and delay of gratification – and then consider evidence regarding the broader relationships between smartphone habits and everyday cognitive functioning. Along the way, we highlight compelling findings, discuss limitations with respect to empirical methodology and interpretation, and offer suggestions for how the field might progress toward a more coherent and robust area of scientific inquiry.

  19. [Threshold value for reimbursement of costs of new drugs: cost-effectiveness research and modelling are essential links].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, Geert W J; Hövels, Anke M; Severens, Johan L; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; Schellens, Jan H M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing discussion in the Netherlands about the introduction of a threshold value for the costs per extra year of life when reimbursing costs of new drugs. The Medicines Committee ('Commissie Geneesmiddelen'), a division of the Netherlands National Healthcare Institute ('Zorginstituut Nederland'), advises on reimbursement of costs of new drugs. This advice is based upon the determination of therapeutic value of the drug and the results of economic evaluations. Mathematical models that predict future costs and effectiveness are often used in economic evaluations; these models can vary greatly in transparency and quality due to author assumptions. Standardisation of cost-effectiveness models is one solution to overcome the unwanted variation in quality. Discussions about the introduction of a threshold value can only be meaningful if all involved are adequately informed, and by high quality in cost-effectiveness research and, particularly, economic evaluations. Collaboration and discussion between medical specialists, patients or patient organisations, health economists and policy makers, both in development of methods and in standardisation, are essential to improve the quality of decision making.

  20. Infecting academic conferences: brands linked to ill health

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart W Flint

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows the links between sweetened soft drinks (1,2) or fast food (3) and chronic illness such as obesity and diabetes. However, as a researcher investigating the causes of obesity, I have become disappointed at the presence of brands of unhealthy products at major conferences relating to obesity, physical activity, and nutrition. In recent years, brands such as Coca Cola Inc and McDonalds Corp have sponsored several conference events.

  1. A hybrid clinical-research depth electrode for acute and chronic in vivo microelectrode recording of human brain neurons. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M A; Volkov, I O; Granner, M A; Damasio, H M; Ollendieck, M C; Bakken, H E

    1996-01-01

    For several decades, important scientific information has been gained from in vivo microelectrode recordings of individual human cerebral cortical neurons in patients with epilepsy. The experimental methods used, however, are technically complex and require a highly skilled intraoperative team. There are also significant experimental time limitations, as well as constraints on the type of behavioral tests conducted, and the brain regions that may be safely studied. In this report, a new method is described for obtaining in vivo microelectrode recordings using a hybrid depth electrode (HDE). High-impedance research recording contacts are interspersed between low-impedance clinical electroencephalographic (EEG) contacts along the HDE shaft. The HDE has the same external physical properties as a standard clinical depth electrode (DE). Following preclinical laboratory testing, 15 HDEs were used in the evaluation of six patients with medically refractory epilepsy. High-quality EEG recordings were obtained in all cases (two acute intraoperative, four from the chronic epilepsy monitoring unit). Action potentials from individual neurons were successfully recorded during all experimental sessions; however, the chronic preparations were clearly superior. Chronic HDEs are placed using a standard stereotactic system, and the locations of recording contacts are documented on a postimplantation imaging study. The quality of the chronic research recordings was excellent over study periods ranging from 5 to 14 days. The patients rested comfortably on the ward and were able to cooperate with complex experimental instructions. Basic neuroscientists participated fully in all aspects of the chronic investigations. The use of an HDE in place of a standard clinical DE may now allow detailed physiological investigations of any brain region targeted for clinical DE implantation.

  2. The UK ME/CFS Biobank for biomedical research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) and Multiple Sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda, EM; Bowman, EW; Cliff, JM; Kingdon, CC; King, EC; Lee, JS; Clark, TG; Dockrell, HM; Riley, EM; Curran, H; Nacul, L

    2017-01-01

    : The UK ME/CFS Biobank was launched in August 2011 following extensive consultation with professionals and patient representatives. The bioresource aims to enhance research on myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), related to pathophysiology, biomarkers and therapeutic approaches. The cohort includes 18-60 year olds, encompassing 284 clinically-confirmed ME/CFS cases, 60 neurologist-diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) cases, and 135 healthy individuals. The Biobank contai...

  3. Expression of Leptin and Visfatin in Gingival Tissues of Chronic Periodontitis With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Study Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghallab, Noha A; Amr, Eman M; Shaker, Olfat G

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the protein and gene expression of leptin and visfatin in gingival tissue from patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), patients with CP and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and healthy individuals. The study includes 50 individuals: 10 healthy individuals, 20 patients with CP, and 20 patients with CP and T2DM. Plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss were measured, and gingival biopsies were obtained. Leptin and visfatin protein expression in gingival tissues was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction. The highest leptin mRNA and protein expression was observed in the control group and was significantly (P ≤0.05) different from the CP and CP+T2DM groups. Gingival tissues from patients with CP and T2DM had a significant increase in visfatin and a decrease in leptin gene and protein expression (P <0.05) compared with both controls and patients with CP. Expression of leptin and visfatin in the gingival tissues suggests a possible role for these adipokines in the pathogenesis of CP and T2DM.

  4. A Digital Architecture for a Network-Based Learning Health System: Integrating Chronic Care Management, Quality Improvement, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolo, Keith; Margolis, Peter A; Forrest, Christopher B; Colletti, Richard B; Hutton, John J

    2015-01-01

    We collaborated with the ImproveCareNow Network to create a proof-of-concept architecture for a network-based Learning Health System. This collaboration involved transitioning an existing registry to one that is linked to the electronic health record (EHR), enabling a "data in once" strategy. We sought to automate a series of reports that support care improvement while also demonstrating the use of observational registry data for comparative effectiveness research. We worked with three leading EHR vendors to create EHR-based data collection forms. We automated many of ImproveCareNow's analytic reports and developed an application for storing protected health information and tracking patient consent. Finally, we deployed a cohort identification tool to support feasibility studies and hypothesis generation. There is ongoing uptake of the system. To date, 31 centers have adopted the EHR-based forms and 21 centers are uploading data to the registry. Usage of the automated reports remains high and investigators have used the cohort identification tools to respond to several clinical trial requests. The current process for creating EHR-based data collection forms requires groups to work individually with each vendor. A vendor-agnostic model would allow for more rapid uptake. We believe that interfacing network-based registries with the EHR would allow them to serve as a source of decision support. Additional standards are needed in order for this vision to be achieved, however. We have successfully implemented a proof-of-concept Learning Health System while providing a foundation on which others can build. We have also highlighted opportunities where sponsors could help accelerate progress.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-10

    May 10, 2014 ... Key words: Computerized Tomographic Scan, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal discharge, nasal .... evaluated using bone window (window width 2,000 Hounsfield units ..... paranasal sinuses and chronic sinusitis in children.

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teens and young adults have never known a world without it. NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues ... for HIV infection through risky sexual behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links ...

  7. [The state of the art research findings on the relationship between chronic periodontitis and Alzheimer's disease: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, X S; Ge, S

    2018-04-09

    Along with the development of periodontal medicine, there is a growing number of evidence showing that periodontitis could influence systemic health. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by microbial infection mediated by dental plaque. Periodontal pathogenic microorganisms and its toxic products can disseminate through the blood stream or may cause the host immune response, which may lead to pathological changes of cerebral vessels and brain tissues to establish connection with Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory loss, language and cognitive dysfunction. This article reviewed the association between chronic periodontitis and AD.

  8. Application of mixed-methods design in community-engaged research: Lessons learned from an evidence-based intervention for Latinos with chronic illness and minor depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado Loi, Claudia X; Alfonso, Moya L; Chan, Isabella; Anderson, Kelsey; Tyson, Dinorah Dina Martinez; Gonzales, Junius; Corvin, Jaime

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned from a collaborative, community-informed mixed-methods approach to adapting an evidence-based intervention to meet the needs of Latinos with chronic disease and minor depression and their family members. Mixed-methods informed by community-based participatory research (CBPR) were employed to triangulate multiple stakeholders' perceptions of facilitators and barriers of implementing the adapted intervention in community settings. Community partners provided an insider perspective to overcome methodological challenges. The study's community informed mixed-methods: research approach offered advantages to a single research methodology by expanding or confirming research findings and engaging multiple stakeholders in data collection. This approach also allowed community partners to collaborate with academic partners in key research decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Research and clinical practice: constructing theoretical links / Pesquisa e prática clínica: construindo articulações teóricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Féres-Carneiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this text, which was presented at the Inaugural Lecture from the Graduate Program of Developmental Psychology at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS on March 03, 2008, are discussed the links constructed by this author in the academic work as well as in the clinical practice. The history of a 36-year journey as both a professor-researcher and also as a clinical psychologist is reported here, with emphasis on the inseparable way of conceiving such functions. In this account it is explained and discussed the possibilities of articulating different theoretical-technical approaches in the clinic. The proposal for family and couple psychological assistance is a tripartite key of reading which takes into consideration the intra-psychological, the interactional and the social aspects of the aforementioned ones.

  10. Demonstrating the value of publishing open data by linking DOI-based citations of source datasets to uses in research and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copas, K.; Legind, J. K.; Hahn, A.; Braak, K.; Høftt, M.; Noesgaard, D.; Robertson, T.; Méndez Hernández, F.; Schigel, D.; Ko, C.

    2017-12-01

    GBIF—the Global Biodiversity Information Facility—has recently demonstrated a system that tracks publications back to individual datasets, giving data providers demonstrable evidence of the benefit and utility of sharing data to support an array of scholarly topics and practical applications. GBIF is an open-data network and research infrastructure funded by the world's governments. Its community consists of more than 90 formal participants and almost 1,000 data-publishing institutions, which currently make tens of thousands of datasets containing nearly 800 million species occurrence records freely and publicly available for discovery, use and reuse across a wide range of biodiversity-related research and policy investigations. Starting in 2015 with the help of DataONE, GBIF introduced DOIs as persistent identifiers for the datasets shared through its network. This enhancement soon extended to the assignment of DOIs to user downloads from GBIF.org, which typically filter the available records with a variety of taxonomic, geographic, temporal and other search terms. Despite the lack of widely accepted standards for citing data among researchers and publications, this technical infrastructure is beginning to take hold and support open, transparent, persistent and repeatable use and reuse of species occurrence data. These `download DOIs' provide canonical references for the search results researchers process and use in peer-reviewed articles—a practice GBIF encourages by confirming new DOIs with each download and offering guidelines on citation. GBIF has recently started linking these citation results back to dataset and publisher pages, offering more consistent, traceable evidence of the value of sharing data to support others' research. GBIF's experience may be a useful model for other repositories to follow.

  11. Final Progress Report submitted via the DOE Energy Link (E-Link) in June 2009 [Collaborative Research: Decadal-to-Centennial Climate & Climate Change Studies with Enhanced Variable and Uniform Resolution GCMs Using Advanced Numerical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S. [Univ. of Quebec (Canada); Cote, Jean [Univ. of Quebec (Canada)

    2009-10-09

    The joint U.S-Canadian project has been devoted to: (a) decadal climate studies using developed state-of-the-art GCMs (General Circulation Models) with enhanced variable and uniform resolution; (b) development and implementation of advanced numerical techniques; (c) research in parallel computing and associated numerical methods; (d) atmospheric chemistry experiments related to climate issues; (e) validation of regional climate modeling strategies for nested- and stretched-grid models. The variable-resolution stretched-grid (SG) GCMs produce accurate and cost-efficient regional climate simulations with mesoscale resolution. The advantage of the stretched grid approach is that it allows us to preserve the high quality of both global and regional circulations while providing consistent interactions between global and regional scales and phenomena. The major accomplishment for the project has been the successful international SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 (Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project, phase-1 and phase-2) based on this research developments and activities. The SGMIP provides unique high-resolution regional and global multi-model ensembles beneficial for regional climate modeling and broader modeling community. The U.S SGMIP simulations have been produced using SciDAC ORNL supercomputers. The results of the successful SGMIP multi-model ensemble simulations of the U.S. climate are available at the SGMIP web site (http://essic.umd.edu/~foxrab/sgmip.html) and through the link to the WMO/WCRP/WGNE web site: http://collaboration.cmc.ec.gc.ca/science/wgne. Collaborations with other international participants M. Deque (Meteo-France) and J. McGregor (CSIRO, Australia) and their centers and groups have been beneficial for the strong joint effort, especially for the SGMIP activities. The WMO/WCRP/WGNE endorsed the SGMIP activities in 2004-2008. This project reflects a trend in the modeling and broader communities to move towards regional and sub-regional assessments and

  12. Education and Outreach from the JOIDES Resolution during IODP Expedition 360 : linking onboard research and classroom activities during and after the Expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, M.; Zhang, J.; Kavanagh, L.; Martinez, A. O.; Expedition 360 Scientists, I.

    2016-12-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) expeditions provide an excellent opportunity for onboard Education Officers (EO) to communicate and disseminate exciting shipboard research and discoveries to students around the world. During expedition 360, the EOs carried out 140 live webcasts, using different strategies to create an effective link between both students and scientists. Below are examples of strategies we used: -Primary school: The Beauty of Gabbro! and Life in the rocks! During the webcasts, students could virtually tour the ship, interview scientists, and see and discuss samples of the cored gabbro and minerals in thin sections. Artistic contextualization by J. Zhang, facilitated these activities. Moreover, highlighting the search for microbes in the Earth's crust , was particularly successful in engaging the students. -Middle and High school: Fun and relationships in science. Students were able to email expert scientists in the scientific discipline they chose to research and interview them during a live webcast. Some students created a song about the expedition. "on the boat - cup song - IODP project" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qex-w9aSV7c-University: Travels, research and the everyday life of professors onboard. We used webcasts to connect with universities in France, Japan and Italy, to create vibrant interactions between students and scientists that enabled students to get closer to their professors and understand better the life of onboard researchers. In collaboration with the science party we developed new strategies to keep in touch with students after completion of the cruise. We generated teaching kits consisting of pedaqgoical sets of pictures, exercises using onboard data, a continuously updated map "tracking geologists", and live webcasts to be organized from laboratories to schools. We already have had enthusiastic feedback from teachers that took part in our webcasts and the challenge is to continue to foster the

  13. Factors influencing patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease to opt for conservative management: a practitioner research study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Sheila; Noble, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives. This study explored decision-making experiences of patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease when opting for conservative management of their renal failure.Background. Dialysis is an invasive treatment, and for some older patients, there is an associated treatment burden of dialysis-related symptoms. An alternative choice is conservative management, but little is known about those who make this decision and how they are supported through the process.Design. Qualitative...

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in youth with vs without chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Wilson, Anna C; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Durkin, Lindsay; Patton, Michaela; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been found to co-occur in adults; however, research has not examined this co-occurrence in adolescence, when pediatric chronic pain often first emerges. The aims of this study were to compare the frequency and intensity of PTSD symptoms and stressful life events in cohorts of youth with (n = 95) and without (n = 100) chronic pain and their parents and to determine the association between PTSD symptoms, health-related quality of life, and pain symptoms within the chronic pain sample. All participants completed questionnaire measures through an online survey. Findings revealed that youth with chronic pain and their parents had significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms as compared with pain-free peers. More youth with chronic pain (32%) and their parents (20%) reported clinically significant elevations in PTSD symptoms than youth without chronic pain (8%) and their parents (1%). Youth with chronic pain also reported a greater number of stressful life events than those without chronic pain, and this was associated with higher PTSD symptoms. Among the chronic pain cohort, higher levels of PTSD symptoms were predictive of worse health-related quality of life and were associated with higher pain intensity, unpleasantness, and interference. Results suggest that elevated PTSD symptoms are common and linked to reduced functioning among youth with chronic pain. Future research is needed to examine PTSD at the diagnostic level and the underlying mechanisms that may explain why this co-occurrence exists.

  15. 慢性踝关节不稳的研究进展%Research Progress of Chronic Ankle Instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 黄真

    2015-01-01

    Ankle sprain is the most common injury of lower limbs. Without proper treatment,it is likely to develop chronic ankle instability. This paper summarized possible pathogenesis of chronic ankle instability, illustrated from the perspectives of proprioceptive disorder,dysfunction of neuromuscular and postural control and weakness of muscles around ankle joint,pointed out the rehabilitation programs which were often used,and provided suggestions for the clinical rehabilitation training of chronic ankle instability.%踝关节扭伤是下肢最常见的损伤,如未得到合理的处理很容易发展成为慢性踝关节不稳。本文归纳了慢性踝关节不稳可能的发病机制,从本体感觉障碍、神经肌肉控制不全、姿势控制功能不全及周围肌群肌力减退等方面进行了阐述,指出了目前常采用的康复训练方法及效果,为慢性踝关节不稳的临床康复训练提供建议。

  16. A Research Agenda for Advancing Non-pharmacological Management of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Findings from a VHA State-of-the-art Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William C; DeBar, Lynn L; Heapy, Alicia A; Higgins, Diana; Krein, Sarah L; Lisi, Anthony; Makris, Una E; Allen, Kelli D

    2018-05-01

    Chronic pain is widely prevalent among Veterans and can have serious negative consequences for functional status and quality of life among other domains. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) convened a state-of-the-art (SOTA) conference to develop research priorities for advancing the science and clinical practice of non-pharmacological management of chronic musculoskeletal pain. In this perspective article, we present the methods and consensus recommendations for research priorities emanating from the SOTA. In the months leading up to the SOTA, a core group of researchers defined four areas of focus: psychological/behavioral therapies; exercise/movement therapies; manual therapies; and models for delivering multi-modal pain care and divided into workgroups. Each workgroup, in their respective areas of focus, identified seminal studies capturing the state of the evidence. Herein, we present consensus recommendations ranging from efficacy to effectiveness to implementation/dissemination research depending on the state of the evidence as assessed by participants, including commentary on common elements across workgroups and future areas of innovation in study design, measurement, and outcome ascertainment.

  17. Development of research activity support system. 3. Automatic link generation/maintenance on self-evolving database; Kenkyu katsudo shien system no kaihatsu. 3. Jiko zoshokugata database deno bunsho link no jido sakusei/shufuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, T.; Futakata, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    For a coordinated task to be accomplished in an organization, documents, charts, and data produced by plural workers need to be shared by the plural workers. This information sharing setup will function more effectively when the meanings and purposes of documents, etc., are arranged in good order relative to the other documents and when they are managed as a group of documents organically linked with each other and properly updated as the task approaches completion. In the self-evolving databases proposed so far, five types of document links representing the relations between documents are automatically generated and the documents are unifiedly managed for the documents yielded by coordinated work to be arranged in a proper order. A procedure for automatically generating document links are established on the basis of information received from the document retrieval system and Lotus Notes application. In a self-evolving database, the document on either side of a link is apt to be lost due to users` moving or deleting documents. An automatic procedure is developed in this report which will enable such document links to correctly restore themselves without loss of semantic relations. 12 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Cancer recording in patients with and without type 2 diabetes in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care data and linked hospital admission data: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rachael; van Staa, Tjeerd-Pieter; Gallagher, Arlene M; Hammad, Tarek; Leufkens, Hubert G M; de Vries, Frank

    2018-05-26

    Conflicting results from studies using electronic health records to evaluate the associations between type 2 diabetes and cancer fuel concerns regarding potential biases. This study aimed to describe completeness of cancer recording in UK primary care data linked to hospital admissions records. Patients aged 40+ years with insulin or oral antidiabetic prescriptions in Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care without type 1 diabetes were matched by age, sex and general practitioner practice to non-diabetics. Those eligible for linkage to Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care (HES APC), and with follow-up during April 1997-December 2006 were included. Cancer recording and date of first record of cancer were compared. Characteristics of patients with cancer most likely to have the diagnosis recorded only in a single data source were assessed. Relative rates of cancer estimated from the two datasets were compared. 53 585 patients with type 2 diabetes matched to 47 435 patients without diabetes were included. Of all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) recorded in CPRD, 83% were recorded in HES APC. 94% of cases in HES APC were recorded in CPRD. Concordance was lower when restricted to same-site cancer records, and was negatively associated with increasing age. Relative rates for cancer were similar in both datasets. Good concordance in cancer recording was found between CPRD and HES APC among type 2 diabetics and matched controls. Linked data may reduce misclassification and increase case ascertainment when analysis focuses on site-specific cancers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to our latest research findings and news updates. Read on to Learn the Link between ... to this site at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . ... Social Media Send the message to young people and to ...

  20. Using nationwide ‘big data’ from linked electronic health records to help improve outcomes in cardiovascular diseases:33 studies using methods from epidemiology, informatics, economics and social science in the ClinicAl disease research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records (CALIBER) programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hemingway, Harry; Feder, Gene; Fitzpatrick, Natalie; Denaxas, Spiros; Shah, Amit; Timmis, A D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Electronic health records (EHRs), when linked across primary and secondary care and curated for research use, have the potential to improve our understanding of care quality and outcomes.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate new opportunities arising from linked EHRs for improving quality of care and outcomes for patients at risk of or with coronary disease across the patient journey.DESIGN:Epidemiological cohort, health informatics, health economics and ethnographic approaches were used.SETTING:2...

  1. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induces Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Savransky, Vladimir; Nanayakkara, Ashika; Li, Jianguo; Bevans, Shannon; Smith, Philip L.; Rodriguez, Annabelle; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea, a condition leading to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is associated with hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and a high cardiovascular risk. A causal link between obstructive sleep apnea and atherosclerosis has not been established.

  2. The Online Parent Information and Support project, meeting parents' information and support needs for home-based management of childhood chronic kidney disease: research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Veronica; Knafl, Kathleen; Sanatacroce, Sheila; Hall, Andrew; Smith, Trish; Campbell, Malcolm; Webb, Nicholas J A

    2012-09-01

    This article is a report of a protocol for studying the development and evaluation of an online parent information and support package for home-based care of children with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5. The study is funded by a National Institute of Health Research, Research for Patient Benefit Grant awarded (December 2010). Approval to undetake the study was obtained from the Department of Health National Research Ethics Service (June 2011). Children with chronic kidney disease require skilled, home-based care by parents, supported by professionals. Parents have identified a need for continuously available online resources to supplement professional support, and structured resources tailored to parents' needs are highlighted by policy makers as key to optimizing care; yet, online resource provision is patchy with little evidence base. Using mixed methods, we will (i) conduct parent/child/young person/professional/patient and parent volunteer focus groups to explore views on existing resources, (ii) collaboratively define gaps in provision, identify desirable components, develop/test resources and conduct a feasibility randomized controlled trial, and (iii) of usual professional support versus usual support supplemented by the package. Eighty parents of children with chronic kidney disease will be randomized. Primary outcomes will assess parents' self-efficacy and views of resources, using standardized measures at entry and 24 weeks, and semi-structured interviews at 24 weeks. We will finalize trial components for a later definitive trial. By working collaboratively, we will derive a detailed insight into parents' information and support needs and experiences of using the package, and should see improved parental self-efficacy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Changes in symptoms during urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome symptom flares: findings from one site of the MAPP Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Colditz, Graham A; Pakpahan, Ratna; Bradley, Catherine S; Goodman, Melody S; Andriole, Gerald L; Lai, H Henry

    2015-02-01

    To provide the first description and quantification of symptom changes during interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome symptom exacerbations ("flares"). Participants at one site of the Trans-Multidisciplinary Approaches to the study of chronic Pelvic Pain Epidemiology and Phenotyping Study completed two 10-day diaries over the 1-year study follow-up period, one at baseline and one during their first flare (if not at baseline). On each day of the diary, participants reported whether they were currently experiencing a flare, defined as "symptoms that are much worse than usual" for at least 1 day, and their levels of urination-related pain, pelvic pain, urgency, and frequency on a scale of 0-10. Linear mixed models were used to calculate mean changes in symptoms between non-flare and flare days from the same participant. Eighteen of 27 women and 9 of 29 men reported at least one flare during follow-up, for a total of 281 non-flare and 210 flare days. Of these participants, 44.4% reported one flare, 29.6% reported two flares, and 25.9% reported ≥ 3 flares over the combined 20-day diary observation period, with reported flares ranging in duration from 1 day to >2 weeks. During these flares, each of the main symptoms worsened significantly by a mean of at least two points and total symptoms worsened by a mean of 11 points for both sexes (all P ≤ 0.01). Flares are common and correspond to a global worsening of urologic and pelvic pain symptoms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Clinical research of the micro-invasive treatments for chronic dacryocystitis with the fifth generation lacrimal endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhe Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the methods, effect and security of the micro-invasive treatments for chronic dacryocystitis with the fifth generation lacrimal endoscope, and to evaluate its clinical application.METHODS:In this case-control study, 120 patients(120 eyeswith chronic dacryocystitis were collected from April 2013 to July 2014 in our department. The patients were randomly divided into observation group(the fifth generation endoscopic lacrimal microdrill with full intubation group, 62 cases 62 eyesand control group(external dacryocystorhinostomy group, 58 cases 58 eyes. The effective rate and complication were observed and compared between two groups after operation. Statistical package SPSS 13.0 was used for statistical analysis.RESULTS: The effective rate of observation group was 91.9%, and control group was 96.6%, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05. Hemorrhage occurred in observation group and control group was 35.5% and 79.3%, respectively, additionally palpebral oedema was 19.4% and 55.2%, respectively, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups(PCONCLUSION: The fifth generation lacrimal endoscope is more flexible than traditional one-piece lacrimal endoscope during the operation, it can treat chronic dacryocystitis by directly observing nasolacrimal duct obstruction site and dredge the obstruction under microdrilling with full lacrimal intubation. It was not only good clinical curative effect, but also safer, more efficient than the external dacryocystorhinostomy, visualization and micro-invasive are its special advantage, and worthy for further clinical application.

  5. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  7. General Information about Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  8. ‘We experienced a lack of tools for strengthening coping and health in encounters with patients with chronic illness': bridging theory and practice through formative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Heggdal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare personnel in specialist care in Norway took the initiative to develop their practice in order to improve follow-up of patients with chronic illness. A research project was constructed that involved a close collaboration between practice and research in the development of a new, complex intervention to strengthen patients' ability to live with long-term conditions. Aims and objectives: This paper seeks to describe a part of the research process that involved the first- stage development of the intervention. The first objective is to describe how clinicians, patients and a health researcher collaborated, and to discuss the benefits of this collaborative work for improving practice. The second objective is to outline the intervention's aspects and components. Method: Three clinical sites were chosen for developing the intervention: a rehabilitation unit, an outpatient clinic and a centre for patient education. An interdisciplinary team of nine healthcare personnel and four patients engaged with the researcher(s in the formative research. A list of criteria for reporting on the development of complex interventions was applied to elaborate on intervention components. Results: An intervention was developed that entailed a person-centred approach to facilitating overall health in chronic illness. This involved a change in practice as the professionals acquired a new approach to the use of patients' capacity for health, and as patients began to function as active partners in health promotion. Conclusions: A close collaboration between clinicians, former patients and researcher was necessary for developing a theory and a research-based intervention that improved the follow-up of individuals diagnosed with long-term conditions. The intervention was designed to be applicable across diagnostic categories and in a variety of clinical settings. These patients experience a multitude of challenges that require attention in health

  9. Selection criteria for patients with chronic ankle instability in controlled research: a position statement of the international ankle consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribble, P.A.; Delahunt, E.; Bleakley, C.; Caulfield, B.; Docherty, C.L.; Fourchet, F.; Fong, D.; Hertel, J.; Hiller, C.; Kaminski, T.W.; McKeon, P.O.; Refshauge, K.M.; Wees, P.J. van der; Vicenzino, B.; Wikstrom, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The International Ankle Consortium is an international community of researchers and clinicians whose primary scholastic purpose is to promote scholarship and dissemination of research-informed knowledge related to pathologies of the ankle complex. The constituents of the International Ankle

  10. Chronic periodontitis, inflammatory cytokines, and interrelationship with other chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Elsa Maria; Reis, Cátia; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, such as chronic periodontitis, share common inflammatory risk factors with other systemic and chronic inflammatory disorders. Mucosal tissues, such as oral epithelia, are exposed to environmental stressors, such as tobacco and oral bacteria, that might be involved in promoting a systemic inflammatory state. Conversely, chronic disorders can also affect oral health. This review will summarize recent evidence for the interrelationship between chronic periodontitis and other prevalent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. The association with pregnancy is also included due to possible obstetric complications. We will focus on inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6, because they have been shown to be increased in patients with chronic periodontitis, in patients with chronic systemic diseases, and in patients with both chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Therefore, an imbalance towards a proinflammatory immune response could underline a bidirectional link between chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Finally, we highlight that a close coordination between dental and other health professionals could promote oral health and prevent or ameliorate other chronic diseases.

  11. Research progress in combination therapy with pegylated interferon and nucleos(tide analogues in treatment of chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yiqi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Current antiviral treatment strategy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB includes pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN and nucleos(tide analogues (NAs. Whether combination therapy with PEG-IFN and NAs improve therapeutic efficacy has become the key question regarding the antiviral therapy for CHB. This article reviews the recent progress in combination therapy for the management of CHB. The results indicate that the efficacy of simultaneous combination of PEG-IFN and NAs is not superior to that of PEG-IFN monotherapy in terms of HBeAg seroconversion and response after drug withdrawal. Sequential combination or switching therapy in PEG-IFN- or NAs-treated patients, as well as combination with immune cell therapy, is a promising treatment strategy.

  12. [Medicine-syndrome research and analysis of professor Li Dian-gui in treating chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Fa; Li, Dian-Gui; Liu, Jian-Ping; Du, Yan-Ru; Bai, Hai-Yan

    2017-05-01

    In this article, medication characteristics of professor Li Dian-gui in treating chronic atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia(CAGIM) were analyzed through traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system(version 2.5). 276 cases and 625 prescriptions were collected to analyze five types of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) syndromes and the medicine-syndrome correlation. The results showed that medication characteristics of professor Li Dian-gui in treating CAGIM included drug combination of aromatic medicine bitter-cold herbs, preferring to activating to invigorate the spleen and good at using the qi-regulating drugs. It demonstrated that we can adopt the therapy of Huazhuo Jiedu and Xingpi Xingqi therapies in treating CAGIM in addition to the traditional approach of nourishing Yin and activating blood circulation, opening up a novel approach for TCM in healing the pathema. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters January 14, 2013 Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis Normal skin from a ... in mice suggests that lack of a certain protein may trigger atopic dermatitis, the most common type ...

  14. Battling Chronic Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Kim

    2016-01-01

    While the principal of a New York elementary school (P.S. 48) took on chronic absenteeism from 2011 to 2013, a research team at the Center for New York City Affairs followed her efforts. The school drove down chronic absenteeism almost 10 percentage points. School staff routinely touched base with students, outside "success mentors"…

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-01

    Oct 1, 2015 ... allopathic drugs, especially for chronic conditions also makes TMPs popular ..... sodium benzoate as a preservative in food is established [33]. Tamarindus ... drug-drug interactions since the herbalists did not object to the.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Hypercholesterolemia correlated significantly with age and sex. Conclusion: Our study showed a ... work is properly cited. Pan African Medical .... to sex. References. 1. Facing the facts: the impact of chronic disease in Africa.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    infection practices. ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major health concerns .... constituted 95.7% of all those that started the vaccination exercise. .... Natural history and disease progression in Chinese chronic.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    29 juin 2013 ... exercise in 12 866 men at high risk of symptomatic coronary heart disease. ... Decreased survival ... fall risk reduction in the prevention of osteoporosis. Endocrinol ... physical activity in the prevention of the fractures of chronic.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-20

    Jan 20, 2015 ... infection in a cross-sectional study of 79 consecutive patients with chronic antral ... during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for pathology and fixed in formol 10% .... bleeding, with active bleeding during endoscopy, those on.

  20. Self-perceived symptoms and care needs of patients with severe to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or chronic renal failure and its consequences for their closest relatives: the research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schols Jos MGA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research shows that the prevalence of patients with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, congestive heart failure (CHF and chronic renal failure (CRF continues to rise over the next years. Scientific studies concerning self-perceived symptoms and care needs in patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF and CRF are scarce. Consequently, it will be difficult to develop an optimal patient-centred palliative care program for patients with end-stage COPD, CHF or CRF. The present study has been designed to assess the symptoms, care needs, end-of-life care treatment preferences and communication needs of patients with severe to very severe COPD, CHF or CRF. Additionally, family distress and care giving burden of relatives of these patients will be assessed. Methods/design A cross-sectional comparative and prospective longitudinal study in patients with end-stage COPD, CHF or CRF has been designed. Patients will be recruited by their treating physician specialist. Patients and their closest relatives will be visited at baseline and every 4 months after baseline for a period of 12 months. The following outcomes will be assessed during home visits: self-perceived symptoms and care needs; daily physical functioning; general health status; end-of-life care treatment preferences; end-of-life care communication and care-giver burden of family caregivers. Additionally, end-of-life care communication and prognosis of survival will be assessed with the physician primarily responsible for the management of the chronic organ failure. Finally, if patients decease during the study period, the baseline preferences with regard to life-sustaining treatments will be compared with the real end-of-life care. Discussion To date, the symptoms, care needs, caregiver burden, end-of-life care treatment preferences and communication needs of patients with very severe COPD, CHF or CRF remain unknown. The present study will

  1. What is new in obstetric antecedents of chronic disease? Best articles from the past year.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Fergal D

    2014-04-01

    This month, we focus on current research in obstetric antecedents of chronic disease. Dr Malone discusses four recent publications, and each is concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in on this page along with direct links to the abstracts.

  2. POlish-Norwegian Study (PONS): research on chronic non-communicable diseases in European high risk countries - study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Witold A; Mańczuk, Marta

    2011-01-01

    A large-scale population study of health and disease would represent the most powerful tool to address these important issues in Poland. The aim is to extensively survey the study population with respect to important factors related to health and wellbeing, and subsequently, the intention is to follow-up the population for important health outcomes, including the incidence and mortality of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other major causes of morbidity and mortality. The infrastructure for establishing a large cohort of people in Poland is needed; therefore, the PONS (Polish-Norwegian Study) project represents an eff ort to establish such infrastructure. The PONS Study is enrolling individuals aged 45-64 years. Structured lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires are administered. Study participants undergo medical check-up, anthropometric measurements and provide blood and urine sample for long-term storage. Fasting glucose and lipids profile are checked in the laboratory. This report describes the design, justification and methodology of the presented prospective cohort study. Recruitment of participants began in September 2010, and by the end of 2011 it is planned to achieve a total of between 10,000 – 15,000 participants. The PONS study is the fi rst prospective cohort study with blood and urine collection ever conducted in Central and Eastern Europe. It will provide reliable new data on both established and emerging risk factors for several major chronic diseases in a range of different circumstances.

  3. [Immunoglobulin filtration and reabsorption as possible factors in the pathogenesis of chronic glomerulonephritis. Clinical, immunomorphological and histoenzymological research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, A V; Travkina, E S; Zel'tser, G L; Nevorotin, A I

    1992-01-01

    Kidney biopsy specimens obtained from a group of individuals with chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) have been processed for light and electron microscopic immunolocalization of total immunoglobulins (Igs). In a few cases, acid phosphatase (ACPase), a lysosomal enzyme marker, was ultrastructurally visualized. In the glomeruli, horseradish peroxidase-stained Igs were revealed in capillary lumina, urinary spaces and in transit through occasional loci of the glomerular basal membranes while ACPase-containing lysosomes resided both within and outside the cells. In the proximal tubules, Igs were traced in the endocytic vesicles and vacuoles, the latter also being positive for ACPase. Statistically significant relationships have been revealed between the number of IGs-labeled proximal tubules and some clinical or pathomorphological stigmata of CGN, in particular, proteinuria and arterial hypertension levels, marked interstitial sclerosis, etc. The data obtained are discussed in regard to the mechanisms of increased macromolecular filtration and the different proteinuria selectivity levels as well as the development of interstitial sclerosis as a result of the elevated reabsorption and incomplete lysosomal degradation of Igs in CGN.

  4. Managing the Chronically Overworked Team: Twenty Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Overwork, at first glance, seems like a problem that affects only the employee. But for medical practices and those who manage them, the problem is far greater than that. Chronically overworked employees may not be meeting their goals. They may be making more mistakes and letting things slip through the cracks. Ultimately, patients may have less-than-ideal experiences in a practice where the employees are stretched thin. And turnover may skyrocket in practices where employees are chronically overworked. This article offers practice managers 20 practical and affordable strategies they can use to manage a chronically overworked medical practice team. It suggests an effective technique they can use to tell their bosses that their employees are overworked. This article also suggests the costs to the practice of a chronically overworked staff, including a hidden cost many people overlook. It provides four coping strategies practice managers can teach to their overworked employees. It summarizes research exploring how overwork affects employees' sleep and eating habits, and additional research linking long hours of overwork to diminished productivity. Finally, this article provides five strategies practice managers can use to make their overworked employees feel valued.

  5. Operative links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2010-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...

  6. Contribution of chronic diseases to disability in elderly people in countries with low and middle incomes: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Renata M; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jotheeswaran, A T; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Pichardo, Guillermina Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Marina Calvo; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Zuniga, Tirso; Prince, Martin

    2009-11-28

    Disability in elderly people in countries with low and middle incomes is little studied; according to Global Burden of Disease estimates, visual impairment is the leading contributor to years lived with disability in this population. We aimed to assess the contribution of physical, mental, and cognitive chronic diseases to disability, and the extent to which sociodemographic and health characteristics account for geographical variation in disability. We undertook cross-sectional surveys of residents aged older than 65 years (n=15 022) in 11 sites in seven countries with low and middle incomes (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru). Disability was assessed with the 12-item WHO disability assessment schedule 2.0. Dementia, depression, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were ascertained by clinical assessment; diabetes, stroke, and heart disease by self-reported diagnosis; and sensory, gastrointestinal, skin, limb, and arthritic disorders by self-reported impairment. Independent contributions to disability scores were assessed by zero-inflated negative binomial regression and Poisson regression to generate population-attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF). In regions other than rural India and Venezuela, dementia made the largest contribution to disability (median PAPF 25.1% [IQR 19.2-43.6]). Other substantial contributors were stroke (11.4% [1.8-21.4]), limb impairment (10.5% [5.7-33.8]), arthritis (9.9% [3.2-34.8]), depression (8.3% [0.5-23.0]), eyesight problems (6.8% [1.7-17.6]), and gastrointestinal impairments (6.5% [0.3-23.1]). Associations with chronic diseases accounted for around two-thirds of prevalent disability. When zero inflation was taken into account, between-site differences in disability scores were largely attributable to compositional differences in health and sociodemographic characteristics. On the basis of empirical research, dementia, not blindness, is overwhelmingly the most important

  7. Chronic toxicology of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. As societies reconsider the legal status of cannabis, policy makers and clinicians require sound knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of cannabis. This review focuses on the latter. A systematic review of Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar using the search terms "cannabis," "marijuana," "marihuana," "toxicity," "complications," and "mechanisms" identified 5,198 papers. This list was screened by hand, and papers describing mechanisms and those published in more recent years were chosen preferentially for inclusion in this review. There is evidence of psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone toxicity associated with chronic cannabis use. Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state. Respiratory conditions linked with cannabis include reduced lung density, lung cysts, and chronic bronchitis. Cannabis has been linked in a dose-dependent manner with elevated rates of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrythmias. It is known to affect bone metabolism and also has teratogenic effects on the developing brain following perinatal exposure. Cannabis has been linked to cancers at eight sites, including children after in utero maternal exposure, and multiple molecular pathways to oncogenesis exist. Chronic cannabis use is associated with psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone effects. It also has oncogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects all of which depend upon dose and duration of use.

  8. Willingness to Participate in Longitudinal Research Among People with Chronic Pain Who Take Medical Cannabis: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhuber, Marcus A; Arnsten, Julia H; Starrels, Joanna L; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2018-01-01

    Background: Regulatory barriers limit clinical trials of medical cannabis in the United States. Longitudinal cohort studies may be one feasible alternative that could yield clinically relevant information. Willingness to participate in such studies is not known. Materials and Methods: In October 2016, we surveyed a convenience sample of patients with chronic pain from two New York registered organizations (responsible for growing, processing, distributing, and retailing medical cannabis products). After a vignette describing a longitudinal cohort study involving weekly patient-reported outcomes and quarterly assessments of physical functioning and urine and blood tests, we asked about respondents' willingness to participate. We examined willingness to participate, duration of participation, and frequency of data collections overall and by subgroups, using multivariable logistic regression models. Results: Of 405 respondents (estimated response rate: 30%), 54% were women and 81% were white non-Hispanic. Neuropathy was the most common pain condition (67%) followed by inflammatory bowel disease (19%). Of respondents, 94% (95% CI 92-97%) thought that the study should be done, 85% (95% CI 81-88%) would definitely or probably enroll if asked, 76% (95% CI 72-81%) would participate for ≥1 year, and 59% (95% CI 54-64%) would respond to questions at least daily. Older age was the only factor associated with lower willingness to participate, lower willingness to participate for ≥1 year, and lower willingness to respond to questions at least daily. Conclusions: Nearly all respondents were supportive of the proposed study and most reported that they would enroll if asked. Enhanced engagement with older individuals may be needed to promote equal enrollment. Recruitment for longitudinal cohort studies with frequent data collection appears feasible in this patient population.

  9. Research Article. Comparative Analysis of Hepcidin-25 and Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease with and without Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Căldăraru Carmen Denise

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepcidin is a regulatory protein in iron metabolism; we do not know the role in chronic kidney disease anemia. Methods: 22 patients with CKD anemia and 15 patients with CKD without anemia were investigated. CKD anemia-inclusion criteria: over 18 years, hemoglobin ≤12 g/dl for women and ≤13 g/dl for men, no treatment for anemia 6 months before enrollment, glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 and stable creatinine three months before enrollment. Exclusion criteria: infection, bleeding, malignancy, systemic or liver disease, immunosuppression, renal replacement therapy. CKD without anemia-inclusion criteria: over 18 years, no anemia or treatment for anemia, CKD with stable creatinine values three months before enrollment. Exclusion criteria: medical conditions known to have a role in the development of polycythemia. Hepcidin-25 and ferritin were measured by ELISA method. Erythropoietin (EPO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6 were evaluated using chemiluminescent enzyme immunometric assays. Unpaired T test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: Hemoglobin values were significantly lower in anemia group. There were no differences in terms of eGFR, age, body mass index, serum hepcidin, erythropoietin, fibrinogen, IL-6, and TNF-α between CKD patients with and without anemia. Serum hepcidin correlated positively with ferritin (r=0.45 p<0.05, TNF-α (r=0.54, p<0.05 and negatively with erythropoietin (r=-0.51, p<0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that TNF-α is an independent predictor of serum hepcidin in our patients (p=0.003, R=0.71. Conclusion: We found no differences in serum hepcidin, erythropoietin and inflammatory markers in non-dialysis CKD patients with and without anemia.

  10. Are There Any Natural Remedies That Reduce Chronic Fatigue Associated with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural remedies that reduce chronic fatigue associated with chronic fatigue syndrome? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Researchers ... a variety of natural products for effectiveness against chronic fatigue syndrome. Most results have been disappointing. A few remedies — ...

  11. Vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Kristin M; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2013-11-07

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on vitamin K status in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review includes a summary of the data available on vitamin K status in patients across the spectrum of CKD as well as the link between vitamin K deficiency in CKD and bone dynamics, including mineralization and demineralization, as well as ectopic mineralization. It also describes two current clinical trials that are underway evaluating vitamin K treatment in CKD patients. These data may inform future clinical practice in this population.

  12. Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stram, Michelle; Liu, Shu; Singhi, Aatur D

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a debilitating condition often associated with severe abdominal pain and exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. The underlying cause is multifactorial and involves complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and/or other risk factors. The pathology is dependent on the underlying pathogenesis of the disease. This review describes the clinical, gross, and microscopic findings of the main subtypes of chronic pancreatitis: alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, obstructive chronic pancreatitis, paraduodenal ("groove") pancreatitis, pancreatic divisum, autoimmune pancreatitis, and genetic factors associated with chronic pancreatitis. As pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma may be confused with chronic pancreatitis, the main distinguishing features between these 2 diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Research on Trypanosoma cruzi and Analysis of Inflammatory Infiltrate in Esophagus and Colon from Chronic Chagasic Patients with and without Mega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliângela de Castro Côbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare parasitism and inflammatory process in esophagus and colon from chronic chagasic patients, immunohistochemistry was carried out to research for T. cruzi and to evaluate the inflammatory infiltrate in the muscular and myenteric plexus in 39 esophagi (20 with and 19 without megaesophagus and 50 colons (25 with and 25 without megacolon. The frequency of T. cruzi in megaesophagus was 20%, and in megacolon it was 4%. No amastigotes were found in organs without mega; considering the total of esophagi (with and without mega, the frequency of T. cruzi would be 10% and 2% in the colon. Myositis and ganglionitis were more frequent and intense in organs with mega compared to those without mega, and in esophagus compared to colon. Qualitatively, inflammatory infiltration in esophagus and colon, with or without mega, was similar, consisting predominantly of T lymphocytes (CD3+, scarce macrophages (CD68+, and rare B lymphocytes (CD20+.

  14. Research on Trypanosoma cruzi and Analysis of Inflammatory Infiltrate in Esophagus and Colon from Chronic Chagasic Patients with and without Mega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côbo, Eliângela de Castro; Silveira, Thales Parenti; Micheletti, Adilha Misson; Crema, Eduardo; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2012-01-01

    To compare parasitism and inflammatory process in esophagus and colon from chronic chagasic patients, immunohistochemistry was carried out to research for T. cruzi and to evaluate the inflammatory infiltrate in the muscular and myenteric plexus in 39 esophagi (20 with and 19 without megaesophagus) and 50 colons (25 with and 25 without megacolon). The frequency of T. cruzi in megaesophagus was 20%, and in megacolon it was 4%. No amastigotes were found in organs without mega; considering the total of esophagi (with and without mega), the frequency of T. cruzi would be 10% and 2% in the colon. Myositis and ganglionitis were more frequent and intense in organs with mega compared to those without mega, and in esophagus compared to colon. Qualitatively, inflammatory infiltration in esophagus and colon, with or without mega, was similar, consisting predominantly of T lymphocytes (CD3+), scarce macrophages (CD68+), and rare B lymphocytes (CD20+). PMID:22131997

  15. Transforming research for food and health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    2012-10-01

    Eating causes up to a quarter of premature deaths from chronic diseases in Europe through poor diet and excess consumption. FAHRE (Food and Health Research in Europe) was funded to determine needs and gaps in research structures and programmes. Most food research links towards agriculture and the environmental sciences, whereas most health research links towards clinical diseases, biochemical pathways and biology. Research on food and health together includes food safety research addressing biological and chemical contaminants, and biotechnology research supporting clinical nutrition. Research for healthy eating must draw on social and behavioural sciences for studies of policy, regulation and interventions. The food industry, across production, retail and catering, must be part of the research programme, and civil society. Better coordination and improved levels of funding are needed in the coming European research programme 'Horizon 2020', and national programmes linked in the Joint Programming Initiative. Transforming the research agenda can give great benefits to Europe's citizens.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... Maternal and Child Health Services Division (MCH). ... was linked to death in most cases; denial and guilt; as well as the spiritual and.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-18

    Aug 18, 2011 ... Key words: Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C ... Virus (HTLV) I and II, Syphilis, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr Virus, ... a need to improve testing for transfusion transmissible diseases and the ...

  18. Chronic Pericarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery) and is considered subacute. Causes Usually, the cause of chronic effusive pericarditis is unknown. However, it may be caused by cancer, tuberculosis , or an underactive thyroid gland ( hypothyroidism ), and it occasionally occurs in people with chronic ...

  19. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-02-26

    Feb 26, 2015 ... despite significant community anti-microbial use suggests likely re-crudescence or re-infection from ... of chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulceration, gastric B-cell .... 1 illustrates the relationship between housing characteristics and H. .... made identification of portals of entry and exit problematic [25].

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 sept. 2017 ... Introduction: Chronic kidney disease is fast becoming a worldwide public health problem due to the increase of ... Les projections de 2030 prévoient que plus de 70% de la population ..... the global burden of major noncommunicable diseases. ... 2002 Feb; 39(2 Suppl 1):S1-266. ... Risk of death and the.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-03-05

    Mar 5, 2013 ... the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, The Gambia. These were collected routinely .... and are poorly educated with little or no dietary awareness. In many .... the media involvement in chronic diseases prevention and management ..... Global Brand for Young Adults: Implication for International. Tobacco ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    échographie rénale réalisée chez 3 malades était revenue normale. .... ambulatory patients with chronic congestive heart failure. J Am. Coll Cardiol. 2002 Sep 18; 40(6): 1106-13. Google Scholar. 14. Yancy CW, Lopatin M, ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-10

    Mar 10, 2016 ... Slovenian population, found some differences in the cancer risk between the various subtypes of intestinal metaplasia [9]. He thus supported the histological sub-typing of intestinal metaplasia as an integral part of the pathological assessment of chronic gastritis in gastric biopsies. [9] El Zimaity et al on the ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-13

    Jun 13, 2015 ... PubMed | Google. Scholar. 2. Rashad S, Basroum MD. Chronic kidney disease in the developing world. N Engl J Med. 2006 March; 354(10): 997-. 999. PubMed | Google Scholar. 3. Odubanjo MO, Oluwasola AO, Kadiri S. The epidemiology of end-stage renal disease in Nigeria: The way forward. Int Urol.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-13

    Oct 13, 2017 ... pathologies encountered during pregnancy and the potential impact of ... Results: The mean age at the time of renal transplantation was ... Toxemia was found in 60% of cases, low birth weight in 50%, ... Six patients had chronic hypertension before pregnancy, ... gestation to diagnose gestational diabetes.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regulated behaviour, positive emotional states and improved psychological wellbeing. ... symptoms across a wide range of populations and disorders, such as anxiety and depression, chronic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, HIV/AIDS and .... practitioners, who were assessed on their contributions to online discussions.

  8. "The contribution of chronic diseases to the prevalence of dependence among older people in Latin America, China and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Aquiles

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of older people is set to increase dramatically worldwide. Demographic changes are likely to result in the rise of age-related chronic diseases which largely contribute to years lived with a disability and future dependence. However dependence is much less studied although intrinsically linked to disability. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of dependence among older people from middle income countries. Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey was carried out at 11 sites in seven countries (urban sites in Cuba, Venezuela, and Dominican Republic, urban and rural sites in Peru, Mexico, China and India. All those aged 65 years and over living in geographically defined catchment areas were eligible. In all, 15,022 interviews were completed with an informant interview for each participant. The full 10/66 Dementia Research Group survey protocol was applied, including ascertainment of depression, dementia, physical impairments and self-reported diagnoses. Dependence was interviewer-rated based on a key informant's responses to a set of open-ended questions on the participant's needs for care. We estimated the prevalence of dependence and the independent contribution of underlying health conditions. Site-specific prevalence ratios were meta-analysed, and population attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF calculated. Results The prevalence of dependence increased with age at all sites, with a tendency for the prevalence to be lower in men than in women. Age-standardised prevalence was lower in all sites than in the USA. Other than in rural China, dementia made the largest independent contribution to dependence, with a median PAPF of 34% (range 23%-59%. Other substantial contributors were limb impairment (9%, 1%-46%, stroke (8%, 2%-17%, and depression (8%, 1%-27%. Conclusion The demographic and health transitions will lead to large and rapid increases in the numbers of dependent older people particularly in

  9. The contribution of chronic diseases to the prevalence of dependence among older people in Latin America, China and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Renata M; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, Ks; Jotheeswaran, At; Hernandez, Milagros A Guerra; Liu, Zhaorui; Pichardo, Guillermina Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Zuniga, Tirso; Prince, Martin

    2010-08-06

    The number of older people is set to increase dramatically worldwide. Demographic changes are likely to result in the rise of age-related chronic diseases which largely contribute to years lived with a disability and future dependence. However dependence is much less studied although intrinsically linked to disability. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of dependence among older people from middle income countries. A one-phase cross-sectional survey was carried out at 11 sites in seven countries (urban sites in Cuba, Venezuela, and Dominican Republic, urban and rural sites in Peru, Mexico, China and India). All those aged 65 years and over living in geographically defined catchment areas were eligible. In all, 15,022 interviews were completed with an informant interview for each participant. The full 10/66 Dementia Research Group survey protocol was applied, including ascertainment of depression, dementia, physical impairments and self-reported diagnoses. Dependence was interviewer-rated based on a key informant's responses to a set of open-ended questions on the participant's needs for care. We estimated the prevalence of dependence and the independent contribution of underlying health conditions. Site-specific prevalence ratios were meta-analysed, and population attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF) calculated. The prevalence of dependence increased with age at all sites, with a tendency for the prevalence to be lower in men than in women. Age-standardised prevalence was lower in all sites than in the USA. Other than in rural China, dementia made the largest independent contribution to dependence, with a median PAPF of 34% (range 23%-59%). Other substantial contributors were limb impairment (9%, 1%-46%), stroke (8%, 2%-17%), and depression (8%, 1%-27%). The demographic and health transitions will lead to large and rapid increases in the numbers of dependent older people particularly in middle income countries (MIC). The prevention and control of

  10. "The contribution of chronic diseases to the prevalence of dependence among older people in Latin America, China and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The number of older people is set to increase dramatically worldwide. Demographic changes are likely to result in the rise of age-related chronic diseases which largely contribute to years lived with a disability and future dependence. However dependence is much less studied although intrinsically linked to disability. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of dependence among older people from middle income countries. Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey was carried out at 11 sites in seven countries (urban sites in Cuba, Venezuela, and Dominican Republic, urban and rural sites in Peru, Mexico, China and India). All those aged 65 years and over living in geographically defined catchment areas were eligible. In all, 15,022 interviews were completed with an informant interview for each participant. The full 10/66 Dementia Research Group survey protocol was applied, including ascertainment of depression, dementia, physical impairments and self-reported diagnoses. Dependence was interviewer-rated based on a key informant's responses to a set of open-ended questions on the participant's needs for care. We estimated the prevalence of dependence and the independent contribution of underlying health conditions. Site-specific prevalence ratios were meta-analysed, and population attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF) calculated. Results The prevalence of dependence increased with age at all sites, with a tendency for the prevalence to be lower in men than in women. Age-standardised prevalence was lower in all sites than in the USA. Other than in rural China, dementia made the largest independent contribution to dependence, with a median PAPF of 34% (range 23%-59%). Other substantial contributors were limb impairment (9%, 1%-46%), stroke (8%, 2%-17%), and depression (8%, 1%-27%). Conclusion The demographic and health transitions will lead to large and rapid increases in the numbers of dependent older people particularly in middle income countries

  11. Assessing the healthcare resource use associated with inappropriate prescribing of inhaled corticosteroids for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in GOLD groups A or B: an observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, James D; Poole, Chris; Webster, Samantha; Tebboth, Abigail; Dickinson, Scott; Gayle, Alicia

    2018-04-11

    Recent recommendations from the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) position inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing exacerbations (≥ 2 or ≥ 1 requiring hospitalisation); i.e. GOLD groups C and D. However, it is known that ICS is frequently prescribed for patients with less severe COPD. Potential drivers of inappropriate ICS use may be historical clinical guidance or a belief among physicians that intervening early with ICS would improve outcomes and reduce resource use. The objective of this study was to compare healthcare resource use in the UK for COPD patients in GOLD groups A and B (0 or 1 exacerbation not resulting in hospitalisation) who have either been prescribed an ICS-containing regimen or a non-ICS-containing regimen. Linked data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database were used. For the study period (1 July 2005 to 30 June 2015) a total 4009 patients met the inclusion criteria; 1745 receiving ICS-containing therapy and 2264 receiving non-ICS therapy. Treatment groups were propensity score-matched to account for potential confounders in the decision to prescribe ICS, leaving 1739 patients in both treatment arms. Resource use was assessed in terms of frequency of healthcare practitioner (HCP) interactions and rescue therapy prescribing. Treatment acquisition costs were not assessed. Results showed no benefit associated with the addition of ICS, with numerically higher all-cause HCP interactions (72,802 versus 69,136; adjusted relative rate: 1.07 [p = 0.061]) and rescue therapy prescriptions (24,063 versus 21,163; adjusted relative rate: 1.05 [p = 0.212]) for the ICS-containing group compared to the non-ICS group. Rate ratios favoured the non-ICS group for eight of nine outcomes assessed. Outcomes were similar for subgroup analyses surrounding potential influential parameters, including

  12. Research on Influence and Prediction Model of Urban Traffic Link Tunnel curvature on Fire Temperature Based on Pyrosim--SPSS Multiple Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Ju; Yao, Kun; Dai, Jun Yu; Song, Yun Long

    2018-05-01

    The underground space, also known as the “fourth dimension” of the city, reflects the efficient use of urban development intensive. Urban traffic link tunnel is a typical underground limited-length space. Due to the geographical location, the special structure of space and the curvature of the tunnel, high-temperature smoke can easily form the phenomenon of “smoke turning” and the fire risk is extremely high. This paper takes an urban traffic link tunnel as an example to focus on the relationship between curvature and the temperature near the fire source, and use the pyrosim built different curvature fire model to analyze the influence of curvature on the temperature of the fire, then using SPSS Multivariate regression analysis simulate curvature of the tunnel and fire temperature data. Finally, a prediction model of urban traffic link tunnel curvature on fire temperature was proposed. The regression model analysis and test show that the curvature is negatively correlated with the tunnel temperature. This model is feasible and can provide a theoretical reference for the urban traffic link tunnel fire protection design and the preparation of the evacuation plan. And also, it provides some reference for other related curved tunnel curvature design and smoke control measures.

  13. Education and Work. Proceedings of the International Conference Linking Research and Practice (Toronto, Ontario, March 4-6, 1993). Volumes 1-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, David, Ed.; Lawton, Stephen B., Ed.

    These two volumes comprise the proceedings of a conference on links between education and work and the power relationships in the wider culture and in its social order. Each volume begins with a "Foreword" (Ronald C. Morrison), "Preface" (Arthur Kruger), "Introduction" (David Corson), and author notes. Volume I…

  14. Priority interventions to improve the management of chronic non-cancer pain in primary care: a participatory research of the ACCORD program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalonde L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lyne Lalonde,1–4 Manon Choinière,3,5 Elisabeth Martin,3 Lise Lévesque,3 Éveline Hudon,2,3,6 Danielle Bélanger,2 Sylvie Perreault,1,7 Anaïs Lacasse,8 Marie-Claude Laliberté1,9 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Équipe de recherche en soins de première ligne, Centre de santé et de services sociaux de Laval, Laval, QC, Canada; 3Centre de recherche, Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Sanofi Aventis Endowment Chair in Ambulatory Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal and Centre de santé et de services sociaux de Laval, QC, Canada; 5Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Family Medicine and Emergency, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Sanofi Aventis Endowment Chair in Drug Utilization, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 8Département des sciences de la santé, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada; 9AbbVie Corporation, St-Laurent, QC, Canada Purpose: There is evidence that the management of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP in primary care is far from being optimal. A 1-day workshop was held to explore the perceptions of key actors regarding the challenges and priority interventions to improve CNCP management in primary care. Methods: Using the Chronic Care Model as a conceptual framework, physicians (n=6, pharmacists (n=6, nurses (n=6, physiotherapists (n=6, psychologists (n=6, pain specialists (n=6, patients (n=3, family members (n=3, decision makers and managers (n=4, and pain researchers (n=7 took part in seven focus groups and five nominal groups. Results: Challenges identified in focus group discussions were related to five dimensions: knowledge gap, “work in silos”, lack of awareness that CNCP represents an important clinical problem

  15. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Caballero, Benjamin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-31

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10-12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable.

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Process Funding Priorities Research Training News & Events News Nora's Blog NIDA in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts ... of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director The Link ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook ... HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter ... Network TV Organizations: AIDS.gov AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & ...

  1. Depression and Chronic Health Conditions Among Latinos: The Role of Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra; Arredondo, Elva M; Villodas, Miguel T; Elder, John P; Quintanar, Elena; Madanat, Hala

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the "buffering hypothesis" of social network characteristics in the association between chronic conditions and depression among Latinos. Cross-sectional self-report data from the San Diego Prevention Research Center's community survey of Latinos were used (n = 393). Separate multiple logistic regression models tested the role of chronic conditions and social network characteristics in the likelihood of moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Having a greater proportion of the network comprised of friends increased the likelihood of depression among those with high cholesterol. Having a greater proportion of women in the social network was directly related to the increased likelihood of depression, regardless of the presence of chronic health conditions. Findings suggest that network characteristics may play a role in the link between chronic conditions and depression among Latinos. Future research should explore strategies targeting the social networks of Latinos to improve health outcomes.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-05-11

    May 11, 2016 ... were included in this study, those presenting for treatment of acute illnesses or who were ... log-binomial regression with log family and poisson link to estimate the unadjusted .... support to stop the addiction. Considering the ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... because of stigma and socio-cultural taboos linked to homosexuality. [3]. However, some studies conducted ... Finally, in Nigeria, a national survey of 879 MSM revealed a 1.1% prevalence rate in Cross River State, .... association of HSH, the contraction of gay wedding. An MSM association is a club where ...

  4. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  5. How to link health research to policy makers, practitioners and patients: use of Dutch health services by non-Dutch patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, F.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents experiences with research-related implementation activities in the field of intercultural communication in palliative health care in the Netherlands. It is argued that sharing research aims with relevant stakeholders, organizing resulting feedback, translating findings into

  6. Linking stakeholder research needs and the federal data quality act: a case study of an endangered forest shrub in the southeastern Unitd States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Emile S. Gardiner; Theodor D. Leininger; Kristina F. Connor; Margaret S. Devall; Paul B. Hamel; Tracy Hawkins; Nathan M. Schiff; A. Dan. Wilson

    2009-01-01

    The need for knowledge, ranging from development of new products or processes to the effects of specific actions on the environment, is greater now than at any point in the past. The greater need for research has generated stakeholder involvement in the research process. As a result, all facets of research, from planning through...

  7. Cancer and autoimmunity: Harnessing longitudinal cohorts to probe the link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egiziano, Giordano; Bernatsky, Sasha; Shah, Ami A

    2016-02-01

    In many autoimmune rheumatic diseases, there is an increased risk of cancer compared to the general population. While reasons for this increased risk have not been elucidated, it has been hypothesized that the link between cancer and autoimmunity may be bidirectional. For instance, chronic inflammation and damage from the rheumatic disease or its therapies may trigger malignant transformation; conversely, antitumor immune responses targeting cancers may become cross-reactive resulting in autoimmunity. In rare rheumatic diseases, longitudinal observational studies can play a critical role in studying these complex relationships, thereby enabling investigators to quantify the extent of cancer risk, identify unique clinical phenotypes associated with cancer, investigate the biological link between these conditions, and define optimal strategies for screening and treatment of the underlying cancer. In this review, we discuss recent data on cancer in the rheumatic diseases and suggest a research agenda to address several gaps in our current knowledge base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Linking mitochondrial bioenergetics to insulin resistance via redox biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2012-01-01

    Chronic overnutrition and physical inactivity are major risk factors for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recent research indicates that overnutrition generates an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) emission from mitochondria, serving as a release valve to relieve the reducing pressure created by fuel overload, as well as a primary signal to ultimately decrease insulin sensitivity. H2O2 is a major input to cellular redox circuits that link to cysteine residues throughout the entire proteome to regulate cell function. Here we review the principles of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox systems biology and offer new insight as to how H2O2 emission may be linked via redox biology to the etiology of insulin resistance. PMID:22305519

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  10. The association between chronic pain and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okifuji A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Akiko Okifuji, Bradford D HarePain Research and Management Center, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Obesity and pain present serious public health concerns in our society. Evidence strongly suggests that comorbid obesity is common in chronic pain conditions, and pain complaints are common in obese individuals. In this paper, we review the association between obesity and pain in the general population as well as chronic pain patients. We also review the relationship between obesity and pain response to noxious stimulation in animals and humans. Based upon the existing research, we present several potential mechanisms that may link the two phenomena, including mechanical/structural factors, chemical mediators, depression, sleep, and lifestyle. We discuss the clinical implications of obesity and pain, focusing on the effect of weight loss, both surgical and noninvasive, on pain. The literature suggests that the two conditions are significant comorbidities, adversely impacting each other. The nature of the relationship however is not likely to be direct, but many interacting factors appear to contribute. Weight loss for obese pain patients appears to be an important aspect of overall pain rehabilitation, although more efforts are needed to determine strategies to maintain long-term benefit.Keywords: comorbidity, BMI, chronic pain, obesity, lifestyle, weight loss, headaches, fibromyalgia

  11. Urinary Metabolomics Identifies a Molecular Correlate of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome in a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveri S. Parker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS is a poorly understood syndrome affecting up to 6.5% of adult women in the U.S. The lack of broadly accepted objective laboratory markers for this condition hampers efforts to diagnose and treat this condition. To identify biochemical markers for IC/BPS, we applied mass spectrometry-based global metabolite profiling to urine specimens from a cohort of female IC/BPS subjects from the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network. These analyses identified multiple metabolites capable of discriminating IC/BPS and control subjects. Of these candidate markers, etiocholan-3α-ol-17-one sulfate (Etio-S, a sulfoconjugated 5-β reduced isomer of testosterone, distinguished female IC/BPS and control subjects with a sensitivity and specificity >90%. Among IC/BPS subjects, urinary Etio-S levels are correlated with elevated symptom scores (symptoms, pelvic pain, and number of painful body sites and could resolve high- from low-symptom IC/BPS subgroups. Etio-S-associated biochemical changes persisted through 3–6 months of longitudinal follow up. These results raise the possibility that an underlying biochemical abnormality contributes to symptoms in patients with severe IC/BPS.

  12. Occupational physical activity assessment for chronic disease prevention and management: A review of methods for both occupational health practitioners and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kenneth A; Browning, Raymond C

    2016-01-01

    Occupational physical activity (OPA) is an occupational exposure that impacts worker health. OPA is amenable to measurement and modification through the hierarchy of controls. Occupational exposure scientists have roles in addressing inadequate physical activity, as well as excessive or harmful physical activity. Occupational health researchers can contribute to the development of novel OPA exposure assessment techniques and to epidemiologic studies examining the health impacts of physical activity at work. Occupational health practitioners stand to benefit from understanding the strengths and limitations of physical activity measurement approaches, such as accelerometers in smartphones, which are already ubiquitous in many workplaces and in some worksite health programs. This comprehensive review of the literature provides an overview of physical activity monitoring for occupational exposure scientists. This article summarizes data on the public health implications of physical activity at work, highlighting complex relationships with common chronic diseases. This article includes descriptions of several techniques that have been used to measure physical activity at work and elsewhere, focusing in detail on pedometers, accelerometers, and Global Positioning System technology. Additional subjective and objective measurement strategies are described as well.

  13. A complementary role of multiparameter flow cytometry and high-throughput sequencing for minimal residual disease detection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an European Research Initiative on CLL study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rawstron, A C

    2016-04-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) after therapy is an independent predictor of outcome. Given the increasing number of new agents being explored for CLL therapy, using MRD as a surrogate could greatly reduce the time necessary to assess their efficacy. In this European Research Initiative on CLL (ERIC) project we have identified and validated a flow-cytometric approach to reliably quantitate CLL cells to the level of 0.0010% (10(-5)). The assay comprises a core panel of six markers (i.e. CD19, CD20, CD5, CD43, CD79b and CD81) with a component specification independent of instrument and reagents, which can be locally re-validated using normal peripheral blood. This method is directly comparable to previous ERIC-designed assays and also provides a backbone for investigation of new markers. A parallel analysis of high-throughput sequencing using the ClonoSEQ assay showed good concordance with flow cytometry results at the 0.010% (10(-4)) level, the MRD threshold defined in the 2008 International Workshop on CLL guidelines, but it also provides good linearity to a detection limit of 1 in a million (10(-6)). The combination of both technologies would permit a highly sensitive approach to MRD detection while providing a reproducible and broadly accessible method to quantify residual disease and optimize treatment in CLL.

  14. Bottom-linked innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2018-01-01

    hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative......Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...

  15. Recruitment and enrollment for the simultaneous conduct of 2 randomized controlled trials for patients with subacute and chronic low back pain at a CAM research center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondras, Maria A; Long, Cynthia R; Haan, Andrea G; Spencer, Lori Byrd; Meeker, William C

    2008-10-01

    To describe recruitment and enrollment experiences of 2 low back pain (LBP) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Descriptive report. Chiropractic research center in the midwest United States that is not a fee-for-service clinic. Both trials enrolled participants with subacute or chronic LBP without neurologic signs who had not received spinal manipulative care during the previous month. For study 1 we screened 1940 potential participants to enroll 192 participants (89 women and 103 men), mean age 40.0 +/- 9.4 years (range, 21-54 years). For study 2 we screened 1849 potential participants to enroll 240 participants (105 women and 135 men) at least 55 years old (mean, 63.1 +/- 6.7 years). Study 1 randomly assigned participants to 2 weeks of 2 different chiropractic techniques or a wait list control group. Study 2 randomly assigned participants to 6 weeks of 2 different chiropractic techniques or medical care consisting of 3 provider visits for medications. Recruitment source costs and yield, and baseline characteristics of enrolled versus nonparticipants were recorded. We conducted 3789 telephone screens for both trials to enroll 432 (11%) participants, at a cost in excess of $156,000 for recruitment efforts. The cost per call for all callers averaged $41, ranging from $4 to $300 based on recruitment method; for enrolled participants, the cost per call was $361, ranging from $33 to $750. Direct mail efforts accounted for 62% of all callers, 57% for enrolled participants, and had the second lowest cost per call for recruitment efforts. It is important that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research can be successfully conducted at CAM institutions. However, the costs associated with recruitment efforts for studies conducted at CAM institutions may be higher than expected and many self-identified participants are users of the CAM therapy. Therefore, strategies for efficient recruitment methods and targeting nonusers of CAM therapies should be developed early

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  18. Framing international trade and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Mohindra, Katia S; Lencucha, Raphael

    2011-07-04

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.

  19. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  20. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohindra Katia S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs. This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011. Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.

  1. Mortality of people with chronic fatigue syndrome: a retrospective cohort study in England and Wales from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Emmert; Wessely, Simon; Chalder, Trudie; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Hotopf, Matthew

    2016-04-16

    Mortality associated with chronic fatigue syndrome is uncertain. We investigated mortality in individuals diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome in secondary and tertiary care using data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) register. We calculated standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all-cause, suicide-specific, and cancer-specific mortality for a 7-year observation period using the number of deaths observed in SLaM records compared with age-specific and sex-specific mortality statistics for England and Wales. Study participants were included if they had had contact with the chronic fatigue service (referral, discharge, or case note entry) and received a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome. We identified 2147 cases of chronic fatigue syndrome from CRIS and 17 deaths from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2013. 1533 patients were women of whom 11 died, and 614 were men of whom six died. There was no significant difference in age-standardised and sex-standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all-cause mortality (SMR 1·14, 95% CI 0·65-1·85; p=0·67) or cancer-specific mortality (1·39, 0·60-2·73; p=0·45) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome when compared with the general population in England and Wales. This remained the case when deaths from suicide were removed from the analysis. There was a significant increase in suicide-specific mortality (SMR 6·85, 95% CI 2·22-15·98; p=0·002). We did not note increased all-cause mortality in people with chronic fatigue syndrome, but our findings show a substantial increase in mortality from suicide. This highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of the increased risk of completed suicide and to assess suicidality adequately in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London

  2. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors for the development of non-specific chronic disabling low back pain in Japanese workers-findings from the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Mika; Isomura, Tatsuya; Inuzuka, Kyoko; Koga, Tadashi; Miyoshi, Kota; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and the development of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) in Japanese workers. A 1 yr prospective cohort of the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study was used. The participants were office workers, nurses, sales/marketing personnel, and manufacturing engineers. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed twice: at baseline and 1 yr after baseline. The outcome of interest was the development of chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for the participants who experienced disabling LBP during the month prior to baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for chronic disabling LBP. Of 5,310 participants responding at baseline (response rate: 86.5%), 3,811 completed the questionnaire at follow-up. Among 171 eligible participants who experienced disabling back pain during the month prior to baseline, 29 (17.0%) developed chronic disabling LBP during the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis implied reward to work (not feeling rewarded, OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.17-11.19), anxiety (anxious, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 0.97-8.57), and daily-life satisfaction (not satisfied, ORs: 4.14, 95%CI: 1.18-14.58) were significant. Psychosocial factors are key to the development of chronic disabling LBP in Japanese workers. Psychosocial interventions may reduce the impact of LBP in the workplace.

  3. "I Love Fruit But I Can't Afford It": Using Participatory Action Research to Develop Community-Based Initiatives to Mitigate Challenges to Chronic Disease Management in an African American Community Living in Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Courtney; Johnson, Joy; Nueslein, Brianne; Edmunds, David; Valdez, Rupa S

    2018-03-12

    As chronic conditions are on the rise in the USA, management initiatives outside of the inpatient setting should be explored to reduce associated cost and access disparities. Chronic conditions disproportionately affect African American public housing residents due to the effects of historical marginalization on the manifestation of economic and social problems exacerbating health disparities and outcomes. Informed by participatory research action tenets, this study focused on identifying the challenges to management of chronic conditions and developing community-envisioned initiatives to address these challenges in a predominantly African American public housing community. Two focus groups were conducted with former and current public housing residents and were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Physical activity, the cost associated with healthy eating, and lack of information were noted as challenges to chronic disease management. Initiatives discussed were the formation of a walking partner's program to promote physical activity, a shopper's club to exchange coupons and learn how to prepare healthy meals, and a natural remedy's book to share information intergenerationally about management tactics. Challenges identified existed predominantly on the individual and the system level, while the initiatives generated target engaging interpersonal and community relationships. These community-envisioned approaches should be explored to facilitate chronic disease management in public housing neighborhoods.

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable DrugFacts Research Reports Mind Over Matter Science of Addiction Funding Funding ... transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse ...

  5. A center for self-management of chronic illnesses in diverse groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Jillian; Boland, Mary G; Nigg, Claudio R; Sullivan, Kathleen; Leake, Anne; Mark, Debra; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    Prevention and successful treatment of chronic disease require a scientific understanding of the impacts and interactions of ethnicity, culture, and illness on self-management interventions. This article presents one approach to developing effective methods to address the needs of ethnic minorities living with chronic illnesses. Described is the University of Hawaii Center for Ohana Self-Management of Chronic Illnesses (COSMCI) located in the School of Nursing & Dental Hygiene and funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research (Award Number P20NR010671). The interdisciplinary center focuses on family and community self-management interventions in ethnically diverse populations with chronic illnesses. Areas discussed are: 1) the operational structure for creating an environment conducive to interdisciplinary ohana self-management chronic illness research in ethnically diverse populations; and 2) the development of sustainable interdisciplinary, biobehavioral research capacity. The COSMCI uses a social cognitive theory framework to guide the application of established self-management interventions to Asian and Pacific Island populations (API) through three conceptually linked research projects on HIV infection, type 2 diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COSMI addresses the feasibility of sharing of lessons learned among the approaches taken. The interdisciplinary nature of COSMCI increases the potential success of the intervention efforts. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2010.

  6. Linked data and user interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Cervone, H Frank

    2015-01-01

    This collection of research papers provides extensive information on deploying services, concepts, and approaches for using open linked data from libraries and other cultural heritage institutions. With a special emphasis on how libraries and other cultural heritage institutions can create effective end user interfaces using open, linked data or other datasets. These papers are essential reading for any one interesting in user interface design or the semantic web.

  7. Wireless data link for FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, M.K.; Prabhakara Rao, G.; Ilango Sambasivan, S.; Swaminathan, P.; Ramakrishna, P.V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of a wireless data link for transmission of block pile signals at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR). This link is to establish wireless connectivity, typically at RS232C rates, over distances of the order of 50 m, and is expected to operate under electrically hostile conditions. (author)

  8. Quantitative sensory testing in the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS): reference data for the trunk and application in patients with chronic postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Doreen B; Krumova, Elena K; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baron, Ralf; Toelle, Thomas; Birklein, Frank; Eich, Wolfgang; Geber, Christian; Gerhardt, Andreas; Weiss, Thomas; Magerl, Walter; Maier, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Age- and gender-matched reference values are essential for the clinical use of quantitative sensory testing (QST). To extend the standard test sites for QST-according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain-to the trunk, we collected QST profiles on the back in 162 healthy subjects. Sensory profiles for standard test sites were within normal interlaboratory differences. QST revealed lower sensitivity on the upper back than the hand, and higher sensitivity on the lower back than the foot, but no systematic differences between these trunk sites. Age effects were significant for most parameters. Females exhibited lower pressure pain thresholds (PPT) than males, which was the only significant gender difference. Values outside the 95% confidence interval of healthy subjects (considered abnormal) required temperature changes of >3.3-8.2 °C for thermal detection. For cold pain thresholds, confidence intervals extended mostly beyond safety cutoffs, hence only relative reference data (left-right differences, hand-trunk differences) were sufficiently sensitive. For mechanical detection and pain thresholds, left-right differences were 1.5-2.3 times more sensitive than absolute reference data. The most sensitive parameter was PPT, where already side-to-side differences >35% were abnormal. Compared to trunk reference data, patients with postherpetic neuralgia exhibited thermal and tactile deficits and dynamic mechanical allodynia, mostly without reduced mechanical pain thresholds. This pattern deviates from other types of neuropathic pain. QST reference data for the trunk will also be useful for patients with postthoracotomy pain or chronic back pain. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  12. A Missing Link in Suggestibility Research: What Is Known About the Behavior of Field Interviewers in Unstructured Interviews With Young Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilstrap, Livia L.

    2004-01-01

    Despite suggestibility researchers' focus on adult behaviors that distort children's reports, whether behaviors examined in experimental work are used in the field is unknown. The current study presents a mutually exclusive and exhaustive hierarchical coding system that reflects interview questioning behaviors of concern in experimental work. The…

  13. The Link between Mobilizing Information and Service Journalism as Applied to Women's Magazine Coverage of Eating Disorders. SCILS Research Report No. 90-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Barbara Straus

    The dramatic increase in the incidence of eating disorders among young women indicates a growing need for health education. However, women's magazines that perpetuate images of beauty and thinness may reinforce the disorders. Researchers have looked for strategies that encourage participation in society by those who partake of American media. One…

  14. OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium: Linking a Clinical and Translational Science Institute With a Community-Based Distributive Medical Education Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, Elizabeth; Hurt, Myra; Hogan, William; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Smith, Steven; Brickman, Andrew; Nelson, David

    2018-03-01

    Developing a national pragmatic clinical trial infrastructure is central to understanding the effectiveness of interventions applied under usual conditions and where people receive health care. To address this challenge, three Florida universities-the University of Florida Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Florida State University (with its community-based distributive medical education model), and the University of Miami-created (2010-2013) a statewide consortium, the OneFlorida Clinical Research Consortium, to support the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and provide mentored research experiences for medical and graduate students in real-world practice settings. OneFlorida has four programs, which report to a steering committee with membership from each partner, community members, and the state Medicaid agency and Department of Health to ensure shared governance. The Clinical Research Program provides support to conduct research in the network and uses champions to engage community clinicians. The Citizen Scientist Program has community members who provide input on health topics of importance to them, study design, recruitment and retention strategies, and the interpretation of findings. The Data Trust Program contains electronic health record and health care claims data for 10.6 million Floridians. The Minority Education Program, in collaboration with three historically black colleges and universities, offers minority junior faculty mentoring in pragmatic clinical trials and implementation science. OneFlorida has implemented 27 studies with diverse patient populations and in diverse community practice settings. To identify evidence-based best practices from the clinical trials conducted in the network, foster their implementation, and expand research training opportunities.

  15. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Pizzigallo

    2010-08-01

    . Thanks to both these studies it was possibile to confirm the etiologic links between the syndrome and EBV or other herpesviruses or other persistent infectious agents. The mechanisms of EBV latency have been carefully examined both because they represent the virus strategy to elude the response of the immune system of the host, and because they are correlated with those oncologic conditions associated to the viral persistence, particularly lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders. Just these malignancies, for which a pathogenetic role of EBV is clearly documented, should represent the main clinical expression of a first group of chronic EBV infections characterized by a natural history where the neoplastic event aroused from the viral persistence in the resting B cells for all the life, from the genetic predisposition of the host and from the oncogenic potentialities of the virus that chronically persists and incurs reactivations. Really, these oncological diseases should be considered more complications than chronic forms of the illness, as well as other malignancies for which a viral – or even infectious - etiology is well recognized. The chronic diseases, in fact, should be linked in a pathogenetic and temporal way to the acute infection, from whom start the natural history of the following disease. So, as for the chronic liver diseases from HBV and HCV, it was conied the acronym of CAEBV (Chronic Active EBV infection, distinguishing within these pathologies the more severe forms (SCAEBV mostly reported in Far East and among children or adolescents. Probably only these forms have to be considered expressions of a chronic EBV infection “sensu scrictu”, together with those forms of CFS where the etiopathogenetic and temporal link with the acute EBV infection is well documented. As for CFS, also for CAEBV the criteria for a case definition were defined, even on the basis of serological and virological findings. However, the lymphoproliferative disorders are

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...