WorldWideScience

Sample records for research linking animal

  1. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  2. What can animal research tell us about the link between androgens and social competition in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Trainor, Brian C; Marler, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The relationship between androgenic hormones, like testosterone (T), and aggression is extensively studied in human populations. Yet, while this work has illuminated a variety of principals regarding the behavioral and phenotypic effects of T, it is also hindered by inherent limitations of performing research on people. In these instances, animal research can be used to gain further insight into the complex mechanisms by which T influences aggression. Here, we explore recent studies on T and aggression in numerous vertebrate species, although we focus primarily on males and on a New World rodent called the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). This species is highly territorial and monogamous, resembling the modern human social disposition. We review (i) how baseline and dynamic T levels predict and/or impact aggressive behavior and disposition; (ii) how factors related to social and physical context influence T and aggression; (iii) the reinforcing or "rewarding" aspects of aggressive behavior; and (iv) the function of T on aggression before and during a combative encounter. Included are areas that may need further research. We argue that animal studies investigating these topics fill in gaps to help paint a more complete picture of how androgenic steroids drive the output of aggressive behavior in all animals, including humans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  4. Animal abuse and intimate partner violence: researching the link and its significance in ireland - a veterinary perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2008-10-01

    Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets\\' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens\\' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.

  5. Animal abuse and intimate partner violence: researching the link and its significance in ireland - a veterinary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.

  6. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  7. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  8. Linking live animals and products: traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, A G; Bell, C M; Evers, K; Paskin, R

    2013-08-01

    It is rarely possible to successfully contain an outbreak of an infectious animal disease, or to respond effectively to a chemical residue incident, without the use of a system for identifying and tracking animals. The linking of animals at the time they are slaughtered--through the use of identification devices or marks and accompanying movement documentation--with the meat produced from their carcasses, adds further value from the perspective of consumer safety. Over the past decade, animal identification technology has become more sophisticated and affordable. The development of the Internet and mobile communication tools, complemented bythe expanded capacity of computers and associated data management applications, has added a new dimension to the ability of Competent Authorities and industry to track animals and the food they produce for disease control, food safety and commercial purposes.

  9. Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Barrow, Wylie; Boone, Matthew; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Moore, Frank R.; Randall, Lori A.; Schreckengost, Timothy; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

  10. Animals in Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannring, Reingard

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the increase in public and scholarly attention to human-animal relations has inspired an animal turn in a number of academic disciplines including environmental education research. This paper reviews the literature on animals in environmental education with respect to its theoretical foundations in critical pedagogy,…

  11. Animal Production Research Advances: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where this is not possible, authors should submit two copies of original article not yet published anywhere and accompanied with a 3.5” diskette containing the article labeled appropriately in MS Word version to: Editor–in–Chief, Animal Production Research Advances Tropical Animal Health and Production Research Lab

  12. Animal Research International: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Animal Research International: Advanced Search ... containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ... Journal of Biomedical Research, African Journal of Biotechnology, African Journal of Chemical Education ...

  13. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  14. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  15. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  16. Linking research to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto-Correia, T.; Kristensen, L.

    2013-01-01

    , questions on the changes affecting the rural, addressed by society to the scientific community, are of a, new character and require novel research approaches. This paper argues that landscape based, approaches can be useful basis for the required conceptual innovation. The paper presents and, discusses...... a set of examples of practice driven research developments, in contrasting regions of Europe. And it proposes a conceptual model which aims to contextualize empirical research driven by, problems set up in practice, and combining the ecological and structural dimensions with the socioeconomic...

  17. Linking Research to Practice

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    An overview of ethics in ICTD research suggests a comprehensive canon is absent. ... And our home, the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information, .... For example, global media coverage focused on the advent of commercially ...

  18. Animal Research International: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal Research International is an online Journal inaugurated in University of Nigeria to meet the growing need for an indigenous and authoritative organ for the dissemination of the results of scientific research into the fauna of Africa and the world at large. Concise contributions on investigations on ...

  19. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.

    1994-05-01

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  20. Animal Models in Burn Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  1. Discussing Animal Rights and Animal Research in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harold A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews two prominent philosophical justifications for animal liberation and describes a simulation that facilitates class discussion of animal research issues. Students reported that the exercise increased their awareness of the issues and of the complexity of making ethical decisions. (DB)

  2. Characterizing Cognitive Aging in Humans with Links to Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene E Alexander

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-human animal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline.

  3. Institute of Laboratory Animal Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dell, Ralph

    2000-01-01

    ...; and reports on specific issues of humane care and use of laboratory animals. ILAR's mission is to help improve the availability, quality, care, and humane and scientifically valid use of laboratory animals...

  4. Animal Production Research Advances: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal production research advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal ...

  5. Animals in Atomic Research (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciuti, Edward R. [Bronx Zoo

    1969-01-01

    This booklet explains what use animals are to science and why they are important to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful uses. It contains examples of the roles animals of many kinds play in the development of nuclear science for the well-being of mankind.

  6. Research on improving animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjhan, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to improve animal nutrition, studies have been carried out on the utilization of animal feeds using radioisotopes. Improvement of the nutritive value of straws, digestibility and VFA production by alkali treatment and other treatments has been studied by injecting VFA labelled with C 14 and H 3 . Microbial protein synthesis rates in ruminants were studied using C 14 and S 35 labelled mixed culture of bacterial protozca. Results obtained are helpful in understanding the metabolism in rumens and the microbial proteins available to the host animals on various dietary regimen. (A.K.)

  7. Laboratory Animal Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused

  8. Alternatives to animal experimentation in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Franz P; Hartung, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    methods, even if published in the scientific literature, are little standardised and reproducible. The suggestion is put forward that publicly accessible databases should make available more detailed descriptions of methodologies. Due to limitations in space, many scientific journals cannot publish detailed methodological descriptions. However, nowadays a supplementary central deposit of methods could easily be linked to the respective article. In numerous cases though, there is simply a lack of will to change procedures to methods without animal tests or to pose questions differently in order to avoid the use of animals or to reduce their number or, at least, to reduce stress. In other cases, researchers are simply not aware of the limitations of the animal experiment as such. A thorough review of the validity of critical animal experiments should be carried out and made available publicly. For example, many animal experiments are dramatically "under-powered", i.e. carried out with groups that are too small to allow conclusions to be drawn from the outcome. This stands in marked contrast to in vitro experiments where replicate experiments usually represent no major problem. Since in vitro models are generally more prone to artefacts due to the numerous variables, e.g. of cell culture, the key requirement for their application is their validation and quality control. Guided by the experience from validation studies for alternative methods in toxicology, concepts of a Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) are currently being developed which aim to define minimum quality standards for in vitro techniques. This initiative aiming to increase quality must be complemented by a concept to systematically assess the relevance of the tests in order to finally achieve an evidence-based biomedical research. A change in this direction is only possible if those public funds, which were previously assigned predominantly to alternatives to the animal tests required by law, are now channelled

  9. PREPARE: guidelines for planning animal research and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adrian J; Clutton, R Eddie; Lilley, Elliot; Hansen, Kristine E Aa; Brattelid, Trond

    2018-04-01

    There is widespread concern about the quality, reproducibility and translatability of studies involving research animals. Although there are a number of reporting guidelines available, there is very little overarching guidance on how to plan animal experiments, despite the fact that this is the logical place to start ensuring quality. In this paper we present the PREPARE guidelines: Planning Research and Experimental Procedures on Animals: Recommendations for Excellence. PREPARE covers the three broad areas which determine the quality of the preparation for animal studies: formulation, dialogue between scientists and the animal facility, and quality control of the various components in the study. Some topics overlap and the PREPARE checklist should be adapted to suit specific needs, for example in field research. Advice on use of the checklist is available on the Norecopa website, with links to guidelines for animal research and testing, at https://norecopa.no/PREPARE .

  10. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Ormandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.

  11. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal…

  12. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Manager:

  13. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Office:

  14. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  15. Public attitude formation regarding animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    research involves a distinct experience of value conflict - between the possible human benefits, on the one hand, and a concern for costs to the animal, on the other. Different ways of dealing with this conflict gives rise ti different attitudinal stances on animal research: Disapprovers, Reserved...

  16. A novel animal model linking adiposity to altered circadian rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...

  17. Ethics in Animal-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Dominik; Tolba, René H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of new demands and regulations which have reignited the discussion on ethics in animal-based research. In the light of this development, the present review first presents an overview of underlying core ethical questions and issues. This is followed by an outline of the current discussion on whether animals (used for experimentation) should have rights ascribed to them and whether animals need to have certain characteristics in order to be the beneficiaries of rights. The discourse on concepts of sentience and the 'sociozoological scale' in particular is mapped out in this regard. There follows an outline of relevant ethical positions and current moral approaches to animal-based research (animal rights position, utilitarianism, 'convergence position', intrinsic cultural value of fundamental research, 'contractarianism', anthropocentrism, principle of the three Rs). 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. What to Consider for Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 14 NOV 2016 1. Your paper, entitled What to Consider for Animal Research presented at...for Animal Research 7 FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? D YES [8I NO FUNDING SOURCE 8 DO YOU NEED FUNDING SUPPORT FOR PUBLICATION PURPOSES: 0 YES [81...a Pnmary/Corresponding Author Ann<.’kc C. Bush GS-14 59 MDW/ ST/SGVUS b c d e. f I CERTIFY ANY HUMAN OR ANIMAL RESEARCH RELATED STUDIES WERE

  19. Animal coloration research: why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Tim; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2017-07-05

    While basic research on animal coloration is the theme of this special edition, here we highlight its applied significance for industry, innovation and society. Both the nanophotonic structures producing stunning optical effects and the colour perception mechanisms in animals are extremely diverse, having been honed over millions of years of evolution for many different purposes. Consequently, there is a wealth of opportunity for biomimetic and bioinspired applications of animal coloration research, spanning colour production, perception and function. Fundamental research on the production and perception of animal coloration is contributing to breakthroughs in the design of new materials (cosmetics, textiles, paints, optical coatings, security labels) and new technologies (cameras, sensors, optical devices, robots, biomedical implants). In addition, discoveries about the function of animal colour are influencing sport, fashion, the military and conservation. Understanding and applying knowledge of animal coloration is now a multidisciplinary exercise. Our goal here is to provide a catalyst for new ideas and collaborations between biologists studying animal coloration and researchers in other disciplines.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Characterization of experimental dental research using animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the profile of experimental dental research using animals. Methods: The research comprised all the 4141 abstracts existent in the books of annals from the 22nd and 23rd Annual meetings of the Brazilian Society of Dentistry Research and the sample was composed of 377 studies (9.1%. The variables analyzed were: area of knowledge, type of institution, State of the country, type of animal and body part used, occurrence of animal sacrifice, mention of the Research Ethics Committee, receipt of funding and type of financing agency. Results: The largest number of studies concentrated on the areas of Buccomaxillofacial Surgery (27.3% and Basic Sciences (21.2%. The Public Universities were responsible for 74% of the researches, and the State Institutions were outstanding (82.4%. The State of São Paulo was responsible for 74.1% of the studies. Rats (67.1% and rabbits (11.1% were the most frequently used animals, and 68.2% of the animals were sacrificed. The oral cavity was used in 50.1% of the researches and the mandible in 59%. Only 1.9% of the studies mentioned the Research Ethics Committee and 26.3% reported that they received funding. Conclusion: In Dentistry, studies involving animals are predominant in the areas of buccomaxillofacial surgery and basic sciences, with rats andrabbits being most frequently used. A significant number of guinea pigs are sacrificed during or at the end of the experiments.

  1. Recurrent Childhood Animal Cruelty and Its Link to Recurrent Adult Interpersonal Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentham, Caleb E; Hensley, Christopher; Policastro, Christina

    2018-06-01

    In the early 1960s, researchers began to examine the potential link between childhood animal cruelty and future interpersonal violence. Findings since then have been inconsistent in establishing a relationship between the two. This may be due to researchers failing to measure the recurrency of childhood animal abuse and the recurrency of later violent acts committed in adulthood. The current study, using data from 257 inmates at a medium-security prison in a Southern state, is a replication of research conducted by Tallichet and Hensley, and Hensley, Tallichet, and Dutkiewicz, which examined this recurrency issue. The only statistically significant predictor of recurrent adult interpersonal violence in this study was recurrent childhood animal cruelty. Inmates who engaged in recurrent childhood animal cruelty were more likely to commit recurrent adult interpersonal violence. Respondents' race, education, and childhood residence were not significant predictors of the outcome variable.

  2. Reforming the politics of animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa Hara; Reppy, William A

    2015-07-01

    An unfortunate tension exists between the biomedical research and animal welfare/rights communities. We believe that despite the mistrust between these groups, there are individuals on both sides of the controversy who seek to better understand the other. We recommend an update of institutional policies that will better inform the public about the use of non-human animals in biomedical research and improve a dialogue on such use between concerned individuals who either support or oppose non-human animal-based biomedical research. Such interactions may well determine the longevity of using non-human animals as experimental subjects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Forging Links for Health Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The central objective of GFHR is "to help correct the 10/90 gap" (GFHR 1999, p. ...... reports on health inequities as mediated by gender, ethnic group, and geography, ...... Yet, research with strong elements of community participation may be ...

  4. [Animal experimentation, computer simulation and surgical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Alain

    2009-11-01

    We live in a digital world In medicine, computers are providing new tools for data collection, imaging, and treatment. During research and development of complex technologies and devices such as artificial hearts, computer simulation can provide more reliable information than experimentation on large animals. In these specific settings, animal experimentation should serve more to validate computer models of complex devices than to demonstrate their reliability.

  5. The ethical challenges of animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Gluck, John P

    2015-10-01

    In 1966, Henry K. Beecher published an article entitled "Ethics and Clinical Research" in the New England Journal of Medicine, which cited examples of ethically problematic human research. His influential paper drew attention to common moral problems such as inadequate attention to informed consent, risks, and efforts to provide ethical justification. Beecher's paper provoked significant advancements in human research policies and practices. In this paper, we use an approach modeled after Beecher's 1966 paper to show that moral problems with animal research are similar to the problems Beecher described for human research. We describe cases that illustrate ethical deficiencies in the conduct of animal research, including inattention to the issue of consent or assent, incomplete surveys of the harms caused by specific protocols, inequitable burdens on research subjects in the absence of benefits to them, and insufficient efforts to provide ethical justification. We provide a set of recommendations to begin to address these deficits.

  6. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A major requirement both of national and international ethical codes for human experimentation, and of national legislation in many cases, is that new substances or devices should not be used for the first time on human beings unless previous tests on animals have provided a reasonable presumption of their safety. That is so called: Good Clinical Praxis (GCP. There are two international ethical codes intended principally for the guidance of countries or institutions that have not yet formulated their own ethical requirements for human experimentation: The Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association and The Proposed International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences and the World Health Organization[1].Animal experimentation is fundamental to the biomedical sciences, not only for the advancement of specific vital processes, but also for the improvement of methods of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease both in man and in animals. The use of animals is also indispensable for testing the potency and safety of biological substances used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as for determining the toxicity of the rapidly growing number of molecules that never existed before in nature and which may represent a hazard to health. This extensive exploitation by man of animals implies philosophical and moral problems that are not peculiar to their use for scientific purposes, and there are no objective ethical criteria by which to judge claims and counterclaims in such matters[2]. However, there is a consensus that „deliberate cruelty is repugnant”.While many countries have general laws or regulations imposing penalties for ill-treatment of animals, relatively few make specific provision for their use for scientific purposes. Because of differing legal systems and cultural backgrounds there are varying approaches to the use of

  7. Childhood animal cruelty, bestiality, and the link to adult interpersonal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-01-01

    Animal cruelty has been a concern of the legal and psychiatric communities for many years. Beginning in the early 1800s, state legislatures in the United States established laws to protect the basic safety and security of animals in their jurisdictions. Legislatures have differed in opinion on the animals to receive protection under the law and have instituted differing penalties for infractions of anti-cruelty measures. In the 1960s, the psychiatric community took notice of childhood animal cruelty as a potential risk factor for violent acts against humans. Since that time there has been increasing evidence that children who engage in animal cruelty may be at increased risk of interpersonal offenses in adulthood. Less is known about children and adults who engage in bestiality and the potential risk that these individuals may pose for interpersonal sexual or nonsexual violent acts. We review the legal status of animal cruelty in the United States, summarize the history of psychiatric interest in and research of animal cruelty, describe current knowledge regarding the link between animal cruelty and violence, and propose a novel classification scheme for individuals who engage in bestiality to assist forensic psychiatric examiners in determining the risk that such behavior poses for future interpersonal offending. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum-Animal Model Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handforth, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    In this review, we hope to stimulate interest in animal models as opportunities to understand tremor mechanisms within the cerebellar system. We begin by considering the harmaline model of essential tremor (ET), which has ET-like anatomy and pharmacology. Harmaline induces the inferior olive (IO) to burst fire rhythmically, recruiting rhythmic activity in Purkinje cells (PCs) and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). This model has fostered the IO hypothesis of ET, which postulates that factors that promote excess IO, and hence PC complex spike synchrony, also promote tremor. In contrast, the PC hypothesis postulates that partial PC cell loss underlies tremor of ET. We describe models in which chronic partial PC loss is associated with tremor, such as the Weaver mouse, and others with PC loss that do not show tremor, such as the Purkinje cell degeneration mouse. We postulate that partial PC loss with tremor is associated with terminal axonal sprouting. We then discuss tremor that occurs with large lesions of the cerebellum in primates. This tremor has variable frequency and is an ataxic tremor not related to ET. Another tremor type that is not likely related to ET is tremor in mice with mutations that cause prolonged synaptic GABA action. This tremor is probably due to mistiming within cerebellar circuitry. In the final section, we catalog tremor models involving neurotransmitter and ion channel perturbations. Some appear to be related to the IO hypothesis of ET, while in others tremor may be ataxic or due to mistiming. In summary, we offer a tentative framework for classifying animal action tremor, such that various models may be considered potentially relevant to ET, subscribing to IO or PC hypotheses, or not likely relevant, as with mistiming or ataxic tremor. Considerable further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of tremor in animal models.

  9. Rifkin takes aim at USDA animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey L

    1984-10-19

    Jeremy Rifkin has filed a lawsuit to block U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) experiments involving the transfer of human growth hormone genes into sheep and pigs, which he rejects on environmental, economic, and ethical grounds. His real target is the Department's animal breeding program; his ultimate aim is "to establish the principle that there should be no crossing of species barriers in animals." USDA officials have not yet responded to the lawsuit but they intend to continue the experiments, which they consider crucial to the progress of research, until told to stop.

  10. The social and emotional context of childhood and adolescent animal cruelty: is there a link to adult interpersonal crimes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    The link between early animal abuse and later violence toward humans may depend on how acts of animal cruelty are experienced by those whose behavior demonstrates this graduation. Unfortunately, the research investigating the social and emotional context for the youthful commission of animal cruelty as it escalates to adult interpersonal violence is relatively nonexistent. Using 112 cases from a larger sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the effects of age of onset and frequency of animal cruelty, the covertness of animal cruelty, the commission of animal cruelty within a group or in isolation, and empathy for the abused animals. Inmates who had covered up their childhood and adolescent animal cruelty were more likely to have been convicted of repeated acts of interpersonal violence, demonstrating that the role of empathy and individuals present during acts of animal cruelty were less important than concealing those acts.

  11. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour–parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour–parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. PMID:27053751

  12. Host behaviour-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-04-13

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Immune-deficient animals in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rygaard, J.; Brunner, N.; Groem, N.; Spang-Thomsen, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents paper given at a workshop on immune-dificient animals in biomedical research. Topics presented included the following: differential recovery of antibody production potential after sublethal whole-body irradiation of mice; increased levels of plasma DNA in nude mice transplanted with human tumors; and transplantation of exocrine pancreatic carcinomas to nude mice: A model to investigate immunoscintigraphy, radioimmunotherapy and drug sensitivity

  14. Review on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for sulfonamide residues in edible animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Shuo

    2009-10-31

    The current status of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for sulfonamides in edible animal products is reviewed. The attention was focused on the design and synthesis of haptens, conjugation to carrier protein, production of antibody, application of homologous and heterologous systems, as well as the molecular modeling of the haptens and sulfonamides. Researches have shown that sulfonamides seem to be particularly resistant to attempts to produce broad specificity antibodies. By summarizing the available research on sulfonamide ELISAs, it is hoped that it can be considered as a basis for further investigation aimed at developing the most efficient approaches for detection.

  15. Linking animal population dynamics to alterations in foraging behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Sibly, Richard; Tougaard, Jakob

    Background/Question/Methods The survival of animal populations is strongly influenced by the individuals’ ability to forage efficiently, yet there are few studies of how populations respond when disturbances cause animals to deviate from their natural foraging behavior. Animals that respond...... that are increasingly exposed to noise from ships, wind turbines, etc. In the present study we investigate how the dynamics of the harbor porpoise population (Phocoena phocoena) in the inner Danish waters is influenced by disturbances using an agent- based simulation model. In the model animal movement, and hence...... the animals’ ability to forage efficiently and to sustain their energy intake, is influenced by noise emitted from wind turbines and ships. The energy levels in turn affect their survival. The fine-scale movements of the simulated animals was governed by a spatial memory, which allowed the model to produce...

  16. Animal Research on Nicotine Reduction: Current Evidence and Research Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Rupprecht, Laura E; Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Weeks, Jillian J; Panas, Rachel S; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-09-01

    A mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes may improve public health by reducing the prevalence of smoking. Animal self-administration research is an important complement to clinical research on nicotine reduction. It can fill research gaps that may be difficult to address with clinical research, guide clinical researchers about variables that are likely to be important in their own research, and provide policy makers with converging evidence between clinical and preclinical studies about the potential impact of a nicotine reduction policy. Convergence between clinical and preclinical research is important, given the ease with which clinical trial participants can access nonstudy tobacco products in the current marketplace. Herein, we review contributions of preclinical animal research, with a focus on rodent self-administration, to the science of nicotine reduction. Throughout this review, we highlight areas where clinical and preclinical research converge and areas where the two differ. Preclinical research has provided data on many important topics such as the threshold for nicotine reinforcement, the likelihood of compensation, moderators of the impact of nicotine reduction, the impact of environmental stimuli on nicotine reduction, the impact of nonnicotine cigarette smoke constituents on nicotine reduction, and the impact of nicotine reduction on vulnerable populations. Special attention is paid to current research gaps including the dramatic rise in alternative tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ie, e-cigarettes). The evidence reviewed here will be critical for policy makers as well as clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction. This review will provide policy makers and clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction with an overview of the preclinical animal research conducted on nicotine reduction and the regulatory implications of that research. The review also highlights the utility of

  17. Strengthening links between waterfowl research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Anthony J.; Eadie, John M.; Howerter, David; Johnson, Fred A.; Nichols, James; Runge, Michael C.; Vrtiska, Mark; Williams, Byron K.

    2018-01-01

    Waterfowl monitoring, research, regulation, and adaptive planning are leading the way in supporting science-informed wildlife management. However, increasing societal demands on natural resources have created a greater need for adaptable and successful linkages between waterfowl science and management. We presented a special session at the 2016 North American Duck Symposium, Annapolis, Maryland, USA on the successes and challenges of linking research and management in waterfowl conservation, and we summarize those thoughts in this commentary. North American waterfowl management includes a diversity of actions including management of harvest and habitat. Decisions for waterfowl management are structured using decision analysis by incorporating stakeholder values into formal objectives, identifying research relevant to objectives, integrating scientific knowledge, and choosing an optimal strategy with respect to objectives. Recently, the consideration of the value of information has been proposed as a means to evaluate the utility of research designed to meet objectives. Despite these advances, the ability to conduct waterfowl research with direct management application may be increasingly difficult in research institutions for several reasons including reduced funding for applied research and the lower perceived value of applied versus theoretical research by some university academics. In addition, coordination between researchers and managers may be logistically constrained, and communication may be ineffective between the 2 groups. Strengthening these links would help develop stronger and more coordinated approaches for the conservation of waterfowl and the wetlands upon which they depend.

  18. Preclinical animal anxiety research - flaws and prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, Abdelkader; Chazot, Paul L

    2016-04-01

    The current tests of anxiety in mice and rats used in preclinical research include the elevated plus-maze (EPM) or zero-maze (EZM), the light/dark box (LDB), and the open-field (OF). They are currently very popular, and despite their poor achievements, they continue to exert considerable constraints on the development of novel approaches. Hence, a novel anxiety test needs to be compared with these traditional tests, and assessed against various factors that were identified as a source of their inconsistent and contradictory results. These constraints are very costly, and they are in most cases useless as they originate from flawed methodologies. In the present report, we argue that the EPM or EZM, LDB, and OF do not provide unequivocal measures of anxiety; that there is no evidence of motivation conflict involved in these tests. They can be considered at best, tests of natural preference for unlit and/or enclosed spaces. We also argued that pharmacological validation of a behavioral test is an inappropriate approach; it stems from the confusion of animal models of human behavior with animal models of pathophysiology. A behavioral test is developed to detect not to produce symptoms, and a drug is used to validate an identified physiological target. In order to overcome the major methodological flaws in animal anxiety studies, we proposed an open space anxiety test, a 3D maze, which is described here with highlights of its various advantages over to the traditional tests.

  19. Animal Models Utilized in HTLV-1 Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R. Panfil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the isolation and discovery of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 over 30 years ago, researchers have utilized animal models to study HTLV-1 transmission, viral persistence, virus-elicited immune responses, and HTLV-1-associated disease development (ATL, HAM/TSP. Non-human primates, rabbits, rats, and mice have all been used to help understand HTLV-1 biology and disease progression. Non-human primates offer a model system that is phylogenetically similar to humans for examining viral persistence. Viral transmission, persistence, and immune responses have been widely studied using New Zealand White rabbits. The advent of molecular clones of HTLV-1 has offered the opportunity to assess the importance of various viral genes in rabbits, non-human primates, and mice. Additionally, over-expression of viral genes using transgenic mice has helped uncover the importance of Tax and Hbz in the induction of lymphoma and other lymphocyte-mediated diseases. HTLV-1 inoculation of certain strains of rats results in histopathological features and clinical symptoms similar to that of humans with HAM/TSP. Transplantation of certain types of ATL cell lines in immunocompromised mice results in lymphoma. Recently, “humanized” mice have been used to model ATL development for the first time. Not all HTLV-1 animal models develop disease and those that do vary in consistency depending on the type of monkey, strain of rat, or even type of ATL cell line used. However, the progress made using animal models cannot be understated as it has led to insights into the mechanisms regulating viral replication, viral persistence, disease development, and, most importantly, model systems to test disease treatments.

  20. SIMULATED ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS IN TEACHING AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag B. Mistry, Shreya M. Shah, Jagatkumar D. Bhatt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal experiments are of paramount importance in the pre-clinical screening of new chemical entity. On the other hand, various regulatory guidelines for animal experiments are becoming more stringent in the face of worldwide protests by animal rights activists. Moreover, simulated animal experiments’ softwares are being developed and they can be implemented in the postgraduate and graduate students’ curriculum for demonstration of standard physiological and pharmacological principles compared to real time animal experiments. In fact, implementation of virtual experiment will decrease hand on experience of animal experiments among medical students, but after medical graduation, animal experiment is lest utilized during their day to day clinical practice. Similarly, in case of postgraduate pharmacology curriculum, computer based virtual animal experiments can facilitate teaching and learning in a short span of time with various protocols, without sacrificing any animal for already established experimental outcomes.

  1. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia).

    The use of animals in scientific research has been a controversial issue for over a hundred years. Research with animals has saved human lives, lessened human suffering, and advanced scientific understanding, yet that same research can cause pain and distress for the animals involved and may result in their death. It is hardly surprising that…

  2. Ethics of animal research in human disease remediation, its institutional teaching; and alternatives to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheluvappa, Rajkumar; Scowen, Paul; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-08-01

    Animals have been used in research and teaching for a long time. However, clear ethical guidelines and pertinent legislation were instated only in the past few decades, even in developed countries with Judeo-Christian ethical roots. We compactly cover the basics of animal research ethics, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation across the developed world, "our" fundamentals of institutional animal research ethics teaching, and emerging alternatives to animal research. This treatise was meticulously constructed for scientists interested/involved in animal research. Herein, we discuss key animal ethics principles - Replacement/Reduction/Refinement. Despite similar undergirding principles across developed countries, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation vary. The chronology and evolution of mandatory institutional ethical reviewing of animal experimentation (in its pioneering nations) are summarised. This is followed by a concise rendition of the fundamentals of teaching animal research ethics in institutions. With the advent of newer methodologies in human cell-culturing, novel/emerging methods aim to minimise, if not avoid the usage of animals in experimentation. Relevant to this, we discuss key extant/emerging alternatives to animal use in research; including organs on chips, human-derived three-dimensional tissue models, human blood derivates, microdosing, and computer modelling of various hues. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Animal Encounters in Environmental Education Research: Responding to the "Question of the Animal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Jan; Watson, Gavan P. L.; Russell, Constance L.; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Fawcett, Leesa; Kuhl, Gail; Russell, Joshua; van der Waal, Marlon; Warkentin, Traci

    2010-01-01

    The "question of the animal" represents an area of emergent interest in the environmental education field, as researchers critically consider human-animal relations and animal advocacy in their work. Following a group discussion at the 10th Seminar in Health and Environmental Education Research, the authors of this paper share experiences,…

  4. Animal research ethics in Africa: is Tanzania making progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Misago; Saguti, Fredy

    2013-12-01

    The significance of animals in research cannot be over-emphasized. The use of animals for research and training in research centres, hospitals and schools is progressively increasing. Advances in biotechnology to improve animal productivity require animal research. Drugs being developed and new interventions or therapies being invented for cure and palliation of all sorts of animal diseases and conditions need to be tested in animals for their safety and efficacy at some stages of their development. Drugs and interventions for human use pass through a similar development process and must be tested pre-clinically in laboratory animals before clinical trials in humans can be conducted. Therefore, animals are important players in research processes which directly and indirectly benefit animals and humans. However, questions remain as to whether these uses of animals consider the best interests of animals themselves. Various research and training institutions in Tanzania have established some guidelines on animal use, including establishing animal ethics committees. However, most institutions have not established oversight committees. In institutions where there may be guidelines and policies, there are no responsible committees or units to directly oversee if and how these guidelines and policies are enforced; thus, implementation becomes difficult or impossible. This paper endeavours to raise some issues associated with the responsible use of animals in research and training in Tanzania and highlights suggestions for improvement of deficiencies that exist in order to bridge the gap between what ought to be practised and what is practised. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Facial Animations: Future Research Directions & Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Rehman, Amjad; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, computer facial animation is used in a significant multitude fields that brought human and social to study the computer games, films and interactive multimedia reality growth. Authoring the computer facial animation, complex and subtle expressions are challenging and fraught with problems. As a result, the current most authored using universal computer animation techniques often limit the production quality and quantity of facial animation. With the supplement of computer power, facial appreciative, software sophistication and new face-centric methods emerging are immature in nature. Therefore, this paper concentrates to define and managerially categorize current and emerged surveyed facial animation experts to define the recent state of the field, observed bottlenecks and developing techniques. This paper further presents a real-time simulation model of human worry and howling with detail discussion about their astonish, sorrow, annoyance and panic perception.

  6. The research methods and model of protein turnover in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xilin; Yang Feng

    2002-01-01

    The author discussed the concept and research methods of protein turnover in animal body. The existing problems and the research results of animal protein turnover in recent years were presented. Meanwhile, the measures to improve the models of animal protein turnover were analyzed

  7. Senior Laboratory Animal Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused

  8. The necessity of animal models in pain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil, Jeffrey S; Davis, Karen D; Derbyshire, Stuart W

    2010-10-01

    There exists currently a fair degree of introspection in the pain research community about the value of animal research. This review represents a defense of animal research in pain. We discuss the inherent advantage of animal models over human research as well as the crucial complementary roles animal studies play vis-à-vis human imaging and genetic studies. Finally, we discuss recent developments in animal models of pain that should improve the relevance and translatability of findings using laboratory animals. We believe that pain research using animal models is a continuing necessity-to understand fundamental mechanisms, identify new analgesic targets, and inform, guide and follow up human studies-if novel analgesics are to be developed for the treatment of chronic pain. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Animal models for Gaucher disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfel-Becker, Tamar; Vitner, Einat B; Futerman, Anthony H

    2011-11-01

    Gaucher disease (GD), the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display symptoms correlating with human disease and also died soon after birth. Recently, conditional knockout mice that mimic some features of the human disease have become available. Here, we review the contribution of all currently available animal models to examining pathological pathways underlying GD and to testing the efficacy of new treatment modalities, and propose a number of criteria for the generation of more appropriate animal models of GD.

  10. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Farfel-Becker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD, is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display symptoms correlating with human disease and also died soon after birth. Recently, conditional knockout mice that mimic some features of the human disease have become available. Here, we review the contribution of all currently available animal models to examining pathological pathways underlying GD and to testing the efficacy of new treatment modalities, and propose a number of criteria for the generation of more appropriate animal models of GD.

  11. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  12. Research in Organic Animals and Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2009-01-01

    developed in Western Europe and USA, where they are primarily niche products for consumers who give priority to environmental and animal welfare concerns. In these countries organic livestock production offers the option of establishing a niche product that can be sold at a higher price, e.g. as for milk...

  13. The need for econometric research in laboratory animal operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David G; Kearney, Michael T

    2015-06-01

    The scarcity of research funding can affect animal facilities in various ways. These effects can be evaluated by examining the allocation of financial resources in animal facilities, which can be facilitated by the use of mathematical and statistical methods to analyze economic problems, a discipline known as econometrics. The authors applied econometrics to study whether increasing per diem charges had a negative effect on the number of days of animal care purchased by animal users. They surveyed animal numbers and per diem charges at 20 research institutions and found that demand for large animals decreased as per diem charges increased. The authors discuss some of the challenges involved in their study and encourage research institutions to carry out more robust econometric studies of this and other economic questions facing laboratory animal research.

  14. Animals in nuclear research: where ethics and expediency meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, P.J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has a direct involvement in nuclear medicine, microbiological and environmental studies which utilise animals in the research work. The opposition to experiments on animals is briefly discussed. The Australia codes of practice for the care and use of animals for experimental purposes are outlined

  15. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    With an estimated 17-22 million animals used in laboratories annually in the United States, public interest in animal welfare has sparked an often emotional debate over such uses of animals. Concerns focus on balancing societal needs for continued progress in biomedical and behavioral research, for toxicity testing to safeguard the public, and for…

  16. Animal experimentation-Part II: In periodontal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T K Pal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals contribute to the development of medical and dental sciences by being sacrificed in the hands of scientists. The experimental design demands a specific type of animal to be used for experimentation. Each animal needs proper handling, care, and diet. Alongside specific advantages and disadvantages pertaining to each type of animal need to be understood well depending on the type of study/experiment. It is important for the researcher to know the disease susceptibility of each animal. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the salient factors that need to be considered for animal experimentations.

  17. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    OpenAIRE

    Farfel-Becker, Tamar; Vitner, Einat B.; Futerman, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD), the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display sympt...

  18. Institutional transparency improves public perception of lab animal technicians and support for animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katelyn E; Han, Zetta; Robbins, Jesse; Weary, Daniel M

    2018-01-01

    The use of animals in research is controversial and often takes place under a veil of secrecy. Lab animal technicians responsible for the care of animals at research institutions are sometimes described as performing 'dirty work' (i.e. professions that are viewed as morally tainted), and may be stigmatized by negative perceptions of their job. This study assessed if transparency affects public perceptions of lab animal technicians and support for animal research. Participants (n = 550) were randomly assigned to one of six scenarios (using a 3x2 design) that described identical research varying only the transparency of the facility (low, high) and the species used (mice, dogs, cows). Participants provided Likert-type and open-ended responses to questions about the personal characteristics (warmth, competence) of a hypothetical lab technician 'Cathy' and their support for the described research. Quantitative analysis showed participants in the low-transparency condition perceived Cathy to be less warm and were less supportive of the research regardless of animal species. Qualitative responses varied greatly, with some participants expressing support for both Cathy and the research. These results suggest that increasing transparency in lab animal institutions could result in a more positive perception of lab animal researchers and the work that they do.

  19. Signaling in a polluted world: oxidative stress as an overlooked mechanism linking contaminants to animal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Marasco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to communicate effectively with other individuals plays a critical role in the daily life of an individual and can have important fitness consequences. Animals rely on a number of visual and non-visual signals, whose production brings costs to the individual. The theory of honest signaling states that these costs are higher for low than for high-quality individuals, which prevents cheating and makes signals, such as skin and plumage colouration, indicators of individual’s quality or condition. The condition-dependent nature of signals makes them ideally suited as indicators of environmental quality, implying that signal production might be affected by contaminants. In this mini-review article, we have made the point that oxidative stress (OS is one overlooked mechanism linking exposure to contaminants to signaling because (i many contaminants can influence the individual’s oxidative balance, and (ii generation of both visual and non-visual signals is sensitive to oxidative stress. To this end, we have provided the first comprehensive review on the way both non-organic (heavy metals, especially mercury and organic (persistent organic pollutants contaminants may influence either OS or sexual signaling. We have also paid special attention to emerging classes of pollutants like brominated flame-retardants and perfluoroalkoxy alkanes in order to stimulate research in this area. We have finally provided suggestions and warnings for future work on the links among OS, sexual signaling and contaminant exposure.

  20. Balancing animal welfare and assisted reproduction: ethics of preclinical animal research for testing new reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Verna; Dondorp, Wybo; Goossens, Ellen; Mertes, Heidi; Pennings, Guido; de Wert, Guido

    2018-02-07

    In the field of medically assisted reproduction (MAR), there is a growing emphasis on the importance of introducing new assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) only after thorough preclinical safety research, including the use of animal models. At the same time, there is international support for the three R's (replace, reduce, refine), and the European Union even aims at the full replacement of animals for research. The apparent tension between these two trends underlines the urgency of an explicit justification of the use of animals for the development and preclinical testing of new ARTs. Considering that the use of animals remains necessary for specific forms of ART research and taking account of different views on the moral importance of helping people to have a genetically related child, we argue that, in principle, the importance of safety research as part of responsible innovation outweighs the limited infringement of animal wellbeing involved in ART research.

  1. Mental Stress from Animal Experiments: a Survey with Korean Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minji; Han, AhRam; Kim, Da-Eun; Seidle, Troy; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2018-01-01

    Animal experiments have been widely conducted in the life sciences for more than a century, and have long been a subject of ethical and societal controversy due to the deliberate infliction of harm upon sentient animals. However, the harmful use of animals may also negatively impact the mental health of researchers themselves. We sought to evaluate the anxiety level of researchers engaged in animal use to analyse the mental stress from animal testing. The State Anxiety Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to evaluate how researchers feel when they conduct animal, as opposed to non-animal, based experiments (95 non-animal and 98 animal testing researchers). The Trait Anxiety Scale of STAI was employed to measure proneness to anxiety, namely the base trait of the researchers. Additionally, the information on sex, age, education, income, and total working periods was collected. While the Trait Anxiety scores were comparable (41.5 ± 10.9 versus 42.9 ± 10.1, p = 0.3682, t- test), the State Anxiety scores were statistically significantly higher for animal users than non-animal users (45.1 ± 10.7 versus 41.3 ± 9.4, p = 0.011). This trend was consistent for both male and female. Notably, younger animal testers (≤ 30 years of age) with less work experience (≤ 2 years) and lower income level (≤ 27,000 USD) exhibited higher anxiety scores, whereas these factors did not affect the anxiety level of non-animal users. The present study demonstrated that participation in animal experiments can negatively impact the mental health of researchers.

  2. Ethical guidelines, animal profile, various animal models used in periodontal research with alternatives and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Mohan Kumar; Molahally, Subramanya Shetty; Salwaji, Supraja

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective.

  3. Ethical guidelines, animal profile, various animal models used in periodontal research with alternatives and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kumar Pasupuleti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective.

  4. Animal models for HIV/AIDS research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Evans, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The AIDS pandemic continues to present us with unique scientific and public health challenges. Although the development of effective antiretroviral therapy has been a major triumph, the emergence of drug resistance requires active management of treatment regimens and the continued development of new antiretroviral drugs. Moreover, despite nearly 30 years of intensive investigation, we still lack the basic scientific knowledge necessary to produce a safe and effective vaccine against HIV-1. Animal models offer obvious advantages in the study of HIV/AIDS, allowing for a more invasive investigation of the disease and for preclinical testing of drugs and vaccines. Advances in humanized mouse models, non-human primate immunogenetics and recombinant challenge viruses have greatly increased the number and sophistication of available mouse and simian models. Understanding the advantages and limitations of each of these models is essential for the design of animal studies to guide the development of vaccines and antiretroviral therapies for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:23154262

  5. How to Report Exotic Animal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Winter, Alexandra L

    2017-09-01

    Reporting the results of primary research is a key step in knowledge creation. Many well-conducted studies are rejected by journal editors, criticized by peers, or unsuitable for systematic reviewers because of poor reporting. This article summarizes the most important methodological items to report when writing an original research article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Protecting animals and enabling research in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Pinto da Silva, Sandra; Townend, David

    2016-01-01

    In 1986, European Directive 86/609/EEC, regulating the use of animals in research, was one of the first examples of common legislation to set standards for animal protection across the Member States of the former European Economic Community, now the European Union, with the aim of securing a level...... objectives of the directive, particularly with a focus on securing the same high standards of animal protection across member countries. The analysis focuses on three separate issues: (1) minimum standards for laboratory animal housing and care, (2) restrictions on the use of certain animal species, and (3...

  7. Issues and special features of animal health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducrot Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance, the environment, and animal welfare. Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context. Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents. The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  8. Issues and special features of animal health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Béringue, Vincent; Coulon, Jean-Baptiste; Fourichon, Christine; Guérin, Jean-Luc; Krebs, Stéphane; Rainard, Pascal; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Torny, Didier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Zientara, Stephan; Zundel, Etienne; Pineau, Thierry

    2011-08-24

    In the rapidly changing context of research on animal health, INRA launched a collective discussion on the challenges facing the field, its distinguishing features, and synergies with biomedical research. As has been declared forcibly by the heads of WHO, FAO and OIE, the challenges facing animal health, beyond diseases transmissible to humans, are critically important and involve food security, agriculture economics, and the ensemble of economic activities associated with agriculture. There are in addition issues related to public health (zoonoses, xenobiotics, antimicrobial resistance), the environment, and animal welfare.Animal health research is distinguished by particular methodologies and scientific questions that stem from the specific biological features of domestic species and from animal husbandry practices. It generally does not explore the same scientific questions as research on human biology, even when the same pathogens are being studied, and the discipline is rooted in a very specific agricultural and economic context.Generic and methodological synergies nevertheless exist with biomedical research, particularly with regard to tools and biological models. Certain domestic species furthermore present more functional similarities with humans than laboratory rodents.The singularity of animal health research in relation to biomedical research should be taken into account in the organization, evaluation, and funding of the field through a policy that clearly recognizes the specific issues at stake. At the same time, the One Health approach should facilitate closer collaboration between biomedical and animal health research at the level of research teams and programmes.

  9. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare...... on questionnaires sent out to a wide researcher network in regions of an enlarged Europe, we found differences with regard to ‘input factors’ such as human resources, animal and laboratory facilities and national and international research funding and ‘output factors’ such as inter/national collaboration...

  10. Building an archive of Arctic-Boreal animal movements and links to remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, G.; Handler, M.; Davidson, S. C.; Boelman, N.

    2017-12-01

    Climate is changing in the Arctic and Boreal regions of North America more quickly than anywhere else on the planet. The impact of climate changes on wildlife in the region is difficult to assess, as they occur over decades, while wildlife monitoring programs have been in place for relatively short periods, have used a variety of data collection methods, and are not integrated across studies and governmental agencies. Further, linking wildlife movements to measures of weather and climate is impeded by the challenge of accessing environmental data products and differences in spatiotemporal scale. To analyze the impact of long-term changes in weather and habitat conditions on wildlife movements, we built an archive of avian, predator and ungulate movements throughout the Arctic-Boreal region. The archive is compiled and hosted in Movebank, a free, web-based service for managing animal movement data. Using Movebank allows us to securely manage data within a single database while supporting project-specific terms of use and access rights. By importing the data to the Movebank database, they are converted to a standard data format, reviewed for quality and completeness, and made easily accessible for analysis through the R package 'move'. In addition, the Env-DATA System in Movebank allows easy annotation of these and related time-location records with hundreds of environmental variables provided by global remote sensing and weather data products, including MODIS Land, Snow and Ice products, the ECMWF and NARR weather reanalyses, and others. The ABoVE Animal Movement Archive includes 6.6 million locations of over 3,000 animals collected by 50 programs and studies, contributed by over 25 collaborating institutions, with data extending from 1988 to the present. Organizing the data on Movebank has enabled collaboration and metaanalysis and has also improved their quality and completeness. The ABoVE Animal Movement Archive provides a platform actively used by data

  11. Animal Production Research Advances: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  12. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay To Differentiate the Antibody Responses of Animals Infected with Brucella Species from Those of Animals Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O9

    OpenAIRE

    Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Bayarsaikhan, Balgan; Watarai, Masahisa; Makino, Sou-ichi; Shirahata, Toshikazu

    2003-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using antigens extracted from Brucella abortus with n-lauroylsarcosine differentiated natural Brucella-infected animals from Brucella-vaccinated or Yersinia enterocolitica O9-infected animals. A field trial in Mongolia showed cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer, camel, and human sera without infection could be distinguished from Brucella-infected animals by conventional serological tests.

  13. Difficult Decisions: Animal Rights--Do We Have the Right to Do Research on Animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, Jal S.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses who has the right to determine the use of animals in scientific research which includes medical experimentation and the toxicity testing of compounds, ranging from pesticides to cosmetics. Provides a list of questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  14. Childhood Animal Cruelty Methods and Their Link to Adult Interpersonal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brandy B.; Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has begun to establish a relationship between childhood acts of animal cruelty and later violence against humans. However, few studies have focused on the influence of animal cruelty methods on later interpersonal violence. In a replication of a study by Hensley and Tallichet (2009) and based on a sample of 180 inmates at medium-…

  15. Links between Conflict Management Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explicates the implications of my research on conflict management for self improvement and for practitioners who work to improve the conflict management of others. I also note how my experiences with practitioners have informed my research.

  16. The Use Of Animals In Endocrine Research: A Synopsis | Osinubi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout history, researchers have been solving medical and other challenging problems, developing newtechniques and treatment modalities largely by conducting animal experimentation. The field of endocrinologyis not an exception; animal models have enormously contributed to this important area of medical ...

  17. Trends in animal use at US research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Justin; Chandna, Alka; Roe, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Minimising the use of animals in experiments is universally recognised by scientists, governments and advocates as an ethical cornerstone of research. Yet, despite growing public opposition to animal experimentation, mounting evidence that animal studies often do not translate to humans, and the development of new research technologies, a number of countries have reported increased animal use in recent years. In the USA--one of the world's largest users of animals in experiments--a lack of published data on the species most commonly used in laboratories (eg, mice, rats and fish) has prevented such assessments. The current study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the use of all vertebrate animals by the top institutional recipients of National Institutes of Health research funds over a 15-year period. These data show a statistically significant 72.7% increase in the use of animals at these US facilities during this time period-driven primarily by increases in the use of mice. Our results highlight a need for greater efforts to reduce animal use. We discuss technical, institutional, sociological and psychological explanations for this trend. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Linking ecosystem services with cultural landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Biding, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services facilitates the valuation of the multiple services from ecosystems and landscapes, the identification of trade-offs between different land use scenarios, and also informs decision making in land use planning. Unfortunately, cultural services have been mostly...... neglected within the ecosystem services framework. This could result in trade-off assessments which are biased and mislead ecosystem management and landscape planning. However, cultural landscape research approaches have proven valuable in the assessment of different nonmaterial landscape values...... and cultural services. In this paper, we compare the objectives, approaches, and methodologies adopted by ecosystem services research and cultural landscape research through a bibliographic research. Both research communities investigate the human dimension of ecosystems and landscapes and, hence, study...

  19. DANTE announces new research and education link to India

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Research networking organization DANTE (Delivery of Advanced Network Technology to Europe) has announced that high-speed communication links for students and researchers between India and Europe are now live." (1 page)

  20. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Rat in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses major uses of rats as experimental animals for studying health concerns, pointing out that their size, gestation, and histocompatibility make them useful in various studies. Topic areas addressed include aging, autoimmune disease, genetics, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, infection, reproduction, and behavior. (DH)

  1. [Ethical challenges of genetic manipulation and research with animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling.

  2. Linking Emerging Infectious Diseases Research and Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In China and Southeast Asia, the lack of policy or regulation enforcements means that the use of antibiotics ... Building on past research on avian influenza and ongoing ... Chinese Academy of Sciences. Pays d' institution. China. Site internet.

  3. A Link between Education, Research and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael Rene; Jochumsen, Henrik; Wick, Peter Josef

    One major challenge in entrepreneurship education in a non-business school university context is the lack of relation to the teacher’s own research field. Teaching is typically conducted by teachers whose research activities are connected to another subject area than entrepreneurship. Consequently...... entrepreneurship as both relevant and useful; the transformation towards a more entrepreneurial education is not supported by incentives, neither at the institutional or individual level – in contrast to research and publication (see e.g. West III, Gatewood & Shaver, 2009). On this basis we will explore...... the following questions: • How do we achieve a constructive and creative interaction between education, research and entrepreneurship? • In what contexts it is possible to integrate the three areas? • What specific organizational and didactic modalities can be used to support integration? • What benefits can...

  4. Guidelines for euthanasia of laboratory animals used in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Baias,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animals are used in several fields of science research, especially in biology, medicine and veterinary medicine. The majority of laboratory animals used in research are experimental models that replace the human body in study regarding pharmacological or biological safety products, studies conducted for a betterunderstanding of oncologic processes, toxicology, genetic studies or even new surgical techniques. Experimental protocols include a stage in which animals are euthanized in order to remove organs and tissues,or for no unnecessary pain and suffering of animals (humane endpoints or to mark the end of research. The result of euthanasia techniques is a rapid loss of consciousness followed by cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest and disruption of brain activity. Nowadays, the accepted euthanasia techniques can use chemicals (inhalant agents like: carbon dioxide, nitrogen or argon, overdoses of injectable anesthetics or physical methods (decapitation, cervical spine dislocation, stunning, gunshot, pitching.

  5. A survey of animal welfare needs in Soweto : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic phase of an interactive research evaluation model was used in the investigation of the animal welfare needs of a low-income urban community in South Africa. Data were gathered by means of a structured interview and direct observations by animal welfare officers. During the survey of 871 animal owners in Soweto, it was found that dogs were owned by 778 households and cats by 88 households. The dog to human ratio was estimated at 1:12.4. Respondents were asked whether they enjoyed owning animals and 96.1 % said that they did. Only 26.3 % mentioned that they had problems with their own animals and 16.6 % had problems with other people's animals. Treatment of sick animals (29.7 % was seen as a priority. However, less than 1 % (n = 6 used the services of private veterinarians. Others took their animals to welfare organisations or did not have them treated. Perceptions of affordable costs of veterinary treatments were also recorded. In addition to treatment, respondents indicated a need for vaccination (22.5 %, sterilisation (16.5 %, control of internal (3.7 % and external (8.8 % parasites, education and extension (6.6 %, prevention of cruelty to animals (3.2 % and expansion of veterinary clinics to other parts of Soweto (1.3 %.

  6. CCAA research-to-policy links

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    interaction with policymaking bodies at the local, national or regional level. In some ... Monitoring Centre in Harare which serves the Southern African Development Community). • Local or ... Agricultural Research Corporation. Ethiopia .... Urban Interactions: the Case Study of Aba ... Network to Pioneer Climate Adaptation.

  7. The Impact of Animal Rights on the Use of Animals for Biomedical Research, Product Testing and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    Clarifies the issues of animal rights as they effect animal use in research and education through an examination of the current use of animals, a historical look at animal use, and a consideration of the philosophical underpinnings of the animal rights and pro-use viewpoints. (PR)

  8. Instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Watanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animal models offer possibilities of physiology knowledge, pathogenesis of disease and action of drugs that are directly related to quality nursing care. This integrative review describes the current state of the instrumental and ethical aspects of experimental research with animal models, including the main recommendations of ethics committees that focus on animal welfare and raises questions about the impact of their findings in nursing care. Data show that, in Brazil, the progress in ethics for the use of animals for scientific purposes was consolidated with Law No. 11.794/2008 establishing ethical procedures, attending health, genetic and experimental parameters. The application of ethics in handling of animals for scientific and educational purposes and obtaining consistent and quality data brings unquestionable contributions to the nurse, as they offer subsidies to relate pathophysiological mechanisms and the clinical aspect on the patient.

  9. Linking African Researchers with Adaptation Policy Spaces | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linking African Researchers with Adaptation Policy Spaces. Poor understanding of policy processes tends to reduce the value of research results and the ability of researchers to influence policy. One of the main goals of IDRC's Climate Change Adaptation in Africa (CCAA) program is to build the capacity of researchers to ...

  10. Painful dilemmas: the ethics of animal-based pain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I. A. S.

    2009-01-01

    While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this...

  11. Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    ... of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publ...

  12. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  13. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  14. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen DONG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  15. Zebrafish: A Versatile Animal Model for Fertility Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ying Hoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of zebrafish in biomedical research is very common in the research world nowadays. Today, it has emerged as a favored vertebrate organism for the research in science of reproduction. There is a significant growth in amount numbers of scientific literature pertaining to research discoveries in reproductive sciences in zebrafish. It has implied the importance of zebrafish in this particular field of research. In essence, the current available literature has covered from the very specific brain region or neurons of zebrafish, which are responsible for reproductive regulation, until the gonadal level of the animal. The discoveries and findings have proven that this small animal is sharing a very close/similar reproductive system with mammals. More interestingly, the behavioral characteristics and along with the establishment of animal courtship behavior categorization in zebrafish have laid an even stronger foundation and firmer reason on the suitability of zebrafish utilization in research of reproductive sciences. In view of the immense importance of this small animal for the development of reproductive sciences, this review aimed at compiling and describing the proximate close similarity of reproductive regulation on zebrafish and human along with factors contributing to the infertility, showing its versatility and its potential usage for fertility research.

  16. “They Know, But Do Not Tell”: Examining the Link Between Animal Cruelty and Other Criminal Offences in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Jessica Marie

    2016-01-01

    Animal cruelty is a significantly under researched topic in Criminology. An exploratory study was undertaken to determine whether there is a link between cruelty offences and other crimes in British Columbia (BC). Data were compiled using open source websites to identify convicted animal cruelty offenders and examine any further criminal convictions. Using the frameworks of the graduation hypothesis and generalized deviance theory, criminal offending patterns and timing of offences were analy...

  17. Multivariate Analysis for Animal Selection in Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Mercuri Pinto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several researchers seek methods for the selection of homogeneous groups of animals in experimental studies, a fact justified because homogeneity is an indispensable prerequisite for casualization of treatments. The lack of robust methods that comply with statistical and biological principles is the reason why researchers use empirical or subjective methods, influencing their results. Objective: To develop a multivariate statistical model for the selection of a homogeneous group of animals for experimental research and to elaborate a computational package to use it. Methods: The set of echocardiographic data of 115 male Wistar rats with supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS was used as an example of model development. Initially, the data were standardized, and became dimensionless. Then, the variance matrix of the set was submitted to principal components analysis (PCA, aiming at reducing the parametric space and at retaining the relevant variability. That technique established a new Cartesian system into which the animals were allocated, and finally the confidence region (ellipsoid was built for the profile of the animals’ homogeneous responses. The animals located inside the ellipsoid were considered as belonging to the homogeneous batch; those outside the ellipsoid were considered spurious. Results: The PCA established eight descriptive axes that represented the accumulated variance of the data set in 88.71%. The allocation of the animals in the new system and the construction of the confidence region revealed six spurious animals as compared to the homogeneous batch of 109 animals. Conclusion: The biometric criterion presented proved to be effective, because it considers the animal as a whole, analyzing jointly all parameters measured, in addition to having a small discard rate.

  18. Animal research in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say-do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by a chimpanzee, and unsafe trailer entry by horses) in ways that benefited the animals and the people in charge of them, and 1 described the use of trained rats that performed a service to humans (land-mine detection). We suggest that each of these general research areas merits further attention and that the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is an appropriate outlet for some of these publications.

  19. FAA airborne data link human factors research plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This report contains a five-year plan to perform research of human factors issues and topics : related to Data Link implementations in general aviation and transport category aircraft. : Elements such as resource allocation and management and coordin...

  20. Strengthening health systems through linking research evidence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    informed policies. Accordingly, a critical way of addressing these challenges facing health systems in the region is through the linking of health research findings to policy. Keywords: Evidence; Sub-Saharan Africa; Health Policy; Health Systems ...

  1. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays

  2. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays.

  3. Zoonoses of occupational health importance in contemporary laboratory animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankenson, F Claire; Johnston, Nancy A; Weigler, Benjamin J; Di Giacomo, Ronald F

    2003-12-01

    In contemporary laboratory animal facilities, workplace exposure to zoonotic pathogens, agents transmitted to humans from vertebrate animals or their tissues, is an occupational hazard. The primary (e.g., macaques, pigs, dogs, rabbits, mice, and rats) and secondary species (e.g., sheep, goats, cats, ferrets, and pigeons) of animals commonly used in biomedical research, as classified by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, are established or potential hosts for a large number of zoonotic agents. Diseases included in this review are principally those wherein a risk to biomedical facility personnel has been documented by published reports of human cases in laboratory animal research settings, or under reasonably similar circumstances. Diseases are listed alphabetically, and each section includes information about clinical disease, transmission, occurrence, and prevention in animal reservoir species and humans. Our goal is to provide a resource for veterinarians, health-care professionals, technical staff, and administrators that will assist in the design and on-going evaluation of institutional occupational health and safety programs.

  4. Small animal PET and its applications in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Feichan

    2004-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technique that permits the use of positron-labeled molecular imaging probes for non-invasive assays of biochemical processes. As the leading technology in nuclear medicine, PET has extended its applications from the clinical field to the study of small laboratory animals. In recent years, the development of new detector technology has dramatically improved the spatial resolution and image quality of small animal PET scanner, which is being used increasingly as a basic tool in modern biomedical research. In particular, small animal PET will play an important role in drug discovery and development, in the study of small animal models of human diseases, in characterizing gene expression and in many other ways. (authors)

  5. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    )’ was moderately correlated with the input factors for FAW research such as the average number of PhDs currently employed in the institutions (rs = 0.66; p researchers (rs = 0.56; p ...Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare...... assessment systems on-farm. The aim of this study was mapping activities for FAW science and investigating geographical differences in FAW research in Europe (EU28 + candidate countries and the European Economic Area) with regard to available resources (e.g. human resources, infrastructure, funding...

  6. The Mammalian Microbiome and Its Importance in Laboratory Animal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, André; Fox, James G

    2015-01-01

    In this issue are assembled 10 fascinating, well-researched papers that describe the emerging field centered on the microbiome of vertebrate animals and how these complex microbial populations play a fundamental role in shaping homeostasis of the host. The content of the papers will deal with bacteria and, because of relative paucity of information on these organisms, will not include discussions on viruses, fungus, protozoa, and parasites that colonize various animals. Dissecting the number and interactions of the 500-1000 bacterial species that can inhabit the intestines of animals is made possible by advanced DNA sequencing methods, which do not depend on whether the organism can be cultured or not. Laboratory animals, particularly rodents, have proven to be an indispensable component in not only understanding how the microbiome aids in digestion and protects the host against pathogens, but also in understanding the relationship of various species of bacteria to development of the immune system. Importantly, this research elucidates purported mechanisms for how the microbiome can profoundly affect initiation and progression of diseases such as type 1 diabetes, metabolic syndromes, obesity, autoimmune arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. The strengths and limitations of the use of germfree mice colonized with single species of bacteria, a restricted flora, or most recently the use of human-derived microbiota are also discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  8. Childhood and Adolescent Animal Cruelty Methods and Their Possible Link to Adult Violent Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Few researchers have investigated the potentially predictive power of childhood and adolescent animal cruelty methods as they are associated with subsequent interpersonal violence in adulthood. Based on a sample of 261 inmates at medium- and maximum-security prisons in a southern state, the present study examines the relationship between several…

  9. The ethics of animal research: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The Nuffield Council on Bioethics, an independent body in the United Kingdom, has published a 2005 report titled The Ethics of Research Involving Animals. The Report, produced by a Working Party that represented a wide range of views, seeks to clarify the debate that surrounds this topic and aims to help people identify and analyze the relevant scientific and ethical issues. The Working Party considered the arguments surrounding whether animal research yields useful results, and recommends that its predictability and transferability should be evaluated more fully, particularly in controversial areas. Commonly encountered ethical questions and arguments were considered in order to understand what lies behind disagreement on the moral justification of animal research. Four possible ethical positions on animal research, which represent points on a continuum, are described. Despite the range of views that exist among members of the Working Party, the Report presents a "Consensus Statement" that identifies agreement on several important issues. Building on this statement, recommendations are made for improving the quality of the debate and promoting the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, and replacement).

  10. The miniature pig as an animal model in biomedical research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Petr; Smetana Jr., K.; Dvořánková, B.; Emerick, T.; Xu, Y.; Ourednik, J.; Ourednik, V.; Motlík, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1049, - (2005), s. 161-171 ISSN 0077-8923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : animal model * stem cell * transgenic pig Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.971, year: 2005

  11. From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to Sustainable Agriculture. Research on climate change and its impact on the ... Outputs. Journal articles. Factors affecting households vulnerability to climate change in Swaziland : a case of Mpolonjeni Area Development Programme (ADP). Download PDF ...

  12. Adaptation Finance: Linking Research, Policy, and Business | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adaptation Finance: Linking Research, Policy, and Business. This project will train up to 36 emerging climate change leaders in the field of adaptation finance, which funds efforts to adapt to climate change impacts. The goal is to bring together participants from research, policy, and private sector backgrounds to equip them ...

  13. Linked Data: Opportunities and Challenges in Disability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, Emma J.; Hussain, Rafat

    2008-01-01

    Background: Disability research data often exist in the form of individual records located within discrete registers that may extend across sensitive political boundaries. Method: This paper discusses the opportunities and challenges associated with using linked health and administrative data for disability research, with examples from research…

  14. Research Priorities from Animal Behaviour for Maximising Conservation Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greggor, Alison L; Berger-Tal, Oded; Blumstein, Daniel T; Angeloni, Lisa; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Blackwell, Bradley F; St Clair, Colleen Cassady; Crooks, Kevin; de Silva, Shermin; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Goldenberg, Shifra Z; Mesnick, Sarah L; Owen, Megan; Price, Catherine J; Saltz, David; Schell, Christopher J; Suarez, Andrew V; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Winchell, Clark S; Sutherland, William J

    2016-12-01

    Poor communication between academic researchers and wildlife managers limits conservation progress and innovation. As a result, input from overlapping fields, such as animal behaviour, is underused in conservation management despite its demonstrated utility as a conservation tool and countless papers advocating its use. Communication and collaboration across these two disciplines are unlikely to improve without clearly identified management needs and demonstrable impacts of behavioural-based conservation management. To facilitate this process, a team of wildlife managers and animal behaviour researchers conducted a research prioritisation exercise, identifying 50 key questions that have great potential to resolve critical conservation and management problems. The resulting agenda highlights the diversity and extent of advances that both fields could achieve through collaboration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Research advances in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Haiyan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has increased gradually along with the rising prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, and NAFLD has become one of the most common chronic liver diseases in the world and the second major liver disease after chronic viral hepatitis in China. However, its pathogenesis has not yet been clarified. Animal models are playing an important role in researches on NAFLD due to the facts that the development and progression of NAFLD require a long period of time, and ethical limitations exist in conducting drug trials in patients or collecting liver tissues from patients. The animal models with histopathology similar to that of NAFLD patients are reviewed, and their modeling principle, as well as the advantages and disadvantages, are compared. Animal models provide a powerful tool for further studies of NAFLD pathogenesis and drug screening for prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

  16. Non-Invasive in vivo Imaging in Small Animal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Koo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive real time in vivo molecular imaging in small animal models has become the essential bridge between in vitro data and their translation into clinical applications. The tremendous development and technological progress, such as tumour modelling, monitoring of tumour growth and detection of metastasis, has facilitated translational drug development. This has added to our knowledge on carcinogenesis. The modalities that are commonly used include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Computed Tomography (CT, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, bioluminescence imaging, fluorescence imaging and multi-modality imaging systems. The ability to obtain multiple images longitudinally provides reliable information whilst reducing animal numbers. As yet there is no one modality that is ideal for all experimental studies. This review outlines the instrumentation available together with corresponding applications reported in the literature with particular emphasis on cancer research. Advantages and limitations to current imaging technology are discussed and the issues concerning small animal care during imaging are highlighted.

  17. New frontiers in animal research of psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffman, Arie; Krystal, John H; Krystal, John J

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in neurodevelopment are thought to modify risk of numerous psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, ADHD, mood and anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular changes that guide these neurodevelopmental changes and how they contribute to mental illness. In this review, we suggest that elucidating this process in humans requires the use of model organisms. Furthermore, we advocate that such translational work should focus on the role that genes and/or environmental factors play in the development of circuits that regulate specific physiological and behavioral outcomes in adulthood. This emphasis on circuit development, as a fundamental unit for understanding behavior, is distinct from current approaches of modeling psychiatric illnesses in animals in two important ways. First, it proposes to replace the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnostic system with measurable endophenotypes as the basis for modeling human psychopathology in animals. We argue that a major difficulty in establishing valid animal models lies in their reliance on the DSM/International Classification of Diseases conceptual framework, and suggest that the Research Domain Criteria project, recently proposed by the NIMH, provides a more suitable system to model human psychopathology in animals. Second, this proposal emphasizes the developmental origin of many (though clearly not all) psychiatric illnesses, an issue that is often glossed over in current animal models of mental illness. We suggest that animal models are essential to elucidate the mechanisms by which neurodevelopmental changes program complex behavior in adulthood. A better understanding of this issue, in animals, is the key for defining human psychopathology, and the development of earlier and more effective interventions for mental illness.

  18. Animal models of pancreatic cancer for drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapischke, Matthias; Pries, Alexandra

    2008-10-01

    The operative and conservative results of therapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remain appallingly poor. This underlines the demand for further research for effective anticancer drugs. The various animal models remain the essential method for the determination of efficacy of substances during preclinical phase. Unfortunately, most of these tested substances showed a good efficacy in pancreatic carcinoma in the animal model but were not confirmed during the clinical phase. The available literature in PubMed, Medline, Ovid and secondary literature was searched regarding the available animal models for drug testing against pancreatic cancer. The models were analyzed regarding their pros and cons in anticancer drug testing. The different modifications of the orthotopic model (especially in mice) seem at present to be the best model for anticancer testing in pancreatic carcinoma. The value of genetically engineered animal model (GEM) and syngeneic models is on debate. A good selection of the model concerning the questions supposed to be clarified may improve the comparability of the results of animal experiments compared to clinical trials.

  19. Animal welfare strengthens the quality of research. 3 million euros for a ultramodern animal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN has been studying the long-term effects of low radiation doses on health for over 40 years.This uses mice because more than 90 per cent of their genome is identical with that of human beings. In order to work better and more ethically, SCK-CEN has invested 3 million euros in a brand-new animal facility. This makes it possible to carry out research under the best possible conditions for both humans and mice.

  20. Animals in Space From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Many readers will doubtless be astonished to learn that animals were being fired aloft in U.S. and Soviet research rockets in the late 1940s. In fact most people not only believe that the Russian space dog Laika was the first canine to be launched into space, but also that the high-profile, precursory Mercury flights of chimps Ham and Enos were the only primate flights conducted by the United States. In fact, both countries had sent literally dozens of animals aloft for many years prior to these events and continued to do so for many years after. Other latter-day space nations, such as France and China, would also begin to use animals in their own space research. Animals in Space will explain why dogs, primates, mice and other rodents were chosen and tested, at a time when dedicated scientists from both space nations were determined to establish the survivability of human subjects on both ballistic and orbital space flights. It will also recount the way this happened; the secrecy involved and the methods empl...

  1. Animal models of osteogenesis imperfecta: applications in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enderli TA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tanya A Enderli, Stephanie R Burtch, Jara N Templet, Alessandra Carriero Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL, USA Abstract: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, commonly known as brittle bone disease, is a genetic disease characterized by extreme bone fragility and consequent skeletal deformities. This connective tissue disorder is caused by mutations in the quality and quantity of the collagen that in turn affect the overall mechanical integrity of the bone, increasing its vulnerability to fracture. Animal models of the disease have played a critical role in the understanding of the pathology and causes of OI and in the investigation of a broad range of clinical therapies for the disease. Currently, at least 20 animal models have been officially recognized to represent the phenotype and biochemistry of the 17 different types of OI in humans. These include mice, dogs, and fish. Here, we describe each of the animal models and the type of OI they represent, and present their application in clinical research for treatments of OI, such as drug therapies (ie, bisphosphonates and sclerostin and mechanical (ie, vibrational loading. In the future, different dosages and lengths of treatment need to be further investigated on different animal models of OI using potentially promising treatments, such as cellular and chaperone therapies. A combination of therapies may also offer a viable treatment regime to improve bone quality and reduce fragility in animals before being introduced into clinical trials for OI patients. Keywords: OI, brittle bone, clinical research, mouse, dog, zebrafish

  2. A tool for exploring space-time patterns : an animation user research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogao Patrick J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever since Dr. John Snow (1813–1854 used a case map to identify water well as the source of a cholera outbreak in London in the 1800s, the use of spatio-temporal maps have become vital tools in a wide range of disease mapping and control initiatives. The increasing use of spatio-temporal maps in these life-threatening sectors warrants that they are accurate, and easy to interpret to enable prompt decision making by health experts. Similar spatio-temporal maps are observed in urban growth and census mapping – all critical aspects a of a country's socio-economic development. In this paper, a user test research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of spatio-temporal maps (animation in exploring geospatial structures encompassing disease, urban and census mapping. Results Three types of animation were used, namely; passive, interactive and inference-based animation, with the key differences between them being on the level of interactivity and complementary domain knowledge that each offers to the user. Passive animation maintains the view only status. The user has no control over its contents and dynamic variables. Interactive animation provides users with the basic media player controls, navigation and orientation tools. Inference-based animation incorporates these interactive capabilities together with a complementary automated intelligent view that alerts users to interesting patterns, trends or anomalies that may be inherent in the data sets. The test focussed on the role of animation passive and interactive capabilities in exploring space-time patterns by engaging test-subjects in thinking aloud evaluation protocol. The test subjects were selected from a geoinformatics (map reading, interpretation and analysis abilities background. Every test-subject used each of the three types of animation and their performances for each session assessed. The results show that interactivity in animation is a preferred

  3. A tool for exploring space-time patterns: an animation user research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogao, Patrick J

    2006-08-29

    Ever since Dr. John Snow (1813-1854) used a case map to identify water well as the source of a cholera outbreak in London in the 1800s, the use of spatio-temporal maps have become vital tools in a wide range of disease mapping and control initiatives. The increasing use of spatio-temporal maps in these life-threatening sectors warrants that they are accurate, and easy to interpret to enable prompt decision making by health experts. Similar spatio-temporal maps are observed in urban growth and census mapping--all critical aspects a of a country's socio-economic development. In this paper, a user test research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of spatio-temporal maps (animation) in exploring geospatial structures encompassing disease, urban and census mapping. Three types of animation were used, namely; passive, interactive and inference-based animation, with the key differences between them being on the level of interactivity and complementary domain knowledge that each offers to the user. Passive animation maintains the view only status. The user has no control over its contents and dynamic variables. Interactive animation provides users with the basic media player controls, navigation and orientation tools. Inference-based animation incorporates these interactive capabilities together with a complementary automated intelligent view that alerts users to interesting patterns, trends or anomalies that may be inherent in the data sets. The test focussed on the role of animation passive and interactive capabilities in exploring space-time patterns by engaging test-subjects in thinking aloud evaluation protocol. The test subjects were selected from a geoinformatics (map reading, interpretation and analysis abilities) background. Every test-subject used each of the three types of animation and their performances for each session assessed. The results show that interactivity in animation is a preferred exploratory tool in identifying, interpreting and

  4. Overview on available animal models for application in leukemia research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkhardt, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, I.; Cobaleda, C.; Hauer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The term ''leukemia'' encompasses a group of diseases with a variable clinical and pathological presentation. Its cellular origin, its biology and the underlying molecular genetic alterations determine the very variable and individual disease phenotype. The focus of this review is to discuss the most important guidelines to be taken into account when we aim at developing an ''ideal'' animal model to study leukemia. The animal model should mimic all the clinical, histological and molecular genetic characteristics of the human phenotype and should be applicable as a clinically predictive model. It should achieve all the requirements to be used as a standardized model adaptive to basic research as well as to pharmaceutical practice. Furthermore it should fulfill all the criteria to investigate environmental risk factors, the role of genomic mutations and be applicable for therapeutic testing. These constraints limit the usefulness of some existing animal models, which are however very valuable for basic research. Hence in this review we will primarily focus on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to study the most frequent types of childhood leukemia. GEMMs are robust models with relatively low site specific variability and which can, with the help of the latest gene modulating tools be adapted to individual clinical and research questions. Moreover they offer the possibility to restrict oncogene expression to a defined target population and regulate its expression level as well as its timely activity. Until recently it was only possible in individual cases to develop a murin model, which fulfills the above mentioned requirements. Hence the development of new regulatory elements to control targeted oncogene expression should be priority. Tightly controlled and cell specific oncogene expression can then be combined with a knock-in approach and will depict a robust murine model, which enables almost physiologic oncogene

  5. Principles, Methods of Participatory Research: Proposal for Draft Animal Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The meeting of researchers, who question themselves on the efficiency of their actions when they accompany stakeholders during change processes, provides the opportunity to ponder on the research methods to develop when working together with the stakeholders: participative research, research-action, research-intervention… The author proposes to present the research-action approach as new. If the three phases of research-action are important, the negotiation phase is essential, because it enables contract formalization among partners (ethical aspect, development of a common language, and formalization of structuring efforts between researchers with various specialties and stakeholders. In the research-action approach, the managing set-ups (scientific committees… play a major role: they guarantee at the same time a solution to problems, production, and the legitimacy of the scientific knowledge produced. In conclusion, the author suggests ways to develop research-action in the field of animal traction in order to conceive new socio-technical and organizational innovations that will make the use of this technique easier.

  6. The Link Between Domestic Violence and Abuse and Animal Cruelty in the Intimate Relationships of People of Diverse Genders and/or Sexualities: A Binational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Damien W; Taylor, Nik; Fraser, Heather; Donovan, Catherine; Signal, Tania

    2018-04-01

    Over the past three decades, a growing body of research has focused on experiences of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) among people of diverse genders and/or sexualities. Missing, however, has been a focus on what is known as "the link" between DVA and animal cruelty with regard to people of diverse genders and/or sexualities. The present article reports on a study of 503 people living in either Australia or the United Kingdom, who reported on both their intimate human relationships and their relationships with animals, including relationships that were abusive. In terms of "the link," a fifth of respondents who had experienced violence or abuse also reported that animal cruelty had been perpetuated by the violent or abusive partner. Statistical interactions were found between having witnessed animal cruelty perpetrated by a partner, gender and sexuality, and both psychological distress and social connectedness. Female participants who had witnessed animal cruelty reported greater psychological distress and lower levels of social support, and both lesbian and bisexual participants who had witnessed animal cruelty reported lower levels of social support. The article concludes by considering the implications of these findings for future research and service provision.

  7. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used, as well as microorganisms and higher plants. A variety of tissue cultures, including immortalised cell lines, embryonic and adult stem cells, and organotypic cultures, are also available. In vitro assays utilising bacterial, yeast, protozoal, mammalian or human cell cultures exist for a wide range of toxic and other endpoints. These may be static or perfused, and may be used individually, or combined within test batteries. Human hepatocyte cultures and metabolic activation systems offer potential assessment of metabolite activity and organ-organ interaction. Microarray technology may allow genetic expression profiling, increasing the speed of toxin detection, well prior to more invasive endpoints. Enhanced human clinical trials utilising micro- dosing, staggered dosing, and more representative study populations and durations, as well as surrogate human tissues, advanced imaging modalities and human epidemiological, sociological and psycho- logical studies, may increase our understanding of illness aetiology and pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of safe and effective pharmacologic interventions. Particularly when human tissues

  8. Teaching and Research: Establishing Link in Studio-Based Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ozdemyr

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The compelling ideal of modern architectural education associated with Boyer’s (1990 framework is a scholarly collaboration by a relationship between teaching and research. Research enhances teaching through the introduction of new topics and methodologies. Research-based teaching stimulates better communication between students and lecturers as researchers. Students’ comments and questions can improve the subject of future research. A model of research-based teaching can be structured to teach both research findings and processes. This model can be well integrated to current curriculum with emphasis on research-oriented teaching in which students take part in the research process. In this process, instructors use their research experience during their interactions with students. This paper discusses the establishment of the link between research and teaching in the built environment with cases from studio-based learning in Landscape Architecture discipline. The argument is that studio-based education should be accepted as a pedagogical method to take part in teaching research to make connections between architecture and other disciplines. This effort will position the education into a research-based setting and make proposals to re-orient curriculum so that researchers can teach what and how they research.

  9. Alternatives to animal testing: research, trends, validation, regulatory acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Current trends and issues in the development of alternatives to the use of animals in biomedical experimentation are discussed in this position paper. Eight topics are considered and include refinement of acute toxicity assays; eye corrosion/irritation alternatives; skin corrosion/irritation alternatives; contact sensitization alternatives; developmental/reproductive testing alternatives; genetic engineering (transgenic) assays; toxicogenomics; and validation of alternative methods. The discussion of refinement of acute toxicity assays is focused primarily on developments with regard to reduction of the number of animals used in the LD(50) assay. However, the substitution of humane endpoints such as clinical signs of toxicity for lethality in these assays is also evaluated. Alternative assays for eye corrosion/irritation as well as those for skin corrosion/irritation are described with particular attention paid to the outcomes, both successful and unsuccessful, of several validation efforts. Alternative assays for contact sensitization and developmental/reproductive toxicity are presented as examples of methods designed for the examination of interactions between toxins and somewhat more complex physiological systems. Moreover, genetic engineering and toxicogenomics are discussed with an eye toward the future of biological experimentation in general. The implications of gene manipulation for research animals, specifically, are also examined. Finally, validation methods are investigated as to their effectiveness, or lack thereof, and suggestions for their standardization and improvement, as well as implementation are reviewed.

  10. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  11. Zebrafish: an animal model for research in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowik, N; Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Kasica, N; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become known as an excellent model organism for studies of vertebrate biology, vertebrate genetics, embryonal development, diseases and drug screening. Nevertheless, there is still lack of detailed reports about usage of the zebrafish as a model in veterinary medicine. Comparing to other vertebrates, they can lay hundreds of eggs at weekly intervals, externally fertilized zebrafish embryos are accessible to observation and manipulation at all stages of their development, which makes possible to simplify the research techniques such as fate mapping, fluorescent tracer time-lapse lineage analysis and single cell transplantation. Although zebrafish are only 2.5 cm long, they are easy to maintain. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, blood sampling and measurement of food intake are possible to be carry out in adult zebrafish. Danio rerio is a useful animal model for neurobiology, developmental biology, drug research, virology, microbiology and genetics. A lot of diseases, for which the zebrafish is a perfect model organism, affect aquatic animals. For a part of them, like those caused by Mycobacterium marinum or Pseudoloma neutrophila, Danio rerio is a natural host, but the zebrafish is also susceptible to the most of fish diseases including Itch, Spring viraemia of carp and Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis. The zebrafish is commonly used in research of bacterial virulence. The zebrafish embryo allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. Plenty of common pathogens can be examined using zebrafish model: Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum or Listeria monocytogenes. The steps are taken to use the zebrafish also in fungal research, especially that dealing with Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although, the zebrafish is used commonly as an animal model to study diseases caused by external agents, it is also useful in studies of metabolic

  12. Parturition in domestic animals: targets for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverne, M A M; van der Weijden, G C

    2008-11-01

    Contents Compared with other parts of the reproductive cycle, the parturition process of domestic animals has received relatively little attention from researchers during the last two decades. Yet, interventions during parturition, either by the owner or the veterinarian, are frequently judged necessary and perinatal losses in most of the domestic species are (still) rather high. The present paper focuses on the birth process in three domestic species, the dog, pig and cow, mainly because most of the experimental and research work of the authors themselves was dealing with these three species. Against the background of specific clinical problems, breeding circumstances and economic performance, selected topics and questions are addressed to identify areas for future research. These are, among others, related to the mechanisms that trigger the birth process (are the foetuses involved in the dog and sow?), the role of hormones and cytokines during ripening of the cervix (activation and/or de-activation of specific matrix metallo-proteinases and their local inhibitors), the functional significance of fetal body movements to prepare the foetus for expulsion, and the exact time course of events involved in the transportation of an individual foetus from its intrauterine location, via the pelvic canal, to the outside world. Research on some of these topics, such as the ripening of the cervix in cows, might also contribute to resolve clinical problems in human obstetrics.

  13. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear Research Center in agriculture and animal science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprise nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going main projects involving several sub-projects with the above subjects were summarized for possible future collaborations. (author)

  14. A training course on laboratory animal science: an initiative to implement the Three Rs of animal research in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Kunal; Singh, Vijay Pal

    2016-03-01

    There is a current need for a change in the attitudes of researchers toward the care and use of experimental animals in India. This could be achieved through improvements in the provision of training, to further the integration of the Three Rs concept into scientific research and into the regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). A survey was performed after participants undertook the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Category C-based course on Laboratory Animal Science (in 2013 and 2015). It revealed that the participants subsequently employed, in their future research, the practical and theoretical Three Rs approaches that they had learned. This is of great importance in terms of animal welfare, and also serves to benefit their research outcomes extensively. All the lectures, hands-on practical sessions and supplementary elements of the courses, which also involved the handling of small animals and procedures with live animals, were well appreciated by the participants. Insight into developments in practical handling and welfare procedures, norms, directives, and ethical use of laboratory animals in research, was also provided, through the comparison of results from the 2013 and 2015 post-course surveys. 2016 FRAME.

  15. Linking international trademark databases to inform IP research and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, P.

    2016-07-01

    Researchers and policy makers are concerned with many international issues regarding trademarks, such as trademark squatting, cluttering, and dilution. Trademark application data can provide an evidence base to inform government policy regarding these issues, and can also produce quantitative insights into economic trends and brand dynamics. Currently, national trademark databases can provide insight into economic and brand dynamics at the national level, but gaining such insight at an international level is more difficult due to a lack of internationally linked trademark data. We are in the process of building a harmonised international trademark database (the “Patstat of trademarks”), in which equivalent trademarks have been identified across national offices. We have developed a pilot database that incorporates 6.4 million U.S., 1.3 million Australian, and 0.5 million New Zealand trademark applications, spanning over 100 years. The database will be extended to incorporate trademark data from other participating intellectual property (IP) offices as they join the project. Confirmed partners include the United Kingdom, WIPO, and OHIM. We will continue to expand the scope of the project, and intend to include many more IP offices from around the world. In addition to building the pilot database, we have developed a linking algorithm that identifies equivalent trademarks (TMs) across the three jurisdictions. The algorithm can currently be applied to all applications that contain TM text; i.e. around 96% of all applications. In its current state, the algorithm successfully identifies ~ 97% of equivalent TMs that are known to be linked a priori, as they have shared international registration number through the Madrid protocol. When complete, the internationally linked trademark database will be a valuable resource for researchers and policy-makers in fields such as econometrics, intellectual property rights, and brand policy. (Author)

  16. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  17. The use of experimental animals in spa research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory rat is a rat of species Rattus norvegicus which is bred and kept for scientific research. Laboratory rats have served as an important animal model for reaserch in psychology medicine , and other fields.Laboratory rats share origins with their cousins in domestication , the fancy rats. In 18th century Europe , wild Brown rats ran rampant and this infestation fueled the industry of rat-catching .Rat-cathcers would not only make money by trapping the rodents , but also by turning around and selling them for food , or more importantly , for rat-baiting . Rat-baiting was a popular sport which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a terrier to kill them all.

  18. Linking human diseases to animal models using ontology-based phenotype annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Washington

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientists and clinicians who study genetic alterations and disease have traditionally described phenotypes in natural language. The considerable variation in these free-text descriptions has posed a hindrance to the important task of identifying candidate genes and models for human diseases and indicates the need for a computationally tractable method to mine data resources for mutant phenotypes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ontological annotation of disease phenotypes will facilitate the discovery of new genotype-phenotype relationships within and across species. To describe phenotypes using ontologies, we used an Entity-Quality (EQ methodology, wherein the affected entity (E and how it is affected (Q are recorded using terms from a variety of ontologies. Using this EQ method, we annotated the phenotypes of 11 gene-linked human diseases described in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM. These human annotations were loaded into our Ontology-Based Database (OBD along with other ontology-based phenotype descriptions of mutants from various model organism databases. Phenotypes recorded with this EQ method can be computationally compared based on the hierarchy of terms in the ontologies and the frequency of annotation. We utilized four similarity metrics to compare phenotypes and developed an ontology of homologous and analogous anatomical structures to compare phenotypes between species. Using these tools, we demonstrate that we can identify, through the similarity of the recorded phenotypes, other alleles of the same gene, other members of a signaling pathway, and orthologous genes and pathway members across species. We conclude that EQ-based annotation of phenotypes, in conjunction with a cross-species ontology, and a variety of similarity metrics can identify biologically meaningful similarities between genes by comparing phenotypes alone. This annotation and search method provides a novel and efficient means to identify

  19. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  20. Capacity for work researching method in animal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pul'nov, V.N.; Mashneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    The existing methods of examining the work capacity of animals are discussed with reference to extrapolation of animal data to man. A modified procedure for measuring maximal physical strength is proposed, whereby static endurance of animals at a given exercise rate can be measured. For an integrated evaluation of work capacity, a formula of absolute work capacity is suggested. The proposed procedure may be used to study the working capacity of animals exposed to unfavorable factors of radiation or nonradiation nature

  1. Annual tendency of research papers used ICR mice as experimental animals in biomedical research fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, Jung Hoon; Cho, Joon Young; Kim, Kil Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-01-01

    Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice have been widely used in various research fields including toxicology, oncology, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical product safety testing for decades. However, annual tendency of research papers involving ICR mice in various biomedical fields has not been previously analyzed. In this study, we examined the numbers of papers that used ICR mice as experimental animals in the social science, natural science, engineering, medicine-pharmacy, marine agricultur...

  2. Educability as a Link of Contemporary Civil Experience: Research Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Groppa Aquino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This text argues that the educability of citizens is objectified in terms of a demand for diffuse and perpetual training, which has become a foundational link of social existence. This statement is based upon the results of twelve researches carried out by a group from the school of Education of the University of São Paulo, devoted to Foucaultian studies in education. It is an effort to analyze the relationship between contemporary governmentality and certain ongoing educational imperatives from different social fields.

  3. Utopia documents: linking scholarly literature with research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, T K; Kell, D B; McDermott, P; Marsh, J; Pettifer, S R; Thorne, D

    2010-09-15

    In recent years, the gulf between the mass of accumulating-research data and the massive literature describing and analyzing those data has widened. The need for intelligent tools to bridge this gap, to rescue the knowledge being systematically isolated in literature and data silos, is now widely acknowledged. To this end, we have developed Utopia Documents, a novel PDF reader that semantically integrates visualization and data-analysis tools with published research articles. In a successful pilot with editors of the Biochemical Journal (BJ), the system has been used to transform static document features into objects that can be linked, annotated, visualized and analyzed interactively (http://www.biochemj.org/bj/424/3/). Utopia Documents is now used routinely by BJ editors to mark up article content prior to publication. Recent additions include integration of various text-mining and biodatabase plugins, demonstrating the system's ability to seamlessly integrate on-line content with PDF articles. http://getutopia.com.

  4. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations

  5. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear research center in agriculture and animal science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations

  6. Exploring the Link between Corporal Punishment and Children's Cruelty to Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Clifton P.

    1999-01-01

    Study of college undergraduates (N=267) examined the relationship between corporal punishment inflicted by parents and perpetration of animal abuse. Analyses showed that the association between fathers' corporal punishment and sons' childhood animal cruelty persisted after controlling for child abuse, father-to-mother violence, and father's…

  7. Morally relevant differences between animals and human beings justifying the use of animals in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J U

    1997-03-01

    I have attempted to show that the differential qualities of animals and human beings indeed to have bearing on moral rules and the derivation of rights, including rights established on the basis of reason and utilitarianism. Special rights for members of our species are not simply a consequence of human domination and self-interest. I also have tried to show that rights arise from values and that the qualities we value most highly often are the ones that distinguish human beings from other species. I maintain that giving more value to human lives over animal lives achieves reflective balance with the commonsense notions that most of us have developed. Because utilitarianism, contractualism, and the classical philosophical methods of Kant and Aristotle all may allow favoring human interests over animal interests, it seems reasonable to suspect that animal rights activists embrace narrow, extremist views. There are many uniquely human experiences to which we ascribe high value-deep interpersonal relationships, achieving a life's goal, enjoying a complex cultural event such as a play or an opera, or authoring a manuscript. Therefore, it would seem improper that social and ethical considerations regarding animals be centered entirely on the notion of a biological continuum, because there are many kinds of human experience-moral, religious, aesthetic, and otherwise-that appear to be outside the realm of biology. Knowledge about the biology of animals is helpful for making moral decisions about our obligations to them. Why, then, is there a substantial population of animal rights activists in Europe, the United States, and throughout the world, who would not agree with my conclusions? Certain habitual ways of thinking may encourage anthropomorphism and equating animal interests with human interests. Certain metaphysical beliefs, such as a belief in reincarnation, also might favor animal rights. It also is possible that a number of people are being deceived and misled by

  8. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijnenberg, Mark W.; Jong, Marion de

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of sublethal damage, and repopulation during or after the therapy. Models for radiation response of preclinical tumour models after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy based on the linear quadratic model are presented. The accuracy of the radiation dose is very important for observation of dose-effects. Uncertainties in the radiation dose estimation arise from incomplete assay of the kinetics, low accuracy in volume measurements and absorbed dose S-values for stylized models instead of the actual animal geometry. Normal dose uncertainties in the order of 20% might easily make the difference between seeing a dose-effect or missing it altogether. This is true for the theoretical case of a homogeneous tumour type behaving in vivo in the same way as its cells do in vitro. Heterogeneity of tumours induces variations in clonogenic cell density, radiation sensitivity, repopulation capacity and repair kinetics. The influence of these aspects are analysed within the linear quadratic model for tumour response to radionuclide therapy. Preclinical tumour models tend to be less heterogenic than the clinical conditions they should represent. The results of various preclinical radionuclide therapy experiments for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy are compared to the outcome of theoretical models and the influence of increased heterogeneity is analysed when the results of preclinical research is transferred to the clinic. When the radiation dose and radiobiology of the tumour response is known well enough it may be possible to leave the current phenomenological approach in preclinical radionuclide therapy and start basing these experiments on radiation dose. Then the use of a gamma ray

  9. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konijnenberg, Mark W.; Jong, Marion de [Nuclear Medicine Department, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Preclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of sublethal damage, and repopulation during or after the therapy. Models for radiation response of preclinical tumour models after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy based on the linear quadratic model are presented. The accuracy of the radiation dose is very important for observation of dose-effects. Uncertainties in the radiation dose estimation arise from incomplete assay of the kinetics, low accuracy in volume measurements and absorbed dose S-values for stylized models instead of the actual animal geometry. Normal dose uncertainties in the order of 20% might easily make the difference between seeing a dose-effect or missing it altogether. This is true for the theoretical case of a homogeneous tumour type behaving in vivo in the same way as its cells do in vitro. Heterogeneity of tumours induces variations in clonogenic cell density, radiation sensitivity, repopulation capacity and repair kinetics. The influence of these aspects are analysed within the linear quadratic model for tumour response to radionuclide therapy. Preclinical tumour models tend to be less heterogenic than the clinical conditions they should represent. The results of various preclinical radionuclide therapy experiments for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy are compared to the outcome of theoretical models and the influence of increased heterogeneity is analysed when the results of preclinical research is transferred to the clinic. When the radiation dose and radiobiology of the tumour response is known well enough it may be possible to leave the current phenomenological approach in preclinical radionuclide therapy and start basing these experiments on radiation dose. Then the use of a gamma ray

  10. The Use of Animal Models in Behavioural Neuroscience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkerk, B.; Kaldewaij, F.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are used in experiments in the behavioural neurosciences that aim to contribute to the prevention and treatment of cognitive and affective disorders in human beings, such as anxiety and depression. Ironically, those animals that are likely to be the best models for psychopathology are

  11. The Use of Animal Models in Behavioural Neuroscience Research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkerk, Bernice; Kaldewaij, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are used in experiments in the behavioural neurosciences that aim to contribute to the prevention and treatment of cognitive and affective disorders in human beings, such as anxiety and depression. Ironically, those animals that are likely to be the best models for psychopathology are

  12. Advancing research on animal-transported subsidies by integrating animal movement and ecosystem modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Julia E; Zollner, Patrick A

    2017-09-01

    Connections between ecosystems via animals (active subsidies) support ecosystem services and contribute to numerous ecological effects. Thus, the ability to predict the spatial distribution of active subsidies would be useful for ecology and conservation. Previous work modelling active subsidies focused on implicit space or static distributions, which treat passive and active subsidies similarly. Active subsidies are fundamentally different from passive subsidies, because animals can respond to the process of subsidy deposition and ecosystem changes caused by subsidy deposition. We propose addressing this disparity by integrating animal movement and ecosystem ecology to advance active subsidy investigations, make more accurate predictions of subsidy spatial distributions, and enable a mechanistic understanding of subsidy spatial distributions. We review selected quantitative techniques that could be used to accomplish integration and lead to novel insights. The ultimate objective for these types of studies is predictions of subsidy spatial distributions from characteristics of the subsidy and the movement strategy employed by animals that transport subsidies. These advances will be critical in informing the management of ecosystem services, species conservation and ecosystem degradation related to active subsidies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  13. Optogenetically inspired deep brain stimulation: linking basic with clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, Christian; Pollak, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, optogenetics has revolutionised the neurosciences. The technique, which allows for cell-type specific excitation and inhibition of neurons in the brain of freely moving rodents, has been used to tighten the links of causality between neural activity and behaviour. Optogenetics is also enabling an unprecedented characterisation of circuits and their dysfunction in a number of brain diseases, above all those conditions that are not caused by neurodegeneration. Notable progress has been made in addiction, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, as well as other anxiety disorders. By extension, the technique has also been used to propose blueprints for innovative rational treatment of these diseases. The goal is to design manipulations that disrupt pathological circuit function or restore normal activity. This can be achieved by targeting specific projections in order to apply specific stimulation protocols validated by ex-vivo analysis of the mechanisms underlying the dysfunction. In a number of cases, specific forms of pathological synaptic plasticity have been implicated. For example, addictive drugs via strong increase of dopamine trigger a myriad of alterations of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid transmission, also called drug-evoked synaptic plasticity. This opens the way to the design of optogenetic reversal protocols, which might restore normal transmission with the hope to abolish the pathological behaviour. Several proof of principle studies for this approach have recently been published. However, for many reasons, optogenetics will not be translatable to human applications in the near future. Here, we argue that an intermediate step is novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) protocols that emulate successful optogenetic approaches in animal models. We provide a roadmap for a translational path to rational, optogenetically inspired DBS protocols to refine existing approaches and expand to novel indications.

  14. Life sciences research in space: The requirement for animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Philips, R. W.; Ballard, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of animals in NASA space programs is reviewed. Animals are needed because life science experimentation frequently requires long-term controlled exposure to environments, statistical validation, invasive instrumentation or biological tissue sampling, tissue destruction, exposure to dangerous or unknown agents, or sacrifice of the subject. The availability and use of human subjects inflight is complicated by the multiple needs and demands upon crew time. Because only living organisms can sense, integrate and respond to the environment around them, the sole use of tissue culture and computer models is insufficient for understanding the influence of the space environment on intact organisms. Equipment for spaceborne experiments with animals is described.

  15. Biomedical Research and the Animal Rights Movement: A Contrast in Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    1993-01-01

    This article explains how animals are used in research in an effort to counteract animal rights literature. Reveals how medical professionals and others trained in scholarship have misquoted the scientific literature to bolster their claims against the utility of animal research. (PR)

  16. Research on Animal-Assisted Intervention and Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2012-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.

    2017-01-01

    Including animals in autism intervention is growing in both research and practice. A systematic literature review was conducted to collate and synthesize all empirical research on animal-assisted intervention (AAI) for autism published from 2012 to 2015. Findings from 28 included studies revealed that AAI programs generally include one animal per…

  17. Animal Welfare Groups Press for Limits on High School Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioScience, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Discussions from the conference on "The Use of Animals in High School Biology Classes" are highlighted in this article. The list of science fair rules, which resulted from the conference, is included. (SA)

  18. Research of Simulation in Character Animation Based on Physics Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer 3D character animation essentially is a product, which is combined with computer graphics and robotics, physics, mathematics, and the arts. It is based on computer hardware and graphics algorithms and related sciences rapidly developed new technologies. At present, the mainstream character animation technology is based on the artificial production of key technologies and capture frames based on the motion capture device technology. 3D character animation is widely used not only in the production of film, animation, and other commercial areas but also in virtual reality, computer-aided education, flight simulation, engineering simulation, military simulation, and other fields. In this paper, we try to study physics based character animation to solve these problems such as poor real-time interaction that appears in the character, low utilization rate, and complex production. The paper deeply studied the kinematics, dynamics technology, and production technology based on the motion data. At the same time, it analyzed ODE, PhysX, Bullet, and other variety of mainstream physics engines and studied OBB hierarchy bounding box tree, AABB hierarchical tree, and other collision detection algorithms. Finally, character animation based on ODE is implemented, which is simulation of the motion and collision process of a tricycle.

  19. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Erich

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI, and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musculoskeletal research. Methods The group narrowed the field to fracture research. The consensus opinion resulting from this workshop can be summarized as follows: Results & Conclusion Anaesthesia and pain management protocols for research animals should follow standard protocols applied in clinical work for the species involved. This will improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. A database should be established to facilitate selection of anaesthesia and pain management protocols for specific experimental surgical procedures and adopted as an International Standard (IS according to animal species selected. A list of 10 golden rules and requirements for conduction of animal experiments in musculoskeletal research was drawn up comprising 1 Intelligent study designs to receive appropriate answers; 2 Minimal complication rates (5 to max. 10%; 3 Defined end-points for both welfare and scientific outputs analogous to quality assessment (QA audit of protocols in GLP studies; 4 Sufficient details for materials and methods applied; 5 Potentially confounding variables (genetic background, seasonal, hormonal, size, histological, and biomechanical differences; 6 Post-operative management with emphasis on analgesia and follow-up examinations; 7 Study protocols to satisfy criteria established for a "justified animal study"; 8 Surgical expertise to conduct surgery on animals; 9 Pilot studies as a critical part of model validation and powering of the definitive study design

  20. Development of computational small animal models and their applications in preclinical imaging and therapy research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    The development of multimodality preclinical imaging techniques and the rapid growth of realistic computer simulation tools have promoted the construction and application of computational laboratory animal models in preclinical research. Since the early 1990s, over 120 realistic computational animal

  1. Justifiability and Animal Research in Health: Can Democratisation Help Resolve Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Scientists justify animal use in medical research because the benefits to human health outweigh the costs or harms to animals. However, whether it is justifiable is controversial for many people. Even public interests are divided because an increasing proportion of people do not support animal research, while demand for healthcare that is based on animal research is also rising. The wider public should be given more influence in these difficult decisions. This could be through requiring explicit disclosure about the role of animals in drug labelling to inform the public out of respect for people with strong objections. It could also be done through periodic public consultations that use public opinion and expert advice to decide which diseases justify the use of animals in medical research. More public input will help ensure that animal research projects meet public expectations and may help to promote changes to facilitate medical advances that need fewer animals. Abstract Current animal research ethics frameworks emphasise consequentialist ethics through cost-benefit or harm-benefit analysis. However, these ethical frameworks along with institutional animal ethics approval processes cannot satisfactorily decide when a given potential benefit is outweighed by costs to animals. The consequentialist calculus should, theoretically, provide for situations where research into a disease or disorder is no longer ethical, but this is difficult to determine objectively. Public support for animal research is also falling as demand for healthcare is rising. Democratisation of animal research could help resolve these tensions through facilitating ethical health consumerism or giving the public greater input into deciding the diseases and disorders where animal research is justified. Labelling drugs to disclose animal use and providing a plain-language summary of the role of animals may help promote public understanding and would respect the ethical beliefs of

  2. Validity of Quinpirole Sensitization Rat Model of OCD: Linking Evidence from Animal and Clinical Studie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš; Radostová, Dominika; Hatalová, Hana; Valeš, Karel; Nekovářová, Tereza; Kopřivová, J.; Svoboda, Jan; Horáček, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, Oct 26 (2016), č. článku 209. ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-34524A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : OCD * quinpirole * animal model * brain circuits * rat * human Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2016

  3. How do animals communicate in complex hydrodynamic environments? Linking hydraulics and ecology in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Rice, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Animals make decisions about the suitability of habitat and their reaction to other organisms based on the sensory information that they first obtain from the environment and other organisms within that environment. Sensory information, such as sounds, scents, vibrations and visual cues, is transported, transmitted, masked and filtered by fluvial processes, such as turbulent flow. Despite the fundamental importance of this information in dictating how animals interact with the environment, only limited attention has been paid to the environmental controls on the propagation of sensory signals and cues through fluvial systems. Aquatic animals use and respond to hydraulic characteristics when navigating their environment and selecting habitat. There is evidence that some animals can also sense the presence of other organisms from the hydraulic characteristics of their wake. This implies that at least some aquatic animals can differentiate between the turbulent flow generated by the presence of living organisms and ambient turbulence generated by the environment. We investigate whether there are specific flow characteristics, distinct from the ambient environment, that potentially flag the presence of organisms to other animals. Acoustic Doppler and Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in a series of laboratory flume experiments quantified the flow around living Signal Crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) and two inanimate objects of equivalent shape and size. Experiments were repeated across a gradient of turbulence intensities generated over nine combinations of flow velocity and relative submergence. Flows downstream of living crayfish were distinct from inanimate objects, with greater turbulent intensities, higher energy in low- to intermediate frequencies, and flow structures that were less coherent in comparison to those measured downstream of inanimate objects. However, the hydrodynamic signature of crayfish became masked as the intensity of ambient

  4. Animal models in biological and biomedical research - experimental and ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Monica L; Winter, Lucile M F

    2017-09-04

    Animal models have been used in experimental research to increase human knowledge and contribute to finding solutions to biological and biomedical questions. However, increased concern for the welfare of the animals used, and a growing awareness of the concept of animal rights, has brought a greater focus on the related ethical issues. In this review, we intend to give examples on how animals are used in the health research related to some major health problems in Brazil, as well as to stimulate discussion about the application of ethics in the use of animals in research and education, highlighting the role of National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (Conselho Nacional de Controle de Experimentação Animal - CONCEA) in these areas. In 2008, Brazil emerged into a new era of animal research regulation, with the promulgation of Law 11794, previously known as the Arouca Law, resulting in an increased focus, and rapid learning experience, on questions related to all aspects of animal experimentation. The law reinforces the idea that animal experiments must be based on ethical considerations and integrity-based assumptions, and provides a regulatory framework to achieve this. This review describes the health research involving animals and the current Brazilian framework for regulating laboratory animal science, and hopes to help to improve the awareness of the scientific community of these ethical and legal rules.

  5. The anxious mouse: implications for preclinical research and animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is an essential emotion that is highly conserved during evolution and is present in animals and humans. Although anxiety is a biological adaptive response, anxiety disorders in humans are common and affect about 10-17% of the world population. To gain more insight in the underlying

  6. Research Article: Animal Welfare The Impact of Customized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was designed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of animal welfare and related legislations among graduating Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine students from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. A questionnaire was designed and administered to assess understanding, poor attributes, good provisions, ...

  7. "Animals like us": Revisiting organizational ethnography and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wels, H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Now that the human-animal distinction is increasingly critiqued from various disciplinary perspectives, to the point where some suggest even letting go of the distinction completely, the purpose of this paper is to argue that organizational ethnography should start to explore in more

  8. Signaling in a polluted world: oxidative stress as an overlooked mechanism linking contaminants to animal communication

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Marasco; David Costantini; David Costantini

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to communicate effectively with other individuals plays a critical role in the daily life of an individual and can have important fitness consequences. Animals rely on a number of visual and non-visual signals, whose production brings costs to the individual. The theory of honest signaling states that these costs are higher for low than for high-quality individuals, which prevents cheating and makes signals, such as skin and plumage colouration, indicators of individual’s quality...

  9. Signaling in a Polluted World: Oxidative Stress as an Overlooked Mechanism Linking Contaminants to Animal Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Marasco, Valeria; Costantini, David

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to communicate effectively with other individuals plays a critical role in the daily life of an individual and can have important fitness consequences. Animals rely on a number of visual and non-visual signals, whose production brings costs to the individual. The theory of honest signaling states that these costs are higher for low than for high-quality individuals, which prevents cheating and makes signals, such as skin and plumage coloration, indicators of individual's quality ...

  10. Animal-specific C-terminal domain links myeloblastosis oncoprotein (Myb) to an ancient repressor complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrejka, Laura; Wen, Hong; Ashton, Jonathan; Grant, Megan; Iori, Kevin; Wang, Amy; Manak, J. Robert; Lipsick, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Myb oncoprotein and E2F-Rb tumor suppressor protein families are present within the same highly conserved multiprotein transcriptional repressor complex, named either as Myb and synthetic multivuval class B (Myb-MuvB) or as Drosophila Rb E2F and Myb-interacting proteins (dREAM). We now report that the animal-specific C terminus of Drosophila Myb but not the more highly conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain is necessary and sufficient for (i) adult viability, (ii) proper localization to chromosomes in vivo, (iii) regulation of gene expression in vivo, and (iv) interaction with the highly conserved core of the MuvB/dREAM transcriptional repressor complex. In addition, we have identified a conserved peptide motif that is required for this interaction. Our results imply that an ancient function of Myb in regulating G2/M genes in both plants and animals appears to have been transferred from the DNA-binding domain to the animal-specific C-terminal domain. Increased expression of B-MYB/MYBL2, the human ortholog of Drosophila Myb, correlates with poor prognosis in human patients with breast cancer. Therefore, our results imply that the specific interaction of the C terminus of Myb with the MuvB/dREAM core complex may provide an attractive target for the development of cancer therapeutics. PMID:21969598

  11. Annual tendency of research papers used ICR mice as experimental animals in biomedical research fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Nam, Jung Hoon; Cho, Joon Young; Kim, Kil Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-06-01

    Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice have been widely used in various research fields including toxicology, oncology, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical product safety testing for decades. However, annual tendency of research papers involving ICR mice in various biomedical fields has not been previously analyzed. In this study, we examined the numbers of papers that used ICR mice as experimental animals in the social science, natural science, engineering, medicine-pharmacy, marine agriculture-fishery, and art-kinesiology fields by analyzing big data. Numbers of ICR mouse-used papers gradually increased from 1961 to 2014, but small decreases were observed in 2015 and 2016. The largest number of ICR-used papers were published in the medicine-pharmacy field, followed by natural science and art-kinesiology fields. There were no ICR mouse-used papers in other fields. Furthermore, ICR mice have been widely employed in cell biology studies within the natural science field as well as in biochemistry and pathology in the medicine-pharmacy field. Few ICR mouse-used papers were published in exercise biochemistry and exercise nutrition in the art-kinesiology field. Regardless in most fields, the total numbers of published papers involving ICR mice were higher in 2014 than in other years, although the numbers in some fields including dentistry, veterinary science, and dermatology were high in 2016. Taken together, the present study shows that various ICR stocks, including Korl:ICR mice, are widely employed as experimental animals in various biomedical research fields.

  12. Reproductive research on farm animals for Australia--some long-distance goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G B

    1995-01-01

    In Australia, much of the research on the reproduction of farm animals has emphasised the technological manipulation of the reproductive tract, gametes and embryos. However, most of the animal production in Australia is still based on sheep and beef cattle enterprises that are managed on an extensive scale; the managers need technologies that can be easily and cheaply implemented on a large scale, and that are aimed at extensive control rather than intensive manipulation. For example, for synchronizing oestrus in the wool flocks the "ram effect' has, and probably always will have, far more impact on extensive grazing systems than technologies based on exogenous prostaglandins or progestagens. This can also apply to the newer animal industries (such as emu farming), to human problems (such as population control), and to environmental problems (such as control of feral animals). Moreover, under the pressure of public opinion, the industries that are currently intensive are going 'free range'. In addition, surgical managerial tools (such as castration) will probably have to be abandoned or replaced. To cope with such profound influences, new types of reproductive management systems will be needed. This paper is an attempt to broaden our research horizons by developing the concept of 'control systems technologies', aimed at controlling reproductive performance rather than simply improving it. Ideas for such technologies already exist and are evident in the responses to environmental factors that our farm animals developed under the pressure of natural selection (before domestication). Stress, nutrition, photoperiod, lactation, and socio-sexual cues (e.g. pheromones) can all exert profound effects on reproductive activity. We already have a good grasp of the final common pathway through which the brain responses to these factors affect gonadal activity, namely the hypothalamic system that generates pulses of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. All we need to do is learn

  13. Identifying knowledge gaps for gene drive research to control invasive animal species: The next CRISPR step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Moro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive animals have been linked to the extinctions of native wildlife, and to significant agricultural financial losses or impacts. Current approaches to control invasive species require ongoing resources and management over large geographic scales, and often result in the short-term suppression of populations. New and innovative approaches are warranted. Recently, the RNA guided gene drive system based on CRISPR/Cas9 is being proposed as a potential gene editing tool that could be used by wildlife managers as a non-lethal addition or alternative to help reduce pest animal populations. While regulatory control and social acceptance are crucial issues that must be addressed, there is an opportunity now to identify the knowledge and research gaps that exist for some important invasive species. Here we systematically determine the knowledge gaps for pest species for which gene drives could potentially be applied. We apply a conceptual ecological risk framework within the gene drive context within an Australian environment to identify key requirements for undertaking work on seven exemplar invasive species in Australia. This framework allows an evaluation of the potential research on an invasive species of interest and within a gene drive and risk context. We consider the currently available biological, genetic and ecological information for the house mouse, European red fox, feral cat, European rabbit, cane toad, black rat and European starling to evaluate knowledge gaps and identify candidate species for future research. We discuss these findings in the context of future thematic areas of research worth pursuing in preparation for a more formal assessment of the use of gene drives as a novel strategy for the control of these and other invasive species. Keywords: Invasive species, Gene drive, CRISPR, Pest management, Islands

  14. Open- and closed-formula laboratory animal diets and their importance to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Dennis E; Lewis, Sherry M; Teter, Beverly B; Thigpen, Julius E

    2009-11-01

    Almost 40 y ago the scientific community was taking actions to control environmental factors that contribute to variation in the responses of laboratory animals to scientific manipulation. Laboratory animal diet was recognized as an important variable. During the 1970s, the American Institute of Nutrition, National Academy of Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, and Laboratory Animals Centre Diets Advisory Committee supported the use of 'standard reference diets' in biomedical research as a means to improve the ability to replicate research. As a result the AIN76 purified diet was formulated. During this same time, the laboratory animal nutritionist at the NIH was formulating open-formula, natural-ingredient diets to meet the need for standardized laboratory animal diets. Since the development of open-formula diets, fixed-formula and constant-nutrient-concentration closed-formula laboratory animal natural ingredient diets have been introduced to help reduce the potential variation diet can cause in research.

  15. Ecosystem microbiology of coral reefs: linking genomic, metabolomic, and biogeochemical dynamics from animal symbioses to reefscape processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegley Kelly, L.; Haas, A.F.; Nelson, C.E.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, molecular techniques have established the critical role of both free-living and host-associated microbial partnerships in the environment. Advancing research to link microbial community dynamics simultaneously to host physiology and ecosystem biogeochemistry is required to

  16. Linking stress and immunity: Immunoglobulin A as a non-invasive physiological biomarker in animal welfare studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Molly; Conners, Melinda G; Hall, Katie; Miller, Lance J

    2018-04-26

    As the animal welfare community strives to empirically assess how care and management practices can help maintain or even enhance welfare, the development of tools for non-invasively measuring physiological biomarkers is essential. Of the suite of physiological biomarkers, Immunoglobulin A (IgA), particularly the secretory form (Secretory IgA or SIgA), is at the forefront because of its crucial role in mucosal immunity and links to physical health, stress, and overall psychological well-being. While interpretation of SIgA values on short time scales is complex, long-term SIgA patterns are consistent: conditions that create chronic stress lead to suppression of SIgA. In contrast, when welfare is enhanced, SIgA concentrations are predicted to stabilize at higher concentrations. In this review, we examine how SIgA concentrations are reflective of both physiological stress and immune function. We then review the literature associating SIgA concentrations with various metrics of animal welfare and provide detailed methodological considerations for SIgA monitoring. Overall, our aim is to provide an in-depth discussion regarding the value of SIgA as physiological biomarker to studies aiming to understand the links between stress and immunity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Modern machine learning techniques and their applications in cartoon animation research

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The integration of machine learning techniques and cartoon animation research is fast becoming a hot topic. This book helps readers learn the latest machine learning techniques, including patch alignment framework; spectral clustering, graph cuts, and convex relaxation; ensemble manifold learning; multiple kernel learning; multiview subspace learning; and multiview distance metric learning. It then presents the applications of these modern machine learning techniques in cartoon animation research. With these techniques, users can efficiently utilize the cartoon materials to generate animations

  18. The Three Rs of Animal Research: What they Mean for the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J; Perry, Gad; Wallace, Mark C; Perry, Dan

    2016-04-01

    The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is entrusted with assessing the ethics of proposed projects prior to approval of animal research. The role of the IACUC is detailed in legislation and binding rules, which are in turn inspired by the Three Rs: the principles of Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement. However, these principles are poorly defined. Although this provides the IACUC leeway in assessing a proposed project, it also affords little guidance. Our goal is to provide procedural and philosophical clarity to the IACUC without mandating a particular outcome. To do this, we analyze the underlying logic of the Three Rs and conclude that the Three Rs accord animals moral standing, though not necessarily "rights" in the philosophical sense. We suggest that the Rs are hierarchical, such that Replacement, which can totally eliminate harm, should be considered prior to Reduction, which decreases the number of animals harmed, with Refinement being considered last. We also identify the need for a hitherto implicit fourth R: Reject, which allows the IACUC to refuse permission for a project which does not promise sufficient benefit to offset the pain and distress likely to be caused by the proposed research.

  19. Research perspectives for pre-screening alternatives to animal experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walum, Erik; Hedander, Jan; Garberg, Per

    2005-01-01

    The MEIC study revealed a high predictivity of in vitro cytotoxicity data for human acute systemic toxicity. The idea, put forward by several authors, that compounds that show high cytotoxicity should not need further testing for confirmation but could be assumed toxic also in vivo provides a convenient concept for the selection of the most relevant compounds for further studies in large sets of chemicals, as in the REACH program. The automated techniques applied in high throughput screening (HTS) by the pharmaceutical and biotech industries to select hits in extensive compound collections represent an opportunity to significantly increase the capacity of cytotoxicity testing. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a combination of cytotoxicity data and some basic biokinetic information would greatly improve the accuracy in the extrapolation from in vitro to in vivo and thus make it possible to identify additional toxic compounds that might have escaped in the initial screen. Such information, which can be obtained in a medium throughput screening mode (MTS), includes biotransformation, absorption and some aspects of distribution. The measurement of the net flux of a compound over a cellular barrier, as the one formed in culture by human Caco-2 cells, gives useful, but limited, information on both gut absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration. The test procedures discussed here, as well as other supplementary in vitro tests, cannot always easily be described in terms of animal-based test replacements. In those instances, the necessary test validation cannot be carried out using animal reference data, and prediction models may have to be adapted to new ideas. Consequently, concepts of prospective validation to supplement the now well-established retrospective validation have to be developed

  20. Validity of Quinpirole Sensitization Rat Model of OCD: Linking Evidence from Animal and Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlik, Ales; Radostová, Dominika; Hatalova, Hana; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Koprivova, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Horacek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with 1-3% prevalence. OCD is characterized by recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions). The pathophysiology of OCD remains unclear, stressing the importance of pre-clinical studies. The aim of this article is to critically review a proposed animal model of OCD that is characterized by the induction of compulsive checking and behavioral sensitization to the D2/D3 dopamine agonist quinpirole. Changes in this model have been reported at the level of brain structures, neurotransmitter systems and other neurophysiological aspects. In this review, we consider these alterations in relation to the clinical manifestations in OCD, with the aim to discuss and evaluate axes of validity of this model. Our analysis shows that some axes of validity of quinpirole sensitization model (QSM) are strongly supported by clinical findings, such as behavioral phenomenology or roles of brain structures. Evidence on predictive validity is contradictory and ambiguous. It is concluded that this model is useful in the context of searching for the underlying pathophysiological basis of the disorder because of the relatively strong biological similarities with OCD.

  1. Forensic DNA identification of animal-derived trace evidence: tools for linking victims and suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Joy L; Basten, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate the population substructure of purebred dogs and cats in order to estimate the true significance of a microsatellite-based DNA match for use as evidence in legal proceedings. The high frequency of animal hair as a forensic evidence submission necessitates the development of mitochondrial analysis tools as well. Random samples from a large convenience collection of veterinary diagnostic submissions from the western USA were used, as well as contributed samples of unrelated purebred cats and dogs. Dogs (n=558) were profiled with 17 microsatellites and the data evaluated for Hardy Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. The mitochondrial control region (D loop) of dogs (n=348) and cats (n=167) was sequenced to determine the haplotype distribution. Domestic dogs in the western United States showed significant population substructure with marked associations within loci but no disequilibrium between loci. A population substructure coefficient Theta=0.11 is recommended for calculating genotype frequencies. Mitochondrial haplotypes in cats and dogs show less variation than human haplotypes. Although population substructure occurs in domestic dogs (and can be inferred in cats), the discriminatory power of microsatellite analysis is dramatic with even partial DNA types, strongly supporting the prosecution of perpetrators in five discussed cases. Mitochondrial analysis, while less powerful, adds a layer of evidence in four discussed cases.

  2. Linking Research to Practice: Strengthening ICT for Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Jan 1, 2012 ... The program supports interdisciplinary ICTD research through the ... experienced mentors with deserving early-career Asian researchers in an ... University, and assistant director of the Singapore Internet Research Centre.

  3. Linking Civil Engineering Education And Research With Industry (Session Keynote)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virdi, Kuldeep

    Linking engineering education with industry has been a basic aim of educators almost from the beginning of modern degree programmes. In the USA, reference is often made to ‘co-operative education’, where students spend periods in industry within the duration of their stay in a university. Indeed...

  4. Animal Models in Forensic Science Research: Justified Use or Ethical Exploitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Calvin Gerald; Heyns, Marise

    2018-05-01

    A moral dilemma exists in biomedical research relating to the use of animal or human tissue when conducting scientific research. In human ethics, researchers need to justify why the use of humans is necessary should suitable models exist. Conversely, in animal ethics, a researcher must justify why research cannot be carried out on suitable alternatives. In the case of medical procedures or therapeutics testing, the use of animal models is often justified. However, in forensic research, the justification may be less evident, particularly when research involves the infliction of trauma on living animals. To determine how the forensic science community is dealing with this dilemma, a review of literature within major forensic science journals was conducted. The frequency and trends of the use of animals in forensic science research was investigated for the period 1 January 2012-31 December 2016. The review revealed 204 original articles utilizing 5050 animals in various forms as analogues for human tissue. The most common specimens utilized were various species of rats (35.3%), pigs (29.3%), mice (17.7%), and rabbits (8.2%) although different specimens were favored in different study themes. The majority of studies (58%) were conducted on post-mortem specimens. It is, however, evident that more needs to be done to uphold the basic ethical principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in the use of animals for research purposes.

  5. Human and animal research guidelines: aligning ethical constructs with new scientific developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope

    2011-10-01

    Both human research and animal research operate within established standards and procedures. Although the human research environment has been criticized for its sometimes inefficient and imperfect process, reported abuses of human subjects in research served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report. No similar, comprehensive and principled effort has addressed the use of animals in research. Although published policies regarding animal research provide relevant regulatory guidance, these policies have not emerged from the process of specifying consistent and reasoned ethical principles. The lack of a fundamental effort to explore the ethical issues and principles regarding the use of animals in research has led to unclear and disparate policies. Recent studies have increased our understanding of animal cognition and emotion, suggesting that animals' potential for experiencing a wide variety of harms, such as pain and fear, is greater than has been previously appreciated. Furthermore, relationships between methods of captivity and certain laboratory procedures and the resulting adverse physical, social and psychological effects have been established. In light of this information, current protections may need to be reconsidered and modified. This paper explores the historical convergence and divergence in the creation of human and animal research guidelines, as well as opportunities to align ethical frameworks with new scientific discoveries. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Animals lacking link protein have attenuated perineuronal nets and persistent plasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carulli, D.; Pizzorusso, T.; Kwok, J. C. F.; Putignano, E.; Poli, A.; Forostyak, Serhiy; Andrews, M. R.; Deepa, S. S.; Glant, T.; Fawcett, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 8 (2010), s. 2331-2347 ISSN 0006-8950 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : plasticity * ocular dominance * extracellular matrix Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 9.230, year: 2010

  7. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  8. [Formal sample size calculation and its limited validity in animal studies of medical basic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, B; Muche, R

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies are highly relevant for basic medical research, although their usage is discussed controversially in public. Thus, an optimal sample size for these projects should be aimed at from a biometrical point of view. Statistical sample size calculation is usually the appropriate methodology in planning medical research projects. However, required information is often not valid or only available during the course of an animal experiment. This article critically discusses the validity of formal sample size calculation for animal studies. Within the discussion, some requirements are formulated to fundamentally regulate the process of sample size determination for animal experiments.

  9. Animals and the 3Rs in toxicology research and testing: The way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, W S

    2015-12-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate the use of animals in testing and the availability of many accepted alternative methods, animals are still widely used for toxicological research and testing. While research using in vitro and computational models has dramatically increased in recent years, such efforts have not yet measurably impacted animal use for regulatory testing and are not likely to do so for many years or even decades. Until regulatory authorities have accepted test methods that can totally replace animals and these are fully implemented, large numbers of animals will continue to be used and many will continue to experience significant pain and distress. In order to positively impact the welfare of these animals, accepted alternatives must be implemented, and efforts must be directed at eliminating pain and distress and reducing animal numbers. Animal pain and distress can be reduced by earlier predictive humane endpoints, pain-relieving medications, and supportive clinical care, while sequential testing and routine use of integrated testing and decision strategies can reduce animal numbers. Applying advances in science and technology to the development of scientifically sound alternative testing models and strategies can improve animal welfare and further reduce and replace animal use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Institutional training programs for research personnel conducted by laboratory-animal veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Melissa C; Rush, Howard G

    2012-01-01

    Research institutions are required by federal law and national standards to ensure that individuals involved in animal research are appropriately trained in techniques and procedures used on animals. Meeting these requirements necessitates the support of institutional authorities; policies for the documentation and enforcement of training; resources to support and provide training programs; and high-quality, effective educational material. Because of their expertise, laboratory-animal veterinarians play an essential role in the design, implementation, and provision of educational programs for faculty, staff, and students in biomedical research. At large research institutions, provision of a training program for animal care and use personnel can be challenging because of the animal-research enterprise's size and scope. At the University of Michigan (UM), approximately 3,500 individuals have direct contact with animals used in research. We describe a comprehensive educational program for animal care and use personnel designed and provided by laboratory-animal veterinarians at UM and discuss the challenges associated with its implementation.

  11. Research progress on the role of melatonin and its receptors in animal reproduction: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, H S; Chandio, I B; Brohi, R D; Worku, T; Rehman, Z; Bhattarai, D; Ullah, F; JiaJia, L; Yang, L

    2018-04-16

    Melatonin and its receptors play a crucial role in the regulation of the animal reproductive process, primarily in follicular development. However, the role that melatonin performs in regulating hormones related with reproduction remains unclear. Melatonin and its receptors are present both in female and male animals' organs, such as ovaries, heart, brain and liver. Melatonin regulates ovarian actions and is a key mediator of reproductive actions. Melatonin has numerous effects on animal reproduction, such as protection of gametes and embryos, response to clock genes, immune-neuroendocrine, reconciliation of seasonal variations in immune function, and silence or blockage of genes. The growth ratio of reproductive illnesses in animals has raised a remarkable concern for the government, animal caretakers and farm managers. In order to resolve this challenging issue, it is very necessary to conduct state-of-the-art research on melatonin and its receptors because melatonin has considerable physiognomies. This review article presents a current contemporary research conducted by numerous researchers from the entire world on the role of melatonin and its receptors in animal reproduction, from the year 1985 to the year 2017. Furthermore, this review shows scientific research challenges related to melatonin receptors and their explanations based on the findings of 172 numerous research articles, and also represents significant proficiencies of melatonin in order to show enthusiastic study direction for animal reproduction researchers. © 2018 The Authors. Reproduction in Domestic Animals Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden; Technische Univ. Dresden; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden

    2014-01-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  13. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology--a bidirectional translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Bütof, Rebecca; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Thute, Prasad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Krause, Mechthild [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Enghardt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Radiooncology

    2014-07-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  15. Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Konijnenberg (Mark); M. de Jong (Marion)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPreclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide. Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity, possibilities for repair of

  16. Animals Used in Research and Education, 1966-2016: Evolving Attitudes, Policies, and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairmore, Michael D; Ilkiw, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the use of animals in research and education has been a central element of the programs of member institutions. As veterinary education and research programs have evolved over the past 50 years, so too have societal views and regulatory policies. AAVMC member institutions have continually responded to these events by exchanging best practices in training their students in the framework of comparative medicine and the needs of society. Animals provide students and faculty with the tools to learn the fundamental knowledge and skills of veterinary medicine and scientific discovery. The study of animal models has contributed extensively to medicine, veterinary medicine, and basic sciences as these disciplines seek to understand life processes. Changing societal views over the past 50 years have provided active examination and continued refinement of the use of animals in veterinary medical education and research. The future use of animals to educate and train veterinarians will likely continue to evolve as technological advances are applied to experimental design and educational systems. Natural animal models of both human and animal health will undoubtedly continue to serve a significant role in the education of veterinarians and in the development of new treatments of animal and human disease. As it looks to the future, the AAVMC as an organization will need to continue to support and promote best practices in the humane care and appropriate use of animals in both education and research.

  17. Impact of appetitive and aversive outcomes on brain responses: Linking the animal and human literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B Bissonette

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is motivated by the possibility of obtaining reward and/or avoiding punishment. Though many have investigated behavior associated with appetitive or aversive outcomes, few have examined behaviors that rely on both. Fewer still have addressed questions related to how anticipated appetitive and aversive outcomes interact to alter neural signals related to expected value, motivation, and salience. Here we review recent rodent, monkey, and human research that address these issues. Further development of this area will be fundamental to understanding the etiology behind human psychiatric diseases and cultivating more effective treatments.

  18. Seven Years after the Manifesto: Literature Review and Research Directions for Technologies in Animal Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyena Hirskyj-Douglas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As technologies diversify and become embedded in everyday lives, the technologies we expose to animals, and the new technologies being developed for animals within the field of Animal Computer Interaction (ACI are increasing. As we approach seven years since the ACI manifesto, which grounded the field within Human Computer Interaction and Computer Science, this thematic literature review looks at the technologies developed for (non-human animals. Technologies that are analysed include tangible and physical, haptic and wearable, olfactory, screen technology and tracking systems. The conversation explores what exactly ACI is whilst questioning what it means to be animal by considering the impact and loop between machine and animal interactivity. The findings of this review are expected to form the first grounding foundation of ACI technologies informing future research in animal computing as well as suggesting future areas for exploration.

  19. Neuromuscular Alterations After Ankle Sprains: An Animal Model to Establish Causal Links After Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepley, Lindsey K; McKeon, Patrick O; Fitzpatrick, Shane G; Beckemeyer, Catherine L; Uhl, Timothy L; Butterfield, Timothy A

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms that contribute to the development of chronic ankle instability are not understood. Investigators have developed a hypothetical model in which neuromuscular alterations that stem from damaged ankle ligaments are thought to affect periarticular and proximal muscle activity. However, the retrospective nature of these studies does not allow a causal link to be established. To assess temporal alterations in the activity of 2 periarticular muscles of the rat ankle and 2 proximal muscles of the rat hind limb after an ankle sprain. Controlled laboratory study. Laboratory. Five healthy adult male Long Evans rats (age = 16 weeks, mass = 400.0 ± 13.5 g). Indwelling fine-wire electromyography (EMG) electrodes were implanted surgically into the biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, and tibialis anterior muscles of the rats. We recorded baseline EMG measurements while the rats walked on a motor-driven treadmill and then induced a closed lateral ankle sprain by overextending the lateral ankle ligaments. After ankle sprain, the rats were placed on the treadmill every 24 hours for 7 days, and we recorded postsprain EMG data. Onset time of muscle activity, phase duration, sample entropy, and minimal detectable change (MDC) were assessed and compared with baseline using 2-tailed dependent t tests. Compared with baseline, delayed onset time of muscle activity was exhibited in the biceps femoris (baseline = -16.7 ± 54.0 milliseconds [ms]) on day 0 (5.2 ± 64.1 ms; t 4 = -4.655, P = .043) and tibialis anterior (baseline = 307.0 ± 64.2 ms) muscles on day 3 (362.5 ± 55.9 ms; t 4 = -5.427, P = .03) and day 6 (357.3 ± 39.6 ms; t 4 = -3.802, P = .02). Longer phase durations were observed for the vastus lateralis (baseline = 321.9 ± 92.6 ms) on day 3 (401.3 ± 101.2 ms; t 3 = -4.001, P = .03), day 4 (404.1 ± 93.0 ms; t 3 = -3.320, P = .048), and day 5 (364.6 ± 105.2 ms; t 3 = -3.963, P = .03) and for the tibialis anterior (baseline = 103.9 ± 16.4 ms

  20. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  1. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS OF AVASCULAR NECROSIS OF FEMORAL HEAD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaifu; Tan, Hongbo; Xu, Yongqing

    2015-12-01

    To summarize the current researches and progress on experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Domestic and internation literature concerning experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head was reviewed and analyzed. The methods to prepare the experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head can be mainly concluded as traumatic methods (including surgical, physical, and chemical insult), and non-traumatic methods (including steroid, lipopolysaccharide, steroid combined with lipopolysaccharide, steroid combined with horse serum, etc). Each method has both merits and demerits, yet no ideal methods have been developed. There are many methods to prepare the experimental animal models of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, but proper model should be selected based on the aim of research. The establishment of ideal experimental animal models needs further research in future.

  2. The organization structure and regulatory elements of Chlamydomonas histone genes reveal features linking plant and animal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, S; Müller, K; Lindauer, A; Park, P B; Cornelius, T; Schmitt, R

    1995-09-01

    The genome of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains approximately 15 gene clusters of the nucleosomal (or core) histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 genes and at least one histone H1 gene. Seven non-allelic histone gene loci were isolated from a genomic library, physically mapped, and the nucleotide sequences of three isotypes of each core histone gene species and one linked H1 gene determined. The core histone genes are organized in clusters of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 pairs, in which each gene pair shows outwardly divergent transcription from a short (< 300 bp) intercistronic region. These intercistronic regions contain typically conserved promoter elements, namely a TATA-box and the three motifs TGGCCAG-G(G/C)-CGAG, CGTTGACC and CGGTTG. Different from the genes of higher plants, but like those of animals and the related alga Volvox, the 3' untranslated regions contain no poly A signal, but a palindromic sequence (3' palindrome) essential for mRNA processing is present. One single H1 gene was found in close linkage to a H2A-H2B pair. The H1 upstream region contains the octameric promoter element GGTTGACC (also found upstream of the core histone genes) and two specific sequence motifs that are shared only with the Volvox H1 promoters. This suggests differential transcription of the H1 and the core histone genes. The H1 gene is interrupted by two introns. Unlike Volvox H3 genes, the three sequenced H3 isoforms are intron-free. Primer-directed PCR of genomic DNA demonstrated, however, that at least 8 of the about 15 H3 genes do contain one intron at a conserved position. In synchronized C. reinhardtii cells, H4 mRNA levels (representative of all core histone mRNAs) peak during cell division, suggesting strict replication-dependent gene control. The derived peptide sequences place C. reinhardtii core histones closer to plants than to animals, except that the H2A histones are more animal-like. The peptide sequence of histone H1 is closely related to the V. carteri VH1-II

  3. Stakeholder views on the creation and use of genetically-engineered animals in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H

    2016-05-01

    This interview-based study examined the diversity of views relating to the creation and use of genetically-engineered (GE) animals in biomedical science. Twenty Canadian participants (eight researchers, five research technicians and seven members of the public) took part in the interviews, in which four main themes were discussed: a) how participants felt about the genetic engineering of animals as a practice; b) governance of the creation and use of GE animals in research, and whether current guidelines are sufficient; c) the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) and how they are applied during the creation and use of GE animals in research; and d) whether public opinion should play a greater role in the creation and use of GE animals. Most of the participants felt that the creation and use of GE animals for biomedical research purposes (as opposed to food purposes) is acceptable, provided that tangible human health benefits are gained. However, obstacles to Three Rs implementation were identified, and the participants agreed that more effort should be placed on engaging the public on the use of GE animals in research. 2016 FRAME.

  4. Changing Patterns of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans Linked to Biodiversity Loss and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2017-12-15

    The fundamental human threats to biodiversity including habitat destruction, globalization, and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions altering infectious disease transmission patterns, the accumulation of toxic pollutants, and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. To top it all, the profound role of climate change on many ecological processes has affected the inability of many species to adapt to these relatively rapid changes. This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers. Selected emerging zoonoses including RNA viruses, Rift Valley fever, trypanosomiasis, Hanta virus infection, and other vector-borne diseases are discussed in detail. Also, coprophagous beetles are proposed as important vectors in the transmission and maintenance of infectious pathogens. An overview of the impacts of climate change in emerging disease ecology within the context of Brazil as a case study is provided. Animal Care and Use Committee requirements were investigated, concluding that ecology journals have low rates of explicit statements regarding the welfare and wellbing of wildlife during experimental studies. Most of the solutions to protect biodiversity and predicting and preventing the next epidemic in humans originating from wildlife are oriented towards the developed world and are less useful for biodiverse, low-income economies. We need the development of regional policies to address these issues at the local level.

  5. The motivations and methodology for high-throughput PET imaging of small animals in cancer research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aide, N.; Visser, E.P.; Lheureux, S.; Heutte, N.; Szanda, I.; Hicks, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, small-animal PET imaging has become a vital platform technology in cancer research. With the development of molecularly targeted therapies and drug combinations requiring evaluation of different schedules, the number of animals to be imaged within a PET experiment has

  6. Mind the gap – towards complete and transparent reporting of animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tillmann, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Several initiatives have been taken to standardise the reporting of animal studies in peer-reviewed scientific journals, such as the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) and GSPC (Gold Standard Publication Checklist) guidelines. Surprisingly, many publications still lack key...

  7. A turtle cognition research demonstration enhances visitor engagement and keeper-animal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Andrew C; Leighty, Katherine A; Pittman Courte, Victoria L; Grand, Alison P; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2017-07-01

    Environmental enrichment techniques present animals with cognitive challenges while providing them opportunities to make choices and exert control over their environment. In this way, cognitive research and training is enriching to animals and can be used as a form of enrichment in zoos and aquariums. Cognitive research demonstrations also provide an opportunity to enhance visitor experience, as well as foster interactions between animals and keepers. We investigated how cognitive research sessions involving eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at Disney's Animal Kingdom ® impacted both the rate of visitors coming to the exhibit and the amount of time they spent engaged. Further, we used a questionnaire to assess the impact of keeper participation in these sessions on their relationships with and perceptions of the turtles. While visitation rate to the exhibit was not impacted, cognitive research sessions held visitor attention for longer than keeper interpretation or at times during which no keepers or researchers were present. We also found that keepers that had worked with the turtles for longer and keepers that regularly participated in cognitive research sessions reported stronger bonds with the turtles. Our research suggests that use of cognitive research and training demonstrations for guest viewing in zoos and aquariums may enhance visitor learning opportunities by increasing the amount of time they spend at the exhibit. Our study also provides evidence that participation in such demonstrations by zoo and aquarium professionals can be related to improved keeper-animal bonds, potentially resulting in better husbandry and enhanced animal welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Invited review: Experimental design, data reporting, and sharing in support of animal systems modeling research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J P; Hanigan, M D; White, R R

    2016-12-01

    The National Animal Nutrition Program "National Research Support Project 9" supports efforts in livestock nutrition, including the National Research Council's committees on the nutrient requirements of animals. Our objective was to review the status of experimentation and data reporting in animal nutrition literature and to provide suggestions for the advancement of animal nutrition research and the ongoing improvement of field-applied nutrient requirement models. Improved data reporting consistency and completeness represent a substantial opportunity to improve nutrition-related mathematical models. We reviewed a body of nutrition research; recorded common phrases used to describe diets, animals, housing, and environmental conditions; and proposed equivalent numerical data that could be reported. With the increasing availability of online supplementary material sections in journals, we developed a comprehensive checklist of data that should be included in publications. To continue to improve our research effectiveness, studies utilizing multiple research methodologies to address complex systems and measure multiple variables will be necessary. From the current body of animal nutrition literature, we identified a series of opportunities to integrate research focuses (nutrition, reproduction and genetics) to advance the development of nutrient requirement models. From our survey of current experimentation and data reporting in animal nutrition, we identified 4 key opportunities to advance animal nutrition knowledge: (1) coordinated experiments should be designed to employ multiple research methodologies; (2) systems-oriented research approaches should be encouraged and supported; (3) publication guidelines should be updated to encourage and support sharing of more complete data sets; and (4) new experiments should be more rapidly integrated into our knowledge bases, research programs and practical applications. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association

  9. Forging Links for Health Research: Perspectives from the Council on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As part of the lead up to the October 2000 International Conference on Health Research for Development in Bangkok, the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) called upon its associates around the world to reflect on achievements and setbacks in the 1990s. This book is the result of those reflections.

  10. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Gunn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and reporting. The use of learning design as a strategy to develop and test theories in practice is integral to our argument. We conclude by supporting other researchers who recommend educational design research as a theory focused methodology to move the field forward in productive and consistent ways. The challenge of changing common practice will be involved. However, the potential to raise the profile of learning technology research and improve educational outcomes justifies the effort required.

  11. Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de; Buma, P.; Leenaars, M.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.; Gordijn, B.

    2012-01-01

    The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about

  12. Small and large animal models in cardiac contraction research: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Janssen, Paul M L

    2014-03-01

    The mammalian heart is responsible for not only pumping blood throughout the body but also adjusting this pumping activity quickly depending upon sudden changes in the metabolic demands of the body. For the most part, the human heart is capable of performing its duties without complications; however, throughout many decades of use, at some point this system encounters problems. Research into the heart's activities during healthy states and during adverse impacts that occur in disease states is necessary in order to strategize novel treatment options to ultimately prolong and improve patients' lives. Animal models are an important aspect of cardiac research where a variety of cardiac processes and therapeutic targets can be studied. However, there are differences between the heart of a human being and an animal and depending on the specific animal, these differences can become more pronounced and in certain cases limiting. There is no ideal animal model available for cardiac research, the use of each animal model is accompanied with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we will discuss these advantages and disadvantages of commonly used laboratory animals including mouse, rat, rabbit, canine, swine, and sheep. Since the goal of cardiac research is to enhance our understanding of human health and disease and help improve clinical outcomes, we will also discuss the role of human cardiac tissue in cardiac research. This review will focus on the cardiac ventricular contractile and relaxation kinetics of humans and animal models in order to illustrate these differences. © 2013.

  13. Critical overview of all available animal models for abdominal wall hernia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, R R M; Kaufmann, R; van den Hil, L C L; van Steensel, S; Schreinemacher, M H F; Lange, J F; Bouvy, N D

    2017-10-01

    Since the introduction of the first prosthetic mesh for abdominal hernia repair, there has been a search for the "ideal mesh." The use of preclinical or animal models for assessment of necessary characteristics of new and existing meshes is an indispensable part of hernia research. Unfortunately, in our experience there is a lack of consensus among different research groups on which model to use. Therefore, we hypothesized that there is a lack of comparability within published animal research on hernia surgery due to wide range in experimental setup among different research groups. A systematic search of the literature was performed to provide a complete overview of all animal models published between 2000 and 2014. Relevant parameters on model characteristics and outcome measurement were scored on a standardized scoring sheet. Due to the wide range in different animals used, ranging from large animal models like pigs to rodents, we decided to limit the study to 168 articles concerning rat models. Within these rat models, we found wide range of baseline animal characteristics, operation techniques, and outcome measurements. Making reliable comparison of results among these studies is impossible. There is a lack of comparability among experimental hernia research, limiting the impact of this experimental research. We therefore propose the establishment of guidelines for experimental hernia research by the EHS.

  14. The highs and lows of theoretical interpretation in animal-metacognition research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Couchman, Justin J.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Humans feel uncertain. They know when they do not know. These feelings and the responses to them ground the research literature on metacognition. It is a natural question whether animals share this cognitive capacity, and thus animal metacognition has become an influential research area within comparative psychology. Researchers have explored this question by testing many species using perception and memory paradigms. There is an emerging consensus that animals share functional parallels with humans’ conscious metacognition. Of course, this research area poses difficult issues of scientific inference. How firmly should we hold the line in insisting that animals’ performances are low-level and associative? How high should we set the bar for concluding that animals share metacognitive capacities with humans? This area offers a constructive case study for considering theoretical problems that often confront comparative psychologists. The authors present this case study and address diverse issues of scientific judgement and interpretation within comparative psychology. PMID:22492748

  15. Linking plastic ingestion research with marine wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Borrelle, Stephanie B; Provencher, Jennifer F

    2018-05-16

    Plastic is an increasingly pervasive marine pollutant. Concomitantly, the number of studies documenting plastic ingestion in wildlife is accelerating. Many of these studies aim to provide a baseline against which future levels of plastic ingestion can be compared, and are motivated by an underlying interest in the conservation of their study species and ecosystems. Although this research has helped to raise the profile of plastic as a pollutant of emerging concern, there is a disconnect between research examining plastic pollution and wildlife conservation. We present ideas to further discussion about how plastic ingestion research could benefit wildlife conservation by prioritising studies that elucidates the significance of plastic pollution as a population-level threat, identifies vulnerable populations, and evaluates strategies for mitigating impacts. The benefit of plastic ingestion research to marine wildlife can be improved by establishing a clearer understanding of how discoveries will be integrated into conservation and policy actions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Enhanced Publications Linking Publications and Research Data in Digital Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    Vernooy-Gerritsen, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    The traditional publication will be overhauled by the 'Enhanced Publication'. This is a publication that is enhanced with research data, extra materials, post publication data, and database records. It has an object-based structure with explicit l

  17. The use of nonhuman animals in biomedical research: necessity and justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francione, Gary L

    2007-01-01

    Discourse about the use of animals in biomedical research usually focuses on two issues: its empirical and moral use. The empirical issue asks whether the use of nonhumans in experiments is required in order to get data. The moral issue asks whether the use of nonhumans can be defended as matter of ethical theory. Although the use of animals in research may involve a plausible necessity claim, no moral justification exists for using nonhumans in situations in which we would not use humans.

  18. How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-05-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work.

  19. An overview of animal science research 1945-2011 through science mapping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, A; Cobo, M J; Lopez-Pujalte, C; Herrera-Viedma, E

    2015-12-01

    The conceptual structure of the field of Animal Science (AS) research is examined by means of a longitudinal science mapping analysis. The whole of the AS research field is analysed, revealing its conceptual evolution. To this end, an automatic approach to detecting and visualizing hidden themes or topics and their evolution across a consecutive span of years was applied to AS publications of the JCR category 'Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science' during the period 1945-2011. This automatic approach was based on a coword analysis and combines performance analysis and science mapping. To observe the conceptual evolution of AS, six consecutive periods were defined: 1945-1969, 1970-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2005 and 2006-2011. Research in AS was identified as having focused on ten main thematic areas: ANIMAL-FEEDING, SMALL-RUMINANTS, ANIMAL-REPRODUCTION, DAIRY-PRODUCTION, MEAT-QUALITY, SWINE-PRODUCTION, GENETICS-AND-ANIMAL-BREEDING, POULTRY, ANIMAL-WELFARE and GROWTH-FACTORS-AND-FATTY-ACIDS. The results show how genomic studies gain in weight and integrate with other thematic areas. The whole of AS research has become oriented towards an overall framework in which animal welfare, sustainable management and human health play a major role. All this would affect the future structure and management of livestock farming. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Gunn; Caroline Steel

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and repor...

  1. Research explores links between social protection and poverty ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Their research is contributing to the debate on the role of social protection and ... It stresses the relevance of cash-transfer programs on inequality and poverty ... is the focus of a recent article in The Economist that builds on Gasparini's work.

  2. Linking Theory to Practice in Learning Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only…

  3. Linking research with the other missions of the University

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cdaffe

    leaving the problems of Africa's industrial, economic and social development ... The approach to doctoral studies is being called into question, especially as ... existing mechanisms of cooperation among universities to respond to these needs? ... research networks operating at sub-regional or continental levels, and set up ...

  4. Linking research with the other missions of the university | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Dec 15, 2010 ... He could have added a third conclusion: the results of research are not sufficiently used in programming teaching and the definition of course content dispensed to students. The objective of this concept note is not to discuss all the problems facing the African university. It will be limited to just one aspect of ...

  5. Guidelines for the welfare and use of animals in cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, P; Aboagye, E O; Balkwill, F; Balmain, A; Bruder, G; Chaplin, D J; Double, J A; Everitt, J; Farningham, D A H; Glennie, M J; Kelland, L R; Robinson, V; Stratford, I J; Tozer, G M; Watson, S; Wedge, S R; Eccles, S A

    2010-01-01

    Animal experiments remain essential to understand the fundamental mechanisms underpinning malignancy and to discover improved methods to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer. Excellent standards of animal care are fully consistent with the conduct of high quality cancer research. Here we provide updated guidelines on the welfare and use of animals in cancer research. All experiments should incorporate the 3Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. Focusing on animal welfare, we present recommendations on all aspects of cancer research, including: study design, statistics and pilot studies; choice of tumour models (e.g., genetically engineered, orthotopic and metastatic); therapy (including drugs and radiation); imaging (covering techniques, anaesthesia and restraint); humane endpoints (including tumour burden and site); and publication of best practice. PMID:20502460

  6. Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Groff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of animals are used in research and toxicity testing, including in drug, medical device, chemical, cosmetic, personal care, household, and other product sectors, but the environmental consequences are yet to be adequately addressed. Evidence suggests that their use and disposal, and the associated use of chemicals and supplies, contribute to pollution as well as adverse impacts on biodiversity and public health. The objective of this review is to examine such evidence. The review includes examinations of (1 resources used in animal research; (2 waste production in laboratories; (3 sources of pollution; (4 impacts on laboratory workers’ health; and (5 biodiversity impacts. The clear conclusion from the review is that the environmental implications of animal testing must be acknowledged, reported, and taken into account as another factor in addition to ethical and scientific reasons weighing heavily in favor of moving away from allowing and requiring animal use in research and testing.

  7. Reproducibility of preclinical animal research improves with heterogeneity of study samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Lucile; Sena, Emily S.; Würbel, Hanno

    2018-01-01

    Single-laboratory studies conducted under highly standardized conditions are the gold standard in preclinical animal research. Using simulations based on 440 preclinical studies across 13 different interventions in animal models of stroke, myocardial infarction, and breast cancer, we compared the accuracy of effect size estimates between single-laboratory and multi-laboratory study designs. Single-laboratory studies generally failed to predict effect size accurately, and larger sample sizes rendered effect size estimates even less accurate. By contrast, multi-laboratory designs including as few as 2 to 4 laboratories increased coverage probability by up to 42 percentage points without a need for larger sample sizes. These findings demonstrate that within-study standardization is a major cause of poor reproducibility. More representative study samples are required to improve the external validity and reproducibility of preclinical animal research and to prevent wasting animals and resources for inconclusive research. PMID:29470495

  8. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  9. Why the moratorium on human-animal chimera research should not be lifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Alan

    2017-08-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced its plans to lift its moratorium on funding research that involves injecting human embryonic stem cells into animal embryos, which would allow for the creation of part-human and part-animal organisms known as chimeras. The NIH allowed only one month to receive public comments in the midst of a presidential election campaign. Lifting the moratorium means that, for the first time, the federal government will begin spending taxpayer dollars on the creation and manipulation of new organisms that would blur the line between humans and animals. Interestingly, this government effort is creating an uncommon coalition between pro-life groups and animal rights activists that oppose this medical research on ethical grounds; the former seeking to ensure the welfare of human embryos and the latter seeking to protect the well-being of animals. Unlike the issue of abortion, this research is complex. Yet, it is important that the pro-life laity and clergy be adequately informed on some of the basic science and ethics that surround this research. To fully understand why this research is unethical and why the NIH is pursuing this particular research, it is important to understand the ethical tenets governing human-subject research and why secular scientists are pursuing this scientific field.

  10. Access and preservation of digital research content: Linked open data services - A research library perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Angelina; Sens, Irina; Löwe, Peter; Dreyer, Britta

    2016-04-01

    Globally resolvable, persistent digital identifiers have become an essential tool to enable unambiguous links between published research results and their underlying digital resources. In addition, this unambiguous identification allows citation. In an ideal research world, any scientific content should be citable and the coherent content, as well as the citation itself, should be persistent. However, today's scientists do not just produce traditional research papers - they produce comprehensive digital collections of objects which, alongside digital texts, include digital resources such as research data, audiovisual media, digital lab journals, images, statistics and software code. Researchers start to look for services which allow management of these digital resources with minimum time investment. In light of this, we show how the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) develops supportive frameworks to accompany the life cycle of scientific knowledge generation and transfer. This includes technical infrastructures for • indexing, cataloguing, digital preservation, DOI names and licencing for text and digital objects (the TIB DOI registration, active since 2004) and • a digital repository for the deposition and provision of accessible, traceable and citeable research data (RADAR). One particular problem for the management of data originating from (collaborating) research infrastructures is their dynamic nature in terms of growth, access rights and quality. On a global scale, systems for access and preservation are in place for the big data domains (e.g. environmental sciences, space, climate). However, the stewardship for disciplines without a tradition of data sharing, including the fields of the so-called long tail, remains uncertain. The RADAR - Research Data Repository - project establishes a generic end-point data repository, which can be used in a collaborative way. RADAR enables clients to upload, edit, structure and describe their

  11. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  12. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  13. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail F Davies

    Full Text Available Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs', work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving

  14. Small animal MRI: clinical MRI as an interface to basic biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkernelle, J.G.; Stelter, L.; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U.

    2008-01-01

    The demand for highly resolved small animal MRI for the purpose of biomedical research has increased constantly. Dedicated small animal MRI scanners working at ultra high field strengths from 4.7 to 7.0 T and even above are MRI at its best. However, using high resolution RF coils in clinical scanners up to 3.0 T, small animal MRI can achieve highly resolved images showing excellent tissue contrast. In fact, in abundant experimental studies, clinical MRI is used for small animal imaging. Mostly clinical RF coils in the single-loop design are applied. In addition, custom-built RF coils and even gradient inserts are used in a clinical scanner. For the reduction of moving artifacts, special MRI-compatible animal ECG und respiration devices are available. In conclusion, clinical devices offer broad availability, are less expense in combination with good imaging performance and provide a translational nature of imaging results. (orig.)

  15. Technology development activities for housing research animals on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Jeffrey W.; Garin, Vladimir M.; Nguyen, Frank D.

    1991-01-01

    The development and design of animal facilities are described in terms of the technological needs for NASA's Biological Flight Research Laboratory. Animal habitats are presented with illustrations which encompass waste-collection techniques for microgravity conditions that reduce the need for crew participation. The technology is intended to be highly compatible with animal morphology, and airflow is employed as the primary mechanism of waste control. The airflow can be utilized in the form of localized high-speed directed flow that simultaneously provides a clean animal habitat and low airflow rates. The design of an animal-habitat testbed is presented which capitalizes on contamination-control mechanisms and suitable materials for microgravity conditions. The developments in materials and technologies represent significant contributions for the design of the centrifuge facilities for the Space Station Freedom.

  16. Measurement and research of the exposure doses of the animal guardians and radiation workers in the animal hospital in Gwangju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji Seung; Yun, Seon Yeong; Yeo, Hwa Yeon; Dong, Kyung Rae

    2016-01-01

    In modern society, having companion animals as family members is getting popular. According to the data from National Statistical Office, the population of people with companion animals and pets is now over 10 million. The increase of companion animals led to an increase of animal hospitals. Accordingly, radiation generating devices for diagnosis are being used frequently. In addition, as animal hospitals are increasingly using radiation generating devices, in order to protect the related workers and promote animal cares, the government enacted the regulations relating to operations and installations of the devices at animal hospitals. Therefore, this study handles the radiation safety management related stuffs by measuring and assessing radiation dose to the animal guardians and radiation workers in the animal hospitals in Gwangju

  17. Measurement and research of the exposure doses of the animal guardians and radiation workers in the animal hospital in Gwangju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Seung; Yun, Seon Yeong; Yeo, Hwa Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Nambu University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In modern society, having companion animals as family members is getting popular. According to the data from National Statistical Office, the population of people with companion animals and pets is now over 10 million. The increase of companion animals led to an increase of animal hospitals. Accordingly, radiation generating devices for diagnosis are being used frequently. In addition, as animal hospitals are increasingly using radiation generating devices, in order to protect the related workers and promote animal cares, the government enacted the regulations relating to operations and installations of the devices at animal hospitals. Therefore, this study handles the radiation safety management related stuffs by measuring and assessing radiation dose to the animal guardians and radiation workers in the animal hospitals in Gwangju.

  18. Eating Animals to Build Rapport: Conducting Research as Vegans or Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie MacDonald

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Notions of hospitality, community, and the fostering of rapport and connection are foundational concerns for conducting research across difference. Drawing on methodological literature, this paper considers how access to various communities and “good” data is structured by the notion that in order to develop rapport researchers accept the “food”, specifically “meat” offered by their hosts. When researchers are vegetarians or vegans, this can entail a conflict in which questions of hospitality, relationships, and responsibility to ethical commitments come to the fore. As such, we analyze methodological literature in which the logic of nonhuman animal sacrifice is considered a means to the ends of research through the development of “rapport”—often coded as an ethical relationship of respect to the participant. We draw on experiences of veg*n researchers to explore how this assumption functions to position the consumption of meat as a necessary undertaking when conducting research, and in turn, denies nonhuman animal subjecthood. We interrogate the assumption that culture and communities are static inasmuch as this literature suggests ways to enter and exit spaces leaving minimal impact, and that posits participants will not trust researchers nor understand their decisions against eating nonhuman animals. We argue that because food consumption is figured as a private and individual choice, animals are not considered subjects in research. Thus, we articulate a means to consider vegan and/or vegetarians politics, not as a marker of difference, but as an attempt to engage in ethical relationships with nonhuman animals. In so doing, we call for the inclusion of nonhuman animals in relationships of hospitality, and thereby attempt to politicize the practice of food consumption while conducting research.

  19. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A person...

  20. Information center as a link between basic and applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, S.

    1976-01-01

    The National Neutron Cross Section Center (NNCSC) concerns itself with neutron physics information of a basic and applied nature. Computerized files of bibliography to the neutron physics literature, and of experimental and evaluated neutron data are maintained. The NNCSC coordinates a national effort, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) with participants from government, private, and academic institutions, to establish a computerized reference data base Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B) for national programs. The ENDF/B is useful to basic research because it contains recommended values based on the best available measurements and is often used as reference data for normalization and analysis of experiments. For applied use the reference data are extended through nuclear model calculations or nuclear systematics to include all data of interest with standardized processing codes facilitating the use of ENDF/B in certain types of computations. Initially the main application of ENDF/B was power reactor and shield design and only neutron data were evaluated but due to the fact that for many applications both neutron and nonneutron data are required, ENDF/B has been extended in scope to include radioactive decay data and radiation spectra for the burnup and after decay heat of fission products and photon interaction data for gamma ray transport calculations. Cooperation with other centers takes place both nationally and internationally

  1. The motivations and methodology for high-throughput PET imaging of small animals in cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aide, Nicolas [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen Cedex (France); Caen University, BioTICLA team, EA 4656, IFR 146, Caen (France); Visser, Eric P. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lheureux, Stephanie [Caen University, BioTICLA team, EA 4656, IFR 146, Caen (France); Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Clinical Research Unit, Caen (France); Heutte, Natacha [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Clinical Research Unit, Caen (France); Szanda, Istvan [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    Over the last decade, small-animal PET imaging has become a vital platform technology in cancer research. With the development of molecularly targeted therapies and drug combinations requiring evaluation of different schedules, the number of animals to be imaged within a PET experiment has increased. This paper describes experimental design requirements to reach statistical significance, based on the expected change in tracer uptake in treated animals as compared to the control group, the number of groups that will be imaged, and the expected intra-animal variability for a given tracer. We also review how high-throughput studies can be performed in dedicated small-animal PET, high-resolution clinical PET systems and planar positron imaging systems by imaging more than one animal simultaneously. Customized beds designed to image more than one animal in large-bore small-animal PET scanners are described. Physics issues related to the presence of several rodents within the field of view (i.e. deterioration of spatial resolution and sensitivity as the radial and the axial offsets increase, respectively, as well as a larger effect of attenuation and the number of scatter events), which can be assessed by using the NEMA NU 4 image quality phantom, are detailed. (orig.)

  2. Research and management of soil, plant, animal, and human resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1996-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station initiated a research program in 1994 called. "Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of soil, plant, animal, and human resources of the Rio Grande Basin". This program is funded by an Ecosystem Management grant from Forest Service Research. Its mission focuses on the development and application of new...

  3. Research of the complex of functional and technological properties of animal protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна Дроменко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of analytical and practical research of the complex of functional and technological properties of animal protein Gelexcel A-95 as the basis for creation of complex functional additives is shown. The regularities of their changes are determined depending on technological factors. Rational parameters of animal protein rehydration, gelation conditions, emulsification for further use in the process of production of meat products are identified

  4. Science priorities for seamounts: research links to conservation and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R Clark

    Full Text Available Seamounts shape the topography of all ocean basins and can be hotspots of biological activity in the deep sea. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts (CenSeam was a field program that examined seamounts as part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML initiative from 2005 to 2010. CenSeam progressed seamount science by collating historical data, collecting new data, undertaking regional and global analyses of seamount biodiversity, mapping species and habitat distributions, challenging established paradigms of seamount ecology, developing new hypotheses, and documenting the impacts of human activities on seamounts. However, because of the large number of seamounts globally, much about the structure, function and connectivity of seamount ecosystems remains unexplored and unknown. Continual, and potentially increasing, threats to seamount resources from fishing and seabed mining are creating a pressing demand for research to inform conservation and management strategies. To meet this need, intensive science effort in the following areas will be needed: 1 Improved physical and biological data; of particular importance is information on seamount location, physical characteristics (e.g. habitat heterogeneity and complexity, more complete and intensive biodiversity inventories, and increased understanding of seamount connectivity and faunal dispersal; 2 New human impact data; these shall encompass better studies on the effects of human activities on seamount ecosystems, as well as monitoring long-term changes in seamount assemblages following impacts (e.g. recovery; 3 Global data repositories; there is a pressing need for more comprehensive fisheries catch and effort data, especially on the high seas, and compilation or maintenance of geological and biodiversity databases that underpin regional and global analyses; 4 Application of support tools in a data-poor environment; conservation and management will have to increasingly rely on predictive

  5. Science priorities for seamounts: research links to conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm R; Schlacher, Thomas A; Rowden, Ashley A; Stocks, Karen I; Consalvey, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Seamounts shape the topography of all ocean basins and can be hotspots of biological activity in the deep sea. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts (CenSeam) was a field program that examined seamounts as part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML) initiative from 2005 to 2010. CenSeam progressed seamount science by collating historical data, collecting new data, undertaking regional and global analyses of seamount biodiversity, mapping species and habitat distributions, challenging established paradigms of seamount ecology, developing new hypotheses, and documenting the impacts of human activities on seamounts. However, because of the large number of seamounts globally, much about the structure, function and connectivity of seamount ecosystems remains unexplored and unknown. Continual, and potentially increasing, threats to seamount resources from fishing and seabed mining are creating a pressing demand for research to inform conservation and management strategies. To meet this need, intensive science effort in the following areas will be needed: 1) Improved physical and biological data; of particular importance is information on seamount location, physical characteristics (e.g. habitat heterogeneity and complexity), more complete and intensive biodiversity inventories, and increased understanding of seamount connectivity and faunal dispersal; 2) New human impact data; these shall encompass better studies on the effects of human activities on seamount ecosystems, as well as monitoring long-term changes in seamount assemblages following impacts (e.g. recovery); 3) Global data repositories; there is a pressing need for more comprehensive fisheries catch and effort data, especially on the high seas, and compilation or maintenance of geological and biodiversity databases that underpin regional and global analyses; 4) Application of support tools in a data-poor environment; conservation and management will have to increasingly rely on predictive modelling

  6. Linking behavior in the physics education research coauthorship network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Katharine A.; Crespi, Matthew; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2017-06-01

    There is considerable long-term interest in understanding the dynamics of collaboration networks, and how these networks form and evolve over time. Most of the work done on the dynamics of social networks focuses on well-established communities. Work examining emerging social networks is rarer, simply because data are difficult to obtain in real time. In this paper, we use thirty years of data from an emerging scientific community to look at that crucial early stage in the development of a social network. We show that when the field was very young, islands of individual researchers labored in relative isolation, and the coauthorship network was disconnected. Thirty years later, rather than a cluster of individuals, we find a true collaborative community, bound together by a robust collaboration network. However, this change did not take place gradually—the network remained a loose assortment of isolated individuals until the mid 2000s, when those smaller parts suddenly knit themselves together into a single whole. In the rest of this paper, we consider the role of three factors in these observed structural changes: growth, changes in social norms, and the introduction of institutions such as field-specific conferences and journals. We have data from the very earliest years of the field, a period which includes the introduction of two different institutions: the first field-specific conference, and the first field-specific journals. We also identify two relevant behavioral shifts: a discrete increase in coauthorship coincident with the first conference, and a shift among established authors away from collaborating with outsiders, towards collaborating with each other. The interaction of these factors gives us insight into the formation of collaboration networks more broadly.

  7. Linking behavior in the physics education research coauthorship network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine A. Anderson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable long-term interest in understanding the dynamics of collaboration networks, and how these networks form and evolve over time. Most of the work done on the dynamics of social networks focuses on well-established communities. Work examining emerging social networks is rarer, simply because data are difficult to obtain in real time. In this paper, we use thirty years of data from an emerging scientific community to look at that crucial early stage in the development of a social network. We show that when the field was very young, islands of individual researchers labored in relative isolation, and the coauthorship network was disconnected. Thirty years later, rather than a cluster of individuals, we find a true collaborative community, bound together by a robust collaboration network. However, this change did not take place gradually—the network remained a loose assortment of isolated individuals until the mid 2000s, when those smaller parts suddenly knit themselves together into a single whole. In the rest of this paper, we consider the role of three factors in these observed structural changes: growth, changes in social norms, and the introduction of institutions such as field-specific conferences and journals. We have data from the very earliest years of the field, a period which includes the introduction of two different institutions: the first field-specific conference, and the first field-specific journals. We also identify two relevant behavioral shifts: a discrete increase in coauthorship coincident with the first conference, and a shift among established authors away from collaborating with outsiders, towards collaborating with each other. The interaction of these factors gives us insight into the formation of collaboration networks more broadly.

  8. Science Priorities for Seamounts: Research Links to Conservation and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm R.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Stocks, Karen I.; Consalvey, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Seamounts shape the topography of all ocean basins and can be hotspots of biological activity in the deep sea. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts (CenSeam) was a field program that examined seamounts as part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML) initiative from 2005 to 2010. CenSeam progressed seamount science by collating historical data, collecting new data, undertaking regional and global analyses of seamount biodiversity, mapping species and habitat distributions, challenging established paradigms of seamount ecology, developing new hypotheses, and documenting the impacts of human activities on seamounts. However, because of the large number of seamounts globally, much about the structure, function and connectivity of seamount ecosystems remains unexplored and unknown. Continual, and potentially increasing, threats to seamount resources from fishing and seabed mining are creating a pressing demand for research to inform conservation and management strategies. To meet this need, intensive science effort in the following areas will be needed: 1) Improved physical and biological data; of particular importance is information on seamount location, physical characteristics (e.g. habitat heterogeneity and complexity), more complete and intensive biodiversity inventories, and increased understanding of seamount connectivity and faunal dispersal; 2) New human impact data; these shall encompass better studies on the effects of human activities on seamount ecosystems, as well as monitoring long-term changes in seamount assemblages following impacts (e.g. recovery); 3) Global data repositories; there is a pressing need for more comprehensive fisheries catch and effort data, especially on the high seas, and compilation or maintenance of geological and biodiversity databases that underpin regional and global analyses; 4) Application of support tools in a data-poor environment; conservation and management will have to increasingly rely on predictive modelling

  9. Reducing the number of laboratory animals used in tissue engineering research by restricting the variety of animal models. Articular cartilage tissue engineering as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rob B M; Buma, Pieter; Leenaars, Marlies; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Gordijn, Bert

    2012-12-01

    The use of laboratory animals in tissue engineering research is an important underexposed ethical issue. Several ethical questions may be raised about this use of animals. This article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals used. Given that there is considerable debate about the adequacy of the current animal models in tissue engineering research, we investigate whether it is possible to reduce the number of laboratory animals by selecting and using only those models that have greatest predictive value for future clinical application of the tissue engineered product. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering is used as a case study. Based on a study of the scientific literature and interviews with leading experts in the field, an overview is provided of the animal models used and the advantages and disadvantages of each model, particularly in terms of extrapolation to the human situation. Starting from this overview, it is shown that, by skipping the small models and using only one large preclinical model, it is indeed possible to restrict the number of animal models, thereby reducing the number of laboratory animals used. Moreover, it is argued that the selection of animal models should become more evidence based and that researchers should seize more opportunities to choose or create characteristics in the animal models that increase their predictive value.

  10. Development of computational small animal models and their applications in preclinical imaging and therapy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Tianwu [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Zaidi, Habib, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, Geneva CH-1205 (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    The development of multimodality preclinical imaging techniques and the rapid growth of realistic computer simulation tools have promoted the construction and application of computational laboratory animal models in preclinical research. Since the early 1990s, over 120 realistic computational animal models have been reported in the literature and used as surrogates to characterize the anatomy of actual animals for the simulation of preclinical studies involving the use of bioluminescence tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, microcomputed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging. Other applications include electromagnetic field simulation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation dosimetry, and the development and evaluation of new methodologies for multimodality image coregistration, segmentation, and reconstruction of small animal images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the history and fundamental technologies used for the development of computational small animal models with a particular focus on their application in preclinical imaging as well as nonionizing and ionizing radiation dosimetry calculations. An overview of the overall process involved in the design of these models, including the fundamental elements used for the construction of different types of computational models, the identification of original anatomical data, the simulation tools used for solving various computational problems, and the applications of computational animal models in preclinical research. The authors also analyze the characteristics of categories of computational models (stylized, voxel-based, and boundary representation) and discuss the technical challenges faced at the present time as well as research needs in the future.

  11. Development of computational small animal models and their applications in preclinical imaging and therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    The development of multimodality preclinical imaging techniques and the rapid growth of realistic computer simulation tools have promoted the construction and application of computational laboratory animal models in preclinical research. Since the early 1990s, over 120 realistic computational animal models have been reported in the literature and used as surrogates to characterize the anatomy of actual animals for the simulation of preclinical studies involving the use of bioluminescence tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, microcomputed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging. Other applications include electromagnetic field simulation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation dosimetry, and the development and evaluation of new methodologies for multimodality image coregistration, segmentation, and reconstruction of small animal images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the history and fundamental technologies used for the development of computational small animal models with a particular focus on their application in preclinical imaging as well as nonionizing and ionizing radiation dosimetry calculations. An overview of the overall process involved in the design of these models, including the fundamental elements used for the construction of different types of computational models, the identification of original anatomical data, the simulation tools used for solving various computational problems, and the applications of computational animal models in preclinical research. The authors also analyze the characteristics of categories of computational models (stylized, voxel-based, and boundary representation) and discuss the technical challenges faced at the present time as well as research needs in the future.

  12. Development of computational small animal models and their applications in preclinical imaging and therapy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    The development of multimodality preclinical imaging techniques and the rapid growth of realistic computer simulation tools have promoted the construction and application of computational laboratory animal models in preclinical research. Since the early 1990s, over 120 realistic computational animal models have been reported in the literature and used as surrogates to characterize the anatomy of actual animals for the simulation of preclinical studies involving the use of bioluminescence tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, microcomputed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging. Other applications include electromagnetic field simulation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation dosimetry, and the development and evaluation of new methodologies for multimodality image coregistration, segmentation, and reconstruction of small animal images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the history and fundamental technologies used for the development of computational small animal models with a particular focus on their application in preclinical imaging as well as nonionizing and ionizing radiation dosimetry calculations. An overview of the overall process involved in the design of these models, including the fundamental elements used for the construction of different types of computational models, the identification of original anatomical data, the simulation tools used for solving various computational problems, and the applications of computational animal models in preclinical research. The authors also analyze the characteristics of categories of computational models (stylized, voxel-based, and boundary representation) and discuss the technical challenges faced at the present time as well as research needs in the future

  13. Co-ordinated Interdisciplinary Efforts on Research in Animal Production and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houe Hans

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives are to review results and experiences from interdisciplinary research projects in Research Centre for the Management of Animal Production and Health (CEPROS concerning scientific content, organisation, and collaboration. The Centre has been founded as a result of an agreement between four institutions: the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS, the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL, the Danish Veterinary Institute for Virus Research (DVIV and The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (KVL. CEPROS is a "research centre without walls" and is physically located as an integrated part of the four institutions named above. The Centre has close collaboration with the industry. The superior goals of the Centre are to co-ordinate fundamental and applied research and simultaneously integrate the veterinary and the production oriented livestock research within animal health and welfare, taking into consideration the production economics and reduced use of medication. The assignment of the Centre is to initiate and carry out research, aiming to investigate the influence of breeding and production systems on animal health and welfare as well as on production and product quality. The Centre has since 1997 established 16 interdisciplinary research projects dealing with cattle, pigs, poultry, or mink. The scientific content can be divided into three research clusters: A. Management of animal production and health in production systems, B: Pathogenesis of production diseases, and C. Animal health economics. In Cluster A, the physical environments of production systems have been investigated, broader definitions of the concept health have been established and used in identification of risk factors. Cluster B has investigated physiological, immunological and genetic mechanisms behind development of production diseases and how to apply this knowledge in disease prevention. The cluster in animal health economics has developed decision

  14. Potential of luminescence based molecular animal imaging in research areas pertaining to cancer biology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Hansa D.; Shetake, Neena G.; Balla Murali, M.S.; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal imaging is getting tremendous importance in biomedical research areas including drug delivery, radiobiology and cancer research. Even though, imaging techniques like CT, PET, SPECT, MRI are available for experimental animals, luminescence-based molecular imaging is still considered as crucial and common tool for biomedical laboratories due to easy handling/maintenance, cost effectiveness and various strategies available to manipulate the molecules/cells employed for imaging purposes. The Molecular Animal Imaging System available in our laboratory is being utilized for various cancer research activities including measurement of tumor growth kinetics, angiogenesis, therapeutic efficacy evaluation and metastasis studies. Moreover, the imaging system is also been used for radio-luminescence imaging based on Cherenkov radiation of radio-pharmaceuticals. (author)

  15. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2010-10-01

    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve

  16. Dissemination bias in systematic reviews of animal research: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina F Mueller

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research.Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al.The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%, nor did they assess heterogeneity (81% or dissemination bias (87%. Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%.Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before

  17. Using the Neptune project to benefit Australian aquatic animal health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, M; Ernst, I; Adlard, R D

    2015-06-29

    Diseases of aquatic animals have had, and continue to have, a significant impact on aquatic animal health. In Australia, where fisheries and aquaculture are important industries, aquatic species have been subject to serious disease outbreaks, including pilchard herpesvirus, the cause of one of the largest wild fish kills ever recorded. At the same time, there is a consensus that Australia's parasite fauna are largely unknown, and that aquatic animal health information is difficult to access. Managing aquatic animal diseases is challenging because they may be entirely new, their hosts may be new to aquaculture, and specialist expertise and basic diagnostic tools may be lacking or absent. The Neptune project was created in response to these challenges, and it aims to increase awareness of aquatic animal diseases, improve disease management, and promote communication between aquatic animal health professionals in Australia. The project consists of an online database, a digital microscopy platform containing a whole-slide image library, a community space, and online communications technology. The database contains aquatic animal health information from published papers, government reports, and other sources, while the library contains slides of key diseases both endemic and exotic to Australia. These assets make Neptune a powerful resource for researchers, students, and biosecurity officials.

  18. Using principles from emergency management to improve emergency response plans for research animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelweid, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    Animal research regulatory agencies have issued updated requirements for emergency response planning by regulated research institutions. A thorough emergency response plan is an essential component of an institution's animal care and use program, but developing an effective plan can be a daunting task. The author provides basic information drawn from the field of emergency management about best practices for developing emergency response plans. Planners should use the basic principles of emergency management to develop a common-sense approach to managing emergencies in their facilities.

  19. Using animal models to overcome temporal, spatial and combinatorial challenges in HIV persistence research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denton, Paul W.; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Research challenges associated with understanding HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy can be categorized as temporal, spatial and combinatorial. Temporal research challenges relate to the timing of events during establishment and maintenance of HIV persistence. Spatial research challeng...... for directly addressing these research challenges. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of these recent translational advances made in animal models of HIV persistence....... will improve our understanding of HIV persistence and move the field closer to achieving eradication of persistent HIV. Given that humanized mice and non-human primate HIV models permit rigorous control of experimental conditions, these models have been used extensively as in vivo research platforms...

  20. Cancer immunology, bioinformatics and chemokine evidence link vaccines contaminated with animal proteins to autoimmune disease: a detailed look at Crohn's disease and Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugham, Vinu

    2017-01-01

    Cancer research has demonstrated that immunization with homologous xenogeneic proteins (such as vaccines contaminated with animal proteins that resemble human proteins) results in autoimmunity. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrates that animal proteins have occasional amino acids differences compared to equivalent human proteins. So mutated human protein epitopes can be identical to animal protein derived epitopes. Low affinity self reactive T cells suited for detection of mutated human epitop...

  1. Human-animal chimera: a neuro driven discussion? Comparison of three leading European research countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Trujillo, Laura Yenisa; Engel-Glatter, Sabrina

    2015-06-01

    Research with human-animal chimera raises a number of ethical concerns, especially when neural stem cells are transplanted into the brains of non-human primates (NHPs). Besides animal welfare concerns and ethical issues associated with the use of embryonic stem cells, the research is also regarded as controversial from the standpoint of NHPs developing cognitive or behavioural capabilities that are regarded as "unique" to humans. However, scientists are urging to test new therapeutic approaches for neurological diseases in primate models as they better mimic human physiology than all current animal models. As a response, various countries have issued reports on the topic. Our paper summarizes the ethical issues raised by research with human-animal brain chimeras and compares the relevant regulatory instruments and different recommendations issued in national reports from three important European research nations: Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. We assess and discuss the focus and priorities set by the different reports, review various reasons for and perspectives on the importance of the brain in chimera research, and identify critical points in the reports that warrant further specification and debate.

  2. 3Rs-respecting animal models in radiopharmaceutical research with a special emphasis to monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Lajos; Thuróczy, Julianna; Pöstényi, Zita; Kovács-Haász, Veronika; Lovas, Melinda; Polyák, András; Jánoki, Győző A.; Leyva Montana, René

    2016-01-01

    In better developed human medical centres hybrid (or fusion) diagnostic imaging (PET/CT, SPECT/CT, PET/MRI …) is available for clinicians to detect, localize, stage and follow-up theire patients suffering a wide variety (oncological, cardiovascular, neurological, orthopaedic …) of diseases. Easy to understand that not only human and veterinary clinical but numerous research applications could be implemented using these novel digital imaging methods. The use of hybrid equipments is not simply an expensive toy in researcher’s hands but and effective tool that serves 2 out of the 3 Rs (Refinement and Reduction) requirements as well. Hybrid (fusion) imaging method allows high-resolution pictures including correct anatomical structures and quantized functional data as altogether after radiolabelled ligand applications. Serial images could be taken using only one single anesthetized animal that must not be exterminated at the end of process. The re-use of laboratory animals allowing us to compare the characteristics of different labelled molecules in the very same biological model. Spontaneously diseased canine, feline and exotic animals is a constant source of animal models for the biomedical research and represents a great choice to replace laboratory animals. Osteosarcoma, mammary gland carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, brain tumours and a few others in dogs or cats might be the best known animal models of the appropriate human diseases. Diagnosing and then treating them with the most promising human methods (including cold MoAbs, immunotherapy, radiolabelled ligands ...) is a chance for the suffering animals, a new hope for owners and referral vets - and parallel applicable data for human oncologists and translational researchers. Authors wish to share with audience their 20 years expert in the field and hope to find friends and co-operators among them. (author)

  3. The history of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) 1920-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert P; Ellis, L Susanne Squires; Kohler, Erwin M

    2015-12-01

    The following history has been compiled and written by the authors. The historical facts are available from the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) archives, dating back to letters and summaries written by the founders, and by a few of the Secretary-Treasurers from the early decades through 2014. THE ORGANIZATION AND PURPOSE: The CRWAD is a non-profit organization and has been since its origin. The sole purpose of CRWAD is to discuss and disseminate the most current research advances in animal diseases. Graduate students and industry and academic professionals present and discuss the most recent advances on subjects of interest to the CRWAD and of importance to the global livestock and companion animal industries. The oral and poster abstracts of new and unpublished data presented at the meeting sessions are published each year in the CRWAD Proceedings (formerly the CRWAD Abstracts). CRWAD publishes, copyrights, and distributes the Proceedings. The presentations are arranged into the following 10 sections, according to the primary topic of the presentation: Bacterial Pathogenesis, Biosafety and Biosecurity, Companion Animal Epidemiology, Ecology and Management of Foodborne Agents, Epidemiology and Animal Health Economics, Immunology, Pathobiology of Enteric and Foodborne Pathogens, Respiratory Diseases, Vector-Borne and Parasitic Diseases, and Viral Pathogenesis. Prospective members should be actively engaged in animal disease research or research administration. Meeting information and membership applications may be obtained by contacting the Executive Director or by visiting the CRWAD website. Annual abstracts are currently available on-line at the On-line Meeting Planner and Itinerary Builder, with access through the CRWAD website.

  4. Ethical issues associated with the use of animal experimentation in behavioral neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical issues that have relevance beyond this field of science. We suggest that innovative research, by its very definition, demands out-of-the-box thinking. At the same time, standardization of animal models and test procedures for the sake of comparability across experiments inhibits the potential and willingness to leave well-established tracks of thinking, and leaves us wondering how open minded research is and whether it is the researcher's established perspective that drives the research rather than the research that drives the researcher's perspective. The chapter finishes by introducing subsequent chapters of this book volume on Ethical Issues in Behavioral Neuroscience.

  5. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in animal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The manual is designed to give the animal science researcher the basic terms and principles necessary for understanding radiation, its detection and measurement, its associated hazards, and some of the more common applications. Basic laboratory exercises to illustrate this purpose are included

  6. Towards a framework for attention cueing in instructional animations: Guidelines for research and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B. de Koning (Björn); H.K. Tabbers (Huib); R.M.J.P. Rikers (Remy); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the transferability of successful cueing approaches from text and static visualization research to animations. Theories of visual attention and learning as well as empirical evidence for the instructional effectiveness of attention cueing are reviewed and, based on

  7. Left-right asymmetry in plants and animals: a gold mine for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.; Gravendeel, B.

    2012-01-01

    Left-right asymmetry patterns in the body shapes of animals and plants have been a continuous source of interest among biologists. Recently, inroads have been made to developing a coherent research programme that makes use of the unique fact that chiral patterns may be studied (and generalities

  8. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research

  9. New Animal Model Could Boost Research on AIDS Drugs and Vaccines | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS in monkeys. The advance should help create more authentic animal

  10. An integrated multimodality image-guided robot system for small-animal imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin; Hsin Wu, Tung; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Chen, Chia-Lin; Lee, Jason J.S.; Huang, Yung-Hui

    2011-01-01

    We design and construct an image-guided robot system for use in small-animal imaging research. This device allows the use of co-registered small-animal PET-MRI images to guide the movements of robotic controllers, which will accurately place a needle probe at any predetermined location inside, for example, a mouse tumor, for biological readouts without sacrificing the animal. This system is composed of three major components: an automated robot device, a CCD monitoring mechanism, and a multimodality registration implementation. Specifically, the CCD monitoring mechanism was used for correction and validation of the robot device. To demonstrate the value of the proposed system, we performed a tumor hypoxia study that involved FMISO small-animal PET imaging and the delivering of a pO 2 probe into the mouse tumor using the image-guided robot system. During our evaluation, the needle positioning error was found to be within 0.153±0.042 mm of desired placement; the phantom simulation errors were within 0.693±0.128 mm. In small-animal studies, the pO 2 probe measurements in the corresponding hypoxia areas showed good correlation with significant, low tissue oxygen tensions (less than 6 mmHg). We have confirmed the feasibility of the system and successfully applied it to small-animal investigations. The system could be easily adapted to extend to other biomedical investigations in the future.

  11. Linking Hospital and Tax data to support research on the economic impacts of hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sanmartin

    2017-04-01

    This project has created a unique linked database that will support research on the economic consequences of ‘health shocks’ for individuals and their families, and the implications for income, labour and health policies. This database represents a new and unique resource that will fill an important national data gap, and enable a wide range of relevant research.

  12. The rodent research animal holding facility as a barrier to environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Jahns, G. C.; Dalton, B. P.; Hogan, R. P.; Wray, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    The rodent Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), developed by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to separately house rodents in a Spacelab, was verified as a barrier to environmental contaminants during a 12-day biocompatibility test. Environmental contaminants considered were solid particulates, microorganisms, ammonia, and typical animal odors. The 12-day test conducted in August 1988 was designed to verify that the rodent RAHF system would adequately support and maintain animal specimens during normal system operations. Additional objectives of this test were to demonstrate that: (1) the system would capture typical particulate debris produced by the animal; (2) microorganisms would be contained; and (3) the passage of animal odors was adequately controlled. In addition, the amount of carbon dioxide exhausted by the RAHF system was to be quantified. Of primary importance during the test was the demonstration that the RAHF would contain particles greater than 150 micrometers. This was verified after analyzing collection plates placed under exhaust air ducts and rodent cages during cage maintenance operations, e.g., waste tray and feeder changeouts. Microbiological testing identified no additional organisms in the test environment that could be traced to the RAHF. Odor containment was demonstrated to be less than barely detectable. Ammonia could not be detected in the exhaust air from the RAHF system. Carbon dioxide levels were verified to be less than 0.35 percent.

  13. Animating Research with Counseling Values: A Training Model to Address the Research-to-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristi A.; Dewell, John A.; Holmes, Courtney M.

    2014-01-01

    The persistent research-to-practice gap poses a problem for counselor education. The gap may be caused by conflicts between the humanistic values that guide much of counseling and the values that guide research training. In this article, the authors address historical concerns regarding research training for students and the conducting of research…

  14. Reflections on Recent Research Into Animal-Assisted Interventions in the Military and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumayor, Christina B; Thrasher, Amy M

    2017-11-25

    The purpose of the present review was threefold: to address the current state of Animal-Assisted Interactions (AAI) within the military; to summarize recent literature (within the past three years) in the field of AAI; and to discuss trends in AAI research since 2014. With regard to AAI within the military, several canine interaction programs have been utilized to assist service members in coping with various issues. Therapy dogs have been deployed with Combat-Operational Stress Control units; they have been integrated into medical clinics and behavioral health treatment programs in garrison; and policy has been developed to address the use of therapy animals in military treatment facilities. General research in AAI has demonstrated efficacy for certain presenting issues (stress management, trauma, autism spectrum disorder) and specific populations (children, the elderly, acute care patients). Overall trends in research include calls for increased consideration for animal welfare in AAI and increased rigor in research methodology. Current research supports the structured use of therapy dogs in the treatment of various disorders and with specific populations, including military service members and veterans; however, the need for additional research with rigorous methodology remains.

  15. Building Design Guidelines for Interior Architecture Concerned with Animal Researches Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElDib, A.A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the most important design guidelines elements and characteristics for animal facilities, in order to achieve and maintain highest efficiency can be, with respect to the pivot role of Interior Architecture as one of the accurate specializations for completing the Architectural Sciences, for designer/s concerned with those types of facilities, (specially those using radioactive materials). These building types known as vivariums, are specially designed, accommodating and having sophisticated controlled environments for the care and maintenance of experimental animals, and are related to, but distinct from other research laboratories premises

  16. Guidelines for preclinical animal research in ALS/MND: A consensus meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludolph, Albert C; Bendotti, Caterina; Blaugrund, Eran; Chio, Adriano; Greensmith, Linda; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Mead, Richard; Niessen, Heiko G; Petri, Susanne; Pradat, Pierre-Francois; Robberecht, Wim; Ruegg, Markus; Schwalenstöcker, Birgit; Stiller, Detlev; van den Berg, Leonard; Vieira, Fernando; von Horsten, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    The development of therapeutics for ALS/MND is largely based on work in experimental animals carrying human SOD mutations. However, translation of apparent therapeutic successes from in vivo to the human disease has proven difficult and a considerable amount of financial resources has been apparently wasted. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for preclinical animal research in ALS/MND are urgently required. Such SOPs will help to establish SOPs for translational research for other neurological diseases within the next few years. To identify the challenges and to improve the research methodology, the European ALS/MND group held a meeting in 2006 and published guidelines in 2007 (1). A second international conference to improve the guidelines was held in 2009. These second and improved guidelines are dedicated to the memory of Sean F. Scott.

  17. Non-animal approaches for consumer safety risk assessments: Unilever's scientific research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Paul; Davies, Michael; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; Fletcher, Samantha; Gilmour, Nicola; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Merolla, Leona; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona; Westmoreland, Carl

    2009-12-01

    Non-animal based approaches to risk assessment are now routinely used for assuring consumer safety for some endpoints (such as skin irritation) following considerable investment in developing and applying new methods over the past 20 years. Unilever's research programme into non-animal approaches for safety assessment is currently focused on the application of new technologies to risk assessments in the areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhalation toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biological and chemical processes that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement with EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, carcinoGENOMICS), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. COLIPA, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US 'Human Toxicology Project' consortium). 2009 FRAME.

  18. Endometriosis research: animal models for the study of a complex disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-González, Irene; Barrientos, Gabriela; Tariverdian, Nadja; Arck, Petra C; García, Mariana G; Klapp, Burghard F; Blois, Sandra M

    2010-11-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disease that is characterized and defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, causing painful periods and subfertility in approximately 10% of women. After more than 50 years of research, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the development and establishment of this condition. Animal models allow us to study the temporal sequence of events involved in disease establishment and progression. Also, because this disease occurs spontaneously only in humans and non-human primates and there are practical problems associated with studying the disease, animal models have been developed for the evaluation of endometriosis. This review describes the animal models for endometriosis that have been used to date, highlighting their importance for the investigation of disease mechanisms that would otherwise be more difficult to elucidate, and proposing new alternatives aimed at overcoming some of these limitations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein nutrition for ruminants in European countries, in the light of animal feeding regulations linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, P

    2003-04-01

    The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and the discovery of the central role played by meat-and-bone meal (MBM) as the vehicle of infection resulted, from the late 1980s onwards, in the implementation of new regulations on the incorporation of animal proteins, and then of most fats of animal origin, into diets fed to ruminants and other farmed animals. The BSE-related feed ban, which has gradually been reinforced over time, has led to the investigation of cost-effective routes for adequately replacing MBM and tallow by new sources of dietary proteins, minerals and lipids in the formulation of manufactured concentrates. As far as the technical fulfilment of the nutritive requirements of growing and lactating ruminants is concerned, efficient alternative solutions, based principally on recourse to food materials from vegetals already exist or hopefully will soon be available in most of the situations prevailing in Europe. However, related aspects, such as animal feed-processing, availability and traceability of certain food materials, quality of animal products, environmental constraints or disposal of animal waste from the meat industry give cause for concern. The expected consequences of the BSE-related feeding regulations on the organisational and economic framework of animal and crop production sectors throughout Europe and at world level must also be evaluated.

  20. Synergy of image analysis for animal and human neuroimaging supports translational research on drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGerig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in animals models of neuropathology is of increasing interest to the neuroscience community. In this work, we present our approach to create optimal translational studies that include both animal and human neuroimaging data within the frameworks of a study of postnatal neuro-development in intra-uterine cocaine exposure. We propose the use of non-invasive neuroimaging to study developmental brain structural and white matter pathway abnormalities via sMRI and DTI, as advanced MR imaging technology is readily available and automated image analysis methodology have recently been transferred from the human to animal imaging setting. For this purpose, we developed a synergistic, parallel approach to imaging and image analysis for the human and the rodent branch of our study. We propose an equivalent design in both the selection of the developmental assessment stage and the neuroimaging setup. This approach brings significant advantages to study neurobiological features of early brain development that are common to animals and humans but also preserve analysis capabilities only possible in animal research. This paper presents the main framework and individual methods for the proposed cross-species study design, as well as preliminary DTI cross-species comparative results in the intra-uterine cocaine exposure study.

  1. Reflections upon the trends of education and research in small animal reproduction in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto

    2004-01-01

    An open questionnaire-based survey was performed among 86 institutions of veterinary education in 32 European countries: 15 within the European Union (EU) and 17 outside the EU, in Central and Eastern Europe and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The survey aimed to provide a view of the general status of education and research in small animal reproduction (SAR) in Europe. It further aimed to disclose whether ongoing trends in organization (e.g., from the classical animal reproduction discipline orientation [DO] toward a species-oriented [SO] organization) among veterinary colleges responsible for undergraduate education and research in SAR have affected the provision of clinical services, continuing professional development (CPD), specialization, post-graduate education, and research. Response rates reached 80% among EU institutions and 48.4% in other countries (overall response rate = 68.6%). A clear, significant majority of institutions (> 60%) were DO, with a well-defined comparative subject in the veterinary curriculum. No differences were reported for either orientation in their ability to provide undergraduate education or clinical services in SAR. However, more DO institutions reported active research in SAR than their SO counterparts. Similar (and stronger) differences were seen for post-graduate education, CPD, and participation in specialization programs (national or European). Finally, more DO than SO institutions provided assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), such as AI with frozen semen, to customers. The analysis of the data emanating from the respondents' perceptions, supports the advantages of the more classical, DO-based approach. The results highlight the need for caution when institutions abandon the comparative benefits of the classical DO animal reproduction subject for a SO approach, which tends to prioritize clinical specialized service rather than research and research education. In the author's opinion, in the absence of the

  2. Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE Guidelines for Reporting Animal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Kilkenny

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of bioscience journals has increased enormously, with many filling specialised niches reflecting new disciplines and technologies. The emergence of open-access journals has revolutionised the publication process, maximising the availability of research data. Nevertheless, a wealth of evidence shows that across many areas, the reporting of biomedical research is often inadequate, leading to the view that even if the science is sound, in many cases the publications themselves are not “fit for purpose”, meaning that incomplete reporting of relevant information effectively renders many publications of limited value as instruments to inform policy or clinical and scientific practice [1–21]. A recent review of clinical research showed that there is considerable cumulative waste of financial resources at all stages of the research process, including as a result of publications that are unusable due to poor reporting [22]. It is unlikely that this issue is confined to clinical research [2–14,16–20].

  3. The contribution of human/non-human animal chimeras to stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Levine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric animals are made up of cells from two separate zygotes. Human/non-human animal chimeras have been used for a number of research purposes, including human disease modeling. Pluripotent stem cell (PSC research has relied upon the chimera approach to examine the developmental potential of stem cells, to determine the efficacy of cell replacement therapies, and to establish a means of producing human organs. Based on ethical issues, this work has faced pushback from various sources including funding agencies. We discuss here the essential role these studies have played, from gaining a better understanding of human biology to providing a stepping stone to human disease treatments. We also consider the major ethical issues, as well as the current status of support for this work in the United States.

  4. The contribution of human/non-human animal chimeras to stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sonya; Grabel, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Chimeric animals are made up of cells from two separate zygotes. Human/non-human animal chimeras have been used for a number of research purposes, including human disease modeling. Pluripotent stem cell (PSC) research has relied upon the chimera approach to examine the developmental potential of stem cells, to determine the efficacy of cell replacement therapies, and to establish a means of producing human organs. Based on ethical issues, this work has faced pushback from various sources including funding agencies. We discuss here the essential role these studies have played, from gaining a better understanding of human biology to providing a stepping stone to human disease treatments. We also consider the major ethical issues, as well as the current status of support for this work in the United States. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Digging in to Link Analysis Researches in Iran and all around the World: a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nooshinfard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing websites quantity, specially scientific websites, there were many researches with concern of link analysis using webometrics by librarian and other scholars in different academic majors around the world. The purpose of this article was link analysis of all link analysis related papers from the beginning to February 19th 2009. The research based on Weiner, Amick, and Lee searching model in 2008, this study included 96 refereed papers extracted from international databases like Springer, Proquest, Sage, Emerald, IEEE, Science Direct and national databases such as Magiran and SID. These papers were studied focusing on their different parts like authors, affiliated organizations, purpose, methods, tools, keywords, date of publishing, publication, indexing databases and their suggestions. Moreover, analyzing those papers and studying any related models were the other purposes of the current article. The findings have been categorized and analyses in ten different sections.

  6. Special conference of the American Association for Cancer Research on molecular imaging in cancer: linking biology, function, and clinical applications in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Gary D

    2002-04-01

    The AACR Special Conference on Molecular Imaging in Cancer: Linking Biology, Function, and Clinical Applications In Vivo, was held January 23-27, 2002, at the Contemporary Hotel, Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL. Co-Chairs David Piwnica-Worms, Patricia Price and Thomas Meade brought together researchers with diverse expertise in molecular biology, gene therapy, chemistry, engineering, pharmacology, and imaging to accelerate progress in developing and applying technologies for imaging specific cellular and molecular signals in living animals and humans. The format of the conference was the presentation of research that focused on basic and translational biology of cancer and current state-of-the-art techniques for molecular imaging in animal models and humans. This report summarizes the special conference on molecular imaging, highlighting the interfaces of molecular biology with animal models, instrumentation, chemistry, and pharmacology that are essential to convert the dreams and promise of molecular imaging into improved understanding, diagnosis, and management of cancer.

  7. Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Groff; Eric Bachli; Molly Lansdowne; Theodora Capaldo

    2014-01-01

    Millions of animals are used in research and toxicity testing, including in drug, medical device, chemical, cosmetic, personal care, household, and other product sectors, but the environmental consequences are yet to be adequately addressed. Evidence suggests that their use and disposal, and the associated use of chemicals and supplies, contribute to pollution as well as adverse impacts on biodiversity and public health. The objective of this review is to examine such evidence. The review in...

  8. Advantage of Animal Models with Metabolic Flexibility for Space Research Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griko, Yuri V.; Rask, Jon C.; Raychev, Raycho

    2017-01-01

    As the worlds space agencies and commercial entities continue to expand beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), novel approaches to carry out biomedical experiments with animals are required to address the challenge of adaptation to space flight and new planetary environments. The extended time and distance of space travel along with reduced involvement of Earth-based mission support increases the cumulative impact of the risks encountered in space. To respond to these challenges, it becomes increasingly important to develop the capability to manage an organisms self-regulatory control system, which would enable survival in extraterrestrial environments. To significantly reduce the risk to animals on future long duration space missions, we propose the use of metabolically flexible animal models as pathfinders, which are capable of tolerating the environmental extremes exhibited in spaceflight, including altered gravity, exposure to space radiation, chemically reactive planetary environments and temperature extremes.In this report we survey several of the pivotal metabolic flexibility studies and discuss the importance of utilizing animal models with metabolic flexibility with particular attention given to the ability to suppress the organism's metabolism in spaceflight experiments beyond LEO. The presented analysis demonstrates the adjuvant benefits of these factors to minimize damage caused by exposure to spaceflight and extreme planetary environments. Examples of microorganisms and animal models with dormancy capabilities suitable for space research are considered in the context of their survivability under hostile or deadly environments outside of Earth. Potential steps toward implementation of metabolic control technology in spaceflight architecture and its benefits for animal experiments and manned space exploration missions are discussed.

  9. Rare earth elements in human and animal health: State of art and research priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, Giovanni, E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it [University of Naples “Federico II”, Environmental Hygiene, via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Aliberti, Francesco; Guida, Marco [University of Naples “Federico II”, Environmental Hygiene, via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Oral, Rahime [Ege University, Faculty of Fisheries, TR-35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Siciliano, Antonietta [University of Naples “Federico II”, Environmental Hygiene, via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Trifuoggi, Marco [University of Naples “Federico II”, Department of Chemical Sciences, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Tommasi, Franca [“Aldo Moro” Bari University, Department of Biology, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Background: A number of applications have been developed using rare earth elements (REE), implying several human exposures and raising unsolved questions as to REE-associated health effects. Methods: A MedLine survey was retrieved from early reports (1980s) up to June 2015, focused on human and animal exposures to REE. Literature from animal models was selected focusing on REE-associated health effects. Results: Some REE occupational exposures, in jobs such as glass polishers, photoengravers and movie projectionists showed a few case reports on health effects affecting the respiratory system. No case-control or cohort studies of occupational REE exposures were retrieved. Environmental exposures have been biomonitored in populations residing in REE mining areas, showing REE accumulation. The case for a iatrogenic REE exposure was raised by the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance. Animal toxicity studies have shown REE toxicity, affecting a number of endpoints in liver, lungs and blood. On the other hand, the use of REE as feed additives in livestock is referred as a safe and promising device in zootechnical activities, possibly suggesting a hormetic effect both known for REE and for other xenobiotics. Thus, investigations on long-term exposures and observations are warranted. Conclusion: The state of art provides a limited definition of the health effects in occupationally or environmentally REE-exposed human populations. Research priorities should be addressed to case-control or cohort studies of REE-exposed humans and to life-long animal experiments. - Highlights: • An extensive number of activities have been developed utilizing rare earth elements (REE). • The literature of REE-associated health effects in humans, and on animal studies is reviewed. • The main literature gaps are discussed, in epidemiological and in animal studies. • Prospects studies are suggested, aimed at evaluating long-term effects of REE exposures

  10. Rare earth elements in human and animal health: State of art and research priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagano, Giovanni; Aliberti, Francesco; Guida, Marco; Oral, Rahime; Siciliano, Antonietta; Trifuoggi, Marco; Tommasi, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of applications have been developed using rare earth elements (REE), implying several human exposures and raising unsolved questions as to REE-associated health effects. Methods: A MedLine survey was retrieved from early reports (1980s) up to June 2015, focused on human and animal exposures to REE. Literature from animal models was selected focusing on REE-associated health effects. Results: Some REE occupational exposures, in jobs such as glass polishers, photoengravers and movie projectionists showed a few case reports on health effects affecting the respiratory system. No case-control or cohort studies of occupational REE exposures were retrieved. Environmental exposures have been biomonitored in populations residing in REE mining areas, showing REE accumulation. The case for a iatrogenic REE exposure was raised by the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance. Animal toxicity studies have shown REE toxicity, affecting a number of endpoints in liver, lungs and blood. On the other hand, the use of REE as feed additives in livestock is referred as a safe and promising device in zootechnical activities, possibly suggesting a hormetic effect both known for REE and for other xenobiotics. Thus, investigations on long-term exposures and observations are warranted. Conclusion: The state of art provides a limited definition of the health effects in occupationally or environmentally REE-exposed human populations. Research priorities should be addressed to case-control or cohort studies of REE-exposed humans and to life-long animal experiments. - Highlights: • An extensive number of activities have been developed utilizing rare earth elements (REE). • The literature of REE-associated health effects in humans, and on animal studies is reviewed. • The main literature gaps are discussed, in epidemiological and in animal studies. • Prospects studies are suggested, aimed at evaluating long-term effects of REE exposures

  11. A systematic review of the effects of euthanasia and occupational stress in personnel working with animals in animal shelters, veterinary clinics, and biomedical research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotney, Rebekah L; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Keates, Helen L

    2015-11-15

    The study of occupational stress and compassion fatigue in personnel working in animal-related occupations has gained momentum over the last decade. However, there remains incongruence in understanding what is currently termed compassion fatigue and the associated unique contributory factors. Furthermore, there is minimal established evidence of the likely influence of these conditions on the health and well-being of individuals working in various animal-related occupations. To assess currently available evidence and terminology regarding occupational stress and compassion fatigue in personnel working in animal shelters, veterinary clinics, and biomedical research facilities. Studies were identified by searching the following electronic databases with no publication date restrictions: ProQuest Research Library, ProQuest Social Science Journals, PsycARTICLES, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, PsychINFO databases, and Google Scholar. Search terms included (euthanasia AND animals) OR (compassion fatigue AND animals) OR (occupational stress AND animals). Only articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals that included use of quantitative or qualitative techniques to investigate the incidence of occupational stress or compassion fatigue in the veterinary profession or animal-related occupations were included. On the basis of predefined criteria, 1 author extracted articles, and the data set was then independently reviewed by the other 2 authors. 12 articles met the selection criteria and included a variety of study designs and methods of data analysis. Seven studies evaluated animal shelter personnel, with the remainder evaluating veterinary nurses and technicians (2), biomedical research technicians (1), and personnel in multiple animal-related occupations (2). There was a lack of consistent terminology and agreed definitions for the articles reviewed. Personnel directly engaged in euthanasia reported significantly higher levels of work stress and lower

  12. Empirical Scientific Research and Legal Studies Research--A Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Robert J., III

    2016-01-01

    This article begins with an overview of what is meant by empirical scientific research in the context of legal studies. With that backdrop, the argument is presented that without engaging in normative, theoretical, and doctrinal research in tandem with empirical scientific research, the role of legal studies scholarship in making meaningful…

  13. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Dog as a Research Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, William I.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role of dogs in research, considering their use in studies related to: behavior; aging; anesthesia; gastrointestinal surgery; the brain; organ transplants; radiobiology; trauma and shock; arterial diseases; hemophelia; ophthalmology; diabetes; nutrition; cancer; lupus; cyclic neutropenia; thyroiditis; hepatitis; skeletal system,…

  14. Enabling cross-disciplinary research by linking data to Open Access publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, N.

    2012-04-01

    OpenAIREplus focuses on the linking of research data to associated publications. The interlinking of research objects has implications for optimising the research process, allowing the sharing, enrichment and reuse of data, and ultimately serving to make open data an essential part of first class research. The growing call for more concrete data management and sharing plans, apparent at funder and national level, is complemented by the increasing support for a scientific infrastructure that supports the seamless access to a range of research materials. This paper will describe the recently launched OpenAIREplus and will detail how it plans to achieve its goals of developing an Open Access participatory infrastructure for scientific information. OpenAIREplus extends the current collaborative OpenAIRE project, which provides European researchers with a service network for the deposit of peer-reviewed FP7 grant-funded Open Access publications. This new project will focus on opening up the infrastructure to data sources from subject-specific communities to provide metadata about research data and publications, facilitating the linking between these objects. The ability to link within a publication out to a citable database, or other research data material, is fairly innovative and this project will enable users to search, browse, view, and create relationships between different information objects. In this regard, OpenAIREplus will build on prototypes of so-called "Enhanced Publications", originally conceived in the DRIVER-II project. OpenAIREplus recognizes the importance of representing the context of publications and datasets, thus linking to resources about the authors, their affiliation, location, project data and funding. The project will explore how links between text-based publications and research data are managed in different scientific fields. This complements a previous study in OpenAIRE on current disciplinary practices and future needs for infrastructural

  15. Linking Research and Practice through Teacher Communities: A Place Where Formal and Practical Knowledge Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; Ormel, Bart J. B.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterises the links between research and practice across 12 projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities (TCs). Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants' roles and knowledge generated by the teacher community. Three patterns emerged pertaining…

  16. Linking research and practice through teacher communities: A place where formal and practical knowledge meet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Ormel, Bart; McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke; Pieters, Jules

    2015-01-01

    This study characterizes the links between research and practice across twelve projects concerned with the collaborative design of lesson plans by teacher communities. Analyses focused on sources of knowledge used to inform lesson design, participants’ roles, and knowledge generated by the teacher

  17. The Links between Academic Research and Economic Development in Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Nega Kahsay

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the major issues concerning the links between academic research and economic development in Ethiopia by considering the Addis Ababa University as a case. The paper is based on two premises. The first pertains to the idea that universities being one of the actors in knowledge production plays a central role in enhancing…

  18. Ética da pesquisa em modelos animais Research ethics in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de animais em experimentos científicos é descrita desde o século V a.C. Avanços científicos na área da saúde são atribuídos a modelos animais. O status moral dos animais sempre foi debatido. OBJETIVOS: Este artigo visa à revisão histórica e resumo da legislação atual, para orientar pesquisadores ao utilizar modelos animais na pesquisa em otorrinolaringologia. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Pesquisa na base de dados Medline. RESULTADOS: no Brasil, por muitos anos não havia regulamentação para o uso de animais em experimentação. Eram seguidas normas de organizações nacionais e internacionais. Recentemente, foi sancionada a lei nº 11.794/08, que estabelece procedimentos para o uso científico de animais. Na otorrinolaringologia, os estudos com laringe utilizaram coelho, porco, cachorro, cobaias (Cavia porcellus e camundongo; estudos para face coelho, rato e cachorro; rinoplastia com coelho; e orelha interna com ratos e cobaias (albinas. CONCLUSÕES: Os pesquisadores envolvidos em trabalhos científicos com animais devem conhecer os princípios da lei nº 11.794/08 e pesquisar quais animais são apropriados para cada subárea estudada seus modelos com maior aplicabilidade. Os otorrinolaringologistas, especialmente aqueles que se dedicam à pesquisa, necessitam estar sempre atentos para o respeito às regras éticas de utilização de animais em seus estudos.The use of animals in scientific experiments has beendescribed since the fifth century BC. A number of scientific advances in health are attributed to animal models. The issue of the moral status of animals has always been debated. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to review and to present a historical summary of the current laws, to guide researchers who wish to use animal models in otolaryngology research. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Research on the medline database. RESULTS: For many years there were no laws ruling the use of animals in scientific experimentation in Brazil

  19. The Birth of a research animal. Ibsen's The Wild Duck and the origin of a new animal science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    What role does the wild duck play in Ibsen's famous drama? I argue that, besides mirroring the fate of the human cast members, the duck is acting as animal subject in a quasi-experiment, conducted in a private setting. Analysed from this perspective, the play allows us to discern the epistemological

  20. Genetically engineered livestock for agriculture: a generation after the first transgenic animal research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of

  1. Animal models of chronic wound care: the application of biofilms in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trøstrup H

    2016-11-01

    be refined and replaced whenever possible, and reproducibility and clinical relevance should be strived. This review aimed at giving an overview of the model systems and major findings for inspiration for clinicians and researchers involved in handling chronic nonhealing wounds. Relevant animal models on wound repair are discussed, and our novel wound model on the host/pathogen interplay is presented. In this model, murine wounds are stuck in a polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocyte-dominated inflammation due to the presence of visually confirmed Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm located in the dermis and subcutaneous fatty tissue. Keywords: pathogen interplay, chronic wound science, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm

  2. You talkin' to me? Interactive playback is a powerful yet underused tool in animal communication research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L

    2015-07-01

    Over the years, playback experiments have helped further our understanding of the wonderful world of animal communication. They have provided fundamental insights into animal behaviour and the function of communicative signals in numerous taxa. As important as these experiments are, however, there is strong evidence to suggest that the information conveyed in a signal may only have value when presented interactively. By their very nature, signalling exchanges are interactive and therefore, an interactive playback design is a powerful tool for examining the function of such exchanges. While researchers working on frog and songbird vocal interactions have long championed interactive playback, it remains surprisingly underused across other taxa. The interactive playback approach is not limited to studies of acoustic signalling, but can be applied to other sensory modalities, including visual, chemical and electrical communication. Here, I discuss interactive playback as a potent yet underused technique in the field of animal behaviour. I present a concise review of studies that have used interactive playback thus far, describe how it can be applied, and discuss its limitations and challenges. My hope is that this review will result in more scientists applying this innovative technique to their own study subjects, as a means of furthering our understanding of the function of signalling interactions in animal communication systems. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. A high resolution small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) with x-ray tomographic guidance capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John; Armour, Elwood; Kazanzides, Peter; Iordachita, Iulian; Tryggestad, Erik; Deng, Hua; Matinfar, Mohammad; Kennedy, Christopher; Liu, Zejian; Chan, Timothy; Gray, Owen; Verhaegen, Frank; McNutt, Todd; Ford, Eric; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the CT imaging, conformal irradiation and treatment planning capabilities of a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). Methods The SARRP employs a dual-focal spot, constant voltage x-ray source mounted on a gantry with a source-to-isocenter distance of 35 cm. Gantry rotation is limited to 120° from vertical. Eighty to 100 kVp x-rays from the smaller 0.4 mm focal spot are used for imaging. Both 0.4 mm and 3.0 mm focal spots operate at 225 kVp for irradiation. Robotic translate/rotate stages are used to position the animal. Cone-beam (CB) CT imaging is achieved by rotating the horizontal animal between the stationary x-ray source and a flat-panel detector. Radiation beams range from 0.5 mm in diameter to (60 × 60) mm2. Dosimetry is measured with radio-chromic films. Monte Carlo dose calculations are employed for treatment planning. The combination of gantry and robotic stage motions facilitate conformal irradiation. Results The SARRP spans 3 ft × 4 ft × 6 ft (WxLxH). Depending on filtration, the isocenter dose outputs at 1 cm depth in water range from 22 to 375 cGy/min from the smallest to the largest radiation fields. The 20% to 80% dose fall-off spans 0.16 mm. CBCT with (0.6 × 0.6 × 0.6) mm3 voxel resolution is acquired with less than 1 cGy. Treatment planning is performed at sub-mm resolution. Conclusions The capability of the SARRP to deliver highly focal beams to multiple animal model systems provides new research opportunities that more realistically bridge laboratory research and clinical translation. PMID:18640502

  4. Animal models in genomic research: Techniques, applications, and roles for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osier, Nicole D; Pham, Lan; Savarese, Amanda; Sayles, Kendra; Alexander, Sheila A

    2016-11-01

    Animal research has been conducted by scientists for over two millennia resulting in a better understanding of human anatomy, physiology, and pathology, as well as testing of novel therapies. In the molecular genomic era, pre-clinical models represent a key tool for understanding the genomic underpinnings of health and disease and are relevant to precision medicine initiatives. Nurses contribute to improved health by collecting and translating evidence from clinically relevant pre-clinical models. Using animal models, nurses can ask questions that would not be feasible or ethical to address in humans, and establish the safety and efficacy of interventions before translating them to clinical trials. Two advantages of using pre-clinical models are reduced variability between test subjects and the opportunity for precisely controlled experimental exposures. Standardized care controls the effects of diet and environment, while the availability of inbred strains significantly reduces the confounding effects of genetic differences. Outside the laboratory, nurses can contribute to the approval and oversight of animal studies, as well as translation to clinical trials and, ultimately, patient care. This review is intended as a primer on the use of animal models to advance nursing science; specifically, the paper discusses the utility of preclinical models for studying the pathophysiologic and genomic contributors to health and disease, testing interventions, and evaluating effects of environmental exposures. Considerations specifically geared to nurse researchers are also introduced, including discussion of how to choose an appropriate model and controls, potential confounders, as well as legal and ethical concerns. Finally, roles for nurse clinicians in pre-clinical research are also highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Research ethics I: Responsible conduct of research (RCR)--historical and contemporary issues pertaining to human and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D

    2011-02-01

    In this series of articles--Research Ethics I, Research Ethics II, and Research Ethics III--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In Research Ethics I, they present a historical overview of the evolution of RCR in the United States then examine the evolution of human and animal experimentation from the birth of scientific medicine through World War II to the present day. They relied on authoritative documents, both historical and contemporary, insightful commentary, and empirical research in order to identify current issues and controversies of potential interest to both faculty and students. The authors have written this article from a historical perspective because they think all readers interested in RCR should appreciate how the history of science and all the good--and harm--it has produced can inform how researchers practice responsible research in the 21st century and beyond.

  6. Meeting report: batch-to-batch variability in estrogenic activity in commercial animal diets--importance and approaches for laboratory animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; vom Saal, Frederick S

    2008-03-01

    We report information from two workshops sponsored by the National Institutes of Health that were held to a) assess whether dietary estrogens could significantly impact end points in experimental animals, and b) involve program participants and feed manufacturers to address the problems associated with measuring and eliminating batch-to-batch variability in rodent diets that may lead to conflicting findings in animal experiments within and between laboratories. Data were presented at the workshops showing that there is significant batch-to-batch variability in estrogenic content of commercial animal diets, and that this variability results in differences in experimental outcomes. A combination of methods were proposed to determine levels of total estrogenic activity and levels of specific estrogenic constituents in soy-containing, casein-containing, and other soy-free rodent diets. Workshop participants recommended that researchers pay greater attention to the type of diet being used in animal studies and choose a diet whose estrogenic activity (or lack thereof) is appropriate for the experimental model and end points of interest. Information about levels of specific phytoestrogens, as well as estrogenic activity caused by other contaminants and measured by bioassay, should be disclosed in scientific publications. This will require laboratory animal diet manufacturers to provide investigators with information regarding the phytoestrogen content and other estrogenic compounds in commercial diets used in animal research.

  7. The Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing: Proceedings of a Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This volume contains the prepared papers and discussions of a National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council Symposium on the Future of Animals, Cells, Models, and Systems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing. The purpose of the symposium was to examine the past, present, and future contributions of animals to human health…

  8. Contribution of Large Animals to Translational Research on Prenatal Programming of Obesity and Associated Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    The awareness of factors causing obesity and associated disorders has grown up in the last years from genome to a more complicated concept (developmental programming) in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions markedly modify the phenotype and homeostasis of the individuals and determine juvenile growth, life-time fitness/obesity and disease risks. Experimentation in human beings is impeded by ethical issues plus inherent high variability and confounding factors (genetics, lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity) and preclinical studies in adequate translational animal models are therefore decisive. Most of the studies have been performed in rodents, whilst the use of large animals is scarce. Having in mind body-size, handlingeasiness and cost-efficiency, the main large animal species for use in biomedical research are rabbits, sheep and swine. The choice of the model depends on the research objectives. To outline the main features of the use of rabbits, sheep and swine and their contributions as translational models in prenatal programming of obesity and associated disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Design of small-animal thermal neutron irradiation facility at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The broad beam facility (BBF) at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) can provide a thermal neutron beam with flux intensity and quality comparable to the beam currently used for research on neutron capture therapy using cell-culture and small-animal irradiations. Monte Carlo computations were made, first, to compare with the dosimetric measurements at the existing BBF and, second, to calculate the neutron and gamma fluxes and doses expected at the proposed BBF. Multiple cell cultures or small animals could be irradiated simultaneously at the so-modified BBF under conditions similar to or better than those individual animals irradiated at the existing thermal neutron irradiation Facility (TNIF) of the BMRR. The flux intensity of the collimated thermal neutron beam at the proposed BBF would be 1.7 x 10 10 n/cm 2 ·s at 3-MW reactor power, the same as at the TNIF. However, the proposed collimated beam would have much lower gamma (0.89 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n th ) and fast neutron (0.58 x 10 -11 cGy·cm 2 /n th ) contaminations, 64 and 19% of those at the TNIF, respectively. The feasibility of remodeling the facility is discussed

  10. Should academic journals publish e-cigarette research linked to tobacco companies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M; Etter, Jean-François; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-08-01

    Electronic cigarettes are currently polarizing professional opinion. Some public health experts regard them as an effective smoking cessation aid and a vital means of reducing active and passive smoking, while others regard them as another attempt by the tobacco industry to create new customers and addicts. These different attitudes unsurprisingly yield different conclusions regarding both the appropriate regulation of e-cigarettes and the ethical status of research funded by, or conducted in, cooperation with the tobacco industry. This paper examines whether e-cigarette research linked to the tobacco industry should be regarded as an exception to the rule that tobacco industry research is so tainted by conflicts of interest that journals should refuse to publish them, or at the very least treat them as a special case for scrutiny. Despite the fact that e-cigarettes can be used for smoking cessation, most of the conflicts of interest that apply to other tobacco research also apply to e-cigarette research linked to that industry. Journals that currently refuse to publish findings from studies linked to tobacco companies have no reason to make an exception in the case of e-cigarettes. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Study Design Rigor in Animal-Experimental Research Published in Anesthesia Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerauf, Janine M; Moss, Angela F; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Bartels, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies has been identified as an impediment for translation of basic mechanistic research into effective clinical therapies. Indeed, the National Institutes of Health has revised its grant application process to require more rigorous study design, including sample size calculations, blinding procedures, and randomization steps. We hypothesized that the reporting of such metrics of study design rigor has increased over time for animal-experimental research published in anesthesia journals. PubMed was searched for animal-experimental studies published in 2005, 2010, and 2015 in primarily English-language anesthesia journals. A total of 1466 publications were graded on the performance of sample size estimation, randomization, and blinding. Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess linear trends over time for the primary outcome of whether or not a metric was reported. Interrater agreement for each of the 3 metrics (power, randomization, and blinding) was assessed using the weighted κ coefficient in a 10% random sample of articles rerated by a second investigator blinded to the ratings of the first investigator. A total of 1466 manuscripts were analyzed. Reporting for all 3 metrics of experimental design rigor increased over time (2005 to 2010 to 2015): for power analysis, from 5% (27/516), to 12% (59/485), to 17% (77/465); for randomization, from 41% (213/516), to 50% (243/485), to 54% (253/465); and for blinding, from 26% (135/516), to 38% (186/485), to 47% (217/465). The weighted κ coefficients and 98.3% confidence interval indicate almost perfect agreement between the 2 raters beyond that which occurs by chance alone (power, 0.93 [0.85, 1.0], randomization, 0.91 [0.85, 0.98], and blinding, 0.90 [0.84, 0.96]). Our hypothesis that reported metrics of rigor in animal-experimental studies in anesthesia journals have increased during the past decade was confirmed. More consistent reporting, or explicit justification for absence

  12. Rethinking 3R strategies: Digging deeper into AnimalTestInfo promotes transparency in in vivo biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörendahl, Antje; Leich, Nora; Vietze, Julia; Steinfath, Matthias; Chmielewska, Justyna; Hensel, Andreas; Grune, Barbara; Schönfelder, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), animal welfare is seen as a matter of great importance. However, with respect to animal experimentation, European citizens feel quite uninformed. The European Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals aims for greater transparency and requires that a comprehensible, nontechnical summary (NTS) of each authorised research project involving animals is published by the respective Member State. However, the NTSs remain sleeping beauties if their contents are not easily and systematically accessible. The German web-based NTS database AnimalTestInfo is a unique channel for scientists to communicate their work, and provides the opportunity for large-scale analyses of planned animal studies to inform researchers and the public. For an in-depth meta-analysis, we classified the duly completed NTSs submitted to AnimalTestInfo in 2014 and 2015 according to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) system. Indexing the NTSs with ICD codes provided a fine-grained overview of the prospective uses of experimental animals. Using this approach, transparency, especially for highly controversial animal research involving, for example, nonhuman primates, is fostered, as it enables pinpointing the envisaged beneficiary down to the level of the addressed disease. Moreover, research areas with many planned projects involving animals can be specified in detail. The development of 3R (replacement, reduction, and refinement) measures in these research areas may be most efficient, as a large number of experimental animals would benefit from it. Indexing NTSs with ICD codes can support governments and funding agencies in advancing target-oriented funding of 3R research. Data drawn from NTSs can provide a basis for the development, validation, and implementation of directed 3R strategies as well as guidance for rethinking the role of animal research models. PMID:29240762

  13. Rethinking 3R strategies: Digging deeper into AnimalTestInfo promotes transparency in in vivo biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Bettina; Dörendahl, Antje; Leich, Nora; Vietze, Julia; Steinfath, Matthias; Chmielewska, Justyna; Hensel, Andreas; Grune, Barbara; Schönfelder, Gilbert

    2017-12-01

    In the European Union (EU), animal welfare is seen as a matter of great importance. However, with respect to animal experimentation, European citizens feel quite uninformed. The European Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals aims for greater transparency and requires that a comprehensible, nontechnical summary (NTS) of each authorised research project involving animals is published by the respective Member State. However, the NTSs remain sleeping beauties if their contents are not easily and systematically accessible. The German web-based NTS database AnimalTestInfo is a unique channel for scientists to communicate their work, and provides the opportunity for large-scale analyses of planned animal studies to inform researchers and the public. For an in-depth meta-analysis, we classified the duly completed NTSs submitted to AnimalTestInfo in 2014 and 2015 according to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) system. Indexing the NTSs with ICD codes provided a fine-grained overview of the prospective uses of experimental animals. Using this approach, transparency, especially for highly controversial animal research involving, for example, nonhuman primates, is fostered, as it enables pinpointing the envisaged beneficiary down to the level of the addressed disease. Moreover, research areas with many planned projects involving animals can be specified in detail. The development of 3R (replacement, reduction, and refinement) measures in these research areas may be most efficient, as a large number of experimental animals would benefit from it. Indexing NTSs with ICD codes can support governments and funding agencies in advancing target-oriented funding of 3R research. Data drawn from NTSs can provide a basis for the development, validation, and implementation of directed 3R strategies as well as guidance for rethinking the role of animal research models.

  14. Rethinking 3R strategies: Digging deeper into AnimalTestInfo promotes transparency in in vivo biomedical research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union (EU, animal welfare is seen as a matter of great importance. However, with respect to animal experimentation, European citizens feel quite uninformed. The European Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals aims for greater transparency and requires that a comprehensible, nontechnical summary (NTS of each authorised research project involving animals is published by the respective Member State. However, the NTSs remain sleeping beauties if their contents are not easily and systematically accessible. The German web-based NTS database AnimalTestInfo is a unique channel for scientists to communicate their work, and provides the opportunity for large-scale analyses of planned animal studies to inform researchers and the public. For an in-depth meta-analysis, we classified the duly completed NTSs submitted to AnimalTestInfo in 2014 and 2015 according to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD system. Indexing the NTSs with ICD codes provided a fine-grained overview of the prospective uses of experimental animals. Using this approach, transparency, especially for highly controversial animal research involving, for example, nonhuman primates, is fostered, as it enables pinpointing the envisaged beneficiary down to the level of the addressed disease. Moreover, research areas with many planned projects involving animals can be specified in detail. The development of 3R (replacement, reduction, and refinement measures in these research areas may be most efficient, as a large number of experimental animals would benefit from it. Indexing NTSs with ICD codes can support governments and funding agencies in advancing target-oriented funding of 3R research. Data drawn from NTSs can provide a basis for the development, validation, and implementation of directed 3R strategies as well as guidance for rethinking the role of animal research models.

  15. An extended evaluation of the readability of tapered, animated, and textured directed-edge representations in node-link graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holten, D.H.R.; Isenberg, P.; Wijk, van J.J.; Fekete, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a study comparing five directed-edge representations for use in 2D, screen-based node-link diagrams. The goal of this work is to extend the understanding of tradeoffs and best practices for the representation of edges in directed graphs and to help practitioners choose

  16. [Advances in diabetic animal models and its application in the traditional Chinese medicine research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Shen, Zhu-fang; Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Xiao-bo

    2015-08-01

    The high and continuing soaring incidence of diabetes may become a huge obstacle to China's development. The antidiabetic drug development is one way to solve the problem. Animal model is a powerful tool for drug development. This paper compares and analyzes the three kinds of animal models for antidiabetic drug development in replicating principle, methods and characteristic, then summarized the application in the research of traditional Chinese medicine. At the same time, the analysis of the market, application and clinical advantages of hypoglycemic medicine from traditional Chinese medicine, is given in this paper, based on the literature analysis. From the point of the clinic advantage embodiment and new drug development, this paper will provide advisory and assistance support for the anti-diabetic fighting with traditional Chinese medicine.

  17. Applications of computer-graphics animation for motion-perception research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, D. R.; Kaiser, M. K.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using computer animated stimuli in studying motion perception are presented and discussed. Most current programs of motion perception research could not be pursued without the use of computer graphics animation. Computer generated displays afford latitudes of freedom and control that are almost impossible to attain through conventional methods. There are, however, limitations to this presentational medium. At present, computer generated displays present simplified approximations of the dynamics in natural events. Very little is known about how the differences between natural events and computer simulations influence perceptual processing. In practice, the differences are assumed to be irrelevant to the questions under study, and that findings with computer generated stimuli will generalize to natural events.

  18. Animal models for posttraumatic stress disorder: An overview of what is used in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Bart; Homberg, Judith R

    2015-12-22

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common anxiety disorder characterised by its persistence of symptoms after a traumatic experience. Although some patients can be cured, many do not benefit enough from the psychological therapies or medication strategies used. Many researchers use animal models to learn more about the disorder and several models are available. The most-used physical stressor models are single-prolonged stress, restraint stress, foot shock, stress-enhanced fear learning, and underwater trauma. Common social stressors are housing instability, social instability, early-life stress, and social defeat. Psychological models are not as diverse and rely on controlled exposure to the test animal's natural predator. While validation of these models has been resolved with replicated symptoms using analogous stressors, translating new findings to human patients remains essential for their impact on the field. Choosing a model to experiment with can be challenging; this overview of what is possible with individual models may aid in making a decision.

  19. Opening up animal research and science-society relations? A thematic analysis of transparency discourses in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Hobson-West, Pru

    2016-10-01

    The use of animals in scientific research represents an interesting case to consider in the context of the contemporary preoccupation with transparency and openness in science and governance. In the United Kingdom, organisations critical of animal research have long called for more openness. More recently, organisations involved in animal research also seem to be embracing transparency discourses. This article provides a detailed analysis of publically available documents from animal protection groups, the animal research community and government/research funders. Our aim is to explore the similarities and differences in the way transparency is constructed and to identify what more openness is expected to achieve. In contrast to the existing literature, we conclude that the slipperiness of transparency discourses may ultimately have transformative implications for the relationship between science and society and that contemporary openness initiatives might be sowing the seeds for change to the status quo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Opening up animal research and science–society relations? A thematic analysis of transparency discourses in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Hobson-West, Pru

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in scientific research represents an interesting case to consider in the context of the contemporary preoccupation with transparency and openness in science and governance. In the United Kingdom, organisations critical of animal research have long called for more openness. More recently, organisations involved in animal research also seem to be embracing transparency discourses. This article provides a detailed analysis of publically available documents from animal protection groups, the animal research community and government/research funders. Our aim is to explore the similarities and differences in the way transparency is constructed and to identify what more openness is expected to achieve. In contrast to the existing literature, we conclude that the slipperiness of transparency discourses may ultimately have transformative implications for the relationship between science and society and that contemporary openness initiatives might be sowing the seeds for change to the status quo. PMID:26009149

  1. Innovativeness as an emergent property: a new alignment of comparative and experimental research on animal innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Andrea S

    2016-03-19

    Innovation and creativity are key defining features of human societies. As we face the global challenges of the twenty-first century, they are also facets upon which we must become increasingly reliant. But what makes Homo sapiens so innovative and where does our high innovation propensity come from? Comparative research on innovativeness in non-human animals allows us to peer back through evolutionary time and investigate the ecological factors that drove the evolution of innovativeness, whereas experimental research identifies and manipulates underpinning creative processes. In commenting on the present theme issue, I highlight the controversies that have typified this research field and show how a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about innovativeness will contribute to resolving these tensions. In the past decade, innovativeness has been considered by many as a trait, a direct product of cognition, and a direct target of selection. The evidence I review here suggests that innovativeness will be hereon viewed as one component, or even an emergent property of a larger array of traits, which have evolved to deal with environmental variation. I illustrate how research should capitalize on taxonomic diversity to unravel the full range of psychological processes that underpin innovativeness in non-human animals. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Process research on Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples: linking theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Paul S; Johnson, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this article is on the link among theory, process, and outcome in the practice of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples. We describe the EFT model of change and the EFT perspective on adult love as the reflection of underlying attachment processes. We outline the manner in which theory and research inform EFT interventions. This leads into a detailed review of the literature on the processes of change in EFT. We highlight the client responses and therapist operations that have emerged from process research and their relation to treatment outcomes. We discuss the implications of this body of research for clinical practice and training. © FPI, Inc.

  3. Publication bias in animal research presented at the 2008 Society of Critical Care Medicine Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Una; Joffe, Ari R

    2017-07-07

    To determine a direct measure of publication bias by determining subsequent full-paper publication (P) of studies reported in animal research abstracts presented at an international conference (A). We selected 100 random (using a random-number generator) A from the 2008 Society of Critical Care Medicine Conference. Using a data collection form and study manual, we recorded methodology and result variables from A. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to June 2015, and DOAJ and Google Scholar to May 2017 to screen for subsequent P. Methodology and result variables were recorded from P to determine changes in reporting from A. Predictors of P were examined using Fisher's Exact Test. 62% (95% CI 52-71%) of studies described in A were subsequently P after a median 19 [IQR 9-33.3] months from conference presentation. Reporting of studies in A was of low quality: randomized 27% (the method of randomization and allocation concealment not described), blinded 0%, sample-size calculation stated 0%, specifying the primary outcome 26%, numbers given with denominators 6%, and stating number of animals used 47%. Only being an orally presented (vs. poster presented) A (14/16 vs. 48/84, p = 0.025) predicted P. Reporting of studies in P was of poor quality: randomized 39% (the method of randomization and allocation concealment not described), likely blinded 6%, primary outcome specified 5%, sample size calculation stated 0%, numbers given with denominators 34%, and number of animals used stated 56%. Changes in reporting from A to P occurred: from non-randomized to randomized 19%, from non-blinded to blinded 6%, from negative to positive outcomes 8%, from having to not having a stated primary outcome 16%, and from non-statistically to statistically significant findings 37%. Post-hoc, using publication data, P was predicted by having positive outcomes (published 62/62, unpublished 33/38; p = 0.003), or statistically significant results (published 58/62, unpublished 20/38; p < 0

  4. Linking clinical quality indicators to research evidence - a case study in asthma management for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Miew Keen; Tsafnat, Guy; Hibbert, Peter; Runciman, William B; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-07-21

    Clinical quality indicators are used to monitor the performance of healthcare services and should wherever possible be based on research evidence. Little is known however about the extent to which indicators in common use are based on research. The objective of this study is to measure the extent to which clinical quality indicators used in asthma management in children with outcome measurements can be linked to results in randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) reports. This work is part of a broader research program to trial methods that improve the efficiency and accuracy of indicator development. National-level indicators for asthma management in children were extracted from the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse database and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence quality standards by two independent appraisers. Outcome measures were extracted from all published English language RCT reports for asthma management in children below the age of 12 published between 2005 and 2014. The two sets were then linked by manually mapping both to a common set of Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts. The analysis identified 39 indicators and 562 full text RCTs dealing with asthma management in children. About 95% (37/39) of the indicators could be linked to RCT outcome measures. It is possible to identify relevant RCT reports for the majority of indicators used to assess the quality of asthma management in childhood. The methods reported here could be automated to more generally support assessment of candidate indicators against the research evidence.

  5. Comparison of the Canadian and US Laws, Regulations, Policies, and Systems of Oversight for Animals in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gilly; Locke, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The Canadian and United States' approaches to oversight of animals in research are both based on the "3Rs" principles outlined in Russell and Burch's classic text, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Each country seeks to protect the welfare of animals, while permitting the legitimate goals of scientific research to be attained according to the legal principles, cultures, and strengths and constraints of their jurisprudential and societal traditions. Canada is one of the most decentralized federations in the world, and regulation of activities is based to a great extent on custom and practice. The United States is more hierarchical and, at least with respect to laws governing animal research, more centralized. Accordingly, the Canadian approach is rooted in the concepts of social contracts, with a greater emphasis on guidance and policy and less reliance on legislation. No federal (national) direct legislation of laboratory animal welfare exists, although the federal government uses its criminal and spending authorities to shape behavior. The central feature of the Canadian system is the Canadian Council on Animal Care, which was formed to support universities and government departments involved in animal-based science. Animal care committees play a central role in implementing the guidelines and policies in facilities that carry out animal research. The United States has enacted two federal (national) laws applicable to animals in research. The Animal Welfare Act is a more traditional, command-and-control law that gives authority to the US Department of Agriculture to promulgate regulations, inspect facilities, and enforce violations. The Health Research Extension Act, which amended the US Public Health Services (PHS) Act, applies to any activity conducted or supported by the PHS, including research efforts supported by the US National Institutes of Health. It is largely nonregulatory and establishes a system of assurances and policies that covered

  6. The Devil Is in the Details: Incomplete Reporting in Preclinical Animal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, Marc T; Moher, David; Sullivan, Katrina J; Fergusson, Dean; Griffin, Gilly; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hutton, Brian; Lalu, Manoj M; Macleod, Malcolm; Marshall, John; Mei, Shirley H J; Rudnicki, Michael; Stewart, Duncan J; Turgeon, Alexis F; McIntyre, Lauralyn

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete reporting of study methods and results has become a focal point for failures in the reproducibility and translation of findings from preclinical research. Here we demonstrate that incomplete reporting of preclinical research is not limited to a few elements of research design, but rather is a broader problem that extends to the reporting of the methods and results. We evaluated 47 preclinical research studies from a systematic review of acute lung injury that use mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a treatment. We operationalized the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) reporting guidelines for pre-clinical studies into 109 discrete reporting sub-items and extracted 5,123 data elements. Overall, studies reported less than half (47%) of all sub-items (median 51 items; range 37-64). Across all studies, the Methods Section reported less than half (45%) and the Results Section reported less than a third (29%). There was no association between journal impact factor and completeness of reporting, which suggests that incomplete reporting of preclinical research occurs across all journals regardless of their perceived prestige. Incomplete reporting of methods and results will impede attempts to replicate research findings and maximize the value of preclinical studies.

  7. The Devil Is in the Details: Incomplete Reporting in Preclinical Animal Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc T Avey

    Full Text Available Incomplete reporting of study methods and results has become a focal point for failures in the reproducibility and translation of findings from preclinical research. Here we demonstrate that incomplete reporting of preclinical research is not limited to a few elements of research design, but rather is a broader problem that extends to the reporting of the methods and results. We evaluated 47 preclinical research studies from a systematic review of acute lung injury that use mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs as a treatment. We operationalized the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments reporting guidelines for pre-clinical studies into 109 discrete reporting sub-items and extracted 5,123 data elements. Overall, studies reported less than half (47% of all sub-items (median 51 items; range 37-64. Across all studies, the Methods Section reported less than half (45% and the Results Section reported less than a third (29%. There was no association between journal impact factor and completeness of reporting, which suggests that incomplete reporting of preclinical research occurs across all journals regardless of their perceived prestige. Incomplete reporting of methods and results will impede attempts to replicate research findings and maximize the value of preclinical studies.

  8. Research in architecture : reflection on three approaches linking research and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, B.J.F.; Pereira Roders, A.R.; Veldpaus, L.; Fidanoglu, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Research in Architecture is not new, it is usually known as analysis or pre-design stage. Architects get acquainted with program requirements, project context and/or other inspiring works, including concepts on theory, philosophy or history. Seldom are the architects who design without any

  9. Animal models of yellow fever and their application in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Justin G

    2016-06-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an arbovirus that causes significant human morbidity and mortality. This virus has been studied intensively over the past century, although there are still no treatment options for those who become infected. Periodic and unpredictable yellow fever (YF) outbreaks in Africa and South America continue to occur and underscore the ongoing need to further understand this viral disease and to develop additional countermeasures to prevent or treat cases of illness. The use of animal models of YF is critical to accomplishing this goal. There are several animal models of YF that replicate various aspects of clinical disease and have provided insight into pathogenic mechanisms of the virus. These typically include mice, hamsters and non-human primates (NHP). The utilities and shortcomings of the available animal models of YF are discussed. Information on recent discoveries that have been made in the field of YFV research is also included as well as important future directions in further ameliorating the morbidity and mortality that occur as a result of YFV infection. It is anticipated that these model systems will help facilitate further improvements in the understanding of this virus and in furthering countermeasures to prevent or treat infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  11. ANIMAL WELFARE FROM MOUSE TO MOOSE--IMPLEMENTING THE PRINCIPLES OF THE 3RS IN WILDLIFE RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsjö, Johan; Fahlman, Åsa; Törnqvist, Elin

    2016-04-01

    The concept of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) was originally developed for improving laboratory animal welfare and is well known in biomedical and toxicologic research. The 3Rs have so far gained little attention in wildlife research, and there could be several reasons for this. First, researchers may prioritize the welfare of populations and ecosystems over the welfare of individual animals. The effects of research on individual animals can, however, impact welfare and research quality at group and population levels. Second, researchers may find it difficult to apply the 3Rs to studies of free-living wildlife because of the differences between laboratory and wild animals, species, research environment, and purpose and design of the studies. There are, however, several areas where it is possible to transfer the 3R principles to wildlife research, including replacement with noninvasive research techniques, reduction with optimized experimental design, and refinement with better methods of capture, anesthesia, and handling. Third, researchers may not have been trained in applying the 3Rs in wildlife research. This training is needed since ethics committees, employers, journal publishers, and funding agencies increasingly require researchers to consider the welfare implications of their research. In this paper, we compare the principles of the 3Rs in various research areas to better understand the possibilities and challenges of the 3Rs in wildlife research. We emphasize the importance of applying the 3Rs systematically throughout the research process. Based on experiences from laboratory research, we suggest three key factors to enhance implementation of the 3Rs in wildlife research: 1) organizational structure and management, 2) 3R awareness, and 3) research innovation, validation, and implementation. Finally, we encourage an interdisciplinary approach to incorporate the 3R principles in wildlife research. For improved animal welfare and increased

  12. The future trends for research on quality and safety of animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel D. Scollan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality must now be considered as a convergence between consumers' wishes and needs and the intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of food products. The increasing number of quality attributes which must be considered, increasing globalisation and the heterogeneity in consumption habits between countries are making this convergence progressively more difficult. In parallel, science is rapidly evolving (with the advent of genomics for instance, and a growing number of applications is thus expected for the improvement of food safety and quality. Among the meat and fish quality attributes, colour is very important because it determines, at least in part, consumer choice. The key targets to ensure a satisfactory colour are animal nutrition and management for fish, processing and product conditioning for meat. Tenderness and flavour continue to be important issues for the consumer because eating remains a pleasure. They both determine quality experience which itself influences repetitive purchase. Meat tenderness is a very complex problem which can be solved only by a holistic approach involving all the factors from conception, animal breeding and production, muscle biology and slaughter practice to carcass processing and meat preparation at the consumer end. Today, safety and healthiness are among the most important issues. Unfortunately, animal products can potentially be a source of biological and chemical contamination for consumers. The introduction of both control strategies along the food chain and the development of a food safety management system, from primary production to the domestic environment, are key issues that must be achieved. Despite a high dietary supply of saturated fats by dairy and meat products, it is imperative that professionals involved in animal research and in the associated industry convey the positive nutritional contributions of animal products to both consumers and health professionals. The latter include protein

  13. Progress of research on corneal collagen cross-linking for corneal melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Ren Xiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corneal collagen cross-linking(CXLcould increase the mechanical strength, biological stability and halt ectasia progression due to covalent bond formed by photochemical reaction between ultraviolet-A and emulsion of riboflavin between collagen fibers in corneal stroma. Corneal melting is an autoimmune related noninfectious corneal ulcer. The mechanism of corneal melting, major treatment, the basic fundamental of ultraviolet-A riboflavin induced CXL and the clinical researches status and experiment in CXL were summarized in the study.

  14. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meaning, action and interaction, self and perspectives. As research design incorporates both methodology and methods, the authors aim to expose the linkages between the 16 assumptions and essential grounded theory methods, highlighting the application of the latter in light of the former. Analyzing the links between symbolic interactionism and essential grounded theory methods provides novice researchers and researchers new to grounded theory with a foundation from which to design an evolved grounded theory research study.

  15. Image-guided small animal radiation research platform: calibration of treatment beam alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Iordachita, Iulian; Kazanzides, Peter; Ford, Eric; Wong, John

    2009-01-01

    Small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression and response to therapy with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) is a portable system for precision irradiation with beam sizes down to approximately 0.5 mm and optimally planned radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. This paper focuses on the geometric calibration of the system for high-precision irradiation. A novel technique for the calibration of the treatment beam is presented, which employs an x-ray camera whose precise positioning need not be known. Using the camera system we acquired a digitally reconstructed 3D 'star shot' for gantry calibration and then developed a technique to align each beam to a common isocenter with the robotic animal positioning stages. The calibration incorporates localization by cone-beam CT guidance. Uncorrected offsets of the beams with respect to the calibration origin ranged from 0.4 mm to 5.2 mm. With corrections, these alignment errors can be reduced to the sub-millimeter range. The calibration technique was used to deliver a stereotactic-like arc treatment to a phantom constructed with EBT Gafchromic films. All beams were shown to intersect at a common isocenter with a measured beam (FWHM) of approximately 1.07 mm using the 0.5 mm collimated beam. The desired positioning accuracy of the SARRP is 0.25 mm and the results indicate an accuracy of 0.2 mm. To fully realize the radiation localization capabilities of the SARRP, precise geometric calibration is required, as with any such system. The x-ray camera-based technique presented here provides a straightforward and semi-automatic method for system calibration.

  16. MOSFET assessment of radiation dose delivered to mice using the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Korideck, Houari; Chin, Lee M; Makrigiorgos, G Mike; Berbeco, Ross I

    2011-12-01

    The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a novel isocentric irradiation system that enables state-of-the-art image-guided radiotherapy research to be performed with animal models. This paper reports the results obtained from investigations assessing the radiation dose delivered by the SARRP to different anatomical target volumes in mice. Surgically implanted metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET) dosimeters were employed for the dose assessment. The results reveal differences between the calculated and measured dose of -3.5 to 0.5%, -5.2 to -0.7%, -3.9 to 0.5%, -5.9 to 2.5%, -5.5 to 0.5%, and -4.3 to 0% for the left kidney, liver, pancreas, prostate, left lung, and brain, respectively. Overall, the findings show less than 6% difference between the delivered and calculated dose, without tissue heterogeneity corrections. These results provide a useful assessment of the need for tissue heterogeneity corrections in SARRP dose calculations for clinically relevant tumor model sites.

  17. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golestani, Reza; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Wu, Chao [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Petrov, Artiom D. [University of California, Irvine, Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Beekman, Freek J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Utrecht (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Section Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft (Netherlands); MILabs, Utrecht (Netherlands); Boersma, Hendrikus H. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, Cardiovascular Imaging Group, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstruction have led to sub-millimetre and sub-half-millimetre resolution SPECT in rats and mice, respectively. In this article we review applications of microSPECT in cardiovascular research in which information about the function and pathology of the myocardium, vessels and neurons is obtained. We give examples on how diagnostic tracers, new therapeutic interventions, pre- and postcardiovascular event prognosis, and functional and pathophysiological heart conditions can be explored by microSPECT, using small-animal models of cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  18. Small-animal SPECT and SPECT/CT: application in cardiovascular research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golestani, Reza; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Wu, Chao; Tio, Rene A.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Petrov, Artiom D.; Beekman, Freek J.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Preclinical cardiovascular research using noninvasive radionuclide and hybrid imaging systems has been extensively developed in recent years. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is based on the molecular tracer principle and is an established tool in noninvasive imaging. SPECT uses gamma cameras and collimators to form projection data that are used to estimate (dynamic) 3-D tracer distributions in vivo. Recent developments in multipinhole collimation and advanced image reconstruction have led to sub-millimetre and sub-half-millimetre resolution SPECT in rats and mice, respectively. In this article we review applications of microSPECT in cardiovascular research in which information about the function and pathology of the myocardium, vessels and neurons is obtained. We give examples on how diagnostic tracers, new therapeutic interventions, pre- and postcardiovascular event prognosis, and functional and pathophysiological heart conditions can be explored by microSPECT, using small-animal models of cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  19. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Nunn, Amy; Bastos, Leonardo; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite de; Kerr, Ligia; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Dourado, Inês

    2016-11-03

    Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and time-location sampling (TLS) offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic.

  20. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Reisner, Sari; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Nunn, Amy; Bastos, Leonardo; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Kerr, Ligia; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Dourado, Inês

    2018-01-01

    Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and time-location sampling (TLS) offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic. PMID:27828609

  1. A synthesis of convergent reflections, tensions and silences in linking gender and global environmental change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Ravera, Federica; Buechler, Stephanie; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Fernández-Giménez, María E; Reed, Maureen G; Thompson-Hall, Mary; Wilmer, Hailey; Aregu, Lemlem; Cohen, Philippa; Djoudi, Houria; Lawless, Sarah; Martín-López, Berta; Smucker, Thomas; Villamor, Grace B; Wangui, Elizabeth Edna

    2016-12-01

    This synthesis article joins the authors of the special issue "Gender perspectives in resilience, vulnerability and adaptation to global environmental change" in a common reflective dialogue about the main contributions of their papers. In sum, here we reflect on links between gender and feminist approaches to research in adaptation and resilience in global environmental change (GEC). The main theoretical contributions of this special issue are threefold: emphasizing the relevance of power relations in feminist political ecology, bringing the livelihood and intersectionality approaches into GEC, and linking resilience theories and critical feminist research. Empirical insights on key debates in GEC studies are also highlighted from the nine cases analysed, from Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa and the Pacific. Further, the special issue also contributes to broaden the gender approach in adaptation to GEC by incorporating research sites in the Global North alongside sites from the Global South. This paper examines and compares the main approaches adopted (e.g. qualitative or mixed methods) and the methodological challenges that derive from intersectional perspectives. Finally, key messages for policy agendas and further research are drawn from the common reflection.

  2. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Linking and Integrating Data for Oceanographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Shepherd, A.; Moore, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. We have published the entire R2R Catalog as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage linking and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by providing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation. We are leveraging or adopting existing community-standard concepts and vocabularies, particularly concepts from the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) ontology and terms from the pan-European SeaDataNet vocabularies, and continually re-publish resources as new concepts and terms are mapped. 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire data lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to (ultimately) global syntheses and journal articles. We are implementing globally unique and persistent identifiers at the collection, dataset, and granule levels, and encoding these citable identifiers directly into the Linked Data resources. 3.) We facilitate linking and integration with other repositories that publish Linked Data collections for the U.S. academic fleet, such as BCO-DMO and the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS). We are initially mapping datasets at the resource level, and plan to eventually implement rule-based mapping at the concept level. We work collaboratively with partner repositories to develop best practices for URI patterns and consensus on shared vocabularies. The R2R Linked Data collection is implemented as a

  3. Linking international research to global health equity: the limited contribution of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2013-05-01

    Health research has been identified as a vehicle for advancing global justice in health. However, in bioethics, issues of global justice are mainly discussed within an ongoing debate on the conditions under which international clinical research is permissible. As a result, current ethical guidance predominantly links one type of international research (biomedical) to advancing one aspect of health equity (access to new treatments). International guidelines largely fail to connect international research to promoting broader aspects of health equity - namely, healthier social environments and stronger health systems. Bioethical frameworks such as the human development approach do consider how international clinical research is connected to the social determinants of health but, again, do so to address the question of when international clinical research is permissible. It is suggested that the narrow focus of this debate is shaped by high-income countries' economic strategies. The article further argues that the debate's focus obscures a stronger imperative to consider how other types of international research might advance justice in global health. Bioethics should consider the need for non-clinical health research and its contribution to advancing global justice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-02-21

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting "robust" animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  5. Scientific research on animal biodiversity is systematically biased towards vertebrates and temperate regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Titley

    Full Text Available Over the last 25 years, research on biodiversity has expanded dramatically, fuelled by increasing threats to the natural world. However, the number of published studies is heavily weighted towards certain taxa, perhaps influencing conservation awareness of and funding for less-popular groups. Few studies have systematically quantified these biases, although information on this topic is important for informing future research and conservation priorities. We investigated: i which animal taxa are being studied; ii if any taxonomic biases are the same in temperate and tropical regions; iii whether the taxon studied is named in the title of papers on biodiversity, perhaps reflecting a perception of what biodiversity is; iv the geographical distribution of biodiversity research, compared with the distribution of biodiversity and threatened species; and v the geographical distribution of authors' countries of origin. To do this, we used the search engine Web of Science to systematically sample a subset of the published literature with 'biodiversity' in the title. In total 526 research papers were screened-5% of all papers in Web of Science with biodiversity in the title. For each paper, details on taxonomic group, title phrasing, number of citations, study location, and author locations were recorded. Compared to the proportions of described species, we identified a considerable taxonomic weighting towards vertebrates and an under-representation of invertebrates (particularly arachnids and insects in the published literature. This discrepancy is more pronounced in highly cited papers, and in tropical regions, with only 43% of biodiversity research in the tropics including invertebrates. Furthermore, while papers on vertebrate taxa typically did not specify the taxonomic group in the title, the converse was true for invertebrate papers. Biodiversity research is also biased geographically: studies are more frequently carried out in developed countries

  6. Anxiety and panic: from human studies to animal research and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Marco; Ogliari, Anna

    2005-02-01

    The role of learning and conditioning varies across human anxiety disorders, and distinguishing between fear and panic is important to guide investigation in panic disorder. By reminding that some psychological and psychobiological theories view panic attacks as false alarms of unconditioned biological origin, we suggest that employing endophenotypes of biological and evolutionary relevance--such as the respiratory responses to suffocative stimuli--can be fruitful for both human research and animal models of panic, and can help keeping unconditioned components of the clinical picture separate from the conditioned components in the experimental setting. We present a review of a model of panic disorder by which idiosyncratic environmental adverse events can promote unconditioned and unexpected spells of physical alarm. Along the proposed causal pathway the alternative splicing expression of polymorphic genes of the cholinergic system play an important role. The overproduction of the Acetylcholinesterase readthrough splice variant after minor stress can promote passive avoidance and learning through action at the level of the corticolimbic circuitries, as well as heightened sensitivity to suffocative stimuli by action upon the cholinergic components of chemoception. When a component of anticipatory anxiety complicates the clinical picture of recurrent panic attacks, and the HPA becomes activated, the glucocorticoid response element 17 kb upstream of the Acetylcholinesterase gene transcription initiation site may sustain sensitivity to suffocative stimuli for prolonged time. Finally, we review how animal models of human panic based on unconditioned provocation of alarm reactions by the same respiratory panicogens that are employed in man are viable and promising.

  7. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-04-11

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition.

  8. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition. PMID:27077845

  9. Linking contemporary research to the classics: Celebrating 125 years at APA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, James T; Becker, Stefanie I; Brockmole, James; Castelhano, Monica; Creem-Regehr, Sarah; Gray, Rob; Hecht, Heiko; Juhasz, Barbara; Philbeck, John; Woodman, Geoffrey

    2017-10-01

    APA is celebrating 125 years this year and at the journal we are commemorating this milestone with a special issue. The inspiration came from our editorial team, who wished to acknowledge the links between game-changing articles that have influenced our research community in the past-we call them classics for short-and contemporary works. The main idea was to feature the work of nine contemporary research teams, while at the same time drawing readers' attention to their links with the classics. In this introduction, we have organized the articles according to several broad themes: active perception, perception for action, action alters perception, perception of our bodies in action, and acting on selective perceptions. As all who have read and contributed to the journal over the past few years have come to realize, it is no longer possible to study perception without considering its role in action. Nor is it possible to study action (formerly called performance , as reflected in the journal title) without understanding the perceptual contributions to action. These nine articles each exemplify, in their own way, how these dynamic interactions play out in contemporary research in our field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Link between Corporate Environmental and Corporate Financial Performance—Viewpoints from Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bergmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For more than 40 years, a tremendous number of studies have empirically explored the relationship between Corporate Environmental Performance (CEP and Corporate Financial Performance (CFP. This study considers the relationship from a new perspective—via a qualitative research approach based on expert interviews. First, practitioners are queried for their view on the link between CEP and CFP and how to measure it. Since the vast majority see a positive relationship, this study contributes with a new form of evidence that it pays to be green. The chosen qualitative approach also allows a more detailed analysis of underlying cause-and-effect mechanisms. For instance, interviewed practitioners emphasize a direct and indirect impact from CEP on CFP. Second, the study conducts interviews with experts from research and associations (non-practitioners and compares the viewpoints of the two interview groups. One prevalent difference refers to the fact that non-practitioners do not focus on the two impact levels. Moreover, business experts perceive the link between CEP and CFP as much less complex and reveal more pragmatically oriented considerations. The study then discusses how the interview results and identified differences can be used to direct future research and to support corporations in their move towards sustainability.

  11. The G4R GMES Academy - linking research, academia, service providers and local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeil, Peter; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    The GMES Academy intends to enhance the role of the academic and R&D communities in the evolution of EO & GI services. The GMES4Regions G4R initiative, aiming to strengthen the link between GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and European regions, inaugurated the GMES Academy at the University Mozarteum of Salzburg (Austria) on 13th - 14th September 2012. This academy has been created with the objective of fostering a dialogue among the private sector, Local and Regional Administration (LRA) and the academic and research community, in order to improve the development of Earth Observation (EO) and Geographic Information (GI) services. On this occasion, Z_GIS, the Interfaculty Department of Geoinformatics of Salzburg University, hosted the round table "Fostering Downstream Services for the Regions - contributions from Research & Academia," during which the participants had the opportunity to discuss with representatives of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA) the future role of the academic community in this domain. Stakeholders from the academic and R&D world adopted the 'Salzburg Declaration on GMES related Research', calling for strengthening connections between research activities and educational programmes to improve GMES services. The Declaration calls mainly for: • fostering education and training on GMES • ensuring cooperation among the academic and research community through the GMES Academy • maintaining a political commitment towards the implementation of such academic initiatives. The GMES Academy is established as a platform with six components: GATEWAY - the directory of Universities and Research Centres BRIDGE - an inventory of research briefs documenting the latest offerings from research to effective applications FACILITATOR - a portal to seek or propose internships or contract research across Europe and addressing outreach and advocacy: LINK - Access to the repository of on-going GMES related

  12. Usefulness of radioisotopes in animal nutrition research on health and disease aspects of livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes in India commenced in seventies under international programmes to investigate certain aspects of metabolic disorders at 4 to 5 centres in the country. In due course of time, many universities and institutes also started using nuclear techniques in animal science research because such techniques are more sensitive, accurate, fast and there is every possibility of estimating micro quantities otherwise not possible by gravimetric methods. Their use is also helpful to understand and trace the biochemical mechanisms of certain nutrients in tissues both from deficiency or toxicity point of view. Literature has thus accumulated in a number of developing countries to establish the causes of some important metabolic diseases which are discussed along with utilization of nutrients for production traits under normal conditions

  13. The emperor's new wardrobe: Rebalancing diversity of animal models in neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yartsev, Michael M

    2017-10-27

    The neuroscience field is steaming ahead, fueled by a revolution in cutting-edge technologies. Concurrently, another revolution has been underway-the diversity of species utilized for neuroscience research is sharply declining, as the field converges on a few selected model organisms. Here, from the perspective of a young scientist, I naively ask: Is the great diversity of questions in neuroscience best studied in only a handful of animal models? I review some of the limitations the field is facing following this convergence and how these can be rectified by increasing the diversity of appropriate model species. I propose that at this exciting time of revolution in genetics and device technologies, neuroscience might be ready to diversify again, if provided the appropriate support. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Functional relations and cognitive psychology: Lessons from human performance and animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert W; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    We consider requirements for effective interdisciplinary communication and explore alternative interpretations of "building bridges between functional and cognitive psychology." If the bridges are intended to connect radical behaviourism and cognitive psychology, or functional contextualism and cognitive psychology, the efforts are unlikely to be successful. But if the bridges are intended to connect functional relationships and cognitive theory, no construction is needed because the bridges already exist within cognitive psychology. We use human performance and animal research to illustrate the latter point and to counter the claim that the functional approach is unique in offering a close relationship between science and practice. Effective communication will be enhanced and, indeed, may only occur if the goal of functional contextualism extends beyond just "the advancement of functional contextual cognitive and behavioral science and practice" to "the advancement of cognitive and behavioral science and practice" without restriction. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Understanding the mechanisms of zinc bacitracin and avilamycin on animal production: linking gut microbiota and growth performance in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisol-Martínez, Eduardo; Stanley, Dragana; Geier, Mark S; Hughes, Robert J; Moore, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Unravelling the mechanisms of how antibiotics influence growth performance through changes in gut microbiota can lead to the identification of highly productive microbiota in animal production. Here we investigated the effect of zinc bacitracin and avilamycin on growth performance and caecal microbiota in chickens and analysed associations between individual bacteria and growth performance. Two trials were undertaken; each used 96 individually caged 15-day-old Cobb broilers. Trial 1 had a control group (n = 48) and a zinc bacitracin (50 ppm) treatment group (n = 48). Trial 2 had a control group (n = 48) and an avilamycin (15 ppm) treatment group (n = 48). Chicken growth performance was evaluated over a 10-day period, and caecal microbiota was characterised by sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Avilamycin produced no effect on growth performance and exhibited little significant disturbance of the microbiota structure. However, zinc bacitracin reduced the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treated birds, changed the composition and increased the diversity of their caecal microbiota by reducing dominant species. Avilamycin only produced minor reductions in the abundance of two microbial taxa, whereas zinc bacitracin produced relatively large shifts in a number of taxa, primarily Lactobacillus species. Also, a number of phylotypes closely related to lactobacilli species were positively or negatively correlated with FCR values, suggesting contrasting effects of Lactobacillus spp. on chicken growth performance. By harnessing such bacteria, it may be possible to develop high-productivity strategies in poultry that rely on the use of probiotics and less on in-feed antibiotics.

  16. Creating a social work link to the burn community: a research team goes to burn camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nancy R; Reeves, Patricia M; Cox, Ellen R; Call, Serena B

    2004-01-01

    Social work faculty and graduate students conducted focus groups with 52 burn-injured adolescents from three burn camps to explore perceptions of their camp experience. Three themes emerged from data analysis that suggest burn camps play an important role in participants' lives. Camp is a place where burn-injured adolescents: (1) feel "normal" and accepted; (2) acquire insight in regard to self and meaning in life; and (3) gain confidence, increase self-esteem, and develop empathy. This project highlights how the use of qualitative research methods with grassroots organizations such as burn camps can serve as a link to greater social work involvement with this community.

  17. The custodian administered research extract server: "improving the pipeline" in linked data delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitelhuber, Tom; Davis, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    At Western Australia's Data Linkage Branch (DLB) the extraction of linked data has become increasingly complex over the past decade and classical methods of data delivery are unsuited to the larger extractions which have become the norm. The Custodian Administered Research Extract Server (CARES) is a fast, accurate and predictable approach to linked data extraction. The Data Linkage Branch (DLB) creates linkage keys within and between datasets. To comply with the separation principal, these keys are sent to applicable data collection agencies for extraction. Routing requests through multiple channels is inefficient and makes it hard to monitor work and predict delivery times. CARES was developed to address these shortcomings and involved ongoing consultation with the Custodians and staff of collections, plus challenges of hardware, programming, governance and security. The introduction of CARES has reduced the workload burden of linked data extractions, while improving the efficiency, stability and predictability of turnaround times. As the scope of a linkage system broadens, challenges in data delivery are inevitable. CARES overcomes multiple obstacles with no sacrifice to the integrity, confidentiality or security of data. CARES is a valuable component of linkage infrastructure that is operable at any scale and adaptable to many data environments.

  18. Expectations for methodology and translation of animal research: a survey of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R; Bara, Meredith; Anton, Natalie; Nobis, Nathan

    2015-05-07

    Health care workers (HCW) often perform, promote, and advocate use of public funds for animal research (AR); therefore, an awareness of the empirical costs and benefits of animal research is an important issue for HCW. We aim to determine what health-care-workers consider should be acceptable standards of AR methodology and translation rate to humans. After development and validation, an e-mail survey was sent to all pediatricians and pediatric intensive care unit nurses and respiratory-therapists (RTs) affiliated with a Canadian University. We presented questions about demographics, methodology of AR, and expectations from AR. Responses of pediatricians and nurses/RTs were compared using Chi-square, with P methodological quality, most respondents expect that: AR is done to high quality; costs and difficulty are not acceptable justifications for low quality; findings should be reproducible between laboratories and strains of the same species; and guidelines for AR funded with public money should be consistent with these expectations. Asked about benefits of AR, most thought that there are sometimes/often large benefits to humans from AR, and disagreed that "AR rarely produces benefit to humans." Asked about expectations of translation to humans (of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and treatment findings), most: expect translation >40% of the time; thought that misleading AR results should occur methodological quality of, and the translation rate to humans of findings from AR. These expectations are higher than the empirical data show having been achieved. Unless these areas of AR significantly improve, HCW support of AR may be tenuous.

  19. SU-E-T-89: Comprehensive Quality Assurance Phantom for the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jermoumi, M; Ngwa, W [University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA (United States); Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Korideck, H; Zygmanski, P; Berbeco, R; Makrigiorgos, G; Cormack, R [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Use of Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) systems for conducting state-of-the-art image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) research on small animals has become more common over the past years. The purpose of this work is to develop and test the suitability and performance of a comprehensive quality assurance (QA) phantom for the SARRP. Methods: A QA phantom was developed for carrying out daily, monthly and annual QA tasks including imaging, dosimetry and treatment planning system (TPS) performance evaluation of the SARRP. The QA phantom consists of nine (60×60×5 mm3) KV-energy tissue equivalent solid water slabs that can be employed for annual dosimetry QA with film. Three of the top slabs are replaceable with ones incorporating Mosfets or OSLDs arranged in a quincunx pattern, or a slab drilled to accommodate an ion chamber insert. These top slabs are designed to facilitate routine daily and monthly QA tasks such as output constancy, isocenter congruency test, treatment planning system (TPS) QA, etc. One slab is designed with inserts for image QA. A prototype of the phantom was applied to test the performance of the imaging, planning and treatment delivery systems. Results: Output constancy test results showed daily variations within 3%. For isocenter congruency test, the phantom could be used to detect 0.3 mm deviations of the CBCT isocenter from the radiation isocenter. Using the Mosfet in phantom as target, the difference between TPS calculations and measurements was within 5%. Image-quality parameters could also be assessed in terms of geometric accuracy, CT number accuracy, linearity, noise and image uniformity, etc. Conclusion: The developed phantom can be employed as a simple tool for comprehensive performance evaluation of the SARRP. The study provides a reference for development of a comprehensive quality assurance program for the SARRP, with proposed tolerances and frequency of required tests.

  20. SU-E-T-89: Comprehensive Quality Assurance Phantom for the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jermoumi, M; Ngwa, W; Korideck, H; Zygmanski, P; Berbeco, R; Makrigiorgos, G; Cormack, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Use of Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) systems for conducting state-of-the-art image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) research on small animals has become more common over the past years. The purpose of this work is to develop and test the suitability and performance of a comprehensive quality assurance (QA) phantom for the SARRP. Methods: A QA phantom was developed for carrying out daily, monthly and annual QA tasks including imaging, dosimetry and treatment planning system (TPS) performance evaluation of the SARRP. The QA phantom consists of nine (60×60×5 mm3) KV-energy tissue equivalent solid water slabs that can be employed for annual dosimetry QA with film. Three of the top slabs are replaceable with ones incorporating Mosfets or OSLDs arranged in a quincunx pattern, or a slab drilled to accommodate an ion chamber insert. These top slabs are designed to facilitate routine daily and monthly QA tasks such as output constancy, isocenter congruency test, treatment planning system (TPS) QA, etc. One slab is designed with inserts for image QA. A prototype of the phantom was applied to test the performance of the imaging, planning and treatment delivery systems. Results: Output constancy test results showed daily variations within 3%. For isocenter congruency test, the phantom could be used to detect 0.3 mm deviations of the CBCT isocenter from the radiation isocenter. Using the Mosfet in phantom as target, the difference between TPS calculations and measurements was within 5%. Image-quality parameters could also be assessed in terms of geometric accuracy, CT number accuracy, linearity, noise and image uniformity, etc. Conclusion: The developed phantom can be employed as a simple tool for comprehensive performance evaluation of the SARRP. The study provides a reference for development of a comprehensive quality assurance program for the SARRP, with proposed tolerances and frequency of required tests

  1. Insusceptibility to disinfectants in bacteria from animals, food and humans – is there a link to antimicrobial resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eSchwaiger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis (n = 834 and Enterococcus faecium (n = 135 from blood and feces of hospitalized humans, from feces of outpatients and livestock and from food were screened for their susceptibility to a quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethyl-ammoniumchloride, DDAC and to 28 antibiotics by micro-/macrodilution. The maximum DDAC-MIC in our field study was 3.5 mg/l, but after adaptation in the laboratory, MIC values of 21.9 mg/l were observed. Strains for which DDAC had MICs > 1.4 mg/l (non-wildtype, in total: 46 of 969 isolates / 4. 7 % were most often found in milk and dairy products (14.6 %, while their prevalence in livestock was generally low (0-4 %. Of human isolates, 2.9 to 6.8 % had a non-wildtype phenotype. An association between reduced susceptibility to DDAC, high-level-aminoglycoside resistance and aminopenicillin resistance was seen in E. faecium (p In addition, bacteria (n = 42 of different genera were isolated from formic acid based boot bath disinfectant (20 ml of 55 % formic acid /l. The MICs of this disinfectant exceeded the wildtype MICs up to 20fold (staphylococci, but were still one to three orders of magnitude below the used concentration of the disinfectant (i. e. 1.1 % formic acid. In conclusion, the bacterial susceptibility to disinfectants still seems to be high. Thus, the proper use of disinfectants in livestock surroundings along with a good hygiene praxis should still be highly encouraged. Hints to a link between antibiotic resistance and reduced susceptibility for disinfectants – as seen for E. faecium - should be substantiated in further studies and might be an additional reason to confine the use of antibiotics.

  2. Animal Contact Exhibits_Legal Epidemiology Research Procedure and Code Book_2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Animals at petting zoos and agricultural fairs can be carriers of pathogens, such as Escherichia coli. Disease outbreaks at animal contact exhibits can be prevented...

  3. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Collaborative Development of Linked Data for Oceanographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Stocks, Karen; Smith, Shawn; Clark, Paul; Shepherd, Adam; Moore, Carla; Beaulieu, Stace

    2013-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from U.S. academic oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. The entire R2R Catalog is published online as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage discovery and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by publishing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation; 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to journal articles and global syntheses, by publishing Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for datasets and encoding them directly into our Linked Data resources; and 3.) We facilitate federation with other repositories such as the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO), InterRidge Vents Database, and Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS), by reciprocal linking between RDF resources and supporting the RDF Query Language. R2R participates in the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), a joint European-U.S.-Australian partnership to facilitate the sharing of data and documentation across international borders. We publish our controlled vocabularies as a Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concept collection, and are working toward alignment with SeaDataNet and other community-standard terms using the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). http://rvdata.us/

  4. Open- and Closed-Formula Laboratory Animal Diets and Their Importance to Research

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, Dennis E; Lewis, Sherry M; Teter, Beverly B; Thigpen, Julius E

    2009-01-01

    Almost 40 y ago the scientific community was taking actions to control environmental factors that contribute to variation in the responses of laboratory animals to scientific manipulation. Laboratory animal diet was recognized as an important variable. During the 1970s, the American Institute of Nutrition, National Academy of Science, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, and Laboratory Animals Centre Diets Advisory Committee supported the use of ‘standard reference diets’ in biomedical r...

  5. Ethical acceptability of research on human-animal chimeric embryos: summary of opinions by the Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Kato, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Human-animal chimeric embryos are embryos obtained by introducing human cells into a non-human animal embryo. It is envisaged that the application of human-animal chimeric embryos may make possible many useful research projects including producing three-dimensional human organs in animals and verification of the pluripotency of human ES cells or iPS cells in vivo. The use of human-animal chimeric embryos, however, raises several ethical and moral concerns. The most fundamental one is that human-animal chimeric embryos possess the potential to develop into organisms containing human-derived tissue, which may lead to infringing upon the identity of the human species, and thus impairing human dignity. The Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics in the Cabinet Office carefully considered the scientific significance and ethical acceptability of the issue and released its "Opinions regarding the handling of research using human-animal chimeric embryos". The Panel proposed a framework of case-by-case review, and suggested that the following points must be carefully reviewed from the perspective of ethical acceptability: (a) Types of animal embryos and types of animals receiving embryo transfers, particularly in dealing with non-human primates; (b) Types of human cells and organs intended for production, particularly in dealing with human nerve or germ cells; and (c) Extent of the period required for post-transfer studies. The scientific knowledge that can be gained from transfer into an animal uterus and from the production of an individual must be clarified to avoid unnecessary generation of chimeric animals. The time is ripe for the scientific community and governments to start discussing the ethical issues for establishing a global consensus.

  6. Earth2Class Overview: An Innovative Program Linking Classroom Educators and Research Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M.; Iturrino, G. J.; Baggio, F. D.; Assumpcao, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    The Earth2Class (E2C) workshops, held at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), provide an effective model for improving knowledge, teaching, and technology skills of middle and high school science educators through ongoing interactions with research scientists and educational technology. With support from an NSF GeoEd grant, E2C has developed monthly workshops, web-based resources, and summer institutes in which classroom teachers and research scientists have produced exemplar curriculum materials about a wide variety of cutting-edge geoscience investigations suitable for dissemination to teachers and students. Some of the goals of this program are focused to address questions such as: (1) What aspects of the E2C format and educational technology most effectively connect research discoveries with classroom teachers and their students? (2) What benefits result through interactions among teachers from highly diverse districts and backgrounds with research scientists, and what benefits do the scientists gain from participation? (3) How can the E2C format serve as a model for other research institution-school district partnerships as a mechanism for broader dissemination of scientific discoveries? E2C workshops have linked LDEO scientists from diverse research specialties-seismology, marine geology, paleoclimatology, ocean drilling, dendrochronology, remote sensing, impact craters, and others-with teachers from schools in the New York metropolitan area. Through the workshops, we have trained teachers to enhance content knowledge in the Earth Sciences and develop skills to incorporate new technologies. We have made a special effort to increase the teaching competency of K-12 Earth Sciences educators serving in schools with high numbers of students from underrepresented groups, thereby providing greater role models to attract students into science and math careers. E2C sponsored Earth Science Teachers Conferences, bringing together educators from New York and New

  7. Animal Research, the 3Rs, and the "Internet of Things": Opportunities and Oversight in International Pharmaceutical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Steven M; Davies, Gail F

    2016-12-01

    Stages of drug (and vaccine) discovery and evaluation that involve laboratory animals increasingly occur via scientific collaborations across national borders and continents. Many of these research collaborations are between asset-rich institutions and others in less wealthy parts of the world. The care and use of laboratory animals in geographically disparate locations introduces new complexities, such as different oversight requirements and available resources, as well as diverse organizational and cultural milieus. These complexities can hamper the effectiveness of local animal welfare committees and regulatory compliance, as well as compromise good science and animal welfare. At the same time, new technologies are becoming available that offer greater transparency in how these collaborations and their animal subjects are faring in real time that, in turn, can enable progress towards the 3 Rs. The focus of this essay is to identify potential rewards and risks stemming from new techniques for producing and connecting data in preclinical pharmaceutical development and consider how further social scientific investigations have the potential to enhance the benefits of international research collaborations for both human health and animal welfare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Follow the link: Digital Tracings of a Multi-Sited Space of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    The paper discusses the use of digital methods as an alternative way of generating what George Marcus calls 'posited logics of association' for use in multi-sited fieldwork. I draw on cases from an ongoing research project on the new nordic food movement and its on- and off-line assemblages. I do...... doing so I demonstrate how methods which are native to the digital domain - such as the link or the like as a valuation metric - may be re-appropriated as strategies in more ethnographic styles of work.......The paper discusses the use of digital methods as an alternative way of generating what George Marcus calls 'posited logics of association' for use in multi-sited fieldwork. I draw on cases from an ongoing research project on the new nordic food movement and its on- and off-line assemblages. I...

  9. Linking the spare parts management with the total costs of ownership: An agenda for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, O.; Roda, I.; Macchi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This manuscript explores the link between Spare Parts Management and Total Costs of Ownership or Life Cycle Costs (LCC). Design/methodology/approach: First, this work enumerates the different managerial decisions instances in spare parts management that are present during the life cycle of a physical asset. Second, we analyse how those decision instances could affect the TCO of a physical asset (from the economic point of view). Finally, we propose a conceptual framework for incorporating the spare parts management into a TCO model. Findings: The recent literature lacks discussions on the integration of spare parts management with the Total Costs of Ownership (TCO). Based in an extensive literature revision we can declare that the computation of costs related to spare parts management has been neglected by TCO models. Originality/value: The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, a literature review and identification of a series of spare parts management decision instances and its relationship with TCOs is presented in this paper. Second, a conceptual framework is suggested for linking those decisions instances to a total cost of ownership perspective. Some research questions and future research challenges are presented at the end of this work.

  10. Linking the spare parts management with the total costs of ownership: An agenda for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, O.; Roda, I.; Macchi, M.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: This manuscript explores the link between Spare Parts Management and Total Costs of Ownership or Life Cycle Costs (LCC). Design/methodology/approach: First, this work enumerates the different managerial decisions instances in spare parts management that are present during the life cycle of a physical asset. Second, we analyse how those decision instances could affect the TCO of a physical asset (from the economic point of view). Finally, we propose a conceptual framework for incorporating the spare parts management into a TCO model. Findings: The recent literature lacks discussions on the integration of spare parts management with the Total Costs of Ownership (TCO). Based in an extensive literature revision we can declare that the computation of costs related to spare parts management has been neglected by TCO models. Originality/value: The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, a literature review and identification of a series of spare parts management decision instances and its relationship with TCOs is presented in this paper. Second, a conceptual framework is suggested for linking those decisions instances to a total cost of ownership perspective. Some research questions and future research challenges are presented at the end of this work.

  11. Linking the spare parts management with the total costs of ownership: An agenda for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Duran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This manuscript explores the link between Spare Parts Management and Total Costs of Ownership or Life Cycle Costs (LCC. Design/methodology/approach: First, this work enumerates the different managerial decisions instances in spare parts management that are present during the life cycle of a physical asset. Second, we analyse how those decision instances could affect the TCO of a physical asset (from the economic point of view. Finally, we propose a conceptual framework for incorporating the spare parts management into a TCO model. Findings: The recent literature lacks discussions on the integration of spare parts management with the Total Costs of Ownership (TCO. Based in an extensive literature revision we can declare that the computation of costs related to spare parts management has been neglected by TCO models. Originality/value: The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, a literature review and identification of a series of spare parts management decision instances and its relationship with TCOs is presented in this paper. Second, a conceptual framework is suggested for linking those decisions instances to a total cost of ownership perspective. Some research questions and future research challenges are presented at the end of this work.

  12. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal

  13. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of rain attenuation affecting the communication between a satellite and an earth terminal is an important consideration in planning satellite links. The NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model Program (LeRC-SLAM) provides a static and dynamic statistical assessment of the impact of rain attenuation on a communications link established between an earth terminal and a geosynchronous satellite. The program is designed for use in the specification, design and assessment of satellite links for any terminal location in the continental United States. The basis for LeRC-SLAM is the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model, which uses a log-normal cumulative probability distribution to describe the random process of rain attenuation on satellite links. The derivation of the statistics for the rainrate process at the specified terminal location relies on long term rainfall records compiled by the U.S. Weather Service during time periods of up to 55 years in length. The theory of extreme value statistics is also utilized. The user provides 1) the longitudinal position of the satellite in geosynchronous orbit, 2) the geographical position of the earth terminal in terms of latitude and longitude, 3) the height above sea level of the terminal site, 4) the yearly average rainfall at the terminal site, and 5) the operating frequency of the communications link (within 1 to 1000 GHz, inclusive). Based on the yearly average rainfall at the terminal location, LeRC-SLAM calculates the relevant rain statistics for the site using an internal data base. The program then generates rain attenuation data for the satellite link. This data includes a description of the static (i.e., yearly) attenuation process, an evaluation of the cumulative probability distribution for attenuation effects, and an evaluation of the probability of fades below selected fade depths. In addition, LeRC-SLAM calculates the elevation and azimuth angles of the terminal

  14. Variables As Currency: Linking Meta-Analysis Research and Data Paths in Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses are studies that bring together data or results from multiple independent studies to produce new and over-arching findings. Current data curation systems only partially support meta-analytic research. Some important meta-analytic tasks, such as the selection of relevant studies for review and the integration of research datasets or findings, are not well supported in current data curation systems. To design tools and services that more fully support meta-analyses, we need a better understanding of meta-analytic research. This includes an understanding of both the practices of researchers who perform the analyses and the characteristics of the individual studies that are brought together. In this study, we make an initial contribution to filling this gap by developing a conceptual framework linking meta-analyses with data paths represented in published articles selected for the analysis. The framework focuses on key variables that represent primary/secondary datasets or derived socio-ecological data, contexts of use, and the data transformations that are applied. We introduce the notion of using variables and their relevant information (e.g., metadata and variable relationships as a type of currency to facilitate synthesis of findings across individual studies and leverage larger bodies of relevant source data produced in small science research. Handling variables in this manner provides an equalizing factor between data from otherwise disparate data-producing communities. We conclude with implications for exploring data integration and synthesis issues as well as system development.

  15. An Agenda for Growth and Metabolism Research in Farm Animals: Healthy Food for a Healthy Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, R. S. A.; Manalo, D. D.; Garcia, J. N. M.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a paradigm shift from meat demand to health driven understanding of the effects of livestock production and meat consumption in human. Included are comments on animal nutrition research with the purpose of getting more relevant health information. The growth and metabolism research covers the principles from feed intake regulation, nutrient digestion, absorption and growth. Meat preservation provides enough food for the urban population, and its major ingredient includes the combination of salt, sugar and fats, suspected to cause food addiction in man. The reported effect of processed red meat causing systemic inflammation is a major consideration in food preparation, diet selection and reasonable control for meat consumption. In livestock “Pharming” the danger of heavy metal contamination of commercial feed poses threat to human health aside from drug residues. It is proposed that the 50% of global greenhouse gas is due to the lifestyle of the rich and epidemic of obesity-related diseases are the effect of livestock “Pharming” and addiction to fast food and or processed meat.

  16. Nonprofit financial assessment and research service learning: Evaluating the performance of an animal welfare nonprofit organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Maguire

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to evaluate the current financial and compliance status of an animal welfare nonprofit organization (NPO by: analysis of trends over time using information reported on tax filings (Form 990; vertical and horizontal analyses of financial statements; analysis of trends over time using information from financial statements; reconciliation of financial statements to Form 990; ratio analysis of Form 990 Information; and comparison of reported information to local analogs and national standards. This project is conducted in collaboration with The Chapin Foundation. This research serves as a research service learning project with the participation of Master of Accountancy graduate students at Coastal Carolina University. Once the results are presented, recommendations are given for improving operational efficiency and achieving best practices. These recommendations are presented in the form of both short-term items to be addressed immediately—defined in this study as within 60 days—and long-term items to be undertaken in the future. Resources for applicable standards and requirements are also provided.

  17. Cryptosporidiosis outbreak at an academic animal research laboratory-Colorado, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock-Allen, Jessica; Alden, Nisha B; Cronquist, Alicia B

    2017-02-01

    After cryptosporidiosis was reported in three workers caring for preweaned calves at an academic research laboratory, we sought to identify cases, determine risk factors, and implement control measures. A cryptosporidiosis case was defined as diarrhea duration ≥72 hr, abdominal cramps, or vomiting in an animal research laboratory worker during July 14-July 31. A confirmed case had laboratory evidence of Cryptosporidium infection. Staff were interviewed regarding illness, potential exposures, training, and personal protective equipment (PPE) standard operating procedures (SOPs). The cryptosporidiosis attack rate (AR) was 74% (20/27); five were laboratory-confirmed. Median job training was 2 hr including respiratory-fit testing. No SOPs existed for doffing PPE. AR for workers who removed their gloves first was 84% (16/19) compared with 20% (1/5) for workers who removed gloves last (risk ratio = 4.2; P importance of adequate training, enforced proper PPE procedures, and promoting a culture of safety. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:208-214, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  19. The gap-startle paradigm to assess auditory temporal processing: Bridging animal and human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm is the primary test used in animal research to identify gap detection thresholds and impairment. When a silent gap is presented shortly before a loud startling stimulus, the startle reflex is inhibited and the extent of inhibition is assumed to reflect detection. Here, we applied the same paradigm in humans. One hundred and fifty-seven normal-hearing participants were tested using one of five gap durations (5, 25, 50, 100, 200 ms) in one of the following two paradigms-gap-embedded in or gap-following-the continuous background noise. The duration-inhibition relationship was observable for both conditions but followed different patterns. In the gap-embedded paradigm, GPIAS increased significantly with gap duration up to 50 ms and then more slowly up to 200 ms (trend only). In contrast, in the gap-following paradigm, significant inhibition-different from 0--was observable only at gap durations from 50 to 200 ms. The finding that different patterns are found depending on gap position within the background noise is compatible with distinct mechanisms underlying each of the two paradigms. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Animal welfare and the refinement of neuroscience research methods--a case study of Huntington's disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, I Anna S; Hansen, Axel K; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The use of animals in biomedical and other research presents an ethical dilemma: we do not want to lose scientific benefits, nor do we want to cause laboratory animals to suffer. Scientists often refer to the potential human benefits of animal models to justify their use. However, even if this is accepted, it still needs to be argued that the same benefits could not have been achieved with a mitigated impact on animal welfare. Reducing the adverse effects of scientific protocols ('refinement') is therefore crucial in animal-based research. It is especially important that researchers share knowledge on how to avoid causing unnecessary suffering. We have previously demonstrated that even in studies in which animal use leads to spontaneous death, scientists often fail to report measures to minimize animal distress (Olsson et al. 2007). In this paper, we present the full results of a case study examining reports, published in peer-reviewed journals between 2003 and 2004, of experiments employing animal models to study the neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease. In 51 references, experiments in which animals were expected to develop motor deficits so severe that they would have difficulty eating and drinking normally were conducted, yet only three references were made to housing adaptation to facilitate food and water intake. Experiments including end-stages of the disease were reported in 14 papers, yet of these only six referred to the euthanasia of moribund animals. If the reference in scientific publications reflects the actual application of refinement, researchers do not follow the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) principle. While in some cases, it is clear that less-than-optimal techniques were used, we recognize that scientists may apply refinement without referring to it; however, if they do not include such information in publications, it suggests they find it less relevant. Journal publishing policy could play an important role: first, in

  1. Preparing linked population data for research: cohort study of prisoner perinatal health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Hilder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study of pregnancy outcomes related to pregnancy in prison in New South Wales, Australia, designed a two stage linkage to add maternal history of incarceration and serious mental health morbidity, neonatal hospital admission and infant congenital anomaly diagnosis to birth data. Linkage was performed by a dedicated state-wide data linkage authority. This paper describes use of the linked data to determine pregnancy prison exposure pregnancy for a representative population of mothers. Methods Researchers assessed the quality of linked records; resolved multiple-matched identities; transformed event-based incarceration records into person-based prisoner records and birth records into maternity records. Inconsistent or incomplete records were censored. Interrogation of the temporal relationships of all incarceration periods from the prisoner record with pregnancies from birth records identified prisoner maternities. Interrogation of maternities for each mother distinguished prisoner mothers who were incarcerated during pregnancy, from prisoner control mothers with pregnancies wholly in the community and a subset of prisoner mothers with maternities both types of maternity. Standard descriptive statistics are used to provide population prevalence of exposures and compare data quality across study populations stratified by mental health morbidity. Results Women incarcerated between 1998 and 2006 accounted for less than 1 % of the 404,000 women who gave birth in NSW between 2000 and 2006, while women with serious mental health morbidity accounted for 7 % overall and 68 % of prisoners. Rates of false positive linkage were within the predicted limits set by the linkage authority for non-prisoners, but were tenfold higher among prisoners (RR 9.9; 95%CI 8.2, 11.9 and twice as high for women with serious mental health morbidity (RR 2.2; 95%CI 1.9, 2.6. This case series of 597 maternities for 558 prisoners pregnant while in prison

  2. Preparing linked population data for research: cohort study of prisoner perinatal health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Lisa; Walker, Jane R; Levy, Michael H; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-16

    A study of pregnancy outcomes related to pregnancy in prison in New South Wales, Australia, designed a two stage linkage to add maternal history of incarceration and serious mental health morbidity, neonatal hospital admission and infant congenital anomaly diagnosis to birth data. Linkage was performed by a dedicated state-wide data linkage authority. This paper describes use of the linked data to determine pregnancy prison exposure pregnancy for a representative population of mothers. Researchers assessed the quality of linked records; resolved multiple-matched identities; transformed event-based incarceration records into person-based prisoner records and birth records into maternity records. Inconsistent or incomplete records were censored. Interrogation of the temporal relationships of all incarceration periods from the prisoner record with pregnancies from birth records identified prisoner maternities. Interrogation of maternities for each mother distinguished prisoner mothers who were incarcerated during pregnancy, from prisoner control mothers with pregnancies wholly in the community and a subset of prisoner mothers with maternities both types of maternity. Standard descriptive statistics are used to provide population prevalence of exposures and compare data quality across study populations stratified by mental health morbidity. Women incarcerated between 1998 and 2006 accounted for less than 1 % of the 404,000 women who gave birth in NSW between 2000 and 2006, while women with serious mental health morbidity accounted for 7 % overall and 68 % of prisoners. Rates of false positive linkage were within the predicted limits set by the linkage authority for non-prisoners, but were tenfold higher among prisoners (RR 9.9; 95%CI 8.2, 11.9) and twice as high for women with serious mental health morbidity (RR 2.2; 95%CI 1.9, 2.6). This case series of 597 maternities for 558 prisoners pregnant while in prison (of whom 128 gave birth in prison); and 2

  3. Defining European preparedness and research needs regarding emerging infectious animal diseases: results from a Delphi expert consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentholt, M T A; Cardoen, S; Imberechts, H; Van Huffel, X; Ooms, B W; Frewer, L J

    2012-02-01

    Emerging and major infectious animal diseases can have significant international impact on social, economic and environmental level, and are being driven by various factors. Prevention and control measures should be prepared at both national and international level to mitigate these disease risks. Research to support such policy development is mostly carried out at national level and dedicated transnational research programmes are still in its infancy. This research reports on part of a process to develop a common strategic research agenda on emerging and major infectious diseases of livestock in Europe, covering a 5-15-year time span. A two round online Delphi study was conducted to explore the views of experts on issues relating to research needs on emerging infectious diseases of livestock in Europe. Drivers that may influence the incidence of emerging infectious animal diseases in both the short (next 5 years) and medium term (10-15 years) were identified. Drivers related to regulatory measures and biological science developments were thought to decrease the incidence, and socio-economic factors to increase the incidence of emerging infectious animal diseases. From the first round a list of threats to animal health was compiled and participants combined these threats with relevant drivers in the second round. Next to identifying threats to animal health, also possible mitigatory actions to reduce the negative impact of these threats were identified. Participants emphasised that interdisciplinary research is needed to understand drivers of emerging infectious animal diseases, as well as to develop prevention and control measures which are both socio-economic and technical. From this it can be concluded that interdisciplinary research combining both natural and social research themes is required. Some of the European member states research budget needs to be allocated so that effective prevention and mitigation strategies can be developed. Copyright © 2011

  4. Biological consilience of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in plants: Gases of primordial earth linking plant, microbial and animal physiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hideo; Cohen, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced in the mammalian body through the enzymatic activities of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). A growing number of studies have revealed that biogenic H2S produced in tissues is involved in a variety of physiological responses in mammals including vasorelaxation and neurotransmission. It is now evident that mammals utilize H2S to regulate multiple signaling systems, echoing the research history of the gaseous signaling molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) that had previously only been recognized for their cytotoxicity. In the human diet, meats (mammals, birds and fishes) and vegetables (plants) containing cysteine and other sulfur compounds are the major dietary sources for endogenous production of H2S. Plants are primary producers in ecosystems on the earth and they synthesize organic sulfur compounds through the activity of sulfur assimilation. Although plant H2S-producing activities have been known for a long time, our knowledge of H2S biology in plant systems has not been updated to the extent of mammalian studies. Here we review recent progress on H2S studies, highlighting plants and bacteria. Scoping the future integration of H2S, NO and O2 biology, we discuss a possible linkage between physiology, ecology and evolutional biology of gas metabolisms that may reflect the historical changes of the Earth's atmospheric composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid Determination of Ractopamine Residues in Edible Animal Products by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: Development and Investigation of Matrix Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine ractopamine residues in animal food products (chicken muscle, pettitoes, pig muscle, and pig liver, we established a rapid direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using a polyclonal antibody generated from ractopamine-linker-BSA. The antibody showed high sensitivity and specificity in phosphate buffer, with an IC50 of 0.6 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.04 ng/mL. The matrix effect of the samples was easily eliminated by one-step extraction with PBS, without any organic solution or clean-up procedure such as SPE or liquid-liquid extraction, making it a much more simple and rapid method than previously reported ones. The detection limit in blank samples was 0.2 μg/kg. To validate this new RAC (ractopamine hydrochloride ELISA, a RAC-free pig liver sample spiked at three different concentrations was prepared and analyzed by HPLC and ELISA. The results showed a good correlation between the data of ELISA and HPLC (R2>0.95, which proves that the established ELISA is accurate enough to quantify the residue of RAC in the animal derived foods.

  6. Rapid determination of ractopamine residues in edible animal products by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: development and investigation of matrix effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fengxia; Fang, Li; Wang, Shuo; Fang, Guozhen

    2009-01-01

    To determine ractopamine residues in animal food products (chicken muscle, pettitoes, pig muscle, and pig liver), we established a rapid direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a polyclonal antibody generated from ractopamine-linker-BSA. The antibody showed high sensitivity and specificity in phosphate buffer, with an IC(50) of 0.6 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.04 ng/mL. The matrix effect of the samples was easily eliminated by one-step extraction with PBS, without any organic solution or clean-up procedure such as SPE or liquid-liquid extraction, making it a much more simple and rapid method than previously reported ones. The detection limit in blank samples was 0.2 mug/kg. To validate this new RAC (ractopamine hydrochloride) ELISA, a RAC-free pig liver sample spiked at three different concentrations was prepared and analyzed by HPLC and ELISA. The results showed a good correlation between the data of ELISA and HPLC (R(2) > 0.95), which proves that the established ELISA is accurate enough to quantify the residue of RAC in the animal derived foods.

  7. Linking Research, Education and Public Engagement in Geoscience: Leadership and Strategic Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    By their very nature, the geosciences address societal challenges requiring a complex interplay between the research community, geoscience educators and public engagement with the general population to build their knowledge base and convince them to act appropriately to implement policies guided by scientific understanding. The most effective responses to geoscience challenges arise when strong collaborative structures connecting research, education and the public are in place to afford rapid communication and trust at all stages of the investigative and policy implementation processes. Educational programs that involve students and scientists via service learning exploring high profile issues of community interest and outreach to teachers through professional development build the network of relationships with geoscientists to respond rapidly to solve societal problems. These pre-existing personal connections simultaneously hold wider credibility with the public than unfamiliar scientific experts less accustomed to speaking to general audiences. The Geological Society of America is leveraging the research and educational experience of its members to build a self-sustaining state/regional network of K-12 professional development workshops designed to link the academic, research, governmental and industrial communities. The goal is not only to improve the content knowledge and pedagogical skills which teachers bring to their students, but also to build a diverse community of trust capable of responding to geoscience challenges in a fashion relevant to local communities. Dr. Moosavi is building this program by drawing on his background as a biogeochemistry researcher with 20 years experience focused on use of place-based approaches in general education and pre- and in-service teacher preparation in Research 1 and comprehensive universities, liberal arts and community colleges and high school. Experience with K-12 professional development working with the Minnesota

  8. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Joanna W. A. M.; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P. M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from

  9. Mind the gap: implementation challenges break the link between HIV/AIDS research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah MacCarthy

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sampling strategies such as respondent-driven sampling (RDS and time-location sampling (TLS offer unique opportunities to access key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender women. Limited work has assessed implementation challenges of these methods. Overcoming implementation challenges can improve research quality and increase uptake of HIV services among key populations. Drawing from studies using RDS in Brazil and TLS in Peru, we summarize challenges encountered in the field and potential strategies to address them. In Brazil, study site selection, cash incentives, and seed selection challenged RDS implementation with MSM. In Peru, expansive geography, safety concerns, and time required for study participation complicated TLS implementation with MSM and transgender women. Formative research, meaningful participation of key populations across stages of research, and transparency in study design are needed to link HIV/AIDS research and practice. Addressing implementation challenges can close gaps in accessing services among those most burdened by the epidemic.

  10. Research on the Phenotypic Characterization of Mrsa Strains Isolated from Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Maria BUCUR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Keywords: chromogen, methicillin, MRSA, resistance Introduction: Currently, both in staphylococci isolated from animals with different diseases, as well as in humans, the MRSA strains (Methicillin Resistant S. aureus are monitored, as the methicillin resistance is associated with the resistance to other antibiotic groups. Methicillin resistance is encoded by mec staphylococcal chromosomal cassettes (SCCmec, which are islands of resistance. These strains can be identified by molecular biology tests and tests that reveal several phenotypic characteristics. The research was made in order to characterize and identify phenotypically the MRSA staphylococci strains isolated from animals. Materials and Methods: Researches were made on 240 coagulase positive and coagulase negative strains of staphylococci. Mannitol fermentation was tested on Champan medium, free coagulase was revealed on Baird-Parker medium and to identify S. aureus subsp. aureus was used the chromogenic medium Chromatic Staph. Methicillin-resistant strains were detected by disc diffusion method, using biodiscs with methicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin. Also, to identify the MRSA strains, was used the chromogenic medium Chromatic MRSA. Results: The isolates were positive to mannitol and produced complete haemolysis or were unhaemolytic. A total of 44 strains produced free coagulase on Baird-Parker medium, considered coagulase positive strains, while 196 were coagulase negative strains. The isolates conducted differently to methicillin: 22,08% of strains were resistant, 51,25% of strains were susceptible and 26,66% had intermediate resistance, while the resistant strains to oxacillin were 42,91%. The increased frequency of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci and, particularly, MRSA strains, determined using the cefoxitin disk diffusion test, which is more reliable than methicillin and oxacillin. On the MRSA chromogenic medium, the methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci

  11. Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

    2001-08-01

    three-dimensional avatar using a performance-driven facial animation (PDFA) system developed at the University of Southern California Integrated Media Systems Center. PDFA offers a means for creating high-fidelity visual representations of human faces and bodies. This effort explores the feasibility of sensing and reproducing a range of facial expressions with a PDFA system. In order to test concordance of human ratings of emotional expression between video and avatar facial delivery, we first had facial model subjects observe stimuli that were designed to elicit naturalistic facial expressions. The emotional stimulus induction involved presenting text-based, still image, and video clips to subjects that were previously rated to induce facial expressions for the six universals2 of facial expression (happy, sad, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise), in addition to attentiveness, puzzlement and frustration. Videotapes of these induced facial expressions that best represented prototypic examples of the above emotional states and three-dimensional avatar animations of the same facial expressions were randomly presented to 38 human raters. The raters used open-end, forced choice and seven-point Likert-type scales to rate expression in terms of identification. The forced choice and seven-point ratings provided the most usable data to determine video/animation concordance and these data are presented. To support a clear understanding of this data, a website has been set up that will allow readers to view the video and facial animation clips to illustrate the assets and limitations of these types of facial expression-rendering methods (www. USCAvatars.com/MMVR). This methodological first step in our research program has served to provide valuable human user-centered feedback to support the iterative design and development of facial avatar characteristics for expression of emotional communication.

  12. Research on preparation of phosphate-modified animal glue binder for foundry use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-Shu; Liu, Wei-Hua; Li, Ying-Min

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, three phosphates were used as modifiers to modify animal glue binder. The structural characteristics and thermal properties of animal glue binder treated with phosphates were studied by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography and derivative thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the modified animal glue binder had better sand tensile strength and lower viscosity than untreated animal glue binder. The best modification process was as follows: the optimal amount of sodium carbonate was 4 wt% to animal glue; the optimal weight ratio of the modifiers was sodium pyrophosphate : sodium tripolyphosphate : sodium hexametaphosphate : animal glue = 3 : 3 : 4 : 100, and the optimal reaction should be performed at 80°C for a reaction time of 120 min. A final tensile strength of approximately 3.20 MPa was achieved and the viscosity value was approximately 880 mPa s.

  13. Improving the use of economics in animal health - Challenges in research, policy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    The way that an economist and an animal health professional use economics differs and creates frustrations. The economist is in search of optimizing resource allocation in the management of animal health and disease problems with metrics associated with the productivity of key societal resources of labour and capital. The animal health professional have a strong belief that productivity can be improved with the removal of pathogens. These differences restrict how well economics is used in animal health, and the question posed is whether this matters. The paper explores the question by looking at the changing role of animals in society and the associated change of the animal health professional's activities. It then questions if the current allocation of scarce resources for animal health are adequately allocated for societies and whether currently available data are sufficient for good allocation. A rapid review of the data on disease impacts - production losses and costs of human reaction - indicate that the data are sparse collected in different times and geographical regions. This limits what can be understood on the productivity of the economic resources used for animal health and this needs to be addressed with more systematic collection of data on disease losses and costs of animal health systems. Ideally such a process should learn lessons from the way that human health has made estimates of the burden of diseases and their capture of data on the costs of human health systems. Once available data on the global burden of animal diseases and the costs of animal health systems would allow assessments of individual disease management processes and the productivity of wider productivity change. This utopia should be aimed at if animal health is to continue to attract and maintain adequate resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  15. How Big Data Fast Tracked Human Mobility Research and the Lessons for Animal Movement Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Thums

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the internet coupled with technological innovations such as smartphones have generated massive volumes of geo-referenced data (big data on human mobility. This has allowed the number of studies of human mobility to rapidly overtake those of animal movement. Today, telemetry studies of animals are also approaching big data status. Here, we review recent advances in studies of human mobility and identify the opportunities they present for advancing our understanding of animal movement. We describe key analytical techniques, potential bottlenecks and a roadmap for progress toward a synthesis of movement patterns of wild animals.

  16. How Big Data Fast Tracked Human Mobility Research and the Lessons for Animal Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Thums, Michele; Ferná ndez-Gracia, Juan; Sequeira, Ana M. M.; Eguí luz, Ví ctor M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Meekan, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of the internet coupled with technological innovations such as smartphones have generated massive volumes of geo-referenced data (big data) on human mobility. This has allowed the number of studies of human mobility to rapidly overtake those of animal movement. Today, telemetry studies of animals are also approaching big data status. Here, we review recent advances in studies of human mobility and identify the opportunities they present for advancing our understanding of animal movement. We describe key analytical techniques, potential bottlenecks and a roadmap for progress toward a synthesis of movement patterns of wild animals.

  17. How Big Data Fast Tracked Human Mobility Research and the Lessons for Animal Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Thums, Michele

    2018-02-13

    The rise of the internet coupled with technological innovations such as smartphones have generated massive volumes of geo-referenced data (big data) on human mobility. This has allowed the number of studies of human mobility to rapidly overtake those of animal movement. Today, telemetry studies of animals are also approaching big data status. Here, we review recent advances in studies of human mobility and identify the opportunities they present for advancing our understanding of animal movement. We describe key analytical techniques, potential bottlenecks and a roadmap for progress toward a synthesis of movement patterns of wild animals.

  18. Opening Up Climate Research: A Linked Data Approach to Publishing Data Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Shaon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the formal scientific output in most fields of natural science has been limited to peer-reviewed academic journal publications, with less attention paid to the chain of intermediate data results and their associated metadata, including provenance. In effect, this has constrained the representation and verification of the data provenance to the confines of the related publications. Detailed knowledge of a dataset’s provenance is essential to establish the pedigree of the data for its effective re-use, and to avoid redundant re-enactment of the experiment or computation involved. It is increasingly important for open-access data to determine their authenticity and quality, especially considering the growing volumes of datasets appearing in the public domain. To address these issues, we present an approach that combines the Digital Object Identifier (DOI – a widely adopted citation technique – with existing, widely adopted climate science data standards to formally publish detailed provenance of a climate research dataset as an associated scientific workflow. This is integrated with linked-data compliant data re-use standards (e.g. OAI-ORE to enable a seamless link between a publication and the complete trail of lineage of the corresponding dataset, including the dataset itself.

  19. Linked Data Applications Through Ontology Based Data Access in Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock-Schoppenhauer, Ann-Kristin; Kamann, Christian; Ulrich, Hannes; Duhm-Harbeck, Petra; Ingenerf, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Clinical care and research data are widely dispersed in isolated systems based on heterogeneous data models. Biomedicine predominantly makes use of connected datasets based on the Semantic Web paradigm. Initiatives like Bio2RDF created Resource Description Framework (RDF) versions of Omics resources, enabling sophisticated Linked Data applications. In contrast, electronic healthcare records (EHR) data are generated and processed in diverse clinical subsystems within hospital information systems (HIS). Usually, each of them utilizes a relational database system with a different proprietary schema. Semantic integration and access to the data is hardly possible. This paper describes ways of using Ontology Based Data Access (OBDA) for bridging the semantic gap between existing raw data and user-oriented views supported by ontology-based queries. Based on mappings between entities of data schemas and ontologies data can be made available as materialized or virtualized RDF triples ready for querying and processing. Our experiments based on CentraXX for biobank and study management demonstrate the advantages of abstracting away from low level details and semantic mediation. Furthermore, it becomes clear that using a professional platform for Linked Data applications is recommended due to the inherent complexity, the inconvenience to confront end users with SPARQL, and scalability and performance issues.

  20. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Hua [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kennedy, Christopher W [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Armour, Elwood [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); McNutt, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jiang Licai [OSMIC Inc., 1900 Taylor Rd., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-05-21

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min{sup -1} at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of {+-}5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD.

  1. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Kennedy, Christopher W; Armour, Elwood; Tryggestad, Erik; Ford, Eric; McNutt, Todd; Jiang, Licai; Wong, John

    2007-05-21

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min(-1) at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of +/-5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD.

  2. Rat maintenance in the Research Animal Holding Facility during the flight of Space Lab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, T.; Grindeland, R.; Kraft, L.; Ruder, M.; Vasques, M.

    1985-01-01

    To test the husbandry capabilities of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) during space flight, 24 male rats were flown on Spacelab 3 for 7 days. Twelve large rats (400 g, LF), 5 of which had telemetry devices implanted (IF), and 12 small rats (200 g, SF) were housed in the RAHF. Examination 3 hr after landing (R + 3) revealed the rats to be free of injury, well nourished, and stained with urine. At R + 10 the rats were lethargic and atonic with hyperemia of the extremities and well groomed except for a middorsal area stained with urine and food. Both LF and SF rats showed weight gains comparable to their IG controls; IF rats grew less than controls. Food and water consumption were similar for flight and control groups. Plasma concentrations of total protein, sodium, albumin and creatinine did not differ between flight and control groups. LF and SF rats had elevated plasma glucose, and SF rats had increased blood urea nitrogen, potassium and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. These observations indicate that rats maintained in the RAHF were healthy, well nourished and experienced minimal stress; physiological changes in the rats can thus be attributed to the effects of space flight.

  3. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua; Kennedy, Christopher W; Armour, Elwood; Tryggestad, Erik; Ford, Eric; McNutt, Todd; Jiang Licai; Wong, John

    2007-01-01

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min -1 at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of ±5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD

  4. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, Julián Ernesto Nicolás; Rocco, Daniela Marisa; García-Bournissen, Facundo

    2015-11-01

    Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%). Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction.

  5. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Ernesto Nicolás Gulin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%. Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction.

  6. Applications of landscape genetics to connectivity research in terrestrial animals [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisette P. Waits; Samuel A. Cushman; Steve F. Spear

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetic studies have focused on terrestrial animals more than any other taxonomic group. This chapter focuses on applications of landscape genetics for understanding connectivity of terrestrial animal populations. It starts with a general introduction covering unique characteristics and challenges of the terrestrial study system. This is followed by...

  7. Applications of Animal Research in the Behavioral Sciences: Effects of Chronic Exercise on Emotionality in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Gerald D.

    The psychological effects of exercise training are difficult to study in humans, but analogous emotionality changes in animals can be studied using simple measurements employed in emergence and open-field tests. The basis of these tests is that animals that are more emotional are more fearful when placed in a novel situation and will exhibit less…

  8. Research and Reflection: Animal-Assisted Therapy in Mental Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshall, Debra Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Although animals have been historically associated with promoting physical and mental health benefits for humans, only recently has there been support for such claims in the literature. This article is a preliminary attempt to bring together scientific studies and anecdotal reports that provide evidence of the benefits of using animals in…

  9. From the Law of European Delegation to the Legislative Decree on experiments with animals: consequences for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2014-01-01

    The provisions contained in the Legislative Decree no.26 signed by Italy's President on 4th March 2014 will have a considerable impact on the future of experiments with animals. The article briefly describes the stages of the decree's complicated passage through Parliament and the resulting text, which includes bans on: the use of animals for xenotransplants or research on drugs of abuse; the breeding of dogs, cats and non-human primates for experimental use; research without anaesthetic or analgesics that causes pain to the animal, except when anaesthetics or analgesics are being investigated. There is widespread feeling in the scientific community that these provisions will hinder the advancement of biomedical research in Italy.

  10. Has reporting of methods in animal studies in psychiatric research improved since the introduction of the ARRIVE guidelines?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danborg, Pia Brandt; Simonsen, Anders L; Hrobjartsson, Asbjørn

    Objective: Animal research has been dominated by poor methodology or poor reporting. The ARRIVE guidelines were introduced in 2010 to increase the quality of reporting in animal research. An evaluation by Baker et al (2014) reported inadequate adherence to the ARRIVE guidelines by researchers...... and journal editors. We are undertaking two systematic reviews to investigate harms from exposure to psychiatric drugs; one on long-term behavioral harms from previous exposure to psychiatric drugs after a drug-free period and one on abnormal development of reproductive organs from exposure to ADHD medication....... Method: Two independent observers assessed risk of bias due to randomization and blinding in studies included in either of the two systematic reviews and published in 2011 or later. We used the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting and the risk of bias tool presented by the Systematic Review Centre for Animal...

  11. Research in Propagation Characteristics of Chinese Anime Art under the Background of New Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗淞译

    2015-01-01

    Animation industry is the core part of Chinese culture industry,which meets the development demand of modern cultural undertakings.What is more,it occupies a big share in the market.In the information ages,we must lead a fundamental change of the original transmission in the area of Chinese anime art and widely publicize the anime art and culture,so as to make it to get more recognition from the social public.The present thesis gives an analysis into the main forms of the new media and summarizes the hysteresis performance of the anime art,and then points out several scientific countermeasures about the transmission and development of the anime art with the help of the new media.

  12. DISCONTOOLS: a database to identify research gaps on vaccines, pharmaceuticals and diagnostics for the control of infectious diseases of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Declan; Scudamore, Jim; Charlier, Johannes; Delavergne, Morgane

    2017-01-03

    The public and private sector in the EU spend around €800 million per year on animal health and welfare related research. An objective process to identify critical gaps in knowledge and available control tools should aid the prioritisation of research in order to speed up the development of new or improved diagnostics, vaccines and pharmaceuticals and reduce the burden of animal diseases. Here, we describe the construction of a database based on expert consultation for 52 infectious diseases of animals. For each disease, an expert group produced a disease and product analysis document that formed the basis for gap analysis and prioritisation. The prioritisation model was based on a closed scoring system, employing identical weights for six evaluation criteria (disease knowledge; impact on animal health and welfare; impact on public health; impact on wider society; impact on trade; control tools). The diseases were classified into three groups: epizootic diseases, food-producing animal complexes or zoonotic diseases. The highly ranked diseases in the prioritisation model comprised mostly zoonotic and epizootic diseases with important gaps identified in vaccine development and pharmaceuticals, respectively. The most important outcome is the identification of key research needs by disease. The rankings and research needs by disease are provided on a public website ( www.discontools.eu ) which is currently being updated based on new expert consultations. As such, it can become a reference point for funders of research including the European Commission, member states, foundations, trusts along with private industry to prioritise research. This will deliver benefits in terms of animal health and welfare but also public health, societal benefits and a safe and secure food supply.

  13. Glucocorticoid induced osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep: validation of large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, Liming; Bollen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Glucocorticoid with low calcium and phosphorus intake induces osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep. OBJECTIVE: To validate a large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A variety of ovariectomized animals has been used to study...... osteoporosis. Most experimental spine fusions were based on normal animals, and there is a great need for suitable large animal models with adequate bone size that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans. METHODS: Eighteen female skeletal mature sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups, 6 each. Group 1 (GC......-1) received prednisolone (GC) treatment (0.60 mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7 months. Group 2 (GC-2) received the same treatment as GC-1 for 7 months followed by 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as the controls. All sheep received restricted diet with low calcium...

  14. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  15. Survey of basic medical researchers on the awareness of animal experimental designs and reporting standards in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    Full Text Available To investigate the awareness and use of the Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation's (SYRCLE risk-of-bias tool, the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE reporting guidelines, and Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC in China in basic medical researchers of animal experimental studies.A national questionnaire-based survey targeting basic medical researchers was carried in China to investigate the basic information and awareness of SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, ARRIVE guidelines, GSPC, and animal experimental bias risk control factors. The EpiData3.1 software was used for data entry, and Microsoft Excel 2013 was used for statistical analysis in this study. The number of cases (n and percentage (% of classified information were statistically described, and the comparison between groups (i.e., current students vs. research staff was performed using chi-square test.A total of 298 questionnaires were distributed, and 272 responses were received, which included 266 valid questionnaires (from 118 current students and 148 research staff. Among the 266 survey participants, only 15.8% was aware of the SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003, and the awareness rates of ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC were only 9.4% and 9.0%, respectively; 58.6% survey participants believed that the reports of animal experimental studies in Chinese literature were inadequate, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.004. In addition, only approximately 1/3 of the survey participants had read systematic reviews and meta-analysis reports of animal experimental studies; only 16/266 (6.0% had carried out/participated in and 11/266 (4.1% had published systematic reviews/meta-analysis of animal experimental studies.The awareness and use rates of SYRCLE's risk-of-bias tool, the ARRIVE guidelines, and the GSPC were low among Chinese basic medical researchers. Therefore

  16. The COST manual of laboratory animal care and use: refinement, reduction, and research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Bryan; Nevalainen, Timo; Perretta, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    ... to the use of animals for scientific purposes. It is also addressed to those with management responsibilities including facility engineers, architects and lay persons involved with ethical review, and the interested general reader...

  17. Research on Japanese-original Anime Words based on Chinese Network Catchword Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Jin Chang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the phenomenon of Japanese-original anime language’s spreading in Chinese network language was discussed, and some theory of lexicology, semantics, grammar, and cultural linguistics was proposed. The characters of its different types and its influence on Chinese and the reason why the anime language can be so popular in the factors of psychologies, social also was analyzed. According to these studies, some suggestions were put forward that how to standardize the network languag...

  18. The Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine (CTVM) pulling its weight in the field of draught animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R A; Lawrence, P R; Smith, A J

    1996-02-01

    Draught animal research carried out by scientists at the Centre for Topical Veterinary Medicine (CTVM) in Edinburgh and overseas is reviewed and the major findings are reported. The remit for the work has been to provide basic information on draught animals which can be applied by researchers and extension workers to their own geographic situations. Instrumentation is described which has been designed and manufactured to assist in the measurement of draught animal performance, particularly work output and energy consumption. Energy requirements of cattle, buffaloes and equids for work and ways in which these can be met from feed intake and body reserves reported. Studies on heat stress and diseases, 2 of the constraints to work performance, are also described.

  19. The research with animal lab, colombia most accomplish the international agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mrad

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se realiza investigación en un marco pleno de ética  y se mantiene el bienestar de los animales, la calidad de la ciencia y los datos que se deriven del trabajo serán lo mejor que se puede lograr. La experimentación animal es y seguirá siendo fundamental en la investigación biológica y biomédica, puesto que gracias a ella la humanidad ha podido hacer acopio de los más grandes descubrimientos por y para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida humana y animal (Mrad y Cardozo, 1998. La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS en su XI Reunión Interamericana de 1.980 dejaba claro que "los países que han logrado un gran avance en el control de las enfermedades humanas y animales son aquellos que han establecido mecanismos y entidades que se dedican al mejor desarrollo de la Ciencia de los Animales de Laboratorio". También se ocupan de éste tema organismos internacionales como ICLAS (International Council of Laboratory Animal Science, ILAR (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, así como muchas asociaciones dedicadas al cuidado de animales de laboratorio como son AALAS (American Associaton of Laboratory Animal Science y FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations

  20. Research Ethics I: Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR)--Historical and Contemporary Issues Pertaining to Human and Animal Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics I", they present a historical overview of the evolution of…

  1. SEURAT: Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing – Recommendations for future research in the field of predictive toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of non-animal methodology to evaluate the potential for a chemical to cause systemic toxicity is one of the grand challenges of modern science. The European research programme SEURAT is active in this field and will conclude its first phase, SEURAT-1, in December ...

  2. Review of Research Projects on Qualitative and Quantitative Effects of Radiation on Haematopoietic Tissue in Man and Experimental Animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilberg, A. W. [Division of Radiological Health, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1967-07-15

    By way of introduction to a review of Research Projects of the Division of Radiological Health concerned with effects of radiation on the haematopoietic tissue in man and the experimental animal, I should like first to discuss briefly the organization of research. Our research is organized into three major disciplines: (1) Epidemiology, (2) Radiation biology, and (3) Environmental sciences. Briefly, epidemiology is concerned with studies, of populations and effects of radiation in.man; radiation biology is concerned with effects in the experimental animal under controlled situations and also concerned with basic research in cellular and sub-cellular effects; and environmental science is concerned with transport mechanisms in the biosphere and how these mechanisms may operate and be interrupted to reduce radiation hazard to man.

  3. Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD): A Cyberinfrastructure for Mesoscale Meteorology Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droegemeier, K.

    2004-12-01

    A new National Science Foundation Large Information Technology Research (ITR) grant - known as Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) - has been funded to facilitate the identification, access, preparation, assimilation, prediction, management, analysis, mining, and visualization of a broad array of meteorological data and model output, independent of format and physical location. A transforming element of LEAD is dynamic workflow orchestration and data management, which will allow use of analysis tools, forecast models, and data repositories as dynamically adaptive, on-demand systems that can a) change configuration rapidly and automatically in response to weather; b) continually be steered by new data; c) respond to decision-driven inputs from users; d) initiate other processes automatically; and e) steer remote observing technologies to optimize data collection for the problem at hand. Having been in operation for slightly more than a year, LEAD has created a technology roadmap and architecture for developing its capabilities and placing them within the academic and research environment. Further, much of the LEAD infrastructure being developed for the WRF model, particularly workflow orchestration, will play a significant role in the nascent WRF Developmental Test Bed Center located at NCAR. This paper updates the status of LEAD (e.g., the topics noted above), its ties with other community activities (e.g., CONDUIT, THREDDS, MADIS, NOMADS), and the manner in which LEAD technologies will be made available for general use. Each component LEAD application is being created as a standards-based Web service that can be run in stand-alone configuration or chained together to build an end-to-end environment for on-demand, real time NWP. We describe in this paper the concepts, implementation plans, and expected impacts of LEAD, the underpinning of which will be a series of interconnected, heterogeneous virtual IT "Grid environments" designed to provide a

  4. Review of the Third Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Sherry E

    2012-01-01

    The third edition (January 2010) of the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching (the Ag Guide) was the collaborative effort of a group of 64 authors and provides a science-based reference and performance-based guidelines for institutions that use agricultural species in research and teaching. The adoption of the Ag Guide by the AAALAC Board of Trustees as a primary standard signifies its importance in the AAALAC accreditation process.

  5. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Joanna W. A. M.; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P. M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from experimental studies are limited with regard to comparability and clinical translation. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched for experimental studies investigating anastomotic healing in the lower...

  6. Cameco engineered tailings program: linking research with industrial processes for improved tailings performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzer, T.; Hendry, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The waste product from uranium mining and milling that generates the greatest public and regulatory concern is tailings. The tailings contain all of the mined material except uranium plus a host of processing reagents. These minerals and compounds have the potential to harm the local environment if not deposited in a fashion that is both geochemically and geotechnically stable. Environmental leadership impels Cameco Corporation to ensure that the methods used to dispose of tailings are at the forefront of best available technologies whereby tailings production results in a product with geotechnical and geochemical characteristics that minimize the environmental impact associated with long-term storage of this product. Cameco has developed an Engineered Tailings (ET) program to ensure optimization of long-term tailings performance and minimal impacts of elements of concern (EOCs) to the receiving environment, regardless of the ore being milled. Within this program chemical and physical performance of tailings from geochemical and geotechnical investigations and baseline environmental data, integrated with regulatory requirements and corporate commitments, will be used to evaluate and set criteria for mill- and tailings management facilities-based chemical and physical tailings characteristics, identify key knowledge gaps, prioritize areas of concern and implement appropriate responses. This paper provides an overview of the Engineered Tailings program, the research being conducted as part of the ET program, and how it links with present and future Cameco operations. (author)

  7. Design and evaluation of custom 133Xe trapping and holding system for animal research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.L.; Pennock, R.E.; Bowman, G.; Hernandez, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A cell for the trapping and holding of 133 Xe by activated charcoal was designed and tested for use in animal experiments. The cell was made from copper tubing with end caps and nipples for attachment of tubing and valves. Results of test indicated that up to 4 animals per day could be studied with complete trapping of all activity in a single cell. 16 of such cells allow continuous studies to be made on 4 animals a day using a different cell each day. By the time each cell is re-used the trapped 132 Xe has decayed for at least 23 days thus greatly reducing any exhausted activity. The cells were arranged in a wall-mounted filter bank inside a shielded cabinet. The outlet of the filter bank was connected into the exhaust stream of a fume hood. (author)

  8. Implementing guidelines on reporting research using animals (ARRIVE etc.): new requirements for publication in BJP

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John C; Lilley, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    The ARRIVE guidelines have been implemented in BJP for 4 years with the aim of increasing transparency in reporting experiments involving animals. BJP has assessed our success in implementing them and concluded that we could do better. This editorial discusses the issues and explains how we are changing our requirements for authors to report their findings in experiments involving animals. This is one of a series of editorials discussing updates to the BJP Instructions to Authors Video To view the video on the ARRIVE guidelines, visit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DYXoUAnhoPM PMID:25964986

  9. Research on Japanese-original Anime Words based on Chinese Network Catchword Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Jin Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the phenomenon of Japanese-original anime language’s spreading in Chinese network language was discussed, and some theory of lexicology, semantics, grammar, and cultural linguistics was proposed. The characters of its different types and its influence on Chinese and the reason why the anime language can be so popular in the factors of psychologies, social also was analyzed. According to these studies, some suggestions were put forward that how to standardize the network language and how to raise its taste.

  10. Evaluation of super-link system theory for spinal cord injury patients using participatory action research in a rehabilitation hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Yu; Wu, Tzu-Jung; Cheng, Mei-Li; Sung, Hsi-Hui

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and evaluate the spinal cord injury rehabilitation nursing theory named Super-Link System Theory using participatory action research. Data were collected from October 2007 to September 2008 in a rehabilitation hospital by means of interviews, participant observations, documentary resources, case conferences and reports, and participants' self-reflective inquiries. The Super-Link System Theory was introduced to 31 rehabilitation nurses. The nurses selected a key reference group including the researcher to facilitate the participatory action research process to implement and evaluate the theory. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings shows that several key concepts were clarified and specific nursing interventions were identified. Furthermore, an integrated link system from the hospital to the community through both rehabilitation nurses and discharge planners was established. The study demonstrated an evidence base for an evolving theory of care, and empowered nurses to make sustainable changes to their practice. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  11. Cell protein cross-linking by erbstatin and related compounds | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The scheme depicts a possible mechanism of cross-linking by erbstatin and related analogues. A mechanism of action is proposed which involves initial oxidation to reactive quinone intermediates that subsequently cross-link protein nucleophiles via multiple 1,4-Michael-type additions. Similar alkylation of protein by protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as herbimycin A, has

  12. Research on Shore-Ship Photonic Link Performance for Two- Frequency-Band Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yanqin; Cong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Ka and Ku bands links for shore-ship communications suffer limited bandwidth and high loss. In this paper, photonics-based links are proposed and modeled. The principle of phase modulation (PM) is elaborated and analyzed. It is showed that PM can effectively suppress high-order inter-modulation distortion (IMD), reduce the insert loss and improve the reliability of the system.

  13. Science for Energy Technology: Strengthening the Link Between Basic Research and Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-01

    The nation faces two severe challenges that will determine our prosperity for decades to come: assuring clean, secure, and sustainable energy to power our world, and establishing a new foundation for enduring economic and jobs growth. These challenges are linked: the global demand for clean sustainable energy is an unprecedented economic opportunity for creating jobs and exporting energy technology to the developing and developed world. But achieving the tremendous potential of clean energy technology is not easy. In contrast to traditional fossil fuel-based technologies, clean energy technologies are in their infancy, operating far below their potential, with many scientific and technological challenges to overcome. Industry is ultimately the agent for commercializing clean energy technology and for reestablishing the foundation for our economic and jobs growth. For industry to succeed in these challenges, it must overcome many roadblocks and continuously innovate new generations of renewable, sustainable, and low-carbon energy technologies such as solar energy, carbon sequestration, nuclear energy, electricity delivery and efficiency, solid state lighting, batteries and biofuels. The roadblocks to higher performing clean energy technology are not just challenges of engineering design but are also limited by scientific understanding.Innovation relies on contributions from basic research to bridge major gaps in our understanding of the phenomena that limit efficiency, performance, or lifetime of the materials or chemistries of these sustainable energy technologies. Thus, efforts aimed at understanding the scientific issues behind performance limitations can have a real and immediate impact on cost, reliability, and performance of technology, and ultimately a transformative impact on our economy. With its broad research base and unique scientific user facilities, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) is ideally positioned to address these needs. BES has laid

  14. Alternatives to animal testing in basic and preclinical research of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwa, Anna; Jevtić, Marijana; Gorreja, Frida; Hedtrich, Sarah

    2018-01-22

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of increasing prevalence, especially in industrialized countries. Roughly 25% of the children and 1%-3% of adults are affected. Although significant progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of AD, many aspects remain poorly understood. Moreover, there is a pressing need for improved therapeutic options. Studies to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways of AD and to identify novel therapeutic targets over the last few decades have been conducted almost exclusively in animal models. However, in vitro approaches such as 3D skin disease models have recently emerged due to an increasing awareness of distinct interspecies-related differences that hamper the effective translation of results from animal models to humans. In addition, there is growing political and social pressure to develop alternatives to animal models according to the 3Rs principle (reduction, refinement and replacement of animal models). © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Isotope and radiation research on animal diseases and their vectors. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.

  16. Isotope and radiation research on animal diseases and their vectors. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.

  17. Critical overview of all available animal models for abdominal wall hernia research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, R.R.M.; R. Kaufmann (Ruth); L.C.L. van den Hil (Leontine); van Steensel, S.; M.H.F. Schreinemacher (Marc H.F.); J.F. Lange (Johan); N.D. Kannekens-Bouvy (Nicole)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Since the introduction of the first prosthetic mesh for abdominal hernia repair, there has been a search for the “ideal mesh.” The use of preclinical or animal models for assessment of necessary characteristics of new and existing meshes is an indispensable part of hernia

  18. GCSE Students' Attitudes to Dissection and Using Animals in Research and Product Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Questionnaires from students passing the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) that explored attitudes to dissection and using animals in product testing administered to (n=469) students ages 14-15 showed a high level of support for peers who object to dissection, although objectors are likely to be met with derogatory comments,…

  19. The link between research, development and demonstration and stakeholder confidence: the perspective of an academic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, Ghislain de

    2006-01-01

    The author contributed to the discussion by providing a presentation from the perspective of an academic. In reviewing the role of science, the author focused on the important roles of science and R and D following a siting process. Science and R and D is essential for understanding the physical systems, displaying and demonstrating processes involved, measuring key parameters, and assessing areas of residual uncertainty. He outlined a number of factors that are key to making a strong case to stakeholders, to demonstrate that the system is well understood: - explaining the past history of the site; - explaining unexpected features or occurrences (such as seismic anomalies); - ensuring the capacity to observe and note unexpected features; - having the capacity to introduce new measurements that can inform the system; - deriving scientific validation of theory (noting the example of WIPP); - maintaining the capacity to be at the frontier of science; and - having the ability to answer unexpected questions from any party. It was suggested that credibility and stakeholder confidence is linked, in part, to credibility of the research in the eyes of the scientific community. The scientific community must be engaged to address questions of interest to the public. The role of peer review is essential in establishing the credibility of researchers, and within academic circles, publications in the scientific literature is highly valued. It is important for both implementers and regulators to retain their own capabilities and competence to be credible in the eyes of stakeholders. The experience of Andra was noted, in underscoring the importance of having high-level scientists internal to the implementing organization to ensure momentum and institutional knowledge. Thesis students also offer ways of promoting science in areas of interest concerning radioactive waste management. Demonstration plays an essential and distinct role from R and D. It offers tangible insight to

  20. Fumonisin exposure in women linked to inhibition of an enzyme that is a key event in farm and laboratory animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a toxic chemical produced by molds. The molds that produce fumonisin are common in corn. Consumption of contaminated corn by farm animals has been shown to be the cause of animal disease. The proximate cause (key event) in the induction of diseases in animals is inhibition of t...

  1. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2011-10-29

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007-10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007-09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·38, 95% CI -0·55 to -0·20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (-0·36, -0·83 to 0·10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD -0·24, -0·40 to -0·09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007–10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007–09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] −0.38, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (−0.36, −0.83 to 0.10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD −0.24, −0.40 to −0.09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428

  3. MyGeneFriends: A Social Network Linking Genes, Genetic Diseases, and Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allot, Alexis; Chennen, Kirsley; Nevers, Yannis; Poidevin, Laetitia; Kress, Arnaud; Ripp, Raymond; Thompson, Julie Dawn; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile

    2017-06-16

    The constant and massive increase of biological data offers unprecedented opportunities to decipher the function and evolution of genes and their roles in human diseases. However, the multiplicity of sources and flow of data mean that efficient access to useful information and knowledge production has become a major challenge. This challenge can be addressed by taking inspiration from Web 2.0 and particularly social networks, which are at the forefront of big data exploration and human-data interaction. MyGeneFriends is a Web platform inspired by social networks, devoted to genetic disease analysis, and organized around three types of proactive agents: genes, humans, and genetic diseases. The aim of this study was to improve exploration and exploitation of biological, postgenomic era big data. MyGeneFriends leverages conventions popularized by top social networks (Facebook, LinkedIn, etc), such as networks of friends, profile pages, friendship recommendations, affinity scores, news feeds, content recommendation, and data visualization. MyGeneFriends provides simple and intuitive interactions with data through evaluation and visualization of connections (friendships) between genes, humans, and diseases. The platform suggests new friends and publications and allows agents to follow the activity of their friends. It dynamically personalizes information depending on the user's specific interests and provides an efficient way to share information with collaborators. Furthermore, the user's behavior itself generates new information that constitutes an added value integrated in the network, which can be used to discover new connections between biological agents. We have developed MyGeneFriends, a Web platform leveraging conventions from popular social networks to redefine the relationship between humans and biological big data and improve human processing of biomedical data. MyGeneFriends is available at lbgi.fr/mygenefriends. ©Alexis Allot, Kirsley Chennen, Yannis

  4. Development and evaluation of an avian influenza, neuraminidase subtype 1, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for poultry using the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Mundt, E; Mundt, A; Sylte, M; Suarez, D L; Swayne, D E; García, M

    2010-03-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using baculovirus, purified, recombinant N1 protein from A/chicken/Indonesia/PA7/2003 (H5N1) virus. The N1-ELISA showed high selectivity for detection of N1 antibodies, with no cross-reactivity with other neuraminidase subtypes, and broad reactivity with sera to N1 subtype isolates from North American and Eurasian lineages. Sensitivity of the N1-ELISA to detect N1 antibodies in turkey sera, collected 3 wk after H1N1 vaccination, was comparable to detection of avian influenza antibodies by the commercial, indirect ELISAs ProFLOK AIV Plus ELISA Kit (Synbiotics, Kansas City, MO) and Avian Influenza Virus Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX, Westbrook, ME). However, 6 wk after vaccination, the Synbiotics ELISA kit performed better than the N1-ELISA and the IDEXX ELISA kit. An evaluation was made of the ability of the N1-ELISA to discriminate vaccinated chickens from subsequently challenged chickens. Two experiments were conducted, chickens were vaccinated with inactivated H5N2 and H5N9 viruses and challenged with highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, and chickens were vaccinated with recombinant poxvirus vaccine encoding H7 and challenged with highly pathogenic H7N1 virus. Serum samples were collected at 14 days postchallenge and tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), quantitative neuraminidase inhibition (NI), and N1-ELISA. At 2 days postchallenge, oropharyngeal swabs were collected for virus isolation (VI) to confirm infection. The N1-ELISA was in fair agreement with VI and HI results. Although the N1-ELISA showed a lower sensitivity than the NI assay, it was demonstrated that detection of N1 antibodies by ELISA was an effective and rapid assay to identify exposure to the challenge virus in vaccinated chickens. Therefore, N1-ELISA can facilitate a vaccination strategy with differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals using a neuraminidase heterologous approach.

  5. International consensus statement regarding the use of animal models for research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Joanna W A M; Moossdorff, Martine; Al-Taher, Mahdi; van Beek, Lotte; Derikx, Joep P M; Bouvy, Nicole D

    2016-05-01

    This project aimed to reach consensus on the most appropriate animal models and outcome measures in research on anastomoses in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The physiology of anastomotic healing remains an important research topic in gastrointestinal surgery. Recent results from experimental studies are limited with regard to comparability and clinical translation. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for experimental studies investigating anastomotic healing in the lower GIT published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014 to assess currently used models. All corresponding authors were invited for a Delphi-based analysis that consisted of two online survey rounds followed by a final online recommendation survey to reach consensus on the discussed topics. Two hundred seventy-seven original articles were retrieved and 167 articles were included in the systematic review. Mice, rats, rabbits, pigs, and dogs are currently being used as animal models, with a large variety in surgical techniques and outcome measures. Forty-four corresponding authors participated in the Delphi analysis. In the first two rounds, 39/44 and 35/39 participants completed the survey. In the final meeting, 35 experts reached consensus on 76/122 items in six categories. Mouse, rat, and pig are considered appropriate animal models; rabbit and dog should be abandoned in research regarding bowel anastomoses. ARRIVE guidelines should be followed more strictly. Consensus was reached on several recommendations for the use of animal models and outcome measurements in research on anastomoses of the lower GIT. Future research should take these suggestions into account to facilitate comparison and clinical translation of results.

  6. The potential impact of current animal research on the meat industry and consumer attitudes towards meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Klont, Ronald; Plastow, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Progress in animal nutrition, reproduction, quantitative genetics, and the development of molecular genetics, proteomics, and functional genomics open new perspectives for the meat sector. The most promising developments include a wider utilisation of molecular markers, the possibilities of semen sexing and the targeted use of nutrition to modify the composition of meat. The increased use of biotechnology will have a considerable impact on the economics of production of meat and further processed products. New technologies will increase the possibilities for product differentiation and improve homogeneity of live animals. The consumer and society in general will influence the direction of these developments. This review will focus on the long-term impact of new technologies for the meat production chain.

  7. Research into the radio-active contamination of foodstuffs of animal origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistner, L.

    1965-03-01

    The author assembles in a very complete way all the actually available data relating to the transfer of the most important radionuclides from the environment through animal products to man. As these are not directly utilizable for the countries of the European Community, he proposes to go further into the question in order to be able to take into account the changing ecological conditions. (author) [fr

  8. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for industry from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and training (VET) and…

  9. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Qualification & Approval Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary pulls together the relevant key findings for qualification and approval bodies from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education…

  10. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Gullone

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence a...

  11. Comparison of Animal Discs Used in Disc Research to Human Lumbar Disc: Torsion Mechanics and Collagen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Brent L.; Beckstein, Jesse C.; Martin, John T.; Beattie, Elizabeth E.; Orías, Alejandro A. Espinoza; Schaer, Thomas P.; Vresilovic, Edward J.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Experimental measurement and normalization of in vitro disc torsion mechanics and collagen content for several animal species used in intervertebral disc research and comparing these to the human disc. Objective To aid in the selection of appropriate animal models for disc research by measuring torsional mechanical properties and collagen content. Summary of Background Data There is lack of data and variability in testing protocols for comparing animal and human disc torsion mechanics and collagen content. Methods Intervertebral disc torsion mechanics were measured and normalized by disc height and polar moment of inertia for 11 disc types in 8 mammalian species: the calf, pig, baboon, goat, sheep, rabbit, rat, and mouse lumbar, and cow, rat, and mouse caudal. Collagen content was measured and normalized by dry weight for the same discs except the rat and mouse. Collagen fiber stretch in torsion was calculated using an analytical model. Results Measured torsion parameters varied by several orders of magnitude across the different species. After geometric normalization, only the sheep and pig discs were statistically different from human. Fiber stretch was found to be highly dependent on the assumed initial fiber angle. The collagen content of the discs was similar, especially in the outer annulus where only the calf and goat discs were statistically different from human. Disc collagen content did not correlate with torsion mechanics. Conclusion Disc torsion mechanics are comparable to human lumbar discs in 9 of 11 disc types after normalization by geometry. The normalized torsion mechanics and collagen content of the multiple animal discs presented is useful for selecting and interpreting results for animal models of the disc. Structural composition of the disc, such as initial fiber angle, may explain the differences that were noted between species after geometric normalization. PMID:22333953

  12. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  13. [Replacement of dogs as research animals for the approval testing of plant protection products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Rainer J

    2006-01-01

    The replacement of animal testing using dogs for the registration of plant protection products requires a long-term step-by-step procedure. The first goal should be to achieve international agreement on using only one single study in dogs. This would result in a significant short-term reduction of the use of dogs for this purpose. The competent working groups both in the EU and the United States EPA have declared this to be their intended aim. In this context, the 90-day study is to be the preferred study from the scientific as well as the animal welfare points of view. It is proposed to set up an international expert task force within the next 12 months, which should seek to initiate a process of international harmonization of the testing requirements following the example of the International Conference of Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Medical Products, ICH. The goal should be to achieve international agreement on only one single study with dogs within the next 2 to 3 years. In addition, other valid scientific procedures, with which the use of dogs for testing can be reduced, should be critically assessed. A complete replacement of the use of dogs for plant protection product testing is suggested to take place at a later stage. This may be achieved by either deriving safety threshold values by applying a safety factor to chronic NOAEL values obtained in studies using rats for those groups of substances, for which there is evidence that the dog is the more sensitive species, or by combining the chronic rat study with other animal tests stipulated for the registration of pesticides.

  14. Assuring safety without animal testing: Unilever's ongoing research programme to deliver novel ways to assure consumer safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Carl; Carmichael, Paul; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Assuring consumer safety without the generation of new animal data is currently a considerable challenge. However, through the application of new technologies and the further development of risk-based approaches for safety assessment, we remain confident it is ultimately achievable. For many complex, multi-organ consumer safety endpoints, the development, evaluation and application of new, non-animal approaches is hampered by a lack of biological understanding of the underlying mechanistic processes involved. The enormity of this scientific challenge should not be underestimated. To tackle this challenge a substantial research programme was initiated by Unilever in 2004 to critically evaluate the feasibility of a new conceptual approach based upon the following key components: 1.Developing new, exposure-driven risk assessment approaches. 2.Developing new biological (in vitro) and computer-based (in silico) predictive models. 3.Evaluating the applicability of new technologies for generating data (e.g. "omics", informatics) and for integrating new types of data (e.g. systems approaches) for risk-based safety assessment. Our research efforts are focussed in the priority areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhaled toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biology and molecular mechanisms that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement in EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, Carcinogenomics), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. Colipa, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US "Human Toxicology Project" consortium).

  15. A Critical Look at Biomedical Journals’ Policies on Animal Research by Use of a Novel Tool: The EXEMPLAR Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Martins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal research is not only regulated by legislation but also by self-regulatory mechanisms within the scientific community, which include biomedical journals’ policies on animal use. For editorial policies to meaningfully impact attitudes and practice, they must not only be put into effect by editors and reviewers, but also be set to high standards. We present a novel tool to classify journals’ policies on animal use—the EXEMPLAR scale—as well as an analysis by this scale of 170 journals publishing studies on animal models of three human diseases: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Type-1 Diabetes and Tuberculosis. Results show a much greater focus of editorial policies on regulatory compliance than on other domains, suggesting a transfer of journals’ responsibilities to scientists, institutions and regulators. Scores were not found to vary with journals’ impact factor, country of origin or antiquity, but were, however, significantly higher for open access journals, which may be a result of their greater exposure and consequent higher public scrutiny.

  16. The role of progestins in the behavioral effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse: human and animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Justin J; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2010-11-01

    This review summarizes findings from human and animal research investigating the influence of progesterone and its metabolites allopreganolone and pregnanolone (progestins) on the effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse. Since a majority of these studies have used cocaine, this will be the primary focus; however, the influence of progestins on other drugs of abuse will also be discussed. Collectively, findings from these studies support a role for progestins in (1) attenuating the subjective and physiological effects of cocaine in humans, (2) blocking the reinforcing and other behavioral effects of cocaine in animal models of drug abuse, and (3) influencing behavioral responses to other drugs of abuse such as alcohol and nicotine in animals. Administration of several drugs of abuse in both human and nonhuman animals significantly increased progestin levels, and this is explained in terms of progestins acting as homeostatic regulators that decrease and normalize heightened stress and reward responses which lead to increased drug craving and relapse. The findings discussed here highlight the complexity of progestin-drug interactions, and they suggest a possible use for these agents in understanding the etiology of and developing treatments for drug abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Benefits and limitations of animal models in partial bladder outlet obstruction for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Takeya; Kanno, Yukiko; Chiba, Hiroki; Higuchi, Madoka; Ouchi, Mifuka; Togo, Mio; Moriya, Kimihiko; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2018-01-01

    The functions of the lower urinary tract have been investigated for more than a century. Lower urinary tract symptoms, such as incomplete bladder emptying, weak urine stream, daytime urinary frequency, urgency, urge incontinence and nocturia after partial bladder outlet obstruction, is a frequent cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia in aging men. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The use of animal models is absolutely imperative for understanding the pathophysiological processes involved in bladder dysfunction. Surgical induction has been used to study lower urinary tract functions of numerous animal species, such as pig, dog, rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse, of both sexes. Several morphological and functional modifications under partial bladder outlet obstruction have not only been observed in the bladder, but also in the central nervous system. Understanding the changes of the lower urinary tract functions induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction would also contribute to appropriate drug development for treating these pathophysiological conditions. In the present review, we discuss techniques for creating partial bladder outlet obstruction, the characteristics of several species, as well as issues of each model, and their translational value. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) in laboratory animals: offering an insight into stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-Chih; Liu, Hua-Hsing; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chen, Pin-Ru; Liu, Ming-Chao; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chang, Ko-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a pathological process secondary to underlying bone marrow (BM) insufficiency in adults. It is characterized by the emergence of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors scattered around the affected tissue, most likely in the spleen, liver, and lymph node, etc. EMH in patients frequently receives less medical attention and is neglected unless a compressive or obstructive hematopoietic mass appears to endanger the patient's life. However, on a biological basis, EMH reflects the alteration of relationships among hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and their original and new microenvironments. The ability of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to mobilize from the bone marrow and to accommodate and function in extramedullary tissues is rather complicated and far from our current understanding. Fortunately, many reports from the studies of drugs and genetics using animals have incidentally found EMH to be involved. Thereby, the molecular basis of EMH could further be elucidated from those animals after cross-comparison. A deeper understanding of the extramedullary hematopoietic niche could help expand stem cells in vitro and establish a better treatment in patients for stem cell transplantation.

  19. A novel centrifuge for animal physiological researches in hypergravity and variable gravity forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumei, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Katsuya; Inoue, Katarzyna; Zeredo, . Jorge; Kimiya Narikiyo, .; Maezawa, Yukio; Yuuki Watanabe, .; Aou, Shuji

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the physiological responses to altered gravitational environments is essential for space exploration and long-term human life in space. Currently available centrifuges restrict experimentation due to limited space for laboratory equipments. We developed a medium-sized disc-type centrifuge to conduct ground-based studies on animal physiological response to hypergravity and variable gravity forces, which features the following advantages: 1) It enables simultaneous examination into the effects of various gravity levels including rotation control. 2) Beside the constant G force, variable G forces (delta-G) can be loaded to generate gravitational acceleration and deceleration. 3) Multiple imaging techniques can be used, such as high-speed video (16 channels wireless) and photography, X-ray, and infra-red imaging. 4) Telemetry is available on the disc table of the centrifuge through 128-channel analog and 32-channel digital signals, with sampling rate of 100 kHz for 2 hours. Our dynamic-balanced centrifuge can hold payloads of 600 kg that enable experimentation on various models of living organisms, from cells to animals and plants. We use this novel centrifuge for neurochemical and neurophysiological approaches such as microdialysis and telemetrical recording of neuronal activity in the rat brain. Financial supports from JSPS to K. Hasegawa (2011) and from JAXA to Y. Kumei (2011).

  20. Educational Reform and Educational Research: New Challenges in Linking Research, Information and Decision Making. Final Report of the International Meeting (Tokyo, Japan, September 4-14, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This document summarizes proceedings of a meeting held in September 1995. The purpose of the meeting was to gather educators and policymakers in order to establish criteria concerning links between educational research and decision making. Twenty participants from the following countries attended: Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Botswana, Brazil,…

  1. Making Connections: Linking Cognitive Psychology and Intervention Research to Improve Comprehension of Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Espin, Christine A.; van den Broek, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of reading comprehension interventions for struggling readers, including students with learning disabilities. Yet, some readers continue to struggle with comprehension despite receiving these interventions. In this article, we argue that an explicit link between cognitive psychology and intervention…

  2. Elastic dynamic research of high speed multi-link precision press considering structural stiffness of rotation joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Feng Feng; Sun, Yu; Peng, Bin Bin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2016-10-15

    An elastic dynamic model of high-speed multi-link precision press considering structural stiffness of rotation joints was established by the finite element method. In the finite element model, rotation joint was established by four bar elements with equivalent stiffness, and connected link was established by beam element. Then, the elastic dynamics equation of the system was established, and modal superposition method was used to solve the dynamic response. Compared with the traditional elastic dynamic model with perfect constraint of the rotation joints, the elastic dynamic response value of the improved model is larger. To validate the presented new method of elastic dynamics analysis with stiffness of rotation joints, a related test of slider Bottom dead center (BDC) position in different speed was designed. The test shows that the model with stiffness of rotation joints is more reasonable. So it provides a reasonable theory and method for dynamic characteristics research of such a multi-link machine.

  3. How Elsevier is supporting the value and usefulness of data with Cross-linking and Research Data Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keall, Bethan; Koers, Hylke; Marques, David

    2013-04-01

    Research in the Earth & Planetary Sciences is characterized by a wealth of observational data - ranging from observations by satellites orbiting the Earth, to borehole measurements at the bottom of the ocean, and also includes data from projects like the Rover Curiosity Landing. Thanks to technological advancements, it has become much easier for researchers over the last few decades to gather large volumes of data, analyze, and share with other researchers inside and outside the lab. With data serving such an important role in the way research is carried out, it becomes a crucial task to archive, maintain, organize, and disseminate research data in a dependable and structured manner. Subject-specific data repositories, often driven by the scientific community, are taking an increasingly prominent role in this domain, getting traction amongst researchers as the go-to place to deposit raw research data. At the same time, the scientific article remains an essential resource of scientific information. At Elsevier, we strive to continuously adapt the article format to meet the needs of modern-day researchers. This includes better support for digital content (see, e.g., http://www.elsevier.com/googlemaps), but also bidirectional linking between online articles and data repositories. In this spirit, Elsevier is collaborating with several leading data repositories, such as PANGAEA, IEDA, and NERC, to interlink articles and data for improved visibility and discoverability of both primary research data and research articles. In addition, Elsevier has formed a new group, Research Data Services, with three primary goals: • help increase the sharing and archiving of research data in discipline-specific repositories • help increase the value of shared data, particularly with annotation and provenance metadata and linking discipline-specific datasets together • help create a credit and impact assessment infrastructure to make research data independently important in its own

  4. Improving Care And Research Electronic Data Trust Antwerp (iCAREdata): a research database of linked data on out-of-hours primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliers, Annelies; Bartholomeeusen, Stefaan; Remmen, Roy; Coenen, Samuel; Michiels, Barbara; Bastiaens, Hilde; Van Royen, Paul; Verhoeven, Veronique; Holmgren, Philip; De Ruyck, Bernard; Philips, Hilde

    2016-05-04

    Primary out-of-hours care is developing throughout Europe. High-quality databases with linked data from primary health services can help to improve research and future health services. In 2014, a central clinical research database infrastructure was established (iCAREdata: Improving Care And Research Electronic Data Trust Antwerp, www.icaredata.eu ) for primary and interdisciplinary health care at the University of Antwerp, linking data from General Practice Cooperatives, Emergency Departments and Pharmacies during out-of-hours care. Medical data are pseudonymised using the services of a Trusted Third Party, which encodes private information about patients and physicians before data is sent to iCAREdata. iCAREdata provides many new research opportunities in the fields of clinical epidemiology, health care management and quality of care. A key aspect will be to ensure the quality of data registration by all health care providers. This article describes the establishment of a research database and the possibilities of linking data from different primary out-of-hours care providers, with the potential to help to improve research and the quality of health care services.

  5. A Virtual Reality Task Based on Animal Research - Spatial Learning and Memory in Patients after the First Episode of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta eFajnerova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive deficit is considered to be a characteristic feature of schizophrenia disorder. A similar cognitive dysfunction was demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. However, the poor comparability of methods used to assess cognition in animals and humans could be responsible for low predictive validity of current animal models. In order to assess spatial abilities in schizophrenia and compare our results with the data obtained in animal models we designed a virtual analogue of the Morris water maze (MWM, the virtual Four Goals Navigation (vFGN task.Method: Twenty-nine patients after the first psychotic episode with schizophrenia symptoms and a matched group of healthy volunteers performed the vFGN task. They were required to find and remember four hidden goal positions in an enclosed virtual arena. The task consisted of two parts. The Reference memory (RM session with a stable goal position was designed to test spatial learning. The Delayed-matching-to-place (DMP session presented a modified working memory protocol designed to test the ability to remember a sequence of three hidden goal positions.Results: Data obtained in the RM session show impaired spatial learning in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls in pointing and navigation accuracy. The DMP session showed impaired spatial memory in schizophrenia during the recall of spatial sequence and similar deficit in spatial bias in probe trials. The pointing accuracy and the quadrant preference showed higher sensitivity toward the cognitive deficit than the navigation accuracy. Direct navigation to the goal was affected by sex and age of the tested subjects. Age affected spatial performance only in healthy controls. Conclusions: Despite some limitations of the study, our results correspond well to previous studies in animal models of schizophrenia and support the decline of spatial cognition in schizophrenia, indicating the usefulness of the vFGN task in

  6. Glucocorticoid induced osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep: validation of large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, Liming; Bollen, Peter; Schwarz, Peter; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-02-15

    Glucocorticoid with low calcium and phosphorus intake induces osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep. To validate a large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research. A variety of ovariectomized animals has been used to study osteoporosis. Most experimental spine fusions were based on normal animals, and there is a great need for suitable large animal models with adequate bone size that closely resemble osteoporosis in humans. Eighteen female skeletal mature sheep were randomly allocated into 3 groups, 6 each. Group 1 (GC-1) received prednisolone (GC) treatment (0.60 mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7 months. Group 2 (GC-2) received the same treatment as GC-1 for 7 months followed by 3 months without treatment. Group 3 was left untreated and served as the controls. All sheep received restricted diet with low calcium and phosphorus during experiment. After killing the animals, cancellous bone specimens from the vertebra, femurs, and tibias were micro-CT scanned and tested mechanically. Serum biomarkers were determined. In lumbar vertebra, the GC treatment resulted in significant decrease of cancellous bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness, and bone strength. However, the microarchitecture and bone strength of GC-2 recovered to a similar level of the controls. A similar trend of microarchitectural changes was also observed in the distal femur and proximal tibia of both GC treated sheep. The bone formation marker serum-osteocalcin was largely reduced in GC-1 compared to the controls, but recovered with a rebound increase at month 10 in GC-2. The current investigation demonstrates that the changes in microarchitecture and mechanical properties were comparable with those observed in humans after long-term GC treatment. A prolonged GC treatment is needed for a long-term observation to keep osteopenic bone. This model resembles long-term glucocorticoid treated osteoporotic model, and is useful in preclinical studies.

  7. Is There a Need for a More Expansive Use of Ethics and Values in Reflecting on the Use of Animals in Scientific Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Debates about animal research are often polarized. On one side, increased knowledge, medical treatments or enhanced animal production are seen to justify harms. On the other, animals have rights constraining their use. Both sides fail to provide adequate support for this contentious use of animals. Reflecting the richness of ethics, it is suggested that empathy and respect for the animal, and greater acknowledgement of the value of experiences and care could also be considered. Along with a more informed understanding of the benefits of research and of the aims of animal rights, a more sophisticated ethic may reflect the common ground between the poles of the debate. Abstract Although reflecting a long tradition of moral reflection that the use of animals is acceptable as long as it is humane, the tension between causing harm to animals in research and the benefits to humans can nevertheless be troubling. Utilitarian arguments that appeal to the value of those practices in sustaining and enhancing human lives, and rights-based arguments which seek to constrain them, can be inadequate. Reflecting a more engaging, inclusive and sophisticated understanding of human activity, justification for animal use could be expanded to reflect the fullness and richness of ethical thinking. This might see more explicit inclusion of perspectives borne of virtues, caring, experiences, and respect for the essence of the animal, and different ways of understanding and knowing animals, values drawn from the middle ground of commonly acceptable human-animal relationships. Such values, already clearly evident in research, could be more widely integrated into arguments justifying animal use. A more expansive approach would not only reflect reality and acknowledge that costs and benefits are shared more widely, but it might result in more equitable, effective and humane science. It might also serve to reduce some of the tension long evident in the relationship between humans

  8. Choosing sheep (Ovis aries) as animal model for temporomandibular joint research: Morphological, histological and biomechanical characterization of the joint disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, D F; Morouço, P; Alves, N; Viana, T; Santos, F; González, R; Monje, F; Macias, D; Carrapiço, B; Sousa, R; Cavaco-Gonçalves, S; Salvado, F; Peleteiro, C; Pinho, M

    2016-12-01

    Preclinical trials are essential to the development of scientific technologies. Remarkable molecular and cellular research has been done using small animal models. However, significant differences exist regarding the articular behavior between these models and humans. Thus, large animal models may be more appropriate to perform trials involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The aim of this work was to make a morphological (anatomic dissection and white light 3D scanning system), histological (TMJ in bloc was removed for histologic analysis) and biomechanical characterization (tension and compression tests) of sheep TMJ comparing the obtained results with human data. Results showed that sheep processus condylaris and fossa mandibularis are anatomically similar to the same human structures. TMJ disc has an elliptical perimeter, thinner in the center than in periphery. Peripheral area acts as a ring structure supporting the central zone. The disc cells display both fibroblast and chondrocyte-like morphology. Marginal area is formed by loose connective tissue, with some chondrocyte-like cells and collagen fibers in diverse orientations. Discs obtained a tensile modulus of 3.97±0.73MPa and 9.39±1.67MPa, for anteroposterior and mediolateral assessment. The TMJ discs presented a compressive modulus (E) of 446.41±5.16MPa and their maximum stress value (σmax) was 18.87±1.33MPa. Obtained results suggest that these animals should be considered as a prime model for TMJ research and procedural training. Further investigations in the field of oromaxillofacial surgery involving TMJ should consider sheep as a good animal model due to its resemblance of the same joint in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Forging a Link between Research and Pedagogy: A Holistic Framework for Evaluating Business English Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Clarice S. C.

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, a great deal of applied linguistics research has been conducted in different areas of business English. However, despite many highly relevant research findings, the interface between research and pedagogy remains weak. One reason behind this lack of interface is that research findings from different studies are rarely…

  10. The Japanese Medakafish (Oryzias latipes) as Animal Model for Space-related Bone Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, J.; Schaedel, M.; Elmasri, H.; Wagner, T.; Goerlich, R.; Furutani-Seiki, M.; Kondoh, H.; Schartl, M.; Winkler, C.

    Long-term space flight leads to bone loss due to reduced mechanical load. Animal models are needed to support the analysis of the underlying mechanisms at the molecular and cellular level that are presently largely unclear. For this, small laboratory fish offer many experimental advantages as in vivo models to study disease related processes. They produce large numbers of completely transparent embryos, are easy to keep under laboratory and space conditions and have relatively compact genomes. We are using the Japanese Medaka to characterize the genetic networks regulating bone formation and to study bone formation and remodeling under microgravity. We showed that despite the large evolutionary distance many known factors regulating bone formation are conserved between fish and humans. This includes osteoprotegerin (opg), a key regulator of bone resorption that is altered at the transcriptional level by simulated microgravity in mammals in vitro (Kanematsu et al., Bone 30, 2002). To monitor, how opg is regulated by altered gravity in vivo in fish and how fish react to microgravity, we isolated the Medaka opg regulatory region and produced transgenic fish that carry the green fluorescent protein reporter under the control of the Medaka opg promoter. This model will be useful to monitor gravity-induced changes at the molecular level in vivo. Fish also provide the opportunity to identify novel genes involved in bone formation by using large-scale mutagenesis screens. We have characterized several lines of mutant fish subjected to ENU mutagenesis that show morphological defects in the formation of the bone precursor cell compartment of the axial skeleton, the sclerotome. Using this genetic approach, the identification of the mutated genes is expected to reveal novel components of the genetic cascades that regulate bone formation. In an attempt to identify genes specifically expressed in the sclerotome in Medaka, we identified and characterized dmrt2, a gene that so far

  11. The Link between Distributed Leadership and Educational Outcomes: An Overview of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eliophotou Menon

    2013-01-01

    School leadership is commonly considered to have a significant influence on school effectiveness and improvement. Effective school leaders are expected to successfully introduce and support change and innovation at the school unit. Despite an abundance of studies on educational leadership, very few studies have provided evidence on the link between leadership models, and specific educational and school outcomes. This is true of a popular contemporary approach to leadershi...

  12. Mycotoxin contamination in laboratory rat feeds and their implications in animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrivá, Laura; Font, Guillermina; Berrada, Houda; Manyes, Lara

    2016-09-01

    Compound feed is particularly vulnerable to multi-mycotoxin contamination. A method for the determination of 12 mycotoxins; enniatins A, A1, B, B1; aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2; OTA; ZEA; T-2 and HT-2 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and applied for the analysis of laboratory rat commercial feeds. The method trueness was checked by recovery assays at three different spiked levels (n = 9). Recoveries ranged from 73% to 112%, and the intra-day and inter-day precision were lower than 9% and 13%, respectively. Limits of quantitation were lower than 15 μg/kg. Twenty-seven laboratory rats feed samples showed multi-contamination by at least three up to six different mycotoxins. ENNs B and B1, followed by ZEA were the most prevalent mycotoxins. T-2, HT-2, and OTA were not detected. ZEA showed the highest concentration levels reaching 492 μg/kg. The results underline the importance of implementing mycotoxin regular surveillance programs for laboratory animal feeds.

  13. Research progress in animal models and stem cell therapy for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabin Han,1,2 Wei Wang1, Chao Chen1 1Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, 2Department of Neurology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital/The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD causes degeneration of brain neurons and leads to memory loss and cognitive impairment. Since current therapeutic strategies cannot cure the disease, stem cell therapy represents a powerful tool for the treatment of AD. We first review the advances in molecular pathogenesis and animal models of AD and then discuss recent clinical studies using small molecules and immunoglobulins to target amyloid-beta plaques for AD therapy. Finally, we discuss stem cell therapy for AD using neural stem cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, embryonic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cell from bone marrow, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood. In particular, patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells are proposed as a future treatment for AD. Keywords: amyloid-beta plaque, neurofibrillary tangle, neural stem cell, olfactory ensheathing cell, mesenchymal stem cell, induced pluripotent stem cell

  14. Current research on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity: animal models of monoamine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Taizo; Wagner, George C; Nakashima, Toshikatsu

    2003-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity is characterized by a long-lasting depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) and serotonin as well as damage to striatal dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve terminals. Several hypotheses regarding the mechanism underlying METH-induced neurotoxicity have been proposed. In particular, it is thought that endogenous DA in the striatum may play an important role in mediating METH-induced neuronal damage. This hypothesis is based on the observation of free radical formation and oxidative stress produced by auto-oxidation of DA consequent to its displacement from synaptic vesicles to cytoplasm. In addition, METH-induced neurotoxicity may be linked to the glutamate and nitric oxide systems within the striatum. Moreover, using knockout mice lacking the DA transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter 2, c-fos, or nitric oxide synthetase, it was determined that these factors may be connected in some way to METH-induced neurotoxicity. Finally a role for apoptosis in METH-induced neurotoxicity has also been established including evidence of protection of bcl-2, expression of p53 protein, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), activity of caspase-3. The neuronal damage induced by METH may reflect neurological disorders such as autism and Parkinson's disease.

  15. SEURAT: Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing--recommendations for future research in the field of predictive toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, George; Knight, Derek J; Schwarz, Michael; Gocht, Tilman; Thomas, Russell S; Mahony, Catherine; Whelan, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The development of non-animal methodology to evaluate the potential for a chemical to cause systemic toxicity is one of the grand challenges of modern science. The European research programme SEURAT is active in this field and will conclude its first phase, SEURAT-1, in December 2015. Drawing on the experience gained in SEURAT-1 and appreciating international advancement in both basic and regulatory science, we reflect here on how SEURAT should evolve and propose that further research and development should be directed along two complementary and interconnecting work streams. The first work stream would focus on developing new 'paradigm' approaches for regulatory science. The goal here is the identification of 'critical biological targets' relevant for toxicity and to test their suitability to be used as anchors for predicting toxicity. The second work stream would focus on integration and application of new approach methods for hazard (and risk) assessment within the current regulatory 'paradigm', aiming for acceptance of animal-free testing strategies by regulatory authorities (i.e. translating scientific achievements into regulation). Components for both work streams are discussed and may provide a structure for a future research programme in the field of predictive toxicology.

  16. New Animal Model Could Boost Research on AIDS Drugs and Vaccines | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS i

  17. A narrative literature review of games, animations and simulations to teach research methods and statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyle, Elizabeth; MacArthur, Ewan; Connolly, Thomas; Hainey, Thomas; Kärki, Anne; Van Rosmalen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Basic competence in research methods and statistics is core for many undergraduates but many students experience difficulties in acquiring knowledge and skills in this area. Interest has recently turned to serious games as providing engaging ways of learning. The CHERMUG project was developed against

  18. Diagnosis and epidemiology of animal diseases in Latin America. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meetings of FAO/IAEA/SIDA co-ordinated research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    In 1986 the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture embarked on a programme of support to scientists in developing countries focused on improving animal disease diagnosis through the use of nuclear and related technologies. As part of this programme the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) agreed to provide support for a FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) concerned with the introduction and use of such technologies in Latin America. Through this programme, which was entitled Regional Network for Latin America on Animal Disease Diagnosis Using Immunoassays and Labeled DNA Probe Techniques, studies were supported on a number of diseases considered to be of substantial economic and social importance to the region, including brucellosis, tuberculosis, babesiosis, leukosis, bluetongue and chlamydia infection in cattle and psedorabies in pigs. One significant conclusion was that large number of diseases studied limited research findings owing to the lack of a critical mass of scientists studying any one specific disease problem. Thus when in 1991, SIDA agreed to follow-up CRP on Immunoassay Methods for the Diagnosis and Epidemiology of Animal Diseases in Latin America, the work was restricted to three diseases, i.e. foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bovine brucellosis and bovine babesiosis. In 1994 results were presented in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, France. The outcome of this meeting was the validation of ELISAs for the above mentioned diseases and a recommendation that future research should focus on diagnosis and epidemiology to support existing control and eradication campaigns against the two diseases of major importance in the region (FMD and Brucellosis). A follow-up CRP (1994-1997) entitled the Use of ELISA for Epidemiology and Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Bovine Brucellosis in Latin America focused on the further validation and subsequent use of a

  19. Diagnosis and epidemiology of animal diseases in Latin America. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meetings of FAO/IAEA/SIDA co-ordinated research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    In 1986 the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture embarked on a programme of support to scientists in developing countries focused on improving animal disease diagnosis through the use of nuclear and related technologies. As part of this programme the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) agreed to provide support for a FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) concerned with the introduction and use of such technologies in Latin America. Through this programme, which was entitled Regional Network for Latin America on Animal Disease Diagnosis Using Immunoassays and Labeled DNA Probe Techniques, studies were supported on a number of diseases considered to be of substantial economic and social importance to the region, including brucellosis, tuberculosis, babesiosis, leukosis, bluetongue and chlamydia infection in cattle and psedorabies in pigs. One significant conclusion was that large number of diseases studied limited research findings owing to the lack of a critical mass of scientists studying any one specific disease problem. Thus when in 1991, SIDA agreed to follow-up CRP on Immunoassay Methods for the Diagnosis and Epidemiology of Animal Diseases in Latin America, the work was restricted to three diseases, i.e. foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bovine brucellosis and bovine babesiosis. In 1994 results were presented in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, France. The outcome of this meeting was the validation of ELISAs for the above mentioned diseases and a recommendation that future research should focus on diagnosis and epidemiology to support existing control and eradication campaigns against the two diseases of major importance in the region (FMD and Brucellosis). A follow-up CRP (1994-1997) entitled the Use of ELISA for Epidemiology and Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Bovine Brucellosis in Latin America focused on the further validation and subsequent use of a

  20. Transparency in the reporting of in vivo pre-clinical pain research: The relevance and implications of the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Andrew S C; Morland, Rosemary; Huang, Wenlong; Currie, Gillian L; Sena, Emily S; Macleod, Malcolm R

    2017-12-29

    Clear reporting of research is crucial to the scientific process. Poorly designed and reported studies are damaging not only to the efforts of individual researchers, but also to science as a whole. Standardised reporting methods, such as those already established for reporting randomised clinical trials, have led to improved study design and facilitated the processes of clinical systematic review and meta-analysis. Such standards were lacking in the pre-clinical field until the development of the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines. These were prompted following a survey which highlighted a widespread lack of robust and consistent reporting of pre-clinical in vivo research, with reports frequently omitting basic information required for study replication and quality assessment. The resulting twenty item checklist in ARRIVE covers all aspects of experimental design with particular emphasis on bias reduction and methodological transparency. Influential publishers and research funders have already adopted ARRIVE. Further dissemination and acknowledgement of the importance of these guidelines is vital to their widespread implementation. Conclusions and implications Wide implementation of the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting of in vivo preclinical research, especially pain research, are essential for a much needed increased transparency and quality in publishing such research. ARRIVE will also positively influence improvements in experimental design and quality, assist the conduct of accurate replication studies of important new findings and facilitate meta-analyses of preclinical research.