WorldWideScience

Sample records for research investigating potential

  1. Investigating potential transferability of place-based research in land system science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václavík, Tomáš; Langerwisch, Fanny; Cotter, Marc; Fick, Johanna; Häuser, Inga; Hotes, Stefan; Kamp, Johannes; Settele, Josef; Spangenberg, Joachim H.; Seppelt, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Much of our knowledge about land use and ecosystem services in interrelated social-ecological systems is derived from place-based research. While local and regional case studies provide valuable insights, it is often unclear how relevant this research is beyond the study areas. Drawing generalized conclusions about practical solutions to land management from local observations and formulating hypotheses applicable to other places in the world requires that we identify patterns of land systems that are similar to those represented by the case study. Here, we utilize the previously developed concept of land system archetypes to investigate potential transferability of research from twelve regional projects implemented in a large joint research framework that focus on issues of sustainable land management across four continents. For each project, we characterize its project archetype, i.e. the unique land system based on a synthesis of more than 30 datasets of land-use intensity, environmental conditions and socioeconomic indicators. We estimate the transferability potential of project research by calculating the statistical similarity of locations across the world to the project archetype, assuming higher transferability potentials in locations with similar land system characteristics. Results show that areas with high transferability potentials are typically clustered around project sites but for some case studies can be found in regions that are geographically distant, especially when values of considered variables are close to the global mean or where the project archetype is driven by large-scale environmental or socioeconomic conditions. Using specific examples from the local case studies, we highlight the merit of our approach and discuss the differences between local realities and information captured in global datasets. The proposed method provides a blueprint for large research programs to assess potential transferability of place-based studies to other

  2. Potential energy center site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    Past studies by the AEC, NRC, NSF and others have indicated that energy centers have certain advantages over dispersed siting. There is the need, however, to investigate such areas as possible weather modifications due to major heat releases, possible changes in Federal/state/local laws and institutional arrangements to facilitate implementation of energy centers, and to assess methods of easing social and economic pressures on a surrounding community due to center construction. All of these areas are under study by ERDA, but there remains the major requirement for the study of a potential site to yield a true assessment of the energy center concept. In this regard the Division of Nuclear Research and Applications of ERDA is supporting studies by the Southern and Western Interstate Nuclear Boards to establish state and utility interest in the concept and to carry out screening studies of possible sites. After selection of a final site for center study , an analysis will be made of the center including technical areas such as heat dissipation methods, water resource management, transmission methods, construction methods and schedules, co-located fuel cycle facilities, possible mix of reactor types, etc. Additionally, studies of safeguards, the interaction of all effected entities in the siting, construction, licensing and regulation of a center, labor force considerations in terms of local impact, social and economic changes, and financing of a center will be conducted. It is estimated that the potential site study will require approximately two years

  3. Collaborative research: Accomplishments & potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsouyanni, Klea

    2008-01-01

    Although a substantial part of scientific research is collaborative and increasing globalization will probably lead to its increase, very few studies actually investigate the advantages, disadvantages, experiences and lessons learned from collaboration. In environmental epidemiology interdisciplinary collaboration is essential and the contrasting geographical patterns in exposure and disease make multi-location projects essential. This paper is based on a presentation given at the Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology, Paris 2006, and is attempting to initiate a discussion on a framework for studying collaborative research. A review of the relevant literature showed that indeed collaborative research is rising, in some countries with impressive rates. However, there are substantial differences between countries in their outlook, need and respect for collaboration. In many situations collaborative publications receive more citations than those based on national authorship. The European Union is the most important host of collaborative research, mainly driven by the European Commission through the Framework Programmes. A critical assessment of the tools and trends of collaborative networks under FP6, showed that there was a need for a critical revision, which led to changes in FP7. In conclusion, it is useful to study the characteristics of collaborative research and set targets for the future. The added value for science and for the researchers involved may be assessed. The motivation for collaboration could be increased in the more developed countries. Particular ways to increase the efficiency and interaction in interdisciplinary and intercultural collaboration may be developed. We can work towards "the principles of collaborative research" in Environmental Epidemiology. PMID:18208596

  4. Hydrogeological Investigation and Groundwater Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper assesses groundwater quality and productivity in Haromaya watershed, eastern. Ethiopia. ... zones, quantity and quality of plant and animal life (Tamire H., 1981). Steep to very ... Present research work was proposed to conduct hydrogeological investigation and assess ...... Water Balance of Haromaya basin,.

  5. Research potential and cognitive features of students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordovskaia N.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the theoretical and methodological justifications for studying students’ research potential. It presents proof of the isomorphic nature of human research activity and research potential as well as of the fluid nature of its development: from research-like behavior to science-based research activity. It defines three functional components (motivational, cognitive, and behavioral that form the structure of research potential. It further presents the results of empirically studying the cognitive features of master’s students possessing different levels of research potential. It provides data on the dynamics of research-potential components at different educational levels (bachelor’s and master’s programs. Special attention is given to a comparative analysis of evaluations by research tutors regarding their students’ research potential and of the indicators obtained using psychodiagnostic methods.

  6. SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL INVESTIGATIONS IN SEMENIC MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. URDEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous Potential Investigations in Semenic Mountains. The use of geophysical methods such as that of Spontaneous Potential (SP to investigate areas where the geomorphological processes occur, has the role to identify less visible processes as for example subcutaneous erosion or piping, subsoil water drainage and finding specific spatial differences of these processes. Comparative study of these sites allows correlation between geomorphological factors, soil and climate, but also to observe the evolution of subsurface erosion or underground water infiltration over time. During this investigation a series of mesh grids have been made in areas with different characteristics (lithology, pedology, slope, exposition, etc. at different time periods in order to spot and analyse the change in data in the chosen sites, various conditions given. Values expressed in millivolts (mV obtained by the Spontaneous Potential method have been put into an algorithm for interpolation looking to yield a pattern of values of what is happening in the soil during that period of time. Thus, in the autumn, the investigation site at the nivation niche Baia Vulturilor, returned values of between -22.6 mV and 65.6 mV, while in spring in the same site, values were within the range of -14.4 mV / 30.1 mV. On the other hand, on the site of the cryopediment under the Semenic peak, in the spring, return values ranged from -40.4 mV and -1.1 mV. A particular case is that of the glacis near Piatra Goznei peak; in this area anthropogenic electricity influences on soil can be found. Based on some models a trend of water movement in the soil could be established, this depending heavily on the amount of precipitation infiltration, local lithology, depth of soil and their structure, and evapotranspiration process. Water movement in the soil may be a correlation with sediment movement in soil horizons and instability manifested on the slopes.

  7. Measurement of Redox Potential in Nanoecotoxicological Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Tantra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Redox potential has been identified by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD as one of the parameters that should be investigated for the testing of manufactured nanomaterials. There is still some ambiguity concerning this parameter, i.e., as to what and how to measure, particularly when in a nanoecotoxicological context. In this study the redox potentials of six nanomaterials (either zinc oxide (ZnO or cerium oxide (CeO2 dispersions were measured using an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP electrode probe. The particles under testing differed in terms of their particle size and dispersion stability in deionised water and in various ecotox media. The ORP values of the various dispersions and how they fluctuate relative to each other are discussed. Results show that the ORP values are mainly governed by the type of liquid media employed, with little contributions from the nanoparticles. Seawater was shown to have reduced the ORP value, which was attributed to an increase in the concentration of reducing agents such as sulphites or the reduction of dissolved oxygen concentration. The lack of redox potential value contribution from the particles themselves is thought to be due to insufficient interaction of the particles at the Pt electrode of the ORP probe.

  8. Measurement of redox potential in nanoecotoxicological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Ratna; Cackett, Alex; Peck, Roger; Gohil, Dipak; Snowden, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Redox potential has been identified by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as one of the parameters that should be investigated for the testing of manufactured nanomaterials. There is still some ambiguity concerning this parameter, i.e., as to what and how to measure, particularly when in a nanoecotoxicological context. In this study the redox potentials of six nanomaterials (either zinc oxide (ZnO) or cerium oxide (CeO(2))) dispersions were measured using an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) electrode probe. The particles under testing differed in terms of their particle size and dispersion stability in deionised water and in various ecotox media. The ORP values of the various dispersions and how they fluctuate relative to each other are discussed. Results show that the ORP values are mainly governed by the type of liquid media employed, with little contributions from the nanoparticles. Seawater was shown to have reduced the ORP value, which was attributed to an increase in the concentration of reducing agents such as sulphites or the reduction of dissolved oxygen concentration. The lack of redox potential value contribution from the particles themselves is thought to be due to insufficient interaction of the particles at the Pt electrode of the ORP probe.

  9. Investigating the potential of Aucoumea klaineana Pierre sapwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vainqueuer

    2016-11-16

    Nov 16, 2016 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Investigating the potential ... them to release neutral sugars for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Aucoumea klaineana Pierre. (Okoumé) wood ... feedstocks for ethanol production in the future. Evans. (2005) has explained that, being 50% of ...

  10. Communication of Biobanks' Research Results : What Do (Potential) Participants Want?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenkamp, Tineke M.; Gevers, Sjef K.; Bovenberg, Jasper A.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Vlieg, Astrid van Hylckama; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate (potential) research participants' (a) information preferences with regard to receiving biobanks' genetic research results, and (b) attitudes towards the duties of researchers to communicate research results. A total group of 1,678 was analyzed, consisting of

  11. Communication of Biobanks' Research Results: What Do (Potential) Participants Want?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenkamp, Tineke M.; Gevers, Sjef K.; Bovenberg, Jasper A.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate (potential) research participants' (a) information preferences with regard to receiving biobanks' genetic research results, and (b) attitudes towards the duties of researchers to communicate research results. A total group of 1,678 was analyzed, consisting of

  12. Communication of biobanks’ research results: what do (potential) participants want?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenkamp, T.M.; Gevers, S.K.; Bovenberg, J.A.; Koppelman, G.H.; Hylckama Vlieg, A. van; Smets, E.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate (potential) research participants' (a) information preferences with regard to receiving biobanks' genetic research results, and (b) attitudes towards the duties of researchers to communicate research results. A total group of 1,678 was analyzed, consisting of

  13. Investigating educational research. A study on dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcelo Marini Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief historical survey on the emergence of educational research in Brazil, namely the rise and development of Science Education research, with special focus on research developed in Education and Science Education graduate programs. It highlights the relevance of the so-called ‘state-of-the-art” studies as a category of investigation that is fundamental for analytical studies on production in a given field of research, and addresses basic procedures to be carried out in investigations of this nature. Finally, this paper presents some trends in Biology Education research in Brazil as shown in Brazilian dissertations and theses produced between 1972 and 2003.

  14. Horonobe underground research program. Research report of 2002 FY investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Main results of investigation about Horonobe deep underground research center in 2002 FY were reported. It consists of six chapters: introduction, main results, selection of research center area, underground science research, R and D of geological disposal, and the environmental survey and research center on the ground. The research center area at about 3 km north of Horonobe (B1) was selected in the four areas: A, B1, B2 and C on the basis of data, researches in the sky, aboveground and underground and other conditions. The model of geological environment was constructed by physical, geological, surface water supply researches. Development of geological environment monitoring techniques, investigation of long stabilization of geological environment and design of underground facilities are reported. The basic design of preparation of research center was investigated. (S.Y.)

  15. Geoelectric investigation to delineate groundwater potential and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2School of Environment and Earth Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001, India. 3Groundwater ...... medium acts as a natural filter to percolating fluid and that its ... Atakpo E A 2013 Aquifer vulnerability investigation using.

  16. Physicotechnical potentialities of perfecting roentgenographic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikirdin, Eh.G.; Mishkinis, B.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Physicotechnical potentialities of perfecting image quality in X-ray examinations are enumerated. Realization of these potentialities demands interrelated decision of two problems: substantiation of optimizing conditions of survey (postures of a patient, geometry of investigation, image converters, electric regimes), creation of adequate hardware and software components. It is shown that introduction of X-ray feeding device with microprocessor control permits to upgrade the quality of X-ray images and to reduce radiation loads of a patient

  17. [Discourse analysis: research potentialities to gender violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azambuja, Mariana Porto Ruwer; Nogueira, Conceição

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years we see the growing use of the terms 'discourse' and 'discourses analysis' in academic and research contexts, frequently without a precise definition. This fact opens space for critics and mistakes. The aim of this paper is to show a brief contextualization of discursive studies, as well as tasks/steps to Discourse Analysis process by the Social Construcionism perspective. As examples we used fragments of an interview with a Family Doctor about gender violence. In the results we detach the potential of Discourse Analysis to deconstruct the existing discourses to subsequently (re)construction in the way to a more holistic view about gender violence problem.

  18. Investigations into the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of the ethanolic extract and fractions of Citrus sinensis stem-bark, investigate and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the most active fraction (EAF) of the ethanolic extract against acetaminophen-induced acute hepatic injury.

  19. EARLINET: potential operationality of a research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Comerón, A.; Mona, L.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Baars, H.; Baldasano, J. M.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bravo-Aranda, J. A.; Fernández, A. J.; Fréville, P.; García-Vizcaíno, D.; Giunta, A.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Haefele, A.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Mattis, I.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz Porcar, C.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Nicolae, D.; Nisantzi, A.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Papayannis, A.; Pereira, S.; Preißler, J.; Pujadas, M.; Rizi, V.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Simeonov, V.; Tsaknakis, G.; Wagner, F.; Pappalardo, G.

    2015-11-01

    In the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure Network) summer 2012 measurement campaign (8 June-17 July 2012), EARLINET organized and performed a controlled exercise of feasibility to demonstrate its potential to perform operational, coordinated measurements and deliver products in near-real time. Eleven lidar stations participated in the exercise which started on 9 July 2012 at 06:00 UT and ended 72 h later on 12 July at 06:00 UT. For the first time, the single calculus chain (SCC) - the common calculus chain developed within EARLINET for the automatic evaluation of lidar data from raw signals up to the final products - was used. All stations sent in real-time measurements of a 1 h duration to the SCC server in a predefined netcdf file format. The pre-processing of the data was performed in real time by the SCC, while the optical processing was performed in near-real time after the exercise ended. 98 and 79 % of the files sent to SCC were successfully pre-processed and processed, respectively. Those percentages are quite large taking into account that no cloud screening was performed on the lidar data. The paper draws present and future SCC users' attention to the most critical parameters of the SCC product configuration and their possible optimal value but also to the limitations inherent to the raw data. The continuous use of SCC direct and derived products in heterogeneous conditions is used to demonstrate two potential applications of EARLINET infrastructure: the monitoring of a Saharan dust intrusion event and the evaluation of two dust transport models. The efforts made to define the measurements protocol and to configure properly the SCC pave the way for applying this protocol for specific applications such as the monitoring of special events, atmospheric modeling, climate research and calibration/validation activities of spaceborne observations.

  20. Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems.

  1. Overview of research potential of Institute for Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocanescu, Marin

    2007-01-01

    The main organizations involved in nuclear power production in Romania, under supervision of Presidency, Prime Minister and Parliament are: CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control), Nuclear Agency, Ministry of Economy and Commerce, ANDRAD (Waste Management Agency), SNN (Nuclearelectrica National Society), RAAN (Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities), ICN (Institute for Nuclear Research - Pitesti), SITON (Center of Design and Engineering for Nuclear Projects- Bucharest); ROMAG-PROD (Heavy Water Plant), CNE-PROD (Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant - Production Unit), CNE-INVEST (Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant -Investments Unit), FCN (Nuclear Fuel Factory). The Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti INR, Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti is endowed with a TRIGA Reactor, Hot Cells, Materials Laboratories, Nuclear Fuel, Nuclear Safety Laboratories, Nuclear Fuel, Nuclear Safety. Waste management. Other research centers and laboratories implied in nuclear activities are: ICIT, National Institute for cryogenics and isotope technologies at Rm Valcea Valcea. with R and D activity devoted to heavy water technologies, IFIN, Institute for nuclear physics and engineering, Bucharest, as well as the educational institutions involved in atomic energy applications and University research, Politechnical University Bucharest, University of Bucharest, University of Pitesti, etc. The INR activity outlined, i.e. the nuclear power research as a scientific and technical support for the Romanian nuclear power programme, mainly dedicated to the existing NPP in the country (CANDU). Focused with priority are: - Nuclear Safety (behavior of plant materials, components, installations during accident conditions and integrity investigations); - Radioactive Waste Management Radioactive; - Radioprotection; Product and services supply for NPP. INR Staff numbers 320 R and D qualified and experienced staff, 240 personnel in devices and prototype workshops and site support

  2. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  3. EARLINET: potential operationality of a research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Comerón, A.; Mona, L.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Baars, H.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bravo-Aranda, J. A.; Fernández, A. J.; Fréville, P.; García-Vizcaíno, D.; Giunta, A.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Haefele, A.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Mattis, I.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz Porcar, C.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Nicolae, D.; Nisantzi, A.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Papayannis, A.; Pereira, S.; Preißler, J.; Pujadas, M.; Rizi, V.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Simeonov, V.; Tsaknakis, G.; Wagner, F.; Pappalardo, G.

    2015-07-01

    In the framework of ACTRIS summer 2012 measurement campaign (8 June-17 July 2012), EARLINET organized and performed a controlled exercise of feasibility to demonstrate its potential to perform operational, coordinated measurements and deliver products in near-real time. Eleven lidar stations participated to the exercise which started on 9 July 2012 at 06:00 UT and ended 72 h later on 12 July at 06:00 UT. For the first time the Single-Calculus Chain (SCC), the common calculus chain developed within EARLINET for the automatic evaluation of lidar data from raw signals up to the final products, was used. All stations sent in real time measurements of 1 h of duration to the SCC server in a predefined netcdf file format. The pre-processing of the data was performed in real time by the SCC while the optical processing was performed in near-real time after the exercise ended. 98 and 84 % of the files sent to SCC were successfully pre-processed and processed, respectively. Those percentages are quite large taking into account that no cloud screening was performed on lidar data. The paper shows time series of continuous and homogeneously obtained products retrieved at different levels of the SCC: range-square corrected signals (pre-processing) and daytime backscatter and nighttime extinction coefficient profiles (optical processing), as well as combined plots of all direct and derived optical products. The derived products include backscatter- and extinction-related Ångström exponents, lidar ratios and color ratios. The combined plots reveal extremely valuable for aerosol classification. The efforts made to define the measurements protocol and to configure properly the SCC pave the way for applying this protocol for specific applications such as the monitoring of special events, atmospheric modelling, climate research and calibration/validation activities of spaceborne observations.

  4. Television Research: The Potential for Ecological Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Susan C.

    The failure of television research to affect broadcast policy is attributed partially to its methodological inadequacies and its narrow audience. Research tends not to take into account such variables as the program selection behavior itself, the natural viewing context, and other non-content influences. Existing research suggests that television…

  5. Teachers in Action Research: Assumptions and Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuen-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Research literature has long indicated that action research may stimulate practitioners themselves to actively evaluate the quality of their practice. This study is designed to report the use of action research for the development of early years professional practice by analyzing the pre-project and the post-project video-filmed teaching events.…

  6. Research of photoinduced potentials of pepper leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Chernetchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical potentials of the plants during photostimulation with various intensity values and wave lengths are studied. Suchstimulation provides light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The universal scheme of registration of bioelectric potentials, which allowsto carry out the experimental study of light stimuli effect on the plant is proposed. All registrations of potentials are observed on the pepper leaves. Photoinduced stimuli are different with intensity changed from 150 to 450 lux and different spectrums of white light and red light with wave length 690 nm. Different parameters of stimuli drive to different types of biopotentials of the plant, quantitative and qualitative relationships of this process are obtained. It is also found that bioelectrical reaction of the leaves is quantitatively different in various spectral ranges of light, but the quality remains the same for all cases, as shown in the study of bioelectric responses during exposure to the light in red spectrum range. The explanation of the additional depolarization phase that occurs during the running of dark reparative process of photosynthesis is given. Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are accompanied by significant changes in the electrical potential of chloroplasts’ membrane. Besides, the dependence of bioelectrical reaction of the plant on different spectra of light is found. By this way, biophysical relation of plant potentials to the intracellular biophysical mechanisms during photo stimulation is obtained.

  7. Ignition potential of muzzle-loading firearms: An exploratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. Haston; Mark A. Finney; Andy Horcher; Philip A. Yates; Kahlil Detrich

    2009-01-01

    The National Technology and Development Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, was asked to conduct an exploratory study on the ignition potential of muzzle-loading firearms. The five independent variables investigated include projectile type, powder type, powder load, patch thickness, and patch lubricant treatment. Indoor testing was performed...

  8. Investigation Of The Microbial-Induced Corrosion Potential Of Soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of sulphate-reducing bacteria induced corrosion potential of soils along 18-inch 45km Tebidaba/Brass underground oil pipeline in Southern Ijaw LGA of Bayelsa State, Nigeria, is carried out experimentally. The analysis involves determination of some physico-chemical parameters of soils in the pipeline route, ...

  9. RA research reactor - potentials and prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.

    1984-01-01

    Since December 1959, the RA reactor was operated successfully, except for a few shorter periods needed for maintenance and a four longer shutdown periods caused by decrease in the heavy water quality. Accordingly, reconstruction of some reactor systems was started at the beginning of this decad, as well as increase of its experimental potential which would enable its efficient reliable operation in the future period. Reconstruction is concerned with emergency core cooling system, special ventilation system, and modernization of the reactor instrumentation. Improvement of the experimental potential is related to modifications of the neutron scattering instruments. Development of methods for isotope production is described as well. Design of the reactor experimental loop with external cooling system will be of significant importance in improvement of reactor potential in the future

  10. Neutron diagnostic investigations with a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Some aspects of the use of neutron transmission analysis in applied research, as pursued at McMaster University (Canada), are examined. Examples considered are void measurements in two-phase flow, neutron conversion enhancement in neutron radiography, reconstruction of interior bulk heterogenities in solids and temperature sensing with neutrons. (author)

  11. Research Investigation of Information Access Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, John H.; Sharkey, Thomas W.; Lim, Jeen-Su

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the satisfaction of library users at Wayne State University who utilize alternative information access methods. The LibQUAL+[TM] desired and perceived that satisfaction ratings are used to determine the user's "superiority gap." By focusing limited library resources to address "superiority gap" issues identified by each…

  12. Research leadership and investigators: gender distribution in the federal government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarren, Madeline; Goldman, Steven

    2012-08-01

    The National Academies reported in Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering (2006) that "women are very likely to face discrimination." In academic medicine, gender distribution is becoming more balanced. In the federal government, women also have made progress, doubling their representation in professional positions to 44%. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has a research program and a mission to train health care professionals; however, its gender distribution has not been described. We conducted a descriptive study using public data for positions in the VA, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). We followed with a case-control analysis of predictors of receipt of grant funding in the VA. Participants were 224 leadership positions and 132 principal investigators. Women comprised 33% (AHRQ), 27% (NIH), and 0% (VA) of the top research leadership. Across all VA research levels, women comprised 45% to 0%, depending on the service. In the case-control analysis of principal investigators, men had greater odds (odds ratio 8.0) of a Cooperative Studies Program (CSP) trial award. History of first, last, or any authorship on a clinical trial publication in the 10 years before the index trial was only weakly associated with award of a CSP trial. The gender imbalance was not explained by publication history. Marked gender disparities were seen in the VA, except in Health Services Research. Organizations must investigate their practices to reveal disparities, investigate underlying factors, and intervene as needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Numerical investigation of action potential transmission in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Pietruszka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In context of a fairly concise review of recent literature and well established experimental results we reconsider the problem of action potential propagating steadily down the plant cell(s. Having adopted slightly modified Hodgkin-Huxley set of differential equations for the action potential we carried out the numerical investigation of these equations in the course of time. We argue that the Hodgkin-Huxley-Katz model for the nerve impulse can be used to describe the phenomena which take place in plants - this point of view seems to be plausible since the mechanisms involving active ionic transport across membranes from the mathematical point of view are similar. Besides, we compare in a qualitative way our theoretical outcomes with typical experimental results for the action potentials which arise as the reaction of plants to electrical, mechanical and light stimuli. Moreover, we point out the relevance of the sequence of events during the pulse with the appropriate ionic fluxes.

  14. Automatic generation of investigator bibliographies for institutional research networking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B; Bales, Michael E; Dine, Daniel; Bakken, Suzanne; Albert, Paul J; Weng, Chunhua

    2014-10-01

    Publications are a key data source for investigator profiles and research networking systems. We developed ReCiter, an algorithm that automatically extracts bibliographies from PubMed using institutional information about the target investigators. ReCiter executes a broad query against PubMed, groups the results into clusters that appear to constitute distinct author identities and selects the cluster that best matches the target investigator. Using information about investigators from one of our institutions, we compared ReCiter results to queries based on author name and institution and to citations extracted manually from the Scopus database. Five judges created a gold standard using citations of a random sample of 200 investigators. About half of the 10,471 potential investigators had no matching citations in PubMed, and about 45% had fewer than 70 citations. Interrater agreement (Fleiss' kappa) for the gold standard was 0.81. Scopus achieved the best recall (sensitivity) of 0.81, while name-based queries had 0.78 and ReCiter had 0.69. ReCiter attained the best precision (positive predictive value) of 0.93 while Scopus had 0.85 and name-based queries had 0.31. ReCiter accesses the most current citation data, uses limited computational resources and minimizes manual entry by investigators. Generation of bibliographies using named-based queries will not yield high accuracy. Proprietary databases can perform well but requite manual effort. Automated generation with higher recall is possible but requires additional knowledge about investigators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Forum Theater’s potential as a Research Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Calsamiglia Madurga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical and epistemological reflection on Forum Theater’s potential as a Research Tool. Our presence on social action and research has led us to a double reflection on qualitative research’s limitations on the affect studies and the Forum Theater’s potential as a research tool to tackle research about affects. After some specific experiences in action research (qualitative research on romantic love and gender violence, and the creation process of the Forum Theater “Is it a joke?”, we explore Forum Theatre’s possibilities as a research tool in the feminist epistemology framework.

  16. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  17. [Support Team for Investigator-Initiated Clinical Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hisako

    2017-07-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical research is that in which investigators plan and carry out their own clinical research in academia. For large-scale clinical research, a team should be organized and implemented. This team should include investigators and supporting staff, who will promote smooth research performance by fulfilling their respective roles. The supporting staff should include project managers, administrative personnel, billing personnel, data managers, and clinical research coordinators. In this article, I will present the current status of clinical research support and introduce the research organization of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study, an investigator-initiated international clinical research study, with particular emphasis on the role of the project management staff and clinical research coordinators.

  18. Investigating the Potential of Ridesharing to Reduce Vehicle Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Jalali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As urban populations grow, cities need new strategies to maintain a good standard of living while enhancing services and infrastructure development. A key area for improving city operations and spatial layout is the transportation of people and goods. While conventional transportation systems (i.e., fossil fuel based are struggling to serve mobility needs for growing populations, they also represent serious environmental threats. Alternative-fuel vehicles can reduce emissions that contribute to local air pollution and greenhouse gases as mobility needs grow. However, even if alternative-powered vehicles were widely employed, road congestion would still increase. This paper investigates ridesharing as a mobility option to reduce emissions (carbon, particulates and ozone while accommodating growing transportation needs and reducing overall congestion. The potential of ridesharing to reduce carbon emissions from personal vehicles in Changsha, China, is examined by reviewing mobility patterns of approximately 8,900 privately-owned vehicles over two months. Big data analytics identify ridesharing potential among these drivers by grouping vehicles by their trajectory similarity. The approach includes five steps: data preprocessing, trip recognition, feature vector creation, similarity measurement and clustering. Potential reductions in vehicle emissions through ridesharing among a specific group of drivers are calculated and discussed. While the quantitative results of this analysis are specific to the population of Changsha, they provide useful insights for the potential of ridesharing to reduce vehicle emissions and the congestion expected to grow with mobility needs. Within the study area, ridesharing has the potential to reduce total kilometers driven by about 24% assuming a maximum distance between trips less than 10 kilometers, and schedule time less than 60 minutes. For a more conservative maximum trip distance of 2 kilometers and passenger

  19. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  20. Investigation of wind power potential at Oran, northwest of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudia, Sidi Mohammed; Guerri, Ouahiba

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Wind resource assessment in the northwestern part of Algeria using WAsP Software. • Comparison between the performances of 6 WECs at 3 sites with great potential. • Assessment of the wind power cost per kW h of electricity produced. • Stall-regulated wind turbines are more appropriated for Site 1. • Pitch-regulated wind turbines are suggested for the windiest Site. - Abstract: In this work, ten years of wind data from Oran meteorological station have been used to evaluate the potential of wind power on the Oranie region, in the North-western part of Algeria, open on the Mediterranean Sea. The WAsP program was used to analyze the wind Atlas of the region to find the windiest areas. Three regions were chosen for their great wind potential. The study proposes to assess wind power cost per kW h of electricity produced using six types of WECs. The investigation at 10 m above ground at the location of the meteorological station shows that Oran has an average wind potential, with an annual mean wind speed equal to 4.2 m/s and an annual mean power density of 129 W/m 2 . The temporal study shows that spring period is the windiest with 4.9 m/s. In terms of energy production, the results show that the second site is the best location for harnessing the wind power to generate electricity. The minimum cost per kW h of electricity generated in that location is about 0.0181$/kW h with a capacity factor equal to 51.36% for an annual energy production equal to 11.14 GW h, given by the Power Wind 90 wind turbine of 2.5 MW power rated capacity.

  1. Investigating potential physicochemical errors in polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedaghat, Mahbod; Lepage, Martin; Bujold, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Measurement errors in polymer gel dosimetry can originate either during irradiation or scanning. One concern related to the exothermic nature of polymerization reaction was that the heat released in polymer gel dosimeters during irradiation modifies their dose response. In this paper, the effect of heat released from the exothermal polymerization reaction on the dose response of a number of dosimeters was studied. In addition, we investigated whether heat-generated geometric distortion existed in newly proposed gel dosimeters that contain highly thermoresponsive polymers. Our results suggest that despite a significant internal temperature increase in some gel compositions, their dose responses are not affected when oxygen is well expelled mechanically from the gel mixture. We also report on significant pre-irradiation instability in some recently developed polymer gel dosimeters but that geometric distortions were not observed. Data obtained by a set of small calibration vials are compared to those obtained from larger phantoms, and potential physicochemical causes of deviations between them are identified.

  2. Investigating potential physicochemical errors in polymer gel dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedaghat, Mahbod; Lepage, Martin [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Bujold, Rachel, E-mail: martin.lepage@usherbrooke.ca [Service de radio-oncologie, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada)

    2011-09-21

    Measurement errors in polymer gel dosimetry can originate either during irradiation or scanning. One concern related to the exothermic nature of polymerization reaction was that the heat released in polymer gel dosimeters during irradiation modifies their dose response. In this paper, the effect of heat released from the exothermal polymerization reaction on the dose response of a number of dosimeters was studied. In addition, we investigated whether heat-generated geometric distortion existed in newly proposed gel dosimeters that contain highly thermoresponsive polymers. Our results suggest that despite a significant internal temperature increase in some gel compositions, their dose responses are not affected when oxygen is well expelled mechanically from the gel mixture. We also report on significant pre-irradiation instability in some recently developed polymer gel dosimeters but that geometric distortions were not observed. Data obtained by a set of small calibration vials are compared to those obtained from larger phantoms, and potential physicochemical causes of deviations between them are identified.

  3. Laboratory investigations into the potential anticaries efficacy of fluoride varnishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Frank; Hara, Anderson Takeo; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles; Zero, Domenick T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential anticaries efficacy of fluoride varnishes (FVs) by studying their ability to reharden and deliver fluoride to carious lesions and to release fluoride into saliva. Enamel carious lesions were created and allocated to 24 groups (11 FVs with two FV incubation times and two control groups) based on Knoop microhardness test values. FVs were applied to lesions, which were incubated in artificial saliva for two or six hours, with saliva being renewed hourly. FV was removed and lesions were remineralized in artificial saliva for 22 hours. Microhardness was measured and enamel fluoride uptake (EFU) was determined. Saliva samples (six-hour groups) were analyzed to determine fluoride release characteristics. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance. FVs differed considerably in their ability to reharden and deliver fluoride to carious lesions and in their fluoride release characteristics. Little consistency was found between investigated study variables for virtually all tested FVs. For example, a particular FV showed the highest EFU and fluoride release values but the lowest rehardening value. A longer FV contact time led to increased EFU for five of the 11 FVs. Some FVs delivered more fluoride to lesions in two hours than others did in six hours. Fluoride varnishes differ greatly in their in vitro anticaries efficacy.

  4. Investigation on the toxic potential of Tribulus terrestris in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudayyak, M; Jannuzzi, A T; Özhan, G; Alpertunga, B

    2015-04-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) has been commonly used to energize, vitalize, and improve sexual function and physical performance in men. This study investigates the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic, and endocrine disrupting activities of T. terrestris in vitro. The whole T. terrestris plant was extracted with water, methanol, and chloroform. The genotoxic potential of T. terrestris extracts at 3-2400 µg/mL was assessed by Comet assay in a rat kidney cell line (NRK-52E) and by Ames assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. Endocrine disrupting effects of the extracts at concentrations of 0.22-25 000 µg/mL were assessed by YES/YAS assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cytotoxic activity of the extracts was determined by the MTT test in NRK-52E cells. The different exposure times were used for four tests (3-48 h). The methanol extract of T. terrestris IC50 value was 160 µg/mL. The other extracts did not show cytotoxic effects. In the Comet and Ames genotoxicity assays, none of the extracts possessed genotoxic activities at concentrations of 0-2400 µg/mL. Only the water extract of T. terrestris induced frame shift mutations after metabolic activation. The water extract also showed estrogenic activity by YES/YAS assay in S. cerevisiae at concentrations ≥27 µg/mL (≥2.6-fold), while the other T. terrestris extracts had anti-estrogenic properties. Tribulus terrestris had estrogenic and genotoxic activities. The study was useful in determining its toxicological effects and the precautions regarding consumption.

  5. Report of radioactivity investigation and research in fiscal year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    National Institute of Radiological Sciences has continuously carried out the investigation and research on the environmental radioactivity level due to the radioactive fallout accompanying nuclear explosion experiments and the radioactive substances released from nuclear facilities and on the safety analysis of those since fiscal year 1959 as a part of the radioactivity investigation and research of Science and Technology Agency. The importance of radioactivity investigation and research increases more accompanying the remarkable progress of the peaceful use of atomic energy and the emphasis placed on the safety analysis of atomic energy utilization. In such situation, in fiscal year 1984, by appropriating the total budget of about 105 million yen, the investigation of the radioactivity level and dose in environment, foods and human bodies, the investigation of the level around nuclear facilities, the business of radioactivity data center, the basic research on the evaluation of the results of radioactivity investigation, the training of environmental radiation monitoring technicians, and the investigation and research on the measurement of and countermeasures to emergency radiation exposure were carried out. In this book, the results of these investigation and research are reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. The Potentials of Educational Data Mining for Researching Metacognition, Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winne, Philip H.; Baker, Ryan S. J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Our article introduces the "Journal of Educational Data Mining's" Special Issue on Educational Data Mining on Motivation, Metacognition, and Self-Regulated Learning. We outline general research challenges for data mining researchers who conduct investigations in these areas, the potential of EDM to advance research in this area, and…

  7. NIH Researchers Find Potential Genetic Cause of Cushing Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 NIH researchers find potential genetic cause of Cushing syndrome Finding may lead to therapies that prevent pituitary ... mutations in the gene CABLES1 may lead to Cushing syndrome, a rare disorder in which the body overproduces ...

  8. Interpretation of self-potential data for dam seepage investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, R.F.; Sheffer, M.R.; Salmon, G. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2007-04-15

    This book represents one of a series on the subject of geophysical methods and their use in assessing seepage and internal erosion in embankment dams. This manual facilitates the interpretation of self-potential (SP) data generated by subsurface fluid flow, with an emphasis on dam seepage studies. It is intended for users with a background in geophysics or engineering having a general familiarity with both the SP and direct-current (DC) resistivity methods and their applications. It includes an extensive reference list covering all aspects of available SP interpretation techniques, including qualitative, analytical and numerical methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of geometric source analytical modeling methods to evaluate SP anomalies. These methods provide a simple yet efficient means of estimating the location and depth of current sources of observed SP data, which may be linked to fluid flow in the subsurface. The manual is primarily oriented toward embankment dams and earthen structures such as levees and dikes. SP methods have been used to investigate seepage through pervious zones and cracks in concrete and concrete-faced structures. The manual describes the nature of SP fields generated by both uniform and non-uniform dam seepage flow, as well as non-seepage sources of SP variations. These methods enable the study of more complex systems and require a more comprehensive analysis of a given field site. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Magnetic materials in Japan research, applications and potential

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This, the third report in Elsevier's Materials Technology in Japan series, concentrates on magnetic materials as a topic gaining worldwide attention, and each chapter looks not only at current research, but also describes the technology as it is being applied and its future potential. Magnetic-related research is the second largest field of research in Japan after semiconductors, with the estimated number of researchers and engineers engaged in magnetics-related activities currently at 20,000. This research report serves as both a review of

  10. Research in the fields of medicine in Slovenia – research potential, funding, and publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Pečlin

    2012-09-01

    Conclusions: The size of the human research potential in the fields of medicine in Slovenia is modest. The majority of researchers are also engaged in medical practice and education. Consequently, funds from public sources for research per researcher are low. Research fields of medicine primarly require an increase in human research resources, which can then provide a basis for a rise in funding and the impact of its research results becoming comparable to the EU and world averages.

  11. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, Robert J; Becker, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the development of a personalized research trajectory, which optimizes the potential for career success.

  12. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for investigating complex problems, but it has not been extensively used in construction management research. In South Africa, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital responsibility since the government called upon the ...

  13. Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming therapeutic resistance in high fatality cancers. 26 octobre 2017. Together with our partners the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Azrieli Foundation and the Israel Science Foundation we are pleased to announce the recipients of the Joint Canada-Israel ...

  14. An Evolution in Research Practice for Investigating International Business Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Anne HAMPTON; James ROWELL

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development and rationale of research methodology for a specific topic of research. The topic in question is an investigation into international business relationships, a complex subject and one that is very topical in the growing world of international business. It is intended to examine the logical development of research practice in our study and to show the changing thought processes and justifications we have made over a period of time. It is h...

  15. Guidelines for the Investigation of Mediating Variables in Business Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P; Coxe, Stefany; Baraldi, Amanda N

    2012-03-01

    Business theories often specify the mediating mechanisms by which a predictor variable affects an outcome variable. In the last 30 years, investigations of mediating processes have become more widespread with corresponding developments in statistical methods to conduct these tests. The purpose of this article is to provide guidelines for mediation studies by focusing on decisions made prior to the research study that affect the clarity of conclusions from a mediation study, the statistical models for mediation analysis, and methods to improve interpretation of mediation results after the research study. Throughout this article, the importance of a program of experimental and observational research for investigating mediating mechanisms is emphasized.

  16. Criminal investigations of child abuse: the research behind "best practices".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa M; Cross, Theodore P; Walsh, Wendy A; Simone, Monique

    2005-07-01

    This article reviews the research relevant to seven practices considered by many to be among the most progressive approaches to criminal child abuse investigations: multidisciplinary team investigations, trained child forensic interviewers, videotaped interviews, specialized forensic medical examiners, victim advocacy programs, improved access to mental health treatment for victims, and Children's Advocacy Centers (CACs). The review finds that despite the popularity of these practices, little outcome research is currently available documenting their success. However, preliminary research supports many of these practices or has influenced their development. Knowledge of this research can assist investigators and policy makers who want to improve the response to victims, understand the effectiveness of particular programs, or identify where assumptions about effectiveness are not empirically supported.

  17. Implementing participatory action research in Lithuania: potential and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabija Jarašiūnaitė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participatory action research is a quite new approach to research in Lithuania. The aim of an article was to disscuss the potential and challenges of participatory action research while implementing it in Lithuanian organizations. The qualitative approach was chosen for the study using the method of Focus groups. 20 researchers from social and biomedicine sciences from six institutions of High education in Lithuania participated in the study. The results of the study showed that participatory action reasearch is seen as an approach with many possibilities because of a wide range of used methods, constant interactions with research participants and the lenght of the research process. Researchers value the possibility to access organization at the begining, during research process and evaluate the effectiveness of the changes after the process. The research challenges are associated with the competence of a researcher including his/her sensitivity during process, ability to involve active participation of organization members in the ongoing process by creating safe and trusting environment. Some specific challenges associated with Lithuanian organizations are organizations‘ tiredness of researches and lack of faith of the benefits of researches because of some previous experiences. Keywords: Participatory Action Research, Organization, Lithuania.

  18. Dual use research: investigation across multiple science disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmann, Shannon

    2015-04-01

    Most recent studies of dual use research have focused on the life sciences, although some researchers have suggested that dual use research occurs across many disciplines. This research is an initial investigation into the prevalence of dual use research in other scientific disciplines by surveying senior editors of scientific journals, drawn from Journal Citation Reports. The survey was emailed to 7,500 journal editors with a response rate of 10.1 %. Approximately 4.8 % of life science editors reported they had to consider whether to publish dual use research and 38.9 % said they decided to not publish the research in question. In disciplines other than the life sciences, 7.2 % of editors from other science disciplines reported that they had to consider whether to publish dual use research, and 48.4 % declined to publish it. The survey investigated relationships between dual use and the journal's source of funding and place of publication, but no relationships were found. Further research is needed to better understand the occurrence of dual use research in other science disciplines.

  19. Conducting qualitative research within Clinical Trials Units: avoiding potential pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    2018-01-01

    The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.

  1. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  2. Knowledge Exchange and Management Research: Barriers and Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The growing involvement of management researchers in knowledge exchange activities and collaborative research does not seem to be reflected in a growing academic output. The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers for academic output from these activities as well as the potential...... for ‘interesting’ papers. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses secondary data and statistics as well as an illustrative case study to trace knowledge exchange activities and barriers for academic output based on these activities. Findings: The paper identifies a number of barriers for the turning of data...... derived from knowledge exchange activities and Mode 2 research into academic papers such as low priority of case study research in leading management journals, a growing practice orientation in the research funding systems, methodological challenges due to limited researcher control, and disincentives...

  3. Investigating robustness of interatomic potentials with universal interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, Bohumir; Felicelli, Sergio D; Solanki, Kiran; Peters, John F

    2012-01-01

    We present a set of Python routines to perform basic tests of classical atomistic potentials and their example applications. These routines are implemented using universal Atomic Simulation Environment (ASE) and LAMMPS molecular dynamics code. ASE is utilized to create atomic configurations, to write input scripts for LAMMPS, and to read results from output files. Evaluated properties are formation energies and volumes of simple point defects (vacancies, substitutions, and interstitials), formation energies of basic surfaces, heats of formation of simple binary compounds, and elastic constants. The flexibility of LAMMPS allows easy switching between different semi-empirical potentials, while the universality of ASE allows to compare results with a variety of electronic structure codes.

  4. Impact of co-investigators on pharmacy resident research publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stranges PM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore influences of co-investigators on the successful publication of a pharmacy residency project. Methods: We analyzed published and non-published research presented at a regional pharmacy conference. Abstracts were matched 1:1 based on state and abstract year. We assessed university affiliation, number, degree, and H-Index of co-investigators on the abstract. Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to identify variables associated with resident publication. Results: University-affiliated programs (p=0.015, highest H-Index of a non-physician co-investigator (p=0.002, and positive H-Index (≥1 of a non-physician co-investigator (p=0.017 were significant predictors of resident publication on univariate analyses. There were no differences in the number of co-investigators (p=0.051, projects with physician co-investigators (p=1.000, or projects with Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Master of Science (MS co-investigators (p=0.536 between published and non-published projects. Multivariate analysis found that the highest H-index of non-physician co-investigator remained significant as a predictor to resident publication (odds ratio (OR 1.09, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.01-1.17. Conclusions: The quality of co-investigators, as measured by an increasing H-Index, is associated with the successful publication of residency projects. More emphasis may need to be placed on resident research co-investigator selection and training to prepare pharmacy residents for research and scholarly activity.

  5. Preliminary investigations of potential light weight metallic armour applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, M.J. van de; Diederen, A.M.; Herlaar, K.

    2005-01-01

    Now that an industrial-scale low-cost production route for ballistic-grade titanium is within reach, the potential use of titanium armour could depend on a solution for the spalling of high strength titanium. This paper addresses a titanium based metal laminate as being a possible solution for the

  6. Investigation of groundwater flow potential in Makurdi, North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Received 6 August, 2015; ... order to study the groundwater flow potential in Makurdi, north central Nigeria. This was done in thirty .... 600 m above sea level. The drainage consists ..... engineering Studies: A Practical Guide to 2D and 3D Surveys.

  7. Investigation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel

    OpenAIRE

    Winter Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this research were to determine sensory modalities that may be lost after the RTX treatment of newborn or adult mice, to dissect potential side-effect(s) of molecular neurosurgery, to gather information about the structure and function of the channel by investigating the effects of M2+ on the TRPV1 and by collecting the literature data on the functionally important point mutations of the channel for prospective in silico modeling. The findings of the research work can be summa...

  8. Affordances of Spreadsheets In Mathematical Investigation: Potentialities For Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Calder

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article, is concerned with the ways learning is shaped when mathematics problems are investigated in spreadsheet environments. It considers how the opportunities and constraints the digital media affords influenced the decisions the students made, and the direction of their enquiry pathway. How might the learning trajectory unfold, and the learning process and mathematical understanding emerge? Will the spreadsheet, as the pedagogical medium, evoke learning in a distinctive manner? The article reports on an aspect of an ongoing study involving students as they engage mathematical investigative tasks through digital media, the spreadsheet in particular. It considers the affordances of this learning environment for primary-aged students.

  9. Investigation of the Solvent Enclathration Potentials of 5-Phenyl-10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5H-dibenzo[a ... properties of two alcohols 3 and 4, as well as a re-investigation of two others 1 and 2. 2. Results and Discussion ... tems, where the sulphur derivatives also displayed better host enclathration ability than their oxygen ...

  10. In vitro investigation of the antitrypanosomal potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 9th test tube (carrying 100mg T. b. brucei in 1ml PSG) served as control. Total lipid of the parasites in each tube was extracted and profile of the fractions assayed to investigate the impact of Manganese. Results: Manganese caused a general increase in total lipid profile of the parasites by 5.8%. The effect of treatment with ...

  11. An Evolution in Research Practice for Investigating International Business Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne HAMPTON

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development and rationale of research methodology for a specific topic of research. The topic in question is an investigation into international business relationships, a complex subject and one that is very topical in the growing world of international business. It is intended to examine the logical development of research practice in our study and to show the changing thought processes and justifications we have made over a period of time. It is hoped that this discussion paper will be helpful to academics and students alike, as so often research methodology is only discussed in terms of the final method/techniques chosen with an emphasis on the technical aspects of the methods rather than relating them to the subject to be researched.

  12. Investigation on potential SCC in gas transmission pipeline in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian, S. [Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China); Zupei, Y.; Yunxin, M. [China Petroleum Pipeline Corp., Beijing (China). Science and Technology Center

    2004-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a common phenomenon that occurs on the outer surfaces of buried pipelines. This paper investigated aspects of SCC on 3 transmission pipelines on the West-East Gas Pipeline Project in China. The study was comprised of 3 different investigations: (1) an investigation of SCC cases on constructed pipelines; (2) an evaluation of SCC sensitivity of pipeline steels in typical soil environments; and (3) an analysis of soil environments and operation conditions of western pipelines. The study included a review of pipeline corrosion investigations, as well as an examination of pipeline failure cases. Investigative digs were conducted at 21 sites to test soil chemistries. Slow strain rate stress were conducted to evaluate SCC sensitivity of steel pipelines used in China. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were conducted to characterize the electrochemical behaviour of the X70 line pipe steel in different soil environments. Results of the study showed that the environmental conditions in many locations in China contributed to SCC in pipelines. SCC was observed on the surface of X70 steel pipe specimens in both marsh and saline environments. Seasonal temperature changes also contributed additional stress on pipelines. The movement of soil bodies in mountainous areas also contributed to stress and coating damage. It was concluded that proper cathodic protection can alleviate concentrations of local solutions under disbanded coatings. Overprotection of SCC will accelerate the growth of cracks and the degradation of coatings. Samples gathered from the solutions found under the disbanded coatings of pipelines will be used to form part of a reference database for predicting SCC in oil and gas pipelines in the future. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Intellectual potential of population: theoretical and methodological framework for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Valentinovna Leonidova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical and methodological framework for the research into the population’s intellectual potential. The presented materials show that this category is the subject of interdisciplinary studies, including philosophy, psychology, sociology, pedagogics, economics. One of the important conclusions drawn from the analysis of the essence of intellectual potential is the conclusion that the actual level of intelligence is the result of its development. It means that certain efforts on the part of such social institutions like family, education, government, promote not only the formation of smart people, but also the implementation of their potential intellectual capabilities in the production, creation of cultural values, society management, education, etc. when using this approach, the intellect ceases to be just a research object of related disciplines, but it acquires social dimension and becomes a socio-economic category. The basic theories, concepts and approaches, used in its study, were analyzed. The theory of human capital was given a most thorough consideration, because, according to this theory, the income of a person is earned by knowledge, abilities and skills, i.e. the essence of intellectual properties of an individual. The article provides the author’s definition of the intellectual potential of the population, which brings to the fore the following elements necessary for the understanding of this category: relation to socioeconomic development, factors in the formation of the characteristic, including the need for training (reproduction of intelligent people, the psychological aspect (abilities, the carriers of intellectual potential are not ignored, because it is an attribute of the population. The article identifies methodological approaches to the estimation of the population’s intellectual potential, describes the applied procedures and research methods. The authors propose methodological

  14. An Investigation of the Intellectual Structure of Opinion Mining Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Kim, Meen Chul; Chen, Chaomei

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Opinion mining has been receiving increasing attention from a broad range of scientific communities since early 2000s. The present study aims to systematically investigate the intellectual structure of opinion mining research. Method: Using topic search, citation expansion, and patent search, we collected 5,596 bibliographic records…

  15. In situ research and investigations in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report explains why deep geological disposal is the most favoured option for the disposal of high level waste and spent fuel, as well as some alpha bearing wastes. It also gives an overview of the main aim and elements of in-situ research and investigation activities in OECD countries, as well as of initiatives taken at an international level

  16. Study of the potential of energy storage - Investigation report - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Arnaud; Fournie, Laurent; Girardeau, Pierre; Chammas, Maxime; Tarel, Guillaume; Chiche, Alice; De Freminville; Pierre; Lacroix, Olivier; Rakotojaona, Loic; Payen, Luc; Riu, Delphine; Kerouedan, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess, for France and its overseas territories, the potential of energy storage by 2030, and to identify the technological sectors which are the most economically relevant. A global surplus has been calculated, as well as the benefit from additional storage capacities. This benefit has been compared with cost predictions by 2030 for different storage technologies. Economically viable powers and types of energy storages are assessed with respect to different scenarios, and impacts in terms of associated jobs are assessed. The document reports and discusses the surplus assessment for the community, describes the various services provided by energy storage, presents the modelling scenarios and hypotheses, discusses the main results of valorisation for the community, presents the various energy storage technologies (gravity, thermodynamic, electrochemical, electrostatic, inertial, latent thermal, thermo-chemical, and power to gas), presents business models and deployment potential for different applications (mass storage of electricity in France, electricity storage in a non-connected area, decentralised electricity storage as a response to grid congestion, valorisation of an electricity storage, thermal storage on a heat network, cold storage, management of diffuse demand of hot water), and discusses implications regarding employment

  17. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Asselt (Thea); B.L.T. Ramaekers (Bram); I. Corro Ramos (Isaac); M.A. Joore (Manuela); M.J. Al (Maiwenn); Lesman-Leegte, I. (Ivonne); M.J. Postma (Maarten); P. Vemer (Pepijn); T.L. Feenstra (Talitha)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses;

  18. Research Costs Investigated : A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    BACKGROUND: The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2)

  19. Investigating the potential of Oxymatrine as a psoriasis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Yinxue; Chi, Mingwei; Xie, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Deng, Xingwang; Leavesley, David; Shi, Huijuan; Xie, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, stubbornly intractable, with substantial consequences for patient physical and mental welfare. Approaches currently available to treat psoriasis are not satisfactory due to undesirable side-effects or expense. Psoriasis is characterized by hyperproliferation and inflammation. Oxymatrine, an active component extracted from Sophora flavescens, has been demonstrated to possess anti-proliferation, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, immune regulation and pro-apoptotic properties. This investigation presents a detailed retrospective review examining the effect of Oxymatrine on psoriasis and investigates the mechanisms underlying patient responses to Oxymatrine. We confirm that Oxymatrine administration significantly reduced the Psoriasis Area Severity Index score, with high efficacy compared to the control group. In addition, we have found that Oxymatrine significantly inhibits the viability, proliferation and differentiation of human keratinocyte in vitro. Immunohistochemical analysis indicates Oxymatrine significantly suppresses the expression of Pan-Cytokeratin, p63 and keratin 10. The results indicate that the suppression of p63 expression may lead to the anti-proliferation effect of Oxymatrine on human skin keratinocytes. Oxymatrine does not affect the formation of basement membrane, which is very important to maintain the normal function of human skin keratinocytes. In summary, Oxymatrine offers an effective, economical, and safe treatment for patients presenting with intractable psoriasis vulgaris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating Research Streams of Conjoint Analysis: A Bibliometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Teichert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Conjoint analysis (CA is one of the most important methods for preference elicitation. In this paper we investigate the intellectual structure within the conjoint analytical research community. Analyses based on single papers provide a method-based overview of streams of conjoint research. By using novel bibliometric techniques in this field we complement findings of existing reviews. We use co-citation and factor analysis of the most cited articles in SSCI to identify the most important articles and research streams. Seven research streams are revealed which are visualized by means of multidimensional scaling. Tables and graphics reveal the disciplinary affiliations of contributors to CA, the special structure within the classes as well as links between them.

  1. Legal framework for e-research : realising the potential

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Legal Framework for e-Research: Realising the Potential provides an overview of key legal issues facing e-Research. Part One of this book considers the broader prospect and context of what e-Research will allow. Part Two looks more closely at the role law will play in the e-Research environment. Part Three focuses on the key issues of data exchange and data management highlighting important legal issues. Part Four reflects on the changing nature of Scholarly Communications while Part Five looks at the fundamental role of agreements for collaborative endeavour (contracts) in structuring collaboration and calls for greater consideration of way we can streamline the process. Part Six examines the role and operation of privacy law in an e-Research world while Part Seven posits a new approach to commercialisation that embraces the paradigm of open innovation. Part Eight looks at the international legal implications for e-Research and Part Nine considers the national survey we undertook on e-Research, collaborative...

  2. Training physician investigators in medicine and public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, Marc N; Jay, Melanie R; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Dreyer, Benard P; Foltin, George L; Lipkin, Mack; Schwartz, Mark D

    2012-07-01

    We have described and evaluated the impact of a unique fellowship program designed to train postdoctoral, physician fellows in research at the interface of medicine and public health. We developed a rigorous curriculum in public health content and research methods and fostered linkages with research mentors and local public health agencies. Didactic training provided the foundation for fellows' mentored research initiatives, which addressed real-world challenges in advancing the health status of vulnerable urban populations. Two multidisciplinary cohorts (6 per cohort) completed this 2-year degree-granting program and engaged in diverse public health research initiatives on topics such as improving pediatric care outcomes through health literacy interventions, reducing hospital readmission rates among urban poor with multiple comorbidities, increasing cancer screening uptake, and broadening the reach of addiction screening and intervention. The majority of fellows (10/12) published their fellowship work and currently have a career focused in public health-related research or practice (9/12). A fellowship training program can prepare physician investigators for research careers that bridge the divide between medicine and public health.

  3. Investigation of Stilbenoids as Potential Therapeutic Agents for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M. Ball

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus (RV infections cause severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Vaccines are available but cost prohibitive for many countries and only reduce severe symptoms. Vaccinated infants continue to shed infectious particles, and studies show decreased efficacy of the RV vaccines in tropical and subtropical countries where they are needed most. Continuing surveillance for new RV strains, assessment of vaccine efficacy, and development of cost effective antiviral drugs remain an important aspect of RV studies. This study was to determine the efficacy of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory stilbenoids to inhibit RV replication. Peanut (A. hypogaea hairy root cultures were induced to produce stilbenoids, which were purified by high performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC and analyzed by HPLC. HT29.f8 cells were infected with RV in the presence stilbenoids. Cell viability counts showed no cytotoxic effects on HT29.f8 cells. Viral infectivity titers were calculated and comparatively assessed to determine the effects of stilbenoid treatments. Two stilbenoids, trans-arachidin-1 and trans-arachidin-3, show a significant decrease in RV infectivity titers. Western blot analyses performed on the infected cell lysates complemented the infectivity titrations and indicated a significant decrease in viral replication. These studies show the therapeutic potential of the stilbenoids against RV replication.

  4. How well does early-career investigators' cardiovascular outcomes research training align with funded outcomes research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Matthew J; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Wang, Tracy Y; Khazanie, Prateeti; Kressin, Nancy R; Krumholz, Harlan M; Kiefe, Catarina I; Wells, Barbara L; O'Brien, Sean M; Peterson, Eric D; Sanders, Gillian D

    2018-02-01

    Outcomes research training programs should prepare trainees to successfully compete for research funding. We examined how early-career investigators' prior and desired training aligns with recently funded cardiovascular (CV) outcomes research. We (1) reviewed literature to identify 13 core competency areas in CV outcomes research; (2) surveyed early-career investigators to understand their prior and desired training in each competency area; (3) examined recently funded grants commonly pursued by early-career outcomes researchers to ascertain available funding in competency areas; and (4) analyzed alignment between investigator training and funded research in each competency area. We evaluated 185 survey responses from early-career investigators (response rate 28%) and 521 funded grants from 2010 to 2014. Respondents' prior training aligned with funded grants in the areas of clinical epidemiology, observational research, randomized controlled trials, and implementation/dissemination research. Funding in community-engaged research and health informatics was more common than prior training in these areas. Respondents' prior training in biostatistics and systematic review was more common than funded grants focusing on these specific areas. Respondents' desired training aligned similarly with funded grants, with some exceptions; for example, desired training in health economics/cost-effectiveness research was more common than funded grants in these areas. Restricting to CV grants (n=132) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded grants (n=170) produced similar results. Identifying mismatch between funded grants in outcomes research and early-career investigators' prior/desired training may help efforts to harmonize investigator interests, training, and funding. Our findings suggest a need for further consideration of how to best prepare early-career investigators for funding success. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Investigation of pulping and paper making potential of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid Ghaffarzadeh Mollabashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of wood products accompanying with resource constraint has revealed the importance of nonwood based material. In this study, pulping and papermaking potential of three varieties of weeds including Xanthium spinosum, Carthamus tinctorius and Cyperus papyrus have been considered. At first, chemical components of the samples i.e. cellulose, lignin and extractives have been measured following TAPPI standard test methods. Afterwards, pulping process based as soda and Kraft has been carried out and the pulp properties i.e. screen yield and reject, kappa number, caliper, bust index, tear index, brightness have been considered. According to the results, the amount cellulose, lignin and extractives have been measured for the Xanthium spinosum %38.15, %13.5 and 4.72, respectively. Theses parameters have been estimated about %38.25, %10.3 and % 2.95 for Carthamus tinctorius and %38.8, %19.2 and 4.4 in case of papyrus. The yield of soda and Kraft pulp of the papyrus was more than Xanthium spinosum and Carthamus tinctorius. Among all treatments, the highest screen yield related to soda pulping of Cyperus papyrus by %39.8 which has been obtained by 175 centigrade as a maximum temperature, L/W: 6/1, active alkaline: %30 and 90 minutes as the time at temperature. The lowest and highest amounts of the tear index were related to soda pulp sample of the Carthamus tinctorius and Kraft pulp sample of Xanthium spinosum by 2.49 and 8.1, respectively. In addition, the lowest and highest amounts of the bursting index were related to soda pulp sample of the Cyperus papyrus and Kraft pulp sample of Xanthium spinosum by 0.61and 2.48, respectively. Meanwhile, soda pulp sample of the Cyperus papyrus showed the highest amount of brightness with %45 ISO.

  6. Investigations on potential co-mutagenic effects of formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speit, Günter, E-mail: guenter.speit@uni-ulm.de; Linsenmeyer, Regina; Duong, Giang; Bausinger, Julia

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A549 cells were exposed to formaldehyde in combination with various mutagens. • Formaldehyde did not affect the induction and removal of DNA damage (comet assay). • Formaldehyde did not affect the induction of micronuclei by the mutagens tested. • The expression of the O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase was not affected. - Abstract: The genotoxicity and mutagenicity of formaldehyde (FA) has been well-characterized during the last years. Besides its known direct DNA-damaging and mutagenic activity in sufficiently exposed cells, FA at low concentrations might also enhance the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of other environmental mutagens by interfering with the repair of DNA lesions induced by these mutagens. To further assess potential co-mutagenic effects of FA, we exposed A549 human lung cells to FA in combination with various mutagens and measured the induction and removal of DNA damage by the comet assay and the production of chromosomal mutations by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN assay). The mutagens tested were ionizing radiation (IR), (±)-anti-B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), N-nitroso-N-methylurea (methyl nitrosourea; MNU) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). FA (10–75 μM) did not enhance the genotoxic and mutagenic activity of these mutagens under the test conditions applied. FA alone and in combination with MNU or MMS did not affect the expression (mRNA level) of the gene of the O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in A549 cells. The results of these experiments do not support the assumption that low FA concentrations might interfere with the repair of DNA damage induced by other mutagens.

  7. Investigations of potential below regulatory concern (de minimus) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L.

    1983-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a wide variety of waste types. Many organizations are contemplating the merits of declaring certain LLW as de minimus. The concept of de minimus has considerable support, as evidenced by the comments on NRC's rulemaking for 10 CFR Part 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Practical and philosophical considerations lend weight to the further investigation of the de minimus concept for LLW. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes the interest and efforts in the concept of de minimus. Because the term de minimus may imply a lack of concern for the risks of disposal, we use the term Below Regulatory Concern (BRC). EPA has developed technical information, cost data, and a methodology for selecting promising candidate waste streams. The NRC's breakdown of LLW, as provided in the supporting documentation for 10 CFR Part 51, serves as a starting point for evaluating individual waste streams. Waste streams may then be ranked on the basis of individual dose, population health impact, and cost/benefit. A set of waste streams consistently ranks near the top in all categories and deserves further analysis. This screening is the initial step in an overall effort to develop a basis for determining the appropriateness and form of generic BRC criteria. 14 references, 8 tables

  8. An investigation on rapeseed oil as potential insulating liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katim, N. I. A.; Nasir, M. S. M.; Ishak, M. T.; Hamid, M. H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Insulation oils are a vital part in power transformers. Insulation oil is not only work as electrical insulation but also as a coolant inside the transformer. Due to the increasing tight regulations on the environment and safety in recent years, vegetable oils are being considered for insulation oils in power transformer. This paper presents two conditions of Rapeseed Oil (RO), which are as received (new) and dried (dry) under difference uniform field electrodes configuration (mushroom-to-mushroom and sphere-to-sphere) with gap distance at 2.5 mm as recommended by the international standards. A comparative study of AC breakdown voltage, dissipation factor (tan δ), and resistivity under variation of temperature were investigated. The experimental works were done according to the IEC 60156 and IEC 60247 standards. The results indicated that the breakdown voltages of both condition are comparable to mineral oil. The dielectric constant and resistivity of two conditions are decreased along with the increasing temperature. However, the dissipation factor properties rose up along with the temperature. The Weibull distribution was used to determine the withstand voltages at 1% and 50% for RO in two probabilities conditions.

  9. Phytochemical investigation and nephroprotective potential of Sida cordata in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Nigussie, Dereje

    2017-08-04

    Plants are an efficient source of natural antioxidant against free radicals causing kidney damages. Sida cordata ethyl acetate fraction has been reported for strong in vitro antioxidant potency, previously. In the present study, our objective was to evaluate its in vivo antioxidant potency against CCl 4 induced nephrotoxicity and investigates the bioactive phytochemicals by HPLC-DAD analysis. Phytochemical analysis was performed by HPLC-DAD methodology. For in vivo study, 42 male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with alternatively managed doses for 60 days. Group I animals were remained untreated. Group II animals were treated with vehicle (1 mL of olive oil) by intragastric route on alternate days. Group III was treated with 30% CCl 4 (1 mL/kg b.w.) i.p. Group IV was treated with 30% CCl 4 (1 mL/kg b.w.) i.p and silymarin intragastric. Group V and VI rats were treated with 30% CCl 4 and SCEE (150 and 300 mg/kg b.w., respectively) intragastric. Group VII animals were treated with SCEE (300 mg/kg b.w.) intragastrically. Blood parameters, Serum proteins and urine profile were investigated. Activities of tissue enzyme i.e. catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, GSH and γ-GT were evaluated. Histopathological observations, total protein contents, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and relative weight were also analyzed. Gallic acid, catechin and caffeic acid were identified in SCEE fraction by HPLC-DAD. Decrease in the count of red blood cells, neutrophils, eosinophils and concentration of hemoglobin whereas increase in lymphocyte count and estimation of sedimentation rate (ESR) with 1 mL CCl 4 (30% in Olive oil) administration (30 doses in 60 days) was restored dose dependently with co-treatment of SCEE (150 and 300 mg/kg b.w.). Treatment of rats with CCl 4 markedly (P < 0.01) increased the count of urinary red blood cells and leucocytes, concentration of urea, creatinine and urobilinogen and specific

  10. Guidelines for the Investigation of Mediating Variables in Business Research

    OpenAIRE

    MacKinnon, David P.; Coxe, Stefany; Baraldi, Amanda N.

    2011-01-01

    Business theories often specify the mediating mechanisms by which a predictor variable affects an outcome variable. In the last 30 years, investigations of mediating processes have become more widespread with corresponding developments in statistical methods to conduct these tests. The purpose of this article is to provide guidelines for mediation studies by focusing on decisions made prior to the research study that affect the clarity of conclusions from a mediation study, the statistical mo...

  11. Are research papers reporting results from nutrigenetics clinical research a potential source of biohype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenne, R; Hurlimann, T; Godard, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Nutrigenetics is a promising field, but the achievability of expected benefits is challenged by the methodological limitations that are associated with clinical research in that field. The mere existence of these limitations suggests that promises about potential outcomes may be premature. Thus, benefits claimed in scientific journal articles in which these limitations are not acknowledged might stimulate biohype. This article aims to examine whether nutrigenetics clinical research articles are a potential source of biohype. Of the 173 articles identified, 16 contained claims in which clinical applications were extrapolated from study results. The methodological limitations being incompletely acknowledged, these articles could potentially be a source of biohype.

  12. Bourdieu's theory of practice and its potential in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynas, Sarah J

    2005-04-01

    This paper seeks to consider the utility of Bourdieu's "Theory of Practice" in nursing, and considers specifically its use as a framework for research exploring nurses' conceptualizations of illness and the patients in their care. Bourdieu's work uses the concepts of field, capital and habitus to explain interactions within the social world. This paper describes these concepts and their relationship with nursing is discussed using dementia care as an example. The work of French scholar Pierre Bourdieu has contributed to debates throughout the social sciences, but has had relatively little attention in the nursing literature. Pierre Bourdieu's work developed against a backdrop of change in the academic world. The emergence of the social sciences and the debate around objective and subjective styles of research were influential in the development of his "Theory of Practice". The importance of the conceptualization process is discussed, and the considerable potential influence of conceptualization on patient care is highlighted. Reflexivity is a cornerstone of Bourdieu's work, and is an important feature of nursing research. Examples of health care research using his work as a framework are discussed, and some of the challenges of the approach are outlined. The use of Bourdieu's "Theory of Practice" as a research framework could allow nurse researchers to explore the interactions of nurses with the structures, agents and symbols of illness within the field of care. This work could enhance understanding of how nurses view and react to patients in their care, and promote the development of practice innovations and policy change. The theory may, therefore, have much to offer future nursing research.

  13. Final work plan : investigation of potential contamination at the former USDA facility in Powhattan, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-02-02

    This Work Plan outlines the scope of work to be conducted to investigate the subsurface contaminant conditions at the property formerly leased by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) in Powhattan, Kansas (Figure 1.1). Data obtained during this event will be used to (1) evaluate potential contaminant source areas on the property; (2) determine the vertical and horizontal extent of potential contamination; and (3) provide recommendations for future action, with the ultimate goal of assigning this site No Further Action status. The planned investigation includes groundwater monitoring requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with Section V of the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The work is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) that has been approved by the KDHE. The Master Work Plan describes the general scope of all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas and provides guidance for these investigations. It should be consulted for the complete details of plans for work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Powhattan.

  14. An experimental investigation of recruitment bias in eating pathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Erin L; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2006-04-01

    Previous, uncontrolled research has suggested a bias may exist in recruiting participants for eating disorder research. Recruitment biases may affect sample representativeness and generalizability of findings. This experiment investigated whether revealing that a study's topic was related to eating disorders created a self-selection bias. Young women at a university responded to advertisements containing contrasting information about the nature of a single study. We recruited one group by advertising the study under the title "Disordered Eating in Young Women" (n = 251) and another group using the title "Consumer Preferences" (n = 259). Results indicated similar levels of eating pathology in both groups, so the different recruitment techniques did not engender self-selection. However, the consumer preferences group scored higher in self-reported social desirability. The level of information conveyed in study advertising does not impact reporting of eating disturbances among nonclinical samples, although there is evidence social desirability might. 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Investigating the Self-Protective Potential of Immobility in Victims of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke A; Jones, Lynn C

    2017-04-01

    Using a nationwide sample of reported rape cases collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI; 389 victims; 89% stranger rapes), this study investigates assumptions about self-protective behaviors for rape victims. Past research on victim resistance strategies often specifies active resistance as self-protective, inadvertently underestimating the potential for biologically based reactions, such as tonic immobility, to be self-protective as well. Results confirm that rape victims who were verbally and physically immobile during the attack were less likely to be injured and have force used against them. In addition, victims who were verbally immobile suffered a less severe attack. The results indicate that immobility may protect the victim from increased injury, force, and severity of the attack. Implications for the legal and public definition of consent are discussed.

  16. Research and investigation on medical usage of cyclotrons as a special research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, the special research project ''Research and investigation on the medical usage of cyclotrons'' had been carried out in the three years program from fiscal 1976 to 1978. Its purpose was to establish the methods of therapy using particle beam such as fast neutrons and the methods of diagnosis using short-lived radioisotopes and positron-emitting radioisotopes. The works were conducted comprehensively in cooperation of the personnel both in and outside the NIRS. Consequently, the purpose was able to be fulfilled satisfactorily. Following on this project, a new special research project ''Research and investigation on the medical usage of particle accelerators'' was started in fiscal 1979. These results are described on the effects of the therapy, diagnostic utilizations, and the medical usage of heavy ion accelerators. (J.P.N.)

  17. Nuclear microscopy in medical research. Investigations into degenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makjanic, J; Thong, P; Watt, F [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Physics

    1997-03-01

    The high energy (1-4MeV) focused ion beam (nuclear microbeam) has found uses in many scientific disciplines through a wide variety of ion beam based techniques. Of the many techniques available, the powerful combination of Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) is proving to be extremely useful, particularly in the characterisation and elemental analysis of thin specimens. In this paper we briefly review these ion beam techniques, as well as the hardware required for their application. Finally, we describe the application of the PIXE, RBS and STIM techniques in conjunction with a scanning focused 2MeV proton microbeam (nuclear microscopy). The examples chosen to illustrate the potential of nuclear microscopy are recent investigations into the degenerative diseases atherosclerosis (coronary heart disease), Parkinson`s disease and Alzheimer`s disease. (author)

  18. Experimental investigation of the streaming potential hypothesis for ionic polymer transducers in sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocer, Bilge; Weiland, Lisa Mauck

    2013-01-01

    Ionic polymer transducers (IPTs) are ionomers that are plated with conductive media such as metals, leading to capacitive behavior. IPTs exhibit bending deformation when a voltage difference is applied across the surfaces of the transducer, thus displaying actuation. A current is generated when they are deformed, thus exhibiting sensing. However, the mechanisms responsible for actuation and sensing differ; research to date has focused predominantly on actuation, while identification of the dominant mechanism responsible for IPT sensing remains an open topic. The goal of this work is to initiate experimental investigations of the streaming potential hypothesis for IPT sensing. This hypothesis argues that the presence of unbound counter-ions within the hydrophilic phase of an ionic polymer behaves as an electrolyte in the presence of the electrode. Thus, as per classic streaming potential analyses, relative motion of the electrolyte with respect to the electrode will result in the evolution of a streaming potential. According to this hypothesis, the extent of communication between the electrode and electrolyte becomes important in the evolution of an electrical signal. This study experimentally explores the effect of electrode architecture on the sensing response where the IPTs are prepared via the direct assembly process (DAP). The DAP is selected because it enables control over the fabrication of the electrode structure. In this study, cantilevered IPT samples having different electrode composition are tested under several step input tip displacements. The experimental outcomes are consistent with predicted trends via streaming potential theory. (paper)

  19. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, David A.; Buechele, Andrew C.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Shuh, David K.; Pegg, Ian L.

    2007-10-12

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term disposal of high-level nuclear waste posed by this element. The primary issues examined during the course of this project were the behavior of technetium and its surrogate rhenium during waste vitrification and glass corrosion. Since the redox behavior of technetium can play a large role in determining its volatility, one goal of this research was to better understand the behavior of technetium in glass as a function of the redox potential of the glass melt. In addition, the behavior of rhenium was examined, since rhenium is commonly used as a surrogate for technetium in waste vitrification studies. A number of glasses similar to Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glasses were prepared under controlled atmospheres. The redox state of the glass was determined from the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in the cooled glass, and the speciation of technetium and rhenium was determined by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The behavior of rhenium and technetium during glass alteration was also examined using the vapor hydration test (VHT).

  20. Research on Land Ecological Condition Investigation and Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chunyan; Guo, Xudong; Chen, Yuqi

    2017-04-01

    The ecological status of land reflects the relationship between land use and environmental factors. At present, land ecological situation in China is worrying. According to the second national land survey data, there are about 149 million acres of arable land located in forests and grasslands area in Northeast and Northwest of China, Within the limits of the highest flood level, at steep slope above 25 degrees; about 50 million acres of arable land has been in heavy pollution; grassland degradation is still serious. Protected natural forests accounted for only 6% of the land area, and forest quality is low. Overall, the ecological problem has been eased, but the local ecological destruction intensified, natural ecosystem in degradation. It is urgent to find out the situation of land ecology in the whole country and key regions as soon as possible. The government attaches great importance to ecological environment investigation and monitoring. Various industries and departments from different angles carry out related work, most of it about a single ecological problem, the lack of a comprehensive surveying and assessment of land ecological status of the region. This paper established the monitoring index system of land ecological condition, including Land use type area and distribution, quality of cultivated land, vegetation status and ecological service, arable land potential and risk, a total of 21 indicators. Based on the second national land use survey data, annual land use change data and high resolution remote sensing data, using the methods of sample monitoring, field investigation and statistical analysis to obtain the information of each index, this paper established the land ecological condition investigation and monitoring technology and method system. It has been improved, through the application to Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, the northern agro-pastoral ecological fragile zone, and 6 counties (cities).

  1. Research recruitment using Facebook advertising: big potential, big challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Julie M; Peters, Colleen; Oliver, Debra Parker

    2013-03-01

    To our knowledge, ours is the first study to report on Facebook advertising as an exclusive mechanism for recruiting women ages 35-49 years residing in the USA into a health-related research study. We directed our survey to women ages 35-49 years who resided in the USA exclusively using three Facebook advertisements. Women were then redirected to our survey site. There were 20,568,960 women on Facebook that met the eligibility criteria. The three ads resulted in 899,998 impressions with a reach of 374,225 women. Of the women reached, 280 women (0.075 %) clicked the ad. Of the women who clicked the ad, nine women (3.2 %) proceeded past the introductory page. Social networking, and in particular Facebook, is an innovative venue for recruiting participants for research studies. Challenges include developing an ad to foster interest without biasing the sample, and motivating women who click the ad to complete the survey. There is still much to learn about this potential method of recruitment.

  2. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Synthesis of phase I investigation 2001-2005. Volume 'geoscientific research'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kunio; Abe, Hironobu; Kunimaru, Takanori

    2011-03-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of relevant disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment within the host sedimentary formations at Horonobe in Hokkaido, northern Japan. The project consists of two major research areas, 'Geoscientific Research' and 'R and D on Geological Disposal', and proceeds in three overlapping phases, 'Phase I: Surface-based investigation', 'Phase II: Construction' and 'Phase III: Operation', over a period of 20 years. The present report summarises the results of the Phase I geoscientific research carried out from March 2001 to March 2005. Integration of the results from different disciplines ensures that the Phase I goals have been successfully achieved and identifies key issues that need to be addressed in Phases II and III. More importantly, efforts are made to summarise as many lessons learnt from the Phase I investigations and other technical achievements as possible to form a 'knowledge base' that will reinforce the technical basis for both implementation and the formulation of safety regulations. Based on experiences of selecting the URL area and site in Horonobe Town, important factors that should be taken into consideration in such selection processes and their rationale are demonstrated. In the course of stepwise surface-based investigations, a number of achievements have been made, which can eventually provide examples of integrated methodologies for characterising the sedimentary formations. The relevant surface-based investigation techniques have thus been further developed. The Horonobe URL has been designed based on geoscientific information accumulated during the surface-based investigations and the plans for safe construction and operation of the URL have been defined in a feasible manner. In addition, a variety of environmental measures taken during Phase I have proved to be

  3. Communicating Research Through Student Involvement in Phenological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kopplin, M.; Gazal, R. M.; Robin, J. H.; Boger, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Phenology plays a key role in the environment and ecosystem. Primary and secondary students around the world have been collecting vegetation phenology data and contributing to ongoing scientific investigations. They have increased research capacity by increasing spatial coverage of ground observations that can be useful for validation of remotely sensed data. The green-up and green-down phenology measurement protocols developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) as part of the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, have been used in more than 250 schools in over 20 countries. In addition to contributing their data, students have conducted their own investigations and presented them at science fairs and symposiums, and international conferences. An elementary school student in Alaska conducted a comprehensive study on the green-down rates of native and introduced trees and shrubs. Her project earned her a one-year college scholarship at UAF. Students from the Model Secondary School for the Deaf in Washington, D. C. and from the Indiana School for the Deaf collaborated on a comparative green-up study, and were chosen to present at an international conference where students from more than 20 countries participated. Similarly, students in Thailand presented at national conferences, their studies such as "The Relationship between Environmental Conditions and Green-down of Teak Trees (Tectona grandis L.)" at Roong Aroon School, Bangkok and "The Comparison of Budburst and Green-up of Leab Trees (Ficus infectoria Roxb.) at Rob Wiang and Mae Khao Tom Sub-district in Chiang Rai Province". Some challenges in engaging students in phenological studies include the mismatch in timing of the start and end of the plant growing season with that of the school year in northern latitudes and the need for scientists and teachers to work with students to ensure accurate measurements. However these are outweighed by benefits to the scientists

  4. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abubakar, Sani; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Usman, Ahmed Rufa’i; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-01-01

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments

  5. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abubakar, Sani; Isa, Nasiru Fage [Bayero University, Kano Nigeria (Nigeria); Usman, Ahmed Rufa’i [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina Nigeria (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abubakar, Nuraddeen [Center for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria (Nigeria)

    2015-04-24

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  6. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Sani; Usman, Ahmed Rufa'i.; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-04-01

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  7. Interdisciplinary researches for potential developments of drugs and natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunrat Chaveerach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments of drugs or natural products from plants are possibly made, simple to use and lower cost than modern drugs. The development processes can be started with studying local wisdom and literature reviews to choose the plants which have long been used in diverse areas, such as foods, traditional medicine, fragrances and seasonings. Then those data will be associated with scientific researches, namely plant collection and identification, phytochemical screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, pharmacological study/review for their functions, and finally safety and efficiency tests in human. For safety testing, in vitro cell toxicity by cell viability assessment and in vitro testing of DNA breaks by the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be performed. When active chemicals and functions containing plants were chosen with safety and efficacy for human uses, then, the potential medicinal natural products will be produced. Based on these procedures, the producing cost will be cheaper and the products can be evaluated for their clinical properties. Thus, the best and lowest-priced medicines and natural products can be distributed worldwide.

  8. Interdisciplinary researches for potential developments of drugs and natural products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arunrat Chaveerach; Runglawan Sudmoon; Tawatchai Tanee

    2017-01-01

    Developments of drugs or natural products from plants are possibly made,simple to use and lower cost than modern drugs.The development processes can be started with studying local wisdom and literature reviews to choose the plants which have long been used in diverse areas,such as foods,traditional medicine,fragrances and seasonings.Then those data will be associated with scientific researches,namely plant collection and identification,phytochemical screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,pharmacological study/review for their functions,and finally safety and efficiency tests in human.For safety testing,in vitro cell toxicity by cell viability assessment and in vitro testing of DNA breaks by the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be performed.When active chemicals and functions containing plants were chosen with safety and efficacy for human uses,then,the potential medicinal natural products will be produced.Based on these procedures,the producing cost will be cheaper and the products can be evaluated for their clinical properties.Thus,the best and lowest-priced medicines and natural products can be distributed worldwide.

  9. Multilineage Potential Research of Bovine Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Gao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC. The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

  10. The Potential of Deweyan-Inspired Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jody L.

    2014-01-01

    In its broadest sense, pragmatism could be said to be the philosophical orientation of all action research. Action research is characterized by research, action, and participation grounded in democratic principles and guided by the aim of social improvement. Furthermore, action research is an active process of inquiry that does not admit…

  11. Phenomenology as a potential methodology for subjective knowing in science education research

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    This paper charts the journey that led to the author's discovery of phenomenology as a potential research methodology in the field of science education, and describes the impact on his own thinking and approach of his encounters with the work of Husserl and Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Van Manen. Drawing on this theoretical framework, the author argues that, as a methodology for investigating scientific thinking in relation to life experience, learning and curriculum design, phenomenology not...

  12. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia.

  13. Jyotiraj Patra: Investigating the use of research in disaster risk ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-01-27

    Jan 27, 2015 ... His experience in disaster management in India has shown Jyotiraj that research ... Events like the 2013 flood in Uttarakhand state in northern India have also ... This article is part of the series CARIAA Young Researchers.

  14. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for ... show the effectiveness of the research method. ... qualitative data before quantitative datasets ..... whereby both types of data are collected simultaneously.

  15. Twitter as a Potential Data Source for Cardiovascular Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnenberg, Lauren; DiSilvestro, Christie L; Mancheno, Christina; Dailey, Karl; Tufts, Christopher; Buttenheim, Alison M; Barg, Fran; Ungar, Lyle; Schwartz, H; Brown, Dana; Asch, David A; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-12-01

    As society is increasingly becoming more networked, researchers are beginning to explore how social media can be used to study person-to-person communication about health and health care use. Twitter is an online messaging platform used by more than 300 million people who have generated several billion Tweets, yet little work has focused on the potential applications of these data for studying public attitudes and behaviors associated with cardiovascular health. To describe the volume and content of Tweets associated with cardiovascular disease as well as the characteristics of Twitter users. We used Twitter to access a random sample of approximately 10 billion English-language Tweets originating from US counties from July 23, 2009, to February 5, 2015, associated with cardiovascular disease. We characterized each Tweet relative to estimated user demographics. A random subset of 2500 Tweets was hand-coded for content and modifiers. The volume of Tweets about cardiovascular disease and the content of these Tweets. Of 550 338 Tweets associated with cardiovascular disease, the terms diabetes (n = 239 989) and myocardial infarction (n = 269 907) were used more frequently than heart failure (n = 9414). Users who Tweeted about cardiovascular disease were more likely to be older than the general population of Twitter users (mean age, 28.7 vs 25.4 years; P < .01) and less likely to be male (59 082 of 124 896 [47.3%] vs 8433 of 17 270 [48.8%]; P < .01). Most Tweets (2338 of 2500 [93.5%]) were associated with a health topic; common themes of Tweets included risk factors (1048 of 2500 [41.9%]), awareness (585 of 2500 [23.4%]), and management (541 of 2500 [21.6%]) of cardiovascular disease. Twitter offers promise for studying public communication about cardiovascular disease.

  16. POTENTIALITIES AND RISKS OF BIOCHEMICAL EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VIA INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Gomes

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The internet is more and more present in worldwide education. There are innumerable projects thatstimulate its usage for aiding the teaching-learning process. This new trend modies the reality of thewhole school. However, many copies of identical information are found in several sites: graphs, gures,texts, links and even errors. The aim of this work is to analyse the biochemical issues photosynthesisand cellular respiration available in web pages, taking into account contents quality, trustworthinessand eectiveness. Firstly, 6th secondary level students were inquired by a questionnaire on their use ofinternet resources. More than 80 percent of them were regular users. The result conrms the alreadyknown potential of internet in education. Fourteen sites were analysed regarding to contents, presenceof bibliographical references, authorship, titles of responsibles and adequacy to the target public. Inrelation to contents, presence of conceptual errors, illustrations and other stimulant elements wereanalysed. None of the sites presented biblioghraphic references; less than half divulged responsiblenames and their graduation. The great majority do not mention intended public target. In general,the sites did not contained grave conceptual errors, except for two that mention estoma insteadestroma, cilica/acilica phosphorylation (for cyclic and acyclic, grama (for grana and place oxygenas essential for anaerobic respiration. However, one of these sites was the only one that mentionedenzymes and regulation steps of cellular respiration. Half of the sites presented identical texts andgures. None used livened up resources. The majority showed contents as virtual versions of printedbooks. Illustrations did not present necessary legends. None of the analysed sites, thus, was consideredexcellent. Trustworthiness is also questionable as much of the contents arte clearly copies of otherpages, recurrent even on the errors. Our data strengthen the need for

  17. Geological investigations for geological model of deep underground geoenvironment at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Tagami, Masahiko; Amano, Kenji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kurihara, Arata; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Koike, Katsuaki

    2013-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing a geoscientific research project, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project, in order to establish scientific and technological basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The MIU is located in crystalline rock environment, in Mizunami City, central Japan. Field investigations include geological mapping, reflection seismic surveys, several borehole investigations and geological investigations in the research galleries to identify the distribution and heterogeneity of fractures and faults that are potential major flowpaths for groundwater. The results of these field investigations are synthesized and compiled for the purpose of geological modeling. The field investigations indicate that the Main Shaft at the MIU intersected low permeability NNW oriented faults. A high permeability fracture zone in the granite, a significant water inflow point, was observed in the Ventilation Shaft. Development of the geological model focusing 3D spatial relationships at different scales and evolution of the geoenvironment are underway. This paper describes geological investigations applied in the MIU project, focusing on the evaluation of their effectiveness to understand for deep underground geoenvironment. (author)

  18. Faulting in mudrocks: the selection of potential research sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.

    1990-01-01

    The British Geological Survey, in cooperation with Ismes of Italy, has carried out a research programme into faults through clay formations. The research programme commenced in April 1986 and work started at the Down Ampney site in February 1987

  19. Investigating the potential of a novel low-energy house concept with hybrid adaptable thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoes, P.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Hoekstra Bonnema, B.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In conventional buildings thermal mass is a permanent building characteristic. → Permanent thermal mass concepts are not optimal in all operational conditions. → We propose a concept that combines the benefits of low and high thermal mass. → Building simulation shows the concept is able to reduce the energy demand with 35%. → Furthermore, the concept increases the performance robustness of the building. -- Abstract: In conventional buildings thermal mass is a permanent building characteristic depending on the building design. However, none of the permanent thermal mass concepts are optimal in all operational conditions. We propose a concept that combines the benefits of buildings with low and high thermal mass by applying hybrid adaptable thermal storage (HATS) systems and materials to a lightweight building. The HATS concept increases building performance and the robustness to changing user behavior, seasonal variations and future climate changes. Building performance simulation is used to investigate the potential of the novel concept for reducing heating energy demand and increasing thermal comfort. Simulation results of a case study in the Netherlands show that the optimal quantity of the thermal mass is sensitive to the change of seasons. This implies that the building performance will benefit from implementing HATS. Furthermore, the potential of HATS is quantified using a simplified HATS model. Calculations show heating energy demand reductions of up to 35% and increased thermal comfort compared to conventional thermal mass concepts.

  20. Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. Methods A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. Results The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8% met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies, sex (50% of studies, race (64% of studies, geographical/hospital site (93% of studies, socio-economic status (82% of studies and health status (72% of studies. Conclusion A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.

  1. Developing independent investigators for clinical research relevant for Africa

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manabe, Yukari C

    2011-12-29

    Abstract Sustainable research capacity building requires training individuals at multiple levels within a supportive institutional infrastructure to develop a critical mass of independent researchers. At many African medical institutions, a PhD is important for academic promotion and is, therefore, an important focal area for capacity building programs. We examine the training at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) as a model for in-country training based on systems capacity building and attention to the academic environment. PhD training in Africa should provide a strong research foundation for individuals to perform independent, original research and to mentor others. Training the next generation of researchers within excellent indigenous academic centers of excellence with strong institutional infrastructure will empower trainees to ask regionally relevant research questions that will benefit Africans.

  2. How to survive in research: advice for the novice investigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskind, Dan; Parker, Stephen; Loi, Samantha; Looi, Jeffrey C; Macfarlane, Matthew D; Merry, Sally; Smith, Geoff; Kisely, Steve

    2015-02-01

    This paper, written by the RANZCP Committee for Research, provides an outline for how to survive in research, considering the ingredients likely to contribute to success, the role of supportive structures and the expected challenges. Learning how to survive in research is relevant for both trainees and for Fellows undertaking research at any stage of their career. Intellectual curiosity, perseverance, frustration tolerance, patience and humility are key for success as a researcher. Selection of the right supervisor is important, as is development and maintenance of a good working supervisor/supervisee relationship. The personal benefits of undertaking research include flexibility in work hours, and improved skills in writing, oral presentations, objectivity, critical thinking, problem solving and project management. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  3. An investigation into the food and feeding ecology of a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation into the food and feeding ecology of a potential aquaculture ... The juveniles of Sarotherodon galilaeus multifasciatus feed mainly on insect and ... recruitment are recommended to enhance future production of the species ...

  4. Fluorescence Molecular Tomography: Principles and Potential for Pharmaceutical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Stuker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence microscopic imaging is widely used in biomedical research to study molecular and cellular processes in cell culture or tissue samples. This is motivated by the high inherent sensitivity of fluorescence techniques, the spatial resolution that compares favorably with cellular dimensions, the stability of the fluorescent labels used and the sophisticated labeling strategies that have been developed for selectively labeling target molecules. More recently, two and three-dimensional optical imaging methods have also been applied to monitor biological processes in intact biological organisms such as animals or even humans. These whole body optical imaging approaches have to cope with the fact that biological tissue is a highly scattering and absorbing medium. As a consequence, light propagation in tissue is well described by a diffusion approximation and accurate reconstruction of spatial information is demanding. While in vivo optical imaging is a highly sensitive method, the signal is strongly surface weighted, i.e., the signal detected from the same light source will become weaker the deeper it is embedded in tissue, and strongly depends on the optical properties of the surrounding tissue. Derivation of quantitative information, therefore, requires tomographic techniques such as fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT, which maps the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescent probe or protein concentration. The combination of FMT with a structural imaging method such as X-ray computed tomography (CT or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI will allow mapping molecular information on a high definition anatomical reference and enable the use of prior information on tissue’s optical properties to enhance both resolution and sensitivity. Today many of the fluorescent assays originally developed for studies in cellular systems have been successfully translated for experimental studies in animals. The opportunity of monitoring molecular

  5. Strategic Research Prioritisation in Veterinary Schools: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Robin M.

    2018-01-01

    In step with the worldwide trend for higher educational institutes to establish areas of research emphasis,the accumulation of resources in key areas has become common practice in veterinary faculties. Although there are perceived logical benefits to research prioritisation, there have been very little critical retrospective analyses of research…

  6. Jyotiraj Patra: Investigating the use of research in disaster risk ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jyotiraj Patra worked with the Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) as a research award recipient in 2014. Jyotiraj Patra got his start with Concern Worldwide, working on disaster preparedness in Odisha, in coastal India. Since then he has continued to work on disaster preparedness and ...

  7. Research paradigms and methods for investigating holistic nursing concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary Enzman; Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2007-06-01

    Holistic nursing is a discipline focused on healing the whole person and dedicated to understanding and supporting the premise of holistic health of the patient and promoting healing in practitioners, patients, families, social groups, and communities. An explication of knowledge related to caring and healing in the human health experience and in holistic nursing is informed by the individual nurse's paradigmatic stance. Holistic nursing research is complex and focuses on healing, particularly healing of self, others, systems, and communities at large. This article discusses the competing paradigmatic perspectives, theoretic perspectives supporting holistic research, fundamental patterns of knowing and knowledge generation, a framework for holistic research, and the challenges of conducting holistic research. Recommendations for future research agenda are presented.

  8. Research on potential user identification model for electric energy substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Huaijian; Chen, Meiling; Lin, Haiying; Yang, Shuo; Miao, Bo; Zhu, Xinzhi

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of energy substitution plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in china. Energy service management platform of alternative energy users based on the data in the enterprise production value, product output, coal and other energy consumption as a potential evaluation index, using principal component analysis model to simplify the formation of characteristic index, comprehensive index contains the original variables, and using fuzzy clustering model for the same industry user’s flexible classification. The comprehensive index number and user clustering classification based on constructed particle optimization neural network classification model based on the user, user can replace electric potential prediction. The results of an example show that the model can effectively predict the potential of users’ energy potential.

  9. An Exploratory Investigation on Modularity Adoption in Design and Production Through a Case-Based Research in a Brazilian Automaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cauchick Miguel, Paulo Augusto; Hsuan, Juliana

    2010-01-01

    to what extent the adoption of modularity varies according to such tradeoffs. Case-based research is employed as the methodological approach. The unit of analysis is a business unit of an international leading manufacturer of trucks and buses, being the latter within the scope of the present investigation....... Potential gaps in the literature are also proposed for further research....

  10. An Investigation of Prioritizing Research Topics in Professional Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buschagen, Richard

    1997-01-01

    .... This effort was intended to address possible causes of this problem by establishing the importance of nine research topic areas, six data collection methods/sources, and three data analysis methods...

  11. Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) Subsurface Containment Berm Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Degree-Days CRREL Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory ERDC U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center FWENC Foster Wheeler ...contract with the Navy, Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) constructed a subsurface containment berm at the airfield of the Naval...659J91.61 ncURE 3- 3 NAVAl.. AACnC R(Sf.ARCH l,.ASORATORY POINT 9ARROW. AlASKA AS-BUILT CONTAINMENT BERM EXTENSION AND MONITORING WELLS FOSTER W

  12. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  13. A preliminary investigation into the measurement of global thunderstorm incidence and electrosphere potential at Sanae, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    One of the atmospheric parameters that may be affected by variations in the electrosphere potential is thunderstorm activity. The author made preliminary investigations into the simultaneous monitoring of global thunderstorm incidence and electrosphere potential. The author looked at the structure of the sun and the earth solar activity and solar emissions as well as the sun-weather relationships. Measurement were made by the author during 1978 at Sanae, Antarctica. The objective was to investigate the fluctuations of global thunderstorm activity and electrosphere potential and to establish some link between these and with solar activity. Potential gradient of the lower atmosphere was measured by means of a field mill and fluctuations taken to be representative of those of the electrosphere potential. Thunderstorm incidence was monitored by measurement of extra low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic noise radiated by lightning. A dipole or loop antenna was used for the recording of extra low frequency electromagnetic noise. A computer program was developed to facilitate the data analysis

  14. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  15. Realizing the potential of interdisciplinarity in accounting research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dwyer, B.; Unerman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the meaning of interdisciplinarity in accounting research and the possible benefits of moving toward a more integrated interdisciplinary approach. It also examines the drawbacks and institutional impediments to such a move.

  16. The potential impact of gender stereotypes for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C

    1996-11-01

    The move towards evidence-based health care has meant an increasing pressure on paramedical professionals to become more research aware and research active. However, despite various initiatives designed to encourage research, there remains within nursing a notable paucity of relevant published research. While numerous explanations have been put forward in an attempt to account for this shortfall, they have tended to focus on structural/organizational barriers rather than difficulties located at the individual level. However, Hicks, in studies of midwives and nurse managers suggests that one critical perspective may be the stereotypes and assumptions associated with the nursing profession, these being so diametrically opposed to the core skills required of researchers that they operate as a natural deterrent to research activities of any sort. Embedded within this theory is the notion of gender roles, which are archetypally feminine for nursing yet archetypally masculine for research. However, Hicks' studies, which were both variants of Asch's Central Trait Theory, focused on women both as the hypothetical subject of the exercise involved and as participants. If research is bound up with gender attributions in the way she suggests, it would be necessary to ask if this is still relevant when the gender of the hypothetical figure at the centre of the study is changed. To this end, the present study was conducted which, apart from the modification just highlighted, was a replication of Hicks' earlier studies. In brief, two groups of participants rated a hypothetical male candidate for a nursing post along 15 bipolar dimensions. The candidate had been described by his referee using six adjectives, of which five were identical for each group. However, the final phrase used to describe the first group's candidate was "good clinician' while for the second group it was "good researcher'. The ratings given by the two groups along the 15 dimensions were then compared. It was

  17. Classroom research in religious education: The potential of grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rothgangel, Martin; Saup, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common qualitative research strategies in social sciences. Currently, many applications of this theory are being developed for religious education. In the article it is argued that grounded theory deserves special attention for classroom research in religious education. For this reason, the basic features (fundamental openness and concurrence of data collection and analysis; constant comparison and asking analytical questions) as well as the coding strategie...

  18. Introduction to quantitative research methods an investigative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balnaves, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods is a student-friendly introduction to quantitative research methods and basic statistics. It uses a detective theme throughout the text and in multimedia courseware to show how quantitative methods have been used to solve real-life problems. The book focuses on principles and techniques that are appropriate to introductory level courses in media, psychology and sociology. Examples and illustrations are drawn from historical and contemporary research in the social sciences. The multimedia courseware provides tutorial work on sampling, basic statistics, and techniques for seeking information from databases and other sources. The statistics modules can be used as either part of a detective games or directly in teaching and learning. Brief video lessons in SPSS, using real datasets, are also a feature of the CD-ROM.

  19. Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Four other teams use advanced genomics and protein engineering techniques to elucidate basic molecular mechanisms associated with tumor ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower women, prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for ...

  20. Jyotiraj Patra: Investigating the use of research in disaster risk ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-01-27

    Jan 27, 2015 ... His experience in disaster management in India has shown Jyotiraj that ... the best things that CARIAA brings to climate change research at this time. Each consortium brings different skills and disciplines to the table,” he adds.

  1. Interpreting and Reporting Effect Sizes in Research Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Martha; Marsh, George E., II

    Since 1994, the American Psychological Association (APA) has advocated the inclusion of effect size indices in reporting research to elucidate the statistical significance of studies based on sample size. In 2001, the fifth edition of the APA "Publication Manual" stressed the importance of including an index of effect size to clarify…

  2. International Immersion in Counselor Education: A Consensual Qualitative Research Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Sejal M.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    This study used consensual qualitative research methodology to examine the phenomenon of international immersion on counselor education students' (N = 10) development and growth. Seven domains emerged from the data (cultural knowledge, empathy, personal and professional impact, process/reflection, relationships, personal characteristics, and…

  3. Provenance research: investigation of genetic diversity associated with geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1963-01-01

    Provenance in forestry refers to the population of trees growing at n particular place of origin. Provenance research defines the genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variation associated with geographic source. Information on provenance is important in assuring sources of seed to give well-adapted, productive trees and in directing breeding of...

  4. Stigma and intellectual disability: potential application of mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchman, Nicole; Werner, Shirli; Kosyluk, Kristin; Jones, Nev; Elg, Brianna; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and individuals with mental illness are consistently found to be among the most socially excluded populations and continue to face substantial health, housing, and employment disparities due to stigma. Although this has spurred extensive research efforts and theoretical advancements in the study of stigma toward mental illness, the stigma of ID has received only limited attention. In this article we explore the application of mental illness stigma research for ID. We carefully reviewed the existing research on mental illness stigma as a foundation for a parallel summary of the empirical literature on attitudes and stigma related to ID. Based on our review, there has not been a systematic approach to the study of stigma toward ID. However, multilevel conceptual models of stigma have received much attention in the mental illness literature. These models have been used to inform targeted interventions and have application to the study of the stigma process for individuals with ID. Nonetheless, there are indeed key differences between-as well as substantial variability within-the ID and mental illness populations that must be considered. Stigma is an issue of social justice impacting the lives of individuals with ID, yet there remains virtually no systematic framework applied to the understanding of the stigma process for this group. Future research can draw on the stigma models developed in the mental illness literature to guide more rigorous research efforts and ultimately the development of effective, multilevel stigma-change strategies for ID.

  5. An investigation into the potential of low head hydro power in Northern Ireland for the production of electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, David; Ward, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    The maximum exploitable potential for low head hydroelectric sites (gross head≤10 m) in Northern Ireland (NI) was determined as 12.07 MW using a simple payback analysis for 304 potential sites investigated to derive a classification scheme in terms of economic viability. A techno-economic analysis with validated numerical models from previous research estimated the capital investment required for the development of a hydroelectric plant, using the low head Michell-Banki cross flow turbine, for the 304 sites investigated. The number of potentially viable sites in NI for low head hydro ranged from 198 to 286 with an estimated installed capacity ranging from 11.95 to 12.05 MW. Sites with a limited installed capacity were not economically viable unless increased government support in the form of longer term (25-50 years) low interest loans as well as the current (Renewables Obligations Certificates) Renewables Obligation Certificates scheme is provided and sustained.

  6. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  7. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuh, David K.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Burns, Carol J.

    2003-12-19

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry that is necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term remediation of high-level waste posed by this element. These challenges may be divided into two categories: unexpected behavior of technetium in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites and the behavior of technetium in waste forms.

  8. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, David K.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Burns, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry that is necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term remediation of high-level waste posed by this element. These challenges may be divided into two categories: unexpected behavior of technetium in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites and the behavior of technetium in waste forms

  9. Reframing Photovoice to Boost Its Potential for Learning Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ciolan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual methods are not new within education research field, but they are certainly an innovative approach, especially in higher education where students’ voice is understood as a central need. In this positional article, the authors intend to accomplish two key objectives. First, the article aims to emphasize that visual method, especially photovoice, can be enriching for studying the ways students engage in learning activities and support authentic conversations about how learning takes place and what students are thinking about this process (metacognition. The second objective is to set theoretical and methodological grounds to apply visually based methods such as photovoice and bubble dialogue in education research, particularly in learning research area. The considerations regarding specific methodological aspects are based on the discussion of a study conducted by using photovoice methodology. The authors suggest that participatory analysis and particularly interpretative phenomenological analysis are appropriate to complete the process of data analysis. The article, therefore, contributes to expanding knowledge about specific visual methods and set the ground for methodological innovation in learning research.

  10. Reflections on the Development of Research Potential of Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene

    1998-01-01

    Graduate students can develop research skills through extensive reading, computer searching, discussion, and application of journalistic questions to problem ideas. Advisors can help by intervening when motivation lags, organizing progress-review groups, and offering concrete editing suggestions and positive criticism. (SK)

  11. Potential for comparative public opinion research in public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Bouckaert (Geert); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); J. K. Kampen (Jarl)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe public administration and public services have always taken a marginal place in the political scientists’ behavioural research. Public administration students on the other hand tend to focus on political and administrative elites and institutions, and largely ignored citizens in

  12. Correlation of Self Potential and Ground Magnetic Survey Techniques to Investigate Fluid Seepage in Archaeological site, Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tajudeen O. Adeeko; Nordiana M. Muztaza; Taqiuddin M. Zakaria; Nurina Ismail

    2018-01-01

    One of the substantial of geophysics is to investigate the subsurface condition of the earth (groundwater) using appropriate geophysical techniques. In this research the correlation of self potential (SP) and ground magnetic methods was used to investigate fluid seepage in Archaeological site, Sungai Batu, Lembah Bujang, Kedah, Malaysia. Self-potential method was used to determine flow of water, and Ground magnetic method was used to find object that can influence the result of self potential...

  13. Integration of the Belarusian Space Research Potential Into International University Nanosatellite Programm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir; Ablameyko, Sergey; Ponariadov, Vladimir

    Belarus has inherited a significant space research potential created back in the Soviet era. It is one of the countries in the world capable of research, engineering and production across a wide range of space technologies, such as remote sensing systems, satellite telecommunication systems and positioning systems etc. Despite these strengths, the participation of Belarusian space organizations in the UN space activity and International research programs is very low. Belarusian State University (BSU) is the leading research and high school education organization of Belarus in several fields of research and development. It was deeply involved into various space research projects, including Soviet Lunar Program, Space Station “Mir”, Space Shuttle “Buran”. From 2004, when the national space programs were restarted, branches of BSU like Institute of Physics and Aerospace Technologies (IPAT), Center for aerospace education, Research laboratory of applied space technologies are leading the research and development works in the field of space communication systems, Earth observation tools and technologies, electronic and optic sensors, etc. The mail fields of activity are: • Hard and software development for small satellites and university satellites in particular. • Development of sensor satellite systems. • Small satellite research experiments (biological and medical in particular). • Earth, airplane and satellite remote monitoring systems including hard and software. • Early warning ecological and industrial Systems. • Geographic information systems of several natural and industrial areas. • Climate change investigation. We have partners from several universities and research institutes from Russian Federation, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Germany etc. We have a ground station to receive satellite data in RF L and X bands and are very interested to be incorporated into international remote monitoring network. This activity can be combined with

  14. Conducting Research from Small University Observatories: Investigating Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Kimberly D.

    2018-01-01

    Kepler has to date discovered 4,496 exoplanet candidates, but only half are confirmed, and only a handful are thought to be Earth sized and in the habitable zone. Planet verification often involves extensive follow-up observations, which are both time and resource intensive. The data set collected by Kepler is massive and will be studied for decades. University/small observatories, such as the one at Texas State University, are in a good position to assist with the exoplanet candidate verification process. By preforming extended monitoring campaigns, which are otherwise cost ineffective for larger observatories, students gain valuable research experience and contribute valuable data and results to the scientific community.

  15. Application of Research on the Metallogenic Background in the Assessment of Mineral Resources Potentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, D.; Feng, Y.; Liu, J.; Yao, X.; Zhang, Z.; Ye, T.

    2017-12-01

    1. Working BackgroundCurrent Status of Geological Prospecting: Detecting boundaries and bottoms, making ore search nearby; Seeing the stars, not seeing the Moon; Deep prospecting, undesirable results. The reasons of these problems are the regional metallogenic backgroud unclear and the metallogenic backgroud of the exploration regions unknown. Accordingly, Development and Research Center, CGS organized a geological setting research, in detail investigate metallogenic geological features and acquire mineralization information. 2. Technical SchemeCore research content is prediction elements of Metallogenic Structure. Adopt unified technical requirements from top to bottom, and technical route from bottom to top; Divide elements of mineral forecast and characteristics of geological structure into five elements for research and expression; Make full use of geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing inferences for the interpretation of macro information. After eight years the great project was completed. 3. Main AchievementsInnovation of basic maps compilation content of geological background, reinforce of geological structure data base of potentiality valuation. Preparation of geotectonic facies maps in different scales and professions, providing brand-new geologic background for potentiality assessment, promoting Chinese geotectonic research to the new height. Preparation of 3,375 geological structure thematic base maps of detecting working area in 6 kinds of prediction methods, providing base working maps, rock assemblage, structure of the protolith of geologic body / mineralization / ore controlling for mineral prediction of 25 ores. Enrichment and development of geotectonic facies analysis method, establishment of metallogenic background research thoughts and approach system for assessment of national mineral resources potentiality for the first time. 4. Application EffectOrientation——More and better results with less effort. Positioning——Have a definite

  16. Seismic tomography investigation of the Down Ampney fault research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.D.; Greenwood, P.G.; Raines, M.G.; Rainsbury, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution tomographic cross-hole seismic surveys have been designed and undertaken for fault characterisation in mudrocks at a higher resolution than is currently used in site investigations. Compressional waves were generated at a frequency of 1.04 kHz and a wavelength of 1.6 m in the formation, and were used to tomographically image a normally faulted clay sequence (Oxford Clay and Kellaways Beds) overlying limestone. The fault plane and lithologies are clearly visible in the tomograms, a 10% difference in velocity between the Oxford Clay and Kellaways Beds, being particularly prominent. A zone of 5% lower ''tomographic - velocity'' was observed to correspond with the fault zone within the Oxford Clay (as predicted from the geological logging of the core) which indicates substantial alteration that could be fluid affected. Geological constraints were found to be a crucial imput to the tomographic inversion, and examples show erroneous results that can arise. Seismic attenuation was very low (reflection observed from 80 m depth) and larger ranges could have been used to investigate larger scale geological structures. (author)

  17. The investigation of quark-antiquark potential in a plasma with hyperscaling violation background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahery, S.; Sadeghi, J.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the imaginary part of the potential for a moving quarkonia in plasma. In order to verify the validity of the imaginary part of the potential we employ a hyperscaling violation (HSV) metric background. In a quantum chromodynamics (QCD) system the imaginary part of the potential shows decay behaviour and the corresponding potential should be negative. The corresponding potential always appears in QCD as an exponential function. We find general constraints for Im{V}Q\\bar{Q} at the near horizon limit and apply them for some known cases. Finally, we find the suitable spatial dimensions d,z and θ, and also rapidity η for two interesting cases. Our calculation with the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory guarantees the dynamical parameter as θ in an HSV metric background. We also present the HSV metric in this context very close to the Yang-Mills theory with finite temperature.

  18. Obstacles to researching the researchers: a case study of the ethical challenges of undertaking methodological research investigating the reporting of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Joanne E; Herbison, G Peter; Roth, Paul; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-03-21

    Recent cohort studies of randomised controlled trials have provided evidence of within-study selective reporting bias; where statistically significant outcomes are more likely to be more completely reported compared to non-significant outcomes. Bias resulting from selective reporting can impact on meta-analyses, influencing the conclusions of systematic reviews, and in turn, evidence based clinical practice guidelines.In 2006 we received funding to investigate if there was evidence of within-study selective reporting in a cohort of RCTs submitted to New Zealand Regional Ethics Committees in 1998/99. This research involved accessing ethics applications, their amendments and annual reports, and comparing these with corresponding publications. We did not plan to obtain informed consent from trialists to view their ethics applications for practical and scientific reasons. In November 2006 we sought ethical approval to undertake the research from our institutional ethics committee. The Committee declined our application on the grounds that we were not obtaining informed consent from the trialists to view their ethics application. This initiated a seventeen month process to obtain ethical approval. This publication outlines what we planned to do, the issues we encountered, discusses the legal and ethical issues, and presents some potential solutions. Methodological research such as this has the potential for public benefit and there is little or no harm for the participants (trialists) in undertaking it. Further, in New Zealand, there is freedom of information legislation, which in this circumstance, unambiguously provided rights of access and use of the information in the ethics applications. The decision of our institutional ethics committee defeated this right and did not recognise the nature of this observational research. Methodological research, such as this, can be used to develop processes to improve quality in research reporting. Recognition of the potential

  19. Modeling, investigation and formulation of hydrophobic coatings for potential self-cleaning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pablo Fabian

    Self-cleaning surfaces have received a great deal of attention, both in research and commercial applications. Transparent and non-transparent self-cleaning surfaces are highly desired. The Lotus flower is a symbol of purity in Asian cultures, even when rising from muddy waters it stays clean and untouched by dirt. The Lotus leaf "self-cleaning" surface is hydrophobic and rough, showing a two-layer morphology. While hydrophobicity produces a high contact angle, surface morphology reduces the adhesion of dirt and water to the surface, thus water drops slide easily across the leaf carrying the dirt particles with them. Nature example in the Lotus-effect and extensive scientific research on related fields have rooted wide acceptance that high hydrophobicity can be obtained only by a proper combination of surface chemistry and roughness. Most researchers relate hydrophobicity to a high contact angle. However, the contact angle is not the only parameter that defines liquid-solid interactions. An additional parameter, the sliding angle, related to the adhesion between the liquid drop and the solid surface is also important in cases where liquid sliding is involved, such as self-cleaning applications. In this work, it is postulated that wetting which is related to the contact angle, and interfacial adhesion, which is related to the sliding angle, are interdependent phenomena and have to be considered simultaneously. A variety of models that relate the sliding angle to forces developed along the contact line between a liquid drop and a solid surface have been proposed in the literature. A new model is proposed here that quantifies the drop sliding phenomenon, based also on the interfacial adhesion across the contact area of the liquid/solid interface. The effects of roughness and chemical composition on the contact and sliding angles of hydrophobic smooth and rough surfaces were studied theoretically and experimentally. The validity of the proposed model was investigated

  20. Research on Integrated Geophysics Detect Potential Ground Fissure in City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, R.

    2017-12-01

    North China confined aquifer lied 70 to 200 meters below the earth's surface has been exploited for several decades, which resulted in confined water table declining and has generated a mass of ground fissure. Some of them has reached the surface and the other is developing. As it is very difficult to stop the ground fissure coming into being, measures of avoiding are often taken. It brings great potential risk to urban architecture and municipal engineering. It is very important to find out specific distribution and characteristic of potential ground fissure in city with high resolution. The ground fissure is concealed, therefor, geophysical method is an important technology to detecting concealed ground fissure. However, it is very difficult to detect the characteristics of the superficial part of ground fissure directly, as it lies dozens of meters below and has only scores of centimeters fault displacement. This paper studies applied ground penetration radar, surface wave and shallow refleciton seismic to detect ground fissure. It sets up model of surface by taking advantage of high resolution of ground penetrating radar data, constrains Reilay wave inversion and improves its resolution. The high resolution reflection seismic is good at detecting the geology structure. The data processing and interpretation technique is developmented to avoid the pitfall and improve the aliability of the rusult. The experiment has been conducted in Shunyi District, Beijing in 2016. 5 lines were settled to collect data of integrated geophysical method. Development zone of concealed ground fissure was found and its ultra shallow layer location was detected by ground penetrating radar. A trial trench of 6 meters in depth was dug and obvious ground fissure development was found. Its upper end was 1.5 meters beneath the earth's surface with displacement of 0.3 meters. The favorable effect of this detection has provided a new way for detecting ground fissure in cities of China, such

  1. Streaming potential investigations of polymer membranes developed for direct methanol fuel cell application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richau, K.; Mohr, R.; Kůdela, Vlastimil; Schauer, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2003), s. 201-204 ISSN 0915-860X. [International Conference on Ion Exchange. Kanazawa, 14.07.2003-18.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : streaming potential * ion-exchange membranes * specific conductivity Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  2. Assessment by human research ethics committees of potential conflicts of interest arising from pharmaceutical sponsorship of clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, J P; Kerridge, I H

    2007-01-01

    Conflicts of interest arising from pharmaceutical industry sponsorship of clinical research have the potential to bias research outcomes and ultimately prejudice patient care. It is unknown how Australian Human Research Ethics Committees (HREC) assess and manage such conflicts of interest. We aimed to gain an understanding of how HREC approach the problem of potential conflicts of interest arising from pharmaceutical sponsorship of clinical research. We conducted a survey of HREC chairpersons in New South Wales. HREC vary widely in their approaches to conflicts of interest, including in their use of National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines, which were often misinterpreted or overlooked. Many committees rely primarily on researchers disclosing potential conflicts of interest, whereas a majority of HREC use disclosure to research participants as the primary tool for preventing and managing conflicts of interest. Almost no HREC place limitations on researcher relationships with pharmaceutical companies. These findings suggest reluctance on the part of HREC to regulate many potential conflicts of interest between researchers and pharmaceutical sponsors, which may arise from uncertainty regarding the meaning or significance of conflicts of interest in research, from ambiguity surrounding the role of HREC in assessing and managing conflicts of interest in research or from misinterpretation or ignorance of current National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines. Further review of policies and practices in this important area may prove beneficial in safeguarding clinical research and patient care while promoting continuing constructive engagement with the pharmaceutical industry.

  3. [Research and investigation on original plants of medicinal Moutan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Wang, De-Qun; Peng, Dai-Yin; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-05-01

    As a kind of famous ornamental flowers, Moutan, known as "the king of flower", mainly originates from various cultivars of Paeonia suffruticosa. Moutan Cortex, a common traditional Chinese medicine, has a long medicinal history for more than 2 000 years. At present, "Fengdanpi", which is the root bark of P. ostii mainly growing in Tongling, Anhui, is a sort of Dao-di herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. However,various editions of Chinese pharmacopoeia has been stipulating that Moutan Cortex originates from the bark root of P. suffruticosa. Textual researches on germplasm of ornamental and medicinal Moutan provided that, Xi'an, Luoyang, Pengcheng, Bozhou, Heze and some other famous cultivation centers had been formed throughout the history. In addition, medicinal practitioners in Song Dynasty had been fully aware of the medicinal differences between ornamental and wild Moutan, and preferred wild single flowers as medicinal Moutan. Moreover, none of cultivation centers of ornamental Moutan were recorded in producing areas of medicinal Moutan. So far, Fengdan and Dianjiang Moutan in Chongqing are single flowers, which is consistent with the ancient herbal books. Therefore, this paper believes that the medicinal and ornamental Moutan are two different germplasm since ancient times. And we proposethat Chinese pharmacopoeia should record P. ostii and the single-flower varieties of P. suffruticosa as the original plants of Moutan Cortex. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Potentials of research and development in power plant engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubek, W.

    1996-01-01

    Sufficient and socially compatible energy supply continues to be a vital prerequisite of the welfare of mankind, and for combatting poverty, the population explosion, and environmental disruption. This fact and the most probably unavoidable growth of the global population to 10 or even 12 billion people by the year 2100 will cause the demand for energy to further increase, and to reach something between 16 and 24 billion tonnes of coal equivalents per annum already by the year 2020. Such a demand can be met only by enhancing the conversion of primary energy into useful energy, which can be achieved only by high technology allowing best possible efficiency at justifiable cost and lowest possible environmental impact. This is the guideline setting the topical and long-term major goal of future energy technology activities, and thus of research and development activities. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Investigation of damping potential of strip damper on a real turbine blade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afzal, M.; Lopez Arteaga, I.; Kari, L.; Kharyton, V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the damping potential of strip dampers on a real turbine bladed disk. A 3D numerical friction contact model is used to compute the contact forces by means of the Alternate Frequency Time domain method. The Jacobian matrix required during the iterative solution is computed in

  7. The stability of PEMFC electrodes : platinum dissolution vs potential and temperature investigated by quartz crystal microbalance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, V.A.T.; Bruijn, de F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The stability of platinum in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) electrodes has been investigated by determining the dissolution of platinum from a thin platinum film deposited on a gold substrate in 1 M HClO4 at different temperatures ranging between 40 and 80°C and potentials between 0.85

  8. Investigation of second-order optical potential for elastic π4He scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, R.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The calculations of elastic π - 4 He scattering within the framework of the optical model with a second-order potential were performed. The effects of recoil correlations, charge exchange and double spin (isospin) flip in the inter-- mediate states are studied. The correction of the impulse approximation is investigated. Comparison between Kerman-McManus-Thaler and Watson formalisms is made

  9. Predicting Child Abuse Potential: An Empirical Investigation of Two Theoretical Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E.; Hanson, Rochelle F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two theoretical risk models predicting child maltreatment potential: (a) Belsky's (1993) developmental-ecological model and (b) the cumulative risk model in a sample of 610 caregivers (49% African American, 46% European American; 53% single) with a child between 3 and 6 years old. Results extend the literature by using a…

  10. INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF SEALANTS USED IN HVAC SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the potential antimicrobial efficacy of sealants used in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems. Recent experiments confirm field experience that duct cleaning alone may not provide adequate protection from regrowth of fu...

  11. Research Program to Investigate the Fundamental Chemistry of Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, Norman M.; Burns, Carol J.; Shuh, David D.; Lukens, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Technetium (99Tc, half-life = 2.13x105 years, b-emitter) is one of the radionuclides of major concern for nuclear waste disposal. This concern is due to the long half-life of 99Tc, the ease with which pertechnetate, TcO4 -, migrates in the geosphere, and the corresponding regulatory considerations. The problem of mobility of pertechnetate in the environment is compounded by the fact that pertechnetate is the thermodynamically stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. These two factors present challenges for the safe, long term immobilization of technetium in waste forms. Because of the stability of pertechnetate, technetium has been assumed to exist as pertechnetate in the aqueous phase of nuclear waste tanks. However, recent studies indicate that a significant fraction of the technetium is in a different chemical form. This program addresses the fundamental solution chemistry of technetium in the waste tank environment, and in a second part, the stability of technetium in various waste forms. The chemistry of this element will be studied in aqueous solutions at high pH, with various added salts such as nitrate, nitrite, and organic complexants, and as a function of radiation dose, to determine whether radiolysis effects can reduce TcO4 -. A separate facet of this research is the search for chemical forms of technetium that may be thermodynamically and/or kinetically stable and may be incorporated in various waste forms for long term storage. This phase of the program will address the problem of the possible oxidation of lower valent technetium species in various waste form matrices and the subsequent leaching of the highly soluble TcO4 -

  12. GEAS Spectroscopy Tools for Authentic Research Investigations in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Travis A.; Vogt, Nicole P.

    2018-06-01

    Spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools that astronomers use to study the universe. However relatively few resources are available that enable undergraduates to explore astronomical spectra interactively. We present web-based applications which guide students through the analysis of real spectra of stars, galaxies, and quasars. The tools are written in HTML5 and function in all modern web browsers on computers and tablets. No software needs to be installed nor do any datasets need to be downloaded, enabling students to use the tools in or outside of class (e.g., for online classes).Approachable GUIs allow students to analyze spectra in the same manner as professional astronomers. The stellar spectroscopy tool can fit a continuum with a blackbody and identify spectral features, as well as fit line profiles and determine equivalent widths. The galaxy and AGN tools can also measure redshifts and calcium break strengths. The tools provide access to an archive of hundreds of spectra obtained with the optical telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory. It is also possible to load your own spectra or to query the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database.We have also developed curricula to investigate these topics: spectral classification, variable stars, redshift, and AGN classification. We will present the functionality of the tools and describe the associated curriculum. The tools are part of the General Education Astronomy Source (GEAS) project based at New Mexico State University, with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF, AST-0349155) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, NNX09AV36G). Curriculum development was supported by the NSF (DUE-0618849 and DUE-0920293).

  13. Investigation of the potential barrier lowering for quasi-ballistic transport in short channel MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehong; Kwon, Yongmin; Ji, Junghwan; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the quasi-ballistic carrier transport in short channel MOSFETs is investigated from the point of potential barrier lowering. To investigate the ballistic characteristic of transistors, we extracted the channel backscattering coefficient and the ballistic ratio from experimental data obtained by RF C-V and DC I-V measurements. Two factors that modulate the potential barrier height, besides the gate bias, are considered in this work: the drain bias (V DS ) and the channel doping concentration (N A ). We extract the critical length by calculating the potential drop in the channel region and conclude that the drain bias and the channel doping concentration affect the quasi-ballistic carrier transport.

  14. A 'Grantathon' model to mentor new investigators in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mary; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Bhatia, Triptish; Brar, Jaspreet S; Elbahaey, Wafaa Abdelhakim; Egan, James E; Konasale, Prasad; Kumar, Supriya; McDonald, Margaret C; Singh, Ravinder; Swaminathan, Soumya; Wood, Joel; Deshpande, Smita N

    2017-10-24

    There is a critical gap between needs and available resources for mental health treatment across the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In countries committed to increasing resources to address these needs it is important to conduct research, not only to assess the depth of mental health needs and the current provision of public and private mental health services, but also to examine implementation methods and evaluate mental health approaches to determine which methods are most effective in local contexts. However, research resources in many LMICs are inadequate, largely because conventional research training is time-consuming and expensive. Adapting a hackathon model may be a feasible method of increasing capacity for mental health services research in resource-poor countries. To explore the feasibility of this approach, we developed a 'grantathon', i.e. a research training workshop, to build capacity among new investigators on implementation research of Indian government-funded mental health programmes, which was based on a need expressed by government agencies. The workshop was conducted in Delhi, India, and brought together junior faculty members working in mental health services settings throughout the country, experienced international behavioural health researchers and representatives of the Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR), the prime Indian medical research funding agency. Pre- and post-assessments were used to capture changes in participants' perceived abilities to develop proposals, design research studies, evaluate outcomes and develop collaborations with ICMR and other researchers. Process measures were used to track the number of single-or multi-site proposals that were generated and funded. Participants (n = 24) generated 12 single- or multi-site research grant applications that will be funded by ICMR. The grantathon model described herein can be modified to build mental health services research capacity in

  15. [Investigation, collation and research of traditional Dai medicine of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Zhong-Lian; Li, Hai-Tao; Niu, Ying-Fen; Guan, Yan-Hong; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-01

    In order to find out the composition, characteristics and traditional utilization characteristics of Dai medicine and promote the rational protection, inheritance and utilization of the resources and traditional knowledge of Dai medicine in China, the resources of traditional Dai medicine have been investigated systematically and the traditional knowledge of Dai medicine have been analyzed in the article. We found out that there were altogether 1 077 kinds of traditional Dai medicine in China and among which 272 were the first time recorded in the condition of Dai folk medical uses. There were 1 053 plant medicines which belong to 169 family and 694 genus. These plant medicines mainly distributed in the southern, west southern and east southern area of Yunnan province, the southern area of Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan, Fujian province and tropical, subtropical district as Taiwan, and more than 94.49% plant medicines could be found in Yunnan province. From the point of plant life form, they were major herbaceous or shrubby plants; When it is used as medicinal part, root and rhizome of plants account for the highest proportion, the next were whole plant and leaves. From nature, flavor and channel tropism points of view, the largest proportion of Dai medicines were cool, bitter-tasted and possesses water element. In terms of treatment of disease types, most of the drugs can treat gastrointestinal diseases, next were drugs that could be used to treat upper respiratory infection, traumatological and rheumatic diseases, urinary infection, gynecological diseases, hepatopathy, puerperium fever and diseases caused by poisonous insects and beast of prey bite. The study revealed that the resources of traditional Dai medicine and traditional knowledge of application were abundant in China, but the resources of traditional Dai medicine and traditional knowledge of application were faced with the risk of gradually reduce and loss. The article suggested that we should

  16. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status, potential, and research requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neenan, B.; Feinberg, D.; Hill, A.; McIntosh, R.; Terry, K.

    1986-08-01

    Although numerous options for the production of fuels from microalgae have been proposed, our analysis indicates that only two qualify for extensive development - gasoline and ester fuel. In developing the comparisons that support this conclusion, we have identified the major areas of microalgae production and processing that require extensive development. Technology success requires developing and testing processes that fully utilize the polar and nonpolar lipids produced by microalgae. Process designs used in these analyses were derived from fragmented, preliminary laboratory data. These results must be substantiated and integrated processes proposed, tested, and refined to be able to evaluate the commercial feasibility from microalgae. The production of algal feedstocks for processing to gasoline or ester fuel requires algae of high productivity and high lipid content that efficiently utilize saline waters. Species screening and development suggest that algae can achieve required standards taken individually, but algae that can meet the integrated requirements still elude researchers. Effective development of fuels from microalgae technology requires that R and D be directed toward meeting the integrated standards set out in the analysis. As technology analysts, it is inappropriate for us to dictate how the R and D effort should proceed to meet these standards. We end our role by noting that alternative approaches to meeting the feasibility targets have been identified, and it is now the task of program managers and scientists to choose the appropriate approach to assure the greatest likelihood of realizing a commercially viable technology. 70 refs., 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  17. Research on Potential Biomarkers in Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Botella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, involving mutations in two predominant genes known as Endoglin (ENG; HHT1 and Activin receptor like kinase 1 (ACVRL1/ALK1; HHT2, as well as in some less frequent genes, such as MADH4/SMAD4 (JP-HHT or BMP9/GDF2 (HHT5. The diagnosis of HHT patients currently remains at the clinical level, according to the Curaçao criteria, whereas the molecular diagnosis is used to confirm or rule out suspected HHT cases, especially when a well characterized index case is present in the family or in an isolated population. Unfortunately, many suspected patients do not present a clear HHT diagnosis or do not show pathogenic mutations in HHT genes, prompting the need to investigate additional biomarkers of the disease. Here, several HHT biomarkers and novel methodological approaches developed during the last years will be reviewed. On one hand, products detected in plasma or serum samples: soluble proteins (VEGF, TGF-β1, soluble endoglin, angiopoietin-2 and microRNA variants (miR-27a, miR-205, miR-210. On the other hand, differential HHT gene expression fingerprinting, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS of a panel of genes involved in HHT, and infrared spectroscopy combined with Artificial Neural Network (ANN patterns will also be reviewed. All these biomarkers might help to improve and refine HHT diagnosis by distinguishing from the non-HHT population.

  18. Updates on ultrasound research in implant dentistry: a systematic review of potential clinical indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Vaishnavi; Chan, Hsun-Liang; MacEachern, Mark; Kripfgans, Oliver D

    2018-05-23

    Ultrasonography has shown promising diagnostic value in dental implant imaging research; however, exactly how ultrasound was used and at what stage of implant therapy it can be applied has not been systematically evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to investigate potential indications of ultrasound use in the three implant treatment phases, namely planning, intraoperative and postoperative phase. Eligible manuscripts were searched in major databases with a combination of key words related to the use of ultrasound imaging in implant therapy. An initial search yielded 414 articles, after further review, 28 articles were finally included for this systematic review. Ultrasound was found valuable, though at various development stages, for evaluating (1) soft tissues, (2) hard tissues (3) vital structures and (4) implant stability. B-mode, the main function to image anatomical structures of interest, has been evaluated in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Quantitative ultrasound parameters, e.g. sound speed and amplitude, are being developed to evaluate implant-bone stability, mainly in simulation and pre-clinical studies. Ultrasound could be potentially useful in all 3 treatment phases. In the planning phase, ultrasound could evaluate vital structures, tissue biotype, ridge width/density, and cortical bone thickness. During surgery, it can provide feedback by identifying vital structures and bone boundary. At follow-up visits, it could evaluate marginal bone level and implant stability. Understanding the current status of ultrasound imaging research for implant therapy would be extremely beneficial for accelerating translational research and its use in dental clinics.

  19. Potentialities and Limits of ICESAT-2 Observation for Atmospheric Aerosol Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ICESat-2(Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2, slated for launch in 2017, will continue the important observations of ice-sheet elevation change, sea-ice freeboard, and vegetation canopy height begun by ICESat in 2003. Among the other potential applications, ICESat-2 could provide some information about atmospheric aerosol over Polar Regions thanks to the lidar instrument. In this context, it is essential to demonstrate the ICESat-2 capability of providing vertical profiles of the aerosol backscatter coefficient and to define its potentialities and limits. First results of this investigation are reported and will be presented at the conference.

  20. Investigating aftergrowth potential of polymers in drinking water – the effect of water replacement and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    The aftergrowth potential of polymers used in drinking water distribution was investigated by a batch set-up, where test pieces were incubated in biostable, inorganic nutrient amended drinking water inoculated with surface water. Biomass production was measured as ATP and followed over 16 weeks...... difference on the biomass production of no replacement of the test water, replacement once a week or every second week. Periodical water replacement could nevertheless be considered beneficial, since a substantial NVOC migration occurred within the first six weeks of incubation, which potentially could...

  1. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Investigation report for the 2006 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroya; Nakayama, Masashi; Sanada, Hiroyuki

    2008-05-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is planned to extend over a period of 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely 'Phase 1: Surface-based investigations', 'Phase 2: Construction Phase' (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and 'Phase 3: Operation phase' (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the results of the investigations for the 2006 fiscal year (2006/2007), the second year of the Phase 2 investigations. The investigations, which are composed of 'Geoscientific research' and 'R and D on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW)', were carried out according to 'Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Program for the 2006 Fiscal Year'. The results of these investigations, along with the results which were obtained in other departments of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), are properly offered to the implementations and the safety regulations. JAEA proceeded with the project in, collaboration with experts from domestic and overseas research organisation. (author)

  2. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project investigation report for the 2008 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Masashi; Sano, Michiaki; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Yutaka

    2009-11-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is planned to extend over a period 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely 'Phase 1: Surface-based investigations' 'Phase 2: Construction Phase' (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and 'Phase 3: Operation phase' (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the results of the investigations for the 2008 fiscal year (2008/2009), the 4th year of the Phase 2 investigations. The investigations, which are composed of 'Geoscientific research' and 'R and D on geological disposal technology', were carried out according to 'Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Program for the 2008 Fiscal year'. The results of these investigations, along with the results which were obtained in other departments of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), are properly offered to the implementations and the safety regulations. For the sake of this, JAEA has proceeded with the project in collaboration with experts from domestic and overseas research organisations. (author)

  3. Investigator Bias and Theory-Ladenness in Cross-Cultural Research: Insights from Wittgenstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    A relatively under-explored topic in the current literature on and methods for research in the field of comparative and international education is the problem of investigator bias in cross-cultural research. This article discusses the nature of and an approach to address investigator bias in research that originates from the theory-ladenness of…

  4. Investigating CSI: portrayals of DNA testing on a forensic crime show and their potential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Barbara L; Jankowski, Natalie; Brewer, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of forensic crime shows such as CSI has fueled debate about their potential social impact. This study considers CSI's potential effects on public understandings regarding DNA testing in the context of judicial processes, the policy debates surrounding crime laboratory procedures, and the forensic science profession, as well as an effect not discussed in previous accounts: namely, the show's potential impact on public understandings of DNA and genetics more generally. To develop a theoretical foundation for research on the "CSI effect," it draws on cultivation theory, social cognitive theory, and audience reception studies. It then uses content analysis and textual analysis to illuminate how the show depicts DNA testing. The results demonstrate that CSI tends to depict DNA testing as routine, swift, useful, and reliable and that it echoes broader discourses about genetics. At times, however, the show suggests more complex ways of thinking about DNA testing and genetics.

  5. The Era of International Space Station Utilization Begins: Research Strategy, International Collaboration, and Realized Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Jean, Sabbagh

    2010-01-01

    With the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) nearing completion and the support of a full-time crew of six, a new era of utilization for research is beginning. For more than 15 years, the ISS international partnership has weathered financial, technical and political challenges proving that nations can work together to complete assembly of the largest space vehicle in history. And while the ISS partners can be proud of having completed one of the most ambitious engineering projects ever conceived, the challenge of successfully using the platform remains. During the ISS assembly phase, the potential benefits of space-based research and development were demonstrated; including the advancement of scientific knowledge based on experiments conducted in space, development and testing of new technologies, and derivation of Earth applications from new understanding. The configurability and human-tended capabilities of the ISS provide a unique platform. The international utilization strategy is based on research ranging from physical sciences, biology, medicine, psychology, to Earth observation, human exploration preparation and technology demonstration. The ability to complete follow-on investigations in a period of months allows researchers to make rapid advances based on new knowledge gained from ISS activities. During the utilization phase, the ISS partners are working together to track the objectives, accomplishments, and the applications of the new knowledge gained. This presentation will summarize the consolidated international results of these tracking activities and approaches. Areas of current research on ISS with strong international cooperation will be highlighted including cardiovascular studies, cell and plant biology studies, radiation, physics of matter, and advanced alloys. Scientific knowledge and new technologies derived from research on the ISS will be realized through improving quality of life on Earth and future spaceflight endeavours

  6. On-farm investigation of local chicken biodiversity and performance potentials in rural areas of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelqader, A.; Wollny, C. B. A.; Gauly, M.

    2008-01-01

    On-farm surveys were conducted to investigate the biodiversity of local chickens and their performance potential. The study was carried out in rural areas of northern Jordan. A sample of 846 adult local chickens was phenotypically characterized based on morphology, feather colors, comb shape and performance. Body measurements for cluster analyses were recorded on 460 adult females. The most predominant chicken type was the Jordan Baladi (67.3%) followed by the Pakis...

  7. Factors influencing the potential for strong brand relationships with consumer product brands: An overview and research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bergkvist, Lars; Francis, Julie

    Based on the premise that consumer product brands are different with respect to their potential to form strong long-term relationships with consumers, this paper aims to identify factors that influence brands' potential for strong long-term relationships and to suggest how these can be empirically...... investigated. The paper reviews brand-centric and consumer-centric research and identifies twelve brand variables that may influence the relationship potential of consumer product brands. A research agenda is suggested and a number of issues that needs to be resolved before empirical research can be carried...... out are discussed. The paper concludes by speculating on possible outcomes in future empirical studies and it is suggested that multiple brand variables will have to be employed to evaluate the relationship potential of brands....

  8. Water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets investigation at Panola Mountain research watershed, Stockbridge, Georgia; a research plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, T.G.; Hooper, R.P.; Peters, N.E.; Bullen, T.D.; Kendall, Carol

    1993-01-01

    The Panola Mountain Research Watershed (PMRW), located in the Panola Mountain State Conservation Park near Stockbridge, Georgia has been selected as a core research watershed under the Water, Energy and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) research initiative of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Climate Change Program. This research plan describes ongoing and planned research activities at PMRW from 1984 to 1994. Since 1984, PMRW has been studied as a geochemical process research site under the U.S. Acid Precipitation Thrust Program. Research conducted under this Thrust Program focused on the estimation of dry atmospheric deposition, short-term temporal variability of streamwater chemistry, sulfate adsorption characteristics of the soils, groundwater chemistry, throughfall chemistry, and streamwater quality. The Acid Precipitation Thrust Program continues (1993) to support data collection and a water-quality laboratory. Proposed research to be supported by the WEBB program is organized in 3 interrelated categories: streamflow generation and water-quality evolution, weathering and geochemical evolution, and regulation of soil-water chemistry. Proposed research on streamflow generation and water-quality evolution will focus on subsurface water movement, its influence in streamflow generation, and the associated chemical changes of the water that take place along its flowpath. Proposed research on weathering and geochemical evolution will identify the sources of cations observed in the streamwater at Panola Mountain and quantify the changes in cation source during storms. Proposed research on regulation of soil-water chemistry will focus on the poorly understood processes that regulate soil-water and groundwater chemistry. (USGS)

  9. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Investigation report for the 2010 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Masashi; Sawada, Sumiyuki; Sugita, Yutaka

    2011-09-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is planned to extend over a period 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely 'Phase 1: Surface-based investigations', 'Phase 2: Construction Phase' (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and 'Phase 3: Operation phase' (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the results of the investigations for the 2010 fiscal year (2010/2011). The investigations, which are composed of 'Geoscientific research' and 'R and D on geological disposal technology', were carried out according to 'Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Program for the 2010 Fiscal year'. The results of these investigations, along with the results which were obtained in other departments of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), are properly offered to the implementations and the safety regulations. For the sake of this, JAEA has proceeded with the project in collaboration with experts from domestic and overseas research organisations. (author)

  10. Addressing the stimulant treatment gap: A call to investigate the therapeutic benefits potential of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Gallassi, Andrea; Malcher-Lopes, Renato; van den Brink, Wim; Wood, Evan

    2015-12-01

    Crack-cocaine use is prevalent in numerous countries, yet concentrated primarily - largely within urban contexts - in the Northern and Southern regions of the Americas. It is associated with a variety of behavioral, physical and mental health and social problems which gravely affect users and their environments. Few evidence-based treatments for crack-cocaine use exist and are available to users in the reality of street drug use. Numerous pharmacological treatments have been investigated but with largely disappointing results. An important therapeutic potential for crack-cocaine use may rest in cannabinoids, which have recently seen a general resurgence for varied possible therapeutic usages for different neurological diseases. Distinct potential therapeutic benefits for crack-cocaine use and common related adverse symptoms may come specifically from cannabidiol (CBD) - one of the numerous cannabinoid components found in cannabis - with its demonstrated anxiolytic, anti-psychotic, anti-convulsant effects and potential benefits for sleep and appetite problems. The possible therapeutic prospects of cannabinoids are corroborated by observational studies from different contexts documenting crack-cocaine users' 'self-medication' efforts towards coping with crack-cocaine-related problems, including withdrawal and craving, impulsivity and paranoia. Cannabinoid therapeutics offer further benefits of being available in multiple formulations, are low in adverse risk potential, and may easily be offered in community-based settings which may add to their feasibility as interventions for - predominantly marginalized - crack-cocaine user populations. Supported by the dearth of current therapeutic options for crack-cocaine use, we are advocating for the implementation of a rigorous research program investigating the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use. Given the high prevalence of this grave substance use problem in the Americas, opportunities for

  11. Why do pregnant women participate in research? A patient participation investigation using Q-Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshaka, Riwa; Jeffares, Stephen; Sadrudin, Farah; Huisman, Nicole; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2017-04-01

    Patient participation in study design is paramount to design studies that are acceptable to patients. Despite an increase in research involving pregnant women, relatively little is known about the motivational factors that govern their decision to be involved in a clinical trial, compared to other patient groups. To better understand the viewpoints of pregnant women who take part in clinical trials. We chose to use Q-Methodology, a method of exploring the structure of opinions surrounding a topic. We developed a set of 40 statements that encompassed the reasons why pregnant women might want to take part in research and 30 research participants from the PRiDE study (an observational trial investigating the role of micronutrients in gestational diabetes) were asked to rank them in order of agreement. The finished matrices from each participant were compared and analysed to produce capturing viewpoints. About 30 women aged 19-40 involved in the PRiDE study completed the questionnaire. There were two overarching motivators that emerged: a willingness to help medical research and improve our knowledge of medical science, and having a personal connection to the disease, therefore a potential fear of being affected by it. A third, less significant viewpoint, was that of a lack of inconvenience being a motivating factor. Understanding what motivates pregnant women to decide to take part in a research study is valuable and helps researchers maximize their uptake and retention rates when designing a trial involving pregnant women. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Synthesis, bioactivity and zeta potential investigations of chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahami, Abbas; Beall, Gary W; Betancourt, Tania

    2016-02-01

    Chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatites (HA-Cl-F) with different degrees of ion replacement were successfully prepared by the one step mechanochemical activation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectra indicated that substitution of these anions in milled powders resulted in the formation of pure hydroxyapatite phase except for the small observed change in the lattice parameters and unit cell volumes of the resultant hydroxyapatite. Microscopic observations showed that the milled product had a cluster-like structure made up of polygonal and spherical particles with an average particle size of approximately ranged from 20±5 to 70±5nm. The zeta potential of milled samples was performed at three different pH (5, 7.4, and 9). The obtained zeta potential values were negative for all three pH values. Negative zeta potential was described to favor osseointegration, apatite nucleation, and bone regeneration. The bioactivity of samples was investigated on sintered pellets soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and apatite crystals formed on the surface of the pellets after being incubated for 14days. Zeta potential analysis and bioactivity experiment suggested that HA-Cl-F will lead to the formation of new apatite particles and therefore be a potential implant material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of potential factors affecting the measurement of dew point temperature in oil-soaked transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Adam H.

    Moisture within a transformer's insulation system has been proven to degrade its dielectric strength. When installing a transformer in situ, one method used to calculate the moisture content of the transformer insulation is to measure the dew point temperature of the internal gas volume of the transformer tank. There are two instruments commercially available that are designed for dew point temperature measurement: the Alnor Model 7000 Dewpointer and the Vaisala DRYCAPRTM Hand-Held Dewpoint Meter DM70. Although these instruments perform an identical task, the design technology behind each instrument is vastly different. When the Alnor Dewpointer and Vaisala DM70 instruments are used to measure the dew point of the internal gas volume simultaneously from a pressurized transformer, their differences in dew point measurement have been observed to vary as much as 30 °F. There is minimal scientific research available that focuses on the process of measuring dew point of a gas inside a pressurized transformer, let alone this observed phenomenon. The primary objective of this work was to determine what effect certain factors potentially have on dew point measurements of a transformer's internal gas volume, in hopes of understanding the root cause of this phenomenon. Three factors that were studied include (1) human error, (2) the use of calibrated and out-of-calibration instruments, and (3) the presence of oil vapor gases in the dry air sample, and their subsequent effects on the Q-value of the sampled gas. After completing this portion of testing, none of the selected variables proved to be a direct cause of the observed discrepancies between the two instruments. The secondary objective was to validate the accuracy of each instrument as compared to its respective published range by testing against a known dew point temperature produced by a humidity generator. In a select operating range of -22 °F to -4 °F, both instruments were found to be accurate and within their

  14. Biomethane potential of industrial paper wastes and investigation of the methanogenic communities involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Andreas; Silberberger, Sandra; Juárez, Marina Fernández-Delgado; Insam, Heribert; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose-containing waste products from the agricultural or industrial sector are potentially one of the largest sources of renewable energy on earth. In this study, the biomethane potential (BMP) of two types of industrial paper wastes, wood and pulp residues (WR and PR, respectively), were evaluated under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, and various pretreatment methods were applied in the attempt to increase the methane potential during anaerobic digestion. The methanogenic community composition was investigated with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the ANAEROCHIP microarray, and dominant methanogens were quantitated using quantitative PCR. All pretreatments investigated in this study with the exception of the alkaline pretreatment of PR were found to increase the BMP of two paper industry wastes. However, the low recalcitrance level of the PR resulted in the pretreatments being less effective in increasing BMP when compared with those for WR. These results were supported by the physico-chemical data. A combined application of ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatment was found to be the best strategy for increasing methane yields. The retention time of substrates in the reactors strongly influenced the BMP of wastes subjected to the different pretreatments. In sludges from both paper wastes subjected to the various pretreatments, mixotrophic Methanosarcina species were found to dominate the community, accompanied by a consortium of hydrogenotrophic genera. Pretreating industrial paper wastes could be a potentially viable option for increasing the overall degradation efficiency and decreasing reactor retention time for the digestion of complex organic matter such as lignocellulose or hemicellulose. This would help reduce the environmental burden generated from paper production. Although there were minor differences in the methanogenic communities depending on the temperature of anaerobic digestion, there was little effect of substrate

  15. Experimental investigation to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, Marco; Salluzzo, Antonio; Rimauro, Juri; Schiavo, Simona; Manzo, Sonia

    2016-04-05

    Recently the potential environmental hazard of photovoltaic modules together with their management as waste has attracted the attention of scientists. Particular concern is aroused by the several metals contained in photovoltaic panels whose potential release in the environment were scarcely investigated. Here, for the first time, the potential environmental hazard of panels produced in the last 30 years was investigated through the assessment of up to 18 releasable metals. Besides, the corresponding ecotoxicological effects were also evaluated. Experimental data were compared with the current European and Italian law limits for drinking water, discharge on soil and landfill inert disposal in order to understand the actual pollution load. Results showed that less than 3% of the samples respected all law limits and around 21% was not ecotoxic. By considering the technological evolutions in manufacturing, we have shown that during the years crystalline silicon panels have lower tendency to release hazardous metals with respect to thin film panels. In addition, a prediction of the amounts of lead, chromium, cadmium and nickel releasable from next photovoltaic waste was performed. The prevision up to 2050 showed high amounts of lead (30t) and cadmium (2.9t) releasable from crystalline and thin film panels respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  17. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Properties of Electrospun Nanofibers for Potential Medical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer based nanofibers using ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH were fabricated by electrospinning technology. The nanofibers were studied for potential use as dressing materials for skin wounds treatment. Properties closely related to the clinical requirements for wound dressing were investigated, including the fluid uptake ability (FUA, the water vapour transmission rate (WVTR, the bacteria control ability of nanofibers encapsulated with different antibacterial drugs, and Ag of various concentrations. Nanofibre degradation under different environmental conditions was also studied for the prospect of long term usage. The finding confirms the potential of EVOH nanofibers for wound dressing application, including the superior performance compared to cotton gauze and the strong germ killing capacity when Ag particles are present in the nanofibers.

  19. Child's play : investigating the exposure potential of environmental contaminants in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.C.; Dowling, K.; Waldron, H.; Garnett, D.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic and chromium have been identified as soil contaminants from smelting, industrial and mining activities. The potential for human uptake of these elements from soil has been established with highest concentrations found in children, who are particularly susceptible to environmental exposure. This study explores the exposure potential of selected soil trace elements in rural Victoria, Australia, by investigating the relationship between uptake, measured using toenail clippings as the biomarker of exposure, and soil concentrations in two communities: one near current and historic gold mining, the other an agricultural community. We report the preliminary findings of a cross-sectional survey, in which toenail clippings were obtained from 12 children in the former community, and 16 children in the latter. (author). 26 refs., 3 tabs

  20. An investigation of the potential uses of iodine monochloride as a titrant in thermometric titrimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, L S; Grime, J K

    An investigation has been made of the potential uses of iodine monochloride as a titrant in thermometric titrimetry. A series of substances, inorganic and organic, has been selected so that a range of stoichiometries and of various types of reaction products result from the oxidation. It has been found to be necessary to prevent the formation of iodine formed by oxidation of the iodide produced by the reduction of iodine monochloride. This is successfully accomplished by using mercury(II) to mask the iodide in a mercury(II)-iodide complex. However, the evolution of gaseous products tends to give curvature of the enthalpogram near the equivalence point and the method is not recommended for the determination of compounds such as thiosemicarbazide. For many other systems, iodine monochloride used in the presence of mercury(II) has analytical potential as a thermometric titrant.

  1. An Investigation of the Potential Antifungal Properties of CNC-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehrbach, Angelina M D; Rogers, Alexandra R; Tarr, D Ellen K

    2017-12-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans responds to infections by upregulating specific antimicrobial peptides. The caenacin-2 ( cnc-2 ) gene is consistently upregulated in C. elegans by infection with the filamentous fungus Drechmeria coniospora , but there have been no direct studies of the CNC-2 peptide's in vivo or in vitro role in defending the nematode against this pathogen. We compared infection of wild-type and cnc-2 knockout nematode strains with four potential pathogens: D. coniospora , Candida albicans , Staphylococcus aureus , and Bacillus subtilis . There was no significant difference in survival between strains for any of the pathogens or on the maintenance strain of Escherichia coli . While we were unable to demonstrate definitively that CNC-2 is integral to fungal defenses in C. elegans , we identified possible explanations for these results as well as future work that is needed to investigate CNC-2's potential as a new antifungal treatment.

  2. Investigation of the maximum load alleviation potential using trailing edge flaps controlled by inflow data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2014-01-01

    The maximum fatigue load reduction potential when using trailing edge flaps on mega-watt wind turbines was explored. For this purpose an ideal feed forward control algorithm using the relative velocity and angle of attack at the blade to control the loads was implemented. The algorithm was applied...... to time series from computations with the aeroelastic code HAWC2 and to measured time series. The fatigue loads could be reduced by 36% in the computations if the in flow sensor was at the same position as the blade load. The decrease of the load reduction potential when the sensor was at a distance from...... the blade load location was investigated. When the algorithm was applied to measured time series a load reduction of 23% was achieved which is still promissing, but significantly lower than the value achieved in computations....

  3. An Investigation of EME as a Potential Cause of Fuel Tank Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Beck, Fred B.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA researchers were tasked to study the potential for radio signals to excite an aircraft fuel quantity indication system (FQIS) enough to cause arcing, sparking or excessive heating within a fuel tank. Computational techniques were used to determine the threat from external high intensity radiated field (HIRF) transmitters nearby, like shipboard and airborne RADAR systems. Experimental methods were used to determine the threat from Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) carried aboard by passengers. To support this work, unique electromagnetic coupling measurements were performed on a retired Boeing 747 aircraft, and new test and analysis methods were developed that may be applied to other FQIS designs as well as other aircraft electronic systems.

  4. Experimental investigation to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of photovoltaic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammaro, Marco, E-mail: marco.tammaro@enea.it [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Centre of Research of Portici Naples (Italy); Salluzzo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.salluzzo@enea.it [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Centre of Research of Portici Naples (Italy); Rimauro, Juri, E-mail: juri.rimauro@enea.it [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Centre of Research of Portici Naples (Italy); Schiavo, Simona, E-mail: simona.schiavo@unina.it [University “Federico II” of Naples Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Manzo, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.manzo@enea.it [ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Centre of Research of Portici Naples (Italy)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • We measure the metals released in the leaching solution by samples of PV panels. • We measure the environmental effects by a battery of ecotoxicological tests. • The experimental data are compared with the European and Italian benchmark limits. • We assess the potential emissions of metals from future PV waste. • Experimental results show that the photovoltaic panels present an environmental risk. - Abstract: Recently the potential environmental hazard of photovoltaic modules together with their management as waste has attracted the attention of scientists. Particular concern is aroused by the several metals contained in photovoltaic panels whose potential release in the environment were scarcely investigated. Here, for the first time, the potential environmental hazard of panels produced in the last 30 years was investigated through the assessment of up to 18 releasable metals. Besides, the corresponding ecotoxicological effects were also evaluated. Experimental data were compared with the current European and Italian law limits for drinking water, discharge on soil and landfill inert disposal in order to understand the actual pollution load. Results showed that less than 3% of the samples respected all law limits and around 21% was not ecotoxic. By considering the technological evolutions in manufacturing, we have shown that during the years crystalline silicon panels have lower tendency to release hazardous metals with respect to thin film panels. In addition, a prediction of the amounts of lead, chromium, cadmium and nickel releasable from next photovoltaic waste was performed. The prevision up to 2050 showed high amounts of lead (30 t) and cadmium (2.9 t) releasable from crystalline and thin film panels respectively.

  5. Research-Based Teacher Education? Exploring the Meaning Potentials of Swedish Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvunger, Daniel; Wahlström, Ninni

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we explore the meaning potentials of teacher education in terms of the significance of a research-based approach and the different pedagogic identities that such an approach implies. The study's aim is to examine the important factors for education to be considered research-based and to identify and analyse the research base of…

  6. Model based investigation of the potential lactate recovery using Electro-Enhanced Dialysis - Static analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    The competitive ion transport through anion exchange membranes under current load conditions, referred to as the electro-enhanced dialysis process, is modeled and investigated through simulations. A dynamic model has been developed for simultaneous transport of multiple ions based on the Nernst......–Plank equation. This model accounts for the convective transport of the dissociated and undissociated species in the module channels, and the diffusion and migration across the boundary layers and membranes. The potential static flux enhancement is evaluated and compared to Donnan dialysis operation for lactate...

  7. The Analysis of the Potential Environmental Benefits by Investigating the Hedonistic Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Gradinaru

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumers get some usefulness from the attributes of heterogeneous products and they adjust their acquisitions as a response to the existing differences. Producers or vendors confront with varying prices depending on the scale of attributes provided. A plan for balancing the prices is developed as a consequence of the market interaction between the consumers and suppliers (by analogy it happens in the case of the interaction between employees and employers on the labour market. Taking into consideration the late concepts regarding hedonistic price, the article presents a way of analysis of potential benefits that environment may offer to human communities by hedonistic price investigation, using regression as instrument.

  8. International Field Research with Undergraduate Students: Investigating Active Tectonics of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. S.; Gardner, T. W.; Protti, M.

    2005-12-01

    Over the past eight years, 18 undergraduate students from 12 U.S. and Costa Rican universities and colleges have participated in field research projects investigating coastal tectonics on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. These projects have been organized around two different models: 1) a month-long "field camp" with 10 students and 5 project faculty (Keck Geology Consortium Project, 1998), and 2) several two-week field projects with 1-3 students and one faculty advisor (Cal Poly Pomona University and Trinity University). Under the direction of the authors, each of these projects has been carefully designed to provide a new piece to a larger research puzzle. The Nicoya Peninsula lies along Costa Rica's northern Pacific coast inboard of the Middle America Trench where the Cocos and Caribbean plates converge at 10 cm/yr. In 1950, the peninsula was shaken by a ~M 7.7 subduction earthquake that produced widespread damage and 0.5-1.0 m of coseismic coastal uplift. With a large slip deficit since 1950, the Nicoya Peninsula is viewed as a high-potential seismic gap. Field study of uplifted Quaternary marine terraces along the Nicoya coastline provides undergraduate students with a unique opportunity to examine rapid forearc deformation related to large subduction earthquakes. The field research conducted by each of these students provides the basis for a senior thesis at their home institution. In most cases, the students have focused their individual work on separate, but adjacent field areas. Collectively, each of these projects has generated significant data that contribute toward of an ongoing investigation of fore arc tectonics and subduction cycle earthquakes along the Costa Rican Pacific margin.

  9. Doing Interdisciplinary Mixed Methods Health Care Research: Working the Boundaries, Tensions, and Synergistic Potential of Team-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2016-04-01

    Current trends in health care research point to a shift from disciplinary models to interdisciplinary team-based mixed methods inquiry designs. This keynote address discusses the problems and prospects of creating vibrant mixed methods health care interdisciplinary research teams that can harness their potential synergy that holds the promise of addressing complex health care issues. We examine the range of factors and issues these types of research teams need to consider to facilitate efficient interdisciplinary mixed methods team-based research. It is argued that concepts such as disciplinary comfort zones, a lack of attention to team dynamics, and low levels of reflexivity among interdisciplinary team members can inhibit the effectiveness of a research team. This keynote suggests a set of effective strategies to address the issues that emanate from the new field of research inquiry known as team science as well as lessons learned from tapping into research on organizational dynamics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Synthesis, bioactivity and zeta potential investigations of chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahami, Abbas; Beall, Gary W.; Betancourt, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatites (HA-Cl–F) with different degrees of ion replacement were successfully prepared by the one step mechanochemical activation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectra indicated that substitution of these anions in milled powders resulted in the formation of pure hydroxyapatite phase except for the small observed change in the lattice parameters and unit cell volumes of the resultant hydroxyapatite. Microscopic observations showed that the milled product had a cluster-like structure made up of polygonal and spherical particles with an average particle size of approximately ranged from 20 ± 5 to 70 ± 5 nm. The zeta potential of milled samples was performed at three different pH (5, 7.4, and 9). The obtained zeta potential values were negative for all three pH values. Negative zeta potential was described to favor osseointegration, apatite nucleation, and bone regeneration. The bioactivity of samples was investigated on sintered pellets soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and apatite crystals formed on the surface of the pellets after being incubated for 14 days. Zeta potential analysis and bioactivity experiment suggested that HA-Cl–F will lead to the formation of new apatite particles and therefore be a potential implant material. - Highlights: • Cl"− and F"− substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by mechanochemical process. • Structural features were influenced strongly by incorporation of different ions. • Microscopic observations showed a mean particle size of around 20 ± 5 to 70 ± 5 nm. • The bioactivity properties indicated that apatite was successfully formed.

  11. Synthesis, bioactivity and zeta potential investigations of chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahami, Abbas, E-mail: fahami@txstate.edu [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Beall, Gary W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Betancourt, Tania [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization Program, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatites (HA-Cl–F) with different degrees of ion replacement were successfully prepared by the one step mechanochemical activation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectra indicated that substitution of these anions in milled powders resulted in the formation of pure hydroxyapatite phase except for the small observed change in the lattice parameters and unit cell volumes of the resultant hydroxyapatite. Microscopic observations showed that the milled product had a cluster-like structure made up of polygonal and spherical particles with an average particle size of approximately ranged from 20 ± 5 to 70 ± 5 nm. The zeta potential of milled samples was performed at three different pH (5, 7.4, and 9). The obtained zeta potential values were negative for all three pH values. Negative zeta potential was described to favor osseointegration, apatite nucleation, and bone regeneration. The bioactivity of samples was investigated on sintered pellets soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and apatite crystals formed on the surface of the pellets after being incubated for 14 days. Zeta potential analysis and bioactivity experiment suggested that HA-Cl–F will lead to the formation of new apatite particles and therefore be a potential implant material. - Highlights: • Cl{sup −} and F{sup −} substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by mechanochemical process. • Structural features were influenced strongly by incorporation of different ions. • Microscopic observations showed a mean particle size of around 20 ± 5 to 70 ± 5 nm. • The bioactivity properties indicated that apatite was successfully formed.

  12. Perspectives on Open Access Opportunities for IS Research Publication: Potential Benefits for Researchers, Educators, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woszczynski, Amy B.; Whitman, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Access to current research materials, pedagogical best practices, and relevant knowledge has become problematic as journal subscription costs have increased. Increasing delays in the traditional publication timeline, coupled with high subscription costs, have resulted in a diminished ability for IS faculty and their students to access the most…

  13. Investigations on potential bacteria for the bioremediation treatment of environments contaminated with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, I.; Voicu, A.; Dobrota, S.; Stefanescu, M. [Institute of Biology of Romanian Academy, Bucharest (Romania)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    In Romania after more than 135 years of oil production and processing, some severe environmental pollution problems have accumulated. In this context a joint research group from Institute of Biology Bucharest and S.C. Petrostar S.A. Ploiesti became involved in a research project on bioremediation of an environment contaminated with hydrocarbon waste. In the first stage of this project, investigations on microbial communities occurring in environments contaminated with oil were carried out. In the second stage, the hundreds of bacterial strains and populations isolated from soils, slops, and water sites contaminated with waste oil and water waste oil mix were submitted to a screening program, to select a naturally occurring mixed culture with a high ability to degrade hydrocarbons.

  14. Investigation of the groundwater composition at potential radioactive waste disposal sites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikberg, P.T.

    1984-02-01

    Within an investigation program of sites suitable for an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel the groundwater has been characterized. Until now seven areas have been investigated. The groundwater has been pumped up from several isolated sections at depth of 100 m to 600 m in boreholes in each area. Each test section has been pumped continuously for at least two weeks. During the pumping period the water was characterized in the field and sampled for later analysis. Most of the characterized waters are non saline and the concentration of the different constituents varies within a rather narrow interval. Saline waters with much higher concentrations of chloride, sulphate, sodium and calcium have been encountered. The groundwater characterization includes field monitoring of the physico-chemical parameters pH, redox potential, free sulphide concentration, dissolved oxygen concentration and conductivity. These parameters are measured in a flow through cell where the water passes before coming in contact with the air. The redox potential measurements have been successful. A new equipment for measurements in the sampling section has been constructed. Preliminary tests have given very promising results

  15. School Holiday Food Provision in the UK: A Qualitative Investigation of Needs, Benefits, and Potential for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Pamela Louise; Crilley, Eilish; Stretesky, Paul B; Long, Michael A; Palmer, Katie Jane; Steinbock, Eileen; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2016-01-01

    Access to an adequate supply of nutritious food has been recognized as a basic human right. However, many families across the UK face food insecurity, which is thought to be exacerbated during school holidays. To address this issue, some schools and community groups have chosen to roll out holiday clubs, though research into the effectiveness of such interventions is limited and no studies to date have evaluated holiday clubs being organized through schools. In an effort to address some of the limitations in the research literature, the current qualitative investigation utilized semi-structured interviews with staff involved in holiday clubs in school and community venues with the aim of gaging their views on the need for and benefits of holiday food provision in addition to potential areas for development. The investigation revealed that staff perceived many families to be facing food insecurity and isolation during the school holidays, which may be alleviated through holiday club provision. Holiday clubs were viewed as a valuable source of support for children and adults, providing food, activities, and learning experiences. Staff were keen to see them implemented on a wider scale in future but suggested some areas that require attention in any future development of such provision. Findings are discussed in relation to current research, policy, and practice surrounding the health and wellbeing of children and families.

  16. School holiday food provision in the UK: A qualitative investigation of needs, benefits and potential for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Louise Graham

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to an adequate supply of nutritious food has been recognized as a basic human right. However, many families across the UK face food insecurity, which is thought to be exacerbated during school holidays. To address this issue, some schools and community groups have chosen to roll out holiday clubs, though research into the effectiveness of such interventions is limited and no studies to date have evaluated holiday clubs being organized through schools. In an effort to address some of the limitations in the research literature, the current qualitative investigation utilized semi-structured interviews with staff involved in holiday clubs in school and community venues with the aim of gauging their views on the need for and benefits of holiday food provision in addition to potential areas for development. The investigation revealed that staff perceived many families to be facing food insecurity and isolation during the school holidays, which may be alleviated through holiday club provision. Holiday clubs were viewed as a valuable source of support for children and adults, providing food, activities and learning experiences. Staff were keen to see them implemented on a wider scale in future but suggested some areas that require attention in any future development of such provision. Findings are discussed in relation to current research, policy and practice surrounding the health and wellbeing of children and families.

  17. Investigating the Utilization of Research Evidence in the 4-H Youth Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette H. Bikos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acquisition, interpretation, and utilization of research evidence in the 4-H Youth Development Program from the frame of Social Cognitive Theory. Utilizing Consensual Qualitative Research, we interviewed twenty 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers from seven states. Results indicated four domains, which covered participants’ definitions of research utilization, their experiences utilizing research, the process of acquiring and distributing research, and barriers and facilitators to research utilization. Participants described research use primarily in terms of improving 4-H programs. They discussed their level of confidence (i.e. self-efficacy in finding and applying research evidence and their beliefs about the outcomes of research utilization (i.e. outcomes expectancy. Participants mentioned such barriers as not knowing where to look for research, lack of time, lack of funding, and difficulty applying research findings to their work. The facilitators included support from other 4-H colleagues and availability of 4-H specific conferences, publications, and curriculum databases.

  18. Genotoxic and teratogenic potential of marine sediment extracts investigated with comet assay and zebrafish test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammann, Ulrike; Biselli, Scarlett; Huehnerfuss, Heinrich; Reineke, Ninja; Theobald, Norbert; Vobach, Michael; Wosniok, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Organic extracts of marine sediments from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea were investigated with two toxicity assays. The comet assay based on the fish cell line Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) was applied to determine the genotoxic potential; zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were used to quantify the teratogenic potential of the samples. EC 50 values were calculated from dose-response curves for both test systems. Highest teratogenic and genotoxic effects normalised to total organic carbon (TOC) content were detected in sediment samples of different origins. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are not likely to be the causes of the observed effects, as demonstrated by a two-step fractionation procedure of selected extracts. The toxic potential was more pronounced in fractions having polarity higher than those possessed by PAHs and PCBs. The suitability of the two in vitro test systems for assessing genotoxic and teratogenic effects of marine sediment extracts could be demonstrated. - Capsule: In vitro toxicity assays are used to assess genotoxic and teratogenic effects of environmental extracts

  19. Investigating the potential use of environmental DNA (eDNA for genetic monitoring of marine mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Foote

    Full Text Available The exploitation of non-invasive samples has been widely used in genetic monitoring of terrestrial species. In aquatic ecosystems, non-invasive samples such as feces, shed hair or skin, are less accessible. However, the use of environmental DNA (eDNA has recently been shown to be an effective tool for genetic monitoring of species presence in freshwater ecosystems. Detecting species in the marine environment using eDNA potentially offers a greater challenge due to the greater dilution, amount of mixing and salinity compared with most freshwater ecosystems. To determine the potential use of eDNA for genetic monitoring we used specific primers that amplify short mitochondrial DNA sequences to detect the presence of a marine mammal, the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, in a controlled environment and in natural marine locations. The reliability of the genetic detections was investigated by comparing with detections of harbor porpoise echolocation clicks by static acoustic monitoring devices. While we were able to consistently genetically detect the target species under controlled conditions, the results from natural locations were less consistent and detection by eDNA was less successful than acoustic detections. However, at one site we detected long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, a species rarely sighted in the Baltic. Therefore, with optimization aimed towards processing larger volumes of seawater this method has the potential to compliment current visual and acoustic methods of species detection of marine mammals.

  20. Potential Investigation of Linking PROSAIL with the Ross-Li BRDF Model for Vegetation Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods that link different models for investigating the retrieval of canopy biophysical/structural variables have been substantially adopted in the remote sensing community. To retrieve global biophysical parameters from multiangle data, the kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF model has been widely applied to satellite multiangle observations to model (interpolate/extrapolate the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF in an arbitrary direction of viewing and solar geometries. Such modeled BRFs, as an essential information source, are then input into an inversion procedure that is devised through a large number of simulation analyses from some widely used physical models that can generalize such an inversion relationship between the BRFs (or their simple algebraic composite and the biophysical/structural parameter. Therefore, evaluation of such a link between physical models and kernel-driven models contributes to the development of such inversion procedures to accurately retrieve vegetation properties, particularly based on the operational global BRDF parameters derived from satellite multiangle observations (e.g., MODIS. In this study, the main objective is to investigate the potential for linking a popular physical model (PROSAIL with the widely used kernel-driven Ross-Li models. To do this, the BRFs and albedo are generated by the physical PROSAIL in a forward model, and then the simulated BRFs are input into the kernel-driven BRDF model for retrieval of the BRFs and albedo in the same viewing and solar geometries. To further strengthen such an investigation, a variety of field-measured multiangle reflectances have also been used to investigate the potential for linking these two models. For simulated BRFs generated by the PROSAIL model at 659 and 865 nm, the two models are generally comparable to each other, and the resultant root mean square errors (RMSEs are 0.0092 and 0.0355, respectively, although some

  1. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Investigation program for the 2008 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Masashi; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Sugita, Yutaka

    2008-09-01

    As part of the research and development program on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the Horonobe Underground Research Center, a division of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is implementing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (Horonobe URL Project) with the aim at investigating sedimentary rock formations. According to the research plan described in the Midterm Plan of JAEA, geological investigations are to be carried out during the drilling of a shaft down to intermediate depth, while research and development in the areas of engineering technology and safety assessment are to be promoted by collaboration with other research organizations. The results of the R and D activities will be systematized as a 'knowledge base' that supports a wide range of arguments related to the safety of geological disposal. The Horonobe URL Project is planned to extend over a period of 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely 'Phase 1: Surface-based investigations', 'Phase 2: Construction phase' (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and 'Phase 3: Operation phase' (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2008 fiscal year (2008/2009), the 4th year of the Phase 2 investigations. In the 2008 fiscal year, investigations in geoscientific research', including 'development of techniques for investigating the geological environment', 'development of techniques for long-term monitoring of the geological environment', 'development of engineering techniques for use in the deep underground environment' and studies on the long-term stability of the geological environment', are continuously carried out. Investigations in 'research and development on geological disposal technology', including 'improving the reliability of disposal technologies' and 'enhancement of safety assessment methodologies', are also continuously carried out

  2. Investigation and Development of Control Laws for the NASA Langley Research Center Cockpit Motion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Craig R.; Cardullo, Frank M.; Zaychik, Kirill B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop highly advanced simulators is a critical need that has the ability to significantly impact the aerospace industry. The aerospace industry is advancing at an ever increasing pace and flight simulators must match this development with ever increasing urgency. In order to address both current problems and potential advancements with flight simulator techniques, several aspects of current control law technology of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) motion base simulator were examined. Preliminary investigation of linear models based upon hardware data were examined to ensure that the most accurate models are used. This research identified both system improvements in the bandwidth and more reliable linear models. Advancements in the compensator design were developed and verified through multiple techniques. The position error rate feedback, the acceleration feedback and the force feedback were all analyzed in the heave direction using the nonlinear model of the hardware. Improvements were made using the position error rate feedback technique. The acceleration feedback compensator also provided noteworthy improvement, while attempts at implementing a force feedback compensator proved unsuccessful.

  3. Investigating the potential of thermophilic species for ethanol production from industrial spent sulfite liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Weissgram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic microorganisms hold a great potential for bioethanol production on waste biomass, due to their ability to utilize pentoses and hexoses alike. However, to date hardly any data on thermophiles growing directly on industrial substrates like spent sulfite liquor (SSL are available. This contribution investigates the ability of Thermoanaerobacter species to utilize the main sugars in the used SSL (mannose, glucose and xylose and the effect of process parameters (pH, temperature and sugar concentration on their growth. Based on these results the strain T. mathranii was chosen for further studies. The ability of T. mathranii to grow directly on SSL was investigated and the effect of several inhibiting substances on growth was elucidated. Furthermore it was tested whether pretreatment with activated charcoal can increase the fermentability of SSL. The fermentations were evaluated based on yields and specific rates. It could be shown that T. mathranii was able to ferment all sugars in the investigated softwood SSL and fermented diluted, untreated SSL (up to 2.7% (w/w dry matter. Pretreatment with activated charcoal could slightly reduce the amount of phenols in the substrate and thus facilitate growth and ethanol production on higher SSL concentrations (up to 4.7% (w/v dry matter. Ethanol yields of 0.29-0.44 Cmmol of ethanol per Cmmol sugar were obtained on untreated and pretreated spent sulfite liquor, respectively. These results on an industrial substrate strengthen the claim that thermophilic microorganisms might be the optimal candidates for forest biorefinery.

  4. Constructing a Local Potential Participant Registry to Improve Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Research Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Joshua D; Hoang, Dan; Gillen, Daniel L; Cox, Chelsea G; Gombosev, Adrijana; Klein, Kirsten; O'Leary, Steve; Witbracht, Megan; Pierce, Aimee

    2018-01-01

    Potential participant registries are tools to address the challenge of slow recruitment to clinical research. In particular, registries may aid recruitment to secondary prevention clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which enroll cognitively normal older individuals meeting specific genetic or biomarker criteria. Evidence of registry effectiveness is sparse, as is guidance on optimal designs or methods of conduct. We report our experiences of developing a novel local potential participant registry that implemented online enrollment and data collection. In the first year of operation, 957 individuals submitted email addresses to the registry, of whom 592 self-reported demographic, family history, and medical data. In addition, registrants provided information related to their interest and willingness to be contacted about studies. Local earned media and community education were the most effective methods of recruitment into the registry. Seventy-six (26%) of 298 registrants contacted about studies in the first year enrolled in those studies. One hundred twenty-nine registrants were invited to enroll in a preclinical AD trial, of whom 25 (18%) screened and 6 were randomized. These results indicate that registries can aid recruitment and provide needed guidance for investigators initiating new local registries.

  5. Evaluation of dynamic message signs and their potential impact on traffic flow : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research was to understand the potential impact of DMS messages on traffic : flow and evaluate their accuracy, timeliness, relevance and usefulness. Additionally, Bluetooth : sensors were used to track and analyze the diversion ...

  6. Investigation on flavonoid composition and anti free radical potential of Sida cordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Ahmad, Bushra; Noureen, Farah; Rashid, Umbreen; Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2013-10-22

    Sida cordata, a member of Family Malvaceae is used in folk medicine for various ailments including liver diseases. In this study we investigated, its flavonoid constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against different free radicals and hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rat. Dried powder of S. cordata whole plant was extracted with methanol and the resultant (SCME) obtained was fractionated with escalating polarity to obtain n-hexane fraction (SCHE), ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE), n-butanol fraction (SCBE) and the remaining soluble portion as aqueous fraction (SCAE). Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions. On account of marked scavenging activity SCEE was selected to investigate the hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley male rats by assessing the level of serum markers (alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, and γ-glutamyltransferase) and of liver antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-S-transfers (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Histology of the liver was performed to study alteration in histoarchitecture. Existence of active flavonoids was established by thin layer chromatographic studies. Considerable amount of flavonoid and phenolic contents were recorded in the methanol extract and its derived fractions. Although the extract and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities however, the most distinguished scavenging potential was observed for SCEE. Treatment of SCEE decreased the elevated level of serum

  7. Research Capacity at Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Centers in China: A Survey of Clinical Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Han, Mei; Lai, Lily; Wang, Si-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Background. The development of an evidence-based approach to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which depends on the generation of good quality evidence, requires an adequate workforce. However, the research capacity of TCM investigators is not known. Study Design. This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the research capacity of TCM clinical investigators in China. Participants. A total of 584 participants from TCM hospitals and research centers were included. They were asked about the academic and research characteristics, needs for research capacity building, and barriers to clinical research. Results. The majority (80.82%) were qualified to at least a Master's degree, whilst a smaller proportion (40.24%) held a senior professional title. We found that academic outputs were low with the majority (62.16%) authoring less than five publications in total. The most pressing needs for building research capacity identified were training in research methodology (97.43%) and identification of research questions (86.81%), whilst the highest ranking barriers to conducting research were limited motivation, funding (40.72%), and time (37.15%). Conclusion. The methodology training, along with investment in the research workforce, needs to be urgently addressed to improve investigators' research capacity and the development of an evidence-based approach of TCM.

  8. Research ethics across the 49th parallel: the potential value of pilot testing "equivalent protections" in Canadian research institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, James V; McDonald, Michael; Meslin, Eric M

    2005-01-01

    Canada and the United States share the world's largest trade partnership and an increasing concern about divergent regulatory approaches to common industries. Canadian research institutes receive more research funding from the U.S. National Institutes of Health than any other country, much of it to fund multi-centre and collaborative research between the two countries. Because of these close economic and research ties, and the extensive similarities between the two countries in the review and oversight of ethics in human subjects research, we propose that Canada would be an ideal country for a pilot-test of the feasibility of "equivalent protections," a U.S. regulation that permits comparison of protections for human subjects between institutions in the two countries. The "equivalent protections" has been advocated by various bodies in the United States as a potentially beneficial mechanism for improving oversight of foreign trials. As well, we argue that "equivalent protections" could prove to be valuable for Canada in five specific ways: (1) by potentially reducing administrative burden on Canadian research institutions administering U.S. federal research funding; (2) by creating symbolic value of an explicit recognition by the United States that procedures normally followed for the protection of human subjects in Canadian research institutions are at least equivalent to those provided by the U.S. regulations; (3) by lowering the opportunity cost of investing in research in Canada; (4) by affording Canada an opportunity to enhance its leadership role in international research by offering an alternative to the U.S. regulatory model for the protection of human subjects; and (5) by providing a model for how the idea of equivalent protections might be addressed for research funded by Canadian agencies but conducted in other countries.

  9. Potential human factors research relating to modern technology in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchel, J.; Fink, R.; Hanes, L.; Williges, R.; Williges, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses proposed human factors research to address advanced human-machine interface technology in nuclear power plants. It relates to a current EPRI project to identify a prioritized list of specific research issues that could be assessed to improve control room and other user interface areas. The project seeks to bridge the gap between the functional requirements of advanced design initiatives and the human factors research needed to support them. It seeks to identify potential benefits to be expected, as well as potential problems that might be introduced by advanced technology. It provides an organized approach to identifying human factors research needs, information already available, and measures of performance and effectiveness that might be used to assess the value of potential improvements. Those parts of the proposed plan that are subsequently approved by EPRI management and by the utility advisory committee will provide a basis for recommending research priorities

  10. Object and Facial Recognition in Augmented and Virtual Reality: Investigation into Software, Hardware and Potential Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erin

    2017-01-01

    As augmented and virtual reality grows in popularity, and more researchers focus on its development, other fields of technology have grown in the hopes of integrating with the up-and-coming hardware currently on the market. Namely, there has been a focus on how to make an intuitive, hands-free human-computer interaction (HCI) utilizing AR and VR that allows users to control their technology with little to no physical interaction with hardware. Computer vision, which is utilized in devices such as the Microsoft Kinect, webcams and other similar hardware has shown potential in assisting with the development of a HCI system that requires next to no human interaction with computing hardware and software. Object and facial recognition are two subsets of computer vision, both of which can be applied to HCI systems in the fields of medicine, security, industrial development and other similar areas.

  11. Preliminary investigation of the potential of harnessing tidal energy for electricity generation in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.S.; Seng, L.Y. [Tunku Abdul Rahman Univ. (Malaysia). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Malaysia relies heavily on fossil fuels to meet its energy demands. However, Malaysia has started to explore the use of other forms of renewable energy such as solar energy, biofuels and tidal power. This paper focused on the potential of harnessing tidal energy in Malaysia for electricity production. There are several sites with great potential for tidal energy conversion, which could supplement the energy needs of Malaysia while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Illustrations were included to show the amplitude of the main harmonic component of the tidal range around Malaysia. The main harmonic component found in the region has a maximum amplitude of 1.4 m, confirming the potential of tidal energy in Malaysia's Ocean. Since the tidal cycle is highly predictable, it has the potential to be a very reliable renewable energy source. Two main approaches are being researched internationally to harness the energy from tides, notably the barrage approach and the tidal stream approach. For the barrage approach, a physical barrier is created within the sea, and a sluice gate controls the flow of sea water. In the tidal stream approach, horizontal axis turbines are placed in the path of tidal currents to generate electricity, similar to the operation of wind turbines. This paper described the flow velocity, power output, availability of power supply and monthly yield of turbines using both the barrage and tidal stream approaches. The study showed that for the barrage approach, there are 6 sites in Malaysia where 14,970 kWH of energy can be generated monthly with a single turbine with a 5 m long blade. The tidal stream approach showed equally promising results at 2 sites. It was concluded that tidal energy is a promising form of renewable energy because of its cyclic, reliable and predictable nature and the vast energy contained within it. According to United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry, 10 per cent of the United Kingdom's electricity needs could be

  12. Pharmacoinformatics approach for investigation of alternative potential hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5B inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza MU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Usman Mirza,1 Noor-Ul-Huda Ghori,2 Nazia Ikram,3 Abdur Rehman Adil,4 Sadia Manzoor3 1Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine (CRiMM, The University of Lahore, Lahore, 2Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, 3Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan; 4Centre for Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB, The University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the major viruses affecting the world today. It is a highly variable virus, having a rapid reproduction and evolution rate. The variability of genomes is due to hasty replication catalyzed by nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B which is also a potential target site for the development of anti-HCV agents. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration approved sofosbuvir as a novel oral NS5B inhibitor for the treatment of HCV. Unfortunately, it is much highlighted for its pricing issues. Hence, there is an urgent need to scrutinize alternate therapies against HCV that are available at affordable price and do not have associated side effects. Such a need is crucial especially in underdeveloped countries. The search for various new bioactive compounds from plants is a key part of pharmaceutical research. In the current study, we applied a pharmacoinformatics-based approach for the identification of active plant-derived compounds against NS5B. The results were compared to docking results of sofosbuvir. The lead compounds with high-binding ligands were further analyzed for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters based on in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET profile. The results showed the potential alternative lead compounds that can be developed into commercial drugs having high binding energy and promising ADMET properties. Keywords: hepatitis C, NS5B inhibitors, molecular docking, Auto

  13. Investigation of the load reduction potential of two trailing edge flap controls using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Joachim Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    ) and subjected to a turbulent inflow signal. The employed airfoil model corresponds to a successfully tested prototype airfoil where piezoelectric actuators were used for the flapping. In the present investigation two possible control methods for the flap are compared in their ability to reduce the fluctuating......In this work, a 2D aero‐servo‐elastic model of an airfoil section with 3 degrees of freedom (DOF) based on the 2D CFD solver EllipSys2D to calculate the aerodynamic forces is utilized to calculate the load reduction potential of an airfoil equipped with an adaptive trailing edge flap (ATEF...... normal forces on the airfoil due to a 4 s turbulent inflow signal and the best location of the measurement point for the respective control input is determined. While Control 1 uses the measurements of a Pitot tube mounted in front of the leading edge (LE) as input, Control 2 uses the pressure difference...

  14. Investigation of human body potential measured by a non-contact measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Norimitsu

    2016-12-07

    A human body is occasionally electrified in a room. This charged object will be a source of electrostatic accidents, including the malfunction of electronic equipment. Hence, prevention of these accidents is required. Accidents occasionally occur, even though antistatic clothes and shoes are used. One of the causes for these accidents is that there is a lack of the preventive measures. This situation occurs when using, for example, unconductive wax. In this study, human body potential (voltage) is measured using a non-contact measuring system. An investigation of the human body's voltage when using this system is conducted. The result demonstrates that the voltage of a human body wearing antistatic clothes and shoes or light clothes and slippers exceeds a malfunctioning voltage of a microelectronics device when the body walks on floors. Thus, accidents may occur even if a human body wearing the antistatic clothes walks on flooring. These results will be useful in estimating determination whether electrostatic accidents occur or not.

  15. Synthesis and computer-aided structural investigation of potentially photochromic spirooxazines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.

    2000-03-01

    Quantum mechanical methods, PPP-MO and ZINDO, were used to predict the electronic spectra of the ring-opened forms and ring-closed forms respectively of a series of spirooxazines. Molecular mechanics was used to optimise the molecular geometry and to calculate the molecular final energy (steric energy) using the MM2 force field method. An all-valence-electron quantum mechanical method was employed to calculate the heats of formation using AM1 parameters, and the data were used to provide a measure of the stability of the molecules. This computer-aided structural investigation has provided an enhanced understanding of the spirooxazine system and methods with the potential to predict photochromic behaviour have emerged. The synthesis of a series of heterocyclic analogues of the well-known spironaphthoxazines based on quinolines, coumarin and pyrazolones were attempted. The properties of the compounds obtained were correlated with the results of the calculations. (author)

  16. Investigation of potential extreme load reduction for a two-bladed upwind turbine with partial pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Larsen, Torben J.; Yde, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a wind turbine concept with an innovative design combining partial pitch with a two-bladed (PP-2B) turbine configuration. Special emphasis is on extreme load reduction during storm situations at standstill, but operational loads are also investigated. In order to compare...... loads are reduced by approximately 20% for the PP-2B and 18% for the PP-3B compared with the 3B turbine for the parked condition in a storm situation. Moreover, a huge potential of 60% is observed for the reduction of the extreme tower bottom bending moment for the PP-2B turbine, when the wind direction...... is from ±90° to the turbine, but this also requires that the turbine is parked in a T-configuration. © 2014 The Authors. Wind Energy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  17. Rib biomechanical properties exhibit diagnostic potential for accurate ageing in forensic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicelli, Andrea; Xhemali, Bledar; Kranioti, Elena F.

    2017-01-01

    Age estimation remains one of the most challenging tasks in forensic practice when establishing a biological profile of unknown skeletonised remains. Morphological methods based on developmental markers of bones can provide accurate age estimates at a young age, but become highly unreliable for ages over 35 when all developmental markers disappear. This study explores the changes in the biomechanical properties of bone tissue and matrix, which continue to change with age even after skeletal maturity, and their potential value for age estimation. As a proof of concept we investigated the relationship of 28 variables at the macroscopic and microscopic level in rib autopsy samples from 24 individuals. Stepwise regression analysis produced a number of equations one of which with seven variables showed an R2 = 0.949; a mean residual error of 2.13 yrs ±0.4 (SD) and a maximum residual error value of 2.88 yrs. For forensic purposes, by using only bench top machines in tests which can be carried out within 36 hrs, a set of just 3 variables produced an equation with an R2 = 0.902 a mean residual error of 3.38 yrs ±2.6 (SD) and a maximum observed residual error 9.26yrs. This method outstrips all existing age-at-death methods based on ribs, thus providing a novel lab based accurate tool in the forensic investigation of human remains. The present application is optimised for fresh (uncompromised by taphonomic conditions) remains, but the potential of the principle and method is vast once the trends of the biomechanical variables are established for other environmental conditions and circumstances. PMID:28520764

  18. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  19. Investigating 'Egusi' (citrullus colocynthis l.) seed oil as potential biodiesel feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giwa, S.; Adam, N. M. [Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA)/Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, L. Ch. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia); Laboratory of Biopolymer and Derivatives, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel's acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 {sup o}C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME) yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm{sup 2}/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study. (author)

  20. Investigating “Egusi” (Citrullus Colocynthis L. Seed Oil as Potential Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Giwa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel’s acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 °C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm2/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study.

  1. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey's continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  2. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed.

  3. Supplementary guidance for the investigation and risk-assessment of potentially contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K.; Spadaro, P.; Starr, J.; Thomas, J. [Arcadis, Arnhem (Netherlands); Hildenbrand, B. [Energy Institute, London (United Kingdom); Smith, J.W.N.; Dunk, M.; Grosjean, T.; De Ibarra, M.; Medve, A.; Den Haan, K.

    2013-11-15

    This report provides guidance on the investigation and assessment of potentially contaminated sediments, focusing on the inland, estuarine and coastal environments. It is designed as a complementary, technical companion document to Energy Institute and CONCAWE (2013) report 'Guidance on characterising, assessing and managing risks associated with potentially contaminated sediments' (Report E1001). It highlights a number of significant challenges associated with assessing the aquatic and water bottom environment, which means that a sediment assessment should not be undertaken lightly. Where a decision is taken to undertake a site assessment, this report promotes the use of an iterative process of Conceptual Site Model (CSM) development, data collection, data evaluation and a continuous CSM refinement, taking into account the results obtained. Risk-based assessment is described throughout the report, entailing four tiers of assessment, which progress from a qualitative assessment (Tier 0) through to a detailed cause-attribution assessment (Tier 3), in which the decrease in uncertainty in the assessment process is balanced against the increased costs and timescales with progress to a higher tier assessment. The application of this evidence-driven risk-based approach to sediment site management, including remedial control measures, should help to overcome at least some of the challenges associated with contaminants in sediment sites in Europe, and promote a sustainable approach to sediment management on a case-by-case basis.

  4. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Investigation report for the 2007 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Masashi; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Yutaka

    2008-09-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is planned to extend over a period of 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely 'Phase 1: Surface-based investigations', 'Phase 2: Construction Phase' (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and 'Phase 3: Operation phase' (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the results of the investigations for the 2007 fiscal year (2007/2008), the 3rd year of the Phase 2 investigations. The investigations, which are composed of 'Geoscientific research' and 'R and D on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW)', were carried out according to 'Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project Investigation Program for the 2007 Fiscal Year'. The results of these investigations, along with the results which were obtained in other departments of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), are properly offered to the implementations and the safety regulations. JAEA proceeded with the project in collaboration with experts from domestic and overseas research organisation. (author)

  5. The potential of metabolomics for Leishmania research in the post-genomics era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltema, Richard A.; Decuypere, Saskia; T'Kindt, Ruben; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Coombs, Graham H.; Breitling, Rainer; T’Kindt, Ruben

    The post-genomics era has provided researchers with access to a new generation of tools for the global characterization and understanding of pathogen diversity. This review provides a critical summary of published Leishmania post-genomic research efforts to date, and discusses the potential impact

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSpeakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  7. The Transformative Potential of Action Research and ICT in the Second Language (L2) Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farren, Margaret; Crotty, Yvonne; Kilboy, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study shows the transformative potential of action research and information and communications technology (ICT) in the second language (L2) classroom. Two enquiries from teacher-researchers are detailed in the article. Their engagement in a collaborative professional development Masters programme was pivotal in designing and implementing ICT…

  8. Clinical investigation of TROP-2 as an independent biomarker and potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Yu, Hai-Zheng; Cai, Jian-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Colon cancer is associated with a severe demographic and economic burden worldwide. The pathogenesis of colon cancer is highly complex and involves sequential genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Despite extensive investigation, the pathogenesis of colon cancer remains to be elucidated. As the third most common type of cancer worldwide, the treatment options for colon cancer are currently limited. Human trophoblast cell‑surface marker (TROP‑2), is a cell‑surface transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed by several types of epithelial carcinoma. In addition, TROP‑2 has been demonstrated to be associated with tumorigenesis and invasiveness in solid types of tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein expression of TROP‑2 in colon cancer tissues, and further explore the association between the expression of TROP‑2 and clinicopathological features of patients with colon cancer. The expression and localization of the TROP‑2 protein was examined using western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Finally, the expression of TROP‑2 expression was correlated to conventional clinicopathological features of colon cancer using a χ2 test. The results revealed that TROP‑2 protein was expressed at high levels in the colon cancer tissues, which was associated with the development and pathological process of colon cancer. Therefore, TROP‑2 may be used as a biomarker to determine the clinical prognosis, and as a potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  9. Quantifying the potential impact of measurement error in an investigation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Karyn; Newschaffer, Craig; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Bennett, Deborah; Burstyn, Igor

    2014-05-01

    The Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI), an ongoing study of a risk-enriched pregnancy cohort, examines genetic and environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We simulated the potential effects of both measurement error (ME) in exposures and misclassification of ASD-related phenotype (assessed as Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI) scores) on measures of association generated under this study design. We investigated the impact on the power to detect true associations with exposure and the false positive rate (FPR) for a non-causal correlate of exposure (X2, r=0.7) for continuous AOSI score (linear model) versus dichotomised AOSI (logistic regression) when the sample size (n), degree of ME in exposure, and strength of the expected (true) OR (eOR)) between exposure and AOSI varied. Exposure was a continuous variable in all linear models and dichotomised at one SD above the mean in logistic models. Simulations reveal complex patterns and suggest that: (1) There was attenuation of associations that increased with eOR and ME; (2) The FPR was considerable under many scenarios; and (3) The FPR has a complex dependence on the eOR, ME and model choice, but was greater for logistic models. The findings will stimulate work examining cost-effective strategies to reduce the impact of ME in realistic sample sizes and affirm the importance for EARLI of investment in biological samples that help precisely quantify a wide range of environmental exposures.

  10. Methodology optimization and diversification for the investigation of virulence potential in Haemophilus influenzae clinical strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giucă, Mihaela Cristina; Străuţ, Monica; Surdeanu, Maria; Nica, Maria; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Mihăescu, Grigore

    2011-01-01

    Ten Haemophilus influenzae strains were isolated from patients aged between 1.6 - 24 years, with various diagnoses (acute meningitis, acute upper respiratory infection, otitis media and acute sinusitis). Identification was based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics; antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by diffusion method according to CLSI standards 2011 for seven antibiotics. The results of molecular testing showed that all the studied strains produced an amplicon of 1000 bp with ompP2 primers indicating that all strains were H. influenzae. For six strains, the PCR amplicon obtained with bexA specific primers, proving that the strains were capsulated. The results of phenotypic testing showed that four strains were ampicillin nonsusceptible and (beta-lactamase-positive. The virulence potential of H. influenzae clinical strains was investigated by phenotypic methods, including the assessment of the soluble virulence factors on specific media containing the biochemical substratum for the investigated enzymatic factor, as well as the adherence and invasion capacity to HeLa cells monolayer using Cravioto modified method. The studied strains exhibited mainly a diffuse adherence pattern and different adherence indexes. Interestingly, two strains isolated from the same pacient (blood and CSF) showed a different degree of invasiveness, the strain isolated from blood being 20 times more invasive than the one isolated from CSF.

  11. Investigating a Potential Auxin-Related Mode of Hormetic/Inhibitory Action of the Phytotoxin Parthenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G

    2016-01-01

    Parthenin is a metabolite of Parthenium hysterophorus and is believed to contribute to the weed's invasiveness via allelopathy. Despite the potential of parthenin to suppress competitors, low doses stimulate plant growth. This biphasic action was hypothesized to be auxin-like and, therefore, an auxin-related mode of parthenin action was investigated using two approaches: joint action experiments with Lactuca sativa, and dose-response experiments with auxin/antiauxin-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes. The joint action approach comprised binary mixtures of subinhibitory doses of the auxin 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) mixed with parthenin or one of three reference compounds [indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB)]. The reference compounds significantly interacted with IAA at all doses, but parthenin interacted only at low doses indicating that parthenin hormesis may be auxin-related, in contrast to its inhibitory action. The genetic approach investigated the response of four auxin/antiauxin-resistant mutants and a wildtype to parthenin or two reference compounds (IAA, PCIB). The responses of mutant plants to the reference compounds confirmed previous reports, but differed from the responses observed for parthenin. Parthenin stimulated and inhibited all mutants independent of resistance. This provided no indication for an auxin-related action of parthenin. Therefore, the hypothesis of an auxin-related inhibitory action of parthenin was rejected in two independent experimental approaches, while the hypothesis of an auxin-related stimulatory effect could not be rejected.

  12. Clinical investigations of the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca: rationale and regulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2004-05-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that is prominent in the ethnomedicine and shamanism of indigenous Amazonian tribes. Its unique pharmacology depends on the oral activity of the hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which results from inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by beta-carboline alkaloids. MAO is the enzyme that normally degrades DMT in the liver and gut. Ayahuasca has long been integrated into mestizo folk medicine in the northwest Amazon. In Brazil, it is used as a sacrament by several syncretic churches. Some of these organizations have incorporated in the United States. The recreational and religious use of ayahuasca in the United States, as well as "ayahuasca tourism" in the Amazon, is increasing. The current legal status of ayahuasca or its source plants in the United States is unclear, although DMT is a Schedule I controlled substance. One ayahuasca church has received favorable rulings in 2 federal courts in response to its petition to the Department of Justice for the right to use ayahuasca under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. A biomedical study of one of the churches, the Uñiao do Vegetal (UDV), indicated that ayahuasca may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of alcoholism, substance abuse, and possibly other disorders. Clinical studies conducted in Spain have demonstrated that ayahuasca can be used safely in normal healthy adults, but have done little to clarify its potential therapeutic uses. Because of ayahuasca's ill-defined legal status and variable botanical and chemical composition, clinical investigations in the United States, ideally under an approved Investigational New Drug (IND) protocol, are complicated by both regulatory and methodological issues. This article provides an overview of ayahuasca and discusses some of the challenges that must be overcome before it can be clinically investigated in the United States.

  13. Investigation of current university research concerning energy conversion and conservation in small single-family dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G. R.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of university research concerning energy conversion and conservation techniques which may be applied in small single-family residences. Information was accumulated through published papers, progress reports, telephone conversations, and personal interviews. A synopsis of each pertinent investigation is given. Finally, a discussion of the synopses is presented and recommendations are made concerning the applicability of concepts for the design and construction of NASA-Langley Research Center's proposed Technology Utilization House in Hampton, Virginia.

  14. The Role of Ethnographic Interviewing in Climate Change Evaluation Research: Investigating Intended and Unintended program effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloro-Bidart, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ethnographic interviewing is an under-utilized tool in climate change evaluation research, even though it has the potential to serve as a powerful method of data collection. The utility of the ethnographic interview lies in its ability to elicit responses from program participants describing what a program is in practice, shedding light on both intended and unintended program impacts. Drawing on evaluation work involving a federally-funded climate change grant at the University of California, Riverside, I will discuss how to design an ethnographic interview protocol in an effort to share "best practices" with other climate change evaluators. Particular attention will be given to applying ethnographic approaches to various program types, even those differing from the one discussed. I will share some of the concrete findings from my work on this grant, to serve as examples of the kinds of data evaluators can collect when employing an ethnographic approach to interviewing. UC Riverside's climate change grant is multi-faceted, however the component studied ethnographically was a science fair mentoring program. About twenty K-12 students from high poverty, ethnically diverse schools who expressed an interest in participating in science fair were paired up with graduate student mentors to simultaneously research climate change and design authentic science fair projects to compete at various levels. Since one of the stated goals of the grant is to "stimulate…students to consider climate science as a career track through experiential education activities" I was particularly interested in how student experiences with the project might differ from school science which has historically "pushed out" ethnically diverse students like those in many of Riverside's schools. (In the program students are able to interact one-on-one with a mentor and in school settings there is typically one teacher for more than thirty students). I also sought to understand student perceptions of

  15. Investigating the Microbial Degradation Potential in Oil Sands Fluid Fine Tailings Using Gamma Irradiation: A Metagenomic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMensel, Danielle; Chaganti, Subba Rao; Boudens, Ryan; Reid, Thomas; Ciborowski, Jan; Weisener, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Open-pit mining of the Athabasca oil sands has generated large volumes of waste termed fluid fine tailings (FFT), stored in tailings ponds. Accumulation of toxic organic substances in the tailings ponds is one of the biggest concerns. Gamma irradiation (GI) treatment could accelerate the biodegradation of toxic organic substances. Hence, this research investigates the response of the microbial consortia in GI-treated FFT materials with an emphasis on changes in diversity and organism-related stimuli. FFT materials from aged and fresh ponds were used in the study under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Variations in the microbial diversity in GI-treated FFT materials were monitored for 52 weeks and significant stimuli (p tailings biogeochemistry and the impacts of GI treatment on microorganisms as an effect for targeting toxic organics. The outcomes of this study highlight the potential for this approach to accelerate stabilization and reclamation end points. Graphical Abstract.

  16. Research Capacity at Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Centers in China: A Survey of Clinical Investigators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The development of an evidence-based approach to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which depends on the generation of good quality evidence, requires an adequate workforce. However, the research capacity of TCM investigators is not known. Study Design. This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the research capacity of TCM clinical investigators in China. Participants. A total of 584 participants from TCM hospitals and research centers were included. They were asked about the academic and research characteristics, needs for research capacity building, and barriers to clinical research. Results. The majority (80.82% were qualified to at least a Master’s degree, whilst a smaller proportion (40.24% held a senior professional title. We found that academic outputs were low with the majority (62.16% authoring less than five publications in total. The most pressing needs for building research capacity identified were training in research methodology (97.43% and identification of research questions (86.81%, whilst the highest ranking barriers to conducting research were limited motivation, funding (40.72%, and time (37.15%. Conclusion. The methodology training, along with investment in the research workforce, needs to be urgently addressed to improve investigators’ research capacity and the development of an evidence-based approach of TCM.

  17. A multi-technique investigation of copper and zinc distribution, speciation and potential bioavailability in biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.; Ryan, C.G.; Howard, D.L.; Zarcinas, B.; Scheckel, K.G.; McGrath, S.P.; Jonge, M.D. de; Paterson, D.; Naidu, R.; Lombi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of biosolids in agriculture continues to be debated, largely in relation to their metal contents. Our knowledge regarding the speciation and bioavailability of biosolids metals is still far from complete. In this study, a multi-technique approach was used to investigate copper and zinc speciation and partitioning in one contemporary and two historical biosolids used extensively in previous research and field trials. Using wet chemistry and synchrotron spectroscopy techniques it was shown that copper/zinc speciation in the biosolids was largely equivalent despite the biosolids being derived from different countries over a 50 year period. Furthermore, copper speciation was consistently dominated by sorption to organic matter whereas Zn partitioned mainly to iron oxides. These data suggest that the results of historical field trials are still relevant for modern biosolids and that further risk assessment studies should concentrate particularly on Cu as this metal is associated with the mineralisable biosolids fraction. - Highlights: ► Complementary techniques were used to investigate Cu and Zn speciation in biosolids. ► Historic and contemporary biosolids with differing metal contents were examined. ► Similarities in Cu/Zn speciation were observed irrespective of biosolids provenance. ► Key binding environments identified were organic matter for Cu and Fe oxides for Zn. ► Similarities show historic field trial results are still relevant for biosolids management. - Historic and contemporary biosolids show similarities in Cu/Zn speciation despite having very different total Zn/Cu contents.

  18. Views of potential research participants on financial conflicts of interest: barriers and opportunities for effective disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinfurt, Kevin P; Friedman, Joëlle Y; Allsbrook, Jennifer S; Dinan, Michaela A; Hall, Mark A; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2006-09-01

    There is little guidance regarding how to disclose researchers' financial interests to potential research participants. To determine what potential research participants want to know about financial interests, their capacity to understand disclosed information and its implications, and the reactions of potential research participants to a proposed disclosure statement. Sixteen focus groups in 3 cities, including 6 groups of healthy adults, 6 groups of adults with mild chronic illness, 1 group of parents of healthy children, 1 group of parents of children with leukemia or brain tumor, 1 group of adults with heart failure, and 1 group of adults with cancer. Focus group discussions covered a range of topics including financial relationships in clinical research, whether people should be told about them, and how they should be told. Audio-recordings of focus groups were transcribed, verified, and coded for analysis. Participants wanted to know about financial interests, whether or not those interests would affect their participation. However, they varied in their desire and ability to understand the nature and implications of financial interests. Whether disclosure was deemed important depended upon the risk of the research. Trust in clinicians was also related to views regarding disclosure. If given the opportunity to ask questions during the consent process, some participants would not have known what to ask; however, after the focus group sessions, participants could identify information they would want to know. Financial interests are important to potential research participants, but obstacles to effective disclosure exist.

  19. Investigation of Eh, pH and corrosion potential of steel in anoxic groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peat, R.; Brabon, S.; Fennell, P.A.H.; Rance, A.P.; Smart, N.R. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-01

    calibrations and the results of the electrochemical monitoring are presented. The volume of gas produced by corrosion was also measured. The results showed that the Eh value fell rapidly to approximately -400 mV vs NHE when steel wires were added to the test solution and oxygen was gettered from the artificial groundwater. The pH started at a value of approximately 10.4 but stabilised at a value of 9.7. The reasons for the fall in pH need further investigation. The corrosion potential of steel was approximately -620 mV vs NHE in cell 1, but more positive in cell 2. Anaerobic corrosion of steel wires in both cells produced hydrogen. The main conclusions from this work are: It is possible to make measurements of Eh, pH and corrosion potential in the presence of anaerobically corroding steel in artificial Bentonite equilibrated groundwater at 30 C. The presence of corroding steel leads to the rapid local deoxygenation of groundwater and a fall in the redox potential. Calomel electrodes appears to be more reliable than silver-silver chloride reference electrodes for long-term electrochemical measurements in artificial groundwaters. The methods developed during the course of this work could be used to make similar measurements in the presence of dissolved uranium and other actinides.It would then be possible to monitor the environmental conditions while studying the effect of iron corrosion products on the oxidation state and solubility of actinides.

  20. Modeling the Skills and Practices of Scientists through an “All-Inclusive” Comparative Planetology Student Research Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige; Bandfield, J.; Stefanov, W.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.

    2013-01-01

    To effectively prepare the nation's future Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce, students in today's classrooms need opportunities to engage in authentic experiences that model skills and practices used by STEM professionals. Relevant, real-world authentic research experiences allow students to behave as scientists as they model the process of science. This enables students to get a true sense of STEM-related professions and also allows them to develop the requisite knowledge, skills, curiosity, and creativity necessary for success in STEM careers. Providing professional development and opportunities to help teachers infuse research in the classroom is one of the primary goals of the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program. EEAB, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is an Earth and planetary science education program designed to inspire, engage, and educate teachers and students in grades 5-12 by getting them actively involved with exploration, discovery, and the process of science. The program combines the expertise of scientists and educators to ensure the professional development provided to classroom teachers is scientifically valid and also recognizes classroom constraints. For many teachers, facilitating research in the classroom can be challenging. In addition to addressing required academic standards and dealing with time constraints, challenges include structuring a research investigation the entire class can successfully complete. To build educator confidence, foster positive classroom research experiences, and enable teachers to help students model the skills and practices of scientists, EEAB has created an "allinclusive" comparative planetology research investigation activity. This activity addresses academic standards while recognizing students (and teachers) potentially lack experience with scientific practices involved in conducting

  1. Modeling the Skills and Practices of Scientists through an 'All-Inclusive' Comparative Planetology Student Research Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Bandfield, J. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2013-12-01

    To effectively prepare the nation's future Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce, students in today's classrooms need opportunities to engage in authentic experiences that model skills and practices used by STEM professionals. Relevant, real-world authentic research experiences allow students to behave as scientists as they model the process of science. This enables students to get a true sense of STEM-related professions and also allows them to develop the requisite knowledge, skills, curiosity, and creativity necessary for success in STEM careers. Providing professional development and opportunities to help teachers infuse research in the classroom is one of the primary goals of the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program. EEAB, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is an Earth and planetary science education program designed to inspire, engage, and educate teachers and students in grades 5-12 by getting them actively involved with exploration, discovery, and the process of science. The program combines the expertise of scientists and educators to ensure the professional development provided to classroom teachers is scientifically valid and also recognizes classroom constraints. For many teachers, facilitating research in the classroom can be challenging. In addition to addressing required academic standards and dealing with time constraints, challenges include structuring a research investigation the entire class can successfully complete. To build educator confidence, foster positive classroom research experiences, and enable teachers to help students model the skills and practices of scientists, EEAB has created an 'all-inclusive' comparative planetology research investigation activity. This activity addresses academic standards while recognizing students (and teachers) potentially lack experience with scientific practices involved in conducting

  2. 59th Medical Wing Clinical Research Division Clinical Investigations Program Pathology Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 1. Your paper, entitled 59th Medical Wing Clinical Research Division Clinical Investigations...Program Pathology Poster presented at/published to For hanging in a hallway of the 591h Medical Wing Clinical Research Division, Bldg 4430 in...Graduate Health Sciences Education student and your department has told you they cannot fund your publication, the 59th Clinical Research Division may

  3. Funding opportunities for clinical investigators in the early stages of career development in cardiovascular research

    OpenAIRE

    Mentz, Robert J.; Becker, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary cardiovascular research offers junior investigators the opportunity to explore the gamut of biomedical questions. Despite the recent reduction in the availability of funding mechanisms that have historically served as the primary pathways for investigators in the early stages of career development, there remain numerous traditional and non-traditional funding opportunities. This article highlights these opportunities in order to assist early career investigators in the developmen...

  4. Promising and Established Investigators' Experiences Participating in the National Athletic Trainers' Association Foundation Research Mentor Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara L; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Barrett, Jessica L

    2017-04-01

      Mentorship is a helpful resource for individuals who transition from doctoral student to tenure-track faculty member. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Research & Education Foundation offers a Research Mentor Program to provide mentorship to promising investigators, particularly as they work to establish independent lines of research.   To gain the perspectives of promising and established investigators on their participation in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program.   Qualitative, phenomenological research.   Higher education institutions.   Seven promising investigators (5 women, 2 men) and 7 established investigators (2 women, 5 men), all of whom had completed the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Data Collection and Analysis We developed and piloted intervi: ew guides designed to gain participants' perspectives on their experiences participating in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Semistructured telephone interviews were completed with each individual and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach, and saturation was obtained. Trustworthiness was established with the use of member checking, multiple-analyst triangulation, and data-source triangulation.   Three themes emerged from the interviews: (1) motivation, (2) collaboration, and (3) resources. Participants were motivated to become involved because they saw the value of mentorship, and mentees desired guidance in their research. Participants believed that collaboration on a project contributed to a positive relationship, and they also desired additional program and professional resources to support novice faculty.   Promising and established investigators should be encouraged to engage in mentoring relationships to facilitate mentees' research agendas and professional development. The NATA Foundation and athletic training profession may consider providing additional resources for novice faculty, such as training on

  5. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-11-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale.

  6. Preparing Social Justice Oriented Teachers: The Potential Role of Action Research in the PDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodman, Stephanie L.; Lai, Kerri; Campet, Melissa; Cavallero-Lotocki, Renee; Hopkins, Aaron; Onidi, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Deliberate investigation into practice is an essential of the National Association for Professional Development Schools' defining elements of a Professional Development School (PDS). This article reports on the pilot efforts of one PDS as it initiated deliberate investigation through action research with a small group of teacher candidates. The…

  7. Engaging First-year University Students in Research: Promise, Potentials, and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Sangster

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the Undergraduate Research Initiative at the University of Saskatchewan implemented a pilot project to organize, support, and promote curriculum-based research experience as an integral aspect of participating first-year courses. The framework for the course-based initiative was the research arc; usually in groups, students in these classes would develop a research question, investigate it using discipline-appropriate methodologies, and disseminate the results. Nine classes (Agriculture, Animal Bioscience, Environmental Science, Women’s and Gender Studies, Psychology, Kinesiology, and Interdisciplinary Studies participated in this program pilot. There were four key agents in the program: faculty instructors, research coaches, students in participating first-year classes, and university administrative staff. This preliminary evaluation of the pilot suggests that first-year undergraduate research experiences have potential to benefit the undergraduate student participants as well as the faculty and research coaches involved. The primary benefits that faculty reported experiencing included an increased interest in ways to engage learners, reexamination of and reflection on their teaching strategies, the pragmatic support of a research coach helping with their work load, and an invigoration of their research. The primary benefits to research coaches included enhancement of their professional skills, experience in lesson planning and facilitation, CV building, and an ideology shift in how to best facilitate learning for undergraduate students. The most prominent benefits for undergraduate students appeared to be that they gained a better idea about how researchers think and work, that they increased their understanding of how research works, and that their own research and professional skills had improved. Early, bottom-up evaluation identified characteristics of implementation that appear to best facilitate achievement of the initiative

  8. A multi-disciplinary investigation of Irish warm springs and their potential for geothermal energy provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Sarah; Jones, Alan G.; Henry, Tiernan

    2015-04-01

    Irish warm springs are one of a set of several target types that are being evaluated for their geothermal energy potential during the course of the island-wide assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland under the IRETHERM project (www.iretherm.ie). Forty-two warm springs and warm shallow groundwater occurrences have been recorded in Ireland; water temperatures in the springs (approx. 12-25 °C) are elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (10-11 °C). This study focuses on warm springs in east-central Ireland found in the Carboniferous limestone of the Dublin Basin. A combination of geophysical methods (controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) and audio-magnetotellurics (AMT)) and hydrochemical analyses (including time-lapse temperature and electrical conductivity measurements) have been utilised at several of the springs to determine the source of the heated waters at depth and the nature of the geological structures that deliver the warm waters to the surface. Using the example of St. Gorman's Well, Co. Meath, we show how the combination of these different methods of investigation and the interpretation of these various data sets enables us to better understand the physical and chemical variability of the spring through time. This will provide the basis for an assessment of the source of these thermal waters as a potential geothermal energy reservoir and will allow for more precise characterisation of the groundwater resource. We present subsurface models derived from new geophysical data collected at St. Gorman's Well in 2013. This high-resolution AMT survey consisted of a grid of 40 soundings recorded at approximately 200 m intervals centred on the spring. The aim of the survey was to image directly any (electrically conductive) fluid conduit systems that may be associated with the springs and to provide an understanding of the observed association of the Irish warm springs with major structural lineaments, such as the NE

  9. Investigation of toxigenic potential of fungal species by the use of simple screening method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential for the biosynthesis of aflatoxin B1 (AFLB1, ochratoxin A (OTA, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, T-2 toxin (T2, and zearalenone (ZON was investigated in different fungal species belonging to the genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. The majority of investigated isolates originated from cereal grains, crushed oil soybean seed and fodder mixtures. The simple screening method developed by Filtenborg et al. (1983 was applied with few modifications concerning the type of the medium and cultivation temperature. In order to optimise the biosynthetic conditions for different mycotoxins, the following control cultures, known as mycotin producers were used: OTA - A. ochraceus CBS 108.08, DAS - F. semitectum (SL-B i SL-C, T2 - F. sporotrichioides (ITM-391, M-1-1, R-2301 and ZON - F. graminearum (GZ-LES. The fungi were cultivated on the standard medium (YESA - 2% yeast extract, 15% sucrose and 2% agar, pH 6.5, three modifications of the basic medium (YESAZn - the standard medium supplemented with 0.23 mg/l ZnSO4 x 5 H2O; PPSA - the medium in which yeast extract was replaced with peptone-1; PPSAZn - the medium in which yeast extract was replaced with peptone-1 and supplemented with 0.23 mg/l ZnSO4 x 5 H2O, and the potato-dextrose agar (PDA. The earlier biosynthesis of tested mycotoxins was recorded under the following cultivation conditions of fungal species: AFLB1 - after 14 days on PDA at 27±1°C, OTA - after 10 days on YESA and YESAZn at 27±1°C, DAS - after 10 days on PPSA and PPSAZn at 27±1°C, T2 - after 7 days on PPSAZn and PPSA at room temperature (20-24°C, and ZON - after 1 week on YESA and YESAZn at room temperature (21-24°C.

  10. Preliminary biocompatibility investigation of magnetic albumin nanosphere designed as a potential versatile drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevanato L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Luciana Estevanato1, Débora Cintra1, Nayara Baldini1, Flávia Portilho1, Luzirlane Barbosa1, Olímpia Martins2, Bruno Lacava3, Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela1, Antônio Cláudio Tedesco2, Sônia Báo1, Paulo C Morais4, Zulmira GM Lacava11Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 2Departamento de Química, Laboratório de Fotobiologia e Fotomedicina, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, 3Instituto de Química, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, 4Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, BrazilBackground: The magnetic albumin nanosphere (MAN, encapsulating maghemite nanoparticles, was designed as a magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS able to perform a variety of biomedical applications. It is noteworthy that MAN was efficient in treating Ehrlich's tumors by the magnetohyperthermia procedure.Methods and materials: In this study, several nanotoxicity tests were systematically carried out in mice from 30 minutes until 30 days after MAN injection to investigate their biocompatibility status. Cytometry analysis, viability tests, micronucleus assay, and histological analysis were performed.Results: Cytometry analysis and viability tests revealed MAN promotes only slight and temporary alterations in the frequency of both leukocyte populations and viable peritoneal cells, respectively. Micronucleus assay showed absolutely no genotoxicity or cytotoxicity effects and histological analysis showed no alterations or even nanoparticle clusters in several investigated organs but, interestingly, revealed the presence of MAN clusters in the central nervous system (CNS.Conclusion: The results showed that MAN has desirable in vivo biocompatibility, presenting potential for use as a MDDS, especially in CNS disease therapy.Keywords: nanotoxicity, nanoparticle, genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, brain

  11. Investigation of the potential of fogwater harvesting in the Western Mountainous parts of the Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noman, A.A.; Al-Jailani, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Yemen is located in an arid to semi-arid region. Rainfall rates range from none at certain parts of the country to about 400 mm/yr in its mountainous parts. Rainfall has been harvested and collected in cisterns existed in the mountainous region for generations. In the dry season (October-February) and after the stored water is consumed, people mainly women and children have to travel long distances down wadis to fetch water from the nearest water source which is often not suitable for human consumption. This is the case in the western mountainous region, namely Hajja Governorate, which heavily depends on rain water for drinking, animal watering, domestic uses and irrigation. However, during the dry season this region experiences foggy conditions. This has prompted conducting a fog collection field study in this region to investigate the potential of providing an alternative source for water supply during the dry season. The study consisted of installing 26 standard fog collectors (SFC) of one m2 of polypropylene mesh at 19 sites in Hajja and measuring the daily fog water amounts collected during the period from 1 January to 31 March, 2003. The results indicated that fog collectors located closest to the red sea with an elevation ranged between 2000-2200 meters above sea level and winds from the west direction have produced the highest water output, reaching a maximum of about 4.5 liters per square meter of mesh per day over the three winter months period. The conclusion drawn is that though this technique is cheap, simple and promising, more investigations are still needed on the various parameters contributing to fog collection, such as, relative humidity, temperature and SFCs technologies. (author)

  12. Potential research money available from the Acid Deposition Program and Alberta Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primus, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    It is exceedingly difficult to demonstrate definitive long-term changes in animal health as a result of acid-forming emissions from sour gas wells. A summary is presented of current research in Alberta, followed by the potential for research funding by the Alberta Government/Industry Acid Deposition Program (ADRP). The Alberta Environment research budget consists of four programs in addition to the ADRP: acid deposition effects research in the Athabasca oil sands; western and northern Canada long-range transport of air pollutants; departmental monitoring; and inhalation toxicology and animal health. Animal health research, although a component of the acid deposition issue, is beyond the mandate of Alberta Environment, and the ADRP members committee does not forsee becoming involved in the long-term and complex research required to address the effects of acid-forming emissions on livestock. Funds for additional animal health research must come from other government departments and agencies whose mandate covers this area

  13. Investigating Behavioral and Psychophysiological Reactions to Conflict-Related and Individualized Stimuli as Potential Correlates of Repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kessler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which “unbearable” mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation. Due to its complex and highly individual nature, repression has been notoriously difficult to investigate. We investigated repression with an individualized experiment in healthy subjects in order to establish methods to study repression in clinical populations. To this end we operationalized repression using individualized experimental conditions, and then studied potential behavioral [memory and reaction time (RT] and psychophysiological correlates [skin conductance response (SCR].Method: Twenty-nine healthy female subjects were asked to freely associate to individualized cue sentences. Sentences were generated from individual psychodynamic interviews based on operationlized psychodynamic diagnosis (OPD, and were comprised of three different types: positive, negative non-conflictual, and negative conflict-related sentences. Subjects were asked to name the first three associations coming into their mind. Afterward, the remaining time was used for free association. SCR during each association trial and RT of the first given association were recorded. The memory for the first three associations was subsequently tested in an unexpected recall.Results: Associations to conflict-related cue sentences were associated with longer RTs and increased SCRs. Moreover, the unexpected recall task showed memory for these associations to be reduced.Conclusion: We interpret these findings as possible correlates of

  14. Investigating Behavioral and Psychophysiological Reactions to Conflict-Related and Individualized Stimuli as Potential Correlates of Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Henrik; Schmidt, Anna Christine; Hildenbrand, Oliver; Scharf, Daniela; Kehyayan, Aram; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2017-01-01

    Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which "unbearable" mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts) are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation. Due to its complex and highly individual nature, repression has been notoriously difficult to investigate. We investigated repression with an individualized experiment in healthy subjects in order to establish methods to study repression in clinical populations. To this end we operationalized repression using individualized experimental conditions, and then studied potential behavioral [memory and reaction time (RT)] and psychophysiological correlates [skin conductance response (SCR)]. Method: Twenty-nine healthy female subjects were asked to freely associate to individualized cue sentences. Sentences were generated from individual psychodynamic interviews based on operationlized psychodynamic diagnosis (OPD), and were comprised of three different types: positive, negative non-conflictual, and negative conflict-related sentences. Subjects were asked to name the first three associations coming into their mind. Afterward, the remaining time was used for free association. SCR during each association trial and RT of the first given association were recorded. The memory for the first three associations was subsequently tested in an unexpected recall. Results: Associations to conflict-related cue sentences were associated with longer RTs and increased SCRs. Moreover, the unexpected recall task showed memory for these associations to be reduced. Conclusion: We interpret these findings as possible correlates of repression, in line

  15. Novel Fluorescent Microemulsion: Probing Properties, Investigating Mechanism, and Unveiling Potential Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mengna; Dang, Leping; Liu, Tiankuo; Guo, Yun; Wang, Zhanzhong

    2017-08-09

    Nanoscale microemulsions have been utilized as delivery carriers for nutraceuticals and active biological drugs. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel oil in water (O/W) fluorescent microemulsion based on isoamyl acetate, polyoxyethylene castor oil EL (CrEL), and water. The microemulsion emitted bright blue fluorescence, thus exhibiting its potential for active drug detection with label-free strategy. The microemulsion exhibited excitation-dependent emission and distinct red shift with longer excitation wavelengths. Lifetime and quantum yield of fluorescent microemulsion were 2.831 ns and 5.0%, respectively. An excellent fluorescent stability of the microemulsion was confirmed by altering pH, ionic strength, temperature, and time. Moreover, we proposed a probable mechanism of fluorochromic phenomenon, in connection with the aromatic ring structure of polyoxyethylene ether substituent in CrEL. Based on our findings, we concluded that this new fluorescent microemulsion is a promising drug carrier that can facilitate active drug detection with a label-free strategy. Although further research is required to understand the exact mechanism behind its fluorescence property, this work provided valuable guidance to develop new biosensors based on fluorescent microemulsion.

  16. [Investigation of potential toxic factors for fleece-flower root: from perspective of processing methods evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, He-Rong; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Song, Hai-Bo; Jia, Tian-Zhu; Wang, Jia-Bo; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid growth of reports on fleece-flower root-caused liver damages has drawn wide attention of both at home and abroad, however, there were rare literature on toxicology of fleece-flower root in ancient Chinese medicine. But why there are so many reports on toxicology of fleece-flower root now compared with the ancient literature? As a typical tonic medicine, the clinical utility of fleece-flower root was largely limited by its standardization and reliability of processing methods in ancient Chinese medicine. The ancient processing methods of fleece-flower root emphasized nine times of steaming and nine times of drying, while the modern processes have been simplified into one time of steaming. Whether the differences between ancient and modern processing methods are the potential cause of the increased events of fleece-flower root-caused liver damages. We will make deep analysis and provide new clues and perspectives for the research on its toxicity. This article, therefore, would discuss the affecting factors and key problems in toxicity attenuation of fleece-flower root on the basis of sorting out the processing methods of fleece-flower root in ancient medical books and modern standards, in order to provide the reference for establishing specification for toxicity attenuation of fleece-flower root. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project investigation program for the 2007 fiscal year (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroya; Nakayama, Masashi; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takehiro

    2008-09-01

    As past of the research and development program on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the Horonobe Underground Research Center, a division of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is implementing the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project (Horonobe URL Project) with the aim at investigating sedimentary rock formations. According to the research plan described in the Midterm Plan of JAEA, geological investigations are to be carried out during the drilling of a shaft down to intermediate depth, while research and development in the areas of engineering technology and safety assessment are to be promoted by collaboration with other research organizations. The results of the R and D activities will be systematized as a 'knowledge base' that supports a wide range of arguments related to the safety of geological disposal. The Horonobe URL Project is planned to extend over a period of 20 years. The investigations will be conducted in three phases, namely 'Phase 1: Surface-based investigations', 'Phase 2: Construction phase' (investigations during construction of the underground facilities) and 'Phase 3: Operation phase' (research in the underground facilities). This report summarizes the investigation program for the 2007 fiscal year (2007/2008), the third year of the Phase 2 investigations. In the 2007 fiscal year, investigations in geoscientific research', including 'development of techniques for investigating the geological environment', 'development of techniques for use in the deep underground environment' and 'studies on the long-term stability of the geological environment', is continuously carried out. Investigations in 'research and development on geological disposal technology', including improving the reliability of disposal technologies' and 'enhancement of safety assessment methodologies' are also continuously carried out. Construction of the underground facilities is ongoing at the Ventilation Shaft and the East Shaft

  18. Investigation of the physics potential and detector development for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlerich, Martin

    2010-02-15

    In this thesis, we investigate two rather separate topics - the precision measurement of the Higgs boson mass and of its coupling to the neutral gauge boson Z and the research and development of sensors for BEAMCAL, which is a sub-detector system of the ILC detector. We employ the Higgs-strahlung process for this purpose. A virtual Z boson is created in the e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions, which emits a Higgs-boson while becoming on-shell. Using the so-called recoil technique, we determine the Higgs boson mass by reconstructing the Z boson momentum and using the center-of-mass energy of the colliding leptons. Monte-Carlo studies including a full detector simulation and a full event reconstruction were performed to simulate the impact of a realistic detector model on the precision of the Higgs boson mass and production cross-section measurement. Also, an analytical estimate of the influence of a given detector performance on the Higgs boson mass measurement uncertainty is given. We included a complete sample of background events predicted by the Standard Model, which may have a detector response similar to the signal events. A probabilistic method is used for the signal-background separation. Several other probabilistic methods were used to investigate and improve the measurement of the Higgs-strahlung cross-section and the Higgs boson mass from the recoil mass spectrum obtained after the signal-background separation. For a Higgs boson mass of 120 GeV, a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=250 GeV and an integrated luminosity of L=50 fb{sup -1}, a relative uncertainty of 10 % is obtained for the cross-section measurement, and a precision of 118 MeV for the Higgs boson mass. For a Higgs boson mass of 180 GeV and {radical}(s)=350 GeV, a statistics corresponding to L=50 fb{sup -1} is not sufficient to achieve the necessary significance of the recoil mass peak above the background. The BEAMCAL is a calorimeter in the very forward region, about 3 m away from the nominal

  19. Investigation of the physics potential and detector development for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlerich, Martin

    2010-02-01

    In this thesis, we investigate two rather separate topics - the precision measurement of the Higgs boson mass and of its coupling to the neutral gauge boson Z and the research and development of sensors for BEAMCAL, which is a sub-detector system of the ILC detector. We employ the Higgs-strahlung process for this purpose. A virtual Z boson is created in the e + e - collisions, which emits a Higgs-boson while becoming on-shell. Using the so-called recoil technique, we determine the Higgs boson mass by reconstructing the Z boson momentum and using the center-of-mass energy of the colliding leptons. Monte-Carlo studies including a full detector simulation and a full event reconstruction were performed to simulate the impact of a realistic detector model on the precision of the Higgs boson mass and production cross-section measurement. Also, an analytical estimate of the influence of a given detector performance on the Higgs boson mass measurement uncertainty is given. We included a complete sample of background events predicted by the Standard Model, which may have a detector response similar to the signal events. A probabilistic method is used for the signal-background separation. Several other probabilistic methods were used to investigate and improve the measurement of the Higgs-strahlung cross-section and the Higgs boson mass from the recoil mass spectrum obtained after the signal-background separation. For a Higgs boson mass of 120 GeV, a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=250 GeV and an integrated luminosity of L=50 fb -1 , a relative uncertainty of 10 % is obtained for the cross-section measurement, and a precision of 118 MeV for the Higgs boson mass. For a Higgs boson mass of 180 GeV and √(s)=350 GeV, a statistics corresponding to L=50 fb -1 is not sufficient to achieve the necessary significance of the recoil mass peak above the background. The BEAMCAL is a calorimeter in the very forward region, about 3 m away from the nominal interaction point and

  20. Increasing both the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bio-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Confalonieri, Stefano; Hemenway, David; Scita, Giorgio; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method. Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries. The goal of this study was to design policies to enhance both the public health potential and the work satisfaction and test scientists' attitudes towards these factors. The present survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists. In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug.

  1. An investigation of the potential for in situ bioremediation of oil sands tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D.C.; Costerton, J.W.; Fedorak, P.M.; Mackinnon, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Oil sand tailings water has been shown to be acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. Naphthenic acids have been shown to be the primary source of this toxicity within oil sand tailings waste. The potential for in-situ bioremediation of oil sand tailings was investigated by determining the ability of indigenous bacteria to biodegrade naphthenic acids. A mixed bacterial culture enriched from oil sand tailings was found to be capable of growth on a commercially available naphthenic acid mixture. When sodium naphthenates (30 mg/l) were added to a minimal salts medium and inoculated with the mixed bacterial culture, gas chromatography revealed that many components of the naphthenic acid mixture were biodegraded within eight days of incubation. The same culture was also tested against the naphthenic acid fraction extracted directly from oil sand tailings. The tailings extract was diluted into the minimal salts medium in sealed flasks and inoculated with the enrichment culture. The production of CO 2 indicated microbial mineralization of components within the oil sands extract. Microtox analysis determined that microbial activity resulted in a reduction in the acute toxicity of the tailings extract. 5 refs., 3 figs

  2. ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: AN INVESTIGATION FOR SIX EU CANDIDATE AND POTENTIAL CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Tache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The South Eastern European region (SEE has seen major beneficial transformation in the recent years. Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 became members of the European Union and registered significant economic growth rates. This paper investigates some important factors that influence economic growth in 6 EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia and offers to policy makers in those countries key insights for stimulating the economy. The paper proposes a dynamic growth model which will be developed using the Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation. This model is suited for this type of analysis because of the small T sample and also to cope with missingness. The results indicate that nine out of the fourteen variables were statistically significant. The number of non-resident tourists, the number of passenger cars, the number of children in pre-primary and primary-education are positive factors for economic growth. In contrast, government debt, inflation, all energy imports, railway transportation and primary production of coal and lignite are hindering development.

  3. Food packaged with toys: an investigation on potential obesogenic effects in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Gulati, Achal; Hochdorn, Alexander; Ballali, Simonetta; Paramesh, Haralappa; Kumar, Malathi; Baldi, Ileana

    2014-09-01

    To investigate, in a large pan Indian sample of school children, whether gadgets (toys) added to food increase food consumption, and if contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising is a further promoting factor. A total of 1,680 Indian children were first randomized to food exposure with or without toy and then to a five-level exposure to TV viewing and advertising according to a 2 × 5 full factorial ad libitum eating design study. The sample size was computed to detect a difference of 20 Kcal of caloric intake (assuming the same standard deviation of 20 Kcal in both groups) between "food with gadget" (Toy) and "food alone" (No Toy) groups in each level of the exposure to TV and advertising factor, given an alpha error equal to 0.05 and a power of 0.90. Mean caloric intake both in "Toy" and "No Toy" group was around 223 Kcal. When considering exposure to TV and advertising, mean values varied negligibly between 222 and 225 Kcal. According to linear models for the effect of gadget and exposure to TV and/or advertising on children's intake, no significant adjusted associations were found, neither as main effects nor as interactions. Food consumption by children is not influenced by the presence of added toys, even after adjustment for several potential confounding factors. The city where they live and age significantly influences Indian children's caloric intake.

  4. Investigation of Energy and Environmental Potentials of a Renewable Trigeneration System in a Residential Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chul Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro polygeneration utilizing renewable energy is a suitable approach to reduce energy consumption and carbon emission by offering high-efficiency performance, offsetting the need for centrally-generated grid electricity and avoiding transmission/distribution losses associated with it. This paper investigates the energy and environmental potential of a renewable trigeneration system in a residential application under Incheon (Korea and Ottawa (Canada weather conditions. The trigeneration system consists of a ground-to-air heat exchanger (GAHX, photovoltaic thermal (PVT panels and an air-to-water heat pump (AWHP. The study is performed by simulations in TRNSYS (Version 17.02 environment. The performance of the trigeneration system is compared to a reference conventional system that utilizes a boiler for space and domestic hot water heating and a chiller for space cooling. Simulation results showed substantial annual primary energy savings from the renewable trigeneration system in comparison to the reference system—45% for Incheon and 42% for Ottawa. The CO2eq emission reduction from the renewable trigeneration system is also significant, standing at 43% for Incheon and 82% for Ottawa. Furthermore, trigeneration systems’ capability to generate electricity and thermal energy at the point of use is considered as an attractive option for inclusion in the future smart energy network applications.

  5. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Julia dos Santos; Murta, Michele; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Gil-Santana, Hélcio; Guimarães, Anthony Erico; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-01-01

    In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.

  6. In Silico Investigation of Flavonoids as Potential Trypanosomal Nucleoside Hydrolase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hung Hung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis is endemic to 37 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by two related species of Trypanosoma brucei. Current therapies suffer from resistance and public accessibility of expensive medicines. Finding safer and effective therapies of natural origin is being extensively explored worldwide. Pentamidine is the only available therapy for inhibiting the P2 adenosine transporter involved in the purine salvage pathway of the trypanosomatids. The objective of the present study is to use computational studies for the investigation of the probable trypanocidal mechanism of flavonoids. Docking experiments were carried out on eight flavonoids of varying level of hydroxylation, namely, flavone, 5-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, apigenin, kaempferol, fisetin, and quercetin. Using AutoDock 4.2, these compounds were tested for their affinity towards inosine-adenosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase and the inosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase, the major enzymes of the purine salvage pathway. Our results showed that all of the eight tested flavonoids showed high affinities for both hydrolases (lowest free binding energy ranging from −10.23 to −7.14 kcal/mol. These compounds, especially the hydroxylated derivatives, could be further studied as potential inhibitors of the nucleoside hydrolases.

  7. Investigation of genotoxic potential of various sizes Fe2O3 nanoparticles with comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

    2015-06-01

    In this study, genotoxic potential of <50 nm and <100 nm Fe2O3 nanoparticles were investigated by using Comet Assay. Allium cepa root meristems were exposed with five doses (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 mM of <50 nm for 4 hour and three doses (2.5, 5 (EC50, 10 mM for <100 nm of Fe2O3 nanoparticle for 24 and 96 h. Methyl methanesulfonate -MMS (10 ppm was used as a positive control. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS by Windows, 18.0. It was determined that different doses of <50 nm Fe2O3 nanoparticle have no genotoxic effect of DNA. Different doses of <100 nm Fe2O3 have no genotoxic but only 10 mM dose have genotoxic effect on DNA. When compared <50 nm with <100 nm of Fe2O3 nanoparticle; <50 nm have more effects than <100 nm of Fe2O3 on DNA damage.

  8. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction potential and change in technological selection in Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bansal, Narendra Kumar; Wagner, H.-J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. One of the instruments that have been adopted by many industrial countries is that of the carbon tax. The rate of introducing carbon taxes however, depends upon the local economic conditions and market forces. The case of Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of carbon taxes at four different trajectories. Their implications on the power generation choices have been investigated for a time span of 25 years from the year 2000. In general large hydropower plants have emerged as the first choice followed by wind energy systems. However, cheaper availability of coal in India keeps scope of use of coal based technologies for which pressurised fluidised bed combustion technology has been found to be the balanced choice among fossil technologies. There exists a potential of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by about 25% as compared to the 'business-as-usual' case in presence of high carbon tax rates

  9. The investigation of probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Mongolian dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shiro; Yamasaki, Keiko; Takeshita, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Yukiharu; Tsend-Ayush, Chuluunbat; Dashnyam, Bumbein; Ahhmed, Abdulatef M; Kawahara, Satoshi; Muguruma, Michio

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Mongolian dairy products, and to estimate the probiotic potential of the isolated strains. We collected 66 samples of the traditional Mongolian dairy products tarag (n = 45), airag (n = 7), aaruul (n = 8), byasulag (n = 1) and eezgii (n = 5), from which 543 LAB strains were isolated and identified based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequence. The predominant species of those products were Lactobacillus (L.) delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, L. helveticus, L. fermentum, L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis. However, we could not detect any LAB strains from eezgii. All LAB isolates were screened for tolerance to low pH and to bile acid, gas production from glucose, and adherence to Caco-2 cells. In vitro, we found 10 strains possess probiotic properties, and almost identified them as L. plantarum or L. paracasei subspecies, based on 16S ribosomal DNA and carbohydrate fermentation pattern. These strains were differentiated from each other individually by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Additionally, it was notable that 6/10 strains were isolated from camel milk tarag from the Dornogovi province. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Maximizing the Potential of Longitudinal Cohorts for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Community Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Moody

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wealth of activity across the globe in the area of longitudinal population cohorts, surprisingly little information is available on the natural biomedical history of a number of age-related neurodegenerative diseases (ND, and the scope for intervention studies based on these cohorts is only just beginning to be explored. The Joint Programming Initiative on Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND recently developed a novel funding mechanism to rapidly mobilize scientists to address these issues from a broad, international community perspective. Ten expert Working Groups, bringing together a diverse range of community members and covering a wide ND landscape [Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, frontotemporal degeneration, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lewy-body and vascular dementia] were formed to discuss and propose potential approaches to better exploiting and coordinating cohort studies. The purpose of this work is to highlight the novel funding process along with a broad overview of the guidelines and recommendations generated by the ten groups, which include investigations into multiple methodologies such as cognition/functional assessment, biomarkers and biobanking, imaging, health and social outcomes, and pre-symptomatic ND. All of these were published in reports that are now publicly available online.

  11. A preliminary assessment of the potential for 'team science' in DOE Energy Innovation Hubs and Energy Frontier Research Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Craig; Ponomariov, Branco

    2011-01-01

    President Obama has called for the development of new energy technologies to address our national energy needs and restore US economic competitiveness. In response, the Department of Energy has established new R and D modalities for energy research and development designed to facilitate collaboration across disciplinary, institutional, and sectoral boundaries. In this research note, we provide a preliminary assessment of the potential for essential mechanisms for coordinated problem solving among diverse actors within two new modalities at the DOE: Energy Innovation Hubs and Energy Frontier Research Centers. - Highlights: → Energy Frontier Research Centers may lack the basic mechanisms for coordinating diverse actors. → Divergent goals across diverse actors may hinder coordination in Energy Innovation Hubs. → The implementation of these and similar energy policies require further investigation.

  12. Determination of the Geothermal Potential by Geophysical Investigations in the Karbinci-Tarinci Area, in the Vicinity of Shtip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Goshe; Panovska, Sanja; Delipetrov, Marjan; Dimov, Gjorgji; Jovanovski, Vlatko

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical methods used in the determination of geothermal potential by geophysical investigations in the Karbinci-Tarinci area included as follows: detailed reflective seismic scanning, geomagnetic profiling, geo electric probe and electromagnetic VLF prospecting. The site investigated consists of rocks of Precambrian, Mesozoic (Jurassic), Tertiary (Paleogene Neogene) and Quaternary age. From earlier investigations carried out in the wider vicinity and from investigations carried out by the present authors, one can expect occurrence geothermal water in the area. (Author)

  13. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E; Antiohos, S K; Papadi, C

    2012-06-01

    A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a "very good quality" for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Verbal Learning and Memory in Cannabis and Alcohol Users: An Event-Related Potential Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette L. Smith

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Long-term heavy use of cannabis and alcohol are known to be associated with memory impairments. In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine verbal learning and memory processing in a commonly used behavioral task.Method: We conducted two studies: first, a small pilot study of adolescent males, comprising 13 Drug-Naive Controls (DNC, 12 heavy drinkers (HD and 8 cannabis users (CU. Second, a larger study of young adults, comprising 45 DNC (20 female, 39 HD (16 female, and 20 CU (9 female. In both studies, participants completed a modified verbal learning task (the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RAVLT while brain electrical activity was recorded. ERPs were calculated for words which were subsequently remembered vs. those which were not remembered, and for presentations of learnt words, previously seen words, and new words in a subsequent recognition test. Pre-planned principal components analyses (PCA were used to quantify the ERP components in these recall and recognition phases separately for each study.Results: Memory performance overall was slightly lower than published norms using the standardized RAVLT delivery, but was generally similar and showed the expected changes over trials. Few differences in performance were observed between groups; a notable exception was markedly poorer delayed recall in HD relative to DNC (Study 2. PCA identified components expected from prior research using other memory tasks. At encoding, there were no between-group differences in the usual P2 recall effect (larger for recalled than not-recalled words. However, alcohol-related differences were observed in a larger P540 (indexing recollection in HD than DNC, and cannabis-related differences were observed in a smaller N340 (indexing familiarity and a lack of previously seen > new words effect for P540 in Study 2.Conclusions: This study is the first examination of ERPs in the RAVLT in healthy control participants, as well as substance

  15. Investigating the potential and feasibility of an offshore wind farm in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, Joerg; Antonini, Alessandro; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido; Archetti, Renata; Supino, Enrico; Berretta, Claudia; Casadei, Carlo; Ozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First feasibility study for an offshore wind farm in the Northern Adriatic Sea. • Field wind and wave data collected at the site. • Site-specific design of transition piece and foundation. • Economical and technical feasibility applied to four different scenarios. - Abstract: The use of offshore wind power is becoming increasingly important towards a sustainable growth worldwide. In Italy, as well as in other countries where wind energy is provided only by onshore plants, the interest in the deployment of offshore wind resources is rapidly growing, despite relatively modest average wind speeds, compared to typical wind conditions in the North Sea. Research efforts have, so far, addressed the exploration of the most promising locations, based on wind characteristics; however, more extended evidence of technical and economic feasibility is now needed to raise awareness in the decision makers and secure to this source of renewable energy a proper role in the future energy policies. Within such a context, the paper presents the first feasibility study for the development of an offshore wind farm off the coast of Rimini, in the Northern Adriatic Sea. The study is based on an anemometric campaign started at the site in 2008 to provide a statistical assessment of the wind characteristics and the related wind energy potential, and on a 10-year wave measurement record next to the area, together with a thorough analysis of the site geological and environmental characteristics. Environmental data are interpreted with a proper consideration of the extreme events distribution and relevant results are used to select the most appropriate commercially available wind turbine and to design the site-specific support structure. A comprehensive evaluation of the investment costs and revenues is then carried out with reference to two wind farm layouts (a first smaller, constituted of 15 elements, and another one, featuring up to 60 elements) and in relation to two

  16. The potential for quantitative sociological research on residential energy consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    2013-01-01

    sociological analysis into energy consumption, enabling researchers in Denmark to use information on energy consumption derived from the energy-supply companies. Furthermore, I present a preliminary research design that employs both a quantitative sociological perspective and the newly available data on actual...... energy consumption. The research design contains a descriptive analysis of how energy demand differs between different types of households. In my conclusion, I claim that quantitative sociological research on energy consumption has great potential for obtaining more knowledge on energy consumption......In this paper, I begin with a description of how a sociological perspective can be employed to understand energy consumption while taking into account that energy consumption is embedded in everyday social practices. Next, I describe how newly available data enhances the potential of quantitative...

  17. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Its Associated Urease by Palmatine: Investigation on the Potential Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiang-Tao; Li, Cai-Lan; Tan, Li-Hua; Xu, Yi-Fei; Liu, Yu-Hong; Mo, Zhi-Zhun; Dou, Yao-Xing; Su, Rui; Su, Zi-Ren; Huang, Ping; Xie, Jian-Hui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluated the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and the possible inhibitory effect on its associated urease by Palmatine (Pal) from Coptis chinensis, and explored the potential underlying mechanism. Results indicated that Pal exerted inhibitory effect on four tested H. pylori strains (ATCC 43504, NCTC 26695, SS1 and ICDC 111001) by the agar dilution test with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 100 to 200 μg/mL under neutral environment (pH 7.4), and from 75 to 100 μg/mL under acidic conditions (pH 5.3), respectively. Pal was observed to significantly inhibit both H. pylori urease (HPU) and jack bean urease (JBU) in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 0.53 ± 0.01 mM and 0.03 ± 0.00 mM, respectively, as compared with acetohydroxamic acid, a well-known urease inhibitor (0.07 ± 0.01 mM for HPU and 0.02 ± 0.00 mM for JBU, respectively). Kinetic analyses showed that the type of urease inhibition by Pal was noncompetitive for both HPU and JBU. Higher effectiveness of thiol protectors against urease inhibition than the competitive Ni2+ binding inhibitors was observed, indicating the essential role of the active-site sulfhydryl group in the urease inhibition by Pal. DTT reactivation assay indicated that the inhibition on the two ureases was reversible, further supporting that sulfhydryl group should be obligatory for urease inhibition by Pal. Furthermore, molecular docking study indicated that Pal interacted with the important sulfhydryl groups and inhibited the active enzymatic conformation through N-H ∙ π interaction, but did not interact with the active site Ni2+. Taken together, Pal was an effective inhibitor of H. pylori and its urease targeting the sulfhydryl groups, representing a promising candidate as novel urease inhibitor. This investigation also gave additional scientific support to the use of C. chinensis to treat H. pylori-related gastrointestinal diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. Pal might be

  18. Investigating interactional competencies in Parkinson's disease: the potential benefits of a conversation analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sarah; Barnes, Rebecca; Britten, Nicky; Wilkinson, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Around 70% of people who develop Parkinson's disease (PD) experience speech and voice changes. Clinicians often find that when asked about their primary communication concerns, PD clients will talk about the difficulties they have 'getting into' conversations. This is an important area for clients and it has implications for quality of life and clinical management. To review the extant literature on PD and communication impairments in order to reveal key topic areas, the range of methodologies applied, and any gaps in knowledge relating to PD and social interaction and how these might be usefully addressed. A systematic search of a number of key databases and available grey literatures regarding PD and communication impairment was conducted (including motor speech changes, intelligibility, cognitive/language changes) to obtain a sense of key areas and methodologies applied. Research applying conversation analysis in the field of communication disability was also reviewed to illustrate the value of this methodology in uncovering common interactional difficulties, and in revealing the use of strategic collaborative competencies in naturally occurring conversation. In addition, available speech and language therapy assessment and intervention approaches to PD were examined with a view to their effectiveness in promoting individualized intervention planning and advice-giving for everyday interaction. A great deal has been written about the deficits underpinning communication changes in PD and the impact of communication disability on the self and others as measured in a clinical setting. Less is known about what happens for this client group in everyday conversations outside of the clinic. Current speech and language therapy assessments and interventions focus on the individual and are largely impairment based or focused on compensatory speaker-oriented techniques. A conversation analysis approach would complement basic research on what actually happens in everyday

  19. Structuration theory:reflections on its further potential for management accounting research

    OpenAIRE

    Coad, Alan; Jack, Lisa; Kholeif, Ahmed Othman Rashwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine the potential of strong structuration theory in management accounting research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper explains how the ontological perspective of strong structuration theory extends the work of Giddens and explores how the perspective overcomes a number of the limitations of existing management accounting research based on structuration theory. Findings – Strong structuration theory develops and extends the work of Giddens, providing grea...

  20. Opportunities for Cancer-relevant Innovative Technologies with Transformative Potential | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is seeking input from the community on identifying priorities with regards to supporting innovative technology development for cancer-relevant research. While the NCI provides support for technology development through a variety of mechanisms, it is important to understand whether or not these are sufficient for catalyzing and supporting the development of tools with significant potential for advancing important fields of cancer research or clinical care.

  1. Numerical investigations of the potential for laser focus sensors in micrometrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Jörg; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Manske, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    Laser focus sensors (LFS)1 attached to a scanning nano-positioning and measuring machine (NPMM) enable near diffraction limit resolution with very large measuring areas up to 200 x 200 mm1. Further extensions are planned to address wafer sizes of 8 inch and beyond. Thus, they are preferably suited for micro-metrology on large wafers. On the other hand, the minimum lateral features in state-of-the-art semiconductor industry are as small as a few nanometer and therefore far beyond the resolution limits of classical optics. New techniques such as OCD or ODP3,4 a.k.a. as scatterometry have helped to overcome these constraints considerably. However, scatterometry relies on regular patterns and therefore, the measurements have to be performed on special reference gratings or boxes rather than in-die. Consequently, there is a gap between measurement and the actual structure of interest which becomes more and more an issues with shrinking feature sizes. On the other hand, near-field approaches would also allow to extent the resolution limit greatly5 but they require very challenging controls to keep the working distance small enough to stay within the near field zone. Therefore, the feasibility and the limits of a LFS scanner system have been investigated theoretically. Based on simulations of laser focus sensor scanning across simple topographies, it was found that there is potential to overcome the diffraction limitations to some extent by means of vicinity interference effects caused by the optical interaction of adjacent topography features. We think that it might be well possible to reconstruct the diffracting profile by means of rigorous diffraction simulation based on a thorough model of the laser focus sensor optics in combination with topography diffraction 6 in a similar way as applied in OCD. The difference lies in the kind of signal itself which has to be modeled. While standard OCD is based on spectra, LFS utilizes height scan signals. Simulation results are

  2. Investigation of a Potential Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Nebivolol and Fluvoxamine in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Vlase, Laurian; Popa, Adina; Briciu, Corina; Muntean, Dana; Bocsan, Corina; Buzoianu, Anca; Achim, Marcela; Tomuta, Ioan; Todor, Ioana; Neag, Maria

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether fluvoxamine coadministration can influence the pharmacokinetic properties of nebivolol and its active hydroxylated metabolite (4-OH-nebivolol) and to assess the consequences of this potential pharmacokinetic interaction upon nebivolol pharmacodynamics. This open-label, non-randomized, sequential clinical trial consisted of two periods: Period 1 (Reference), during which each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg nebivolol and Period 2 (Test), when a combination of 5 mg nebivolol and 100 mg fluvoxamine was given to all subjects, after a 6-days pretreatment regimen with fluvoxamine (50-100 mg/day). Non-compartmental analysis was used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of nebivolol and its active metabolite. The pharmacodynamic parameters (blood pressure and heart rate) were assessed at rest after each nebivolol intake, during both study periods. Fluvoxamine pretreatment increased Cmax and AUC0-∞  of nebivolol (Cmax: 1.67 ± 0.690  vs 2.20 ± 0.970  ng/mL; AUC0-∞: 12.1 ± 11.0  vs 19.3 ± 19.5  ng*h/mL ) and of its active metabolite (Cmax: 0.680  ± 0.220  vs 0.960 ± 0.290  ng/mL; AUC0-∞: 17.6 ±20.1  vs 25.5 ± 29.9  ng*h/mL). Apart from Cmax,AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, the other pharmacokinetic parameters (tmax, kel and t½) were not significantly different between study periods. As for the pharmacodynamic analysis, decreases in blood pressure and heart rate after nebivolol administration were similar with and without fluvoxamine concomitant intake. Due to enzymatic inhibition, fluvoxamine increases the exposure to nebivolol and its active hydroxylated metabolite in healthy volunteers. This did not influence the blood pressure and heart-rate lowering effects of the beta-blocker administered as single-dose. However, more detail studies involving actual patients are required to further investigate the clinical relevance of this drug interaction. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For

  3. Development of an investigation method for redox condition of rocks by self potential (SP) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenji; Inohara, Yoshiki; Oyama, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues in subsurface disposal of low level radioactive wastes is that long term behaviors of sedimentary rocks can be affected by geochemical factors. Redox conditions can affect to corrosion of metal included in artificial barrier or wastes and adsorption characteristics of a nuclide. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method for evaluating the redox conditions around natural barrier at waste facilities. In general, geochemical properties are acquired by rock samples or water sampling at a borehole. However, there is a possibility not to acquire data we want to evaluate. If geophysical methods are applied, redox conditions can be evaluated widely and briefly. There is a possibility that self potential (SP) and redox conditions have a correlation. So we have conducted self potential method around test caverns where redox front can be observed at the Rokkasho site. The results demonstrated that self potential decreased around redox front. There was a positive correlation between self potential and pH. One of the factors of self potential change is difference of elevation, however, self potential change around redox front was larger than that expected from elevation difference. Zeta potential is one of the important factors for determination of self potential, and it had a correlation with self potential or pH. Therefore, there is a possibility that self potential change occurs by geochemical condition changes around redox front, and redox condition can be detected by self potential method. (author)

  4. The potential for research-based information in public health: Identifying unrecognised information needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsetlund Louise

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore whether there is a potential for greater use of research-based information in public health practice in a local setting. Secondly, if research-based information is relevant, to explore the extent to which this generates questioning behaviour. Design Qualitative study using focus group discussions, observation and interviews. Setting Public health practices in Norway. Participants 52 public health practitioners. Results In general, the public health practitioners had a positive attitude towards research-based information, but believed that they had few cases requiring this type of information. They did say, however, that there might be a potential for greater use. During five focus groups and six observation days we identified 28 questions/cases where it would have been appropriate to seek out research evidence according to our definition. Three of the public health practitioners identified three of these 28 cases as questions for which research-based information could have been relevant. This gap is interpreted as representing unrecognised information needs. Conclusions There is an unrealised potential in public health practice for more frequent and extensive use of research-based information. The practitioners did not appear to reflect on the need for scientific information when faced with new cases and few questions of this type were generated.

  5. [An Investigation of the Role Responsibilities of Clinical Research Nurses in Conducting Clinical Trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chi-Yin; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Pai, Ya-Ying; Hu, Wen-Yu

    2015-06-01

    Clinical research nurses (CRNs) play an important role in improving the quality of clinical trials. In Taiwan, the increasing number of clinical trials has increased the number of practicing CRNs. Understanding the role responsibilities of CRNs is necessary to promote professionalism in this nursing category. This study investigates the role responsibilities of CRNs in conducting clinical trials / research. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a medical center in Taipei City, Taiwan. Eighty CRNs that were registered to facilitate and conduct clinical trials at this research site completed the survey. "Subject protection" was the CRN role responsibility most recognized by participants, followed by "research coordination and management", "subject clinical care", and "advanced professional nursing". Higher recognition scores were associated with higher importance scores and lower difficulty scores. Participants with trial training had significantly higher difficulty scores for "subject clinical care" and "research coordination and management" than their peers without this training (p research coordination and management" (p clinical practice.

  6. Synthesis of an estradiol glucuronide derivative and investigation of its radiopharmaceutical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biber, F.Z.; Unak, P.; Ertay, T.; Medine, E.I.; Zihnioglu, F.; Tasci, C.; Durak, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to synthesize a derivative of estradiol glucuronide, which is able to be labeled with 99m Tc and to investigate its radiopharmaceutical potential using imaging and biodistribution studies. An estrogen derivative, β-estradiol (1,3,5,[10]-estratriene-3,17β-diol) attached to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was synthesized in six steps. At the end of these steps a compound of estradiol and DTPA derivative called deoxy demethyl homoestradiolyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (ESTDTPA) was synthesized. Afterwards, this compound was reacted with UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT). Following the glucuronidation reaction, the product called deoxy demethyl homoestradiolyl diethylenetriamine pentaaceticacid-glucuronide (ESTDTPAG) was obtained. Synthesized products were purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identification of the purified products and impurities were also established using HPLC. Synthesized compound was labeled with 99m Tc. Thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) technique was used to determine their radiochemical yields and stabilities. Labeling yield was over 96%. The biodistribution studies were performed on female Albino Wistar rats. The activity per gram tissue was calculated and time-activity curves were plotted. The target organs (tumor, as well as uterus, ovaries, adrenals and other ER containing tissues) retain the estradiol derivative longer than nontarget organs, but even these lost most of their activity within a few hours. In addition, the imaging studies were performed on normal and tumor bearing female Albino Wistar rats using Camstar XR/T gamma camera. In γ-scintigraphic imaging studies with 99m Tc-ESTDTPAG the breast tumors could be well visualized up to 24 h

  7. Synthesis of an estradiol glucuronide derivative and investigation of its radiopharmaceutical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biber, F.Z. [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ege University, 35100 Bornova Izmir (Turkey)]. E-mail: fazilet.zumrut.biber@ege.edu.tr; Unak, P. [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ege University, 35100 Bornova Izmir (Turkey); Ertay, T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Inciralti Izmir (Turkey); Medine, E.I. [Department of Nuclear Applications, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ege University, 35100 Bornova Izmir (Turkey); Zihnioglu, F. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ege University, 35100 Bornova Izmir (Turkey); Tasci, C. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ege University, 35100 Bornova Izmir (Turkey); Durak, H. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ege University, 35100 Bornova Izmir (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of the current study was to synthesize a derivative of estradiol glucuronide, which is able to be labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and to investigate its radiopharmaceutical potential using imaging and biodistribution studies. An estrogen derivative, {beta}-estradiol (1,3,5,[10]-estratriene-3,17{beta}-diol) attached to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was synthesized in six steps. At the end of these steps a compound of estradiol and DTPA derivative called deoxy demethyl homoestradiolyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (ESTDTPA) was synthesized. Afterwards, this compound was reacted with UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT). Following the glucuronidation reaction, the product called deoxy demethyl homoestradiolyl diethylenetriamine pentaaceticacid-glucuronide (ESTDTPAG) was obtained. Synthesized products were purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identification of the purified products and impurities were also established using HPLC. Synthesized compound was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. Thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) technique was used to determine their radiochemical yields and stabilities. Labeling yield was over 96%. The biodistribution studies were performed on female Albino Wistar rats. The activity per gram tissue was calculated and time-activity curves were plotted. The target organs (tumor, as well as uterus, ovaries, adrenals and other ER containing tissues) retain the estradiol derivative longer than nontarget organs, but even these lost most of their activity within a few hours. In addition, the imaging studies were performed on normal and tumor bearing female Albino Wistar rats using Camstar XR/T gamma camera. In {gamma}-scintigraphic imaging studies with {sup 99m}Tc-ESTDTPAG the breast tumors could be well visualized up to 24 h.

  8. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program, fiscal year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Mark J.; Brooks, Richard D.; Sassaman, Kenneth E.; Crass, David C.; Lewis, George S.; Stephenson, D. Keith; Green, William; Anderson, David G.; Fuglseth, Ty

    1990-11-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, is funded through a direct contract with the United States Department of Energy to provide services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of most archaeological resources is dependent upon research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An on-going research program provides the problems, methods and means of assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In addition, the SRARP maintains an active program of public education to disseminate knowledge about prehistory and history, and to enhance public awareness about historic preservation. The following report summarizes the management, research and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1990.

  9. Annual review of cultural resource investigations by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program: Fiscal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Mark J.; Brooks, Richard D.; Sassaman, Kenneth E.; Crass, David C.; Stephenson, D. Keith; Green, William; Rinehart, Charles J.; Lewis, George S.; Fuglseth, Ty; Krawczynski, Keith; Warnock, D. Mark

    1991-10-01

    A cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy provides the necessary funding for the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina, to render services required under federal law for the protection and management of archaeological resources on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Because the significance of archaeological resources is usually determined by research potential, the SRARP is guided by research objectives. An ongoing research program provides the theoretical, methodological and empirical basis for assessing site significance within the compliance process specified by law. In accordance with the spirit of the law, the SRARP maintains an active public education program for disseminating knowledge about prehistory and history, and for enhancing awareness of historic preservation. This report summarizes the management, research and public education activities of the SRARP during Fiscal Year 1991.

  10. Potential harms, anonymization, and the right to withdraw consent to biobank research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Stefan; Helgesson, Gert

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the potential harms involved in biobank research and how ethical review, informed consent, withdrawals, and anonymization of samples should be handled in the light of these harms. There is less risk involved in biobank research than in human subject research; it should therefore be treated differently. In our view, anonymization should not be an automatically permissible response to requests for withdrawal. Nor should a request for withdrawal necessarily stop research on identifiable samples. Apart from not being particularly appropriate for protecting the interests of individuals, anonymization of samples has a negative impact on research. We suggest that the current view on withdrawal from research, supported by the Declaration of Helsinki and subsequent ethical guidelines, be abandoned in the context of biobank research and be replaced by an approach inspired by the Nuremberg Code. This approach requires those wishing to withdraw their samples from research to present sufficient reason for doing so. Our interpretation of 'sufficient reason' includes all those involving genuine, deeply felt concerns that are not based on misconceptions. Still, this underlines the fact that we all share a responsibility for health research and that no one should take withdrawal from biobank research lightly.

  11. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: challenges and the potential to advance health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R

    2014-06-01

    Intersectionality theory, developed to address the non-additivity of effects of sex/gender and race/ethnicity but extendable to other domains, allows for the potential to study health and disease at different intersections of identity, social position, processes of oppression or privilege, and policies or institutional practices. Intersectionality has the potential to enrich population health research through improved validity and greater attention to both heterogeneity of effects and causal processes producing health inequalities. Moreover, intersectional population health research may serve to both test and generate new theories. Nevertheless, its implementation within health research to date has been primarily through qualitative research. In this paper, challenges to incorporation of intersectionality into population health research are identified or expanded upon. These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. Addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers' ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation

  12. Investigation of tenuous plasma environment using Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) on Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Jeszenszky, Harald; Torkar, Klaus; Andriopoulou, Maria; Fremuth, Gerhard; Taijmar, Martin; Scharlemann, Carsten; Svenes, Knut; Escoubet, Philippe; Prattes, Gustav; Laky, Gunter; Giner, Franz; Hoelzl, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    The NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission is planned to be launched on March 12, 2015. The scientific objectives of the MMS mission are to explore and understand the fundamental plasma physics processes of magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration and turbulence in the Earth's magnetosphere. The region of scientific interest of MMS is in a tenuous plasma environment where the positive spacecraft potential reaches an equilibrium at several tens of Volts. An Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) instrument neutralizes the spacecraft potential by releasing positive charge produced by indium ion emitters. ASPOC thereby reduces the potential in order to improve the electric field and low-energy particle measurement. The method has been successfully applied on other spacecraft such as Cluster and Double Star. Two ASPOC units are present on each of the MMS spacecraft. Each unit contains four ion emitters, whereby one emitter per instrument is operated at a time. ASPOC for MMS includes new developments in the design of the emitters and the electronics enabling lower spacecraft potentials, higher reliability, and a more uniform potential structure in the spacecraft's sheath compared to previous missions. Model calculations confirm the findings from previous applications that the plasma measurements will not be affected by the beam's space charge. A perfectly stable spacecraft potential precludes the utilization of the spacecraft as a plasma probe, which is a conventional technique used to estimate ambient plasma density from the spacecraft potential. The small residual variations of the potential controlled by ASPOC, however, still allow to determine ambient plasma density by comparing two closely separated spacecraft and thereby reconstructing the uncontrolled potential variation from the controlled potential. Regular intercalibration of controlled and uncontrolled potentials is expected to increase the reliability of this new method.

  13. Potential Knowledge Management Contributions to Human Performance Technology Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, Thomas M.; Kalman, Howard K.; Hara, Noriko; Kisling, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    Considers aspects of knowledge management that have the potential to enhance human-performance-technology research and practice. Topics include intellectual capital; learning organization versus organizational learning; the importance of epistemology; the relationship of knowledge, learning, and performance; knowledge creation; socio-technical…

  14. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayea, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment…

  15. Race and Research Methods Anxiety in an Undergraduate Sample: The Potential Effects of Self-Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckberg, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores race as a potential predictor of research methods anxiety among a sample of undergraduates. While differences in academic achievement based on race and ethnicity have been well documented, few studies have examined racial differences in anxiety with regard to specific subject matter in undergraduate curricula. This exploratory…

  16. Youth Participatory Action Research and Educational Transformation: The Potential of Intertextuality as a Methodological Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Melanie Bertrand explores the potential of using the concept of intertextuality--which captures the way snippets of written or spoken text from one source become incorporated into other sources--in the study and practice of youth participatory action research (YPAR). Though this collective and youth-centered form of research…

  17. The investigation of relativistic microscopic optical potential based on RBBG equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baoqiu; Ma Zhongyu

    1992-01-01

    The relativistic microscopic optical potential is derived from the RBBG equation. The nucleon complex effective mass is determined phenomenologically by a fit to 200 MeV proton-nucleus scattering data. Then the relativistic microscopic optical potentials of proton scattered from different targets: 16 O, 40 Ca, 90 Zr and 208 Pb in the energies range from 160 to 800 MeV have been got. The relativistic microscopic optical potentials have been used to study proton- 40 Ca scattering at 200 MeV. Theoretical predictions for cross section and spin observables are compared with experimental data and phenomenological Dirac optical potential

  18. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  19. Application of Emergency Action Levels from Potential Release at Research Reactor HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsoo; Lee, Goan Yub; Lee, Hae Choi; Kim, Bong Suk

    2014-01-01

    Execution of the protective action promptly is possible that Emergency Action Levels (EALs) must be established for a radiological release from nuclear facility. The EALs for electric power reactor are already developed and applied to recognize an emergency situation rapidly. Recently the IAEA published the safety report including the EALs for research reactor. This paper describes the EALs to apply for a potential release pathway at the research reactor HANARO. The results of table 1 and 2 will be higher than actual because the weather condition in real situation is difference. However, the EALs applying the potential stack release, ground release and site can be useful for research reactor HANARO making the emergency declaration. The EALs at the site boundary of the table 3 can be applied to protect the off-site public

  20. An investigation of potential success factors for an introductory model-driven programming course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the course design of a CS1 model-driven programming course we study potential indicators of success for such a course. We explain our specific interpretation of objects-first. Of eight potential indicators of success, we have found only two to be significant at a 95% confidence...

  1. Investigating the biomarker potential of glycoproteins using comparative glycoprofiling - application to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Thøgersen, Ida; Lademann, Ulrik Axel

    2008-01-01

    Cancer-induced alterations of protein glycosylations are well-known phenomena. Hence, the glycoprofile of certain glycoproteins can potentially be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis. However, there are a substantial number of candidates and the techniques for measuring their biomarker potential...

  2. Investigating transfer gate potential barrier by feed-forward effect measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.; Ge, X.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In a 4T pixel, the transfer gate (TG) “OFF” surface potential is one of the important parameters, which determines the pinned photodiode (PPD) full well capacity. The feed-forward effect measurement is a powerful tool to characterize the relationship of the PPD injection potential and the

  3. Investigations of multiphoton excitation and ionization in a short range potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, S.M.; Cowley, S.C.; Valeo, E.J.

    1989-02-01

    We introduce an approach to the study of excitation and ionization for a system with a short range potential. In particular, analytical and numerical results are presented for the multiphoton ionization rate, under strong field conditions, of an electron confined by a δ-function potential. 9 refs., 3 figs

  4. Investigations of multiphoton excitation and ionization in a short range potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susskind, S.M.; Cowley, S.C.; Valeo, E.J.

    1989-02-01

    We introduce an approach to the study of excitation and ionization for a system with a short range potential. In particular, analytical and numerical results are presented for the multiphoton ionization rate, under strong field conditions, of an electron confined by a delta-function potential. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project synthesis of phase I investigation 2001-2005. Volume 'Geological disposal research'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Taniguchi, Naoki; Tanai, Kenji; Nishimura, Mayuka; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Hiramoto, Masayuki; Maekawa, Keisuke; Sawada, Atsushi; Makino, Hitoshi; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shibata, Masahiro; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Nakano, Katsushi; Seo, Toshihiro; Miyahara, Kaname; Naito, Morimasa; Yui, Mikazu; Matsui, Hiroya; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kunimaru, Takanori; Ishii, Eiichi; Ota, Kunio; Hama, Katsuhiro; Takeuchi, Ryuji

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of research and development on geological disposal during the surface-based investigation phase (2001-2005) in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project (HOR), of which aims are to apply the design methods of geological disposal and mass transport analysis to actual geological conditions obtained from the surface-based investigations in HOR as an example of actual geological environment. For the first aim, the design methods for the geological disposal facility proposed in 'H12 report (the second progress report)' was reviewed and then improved based on the recent knowledge. The applicability of design for engineered barrier system, backfill of disposal tunnel, underground facility was illustrated. For the second aim, the conceptual structure from site investigation and evaluation to mass transport analysis was developed as a work flow at first. Then following this work flow a series of procedures for mass transport analysis was applied to the actual geological conditions to illustrate the practical workability of the work flow and the applicability of this methodology. Consequently, based on the results, future subjects were derived. (author)

  6. A unique research partnership investigating the fundamental principles of subsurface carbon dioxide behaviour and carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, I.; Blunt, M. J.; Maitland, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs hold the majority of CO2 sequestration potential, however, they are also more complicated than sandstone reservoirs in terms of heterogeneity and potential reactivity impact on operations. There are both significant carbonate reservoir CO2 sinks and CO2 point sources around Qatar making carbon capture and storage a potential decarbonisation pathway. The Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre (QCCSRC) was formed in 2009 to address the gaps in our current knowledge of both local carbonate reservoir platforms and how CO2 would behave post sequestration. Our work spans 35 graduated PhD students, 10 still studying, 29 post-doctoral researchers, 18 faculty members all aided by 5 support staff and more than 100 MSc and summer students from 30 different countries, the centre has published over 150 papers in over 40 different journals. Our research is based within the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department of Earth Science and Engineering. Our team annually attends over 20 conferences world-wide to disseminate our findings and activity engage in outreach events (UNFCCC, science festivals, social media, science bars, school visits, etc.). QCCSRC is a research framework agreement over 10 years and valued at $70 million between Qatar Petroleum, Shell, the Qatar Science and Technology Park and Imperial College London bringing together each organisation's unique capabilities. This novel quadruple helix management structure is responsible for the largest single industrially funded research programme conducted at Imperial College London. Our research has focused on data to create and/or improve predictive models for CO2 storage in carbonate reservoirs. Our three broad thematic areas include: Rocks : Rock-fluid interactions : Fluid-fluid interactions and are supported by 5 laboratories. Overall this unique programme is an example of how to approach grand challenges in the energy-carbon dilemma through long-term and multidisciplinary

  7. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. Plans for surface-based investigations. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Junichi; Hama, Katsuhiro

    2003-10-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is an investigation project which is planned over 20 years. The investigations are conducted in the three phases: investigations from surface (Phase 1), investigations during construction of the underground facility (Phase 2) and investigations using the facility (Phase 3). Taking into account the results from 'H12: Project of Establish the Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan - Second Progress Report on Research and Development for the Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan-' (JNC, 2000), research and development goals for the Horonobe URL project were re-defined as follows; a) Development of investigation technologies for the geological environment, b) Development of monitoring technologies for the geological environment, c) Study on the long-term stability of the geological environment, d) Development of the basis for engineering technologies in deep underground, e) Verification of technologies for engineered barriers, f) Development of detailed designing technologies of the repositories, and g) Improvement of safety assessment methodologies. Investigations for the goals a) to d) and e) to g) are conducted in the 'Geoscientific Research' and 'Research and Development on Geological Disposal', respectively. In Phase 1, a 'laboratory construction area' of a few kilometers square is selected based on the results from early stage investigations. Subsequent investigations are concentrated in the selected area and its periphery. Acquisition of data by surface-based investigations, modeling of the geological environment and predictions of changes in the geological environment caused by the construction of the underground facility, are conducted in a) Development of investigation technologies for the geological environment. Development and installation of monitoring equipments and data acquisition prior to the construction of the underground facility fall under b) Development of monitoring technologies

  8. South African research agenda to investigate the potential environmental, health and safety risks of nanotechnology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The South African perspective on nanotechnology, recently articulated through its national strategy, envisages nanotechnology to provide solutions to some of the country’s key development challenges, such as the provision of safe water...

  9. Relative solidarity: Conceptualising communal participation in genomic research among potential research participants in a developing Sub-Saharan African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunrin, Olubunmi; Woolfall, Kerry; Gabbay, Mark; Frith, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    As genomic research gathers momentum in sub-Saharan Africa, it has become increasingly important to understand the reasons why individuals wish to participate in this kind of medical research. Against the background of communitarianism conceived as typical of African communities, it is often suggested that individuals consent to participate on the grounds of solidarity and to further the common good. In this paper, we seek to explore this contention by presenting data from focus groups with potential research participants about what would influence their decisions to participate in genomic research. These focus groups were conducted as part of a larger qualitative study with a purposively selected group of participants from a community situated in south west Nigeria. We conducted fifteen focus group sessions comprising 50 participants organized by age and sex, namely: 1) adult (>30 years) males, 2) adult females, 3) youth (18-30 years) males, and 4) youth females. A mixed age-group was conducted to probe different views between the age groups. There was discordance and clear division between the adults and youths regarding the decision to participate in genomic research based on commitment to communal values. Adults based their decision to participate on altruism and furthering the common good while youths based their decisions on personal benefits and preferences and also took into account the views and welfare of family members and neighbours. This discordance suggests a 'generational shift' and we advance a model of 'relative solidarity' among the youths, which is different from the communal solidarity model typical of African communitarianism. Our findings suggest the need for a closer look at strategies for implementation of community engagement and informed consent in genomic research in this region, and we recommend further studies to explore this emerging trend.

  10. Space Toxicology: Environmental Health Considerations during Spaceflight Operations and Potential Paths for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen N.; Sundaresan, Alemalu

    2009-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a specialized discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids [1]. Astronaut explorers face unique challenges to their health while working and living with limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. At its core the practice of space toxicology to identify, assess and predict potential chemical contaminants and limit the astronaut s exposure to these environmental factors in order to protect crew health. Space toxicologists are also charged with setting safe exposure limits that will protect the astronaut against a multitude of chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space, toxicological risks are gauged and managed within the context of isolation, continual exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the necessary use of highly toxic compounds required for propulsion. As the space program move towards human presence and exploration other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of unusual and/or reactive mineral dusts must also be analyzed and controlled. Placing humans for long-term presence in space creates several problems and challenges to the long-term health of the crew, such as bone-loss and immunological challenges and has spurred research into acute, chronic and episodic exposure of the pulmonary system to mineral dusts [2]. NASA has demonstrated that lunar soil contains several types of reactive dusts, including an extremely fine respirable component. In order to protect astronaut health, NASA is now investigating the toxicity of this unique class of dusts. Understanding how these reactive components behave "biochemically" in a moisture-rich pulmonary environment will aid in determining how toxic these particles are to humans. The data obtained from toxicological examination of lunar dusts will determine the human risk criteria for lunar

  11. An output evaluation of a health research foundation's enhanced grant review process for new investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Gregory W; Lê, Mê-Linh; Novotny, Tannis; Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Pierce, Grant N; Wade, John

    2017-06-19

    We assessed the ability of the Manitoba Medical Service Foundation (MMSF, a small not-for-profit foundation affiliated with Manitoba Blue Cross) to determine the best candidates for selection to receive research funding support among new researchers applying to the Research Operating Grants Programme (ROGP). Using bibliometric and grants funding analyses, we retrospectively compared indices of academic outputs from five cohorts of MMSF-funded and not MMSF-funded applicants to the annual MMSF ROGP over 2008 to 2012, from 1 to 5 years after having received evaluation decisions from the MMSF enhanced grant review process. Those researchers funded by the MMSF competition (MMSF-funded) had a statistically significant greater number of publications, a higher h-index and greater national Tri-Council (TC) funding, versus those not selected for funding (not MMSF-funded). MMSF-funded applicants and the Manitoba research community have created a strong and rapid (within 1 to 5 years of receiving the MMSF grant) local economic return on investment associated with the MMSF ROGP that supports new investigators, of approximately nine-fold for TC grants by the principal investigator, and of 34-fold for the principal investigator on collaborative (total) TC grants. The use of small amounts of seed money for competitive research grants at early stages of an MMSF-funded applicant's career correlates with future short-term success of that applicant. The ability to correctly select promising candidates who subsequently demonstrate greater academic performance after the MMSF funding shows the selection process and the ROGP to be of merit. Multiple components may have contributed to this outcome, including a direct presentation and interview process of the candidate with five-person selection subcommittees, plus an assessment by an external reviewer (the enhanced grant review process). The selection methods used here may add value to the research grant selection processes of new

  12. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. Rock mechanical investigations annual report for fiscal year 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshinori; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Tanno, Takeo

    2015-02-01

    In order to establish the scientific and technical basis for geological disposal of technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is pursuing the geoscientific research project namely the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) in the crystalline rock environment at Tono Geoscience Center (TGC). In the MIU Project, geoscientific research is being carried out in three overlapping phases; Surface-based Investigation Phase (Phase I: FY1996 - 2004), Construction Phase (Phase II: FY2004- in progress) and Operation Phase (Phase III: FY2010- in progress). In the rock mechanical investigations at the Phase II, the research aims at “Characterization of geological environment in the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ)” from the viewpoint of safety assessment. For the research, the specific information of the EDZ such as (1) size and structures, (2) petrophysical/geomechanical properties, and (3) stress state are required. The research also aims at “Characterization of geomechanical stability around tunnel” from the viewpoint of design and construction of underground facilities. For the research, the specific information such as (4) local stress regime, (5) spatial variability of petrophysical/geomechanical properties of rocks, and (6) distribution of discontinuities intersecting underground tunnels are required. The measurement system for rock mass behavior has been manufactured and set for groundwater recovery experiment in the Phase III. This report presents the results of following rock mechanical investigations conducted in FY 2013. In-situ stress measurements using Compact Conical-ended Borehole Overcoring Technique were performed at the - 500m stage. Measurement system for rock mass displacement using optical fiber was installed at the - 500m stage as part of the groundwater recovery experiment. Study on the modeling based on equivalent continuum model was continued. Phenomenological study and theoretical study on long-term behavior of crystalline rock were

  13. Investigation of DBMS for Use in a Research Environment. Rand Paper Series 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Pilar N.

    This investigation of the use of database management systems (DBMS) in a research environment used the Rand Corporation as a case study. After a general introduction in section 1, eight sections present the major components of the study. Section 2 contains an overview of DBMS terminology and concepts, followed in section 3 by a general dsecription…

  14. The hot cell laboratories for material investigations of the Institute for Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H W

    1998-10-01

    Special facilities for handling and testing of irradiated specimens are necessary, to perform the investigation of activated material. The Institute for Safety Research has two hot cell laboratories: - the preparation laboratory and - the materials testing laboratory. This report is intended to give an overview of the available facilities and developed techniques in the laboratories. (orig.)

  15. Socio-Cultural Imbalances in AIED Research: Investigations, Implications and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Emmanuel G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates international representations in the Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research field. Its methodological and theoretical groundings are inspired by Arnett (2008) and Henrich et al. (2010a) who addressed the same issue in psychology, and respectively a) discovered massive imbalances in representation in top-tier…

  16. A Genre-Based Investigation of Discussion Sections of Research Articles in Dentistry and Disciplinary Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturkmen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Outwardly the rhetorical organisation of sections of research reports in different disciplines can appear similar. Close examination, however, may reveal subtle differences. Numerous studies have drawn on the genre-based approach developed by Swales (1990, 2004) to investigate the schematic structure of sections of articles in a range of…

  17. Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network: Community Engagement and Outreach within Phenomics Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Carolyn; Arulogun, Oyedunni Sola; Singh, Arti; Mande, Aliyu T.; Ajayi, Eric; Benedict, Calys Tagoe; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Lackland, Daniel T.; Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Akinyemi, Rufus; Akpalu, Albert; Obiako, Reginald; Melikam, Enzinne Sylvia; Laryea, Ruth; Shidali, Vincent; Sagoe, Kwamena; Ibinaiye, Philip; Fakunle, Adekunie Gregory; Owolabi, Lukman F.; Owolabi, Mayowa O.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of neurological hospital admissions in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the second leading cause of death globally. The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network [SIREN] seeks to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic, and behavioral risk factors for stroke and to build effective teams…

  18. Investigating Move Structure of English Applied Linguistics Research Article Discussions Published in International and Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…

  19. Global capacity, potentials and trends of solid waste research and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Michael A; Ronald, Mersky; Feng, Huan

    2017-09-01

    In this study, United States, China, India, United Kingdom, Nigeria, Egypt, Brazil, Italy, Germany, Taiwan, Australia, Canada and Mexico were selected to represent the global community. This enabled an overview of solid waste management worldwide and between developed and developing countries. These are countries that feature most in the International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management (ICSW) over the past 20 years. A total of 1452 articles directly on solid waste management and technology were reviewed and credited to their original country of research. Results show significant solid waste research potentials globally, with the United States leading by 373 articles, followed by India with 230 articles. The rest of the countries are ranked in the order of: UK > Taiwan > Brazil > Nigeria > Italy > Japan > China > Canada > Germany >Mexico > Egypt > Australia. Global capacity in solid waste management options is in the order of: Waste characterisation-management > waste biotech/composting > waste to landfill > waste recovery/reduction > waste in construction > waste recycling > waste treatment-reuse-storage > waste to energy > waste dumping > waste education/public participation/policy. It is observed that the solid waste research potential is not a measure of solid waste management capacity. The results show more significant research impacts on solid waste management in developed countries than in developing countries where economy, technology and society factors are not strong. This article is targeted to motivate similar study in each country, using solid waste research articles from other streamed databases to measure research impacts on solid waste management.

  20. Exploring the Potential for a Consolidated Standard for Reporting Guidelines for Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hannes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consolidating a standard for reporting qualitative research remains a challenging endeavor, given the variety of different paradigms that steer qualitative research as well as the broad range of designs, and techniques for data collection and analysis that one could opt for when conducting qualitative research. Method: A total of 18 experts in qualitative research participated in an argument Delphi approach to explore the arguments that would plead for or against the development and use of reporting guidelines (RGs for qualitative research and to generate opinions on what may need to be considered in the further development or further refinement of RGs for qualitative research. Findings: The potential to increase quality and accountability of qualitative research was identified as one of the core benefits of RGs for different target groups, including students. Experts in our pilot study seem to resist a fixed, extensive list of criteria. They emphasize the importance of flexibility in developing and applying such criteria. Clear-cut RGs may restrict the publication of reports on unusual, innovative, or emerging research approaches. Conclusions: RGs should not be used as a substitute for proper training in qualitative research methods and should not be applied rigidly. Experts feel more comfortable with RGs that allow for an adaptation of criteria, to create a better fit for purpose. The variety in viewpoints between experts for the majority of the topics will most likely complicate future consolidation processes. Design specific RGs should be considered to allow developers to stay true to their own epistemological principles and those of their potential users.

  1. Pursuing Qualitative Research From the Global South: "Investigative Research" During China's "Great Leap Forward" (1958-62

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chun Hsiung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, qualitative researchers have begun to challenge the domination and universalistic claims of the Global North. Nevertheless, it is still unclear what pursuing qualitative research (QR from the Global South might entail. I advance this effort by situating it in the larger context of the decentering endeavor in social science and decolonizing methodologies in aboriginal scholarship. Informed by their locally-grounded approach in the quest for constructing alternative social science accounts and articulating decolonized knowledge, I argue that writing locally-grounded histories is an essential first step to explore methodologies and epistemologies of QR from the Global South. Noting that no national history of QR has been derived from the Global South, I present an example of writing the history of QR by examining MAO Zedong's legacy of "investigative research" (IR. Specifically, I analyze the practices of IR during China's "Great Leap Forward" (1958-62. In conclusion, I discuss the implications of IR to the development of social science research in contemporary China. I lay out key issues in pursuing QR from the Global South and present how such a pursuit is relevant to social science inquiry in the Global North. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150325

  2. Sustaining the Clinical and Translational Research Workforce: Training and Empowering the Next Generation of Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Helen L; Gabrilove, Janice; Jackson, Rebecca; Sweeney, Carol; Fair, Alecia M; Toto, Robert

    2015-07-01

    There is mounting concern that clinician-scientists are a vanishing species and that the pipeline for clinical and translational research (CTR) investigators is in jeopardy. For the majority of current junior CTR investigators, the career path involves first obtaining a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded K-type career development award, particularly K08 and K23, and subsequently an NIH R01. This transition, popularly referred to as K2R, is a major hurdle with a low success rate and gaps in funding. In this Perspective, the authors identify factors that facilitate K2R transition and important aspects of increasing and sustaining the pipeline of CTR investigators. They also highlight significant differences in success rates of women and those underrepresented in biomedical research. Early career exposure to research methodology, protected time, multidisciplinary mentoring, and institutional "culture shift" are important for fostering and rewarding team science. Mentoring is the single most important contributor to K2R success, and emerging evidence suggests that formal mentor training and team mentoring are effective. Leadership training can empower junior investigators to thrive as independent CTR investigators. Future research should focus on delineating the difference between essential and supplemental factors to achieve this transition, and mentoring methods that foster success, including those that promote K2R transition of women and those underrepresented in biomedical research. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards National Consortium is well positioned to test existing models aimed at shortening the time frame, increasing the rate of K2R transition, and identifying strategies that improve success.

  3. Investigation of potential climate change impacts on ports and maritime operations around the southern African coast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rossouw, M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate action has become a priority on the international agenda but the challenge facing the global community is both complex and considerable. Climate change poses a serious threat to human development and prosperity with potentially wide...

  4. An investigation of relativistic microscopic optical potential in terms of relativistic Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baoqiu; Ma Zhongyu

    1992-01-01

    Relativistic microscopic optical potential of nucleon-nucleus is derived from the relativistic Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone (RBBG) equation. The complex effective mass of a nucleon is determined by a fit to 200 MeV p- 40 Ca scattering data. The relativistic microscopic optical potentials with this effective mass are obtained from RBBG for p- 16O , 40 Ca, 90 Zr and 208 Pb scattering in energy range from 160 to 800 MeV. The microscopic optical potential is used to study the proton- 40 Ca scattering problem at 200 MeV. The results, such as differential cross section, analyzing power and spin rotation function are compared with those calculated from phenomenological relativistic optical potential

  5. The Optical Flow Technique on the Research of Solar Non-potentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-hong; Zhang, Hong-qi

    2010-06-01

    Several optical flow techniques, which have being applied to the researches of solar magnetic non-potentiality recently, have been summarized here. And a few new non-potential parameters which can be derived from them have been discussed, too. The main components of the work are presented as follows: (1) The optical flow techniques refers to a series of new image analyzing techniques arisen recently on the researches of solar magnetic non-potentiality. They mainly include LCT (local correlation tracking), ILCT (inductive equation combining with LCT), MEF (minimum energy effect), DAVE (differential affine velocity estimator) and NAVE (nonlinear affine velocity estimator). Their calculating and applying conditions, merits and deficiencies, all have been discussed detailedly in this work. (2) Benefit from the optical flow techniques, the transverse velocity fields of the magnetic features on the solar surface may be determined by a time sequence of high-quality images currently produced by high-resolution observations either from the ground or in space. Consequently, several new non-potential parameters may be acquired, such as the magnetic helicity flux, the induced electric field in the photosphere, the non-potential magnetic stress (whose area integration is the Lorentz force), etc. Then we can determine the energy flux across the photosphere, and subsequently evaluate the energy budget. Former works on them by small or special samples have shown that they are probably related closely to the erupting events, such as flare, filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections.

  6. Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killawi, Amal; Khidir, Amal; Elnashar, Maha; Abdelrahim, Huda; Hammoud, Maya; Elliott, Heather; Thurston, Michelle; Asad, Humna; Al-Khal, Abdul Latif; Fetters, Michael D

    2014-02-04

    investigation illustrates how potential research participants perceive research participation. Fundamentally, Western ethical research principles were applicable, but required flexibility and culturally informed adaptations.

  7. The academic librarian as co-investigator on an interprofessional primary research team: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Robert; Rush, Kathy L

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role librarians play on research teams. The experiences of a librarian and a faculty member are situated within the wider literature addressing collaborations between health science librarians and research faculty. A case study approach is used to outline the involvement of a librarian on a team created to investigate the best practices for integrating nurses into the workplace during their first year of practice. Librarians contribute to research teams including expertise in the entire process of knowledge development and dissemination including the ability to navigate issues related to copyright and open access policies of funding agencies. The librarian reviews the various tasks performed as part of the research team ranging from the grant application, to working on the initial literature review as well as the subsequent manuscripts that emerged from the primary research. The motivations for joining the research team, including authorship and relationship building, are also discussed. Recommendations are also made in terms of how librarians could increase their participation on research teams. The study shows that librarians can play a key role on interprofessional primary research teams. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  8. First research coordination meeting for the coordinated research programme on the use of isotope techniques in investigating acidic fluids in geothermal exploitation. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardo-Abaya, J.

    1998-02-01

    Geothermal exploration and development for electrical and non-electrical applications is taking place in more than 36 countries worldwide. Although the technology has fully emerged, there are still hindrances to the full exploitation of the available heat. Most of the high temperature geothermal areas are situated in volcanic environments that produce acidic fluids which are corrosive for wells, as well as pipelines. Incidental drilling in those areas, for lack of better data, cause high economic losses ar a cost of about US D 2 million per well. In addition, a potential natural resource for electricity remains untapped. In realization of the problems associated with with geothermal exploitation and the potential role that isotope techniques could provide for a greater understanding of the complex behavior of geothermal systems, particularly those affected by acidic fluids, the Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Problems Associated with Geothermal Exploitation is implemented in 1997-2000. An understanding of the phenomena will assist the scientific community involved in geothermal development. The information generated from the scientific investigations will be an input to management of the resource as well as to decision-making for monitoring and development of geothermal areas. The First Research Coordination Meeting for this CRP was held on 21-23 October 1997 in the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria. The results of the current investigations relating to acid fluids in the various geothermal systems were presented by the participants. The report provides the hydrological concept on which research on acid fluids is based. The report includes also the summaries of the researches under the CRP as well as the agreed actions for follow-up work

  9. Coordination of International Risk-Reduction Investigations by the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bogomolov, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of the unique capabilities of the International Space Station (ISS) for risk reduction on future deep space missions involves preliminary work in analog environments to identify and evaluate the most promising techniques, interventions and treatments. This entails a consolidated multinational approach to biomedical research both on ISS and in ground analogs. The Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) was chartered by the five ISS partners to recommend the best combination of partner investigations on ISS for risk reduction in the relatively short time available for ISS utilization. MHRPE will also make recommendations to funding agencies for appropriate preparatory analog work. In 2011, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Science, acting for MHRPE, developed a joint US-Russian biomedical program for the 2015 one-year ISS mission (1YM) of American and Russian crewmembers. This was to evaluate the possibilities for multilateral research on ISS. An overlapping list of 16 HRP, 9 IBMP, 3 Japanese, 3 European and 1 Canadian investigations were selected to address risk-reduction goals in 7 categories: Functional Performance, Behavioral Health, Visual Impairment, Metabolism, Physical Capacity, Microbial and Human Factors. MHRPE intends to build on this bilateral foundation to recommend more fully-integrated multilateral investigations on future ISS missions commencing after the 1YM. MHRPE has also endorsed an on-going program of coordinated research on 6-month, one-year and 6-week missions ISS expeditions that is now under consideration by ISS managers. Preparatory work for these missions will require coordinated and collaborative campaigns especially in the psychological and psychosocial areas using analog isolation facilities in Houston, Köln and Moscow, and possibly elsewhere. The multilateral Human Analogs research working group (HANA) is the focal point of those

  10. Source terms: an investigation of uncertainties, magnitudes, and recommendations for research. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, S.; Kaiser, G. D.; Arcieri, W. C.; Firstenberg, H.; Fulford, P. J.; Lam, P. S.; Ritzman, R. L.; Schmidt, E. R.

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to assess the state of knowledge and expert opinions that exist about fission product source terms from potential nuclear power plant accidents. This is so that recommendations can be made for research and analyses which have the potential to reduce the uncertainties in these estimated source terms and to derive improved methods for predicting their magnitudes. The main reasons for writing this report are to indicate the major uncertainties involved in defining realistic source terms that could arise from severe reactor accidents, to determine which factors would have the most significant impact on public risks and emergency planning, and to suggest research and analyses that could result in the reduction of these uncertainties. Source terms used in the conventional consequence calculations in the licensing process are not explicitly addressed.

  11. "Plug-and-Play" potentials: Investigating quantum effects in (H2)2-Li+-benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Jordan H.; Kolmann, Stephen J.; Jordan, Meredith J. T.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum and anharmonic effects are investigated in (H2)2-Li+-benzene, a model for hydrogen adsorption in metal-organic frameworks and carbon-based materials, using rigid-body diffusion Monte Carlo (RBDMC) simulations. The potential-energy surface (PES) is calculated as a modified Shepard interpolation of M05-2X/6-311+G(2df,p) electronic structure data. The RBDMC simulations yield zero-point energies (ZPE) and probability density histograms that describe the ground-state nuclear wavefunction. Binding a second H2 molecule to the H2-Li+-benzene complex increases the ZPE of the system by 5.6 kJ mol-1 to 17.6 kJ mol-1. This ZPE is 42% of the total electronic binding energy of (H2)2-Li+-benzene and cannot be neglected. Our best estimate of the 0 K binding enthalpy of the second H2 to H2-Li+-benzene is 7.7 kJ mol-1, compared to 12.4 kJ mol-1 for the first H2 molecule. Anharmonicity is found to be even more important when a second (and subsequent) H2 molecule is adsorbed; use of harmonic ZPEs results in significant error in the 0 K binding enthalpy. Probability density histograms reveal that the two H2 molecules are found at larger distance from the Li+ ion and are more confined in the θ coordinate than in H2-Li+-benzene. They also show that both H2 molecules are delocalized in the azimuthal coordinate, ϕ. That is, adding a second H2 molecule is insufficient to localize the wavefunction in ϕ. Two fragment-based (H2)2-Li+-benzene PESs are developed. These use a modified Shepard interpolation for the Li+-benzene and H2-Li+-benzene fragments, and either modified Shepard interpolation or a cubic spline to model the H2-H2 interaction. Because of the neglect of three-body H2, H2, Li+ terms, both fragment PESs lead to overbinding of the second H2 molecule by 1.5 kJ mol-1. Probability density histograms, however, indicate that the wavefunctions for the two H2 molecules are effectively identical on the "full" and fragment PESs. This suggests that the 1.5 kJ mol-1 error is

  12. "Plug-and-Play" potentials: Investigating quantum effects in (H2)2-Li(+)-benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Jordan H; Kolmann, Stephen J; Jordan, Meredith J T

    2015-08-21

    Quantum and anharmonic effects are investigated in (H2)2-Li(+)-benzene, a model for hydrogen adsorption in metal-organic frameworks and carbon-based materials, using rigid-body diffusion Monte Carlo (RBDMC) simulations. The potential-energy surface (PES) is calculated as a modified Shepard interpolation of M05-2X/6-311+G(2df,p) electronic structure data. The RBDMC simulations yield zero-point energies (ZPE) and probability density histograms that describe the ground-state nuclear wavefunction. Binding a second H2 molecule to the H2-Li(+)-benzene complex increases the ZPE of the system by 5.6 kJ mol(-1) to 17.6 kJ mol(-1). This ZPE is 42% of the total electronic binding energy of (H2)2-Li(+)-benzene and cannot be neglected. Our best estimate of the 0 K binding enthalpy of the second H2 to H2-Li(+)-benzene is 7.7 kJ mol(-1), compared to 12.4 kJ mol(-1) for the first H2 molecule. Anharmonicity is found to be even more important when a second (and subsequent) H2 molecule is adsorbed; use of harmonic ZPEs results in significant error in the 0 K binding enthalpy. Probability density histograms reveal that the two H2 molecules are found at larger distance from the Li(+) ion and are more confined in the θ coordinate than in H2-Li(+)-benzene. They also show that both H2 molecules are delocalized in the azimuthal coordinate, ϕ. That is, adding a second H2 molecule is insufficient to localize the wavefunction in ϕ. Two fragment-based (H2)2-Li(+)-benzene PESs are developed. These use a modified Shepard interpolation for the Li(+)-benzene and H2-Li(+)-benzene fragments, and either modified Shepard interpolation or a cubic spline to model the H2-H2 interaction. Because of the neglect of three-body H2, H2, Li(+) terms, both fragment PESs lead to overbinding of the second H2 molecule by 1.5 kJ mol(-1). Probability density histograms, however, indicate that the wavefunctions for the two H2 molecules are effectively identical on the "full" and fragment PESs. This suggests that

  13. The potential therapeutic value for bereaved relatives participating in research: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Alison; Mayland, Catriona R; Jack, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Conducting research with the bereaved presents an immediate ethical challenge, as they are undoubtedly a vulnerable group, associated with high levels of distress and susceptible to both physical and mental health issues. A comprehensive understanding of the potential therapeutic benefits for bereaved relatives participating in palliative care research is limited, and therefore the ethics of engaging this group remain questionable. This paper describes a secondary analysis of qualitative data collected in the Care of the Dying Evaluation (CODE) project, examining the experiences of patients who died at home. It explores the motivations and potential benefits for bereaved relatives participating in research with reference to the recently developed concepts in bereavement theory. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 15 bereaved relatives and secondary analysis using a content analysis framework was employed to classify the data. The results center around six recurring concepts identified as adaptive in current bereavement theory: an opportunity to share the narrative accounts of the final hours of their relative's life; a search for sense and meaning in loss; an ongoing bond/attachment with the deceased; altruistic motivations; oscillation between loss and restorative orientations; and a sense of resilience. Overall, the participants found that taking part in the research was valuable and that it could be described as offering therapeutic benefits. The need for bereaved relatives to take part in research studies should be encouraged, as they provide an accurate proxy for the patient's experience of end-of-life care while also providing a valuable account of their own perspective as family member and carer. In addition, we highlight the need for ethics committees to be aware of the potential benefits for bereaved relatives participating in research of this kind.

  14. Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. Synthesis of phase 1 investigation 2001-2005, Volume 'geological disposal research'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Taniguchi, Naoki; Maekawa, Keisuke; Sawada, Atsushi; Makino, Hitoshi; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shibata, Masahiro; Ota, Kunio; Miyahara, Kaname; Naito, Morimasa; Yui, Mikazu; Matsui, Hiroya; Hama, Katsuhiro; Kunimaru, Takanori; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Tanai, Kenji; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Ishii, Eiichi

    2011-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of research and development on geological disposal during the surface-based investigation phase (2001-2005) in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project, of which aims are to apply the design methods of geological disposal and mass transport analysis to actual geological conditions obtained from the project as an example of actual geological environment. For the first aim, the design methods for the geological disposal facility proposed in 'H12 report (the second progress report)' was reviewed and then improved based on the recent knowledge. The applicability of design for engineered barrier system, backfill of disposal tunnel, underground facility was illustrated. For the second aim, the conceptual structure from site investigation and evaluation to mass transport analysis was developed as a work flow at first. Then following this work flow a series of procedures for mass transport analysis was applied to the actual geological conditions to illustrate the practical workability of the work flow and the applicability of this methodology. Consequently, based on the results, future subjects were derived. (author)

  15. Routine health insurance data for scientific research: potential and limitations of the Agis Health Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Hugo M; de Wit, Niek J; Hoes, Arno W

    2011-04-01

    Observational studies performed within routine health care databases have the advantage of their large size and, when the aim is to assess the effect of interventions, can offer a completion to randomized controlled trials with usually small samples from experimental situations. Institutional Health Insurance Databases (HIDs) are attractive for research because of their large size, their longitudinal perspective, and their practice-based information. As they are based on financial reimbursement, the information is generally reliable. The database of one of the major insurance companies in the Netherlands, the Agis Health Database (AHD), is described in detail. Whether the AHD data sets meet the specific requirements to conduct several types of clinical studies is discussed according to the classification of the four different types of clinical research; that is, diagnostic, etiologic, prognostic, and intervention research. The potential of the AHD for these various types of research is illustrated using examples of studies recently conducted in the AHD. HIDs such as the AHD offer large potential for several types of clinical research, in particular etiologic and intervention studies, but at present the lack of detailed clinical information is an important limitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of in vivo potential of scorpion venom against skin tumorigenesis in mice via targeting markers associated with cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmari AK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman K Al Asmari, Abdul Quaiyoom Khan Research Centre, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world in spite of the advances made in its management. In this study, we investigated the in vivo antitumorigenic potential of the venom obtained from a medically important scorpion species Leiurus quinquestriatus on chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Animals were divided into five groups, with 13 animals in each group. All the treatments were given topically on the shaved dorsal surface of the skin. Animals in Group 1 received vehicle only (0.2 mL acetone. Moreover, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 400 nmol per mouse was applied to all the animals in the remaining four groups. After 1 week, different concentrations of venom (17.5 µg, 35 µg, and 52.5 µg per animal were applied to each animal in the Groups III–V. Thirty minutes after the application of venom, croton oil was applied on the same position where venom was administered to the animals of Groups III–V. Animals in Group II were treated as the positive control (without venom and received croton oil as in Groups III–V. The findings of this study revealed that venom extract of L. quinquestriatus inhibits DMBA + croton oil-induced mouse skin tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. Venom treatment also decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Immunohistochemistry results showed a downregulation of the expression of molecular markers such as Ki-67, nuclear factor kappa-B, cyclooxygenase-2, B-cell lymphoma-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in venom-treated animals. Our findings suggest that the venom of L. quinquestriatus possesses in vivo anticancer potential and may be used in the development of anticancer molecules. Keywords: Leiurus quinquestriatus, skin cancer, apoptosis, immunosuppression

  17. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.; Antiohos, S.K.; Papadi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Definition of parameters characterising agricultural plastic waste (APW) quality. ► Analysis of samples to determine APW quality for recycling or energy recovery. ► Majority of APW samples from various countries have very good quality for recycling. ► Upper limit of 50% w/w soil contamination in APW acceptable for energy recovery. ► Chlorine and heavy metals content in APW below the lowest limit for energy recovery. - Abstract: A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a “very good quality” for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  18. An Updated Review of Dendrochronological Investigations in Mexico, a Megadiverse Country with a High Potential for Tree-Ring Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Acosta-Hernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a very useful science to reconstruct the long-term responses of trees and other woody plants forming annual rings in response to their environment. The present review considered Mexico, a megadiverse country with a high potential for tree-ring sciences given its high climatic and environmental variability. We reviewed papers considering Mexican tree species that were published from 2001 to 2016. Most of these studies examined tree species from temperate forests, mainly in the pine and fir species. The review included 31 tree species. The most intensively sampled family and species were the Pinaceae and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi (Mirb. Franco, respectively. Some threatened tree species were also studied. Dendrochronological investigations were mainly conducted in northern and central Mexico, with Durango being the most sampled state. The reviewed studies were mostly developed for hydroclimatic reconstructions, which were mainly based on the tree-ring width as a proxy for the climate. Tree-ring studies were carried out in both national and foreign institutions. Our review identified relevant research gaps for dendrochronologists such as: (i biomes which are still scarcely studied (e.g., tropical dry forests and (ii approaches still rarely applied to Mexican forests as dendroecology.

  19. Building a platform for scientific-research cooperation under circumstances of realized asymmetry of potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniowski Witold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing complexity of the environment arising both from the processes of globalization in world economy and from the development processes in Poland has become a strategic challenge for the Institute of Aviation. Significant disproportions of the potential of Poland, compared to Germany, United States, or China (especially in terms of the economic dimension and the adopted model for financing scientific research, as well as distant position of Polish universities on the scientific map of the world lead to the necessity to create a model for managing the Institute of Aviation based on internationalization of research and cooperation with leading scientific and (Ohio State University – OSU technological centres (General Electric – GE. The experiences of the Institute of Aviation show that what should be the basis of international competitiveness of research institutes is well educated scientific personnel, modern research infrastructure and competences of cooperation. A proof of this is 16-year-long strategic alliance (private-public partnership of the Institute and GE, cooperation with OSU and activities in European research consortia. The innovative dimension of scientific cooperation with OSU (2+2 formula, research internships, commission for predicting new directions of scientific research and other foreign partners allows the Institute of Aviation to achieve success in competition of international character.

  20. Mixed methods research in the South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences: An investigation of trends in the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ngulube

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed methods research (MMR, which is touted as a third methodological movement is increasingly becoming a popular approach in several fields as a result of the promise it holds to providing a better and balanced investigation of research problems in context. In spite of that, there is limited knowledge about its pervasiveness in economic and management sciences in South Africa. Based on a content analysis of 332 articles published in The South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences from 2003 to 2011, the main purpose of this quantitative study is to explore the prevalence of MMR in SAJEMS. Although methodological advances have been made in the field of economic and management sciences as reflected in the articles in SAJEMS, the findings reveal that scholars employ quantitative and qualitative methodologies than MMR. Given the paucity of MMR in the field, this study underscores the potential benefits of embracing methodological pluralism as it offers methodological and theoretical benefits. First, the use of MMR provides the possibility for researchers to obtain a comprehensive picture of a phenomenon under investigation and achieve their research purpose effectively. Secondly, its utilisation may also contribute to theory development and the maturity of the field as reflected in SAJEMS.

  1. Structure and potential energy function investigation on UH and UH2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Deli; Liu Xiaoya; Jiang Gang; Meng Daqiao; Zhu Zhenghe

    2001-01-01

    Density functional (B3LYP) method with Relativistic Effective Core Potential (RECP) have been used to optimize the structures and to calculate the potential energy function both for the ground and excited states of UH and UH 2 molecules. Results show that the ground state of UH and UH 2 molecules are X 4 II and X 3 A 2 , which belongs to C2v symmetry, and the disassociation energies are 2.886 eV and 5.249 ev respectively, and the spectral data of UH and UH 2 have also been derived both for the ground and excited state. The potential energy function of UH and UH 2 have been derived based on normal equation fitting method and the many-body expansion theory. The information is useful to mechanism analysis of the aging effect of the hydrogen storage material

  2. Planning for investigation and evaluation of potential repository sites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Stroem, A.

    1998-01-01

    The present stage of siting of the Swedish Deep Repository for spent nuclear fuel involves general siting studies on national and regional scales and feasibility studies on a municipal scale. Based on these studies, two areas will be selected for surface-based site investigations. The geoscientific site information will be used in the site evaluation process, in which performance and safety assessments and design studies are the major activities, in combination with geoscientific characterization. The safety report and EIA document from the site investigation stage will be the most important documents in the application for the siting permit and the permit to construct the deep repository. Detailed characterization will then verify the suitability of the selected site. The programme for geoscientific site investigations is based on experience from more than 20 years of field studies in several SKB projects, such as the Study Site Investigations , the Stripa Project, and the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The strategies and methodologies developed, implemented and verified within the Aespoe HRL are a very important source of information and know-how for the development of the site investigation programme. The investigations will produce geoscientific models that include all information needed to analyze the long-term safety of a deep repository located in and adapted to the geological conditions of the rock. The type of geoscientific information needed for performance and safety assessment, layout and design, environmental studies and for fundamental geoscientific understanding has been specified and compiled in a 'parameter' report. The general strategy is that performance assessment, layout and design studies will be conducted in parallel with the geoscientific investigations. Information will be transferred at logical occasions, when decisions have to be taken and when feedback is desirable for new investigation steps. The role of the geoscientific evaluation is to

  3. Infrared and Raman investigation of rare-earth phosphate glasses for potential use as radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    This project was designed to investigate the properties of the rare-earth phosphate glass systems CeO 2 -P 2 O 5 and Pr 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 for potential use as radioactive waste glasses. The glass-forming region and optimum processing parameters of these glass systems were investigated. The structure of the host glasses and glassed loaded with simulated waste elements was investigated using Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Because of the radical differences in the spectra of the molybdenum-loaded glasses, the structure of the MoO 3 -P 2 O 5 glass system was also investigated. 29 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Investigation of potential fire-related damage to safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanless, J.

    1985-11-01

    Based on a review of vendor information, fire damage reports, equipment qualification and hydrogen burn test results, and material properties, thirty-three types of equipment found in nuclear power plants were ranked in terms of their potential sensitivity to fire environments. The ranking considered both the functional requirements and damage proneness of each component. A further review of the seven top-ranked components was performed, considering the relative prevalence and potential safety significance of each. From this, relays and hand switches dominate as first choices for fire damage testing with logic equipment, power supplies, transmitters, and motor control centers as future candidates

  5. Investigating nurse practitioners in the private sector: a theoretically informed research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Margaret; Gardner, Glenn; Yates, Patsy

    2017-06-01

    To report a study protocol and the theoretical framework normalisation process theory that informs this protocol for a case study investigation of private sector nurse practitioners. Most research evaluating nurse practitioner service is focused on public, mainly acute care environments where nurse practitioner service is well established with strong structures for governance and sustainability. Conversely, there is lack of clarity in governance for emerging models in the private sector. In a climate of healthcare reform, nurse practitioner service is extending beyond the familiar public health sector. Further research is required to inform knowledge of the practice, operational framework and governance of new nurse practitioner models. The proposed research will use a multiple exploratory case study design to examine private sector nurse practitioner service. Data collection includes interviews, surveys and audits. A sequential mixed method approach to analysis of each case will be conducted. Findings from within-case analysis will lead to a meta-synthesis across all four cases to gain a holistic understanding of the cases under study, private sector nurse practitioner service. Normalisation process theory will be used to guide the research process, specifically coding and analysis of data using theory constructs and the relevant components associated with those constructs. This article provides a blueprint for the research and describes a theoretical framework, normalisation process theory in terms of its flexibility as an analytical framework. Consistent with the goals of best research practice, this study protocol will inform the research community in the field of primary health care about emerging research in this field. Publishing a study protocol ensures researcher fidelity to the analysis plan and supports research collaboration across teams. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The marketing research on potential outbound tourists in Shanghai to travel in the Kuopio region

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Despite vast researches have been made in the tourism industry, little is known about the tourism in the Kuopio region and the sport activities. This thesis aimed to seek the potential outbound tourists in Shanghai who would be interested to travel to Finland, especially the Kuopio region. The sport activities in Kuopio are popular so that the thesis is also about attitudes of sports tourism. The thesis is made up of two parts: the theoretical part and the empirical part. The author intr...

  7. Prediction markets and their potential role in biomedical research--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Predictions markets are marketplaces for trading contracts with payoffs that depend on the outcome of future events. Popular examples are markets on the outcome of presidential elections, where contracts pay $1 if a specific candidate wins the election and $0 if someone else wins. Contract prices on prediction markets can be interpreted as forecasts regarding the outcome of future events. Further attractive properties include the potential to aggregate private information, to generate and disseminate a consensus among the market participants, and to offer incentives for the acquisition of information. It has been argued that these properties might be valuable in the context of scientific research. In this review, we give an overview of key properties of prediction markets and discuss potential benefits for science. To illustrate these benefits for biomedical research, we discuss an example application in the context of decision making in research on the genetics of diseases. Moreover, some potential practical problems of prediction market application in science are discussed, and solutions are outlined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of the potential of Cyperus alternifolius in the phytoremediation of palm oil mill effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'at, Siti Kamariah Md; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Yusoff, Suffian Mohd; Ismail, Hirun Azaman

    2017-10-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology nowadays due to demand in environmental sustainability which requires cost-effective solutions in terms of capital and operational cost. The treatment gain attention due to their potential in wastewater treatment especially in organics, nutrients, and heavy metal removal of domestics, agricultural, and industrial wastewater treatment. Plant functions in phytoremediation make the plant selection as an essential element. The plant should have the ability to tolerate with the toxic effluent and able to uptake the contaminant. Cyperus alternifolius (umbrella grass) was chosen as aquatic plant due to the ability to tolerance in municipal and industrial effluent sources with strong and dense root systems. Thus, the objectives of this study are to determine the potential and effectiveness of Cyperus alternifolius in the palm oil mill effluent treatment especially in the removal of organics (COD), nutrients (NH3-N and TP) and suspended solid. The batch experiment was run using Cyperus alternifolius to determine their potential of aerobic pond effluent for 21 days of treatment. Cyperus alternifolius treatment shows the great removal of COD and TSS with 96% and 91%, respectively at the end of 21 days of treatment. Nutrients removal achieved the maximum removal of 92% NH3-N and 99% TP shows after 11 days of treatment and percentage slowly decrease until the end of 21 days of treatment. Cyperus alternifolius had shown potential in the palm oil mill effluent treatment and can be combined with ponding treatment to enhance to water quality prior discharge.

  9. Summary of: an in vitro investigation of the erosive potential of smoothies: commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent health promotion campaigns have encouraged the public to consume at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day. Many see consuming fruit smoothies as a way of achieving this. Objective To ascertain the potential or otherwise for fruit smoothies to bring about dental

  10. Investigating the potential use of environmental DNA (eDNA) for genetic monitoring of marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Sveegaard, Signe

    2012-01-01

    detections. However, at one site we detected long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, a species rarely sighted in the Baltic. Therefore, with optimization aimed towards processing larger volumes of seawater this method has the potential to compliment current visual and acoustic methods of species...

  11. Investigations into the triggered lightning response of the F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.; Mckenna, Paul M.; Parker, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted into the lightning characteristics of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft. The investigation includes analysis of measured data from the aircraft in the time and frequency domains. Linear and nonlinear computer modelling has also been performed. In addition, new computer tools have been developed, including a new enhanced nonlinear air breakdown model, and a subgrid model useful for analyzing fine details of the aircraft's geometry. Comparison of measured and calculated electromagnetic responses of the aircraft to a triggered lightning environment are presented.

  12. An investigation into the potential use and sustainability of surfactant coated turfgrass seed for the green industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidanza, Michael; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stan; Madsen, Matthew D.

    2014-05-01

    Turfgrass seed germination and emergence is influenced mostly by water and oxygen availability, temperature, nutrition and biological activity in the rootzone. In many areas globally, seed germination and subsequent turfgrass establishment is greatly diminished due to inadequate irrigation water amount and quality, and the problem is further compound due to water repellent soils. Successful turfgrass seed germination is critical when attempting to establish a more sustainable turfgrass species in place of an existing, high-input required turf stand. Greenhouse research investigations were conducted in 2013 in Pennsylvania (USA), to evaluate surfactant coated perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) seed for germination and emergence, seedling vigor and overall turfgrass quality. Both turfgrasses tested are cool-season or C3 grasses, and perennial ryegrass has a bunch-type growth habit while Kentucky bluegrass is rhizomatous. Perennial ryegrass is used world-wide as a principal component in sports turf mixes and in overseeding programs, and typically germinates rapidly in 3 to 10 days after seeding. Kentucky bluegrass also is used world-wide for sports turf as well as lawns and landscapes, and germinates slowly in 7 to 28 days. Research results indicate that surfactant coated seed of both species germinated one to three days faster compared to uncoated seed, and that seedling vigor and overall turfgrass quality was better with surfactant coated seed compared to uncoated seed. In a study with only perennial ryegrass, surfactant-coated seed without fertilizer (i.e., N and Ca) applied at time of sowing resulted in seedling vigor and quality considered to be similar or better than uncoated seed with fertilizer applied at time of sowing. Therefore, the potential benefits with seed germination and emergence, and seedling vigor and turfgrass quality also may be attributed to the surfactant coating and not only a fertilizer response. The

  13. Use of isotope techniques in lake dynamics investigations. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations was launched with the aim of assessing the potential of environmental isotope techniques in studying the dynamics of surface water bodies and related problems such as: dynamics of solutes; sediment focusing; establishment of water balance components; vulnerability to pollution. The CRP enabled a number of isotope and geochemical studies to be carried out on small and large water bodies, with the general aim of understanding of the dynamics of these systems under the growing anthropogenic influence. This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) held in Rehovot, Israel, from 10 to 13 March 1997. Individual contributions have been indexed separately

  14. Investigating issues influencing knowledge sharing in a research organization, using the Appreciative Inquiry Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Penny

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes to the literature on the subjective experience of knowledge sharing from the perspective of those actively engaged in it. The sharing of knowledge in organizations is influenced by interconnecting factors, including organizational mission, the use made of information technology, and the motivation of individuals. Much of the existing literature takes a reductionist approach to investigating these, treating knowledge as an asset and humans as rational beings. A re...

  15. 59th Medical Wing Clinical Research Division Clinical Investigations Program Posters (Count: 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-08

    Investigations Program Posters (Count: 2) presented at/published to Graduate School Faculty Development and Research Symposium, Gateway Club, JBSA...copy of your abstract, paper. poster and other supporting documentation. 5. Save and forward, via email, the processing form and all supporting...you a final letter of approval or disapproval. g, Once your manuscript, poster or presentation has been approved for a one-lime public release, you may

  16. Television-aided thermographic investigations in nuclear and solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettig, H.; Wollschlaeger, K.

    1983-01-01

    After a brief review of the physical and hardware fundamentals of televison-aided thermographic investigations, two practical examples of nuclear and solid state research work are presented. The problems discussed concern studies of the relative density distribution in beams of particles (ions, electrons, neutral atoms) or of visible radiation on the one hand, and the optimization of operating conditions in heavy-current implantations (ion implantation in Si at ion beam currents up to 60 μA) on the other hand

  17. Comprehension of marketing research textbooks among South African students: An investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, Adele; Petzer, Daniel; Wayland, Jane P.

    2014-01-01

    Reading is a skill people require in order to operate successfully in all spheres of life.  Mastering this skill is even more critical when pursuing academic studies. This study investigated the reading comprehension of final year undergraduate marketing students at a South African higher education institution (HEI) relating to their comprehension of marketing research textbooks. Two measurement instruments were used to test their reading comprehension. One instrument contained two passages f...

  18. Investigating potential effects of heli-skiing on golden eagles in the Wasatch Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; David K. Delaney; William W. Bowerman

    2007-01-01

    Implementing further research was beyond the scope of the U.S. Forest Service's 2004 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and 2005 Wasatch Powderbird Guides (WPG) Special Use Permit Renewal process for heli-skiing in the Tri-Canyon Area in the Wasatch Mountains, just east of Salt Lake City, Utah. However, in their Record of Decision the Wasaatch-Cache (WCNF...

  19. Evaluating UV-C LED disinfection performance and investigating potential dual-wavelength synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) emitting at 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together for their efficacy at inactivating Escherichia. coli, MS2 coliphage, human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and Bacillus pumilus spores; research in...

  20. A theoretical investigation of the collective acceleration of cluster ions with accelerated potential waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Enjoji, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Motoichi; Noritake, Toshiya

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical treatment of the acceleration of cluster ions for additional heating of fusion plasma using the trapping effect in an accelerated potential wave is described. The conceptual design of the accelerator is the same as that by Enjoji, and the potential wave used is sinusoidal. For simplicity, collisions among cluster ions and the resulting breakups are neglected. The masses of the cluster ions are specified to range from 100 m sub(D) to 1000 m sub(D) (m sub(D): mass of a deuterium atom). Theoretical treatment is carried out only for the injection velocity which coincides with the phase velocity of the applied wave at the entrance of the accelerator. An equation describing the rate for successful acceleration of ions with a certain mass is deduced for the continuous injection of cluster ions. Computation for a typical mass distribution shows that more than 70% of the injected particles are effectively accelerated. (author)

  1. Investigation of thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid transition metals using Wills-Harrison potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleque, M.A.; Bhuiyan, G.M.; Rashid, R.I.M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties such as entropy, specific heat capacity at constant pressure and isothermal compressibility have been calculated for liquid 3d, 4d and 5d transition metals near melting temperature. The hard sphere diameter for all such systems is estimated from the potential profile generated from the Wills and Harrison's prescription using linearized WCA theory of liquid. Evaluated values of entropy and specific heat capacity are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Transport property like shear viscosity for these liquid metals is obtained using the same potential profile. Lack of experimental data at melting temperatures hampers detailed comparison for all such systems. However, for the case of transport property, the results obtained are found to compare qualitatively well with the available experimental data. (author)

  2. Research on curcumin: A meta-analysis of potentially malignant disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Syeda Arshiya; Mudda, Jayashree A; Lingappa, Ashok; Rao, Purushottam

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric has been described in ayurveda, and is referred by different names in different cultures, the active principle called curcumin or diferuloylmethane, has been shown to exhibit numerous activities. Extensive research over the last half century has revealed several important functions of curcumin. It binds to a variety of proteins and inhibits the activity of various kinases. By modulating the activation of various transcription factors, curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory enzymes, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and cell survival proteins. Various preclinical, clinical, and animal studies suggest that curcumin has potential as an antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antiangiogenic, as a mediator of chemoresistance, chemopreventive, and as a therapeutic agent. Thus, curcumin a spice once relegated to the kitchen shelf has moved into the clinic and may prove to be "Curecumin." Methodology and Objectives: The focus of this publication is to provide research on curcumin with scientific publications on curcumin indexed in PubMed, Google J-Gate including systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCT's), observational studies, or case series reports for various potentially malignant disorders (PMD's) with special attention to studies on oral submucous fibrosis. This research will be valuable in terms of identifying opportunities to provide recommendations for future research, in terms of the populations to research, the types of interventions needed, the types of outcomes to be measured, the study designs needed, to initiate a pathway for a low-cost research plan for future clinical trials in this field with an emphasis on conducting studies in regions of the world where PMD's are prevalent. There is a lacunae for scientific review of curcumin for PMDs specially on OSMF. Appropriate therapeutic interventions are needed for the initial, intermediate, and advanced stages of the disease. High-quality RCTs should be initiated.

  3. Microcosm investigation of growth and phytoremediation potential of Azolla japonica along nitrogen gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun; Song, Uhram

    2017-10-03

    Although Azolla species are among the most promising plants for use in phytoremediation, more studies on their growth and nitrogen (N) uptake along the N gradients of growing media are required. In this study, N concentration-dependent growth in growing media and phosphorus (P) and N accumulation by Azolla japonica were studied by estimating direct N uptake from media by molybdenum-iron proteins. The doubling time of A. japonica was less than a week, regardless of the N concentration (0, 5, and 25 mg N/L) present in the growth media, indicating that this plant is suitable for remediation. Plants showed a high uptake of P, probably via plant-bacteria symbiosis, indicating their potential for effective P remediation. A. japonica also showed more than 4% N content regardless of the treatment and accumulated more than 40 mg of N per microcosm in 3 weeks. iron and molybdenum levels in plants were strongly associated with N fixation, and N uptake from media was estimated to be more than 25 mg per microcosm in 3 weeks, indicating that A. japonica has N remediation potential. As A. japonica is a rapidly growing plant, capable of efficient P and N remediation, it has great potential for use in phytoremediation of nutrient-enriched waters such as agricultural or urban wastewater and eutrophicated aquatic ecosystems.

  4. New Directions in EEG Measurement: an Investigation into the Fidelity of Electrical Potential Sensor Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. FATOORECHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency noise performance is the key indicator in determining the signal to noise ratio of a capacitively coupled sensor when used to acquire electroencephalogram signals. For this reason, a prototype Electric Potential Sensor device based on an auto-zero operational amplifier has been developed and evaluated. The absence of 1/f noise in these devices makes them ideal for use with signal frequencies ~10 Hz or less. The active electrodes are designed to be physically and electrically robust and chemically and biochemically inert. They are electrically insulated (anodized and have diameters of 12 mm or 18 mm. In both cases, the sensors are housed in inert stainless steel machined housings with the electronics fabricated in surface mount components on a printed circuit board compatible with epoxy potting compounds. Potted sensors are designed to be immersed in alcohol for sterilization purposes. A comparative study was conducted with a commercial wet gel electrode system. These studies comprised measurements of both free running electroencephalogram and Event Related Potentials. Quality of the recorded electroencephalogram was assessed using three methods of inspection of raw signal, comparing signal to noise ratios, and Event Related Potentials noise analysis. A strictly comparable signal to noise ratio was observed and the overall conclusion from these comparative studies is that the noise performance of the new sensor is appropriate.

  5. Polyurethanes for potential use in transparent armour investigated using DSC and DMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekeren, P.J. van; Carton, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    A material combination that may be applied as transparent armour is glass-clad polyurethane. These are comprised of a relatively thin glass strike face and a relatively thick (transparent) polyurethane backing layer. Three transparent polyurethane samples were investigated using differential

  6. An event-related potential investigation of the relationship between semantic and perceptual levels of representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schie, H.T.; Wijers, A.A.; Kellenbach, M.L; Stowe, L.A.

    The present study was conducted to investigate relationships between semantic and perceptual levels of representation. A picture - word repetition paradigm was used in which we manipulated the semantic relationship between pictures and words. Experiment I involved two types of trials, one with words

  7. Investigating the potential of using sonochemical reactors for decomposition of LAS from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, M. H.; Jahed, G. R.; Changani, F.; Azam, K.; Najafpoor, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of using sonochemical reactor for degradation of linear alkylbenzen sulfonates (LAS) from aqueous solution has been investigated. LAS are anionic surfactants, which found in relatively high amounts in domestic and industrial wastewaters. In this study, experiments of LAS solution were performed using methylene blue active substances (MBAS) method. (Author)

  8. Video elicitation interviews: a qualitative research method for investigating physician-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G; Fetters, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants' associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care.

  9. Video Elicitation Interviews: A Qualitative Research Method for Investigating Physician-Patient Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G.; Fetters, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants’ associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care. PMID:22412003

  10. Systematic review of research investigating psychotherapy and information and communication technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Marceliano Hallberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Information and communication technologies (ICTs are devices, services and knowledge that reproduce, process and distribute information. Psychotherapy has been influenced by these technologies, and there is a tendency for their role to expand.Objective: To describe the current panorama of the scientific literature on psychotherapy and ICTs.Method: This is a systematic and descriptive review. Searches were run on the electronic databases Biblioteca Virtual em Saude (BVS, PsycINFO, Scopus, PePSIC, ScienceDirect and Index Psi, using the Boolean operator AND and the descriptors psychotherapy, computers, Internet, cell phones and social networks.Results: A considerable volume of empirical research was found, published recently in many different parts of the world, especially in the United States. There is very little Brazilian research on the subject. The majority of the studies identified assess the efficacy or describe the development of techniques and psychotherapies, via ICTs, for prevention, diagnosis or treatment of mental and behavioral disorders. The psychopathology most investigated in this area is depression and it was not possible to draw conclusions on a possible trend for research into the subject to increase. The technology most investigated was the Internet and cognitive-behavioral therapy was the most common theoretical approach in these studies.Conclusions:Systematic reviews of published studies can detect gaps in the research agenda within a specific field of knowledge.

  11. Systematic review of research investigating psychotherapy and information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Sílvia Cristina Marceliano; Lisboa, Carolina Saraiva de Macedo; de Souza, Déborah Brandão; Mester, Ariela; Braga, Andréia Zambon; Strey, Artur Marques; da Silva, Camila Sartori

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are devices, services and knowledge that reproduce, process and distribute information. Psychotherapy has been influenced by these technologies, and there is a tendency for their role to expand. To describe the current panorama of the scientific literature on psychotherapy and ICTs. This is a systematic and descriptive review. Searches were run on the electronic databases Biblioteca Virtual em Saude (BVS), PsycINFO, Scopus, PePSIC, ScienceDirect and Index Psi, using the Boolean operator AND and the descriptors psychotherapy, computers, Internet, cell phones and social networks. A considerable volume of empirical research was found, published recently in many different parts of the world, especially in the United States. There is very little Brazilian research on the subject. The majority of the studies identified assess the efficacy or describe the development of techniques and psychotherapies, via ICTs, for prevention, diagnosis or treatment of mental and behavioral disorders. The psychopathology most investigated in this area is depression and it was not possible to draw conclusions on a possible trend for research into the subject to increase. The technology most investigated was the Internet and cognitive-behavioral therapy was the most common theoretical approach in these studies. Systematic reviews of published studies can detect gaps in the research agenda within a specific field of knowledge.

  12. The GLOBE Program's Student Climate Research Campaign: Empowering Students to Measure, Investigate, and Understand Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaro, J.; Andersen, T.; Malmberg, J.; Randolph, J. G.; Wegner, K.; Tessendorf, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The GLOBE Program's Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRC) is a two-year campaign focused on empowering students to measure, investigate, and understand the climate system in their local community and around the world. Schools can participate in the campaign via three mechanisms: climate foundations, intensive observing periods (IOPs), and research investigations. Participation in the first year of the SCRC focused on increasing student understanding and awareness of climate. Students in 49 countries participated by joining a quarterly webinar, completing the online climate learning activity, collecting and entering data during IOPs, or completing an online join survey. The year also included a video competition with the theme of Earth Day 2012, as well as a virtual student conference in conjunction with The GLOBE Program's From Learning to Research Project. As the SCRC continues into its second year, the goal is for students to increase their understanding of and ability to conduct scientific research focused on climate. Furthermore, year two of the SCRC seeks to improve students' global awareness by encouraging collaborations among students, teachers and scientists focused on understanding the Earth as a system. In addition to the continuation of activities from year one, year two will have even more webinars offered, two competitions, the introduction of two new IOPs, and a culminating virtual student conference. It is anticipated that this virtual conference will showcase research by students who are enthusiastic and dedicated to understanding climate and mitigating impacts of climate change in their communities. This presentation will highlight examples of how the SCRC is engaging students all over the world in hands-on and locally relevant climate research.

  13. Digital information and communication networks and scientific research substance: An investigation of meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi

    This study investigated research meteorologists' current usage and evaluation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in performing research tasks and the current relationship between meteorologists' ICT use and content characteristics of their research outputs. It surveyed research meteorologists working in three NOAA funded research institutes based at universities. Follow-up interviews with two selective samples of the survey participants were conducted to provide additional evidence to survey results and make suggestions for future measurement development work. Multiple regression analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships between meteorologists' ICT use and two substantive characteristics of their research---data integration and intra-/interdisciplinarity. Descriptive statistics were calculated to discern inferences of the scientists' current state of use and their degree of satisfaction with ICT tools. Follow-up interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively with open coding and axial coding. The study findings contradicted the two assumptions of ICT effects on meteorological research by showing that the greater frequency of networked ICT use is not significantly associated with either greater data integration in research analysis, or greater intra- or interdisciplinary research. The major ICT barrier is the lack of a data and information infrastructure and support system for integrated, standardized, specialized, and easily accessible data and information from distributed servers. Suggestions were provided on the improvements of technical, social, political, and educational settings to promote large-scale date integration and intra-/interdisciplinary research. By moving further from theoretical assumptions to practical examinations, the research findings provide empirical evidence of Bowker's theories on the social shaping and social impact of infrastructure in sciences and affirmed some of Bowker's arguments regarding

  14. An Investigation of the Antifouling Potential of Extracts of the Periostracum of Mytilus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    organisms), and has been extensively studied and qualified by numerous researchers (Abarzua & Jakubowski, 1995; Callow & Callow, 2002; Wahl, 1989; Yebra ...occurring almost instantaneously on contact with the (typically) marine aquatic environment (Wahl, 1989; Yebra et al., 2004). The rapid formation of this...al., 2003; Wahl, 1989; Yebra et al., 2004). Fouling of ship hulls and niche areas represents a significant cost for the maritime industry. Higher

  15. Social Networking Site Usage Among Childhood Cancer Survivors - A Potential Tool for Research Recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Erica D.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Mensah, Edward K.; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors’ reported use of SNS such as facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Methods Sixty White, Black and Hispanic, adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18 – 48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study (CHLS), participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Results Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80% were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. Conclusions and implications for cancer survivors The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research. PMID:24532046

  16. Social networking site usage among childhood cancer survivors--a potential tool for research recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Erica D; Stolley, Melinda R; Mensah, Edward K; Sharp, Lisa K

    2014-09-01

    The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors' reported use of SNS such as Facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Sixty White, Black, and Hispanic adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18-48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study, participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80 % were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research.

  17. Pitfalls, Potentials, and Ethics of Online Survey Research: LGBTQ and Other Marginalized and Hard-to-Access Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInroy, Lauren B

    2016-06-01

    Online research methodologies may serve as an important mechanism for population-focused data collection in social work research. Online surveys have become increasingly prevalent in research inquiries with young people and have been acknowledged for their potential in investigating understudied and marginalized populations and subpopulations, permitting increased access to communities that tend to be less visible-and thus often less studied-in offline contexts. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) young people are a socially stigmatized, yet digitally active, youth population whose participation in online surveys has been previously addressed in the literature. Many of the opportunities and challenges of online survey research identified with LGBTQ youths may be highly relevant to other populations of marginalized and hard-to-access young people, who are likely present in significant numbers in the online environment (for example, ethnoracialized youths and low-income youths). In this article, the utility of online survey methods with marginalized young people is discussed, and recommendations for social work research are provided.

  18. Investigation Characteristics Of Pulp Fibers AS Green Potential Polymer Reinforcing Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Masruchin, Nanang; Subyakto

    2012-01-01

    Three kinds of pulp fiber (i.e. kenaf, pineapple and coconut fiber)were characterized as reinforcing agents in compositematerials to be applied at automotive interior industry.Abetter understanding on characteristics of fiber will lead to enhance interface adhesion between fiber and matrices. Furthermore, it will improve the properties of polymer significantly. Chemical, surface compositions as well as morphology of pulp fiber were investigated using TAPPI standard test method, Fourier Transf...

  19. Investigation of Bohr Hamiltonian in presence of Killingbeck potential using bi-confluent Heun functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Hadi; Hassanabadi, Hassan; Chung, Won Sang

    2018-05-01

    In this study, Bohr Hamiltonian is studied for the triaxial and rotational cases. In both cases, Killingbeck potential is used as interaction. The wave function and energy of these cases are found using bi-confluent Heun functions. The results are examined by reproducing experimental data of some isotopes for each case. Energy levels of the isotopes are shown graphically as well as theoretical results for staggering in γ bands of the isotopes is discussed. In the next step, we argue about B (E 2) transition rates of the isotopes for each case. The results have a good agreement with experimental data.

  20. Radionuclide disequilibria studies for investigating the integrity of potential nuclear waste disposal sites: subseabed studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Thomas, C.W.; Petersen, M.R.; Perkins, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    This study of subseabed sediments indicates that natural radionuclides can be employed to define past long-term migration rates and thereby evaluate the integrity of potential disposal sites in ocean sediments. The study revealed the following conclusions: (1) the sedimentation rate of both the long and short cores collected in the North Pacific is 2.5 mm/1000 yr or 2.5 m/m.yr in the upper 3 meters; (2) the sedimentation rate has been rather constant over the last one million years; and (3) slow diffusive processes dominate within the sediment. Reworking of the sediment by physical processes or organisms is not observed

  1. Investigating d-cycloserine as a potential pharmacological enhancer of an emotional bias learning procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Blackwell, Simon E; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Browning, Michael; Holmes, Emily A; Harmer, Catherine J; Margraf, Jürgen; Reinecke, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    The partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist d-cycloserine may enhance psychological therapies. However, its exact mechanism of action is still being investigated. Cognitive bias modification techniques allow isolation of cognitive processes and thus investigation of how they may be affected by d-cycloserine. We used a cognitive bias modification paradigm targeting appraisals of a stressful event, Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal, to investigate whether d-cycloserine enhanced the modification of appraisal, and whether it caused greater reduction in indices of psychopathology. Participants received either 250 mg of d-cycloserine ( n=19) or placebo ( n=19). As a stressor task, participants recalled a negative life event, followed by positive Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal training. Before and after Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal, appraisals and indices of psychopathology related to the stressor were assessed. Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal successfully modified appraisals, but d-cycloserine did not affect appraisals post-training. There were no post-training group differences in frequency of intrusions. Interestingly, d-cycloserine led to a greater reduction in distress and impact on state mood from recalling the event, and lower distress post-training was associated with fewer intrusions. Therefore, d-cycloserine may affect emotional reactivity to recalling a negative event when combined with induction of a positive appraisal style, but via a mechanism other than enhanced learning of the appraisal style.

  2. Current research and potential applications of the Concealed Information Test: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gershon eBen-Shakhar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research interest in psychophysiological detection of deception has significantly increased since the September 11 terror attack in the USA. In particular, the Concealed Information Test (CIT, designed to detect memory traces that can connect suspects to a certain crime, has been extensively studied. In this paper I will briefly review several psychophysiological detection paradigms that have been studied, with a focus on the CIT. The theoretical background of the CIT, its strength and weaknesses, its potential applications as well as research finings related to its validity, (based on a recent mata-analytic study, will be discussed. Several novel research directions, with a focus on factors that may affect CIT detection in realistic settings (e.g., memory for crime details; the effect of emotional stress during crime execution will be described. Additionally, research focusing on mal-intentions and attempts to detect terror networks using information gathered from groups of suspects using both the standard CIT and the searching CIT will be reviewed. Finally, implications of current research to the actual application of the CIT will be discussed and several recommendations that can enhance the use of the CIT will be made.

  3. Horonobe underground research laboratory project investigation report for the 2005 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroya; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yamaguchi, Takehiro

    2006-11-01

    The investigations in 2005 fiscal year (2005/2006) were focused on the Hokushin area, which was selected as the area for laboratory construction. The main investigation region extends over approximately 3 km x 3 km. Geophysical, geological and surface hydrogeological investigations are carried out to acquire the geoscientific data needed to develop techniques for investigating the geological environment. And the borehole investigation at HDB-11 was finished in 2005. About development of techniques for long-term monitoring of the geological environment, long-term monitoring systems were operative in boreholes drilled in a previous investigation, and were also installed in the remaining boreholes (HDB-9, 10; drilled in 2004). A remotely operated monitoring system (ACROSS) was also installed and tested. About study on long-term stability of the geological environment, for tracing tectonic changes at Horonobe, geological survey and ground penetrating radar were carried out. Observations using seismograph, global positioning system (GPS) and electromagnetic exploration system installed until 2006 were continuing. About improving the reliability of disposal technology, laboratory tests of low alkaline concrete, shotcrete test at full-size simulated tunnel were carried out. Applicability confirmation of EBS designing methods was carried out with geological environmental data of Phase 1. About sophistication of safety assessment methodologies, Sorption test using drill core was carried out. Solute transport analysis was also carried out. In parallel with these investigations, Phase 2 investigation program were planned. About surface facility, Research and Administration Facility and Test Facility were constructed and started to use since February 2006. Public information house was begun to construct. About underground facility, temporary surplus soil (muck) yard was constructed. Surplus soil yard and drainage line were designed. These caused by toxic substance founded in

  4. Investigation of antioxidative and anticancer potentials of Streptomyces sp. MUM256 isolated from Malaysia mangrove soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loh eTeng Hern

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Streptomyces strain, MUM256 was isolated from Tanjung Lumpur mangrove soil in Malaysia. Characterization of the strain showed that it has properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. In order to explore the potential bioactivities, extract of the fermented broth culture of MUM256 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method. DPPH and SOD activity were utilized to examine the antioxidant capacity and the results have revealed the potency of MUM256 in superoxide anion scavenging activity in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of MUM256 extract was determined using cell viability assay against 8 different panels of human cancer cell lines. Among all the tested cancer cells, HCT116 was the most sensitive toward the extract treatment. At the highest concentration of tested extract, the result showed 2.3, 2.0 and 1.8 folds higher inhibitory effect against HCT116, HT29 and Caco-2 respectively when compared to normal cell line. This result has demonstrated that MUM256 extract was selectively cytotoxic towards colon cancer cell lines. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its bioactivities, the extract was then subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. The analysis resulted in the identification of chemical constituents including phenolic and pyrrolopyrazine compounds which may responsible for antioxidant and anticancer activities observed. Based on the findings of this study, the presence of bioactive constituents in MUM256 extract could be a potential source for the development of antioxidative and chemopreventive agents.

  5. Investigation of potential targets of Porphyromonas CRISPRs among the genomes of Porphyromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takayasu; Shibasaki, Masaki; Maruyama, Fumito; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    The oral bacterial species Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, has plastic genomes that may be driven by homologous recombination with exogenous deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is incorporated by natural transformation and conjugation. However, bacteriophages and plasmids, both of which are main resources of exogenous DNA, do not exist in the known P. gingivalis genomes. This could be associated with an adaptive immunity system conferred by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (cas) genes in P. gingivalis as well as innate immune systems such as a restriction-modification system. In a previous study, few immune targets were predicted for P. gingivalis CRISPR/Cas. In this paper, we analyzed 51 P. gingivalis genomes, which were newly sequenced, and publicly available genomes of 13 P. gingivalis and 46 other Porphyromonas species. We detected 6 CRISPR/Cas types (classified by sequence similarity of repeat) in P. gingivalis and 12 other types in the remaining species. The Porphyromonas CRISPR spacers with potential targets in the genus Porphyromonas were approximately 23 times more abundant than those with potential targets in other genus taxa (1,720/6,896 spacers vs. 74/6,896 spacers). Porphyromonas CRISPR/Cas may be involved in genome plasticity by exhibiting selective interference against intra- and interspecies nucleic acids.

  6. Preparation and investigation of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I-conjugated liposomes as potential oral vaccine carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, KeXin; Chen, DaWei; Zhao, XiuLi; Hu, HaiYang; Yang, ChunRong; Pang, DaHai

    2011-11-01

    We prepared and optimized Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI)-modified Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-encapsulating liposomes (UEAI-LIP) as oral vaccine carriers and examined the feasibility of inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses by oral administration of UEAILIP. The prepared systems were characterized in vitro for their average size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and conjugation efficiency (CE%). In vitro release studies indicated that the presence of UEAI around the optimized liposomes was able to prevent a burst release of loaded BSA and provide sustained release of the encapsulated protein. In vivo immune-stimulating results in KM mice showed that BSA given intramuscularly generated systemic response only but both systemic and mucosal immune responses could be induced simultaneously in the groups in which BSA-loaded liposomes (LIP) and UEAI-LIP were administered intragastrically. Furthermore, the modification of UEAI on the surface of liposomes could further enhance the IgA and IgG levels obviously. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the high potential of lectin-modified liposomes containing the antigen as carriers for oral vaccine.

  7. Investigating potential correlations between jet engine noise and plume dynamics in the hypertemporal infrared domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed; Knobel, Kimberly; Wager, Jason; Lopez, Gerardo

    2014-09-01

    Jet engine noise can be a hazard and environmental pollutant, affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines. Mitigating the effects of jet engine noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers, but engine noise is not yet sufficiently well-characterized that it can easily be mitigated for new engine designs. That is, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the utility of high-speed imaging (also called hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet aircraft engines with acoustic noise from the jet engines. This paper will focus on a theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures, and will define potentially-detectable characteristics of such signatures in the hypertemporal domain. A systematic test campaign to determine whether such signatures actually exist and can be correlated with acoustic jet engine characteristics will be proposed. The detection of any hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines will enable the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to benefits for operators of large numbers of jet engines.

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the potential of osmotic energy for power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Adel O; Merdaw, Ali A; Aryafar, Maryam; Nicoll, Peter

    2014-08-08

    This paper presents a study on the potential of osmotic energy for power production. The study includes both pilot plant testing and theoretical modelling as well as cost estimation. A projected cost of £30/MWh of clean electricity could be achieved by using a Hydro-Osmotic Power (HOP) plant if a suitable membrane is used and the osmotic potential difference between the two solutions is greater than 25 bar; a condition that can be readily found in many sites around the world. Results have shown that the membrane system accounts for 50%-80% of the HOP plant cost depending on the salinity difference level. Thus, further development in membrane technology and identifying suitable membranes would have a significant impact on the feasibility of the process and the route to market. As the membrane permeability determines the HOP process feasibility, this paper also describes the effect of the interaction between the fluid and the membrane on the system permeability. It has been shown that both the fluid physical properties as well as the membrane micro-structural parameters need to be considered if further development of the HOP process is to be achieved.

  9. Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of the Potential of Osmotic Energy for Power Production †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Adel O.; Merdaw, Ali A.; Aryafar, Maryam; Nicoll, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the potential of osmotic energy for power production. The study includes both pilot plant testing and theoretical modelling as well as cost estimation. A projected cost of £30/MWh of clean electricity could be achieved by using a Hydro-Osmotic Power (HOP) plant if a suitable membrane is used and the osmotic potential difference between the two solutions is greater than 25 bar; a condition that can be readily found in many sites around the world. Results have shown that the membrane system accounts for 50%–80% of the HOP plant cost depending on the salinity difference level. Thus, further development in membrane technology and identifying suitable membranes would have a significant impact on the feasibility of the process and the route to market. As the membrane permeability determines the HOP process feasibility, this paper also describes the effect of the interaction between the fluid and the membrane on the system permeability. It has been shown that both the fluid physical properties as well as the membrane micro-structural parameters need to be considered if further development of the HOP process is to be achieved. PMID:25110959

  10. A simple technique investigating baseline heterogeneity helped to eliminate potential bias in meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Amy; Fairhurst, Caroline; Torgerson, David J

    2018-03-01

    To perform a worked example of an approach that can be used to identify and remove potentially biased trials from meta-analyses via the analysis of baseline variables. True randomisation produces treatment groups that differ only by chance; therefore, a meta-analysis of a baseline measurement should produce no overall difference and zero heterogeneity. A meta-analysis from the British Medical Journal, known to contain significant heterogeneity and imbalance in baseline age, was chosen. Meta-analyses of baseline variables were performed and trials systematically removed, starting with those with the largest t-statistic, until the I 2 measure of heterogeneity became 0%, then the outcome meta-analysis repeated with only the remaining trials as a sensitivity check. We argue that heterogeneity in a meta-analysis of baseline variables should not exist, and therefore removing trials which contribute to heterogeneity from a meta-analysis will produce a more valid result. In our example none of the overall outcomes changed when studies contributing to heterogeneity were removed. We recommend routine use of this technique, using age and a second baseline variable predictive of outcome for the particular study chosen, to help eliminate potential bias in meta-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of the Potential of Osmotic Energy for Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel O. Sharif

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the potential of osmotic energy for power production. The study includes both pilot plant testing and theoretical modelling as well as cost estimation. A projected cost of £30/MWh of clean electricity could be achieved by using a Hydro-Osmotic Power (HOP plant if a suitable membrane is used and the osmotic potential difference between the two solutions is greater than 25 bar; a condition that can be readily found in many sites around the world. Results have shown that the membrane system accounts for 50%–80% of the HOP plant cost depending on the salinity difference level. Thus, further development in membrane technology and identifying suitable membranes would have a significant impact on the feasibility of the process and the route to market. As the membrane permeability determines the HOP process feasibility, this paper also describes the effect of the interaction between the fluid and the membrane on the system permeability. It has been shown that both the fluid physical properties as well as the membrane micro-structural parameters need to be considered if further development of the HOP process is to be achieved.

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigation of density and potential fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endler, M.; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H.; Rudyj, A.; Theimer, G.

    1993-01-01

    In the divertor tokamak ASDEX density and potential fluctuations in the scrape-off layer were investigated with high temporal and spatial resolution by Langmuir probes and an H α diagnostic. Many results of these measurements were reported and are summarized below. Several of these properties of the fluctuations have also been reported from other experiments. (orig.)

  13. Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G. [UNR; Driscoll, N. [UCSD; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R. [USGS; Louie, J. [UNR; Pullammanappallil, S. [Optim

    2016-08-01

    Amy Eisses, Annie M. Kell, Graham Kent, Neal W. Driscoll, Robert E. Karlin, Robert L. Baskin, John N. Louie, Kenneth D. Smith, Sathish Pullammanappallil, 2011, Marine and land active-source seismic investigation of geothermal potential, tectonic structure, and earthquake hazards in Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Dec. 5-9, abstract NS14A-08.

  14. GeneLab: Multi-Omics Investigation of Rodent Research-1 Bio-Banked Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, San-Huei; Boyko, Valery; Chakravarty, Kaushik; Chen, Rick; Dueck, Sandra; Berrios, Daniel C.; Fogle, Homer; Marcu, Oana; Timucin, Linda; Reinsch, Sigrid; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASAs Rodent Research (RR) project is playing a critical role in advancing biomedical research on the physiological effects of space environments. Due to the limited resources for conducting biological experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS), it is imperative to use crew time efficiently while maximizing high-quality science return. NASAs GeneLab project has as its primary objectives to 1) further increase the value of these experiments using a multi-omics, systems biology-based approach, and 2) disseminate these data without restrictions to the scientific community. The current investigation assessed viability of RNA, DNA, and protein extracted from archived RR-1 tissue samples for epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic assays. During the first RR spaceflight experiment, a variety of tissue types were harvested from subjects, snap-frozen or RNAlater-preserved, and then stored at least a year at -80OC after return to Earth. They were then prioritized for this investigation based on likelihood of significant scientific value for spaceflight research. All tissues were made available to GeneLab through the bio-specimen sharing program managed by the Ames Life Science Data Archive and included mouse adrenal glands, quadriceps, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, soleus, eye, and kidney. We report here protocols for and results of these tissue extractions, and thus, the feasibility and value of these kinds of omics analyses. In addition to providing additional opportunities for investigation of spaceflight effects on the mouse transcriptome and proteome in new kinds of tissues, our results may also be of value to program managers for the prioritization of ISS crew time for rodent research activities. Support from the NASA Space Life and Physical Sciences Division and the International Space Station Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Cell phone use among homeless youth: potential for new health interventions and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Lee, Alex; Taitt, Sean

    2011-12-01

    Cell phone use has become nearly ubiquitous among adolescents in the United States. Despite the potential for cell phones to facilitate intervention, research, and care for homeless youth, no data exists to date on cell phone use among this population. In 2009, a survey of cell phone use was conducted among a non-probability sample of 169 homeless youth in Los Angeles, CA. Levels of ownership and use, instrumental uses (connecting to case workers, employers) and patterns of connecting to various network types were assessed (family, home-based peers, street-based peers). Differences in socio-demographic characteristics and cell phone ownership were assessed via t test and chi-square statistics. Sixty-two percent of homeless youth own a cell phone; 40% have a working phone. Seventeen percent used their phone to call a case manager, 36% to call either a potential or current employer. Fifty-one percent of youth connected with home-based peers on the phone and 41% connected to parents. Cell phones present new opportunities for intervention research, connecting homeless youth to family and home-based peers who can be sources of social support in times of need. Moreover, cell phones provide researchers and providers with new avenues to maintain connections with these highly transient youth.

  16. Way Search to Research: from Academic Exercises in Architecture to Scientific Investigations into Actual Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintaras Stauskis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. An interest in doctoral studies reflects the overall status of the scientist in the country in general and the role of science in the architect profession in particular. The article analyses the basic channels of how the students of architecture search for and find the ways to transfer themselves from the study area into an academic research environment. In order to figure out general trends and to outline the differences and similarities of doctoral studies that could further facilitate cooperation, the paper presents the thematic outputs of doctoral programmes in architecture schools in Vilnius, Riga, Venice, Jelgava and Weimar. With reference to the example of the Faculty of Architecture, VGTU, the trends towards developing research activities are analysed taking into account three interconnected branches of architecture: urban design, building architecture and landscape architecture. The cooperation and coordination of academic and research activities in wider European space is taking place upon common interest based on the specificities of each school and priorities of the chosen region. The awareness of global and regional processes in architectural research is an important point for the present and coming generations of researchers in Europe as they are building their careers on the basis of investigation into the options of the local applications of global competences in a cross-professional and inter-disciplinary way.

  17. The Application of Intensive Longitudinal Methods to Investigate Change: Stimulating the Field of Applied Family Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Katharine T

    2016-03-01

    The use of intensive longitudinal methods (ILM)-rapid in situ assessment at micro timescales-can be overlaid on RCTs and other study designs in applied family research. Particularly, when done as part of a multiple timescale design-in bursts over macro timescales-ILM can advance the study of the mechanisms and effects of family interventions and processes of family change. ILM confers measurement benefits in accurately assessing momentary and variable experiences and captures fine-grained dynamic pictures of time-ordered processes. Thus, ILM allows opportunities to investigate new research questions about intervention effects on within-subject (i.e., within-person, within-family) variability (i.e., dynamic constructs) and about the time-ordered change process that interventions induce in families and family members beginning with the first intervention session. This paper discusses the need and rationale for applying ILM to family intervention evaluation, new research questions that can be addressed with ILM, example research using ILM in the related fields of basic family research and the evaluation of individual-based interventions. Finally, the paper touches on practical challenges and considerations associated with ILM and points readers to resources for the application of ILM.

  18. A scoping review of the potential for chart stimulated recall as a clinical research method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Carol; Kelly, Martina A; Bradley, Colin P

    2017-08-22

    Chart-stimulated recall (CSR) is a case-based interviewing technique, which is used in the assessment of clinical decision-making in medical education and professional certification. Increasingly, clinical decision-making is a concern for clinical research in primary care. In this study, we review the prior application and utility of CSR as a technique for research interviews in primary care. Following Arksey & O'Malley's method for scoping reviews, we searched seven databases, grey literature, reference lists, and contacted experts in the field. We excluded studies on medical education or competence assessment. Retrieved citations were screened by one reviewer and full texts were ordered for all potentially relevant abstracts. Two researchers independently reviewed full texts and performed data extraction and quality appraisal if inclusion criteria were met. Data were collated and summarised using a published framework on the reporting of qualitative interview techniques, which was chosen a priori. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines informed the review report. From an initial list of 789 citations, eight studies using CSR in research interviews were included in the review: six from North America, one from the Netherlands, and one from Ireland. The most common purpose of included studies was to examine the influence of guidelines on physicians' decisions. The number of interviewees ranged from seven to twenty nine, while the number of charts discussed per interview ranged from one to twelve. CSR gave insights into physicians' reasoning for actions taken or not taken; the unrecorded social and clinical influences on decisions; and discrepancies between physicians' real and perceived practice. Ethical concerns and the training and influence of the researcher were poorly discussed in most of the studies. Potential pitfalls included the risk of recall, selection and observation biases. Despite the proven validity

  19. Preclinical stress research: where are we headed? An early career investigator's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururajan, Anand; Kos, Aron; Lopez, Juan Pablo

    2018-03-07

    Stress is a major risk factor in the development of various psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. The use of stress paradigms in preclinical contexts is essential to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders. However, they are not without their limitations and in this commentary, we have examined some of the practical issues associated with their use. We also highlight some of the latest techniques to identify their neuromolecular correlates as well as the potentially important and integrative role of computational neuroscience. Finally, we share our perspective on future directions in the field of preclinical stress research.

  20. Liraglutide in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized trial, investigating effects on thrombogenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Nylander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE and cardiovascular disease (CVD in later life. We aimed to study the effect of liraglutide intervention on markers of VTE and CVD risk, in PCOS. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 72 overweight and/or insulinresistant women with PCOS were randomized, in a 2:1 ratio, to liraglutide or placebo 1.8 mg/day. Endpoints included between-group difference in change (baseline to follow-up in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels and in thrombin generation test parameters: endogenous thrombin potential, peak thrombin concentration, lag time and time to peak. Mean weight loss was 5.2 kg (95% CI 3.0–7.5 kg, P < 0.001 in the liraglutide group compared with placebo. We detected no effect on endogenous thrombin potential in either group. In the liraglutide group, peak thrombin concentration decreased by 16.71 nmol/L (95% CI 2.32–31.11, P < 0.05 and lag time and time to peak increased by 0.13 min (95% CI 0.01–0.25, P < 0.05 and 0.38 min (95% CI 0.09–0.68, P < 0.05, respectively, but there were no between-group differences. There was a trend toward 12% (95% CI 0–23, P = 0.05 decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the liraglutide group, and there was a trend toward 16% (95% CI −4 to 32, P = 0.10 reduction, compared with placebo. In overweight women with PCOS, liraglutide intervention caused an approximate 5% weight loss. In addition, liraglutide affected thrombin generation, although not significantly differently from placebo. A concomitant trend toward improved fibrinolysis indicates a possible reduction of the baseline thrombogenic potential. The findings point toward beneficial effects of liraglutide on markers of VTE and CVD risk, which should be further pursued in larger studies.

  1. Investigation of the surface potential of TiO2 (110) by frequency-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Lili; Li, Yan Jun; Kamijyo, Takeshi; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the surface potential distribution on a TiO2 (110)-1 × 1 surface by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and atom-dependent bias-distance spectroscopic mapping. The experimental results demonstrate that the local contact potential difference increases on twofold-coordinated oxygen sites, and decreases on OH defects and fivefold-coordinated Ti sites. We propose a qualitative model to explain the origin of the surface potential of TiO2 (110). We qualitatively calculate the surface potential induced by chemical potential and permanent surface dipole. The calculated results agree with our experimental ones. Therefore, we suggest that the surface potential of TiO2 (110) is dominated not only by the permanent surface dipole between the tip apex atom and surface, but also by the dipoles induced by the chemical interaction between the tip and sample. The KPFM technique demonstrate the possibility of investigation of the charge transfer phenomenon on TiO2 surface under gas conditions. It is useful for the elucidation of the mechanism of the catalytic reactions.

  2. Investigation research of core-basic information associated with the coupling analysis. Outline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Shinichi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Kawahara, Kenichi; Neyama, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Koichi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji

    2001-03-01

    The newest literature information in the foreign countries was researched, and this research showed the basic concept of the coupling analysis code to realize coupling analysis in near field of the geological disposal system. The outline of this research is shown in the following. (1) The combination of M (Mechanical) and C (Chemistry) is placed on the weak relations, because coupling analysis of the United States Yucca Mountain limits a site and the specifications of engineered barrier. (2) One of the purposes of this research is information collecting about coupling analysis code NUFT-C adopted in the United States Yucca Mountain. Therefore, we carried out an information exchange with the United States Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We could collect the development purpose of analysis code, key function, and information such as a test case analysis. (3) The investigation of the analysis code concerned with the newest information of coupling analysis which contains the geochemistry process and 2 phase system was done based on the public information for the purpose of building some concept of the coupling analysis code, the extraction of the development issues. It could be understood about the future development strategy and the precaution in addition to a phenomenon to deal with, the current status of the coupling analysis technique as a result of the investigation. (4) It was cleared about the mission of the coupling analysis code and the requirement items (function, quality) by this research. Then, some development options were presented. (5) It was studied about the procedure of developing it to satisfy the above requirement toward the conditions that a site isn't selected, the short development. The tool (Diffpack) which could cope with the speed-up of the calculation time and visualization flexibly was effective, and it was summarized about the test case by using this tool, the key function of this tool as that result. (author)

  3. Exploring the Potential of a German Living Lab Research Infrastructure for the Development of Low Resource Products and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus von Geibler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Living Labs for Sustainable Development aim to integrate users and actors for the successful generation of low-resource innovations in production-consumption systems. This paper investigates potentials of and measures towards the realization of a German Living Lab infrastructure to support actor-integrated sustainability research and innovations in Germany. Information was primarily derived from extensive dialog with experts from the fields of innovation, sustainable development and the Living Lab community (operators, users, etc., which was facilitated through interviews and workshops. A status quo analysis revealed that, generally, the sustainability and Living Lab communities are hardly intertwined. Twelve Living Labs that explicitly consider sustainability aspects were identified. The application fields “Living and Working”, “Town, Region and Mobility”, and “Retail and Gastronomy” were identified as particularly suitable for investigation in Living Labs and highly relevant in terms of resource efficiency. Based on the analyses of drivers and barriers and SWOT, keystones for the development of a research infrastructure for user integrated development of sustainable products and services were formulated. Suggested strategies and measures include targeted funding programs for actor-integrated, socio-technical research based on a Living Lab network, a communication campaign, and programs to foster networking and the inclusion of SMEs.

  4. An Investigation of the Design Potential of Thermochromic Home Textiles Used with Electric Heating Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermochromic colorants have been developed since before the 1900s. There are a large number of patents in different applications of thermochromic textiles, but many innovations leave the field of aesthetic and functional textile design unexplored in the area of smart materials. This study aims to develop thermochromic home textiles that change colors and patterns by integrating thermochromic pigments and electric conductive yarns into textile structures. Stainless steel conductive yarns were sewed on textile substrates to enable heat generation to increase fabric temperature. The heat generation and temperature rise could be controlled by monitoring the voltage applied. The experiments of this study focused on analyzing electric resistance and heating properties of the conductive yarns and observing color changing time and color changing effects of the thermochromic textiles. By using the technique in this research, an image of “tai chi” was designed and implemented in a backlighting thermochromic fabric. It illustrates a range of opportunities for thermochromic textiles in new design research directions of Chinese calligraphy and traditional Chinese painting.

  5. THE EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF FATHERHOOD: CONCEPTUAL BASES OF RESEARCH AND SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zagvyazinsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, under the conditions of a general crisis of family relations, fatherhood as a social phenomenon and institution increasingly attracts the interest of researchers in various fields of humanitarian knowledge. However, Russian researchers have not treated educational potential of fatherhood in much detail due to historically developed objective reasons. Most studies are conducted not systemically; many of them describe typical problems. Moreover, previous studies of the educational potential of fatherhood have not dealt with practical recommendations for support and development of fatherhood as an educational institution.The aims of this research are: the analysis of fatherhood as an educational institution; scientific and theoretical justification for opportunities to strengthen family relations and children welfare through pedagogical support for fatherhood period.Methodology and research methods. The methodological framework of the research undertaken by authors is based on institutional approach. The relevant directions of the research on the stated problematics are highlighted on the basis of the review of the Russian and foreign scientific literature; the analysis of normative documents and generalization of social and pedagogical practices. The theoretical analysis and synthesis of the data obtained during the surveys among men from different regions ofRussia and foreign countries allowed the authors to structure typical ideas about fatherhood and to model a concept for its educational resources.Results and scientific novelty. The problems complicating mass reproduction of effective “fatherly pedagogy” are designated: system crisis of a family and masculinity; socio-economic factors resulting in the low educational motivation of fathers; lack of clear and positive ideological and valuable bases of human existence, etc. The concepts “fatherhood” and “educational potential of fatherhood” are consistently

  6. ZETA POTENTIAL AND COLOR INVESTIGATIONS OF VEGETABLE OIL BASED EMULSIONS AS ECO-FRIENDLY LUBRICANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMICĂ CREŢU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past 10 years, the need for biodegradable lubricants has been more and more emphasized. The use of vegetable oils as lubricants offers several advantages. The vegetable oils are biodegradable; thus, the environmental pollution is minimal either during or after their use. The aim of this paper is to presents a preliminary study concerning the influence of some preparation conditions on the stability of vegetable oil-in-water (O/W emulsions as eco-friendly lubricants stabilized by nonionic surfactant. In this context, vegetable oil-in-water emulsions characteristics where assessed using microscopically observation and zeta potential. In addition, the color of these emulsions can be evaluated. It can be observed that the emulsions tend to stabilize in time.

  7. In vitro investigation of Debaryomyces hansenii strains for potential probiotic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ochangco, Honeylet Sabas; Gamero, Amparo; Smith, Ida Mosbech

    2016-01-01

    and mucin, and (3) modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. As references two commercially available probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (S. boulardii) strains were included in the study. Our results demonstrate that the different D....... hansenii yeast strains had very diverse properties which could potentially lead to different probiotic effects. One strain of D. hansenii (DI 09) was capable of surviving GI stress conditions, although not to the same degree as the S. boulardii strains. This DI 09 strain, however, adhered more strongly...... to Caco-2 cells and mucin than the S. boulardii strains. Additionally, two D. hansenii strains (DI 10 and DI 15) elicited a higher IL-10/IL-12 ratio than the S. boulardii strains, indicating a higher anti-inflammatory effects on human dendritic cells. Finally, one strain of D. hansenii (DI 02...

  8. Investigation of surface potentials in reduced graphene oxide flake by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Ryota; Takashima, Kai; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro

    2018-06-01

    The surface potential (SP) of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) flakes prepared by thermal treatments of GO under several conditions was analyzed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The low-crystalline rGO flakes in which a significant amount of oxygen functional groups and structural defects remain have a much lower SP than mechanically exfoliated graphene free from oxygen and defects. On the other hand, the highly crystalline rGO flake after a thermal treatment for the efficient removal of oxygen functional groups and healing of structural defects except for domain boundary shows SP equivalent to that of the mechanically exfoliated graphene. These results indicate that the work function of rGO is sensitively modulated by oxygen functional groups and structural defects remaining after the thermal reduction process, but is not affected significantly by the domain boundary remaining after the healing of structural defects through the thermal treatment at high temperature.

  9. Investigation of RF-enhanced plasma potentials on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoukov, R., E-mail: ochoukov@psfc.mit.edu [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Whyte, D.G.; Brunner, D. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cziegler, I. [Center for Energy Research, UCSD, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Myra, J. [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue P-5, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Terry, J.; Wukitch, S. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Radio frequency (RF) sheath rectification is a leading mechanism suspected of causing anomalously high erosion of plasma facing materials in RF-heated plasmas on Alcator C-Mod. An extensive experimental survey of the plasma potential (Φ{sub P}) in RF-heated discharges on C-Mod reveals that significant Φ{sub P} enhancement (>100 V) is found on outboard limiter surfaces, both mapped and not mapped to active RF antennas. Surfaces that magnetically map to active RF antennas show Φ{sub P} enhancement that is, in part, consistent with the recently proposed slow wave rectification mechanism. Surfaces that do not map to active RF antennas also experience significant Φ{sub P} enhancement, which strongly correlates with the local fast wave intensity. In this case, fast wave rectification is a leading candidate mechanism responsible for the observed enhancement.

  10. Investigation of RF-enhanced plasma potentials on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoukov, R.; Whyte, D.G.; Brunner, D.; Cziegler, I.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Myra, J.; Terry, J.; Wukitch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) sheath rectification is a leading mechanism suspected of causing anomalously high erosion of plasma facing materials in RF-heated plasmas on Alcator C-Mod. An extensive experimental survey of the plasma potential (Φ P ) in RF-heated discharges on C-Mod reveals that significant Φ P enhancement (>100 V) is found on outboard limiter surfaces, both mapped and not mapped to active RF antennas. Surfaces that magnetically map to active RF antennas show Φ P enhancement that is, in part, consistent with the recently proposed slow wave rectification mechanism. Surfaces that do not map to active RF antennas also experience significant Φ P enhancement, which strongly correlates with the local fast wave intensity. In this case, fast wave rectification is a leading candidate mechanism responsible for the observed enhancement

  11. Investigating the potential of e-Learning in healthcare postgraduate curricula: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharaki, Maria; Daskalakis, Stelios; Mantas, John

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the future adaptability of e-Learning platforms within postgraduate modules. An ongoing empirical assessment was conducted amongst postgraduate students, based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The current paper presents the outcomes from the second phase of a survey, involving fifty six participants. Data analysis was performed using a structural equation model, based on partial least squares. Results highlighted the very strong effect of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use to attitude towards using e-Learning platforms. Consequently, attitude towards use proved to be a very strong predictor of behavioral intention. Perceived usefulness, on the contrary, did not prove to have an effect to behavioral intention. Implications on the potential of using e-Learning platforms are discussed along with limitations and future directions of the study.

  12. Investigation on the absolute and relative photoionization cross sections of 3 potential propargylic fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfough, Matthew; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Absolute photoionization cross sections for 2 potential propargylic fuels (propargylamine and dipropargyl ether) along with the partial ionization cross sections for their dissociative fragments are measured and presented for the first time via synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. The experimental setup consists of a multiplexed orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer and is located at the Advanced Light Source facility of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Data for a third propargylic compound (propargyl alcohol) were taken; however, because of its low signal, due to its weakly bound cation, only the dissociative ionization fragment from the H-loss channel is observed and presented. Suggested pathways leading to formation of dissociative photoionization fragments along with CBS-QB3 calculated adiabatic ionization energies and appearance energies for the dissociative fragments are also presented. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Synthesis and stereochemical investigation of potential saturated heterocyclic drugs Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernath, G.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of partially and fully saturated heterocyclic compounds with condensed skeleton containing two heteroatoms are presented. The synthesis, stereochemical and conformation analyses aimed at the synthesis of potential drugs. Dihydro- and tetrahydro-1,3-oxazines were prepared from alicyclic 1,3-amino-alcohols by ring closure with aldehydes or imide esters. 1,3-oxazine-4-one derivatives were prepared by reacting alicyclic cis- and trans-2-hydroxy-1-carboxamides with aliphatic or aromatic aldehides. The conformations of the compounds prepared were determined by means of NMR spectroscopy. The main results of the determination of the steric structure of some representatives of the above described families of compounds by means of X-ray diffraction analysis are also presented. (author)

  14. Initial Investigation into the Potential of CSP Industrial Process Heat for the Southwest United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    After significant interest in the 1970s, but relatively few deployments, the use of solar technologies for thermal applications, including enhanced oil recovery (EOR), desalination, and industrial process heat (IPH), is again receiving global interest. In particular, the European Union (EU) has been a leader in the use, development, deployment, and tracking of Solar Industrial Process Heat (SIPH) plants. The objective of this study is to ascertain U.S. market potential of IPH for concentrating collector technologies that have been developed and promoted through the U.S. Department of Energy's Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program. For this study, the solar-thermal collector technologies of interest are parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) and linear Fresnel (LF) systems.

  15. An investigation into the use of music as potential auditory enrichment for moloch gibbons (Hylobates moloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Emma K; Kingston-Jones, Mark; Ford, Matthew; Semple, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The use of music as enrichment has rarely been explored in zoos, despite evidence that music has a positive effect on a range of laboratory housed animals. In this study of moloch gibbons, Hylobates moloch, at Howletts Wild Animal Park (Kent, England), instrumental classical music was played to eight individuals in two family groups. Music was played 7 hr a day during three of six study weeks for each group, alternating with control weeks in which no music was played. In focal watches, data were recorded on a measure of activity, brachiation, and on two rates of affiliative behavior, giving and receiving grooming. In addition, to assess potential impacts on emotional state, data were recorded on self-scratching and self-grooming, two widely used indices of anxiety or stress. Analyses were carried out for each individual separately, as previous studies of primates indicate animals may differ in their response to enrichment. Results revealed little evidence for effects of music on gibbons' behavior. During the music compared to control weeks, the adult male from one group showed higher rates of self-scratching and higher durations of both self-grooming and grooming others. The adult female from the same group was groomed more during the music weeks than control weeks. For the six other animals, no significant differences in behaviors were seen between music and control conditions. Our findings suggest music may not be an effective enrichment for captive gibbons, and further highlight the importance of considering individual differences when assessing the effects of potential enrichment. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  16. An investigation of student understanding of classical ideas related to quantum mechanics: Potential energy diagrams and spatial probability density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanik, Brian Michael

    This dissertation describes the results of two related investigations into introductory student understanding of ideas from classical physics that are key elements of quantum mechanics. One investigation probes the extent to which students are able to interpret and apply potential energy diagrams (i.e., graphs of potential energy versus position). The other probes the extent to which students are able to reason classically about probability and spatial probability density. The results of these investigations revealed significant conceptual and reasoning difficulties that students encounter with these topics. The findings guided the design of instructional materials to address the major problems. Results from post-instructional assessments are presented that illustrate the impact of the curricula on student learning.

  17. Performative Microforests: Investigating the potential benefits of integrating spatial vegetation environments into buildings, in regards to the performance of buildings, their occupants + local ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Mangone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of office buildings can substantially improve the building, social, and ecological performance of office building projects. However, existing research on improving the performance of work environments has primarily focused on identifying and evaluating methods to make work environments less bad, rather than focusing on how to develop work environments that are positively performing. Moreover, the potential of building projects to perform positively, in terms of economic, social, and ecological performance, remains relatively unexplored in existing research and building projects. To this end, this PhD research project is focused on exploring the positive economic, social, and ecological performance potential of buildings. Specifically, this research project identifies and evaluates the potential economic, social, and ecological performance benefits of integrating microforests into office buildings. Microforests are defined in this book as dynamic, stimulating, cohesive spatial environments that are composed of vegetation and soil layers that mimic the structural, perceptual, and ecological composition of a forest ecosystem, yet are not large enough to reliably provide the myriad of functions of a robust, mature forest ecosystem. This design research focus is based on findings from existing literature that suggest that natural environments and stimuli can provide a diverse range of economic, social, and ecological performance benefits. The Design Research Methodology [DRM], an established research methodology that facilitates the use of diverse research methods in a rigorous, effective manner, is used in this research project to explore and evaluate the performance potential of microforests, by investigating the following sub research questions: • How can microforests improve the performance of office buildings? • How can microforests improve employee performance + comfort? • How can microforests improve the ecological performance

  18. Compositional Investigation of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid 66063 (1998 RO1): A Potentially Undifferentiated Assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Gaffey, M. J.; Landis, R. R.; Jarvis, K. S.

    2005-01-01

    It is now thought that approximately 16% of all asteroids among the near-Earth population may be binary objects. Several independent lines of evidence, such as the presence of doublet craters on the Earth and Moon [1, 2], complex lightcurves of near-Earth objects exhibiting mutual events [3], and radar images of near-Earth asteroids revealing distinct primary and secondary objects, have supported this conclusion [4]. To date at least 23 near-Earth objects have been discovered as binary systems with expectations that many more have yet to be identified or recognized. Little is known about the physical characteristics of binary objects except that they seem to have fairly rapid rotation rates, generally have primaries in the approx. 1 km diameter range with smaller secondaries on the order of a few hundred meters, and apart from a few exceptions, are in synchronous orbits [4, 5]. Previously only two of these binary near-Earth asteroids (1998 ST27 and 2003 YT1) have been characterized in terms of detailed mineralogical investigations [6, 7]. Such investigations are required to fully understand the formation mechanisms of these binary objects and their possible source regions. In addition, detailed knowledge of these objects may play an important role for planning future spacecraft missions and for the development of impact mitigation strategies. The work presented here represents a continued effort to characterize this particular sub-group of the near- Earth asteroid population.

  19. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A person...

  20. [Research progress on potential liver toxic components in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhong, Rong-Ling; Xia, Zhi; Huang, Hou-Cai; Zhong, Qing-Xiang; Feng, Liang; Song, Jie; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the proportion of traditional Chinese medicine in scientific research and its clinical use increased gradually. The research result also becomes more and more valuable, but in the process of using traditional Chinese medicine, it also needs to pay more attention. With the gradual deepening of the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine, some traditional Chinese medicines have also been found to have the potential toxicity, with the exception of some traditional toxicity Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine in the growth, processing, processing, transportation and other aspects of pollution or deterioration will also cause the side effects to the body. Clinical practice should be based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine to guide rational drug use and follow the symptomatic medication, the principle of proper compatibility. The constitution of the patients are different, except for a few varieties of traditional Chinese medicines are natural herbs with hepatotoxicity, liver toxicity of most of the traditional Chinese medicine has idiosyncratic features. The liver plays an important role in drug metabolism. It is easy to be damaged by drugs. Therefore, the study of traditional Chinese medicine potential liver toxicity and its toxic components has become one of the basic areas of traditional Chinese medicine research. Based on the review of the literatures, this paper summarizes the clinical classification of liver toxicity, the pathogenesis of target cell injury, and systematically summarizes the mechanism of liver toxicity and toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper provided ideas for the study of potential liver toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine and protection for clinical safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2015-09-01

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.

  2. Investigational research on eco-smart engines; Eco-smart engine no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper investigated the trend of research on eco-smart engines into which optimization function of engine performance, high environmental-adaptability, etc. are integrated. The investigation was made in Japan and abroad on technologies of combustion, structure/material, control, design/analysis, systematization, etc. In case of Japan, specifications were established for three types of engines, subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, and the research subjects to fulfil the specifications were extracted. In case of the U.S. and Europe, the survey was made of combustion, materials, noise, design concept, control, etc. Important subjects are selected in priority order. Namely, for the enhancement of efficiency, the following were taken up: three-dimensional fiber-reinforced large-size light-weight structure application technology, heat-resistant advanced-material structure damage-tolerant design technology, pseudo-vesicular structure transpiration cooling technology, etc. For the reduction of NOx emission, the paper took up technologies of environmentally optimization combustion, AI combustion control, and non-cooling combustor liner application. For the noise reduction, technologies of new inclination hole orientation noise absorbing structure material application, super noise control, and innovative CFD utilization low noise aerodynamics. Moreover, the results of fiscal 1997 were outlined to indicate the research in the next fiscal year. 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Investigational research on the design of computational materials; Keisanki zairyo sekkei no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Computer chemistry was investigationally studied. The advance of theoretical chemistry is indispensable to the design of materials, and the theory and high speed computational method are expected which can simulate the real system with more accuracy. It is basic to simulate structures and physical properties of structural molecules and the aggregate, but the meso region, the intermedium region between structural molecules and the aggregate, has became regarded as important. Rough visualization models in high polymer materials and the progress of computational software/hardware of quantum chemistry/molecular dynamics such as catalyst become necessary. Seamless zooming is proposed as a concept of the software which simulates materials from micro/macro/meso viewpoints. Moreover, to make the most of computer chemistry, an integrated system is necessary which generally handles computational software, database, etc. For the development of software, indispensable is the demonstrative verification by a combination of experiments and researchers. Under a commission from NEDO, the investigational research was conducted as a leading study during fiscal 1996 and 1997 to view the course of the research. 17 refs., 37 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  5. Cell transformation assays for prediction of carcinogenic potential: state of the science and future research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Stuart; Aardema, Marilyn J.; Carmichael, Paul L.; Harvey, James S.; Martin, Francis L.; Newbold, Robert F.; O’Donovan, Michael R.; Pant, Kamala; Poth, Albrecht; Sakai, Ayako; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Scott, Andrew D.; Schechtman, Leonard M.; Shen, Rhine R.; Tanaka, Noriho; Yasaei, Hemad

    2012-01-01

    Cell transformation assays (CTAs) have long been proposed as in vitro methods for the identification of potential chemical carcinogens. Despite showing good correlation with rodent bioassay data, concerns over the subjective nature of using morphological criteria for identifying transformed cells and a lack of understanding of the mechanistic basis of the assays has limited their acceptance for regulatory purposes. However, recent drivers to find alternative carcinogenicity assessment methodologies, such as the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive, have fuelled renewed interest in CTAs. Research is currently ongoing to improve the objectivity of the assays, reveal the underlying molecular changes leading to transformation and explore the use of novel cell types. The UK NC3Rs held an international workshop in November 2010 to review the current state of the art in this field and provide directions for future research. This paper outlines the key points highlighted at this meeting. PMID:21852270

  6. Potential of Wolfram technologies in construction and research of econometric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Vlasov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the center of attention of article didactic, applied and research potentials of technologies of the modern knowledge base and a set of computing algorithms Wolfram in creation and a research of econometric models. Econometric models and methods traditionally play a special role in applied mathematical training of students of an economic bachelor degree in Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. Within this article experience of forming of content of applied mathematical training of future bachelor of economy and methodical features of use of information technologies in the course of econometric modeling of social and economic situations and teaching subject matters of «The econometrician (basic level» for students of an economic bachelor degree and «The econometrician (advanced level» for students of an economic magistracy is provided. The allocated sixteen tools fully allow to focus attention to development of innovative components of professional competence of future bachelors of economy.

  7. Positive emotion in distress as a potentially effective emotion regulation strategy for depression: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Ito, Masaya; Takebayashi, Yoshitake

    2018-03-12

    Emotion regulation utilizing positive emotion during negative emotional states might be one of the effective ways to alleviate depression and anxiety problems among people with emotional disorders. This study examined the psychometric properties and incremental validity of the Positive Emotion In Distress Scale (PEIDS), a newly developed self-report scale, in a sample of university students in Japan. To examine the psychometric properties of the PEIDS, the scale was completed by Japanese university students (396 men and 363 women; mean age of 19.92). Participants additionally answered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Rumination and Reflection Questionnaire - Shorter Version, Affective Style Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Affective Schedule, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The survey was conducted at two time points separated by 1 month to assess test-retest reliability and validity of the PEIDS. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed a one-factor structure. Reliability was confirmed by high internal consistency and test-retest stability; the convergent and discriminant validity was confirmed by correlations with related and unrelated variables. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that positive emotion in distress might predict depression above and beyond the effect of baseline depression and other common emotion regulation strategies. The PEIDS showed acceptable reliability and validity within young adults and a non-clinical population in Japan. Further research will be needed to examine the effect of positive emotion among clinical populations. Previous research suggests that positive emotions play a key role in recovery from depression and anxiety problems through some forms of psychotherapy. The Positive Emotion In Distress Scale (PEIDS) measures individual differences regarding the extent to which people can experience positive emotions in negative emotional states. Results suggested that the

  8. Investigation of Amourphous Deposits and Potential Corrosion Mechanisms in Offshore Water Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eroini, Violette; Oehler, Mike Christian; Graver, Britt Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Increasing incidence of amorphous deposits in both production and water injection systems has caused considerable problems for offshore oil fields. Amorphous deposits, which are a widely recognized, but often poorly explained phenomenon, are typically comprised of both organic (biological...... or hydrocarbons) and inorganic material, but with compositions that vary considerably. One recurrent form of deposits, found in offshore water injection flowlines and wells, consisting mainly of magnetite as the corrosion product, was further investigated with the objectives of explaining its formation......, composed of both organic and inorganic compounds, has caused concerns within operating assets due to the detrimental effect on production and injection, in addition to challenges with intervention and integrity. The variety of deposits and poor understanding of their nature has led to confusion...

  9. Investigating the Potential of Activity Tracking App Data to Estimate Cycle Flows in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, J.

    2016-06-01

    Traffic congestion and its associated environmental effects pose a significant problem for large cities. Consequently, promoting and investing in green travel modes such as cycling is high on the agenda for many transport authorities. In order to target investment in cycling infrastructure and improve the experience of cyclists on the road, it is important to know where they are. Unfortunately, investment in intelligent transportation systems over the years has mainly focussed on monitoring vehicular traffic, and comparatively little is known about where cyclists are on a day to day basis. In London, for example, there are a limited number of automatic cycle counters installed on the network, which provide only part of the picture. These are supplemented by surveys that are carried out infrequently. Activity tracking apps on smart phones and GPS devices such as Strava have become very popular over recent years. Their intended use is to track physical activity and monitor training. However, many people routinely use such apps to record their daily commutes by bicycle. At the aggregate level, these data provide a potentially rich source of information about the movement and behaviour of cyclists. Before such data can be relied upon, however, it is necessary to examine their representativeness and understand their potential biases. In this study, the flows obtained from Strava Metro (SM) are compared with those obtained during the 2013 London Cycle Census (LCC). A set of linear regression models are constructed to predict LCC flows using SM flows along with a number of dummy variables including road type, hour of day, day of week and presence/absence of cycle lane. Cross-validation is used to test the fitted models on unseen LCC sites. SM flows are found to be a statistically significant (p<0.0001) predictor of total flows as measured by the LCC and the models yield R squared statistics of ~0.7 before considering spatio-temporal variation. The initial results indicate

  10. INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL OF ACTIVITY TRACKING APP DATA TO ESTIMATE CYCLE FLOWS IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haworth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion and its associated environmental effects pose a significant problem for large cities. Consequently, promoting and investing in green travel modes such as cycling is high on the agenda for many transport authorities. In order to target investment in cycling infrastructure and improve the experience of cyclists on the road, it is important to know where they are. Unfortunately, investment in intelligent transportation systems over the years has mainly focussed on monitoring vehicular traffic, and comparatively little is known about where cyclists are on a day to day basis. In London, for example, there are a limited number of automatic cycle counters installed on the network, which provide only part of the picture. These are supplemented by surveys that are carried out infrequently. Activity tracking apps on smart phones and GPS devices such as Strava have become very popular over recent years. Their intended use is to track physical activity and monitor training. However, many people routinely use such apps to record their daily commutes by bicycle. At the aggregate level, these data provide a potentially rich source of information about the movement and behaviour of cyclists. Before such data can be relied upon, however, it is necessary to examine their representativeness and understand their potential biases. In this study, the flows obtained from Strava Metro (SM are compared with those obtained during the 2013 London Cycle Census (LCC. A set of linear regression models are constructed to predict LCC flows using SM flows along with a number of dummy variables including road type, hour of day, day of week and presence/absence of cycle lane. Cross-validation is used to test the fitted models on unseen LCC sites. SM flows are found to be a statistically significant (p<0.0001 predictor of total flows as measured by the LCC and the models yield R squared statistics of ~0.7 before considering spatio-temporal variation. The initial

  11. Big data from electronic health records for early and late translational cardiovascular research: challenges and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Harry; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Danesh, John; Dobson, Richard; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Maggioni, Aldo; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M; Cronin, Maureen; Brobert, Gunnar; Vardas, Panos; Anker, Stefan D; Grobbee, Diederick E; Denaxas, Spiros

    2018-04-21

    Cohorts of millions of people's health records, whole genome sequencing, imaging, sensor, societal and publicly available data present a rapidly expanding digital trace of health. We aimed to critically review, for the first time, the challenges and potential of big data across early and late stages of translational cardiovascular disease research. We sought exemplars based on literature reviews and expertise across the BigData@Heart Consortium. We identified formidable challenges including: data quality, knowing what data exist, the legal and ethical framework for their use, data sharing, building and maintaining public trust, developing standards for defining disease, developing tools for scalable, replicable science and equipping the clinical and scientific work force with new inter-disciplinary skills. Opportunities claimed for big health record data include: richer profiles of health and disease from birth to death and from the molecular to the societal scale; accelerated understanding of disease causation and progression, discovery of new mechanisms and treatment-relevant disease sub-phenotypes, understanding health and diseases in whole populations and whole health systems and returning actionable feedback loops to improve (and potentially disrupt) existing models of research and care, with greater efficiency. In early translational research we identified exemplars including: discovery of fundamental biological processes e.g. linking exome sequences to lifelong electronic health records (EHR) (e.g. human knockout experiments); drug development: genomic approaches to drug target validation; precision medicine: e.g. DNA integrated into hospital EHR for pre-emptive pharmacogenomics. In late translational research we identified exemplars including: learning health systems with outcome trials integrated into clinical care; citizen driven health with 24/7 multi-parameter patient monitoring to improve outcomes and population-based linkages of multiple EHR sources

  12. INVESTIGATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS RELATED TO THE TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE (THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE) CONDUCTED IN FUKUSHIMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ohno, Kikuo; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    On March 11(th) 2011, the Tohoku region of Japan was struck by catastrophic disasters. Thousands of people were killed due to a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and its subsequent tsunami. Furthermore, a serious nuclear crisis occurred in Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the disasters, and an emergency evacuation was ordered to people living near the nuclear power plants. There was a lot of anxiety regarding lost families as well as the influences of radioactivity on the health of people and their children. Based on these urgent and uncertain situations, a number of research projects were developed at many institutes both inside and outside Fukushima. We herein report the investigative research projects related to the Tohoku Earthquake (The Great East Japan Earthquake) conducted after the disasters. The research projects were reviewed by the Institutional Review Board in Fukushima Medical University during the two years following the disasters. The research projects conducted in universities other than Fukushima Medical University were also examined using questionnaire analysis. Among the research projects conducted in Fukushima Medical University (n=424), 7% (n=32) were disaster-related investigative research. The mean duration planned to pursue the projects was 25.5 months. Among these projects, those focusing on the health of Fukushima citizens were most common (n=9), followed by the influence of chronic exposure of radiation on chronic inflammatory disorders (n=6), and the mental health of Fukushima citizens (n=5). They were carefully reviewed for the purpose, suitability, and necessity from ethical as well as scientific viewpoints. The majority of the research projects focused on the effects of the Tohoku Earthquake and/or chronic exposure to low-dose radioactivity on the health of children and pregnant women, as well as on various disorders, such as mental health and chronic inflammatory diseases. On the other hand, among 58 projects we collected from 22

  13. Assessment for the potential of Stuxnet attack on research reactor in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko H Riyadi

    2013-01-01

    Since discovered in June of 2010, the malware that named Stuxnet was directly electrify the world. The malware is interested the attentions of the media and security experts since infect instrumentation and control systems in industrial and caused significant damage. Stuxnet is a sophisticated kind of computer malware designed to sabotage industrial processes controlled by Siemens SIMATIC WinCC and PCS7. Even the malware developed to attack Iran's nuclear facilities have very specific goals and designed to infect Siemens SCADA systems are set up to control and monitor industrial processes. In Indonesia there are 3 research reactors i.e. Kartini in Jog jakarta, TRIGA in Bandung and RSG GA Siwabessy in Serpong. Last reactor has the largest capacity that was using the instrumentation and control system of the Siemens made. This study aims to determine the potential of the Stuxnet attack on research reactor with use methods and analysis the learning to the malware. With the configuration of the control system on research reactors, it is not impossible will be target of the Stuxnet attacks like as Iran's nuclear facility in Natanz. Although some security experts and anti virus have develop system patch and removal to fix this malware, but still needed the role of regulatory bodies to ensure that instrumentation and control system in research reactors are totally safe and secure from malware attacks. (author)

  14. Preliminary investigations on the carbon dioxide sequestering potential of the ultramafic rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Guthrie, G.; Counce, D.; Kluk, E.; Bergfeld, D.; Snow, M.

    1997-08-01

    Fossil fuels continue to provide major sources of energy to the modern world even though global emissions of CO{sub 2} are presently at levels of 19 Gt/yr. Future antipollution measures may include sequestering of waste CO{sub 2} as magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}) by processing ultramafic rocks to obtain reactable Mg. Huge ultramafic deposits consisting of relatively pure Mg-rich silicates exist throughout much of the world in ophiolites and layered intrusions. Peridotites (especially dunites) and serpentinites comprise the best ores because they contain the most Mg by weight and are relatively reactive to hot acids such as HCl. Although mining such deposits on a large scale would have environmental impacts, the sequestering process could provide Cr, Ni, and other metals as byproducts and could dispose of existing waste (white) asbestos. Small ultramafic bodies ({approximately} 1 km{sup 3}) can potentially sequester about 1 Gt of CO{sub 2} or about 20% of annual US emissions. A single large deposit of dunite ({approximately} 30 km{sup 3}) could dispose of about 20 yr of current US CO{sub 2} emissions. The cost and environmental impact of mining these deposits must be weighed against the increased costs of energy and benefits to the atmosphere and climate.

  15. Investigation of the potential influence of production treatment chemicals on produced water toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, E.R.; Gala, W.R.; Henry, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Production treatment chemicals represent a diverse collection of chemical classes, added at various points from the wellhead to the final flotation cell, to prevent operational upsets and enhance the separation of oil from water. Information in the literature indicates that while many treatment chemicals are thought to partition into oil and not into the produced water, there are cases where a sufficiently water soluble treatment chemical is added at high enough concentrations to suggest that the treatment chemical may add to the aquatic toxicity of the produced water. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential effect of production treatment chemicals on the toxicity of produced waters using the US EPA Seven-day Mysidopsis bahia Survival, Growth and Fecundity Test. Samples of produced water were collected and tested for toxicity from three platforms under normal operating conditions, followed by repeated sampling and testing after a 72-hour period in which treatment chemical usage was discontinued, to the degree possible. Significant reductions in produced water toxicity were observed for two of the three platforms tested following either cessation of treatment chemical usage, or by comparing the toxicity of samples collected upstream and downstream of the point of treatment chemical addition

  16. Investigations of immunotoxicity and allergic potential induced by topical application of triclosan in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Meade, B. Jean; Long, Carrie M.; Lukomska, Ewa; Marshall, Nikki B.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical commonly used occupationally and by the general public. Using select immune function assays, the purpose of these studies was to evaluate the immunotoxicity of triclosan following dermal exposure using a murine model. Triclosan was not identified to be a sensitizer in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) when tested at concentrations ranging from 0.75–3.0%. Following a 28-day exposure, triclosan produced a significant increase in liver weight at concentrations of ≥ 1.5%. Exposure to the high dose (3.0%) also produced a significant increase in spleen weights and number of platelets. The absolute number of B-cells, T-cells, dendritic cells and NK cells were significantly increased in the skin draining lymph node, but not the spleen. An increase in the frequency of dendritic cells was also observed in the lymph node following exposure to 3.0% triclosan. The IgM antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was significantly increased at 0.75% – but not at the higher concentrations – in the spleen and serum. These results demonstrate that dermal exposure to triclosan induces stimulation of the immune system in a murine model and raise concerns about potential human exposure. PMID:25812624

  17. Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints’ Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr

    2016-09-26

    The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure (~140 %) followed by AI (~105 %) and lastly LTL (~85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints’ applications. © 2016 The Author(s)

  18. Investigating the Potential of Using Off-Axis 3D Woven Composites in Composite Joints’ Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed Nasr; Wang, Ying; Yudhanto, Arief; Joesbury, Adam; Potluri, Prasad; Lubineau, Gilles; Soutis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    The effect of circular notch has been evaluated for three different architectures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibre woven composites (orthogonal, ORT; layer-to-layer, LTL; angle interlock, AI) through open-hole quasi-static tension and double-lap bearing strength tests in the off-axis (45°) direction. Damage characterisation is monitored using Digital Image correlation (DIC) for open-hole testing and X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) for double-lap bearing strength test. The off-axis notched 3D woven composites exhibits minor reduction (less than 10 %) of the notched strength compared to the un-notched strength. DIC strain contour clearly show stress/strain localisation regions around the hole periphery and stress/strain redistribution away from the whole due to the z-binder existence, especially for ORT architecture. Up to 50 % bearing strain, no significant difference in the bearing stress/bearing strain response is observed. However when ORT architecture was loaded up to failure, it demonstrates higher strain to failure (~140 %) followed by AI (~105 %) and lastly LTL (~85 %). X-ray CT scans reveal the effect of the z-binder architecture on damage evolution and delamination resistance. The study suggests that off-axis loaded 3D woven composites, especially ORT architecture, has a great potential of overcoming the current challenges facing composite laminates when used in composite joints’ applications. © 2016 The Author(s)

  19. Investigation of biotechnological potential of sponge-associated bacteria collected in Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, O C S; Soares, A R; Machado, F L S; Romanos, M T V; Muricy, G; Giambiagi-deMarval, M; Laport, M S

    2015-02-01

    Marine bacteria are a rich source of structurally unique natural compounds, several of which have shown a wide variety of biological activities. In this study, the metabolites present in the culture supernatants of the eight sponge-associated bacteria were extracted using ethyl acetate, and all extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Subsequently, the extracts of the Pseudomonas fluorescens H40 and H41, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa H51 were subjected to solvent partitioning, and the active fractions were submitted to chromatographic separation. Three different active fractions were obtained, one of which was identified as diketopiperazine cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Pro). This substance was bactericidal for Staph. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa and showed cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 tumour cells. Putative gene fragments coding for the type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) domains were PCR-amplified from five and three strains, respectively. The results suggest that sponge-associated bacteria analysed in this study may represent a potential source for production of antimicrobial substances against bacterial pathogens of medical importance. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Investigation of potential alternate study areas in the Paradox Basin region, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, T.A.

    1984-03-01

    The Paradox Basin was re-evaluated to determine if any parts of the Basin that had not been identified in previous studies might be suitable for a more detailed evaluation as a nuclear waste repository site. The factors used in this re-evaluation were depth to salt and dedicated lands, because these factors directly address the engineering and environmental feasibility of a repository. Six areas (Happy Canyon, Green River, Dolores River, Expectation Mountain, Dark Canyon, and Kane Springs Canyon) were identified on this basis as potentially suitable areas for further study. These areas were assessed in more detail to review the feasibility of siting a repository. None of the six areas was recommended for further study as a repository site because the size of the areas, thickness of the salt beds, topography, and engineering factors resulting from the loading of nearby mesas generally did not allow the construction of a feasible repository. The content of this report was effective as of May 1983. 41 references, 17 figures

  1. Exact and approximate exchange potentials investigated in terms of their matrix elements with the Kohn-Sham orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas, A.; Cinal, M.

    2005-01-01

    Three approximate exchange potentials of high accuracy v x Y (r), Y=A,B,C, for the density-functional theory applications are obtained by replacing the matrix elements of the exact potential between the Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals with such elements of the Fock exchange operator (within the virtual-occupied subset only) in three representations found for any local potential. A common identity is the base of these representations. The potential v x C happens to be the same as that derived by Harbola and Sahni, and v x A as that derived by Gritsenko and Baerends, and Della Sala and Goerling. The potentials obtained can be expressed in terms of occupied KS orbitals only. At large r, their asymptotic form -1/r is the same as that of the exact potential. The high quality of these three approximations is demonstrated by direct comparison with the exact potential and using various consistency tests. A common root established for the three approximations could be helpful in finding new and better approximations via modification of identities employed in the present investigation

  2. Scientific writing seminar for early-stage investigators in substance abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guydish, Joseph; Masson, Carmen; Flentje, Annesa; Shopshire, Michael; Sorensen, James L

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on how to increase the scientific writing productivity of early-stage investigators in the addictions field. A scientific writing seminar is presented in this article, aiming to encourage manuscript writing and dissemination of addiction research, and outcomes are reported for 14 years of the seminar. In 14 years, there were 113 postdoctoral fellow enrollments in a 6-month writing seminar. Records of submission and publication rates of manuscripts were collected for 14 cohorts. Of the 113 participant enrollments, 97 (86%) submitted a manuscript for publication, and 87 participants (77%) published their manuscript. A scientific writing seminar may benefit writing productivity, but more research is needed to compare this training model with other existing models.

  3. Research on statistical methodology to investigate energy consumption in public buildings sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuqin; Li Nianping; Guan Jun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find a statistical methodology to investigate the national energy consumption in the public buildings sector in China, in order to look into the actuality of the national energy consumption of public buildings and to provide abundant data for building energy efficiency work. The frame of a national statistical system of energy consumption for public buildings is presented in this paper. The statistical index system of energy consumption is constituted, which refers to the general characteristics of public buildings, their possession and utilization of energy consumption equipment and their energy consumption quantities. Sequentially, a set of statistical report forms is designed to investigate the energy consumption of cities, provinces and the country, respectively. On this base, the above statistical methodology is used to gather statistics of a public building for annual energy consumption

  4. Theoretical investigations relevant to controlled fusion research. Progress report, January 31, 1975--January 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammash, T.

    1976-01-01

    The main research effort was directed at two major categories of problems associated with plasma confinement in mirror machines and tokamaks. In the latter case the emphasis was on the effect of runaway electrons on the overall stability of the system while for the open-ended devices much of the effort went into examining the impact of finite beta and feedback stabilization on loss cone modes as well as some investigations in the reactor aspects of mirror confined plasmas. The highlights of these studies along with some of the results are described

  5. Pilot Study: Colostomy and Urine Collection Protocol for Investigating Potential Inciting Causes of Hen Diuresis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelli; Turner, Bradley; Brandão, João; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Baughman, Brittany; Wills, Robert; Tully, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Hen diuresis syndrome has emerged over the past 5 yr as a significant cause of mortality in the U.S. broiler breeder industry. The condition affects hens in production and is characterized by transient muscle weakness in the vent region, transient diuresis, and often urate deposits on the skin below the vent. Affected hens are often seen straining to lay an egg, which suggests oviduct contraction is also impaired. Related hen mortality, often reaching 1% or more a week, is believed to be primarily the result of male aggression of the vent region (Turner et al., "Investigating Causes of Excessive Urate Production in Broiler Breeder Hens Associated with Peritonitis and Cannibalism Mortality," Oral Presentation at The American Association of Avian Pathologists Annual Meeting, p. 139, 2010). The exact association between the cause of mortality and this syndrome is unknown, but it may be the consequence of transient partial to full oviduct prolapse, which predisposes or stimulates cannibalism and aggression. Based on unpublished work done prior to this study (Turner et al., ibid.), the evidence suggests the underlying problem is metabolic. We feel that urine collection and analysis is an essential component to understanding this condition. This study serves as a pilot study for future investigations that attempt to identify the nature and cause of the metabolic disturbance through paired urine and serum collection and analysis. For the purpose of this study, a small sample of 10 affected and 10 unaffected birds was used for sample collection. In order to collect pure urine, the birds were surgically colostomized. Colostomy did prove to be a useful means of collecting urine free of feces, and for the purposes of our study it yielded adequate urine samples for analysis. There were statistically relevant urine values observed. Affected birds had a higher presence of blood in the urine, a lower uric acid excretion rate (mg/hr), higher concentration (mEq/L) of urine Na+, and

  6. Evaluating UV-C LED disinfection performance and investigating potential dual-wavelength synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sara E; Ryu, Hodon; Boczek, Laura A; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Jeanis, Kaitlyn M; Rosenblum, James S; Lawal, Oliver R; Linden, Karl G

    2017-02-01

    A dual-wavelength UV-C LED unit, emitting at peaks of 260 nm, 280 nm, and the combination of 260|280 nm together was evaluated for its inactivation efficacy and energy efficiency at disinfecting Escherichia coli, MS2 coliphage, human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV2), and Bacillus pumilus spores, compared to conventional low-pressure and medium-pressure UV mercury vapor lamps. The dual-wavelength unit was also used to measure potential synergistic effects of multiple wavelengths on bacterial and viral inactivation and DNA and RNA damage. All five UV sources demonstrated similar inactivation of E. coli. For MS2, the 260 nm LED was most effective. For HAdV2 and B. pumilus, the MP UV lamp was most effective. When measuring electrical energy per order of reduction, the LP UV lamp was most efficient for inactivating E. coli and MS2; the LP UV and MP UV mercury lamps were equally efficient for HAdV2 and B. pumilus spores. Among the UV-C LEDs, there was no statistical difference in electrical efficiency for inactivating MS2, HAdV2, and B. pumilus spores. The 260 nm and 260|280 nm LEDs had a statistical energy advantage for E. coli inactivation. For UV-C LEDs to match the electrical efficiency per order of log reduction of conventional LP UV sources, they must reach efficiencies of 25-39% or be improved on by smart reactor design. No dual wavelength synergies were detected for bacterial and viral inactivation nor for DNA and RNA damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decision-making in information seeking on texts: an eye-fixation-related potentials investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Ionescu, Gelu; Lemaire, Benoit; López-Orozco, Francisco; Baccino, Thierry; Guérin-Dugué, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Reading on a web page is known to be not linear and people need to make fast decisions about whether they have to stop or not reading. In such context, reading, and decision-making processes are intertwined and this experiment attempts to separate them through electrophysiological patterns provided by the Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials technique (EFRPs). We conducted an experiment in which EFRPs were recorded while participants read blocks of text that were semantically highly related, moderately related, and unrelated to a given goal. Participants had to decide as fast as possible whether the text was related or not to the semantic goal given at a prior stage. Decision making (stopping information search) may occur when the paragraph is highly related to the goal (positive decision) or when it is unrelated to the goal (negative decision). EFRPs were analyzed on and around typical eye fixations: either on words belonging to the goal (target), subjected to a high rate of positive decisions, or on low frequency unrelated words (incongruent), subjected to a high rate of negative decisions. In both cases, we found EFRPs specific patterns (amplitude peaking between 51 to 120 ms after fixation onset) spreading out on the next words following the goal word and the second fixation after an incongruent word, in parietal and occipital areas. We interpreted these results as delayed late components (P3b and N400), reflecting the decision to stop information searching. Indeed, we show a clear spill-over effect showing that the effect on word N spread out on word N + 1 and N + 2. PMID:23966913

  8. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Cache Valley, Utah. Report of investigation No. 174

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, J.L.

    1982-11-01

    Field work consisted of locating 90 wells and springs throughout the study area, collecting water samples for later laboratory analyses, and field measurement of pH, temperature, bicarbonate alkalinity, and electrical conductivity. Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Ca/sup +2/, Mg/sup +2/, SiO/sub 2/, Fe, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, Cl/sup -/, F/sup -/, and total dissolved solids were determined in the laboratory. Temperature profiles were measured in 12 additional, unused walls. Thermal gradients calculated from the profiles were approximately the same as the average for the Basin and Range province, about 35/sup 0/C/km. One well produced a gradient of 297/sup 0/C/km, most probably as a result of a near-surface occurrence of warm water. Possible warm water reservoir temperatures were calculated using both the silica and the Na-K-Ca geothermometers, with the results averaging about 50 to 100/sup 0/C. If mixing calculations were applied, taking into account the temperatures and silica contents of both warm springs or wells and the cold groundwater, reservoir temperatures up to about 200/sup 0/C were indicated. Considering measured surface water temperatures, calculated reservoir temperatures, thermal gradients, and the local geology, most of the Cache Valley, Utah area is unsuited for geothermal development. However, the areas of North Logan, Benson, and Trenton were found to have anomalously warm groundwater in comparison to the background temperature of 13.0/sup 0/C for the study area. The warm water has potential for isolated energy development but is not warm enough for major commercial development.

  9. Investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: Secretomes and xylanolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Abida; Frisvad, Jens C; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2017-10-03

    The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites. The isolated fungi were grown on medium containing barley flour or wheat arabinoxylan as sole carbon source. Their secretomes and xylanase activities were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and enzyme assays and were found to vary according to species and carbon source. Secretomes were dominated by cell wall degrading enzymes with xylanases and xylanolytic enzymes being the most abundant. A 2-DE-based secretome analysis of Aspergillus niger and the less-studied pathogenic fungus Fusarium poae grown on barley flour and wheat arabinoxylan resulted in identification of 82 A. niger and 31 F. poae proteins many of which were hydrolytic enzymes, including xylanases. The microorganisms that inhabit the surface of cereal grains are specialized in production of enzymes such as xylanases, which depolymerize plant cell walls. Integration of gel-based proteomics approach with activity assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of fungal secretomes and xylanolytic activities which can lead to identification of new enzymes with interesting properties, as well as provide insight into plant-fungal interactions, fungal pathogenicity and adaptation. Understanding the fungal response to host niche is of importance to uncover novel targets for potential symbionts, anti-fungal agents and biotechnical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of wild species potential to increase genetic diversity useful for apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of testing new apple cultivars and the possibility to induce valuable traits is directly dependent on the availability of sufficient genetic diversity, while apple breeding has narrowed the genetic ground of commercial cultivars. Wild species were studied in regard to their influence upon progenies and their capacity to enlarge apple genetic diversity. The interspecific seedlings were framed in five biparental mating (paired crosses, in which Malus species were crossed with different cultivars, obtaining half-sib families. The number of F1 progenies per combination varied from 31 (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda up to 142 (Reinette Baumann × M. floribunda, with a total of 1650 hybrids F1. The influences upon vigour and juvenile period and possible correlation among fruit size and taste were analyzed. Juvenile period varied from 6.00 (M. zumi × Jonathan to 9.31 years (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda. Data based on correlation coefficient illustrated that the fructification year was not influenced by the vigour of trees. The highest value of correlation for fruit’s size and taste was obtained among M. coronaria hybrids. This result might suggest that once the fruit are larger, there is a high chance the taste is also more appreciative and fruit quality for mouth feels increase. Depending on the parental formula, additive effects may be inferior compared to genetic effects of dominance and epistasis. Although M. zumi and M. floribunda achieved the same genetic gain (0.31, M. zumi had a higher expected selection response for fruit size. The difficulty of obtaining seedlings with tasty and large fruit when wild Malus species are used as genitors is resulting from the values of expected selection response data, but in the same time results confirm that wild Malus species are suitable resources for genetic variability, both for dessert and ornamental apple cultivars.

  11. Decision-making in information seeking on texts: an eye-fixation-related potentials investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Ionescu, Gelu; Lemaire, Benoit; López-Orozco, Francisco; Baccino, Thierry; Guérin-Dugué, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Reading on a web page is known to be not linear and people need to make fast decisions about whether they have to stop or not reading. In such context, reading, and decision-making processes are intertwined and this experiment attempts to separate them through electrophysiological patterns provided by the Eye-Fixation-Related Potentials technique (EFRPs). We conducted an experiment in which EFRPs were recorded while participants read blocks of text that were semantically highly related, moderately related, and unrelated to a given goal. Participants had to decide as fast as possible whether the text was related or not to the semantic goal given at a prior stage. Decision making (stopping information search) may occur when the paragraph is highly related to the goal (positive decision) or when it is unrelated to the goal (negative decision). EFRPs were analyzed on and around typical eye fixations: either on words belonging to the goal (target), subjected to a high rate of positive decisions, or on low frequency unrelated words (incongruent), subjected to a high rate of negative decisions. In both cases, we found EFRPs specific patterns (amplitude peaking between 51 to 120 ms after fixation onset) spreading out on the next words following the goal word and the second fixation after an incongruent word, in parietal and occipital areas. We interpreted these results as delayed late components (P3b and N400), reflecting the decision to stop information searching. Indeed, we show a clear spill-over effect showing that the effect on word N spread out on word N + 1 and N + 2.

  12. Investigation of wind characteristics and assessment of wind energy potential for Waterloo region, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meishen; Li Xianguo

    2005-01-01

    Wind energy becomes more and more attractive as one of the clean renewable energy resources. Knowledge of the wind characteristics is of great importance in the exploitation of wind energy resources for a site. It is essential in designing or selecting a wind energy conversion system for any application. This study examines the wind characteristics for the Waterloo region in Canada based on a data source measured at an elevation 10 m above the ground level over a 5-year period (1999-2003) with the emphasis on the suitability for wind energy technology applications. Characteristics such as annual, seasonal, monthly and diurnal wind speed variations and wind direction variations are examined. Wind speed data reveal that the windy months in Waterloo are from November to April, defined as the Cold Season in this study, with February being the windiest month. It is helpful that the high heating demand in the Cold Season coincides with the windy season. Analysis shows that the day time is the windy time, with 2 p.m. in the afternoon being the windiest moment. Moreover, a model derived from the maximum entropy principle (MEP) is applied to determine the diurnal, monthly, seasonal and yearly wind speed frequency distributions, and the corresponding Lagrangian parameters are determined. Based on these wind speed distributions, this study quantifies the available wind energy potential to provide practical information for the application of wind energy in this area. The yearly average wind power density is 105 W/m 2 . The day and night time wind power density in the Cold Season is 180 and 111 W/m 2 , respectively

  13. Rapid postmortem gut autolysis in infant rats: a potential problem for investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, D; Bjornson, G; Dimmick, J

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the rate and nature of postmortem autolysis in the gut of neonatal rats, as necessary baseline information for developing a model of human neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. We studied 60 animals, including 33 Wistar rats, 18 Sprague-Dawley rats and nine CD-1 mice. The variables examined included age of the animals (2 or 14 days) and length of delay and holding temperature (20 degrees C or 37 degrees C) after sacrifice. At necropsy, bowel was rapidly removed and fixed for histopathological examination. In all instances, bowel removed immediately after sacrifice was normal whereas after delays as short as 30 minutes it was abnormal (P less than 0.001), becoming markedly so after 60 minutes. The prominent features were detachment and lysis of mucosal epithelial cells. The rate of autolysis was not altered in 14 day old animals or in carcasses held at 20 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Investigators of bowel injury syndromes in young rats should be aware that histopathological studies will be valid only if specimens held at room temperature are fixed within 15 minutes of death. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3651898

  14. Laboratory investigation of steam transmission in unsaturated clayey soil under osmotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jalili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquids coming from different sources like wastewaters, agricultural and industrial activities and leakages of chemical substances often have high concentration of chemical compositions and the osmotic gradient generated around such sources causes a considerable transmission of the Contamination. The steam transmitted by non-polluted soils moves to polluted masses, causing an increase in the volume of pollution zone and movement of pollutants. Therefore, such physical and chemical processes should be taken into account in pollution transmission models. Using Crumb method, laboratory investigations were conducted on non-dispersive and dispersive clayey soil samples obtained from three areas in Zanjan Province of Iran. A simple experimental setup has been used and hereby introduced. The impact of osmotic force from salinities of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% on steam transmission in clayey soil was examined. Results indicate that for all samples between 5 to 15 days, the moisture content increased in the pollutant zone and decreased in the non-pollutant area. Also it was observed that for dispersive clayey soil, movement of steam among layers was observed to be orderly and its amount was higher than that of non-dispersive clayey soil.

  15. Investigating the potential of overheating in UK dwellings as a consequence of extant climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, A.D.; Jenkins, D.P.; Kane, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic simulation is used with defined domestic building variants to investigate internal temperatures of UK dwellings. Factors such as a warming climate and varying internal heat gains are estimated to examine whether UK domestic buildings are likely to be prone to overheating in the future, and therefore require mechanical air conditioning. The study suggests that the ability, or inability, of the occupant to adapt to bedroom temperature is paramount in the understanding of the conditions for overheating. While this is difficult to quantify (and a range of comfort temperatures are proposed), the effect of changing the building construction and geographical location can result in significantly different thermal conditions. As might be expected, the problem appears most noticeable for buildings in the south of the UK and with lightweight constructions. Even with a window-opening schedule applied to such a scenario, the average internal temperature is simulated as being over 28 o C for almost 12% of the year. A different metric, defined as 'cooling nights', suggests that there might be a cooling problem in bedroom areas for approximately a third of the year. In the North of the UK, and also for solid wall dwellings, this problem diminishes significantly.

  16. Investigating Potential Strategies for Increasing Tourism Competiveness at the Black Sea Shore

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    Adina-Roxana Munteanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2009-2011 the tourism industry at the Black Sea shore experienced a significant downturn as a direct result of the global economic crisis and a shy growth in 2012-2013 period. In this context of difficult macroeconomic conditions and a hardly predictable number of tourists, the suppliers of tourism services need a constant revision of strategy in order to increase their competitiveness and adapt to external market conditions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that hotels managers in Mamaia resort, Romania, could adopt considering customers` expectations and hospitality industry best practices. In order to achieve this, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed considering several locations on the seaside in France, Italy, Spain and Turkey. Following this analysis, several strategies are drafted, such as: use of social media, creation of packaged deals, targeting the business segment and advertising by using the cultural and historical context of the location. Moreover, a short survey among social media users revealed some of the tourists` expectations regarding their holidays at the Romanian Black Sea shore, such as quality of accommodation facilities, personalized services and entertainment possibilities.

  17. Investigation of Irrigation Reuse Potential of Wastewater Treatment Effluent from Hamedan Atieh-Sazan General Hospital

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    Mohammad Binavapour

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hospital wastewater is a type of municipal wastewater which may contain pathogenic agents and different microorganisms. If properly treated, the effluent from hospital wastewater treatment facilities can be used for irrigation purposes. To investigate this, the effluent from Hamedan Atieh-Sazan General Hospital was studied. The existing treatment facility uses an extended aeration system with an average wastewater flow rate of approximately 150 m3/day. In addition to evaluating the performance of the wastewater facility at Atieh-Sazan General Hospital, quality parameters of the raw wastewater and the effluent were measured. The mean values obtained for pH, BOD, COD, MPN for total Coliform/100ml, and Nematode/lit in raw wastewater were about 7.1, 238 mg/l, 352 mg/l, 5.5´106, and 2340, respectively. The mean values obtained for pH, BOD, COD, Na%, MPN for total Coliform/100 ml, and Nematode/lit in the effluent were 7.1, 35 mg/L, 77 mg/L, 61, 1561, and 575, respectively. Based on these results, the efficiency of the existing system in removing BOD, COD, and MPN/100 ml were %85.3, %78.3, and %99.97, respectively. With respect to water quality standards available, the quality of the effluent was considered to be suitable for irrigation except for its Na%, MPN for total Coliform, and Nematodes values.

  18. Coupling geophysical investigation with hydrothermal modeling to constrain the enthalpy classification of a potential geothermal resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeremy T.; Karakhanian, Arkadi; Connor, Chuck; Connor, Laura; Hughes, Joseph D.; Malservisi, Rocco; Wetmore, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An appreciable challenge in volcanology and geothermal resource development is to understand the relationships between volcanic systems and low-enthalpy geothermal resources. The enthalpy of an undeveloped geothermal resource in the Karckar region of Armenia is investigated by coupling geophysical and hydrothermal modeling. The results of 3-dimensional inversion of gravity data provide key inputs into a hydrothermal circulation model of the system and associated hot springs, which is used to evaluate possible geothermal system configurations. Hydraulic and thermal properties are specified using maximum a priori estimates. Limited constraints provided by temperature data collected from an existing down-gradient borehole indicate that the geothermal system can most likely be classified as low-enthalpy and liquid dominated. We find the heat source for the system is likely cooling quartz monzonite intrusions in the shallow subsurface and that meteoric recharge in the pull-apart basin circulates to depth, rises along basin-bounding faults and discharges at the hot springs. While other combinations of subsurface properties and geothermal system configurations may fit the temperature distribution equally well, we demonstrate that the low-enthalpy system is reasonably explained based largely on interpretation of surface geophysical data and relatively simple models.

  19. Investigation of Predictive Potential of TPH1 Common Polymorphism in Idiopathic Scoliosis

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    Svetla Todorova Nikolova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The association studies are the predominant type of studies on genetics of the common diseases. The present case-control study aims to investigate the association between the promoter polymorphism TPH1 (rs10488682 T/A and the predisposition to idiopathic scoliosis (IS in a Bulgarian population sample. Methods: A total of 105 patients and 210 healthy gender-matched controls were included. The TPH1 promoter polymorphism was genotyped by amplification followed by restriction. The statistical analysis was performed by the Pearson's chi-squared test and the Fisher’s exact test. A value of p less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results indicated that TPH1 (rs10488682 is not associated with the susceptibility to IS, the onset of the disease, the family history or the gender. Based on these preliminary results, the examined polymorphic variant could not be considered as a predisposing factor for IS in Bulgarian patients. Conclusions: Much larger case-control studies will be needed to examine the role of this TPH1 functional genetic variant in the etiology and pathogenesis of IS in Caucasian population. The identification of molecular markers for IS could be useful for early detection of the predisposition among the relatives and for more accurate prognosis of the risk for a rapid progression of the curve in the affected children.

  20. Investigation in clinical potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in laryngeal tumor model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Oak, Chulho; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Kim, Sung Won; Tang, Shuo

    2018-02-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is capable of measuring tissue birefringence. It has been widely applied to access the birefringence in tissues such as skin and cartilage. The vocal cord tissue consists of three anatomical layers from the surface to deep inside, the epithelium that contains almost no collagen, the lamina propria that is composed with abundant collagen, and the vocalis muscle layer. Due to the variation in the organization of collagen fibers, the different tissue layers show different tissue birefringence, which can be evaluated by PS-OCT phase retardation measurement. Furthermore, collagen fibers in healthy connective tissues are usually well organized, which provides relatively high birefringence. When the collagen organization is destroyed by diseases such as tumor, the birefringence of the tissue will decrease. In this study, a rabbit laryngeal tumor model with different stages of tumor progression is investigated ex-vivo by PS-OCT. The PS-OCT images show a gradual decrease in birefringence from normal tissue to severe tumor tissue. A phase retardation slope-based analysis is conducted to distinguish the epithelium, lamina propria, and muscle layers, respectively. The phase retardation slope quantifies the birefringence in different layers. The quantitative study provides a more detailed comparison among different stages of the rabbit laryngeal tumor model. The PS-OCT result is validated by the corresponding histology images of the same samples.

  1. Investigations into potential extrasynaptic communication between the dopaminergic and nitrergic systems

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    Miso eMitkovski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is unconstrained by cell membranes and can therefore act along a broad distance as a volume transmitter. Spillover of nitric oxide between neurons may have a major impact on central nervous system diseases and particularly on neurodegeneration. There is evidence whereby communication between nitrergic and dopaminergic systems plays an essential role in the control of the nigrostriatal pathway. However, there is sparse information for either the coexistence or overlap of nitric oxide and dopaminergic structures. The present study used double-labeling immunofluorescent microscopy to investigate the degree of cellular co-localization between nitric oxide synthase and tyrosine hydroxylase, enzymes responsible for the synthesis of nitric oxide and dopamine, respectively, was examined in neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway regions in the rat brain. After perfusional fixation, the brains were cut and double immunostained. A proximity analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase structures was made using confocal laser scanning microscopy, in nigrostriatal regions of the rat brain. We used image acquired at the optical limit and generated binary masks at 2µm-wide margin from the respective maximum projections. Co-localization between the two antigens was infrequent (<10% in most areas examined. However, tyrosine hydroxylase labeling was particularly concentrated close to nitric oxide synthase dendrites/axons and the cell bodies. These results further substantiate an extrasynaptic substrate for interaction between nitrergic and dopaminergic systems, thereby modulating sensitivity to neural inputs and its gene expression.

  2. Investigation on the Potential of High Efficiency for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current brake thermal efficiency of advanced internal combustion engines is limited to 50%, and how to further improve the efficiency is a challenge. In this study, a theoretical investigation on engine thermal efficiency was carried out using one-dimension simulations based on the first law of thermodynamics. The energy balance was evaluated by varying parameters such as compression ratio (CR; heat transfer coefficient; intake charge properties; and combustion phasing etc.—their influences on the efficiency limits were demonstrated. Results show that for a given heat transfer coefficient, an optimal CR exists to obtain the peak efficiency. The optimal CR decreases with the increase of heat transfer coefficient, and high CR with a low heat-transfer coefficient can achieve a significantly high efficiency. A higher density and specific heat ratio of intake charge, as well as a shorter combustion duration with a proper CA50 (crank angle at 50% of total heat release, can increase efficiency significantly. Methanol shows an excellent ability in decreasing the peak in-cylinder temperature; and the peak indicated efficiency is relatively higher than other tested fuels. The displacement has few effects on the indicated efficiency, while it shows a strong effect on the energy distribution between heat transfer and exhaust energy. All these strategies with high CR result in high in-cylinder pressure and temperature; which means a breakthrough of material is needed in the future.

  3. Numerical investigation of potential stratification caused by a cryogenic helium spill inside a tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Cameron; Malecha, Ziemowit; Jedrusyna, Artur

    2018-04-01

    The sudden release of cryogenic fluid into an accelerator tunnel can pose a significant health and safety risk. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the consequences of such a spill. Previous publications concentrated on either Oxygen Deficiency Hazard or the evaluation of mathematical models using experimental data. No studies to date have focussed on the influence of cryogen inlet conditions on flow development. In this paper, the stratification behaviour of low-temperature helium released into an air-filled accelerator tunnel is investigated for varying helium inlet diameters. A numerical model was constructed using the OpenFOAM Toolbox of a generalised 3D geometry, with similar hydraulic characteristics to the CERN and SLAC tunnels. This model has been validated against published experimental and numerical data. A dimensionless parameter, based on Bakke number, was then determined for the onset of stratification, taking into account the helium inlet diameter; a dimensionless parameter for the degree of stratification was also employed. The simulated flow behaviour is described in terms of these dimensionless parameters, as well as the temperature and oxygen concentration at various heights throughout the tunnel.

  4. Implementation of Research and Development Based on Patent Natural Ingredients and Potential Utilization of Tradition Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Hendrix

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of research and development based on natural ingredients for traditional medicines become an interesting topic to discuss at this point; it’s shown from increasing number in utilization. The use of traditional medicine especially on natural ingredients at this moment becomes effective solution to increase the level of market acceptance in herbal extracts, including an affordable purchase from potential utilization of natural resources which are owned. By using Matheo Patent XE Ver 10.2 as methodology of searching, we can know potentials useful through strategy, research and development, patent analysis and patent collaboration among users in utilization of Natural Ingredient for Traditional Medicine. From the data result shows majority in the field of chemistry for human necessity related to Health; Amusement; Medical or Veterinary Science; Hygiene sectors with total patent 108, family 65. The use of patent analysis is a way to find how the development of technology and products that have been produced and how commercial processes connecting with technology users, especially in traditional medicine. From the data that exist in particular of patents, it is critical to identify the number of patents that has been registered through the innovation process development including technology dissemination is used.

  5. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Basic Research to Potential Clinical Applications in Cancer

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    Teresa de Souza Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are derived from a direct reprogramming of human somatic cells to a pluripotent stage through ectopic expression of specific transcription factors. These cells have two important properties, which are the self-renewal capacity and the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the human body. So, the discovery of hiPSCs opens new opportunities in biomedical sciences, since these cells may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of diseases in the production of new diseases models, in drug development/drug toxicity tests, gene therapies, and cell replacement therapies. However, the hiPSCs technology has limitations including the potential for the development of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities leading to tumorigenicity. Nowadays, basic research in the hiPSCs field has made progress in the application of new strategies with the aim to enable an efficient production of high-quality of hiPSCs for safety and efficacy, necessary to the future application for clinical practice. In this review, we show the recent advances in hiPSCs’ basic research and some potential clinical applications focusing on cancer. We also present the importance of the use of statistical methods to evaluate the possible validation for the hiPSCs for future therapeutic use toward personalized cell therapies.

  6. Potentially dangerous glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan - Research overview of 2004-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Bohumir; Yerokhin, Sergey; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Cerny, Michal; Falatkova, Kristyna; Kocum, Jan; Benes, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    Global warming causes intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in most of high mountains all over the world. This process is also evident in the mountain regions of central Tien Shan. Glacier melt water affects changes in hydrological regime of water streams and causes overfilling of high mountain lake basins. The dams of many lakes are very unstable and can burst open. To determine the degree of such risk, it is necessary to analyse the genesis of lakes, to characterize the morphology of the lake basins and to know the particularities of their hydrological regime. According to the latest inventory within territory of Kyrgyzstan, a total of 1328 lakes have been identified as potentially dangerous, 12 lakes are considered as currently dangerous, other 25 feature high potential hazard. Since 1952 more than 70 disastrous cases of lake outburst have been registered. The hazardous alpine lakes are studied in Kyrgyzstan systematically since 1966. Since 2004, Czech-Kyrgyz research team has been operating in Kyrgyzstan in the field of dangerous glacial lakes. Projects were focused primarily on high-mountain glacial lakes risk assessment, propositions of risk mitigation measures, establishment of permanent research station near one of the studied glacier complexes, preparation of risk analysis for selected endangered valleys, evaluation of climatic and hydrological data and glacier development within observed regions. The most significant portion of data and information has been gathered during field work, complemented by satellite image analysis and surveillance flights over the monitored sites.

  7. Curating blood: how students' and researchers' drawings bring potential phenomena to light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D. B.; Pitchford, S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores students and researchers drawings of white blood cell recruitment. The data combines interviews with exhibit of review-type academic images and analyses of student model-drawings. The analysis focuses on the material aspects of bio-scientific data-making and we use the literature of concrete bioscience modelling to differentiate the qualities of students model-making choices: novelty versus reproduction; completeness versus simplicity; and the achievement of similarity towards selected model targets. We show that while drawing on already published images, some third-year undergraduates are able to curate novel, and yet plausible causal channels in their graphic representations, implicating new phenomenal potentials as lead researchers do in their review-type academic publications. Our work links the virtues of drawing to learn to the disclosure of potential epistemic things, involving close attention to the contours of non-linguistic stuff and corresponding sensory perception of substance; space; time; shape and size; position; and force. The paper documents the authority and power students may achieve through making knowledge rather than repeating it. We show the ways in which drawing on the images elicited by others helps to develop physical, sensory, and sometimes affective relations towards the real and concrete world of scientific practice.

  8. Investigation of potential analytical methods for redox control of the vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, D.S.

    1985-11-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate several analytical techniques to measure ferrous/ferric ratios in simulated and radioactive nuclear waste glasses for eventual redox control of the vitrification process. Redox control will minimize the melt foaming that occurs under highly oxidizing conditions and the metal precipitation that occurs under highly reducing conditions. The analytical method selected must have a rapid response for production problems with minimal complexity and analyst involvement. The wet-chemistry, Moessbauer spectroscopy, glass color analysis, and ion chromatography techniques were explored, with particular emphasis being placed on the Moessbauer technique. In general, all of these methods can be used for nonradioactive samples. The Moessbauer method can readily analyze glasses containing uranium and thorium. A shielded container was designed and built to analyze fully radioactive glasses with the Moessbauer spectrometer in a hot cell environment. However, analyses conducted with radioactive waste glasses containing 90 Sr and 137 Cs were unsuccessful, presumably due to background radiation problems caused by the samples. The color of glass powder can be used to analyze the ferrous/ferric ratio for low chromium glasses, but this method may not be as precise as the others. Ion chromatography was only tested on nonradioactive glasses, but this technique appears to have the required precision due to its analysis of both Fe +2 and Fe +3 and its anticipated adaptability for radioactivity samples. This development would be similar to procedures already in use for shielded inductively coupled plasma emission (ICP) spectrometry. Development of the ion chromatography method is therefore recommended; conventional wet-chemistry is recommended as a backup procedure

  9. Potential biological pathways linking Type-D personality and poor health: A cross-sectional investigation.

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    Vera K Jandackova

    Full Text Available Type-D personality, defined as a combination of high negative affect and high social isolation, has been associated with poor health outcomes. However, pathways underlying this association are largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between Type-D personality and several biological and behavioral pathways including the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, glucose regulation and sleep in a large, apparently healthy sample.Data from a total of 646 respondents (age 41.6±11.5, 12,2% women were available for analysis. Persons with Type-D (negative affect and social isolation score ≥10 were contrasted with those without Type-D. Measures of plasma fibrinogen levels, white blood cell count, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, creatinine, triglycerides, and albumin were derived from fasting blood samples. Urine norepinephrine and free cortisol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV measures were calculated for the 24hr recording period and for nighttime separately.Persons with Type-D had higher HbA1c, FPG, and fibrinogen, and lower nighttime HRV than those without Type-D, suggesting worse glycemic control, systemic inflammation and poorer autonomic nervous system modulation in Type-D persons. In addition, those with Type-D reported less social support and greater sleep difficulties while no group differences were observed for alcohol and cigarette consumption, physical activity and body mass index.Findings provide some of the first evidence for multiple possible biological and behavioral pathways between Type-D personality and increased morbidity and mortality.

  10. Investigation into Alternative Sugars as Potential Carriers for Dry Powder Formulation of Budesonide

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    Ali Nokhodchi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dry powder inhaler (DPI formulations are so far being used for pulmonary drug delivery, mainly for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Currently most of DPI formulations rely on lactose as a carrier in the drug powder blend. However, due to reducing sugar function of lactose which makes it incompatible with some drugs such as budesonide, it is realistic to investigate for alternative sugars that would overcome the concerned drawback but still have the positive aspects of lactose. Methods: The study was conducted by characterizing carriers for their physico-chemical properties and preparing drug/carrier blends with concentration of 5% and 10% drug with the carrier. The mixing uniformity (homogeneity of Budesonide in the blends was analyzed using spectrophotometer. The blend was then filled into NB7/2 Airmax inhaler device and the deposition profiles of the drug were determined using multi stage liquid impinger (MSLI after aerosolization at 4 kPa via the inhaler. The morphology of the carriers conducted using the scanning electron microscope. Results: The results determined that the mean fine particle fraction (FPF of 5% and 10% blends of mannitol was 61%, possibly due to fine elongated particles. Dextrose exhibited excellent flowability. Scanning electron microscope illustrated mannitol with fine elongated particles and dextrose presenting larger and coarse particles. It was found out that type of carriers, particle size distribution, and morphology would influence the FPF of budesonide. Conclusion: It may be concluded that mannitol could be suitable as a carrier on the basis of its pharmaceutical performance and successful achievement of FPF whereas the more hygroscopic sugars such as sorbitol or xylitol showed poor dispersibility leading to lower FPF.

  11. A Bottom-Up Approach investigating the Potential Impacts of Ethanol in Atmospheric Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, R. N.; Taylor, A.; Shimizu, M. S.; Avery, B.; Kieber, R. J.; Willey, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol, an emerging biofuel primarily derived from corn, can enter the atmosphere through incomplete combustion as well as natural emissions. There is a paucity of knowledge on the impacts of ethanol with other organic compounds in atmospheric waters. In this study, Guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol) was chosen as a proxy to investigate photolytic reactions with ethanol in rainwater with subsequent measurements of optical properties and chemical composition. Solutions with equimolar concentrations of guaiacol, ethanol, and hydrogen peroxide (pH 4.5 deionized water) were reacted in artificial sunlight for 6 hours. Solutions kept in the dark over this time showed no change in absorbance while solutions exposed to light (without and with ethanol) had increases in absorbance indicating formation of new chromophoric compounds. Although, little difference was observed optically and by GC/MS between solutions prepared without and with ethanol, the rate of guaiacol loss decreased with ethanol present, suggesting that ethanol could act as a radical scavenger. To simulate more polluted air masses, NaNO2 was added to each reaction mixture to observe further changes. The presence of NaNO2 led to larger increases in absorbance than in earlier experiments. No differences were observed between non-ethanol and ethanol containing solutions both optically and when run by GC-MS. Following irradiation experiments, solutions were placed in the dark and allowed to react for prolonged periods of time. After a week, solutions prepared with ethanol exhibited higher absorbance than samples without added ethanol. This was the case for trials carried out in simulated clean air masses as well as ones carried out with NaNO2.

  12. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Potential Risk Factors for Nodding Syndrome in Kitgum District, Uganda.

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    Jennifer L Foltz

    Full Text Available Nodding Syndrome (NS, an unexplained illness characterized by spells of head bobbing, has been reported in Sudan and Tanzania, perhaps as early as 1962. Hypothesized causes include sorghum consumption, measles, and onchocerciasis infection. In 2009, a couple thousand cases were reportedly in Northern Uganda.In December 2009, we identified cases in Kitgum District. The case definition included persons who were previously developmentally normal who had nodding. Cases, further defined as 5- to 15-years-old with an additional neurological deficit, were matched to village controls to assess risk factors and test biological specimens. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations.Surveillance identified 224 cases; most (95% were 5-15-years-old (range = 2-27. Cases were reported in Uganda since 1997. The overall prevalence was 12 cases per 1,000 (range by parish = 0·6-46. The case-control investigation (n = 49 case/village control pairs showed no association between NS and previously reported measles; sorghum was consumed by most subjects. Positive onchocerciasis serology [age-adjusted odds ratio (AOR1 = 14·4 (2·7, 78·3], exposure to munitions [AOR1 = 13·9 (1·4, 135·3], and consumption of crushed roots [AOR1 = 5·4 (1·3, 22·1] were more likely in cases. Vitamin B6 deficiency was present in the majority of cases (84% and controls (75%.NS appears to be increasing in Uganda since 2000 with 2009 parish prevalence as high as 46 cases per 1,000 5- to 15-year old children. Our results found no supporting evidence for many proposed NS risk factors, revealed association with onchocerciasis, which for the first time was examined with serologic testing, and raised nutritional deficiencies and toxic exposures as possible etiologies.

  13. Gene expression profile analysis of colorectal cancer to investigate potential mechanisms using bioinformatics

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    Kou YB

    2015-04-01

    phosphorylation and Parkinson’s disease. DEGs, such as FOS, FN1, PPP1CC, and CYP2B6, may be used as potential targets for CRC diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: molecular mechanisms, network module, enrichment analysis

  14. Compassion and vigilance: investigators' strategies to manage ethical concerns in palliative and end-of-life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Susan E; Cartwright, Juliana C; Nelson, Christine A; Knafl, Kathleen

    2012-08-01

    Ethical concerns were identified as a potential barrier to advancing palliative and end-of-life science at the 2004 National Institutes of Health State of the Science Meeting. However, data are lacking about the nature of ethical concerns and strategies for balancing the need to advance science with human subjects protections. A qualitative case-study design was used to follow 43 end-of-life studies from proposal development through the review process and implementation. Investigators participated in semi-structured telephone interviews and provided document data regarding their experiences with grant and IRB reviews. Using constant comparative analysis within and across cases, the investigators identified commonly encountered and unique concerns and strategies for managing these concerns. Investigator strategies fell into two broad categories: 1) Recruitment and consent strategies related to subject identification and enrollment; and 2) Protocol-related strategies related to the process of data collection. These strategies shared the overarching meta-themes of compassion, as evidenced by a heightened sensitivity to the needs of the population, coupled with vigilance, as evidenced by close attention to the possible effects of study participation on the participants' well-being, clinical care, and the needs of research staff. Ethical concerns have led to the development of compassionate and vigilant strategies designed to balance the potential for risk of harm with the need to advance the science of palliative and end-of-life care. These strategies can be used by investigators to address ethical concerns and minimize barriers to the development of palliative and end-of-life care science.

  15. Final work plan : investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Hanover, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-19

    Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. Seven technical objectives have been proposed for the Hanover investigation. They are as follows: (1) Identify the sources and extent of soil contamination beneath the former CCC/USDA facility; (2) Characterize groundwater contamination beneath the former CCC/USDA facility; (3) Determine groundwater flow patterns; (4) Define the vertical and lateral extent of the groundwater plume outside the former CCC/USDA facility; (5) Evaluate the aquifer and monitor the groundwater system; (6) Identify any other potential sources of contamination that are not related to activities of the CCC/USDA; and (7) Determine whether there is a vapor intrusion problem at the site attributable to the former CCC/USDA facility. The technical objectives will be accomplished in a phased approached. Data collected during each phase will be evaluated to determine whether the subsequent phase is necessary. The KDHE project manager and the CCC/USDA will be contacted during each phase and kept apprised of the results. Whether implementation of each phase of work is necessary will be discussed and mutually agreed upon by the CCC/USDA and KDHE project managers.

  16. Population of computational rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models for investigating sources of variability in cellular repolarisation.

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    Philip Gemmell

    Full Text Available Variability is observed at all levels of cardiac electrophysiology. Yet, the underlying causes and importance of this variability are generally unknown, and difficult to investigate with current experimental techniques. The aim of the present study was to generate populations of computational ventricular action potential models that reproduce experimentally observed intercellular variability of repolarisation (represented by action potential duration and to identify its potential causes. A systematic exploration of the effects of simultaneously varying the magnitude of six transmembrane current conductances (transient outward, rapid and slow delayed rectifier K(+, inward rectifying K(+, L-type Ca(2+, and Na(+/K(+ pump currents in two rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models (Shannon et al. and Mahajan et al. at multiple cycle lengths (400, 600, 1,000 ms was performed. This was accomplished with distributed computing software specialised for multi-dimensional parameter sweeps and grid execution. An initial population of 15,625 parameter sets was generated for both models at each cycle length. Action potential durations of these populations were compared to experimentally derived ranges for rabbit ventricular myocytes. 1,352 parameter sets for the Shannon model and 779 parameter sets for the Mahajan model yielded action potential duration within the experimental range, demonstrating that a wide array of ionic conductance values can be used to simulate a physiological rabbit ventricular action potential. Furthermore, by using clutter-based dimension reordering, a technique that allows visualisation of multi-dimensional spaces in two dimensions, the interaction of current conductances and their relative importance to the ventricular action potential at different cycle lengths were revealed. Overall, this work represents an important step towards a better understanding of the role that variability in current conductances may play in

  17. Population of computational rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models for investigating sources of variability in cellular repolarisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Philip; Burrage, Kevin; Rodriguez, Blanca; Quinn, T Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Variability is observed at all levels of cardiac electrophysiology. Yet, the underlying causes and importance of this variability are generally unknown, and difficult to investigate with current experimental techniques. The aim of the present study was to generate populations of computational ventricular action potential models that reproduce experimentally observed intercellular variability of repolarisation (represented by action potential duration) and to identify its potential causes. A systematic exploration of the effects of simultaneously varying the magnitude of six transmembrane current conductances (transient outward, rapid and slow delayed rectifier K(+), inward rectifying K(+), L-type Ca(2+), and Na(+)/K(+) pump currents) in two rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models (Shannon et al. and Mahajan et al.) at multiple cycle lengths (400, 600, 1,000 ms) was performed. This was accomplished with distributed computing software specialised for multi-dimensional parameter sweeps and grid execution. An initial population of 15,625 parameter sets was generated for both models at each cycle length. Action potential durations of these populations were compared to experimentally derived ranges for rabbit ventricular myocytes. 1,352 parameter sets for the Shannon model and 779 parameter sets for the Mahajan model yielded action potential duration within the experimental range, demonstrating that a wide array of ionic conductance values can be used to simulate a physiological rabbit ventricular action potential. Furthermore, by using clutter-based dimension reordering, a technique that allows visualisation of multi-dimensional spaces in two dimensions, the interaction of current conductances and their relative importance to the ventricular action potential at different cycle lengths were revealed. Overall, this work represents an important step towards a better understanding of the role that variability in current conductances may play in experimentally