WorldWideScience

Sample records for research individual chapters

  1. 21 CFR 812.47 - Emergency research under § 50.24 of this chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency research under § 50.24 of this chapter. 812.47 Section 812.47 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....47 Emergency research under § 50.24 of this chapter. (a) The sponsor shall monitor the progress of...

  2. Research related to roads in USDA experimental forests [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Elliot; P. J. Edwards; R. B. Foltz

    2014-01-01

    Forest roads are essential in experimental forests and rangelands (EFRs) to allow researchers and the public access to research sites and for fire suppression, timber extraction, and fuel management. Sediment from roads can adversely impact watershed health. Since the 1930s, the design and management of forest roads has addressed both access issues and watershed health...

  3. Chapter 4 genomics, transcriptomics, and epigenomics in traumatic brain injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccio, Ava M; Alexander, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects and significant impact of the full spectrum of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has received increased attention in recent years. Despite increased research efforts, there has been little movement toward improving outcomes for the survivors of TBI. TBI is a heterogeneous condition with a complex biological response, and significant variability in human recovery contributes to the difficulty in identifying therapeutics that improve outcomes. Personalized medicine, identifying the best course of treatment for a given individual based on individual characteristics, has great potential to improve recovery for TBI survivors. The advances in medical genetics and genomics over the past 20 years have increased our understanding of many biological processes. A substantial amount of research has focused on the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic profiles in many health and disease states, including recovery from TBI. The focus of this review chapter is to describe the current state of the science in genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic research in the TBI population. There have been some advancements toward understanding the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic processes in humans, but much of this work remains at the preclinical stage. This current evidence does improve our understanding of TBI recovery, but also serves as an excellent platform upon which to build further study toward improved outcomes for this population.

  4. Chapter 6: Research needs for the conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; W. Scott Richardson; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper

    2000-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe research needs for the conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) in Arizona. Estimates of population size, structure, and dynamics, as well as demographic data, are needed for the recovery team to formulate sound population objectives. Habitat loss due to residential development...

  5. Chapter 6: Culture and Learning in the Context of Globalization--Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wan Shun Eva

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to lay out some new conceptualizations and research directions for understanding the relation of culture and learning in the shifting terrains of globalized economies and media flows, youth cultures, and transnational migration. In a time when young people's experiences and life pathways are increasingly forged in the…

  6. Evaluating the status of individuals and populations: Advantages of multiple approaches and time scales: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Daniel H.; Bowen, Lizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of population status is a central goal of applied wildlife research and essential to the field of wildlife conservation. “Population status” has a number of definitions, the most widely used having to do with the current trajectory of the population (i.e., growing, stable, or declining), or the probability of persistence (i.e., extinction risk), perhaps without any specific knowledge as to the factors driving a population’s dynamics. In contrast, a population’s status relative to the carrying capacity of the environment (K) is an ecologically-based definition that explicitly provides information about a major mechanism of population control. That is, it relates to the relative per capita availability of resources to individuals in a population, which can also be used to infer the state of the environment itself.

  7. A study of teacher-researcher collaboration on reading instruction for Chapter one students

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhaes, Maria Cecilia Camargo

    1990-01-01

    This study examines a collaborative endeavor in which a Chapter One teacher and a reseacher worked together to plan, conduct and reflect on a reading instruction designed to promote strategic reading. For eleven weeks, data were collected during conversations and reflective/planning sessions conducted by the teacher and the researcher and during instruction for a group of fourth-and fifth-gratle students. Ethnographic methods such as participant observation, interview...

  8. Contextualising the Individual in International Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I call for further contextualisation of the individual in international management research. In this 'opinion piece', my goal is to stimulate debate and elicit a thoughtful reaction. Accordingly, this paper aims to provoke and excite, rather than review and summarise. On the basis ...

  9. Contextualising the Individual in International Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I call for further contextualisation of the individual in international management research. In this 'opinion piece', my goal is to stimulate debate and elicit a thoughtful reaction. Accordingly, this paper aims to provoke and excite, rather than review and summarise. On the basis...

  10. Data on distribution and abundance: Monitoring for research and management [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2010-01-01

    In the first chapter of this book we identified the interdependence of method, data and theory as an important influence on the progress of science. The first several chapters focused mostly on progress in theory, in the areas of integrating spatial and temporal complexity into ecological analysis, the emergence of landscape ecology and its transformation into a multi-...

  11. Chapter 5. Assessing the Need for High Impact Technology Research, Development & Deployment for Mitigating Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Auston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is a centrally important component of all strategies to mitigate climate change. As such, it encompasses a multi-dimensional space that is far too large to be fully addressed in this brief chapter. Consequently, we have elected to focus on a subset of topics that we believe have the potential for substantial impact. As researchers, we have also narrowed our focus to address applied research, development and deployment issues and omit basic research topics that have a longer-term impact. This handful of topics also omits technologies that we deem to be relatively mature, such as solar photovoltaics and wind turbines, even though we acknowledge that additional research could further reduce costs and enhance performance. These and other mature technologies such as transportation are discussed in Chapter 6. This report and the related Summit Conference are an outgrowth of the University of California President’s Carbon Neutrality Initiative, and consequently we are strongly motivated by the special demands of this ambitious goal, as we are also motivated by the corresponding goals for the State of California, the nation and the world. The unique feature of the UC Carbon Neutrality Initiative is the quest to achieve zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 at all ten 10 campuses. It should be emphasized that a zero emission target is enormously demanding and requires careful strategic planning to arrive at a mix of technologies, policies, and behavioral measures, as well as highly effective communication – all of which are far more challenging than reducing emissions by some 40% or even 80%. Each campus has a unique set of requirements based on its current energy and emissions. Factors such as a local climate, dependence on cogeneration, access to wholesale electricity markets, and whether a medical school is included shape the specific challenges of the campuses, each of which is a “living laboratory” setting a model for others to

  12. Applications of landscape genetics to connectivity research in terrestrial animals [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisette P. Waits; Samuel A. Cushman; Steve F. Spear

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetic studies have focused on terrestrial animals more than any other taxonomic group. This chapter focuses on applications of landscape genetics for understanding connectivity of terrestrial animal populations. It starts with a general introduction covering unique characteristics and challenges of the terrestrial study system. This is followed by...

  13. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe. Chapter 2. Why rehabilitation is needed by individual and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper describes the background to the context of PRM services and comprises the following: - Epidemiological Aspects of Functioning and Disability - Ethical Aspects and Human Rights - Rehabilitation and Health Systems - Economic Burden of Disability - Effects of Lack of Rehabilitation Health care service planning accounts for the burden of disability among society and the chapter describes the justification for specialist rehabilitation, the background of PRM and why making a functional diagnosis and a management plan based on function is its core competence. The chapter describes the increasing burden of disability due to conditions seen in PRM practice rather than on all those diseases contributing to physical disablement and does not include mental illness, learning disabilities, etc. Ten percent of Western Europe's population have a disability and are surviving longer, resulting in higher costs for health and social care and a greater impact of co-morbidities. The chapter also describes the impact and increased costs in the absence of rehabilitation. Not only is money spent on rehabilitation recovered with five to nine-fold savings (e.g. in return to work), but rehabilitation is effective in all phases of health conditions. Specialized rehabilitation (as delivered by PRM services) is highly cost-efficient for all neurological conditions, producing substantial savings in ongoing care costs, especially in high-dependency patients. Disability discrimination has been outlawed and the text describes the legal context and status of a person living in Europe with a disability. The second part highlights the United Nations Conventions on human rights, confirmed in the World Report on Disability, but also on the principles of ethical practice among PRM physicians. The third part addresses the variability of access to and funding of rehabilitation services across countries. The

  14. Summary and conclusions [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L.. Medina

    2012-01-01

    Summaries and conclusions of each chapter are compiled here to provide a “Quick Reference” guide of major results and recommendations for the UVR. More detail can be obtained from individual chapters.

  15. Chapter 10: Research and Deployment of Renewable Bioenergy Production from Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Glasser, Melodie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress towards the implementation of renewable bioenergy production has included microalgae, which have potential to significantly contribute to a viable future bioeconomy. In a current challenging energy landscape, where an increased demand for renewable fuels is projected and accompanied by plummeting fossil fuels' prices, economical production of algae-based fuels becomes more challenging. However, in the context of mitigating carbon emissions with the potential of algae to assimilate large quantities of CO2, there is a route to drive carbon sequestration and utilization to support a sustainable and secure global energy future. This chapter places international energy policy in the context of the current and projected energy landscape. The contribution that algae can make, is summarized as both a conceptual contribution as well as an overview of the commercial infrastructure installed globally. Some of the major recent developments and crucial technology innovations are the results of global government support for the development of algae-based bioenergy, biofuels and bioproduct applications, which have been awarded as public private partnerships and are summarized in this chapter.

  16. The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research (Military Medical Ethics. Volume 2, Chapter 19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    justice have long been associated with social practices such as punishment, taxation and political The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research...suspension of eligibility to receive research funding, to use investigational interventions, or to practise medicine. Unless there are persuasive reasons to do

  17. [Protoplasm, coagulation and colloids : Forgotten chapter in the research history of anesthesia between Zeitgeist and paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perouansky, M

    2015-05-01

    The historically most important mechanistic theories attributed the fundamental cause of anesthesia to interactions betweeen anesthetics and proteins as early as the 1870s. According to the underlying thought, the resulting changes in the consistency of cellular protoplasm were the cause of the anesthetized state of the whole organism.These protoplasm coagulation theories, as they were collectively referred to, brought the contemporary enthusiasm for protoplasm, the rapid advances in colloid chemistry and the unified theory of narcosis proclamed by Claude Bernard under a unified mechanistic theory that reflected the Zeitgeist of the epoch.This research effort, on the intersection of the developing disciplines of cellular biology and colloid chemistry, lasted for almost a century. It involved scientists of worldwide reputation and resulted in a number of elegant theories. Contrary to widespread opinion, proteins and not lipids were recognized and investigated first as the critical molecular target of anesthetics more than a century prior to their much publicized rediscovery in 1984.The protoplasm coagulation theories of anesthesia were pursued after the First World War across ideological trenches by scientists in Europe, the Soviet Union and the United States. They united research in anesthesia with research of fundamental cell biology.In contrast to the much less fruitful lipid theories, protoplasm coagulation theories are largely forgotten without leaving a trace in contemporary discussions of the history of anesthesia. For many tyears, however, they constituted an essential part of fundamental anesthetic research and must therefore be mentioned in any historical review.

  18. The picture test of separation and individuation - preliminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Žvelc

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors introduce a new instrument, which they developed for measuring separation and individuation process and attachment in adolescence and adulthood. The Picture Test of Separation and Individuation (PTSI is a semi–projective test. It consists of various pictures, which represent relationships with significant others. PTSI is divided into three subtests: Relationship with Mother, Relationship with Father and Attachment. In a preliminary research on a sample of college and university students authors studied basic properties of the test. The results of the research indicate that PTSI is consistent with theoretical background, has good sensitivity and is economical. The Picture Test of Separation and Individuation enables quick but complex insight into individual's relationships with significant others as well as into his/her stage of separation and individuation process. Considering satisfying results of pilot study, authors suggest further research for validation of the test.

  19. An Attitude Scale on Individual Instrument and Individual Instrument Course: Validity-Reliability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuçukosmanoglu, Hayrettin Onur

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine students' attitude levels on individual instruments and individual instrument courses in instrument training, which is an important dimension of music education, and to conduct a validity-reliability research of the scale that has been developed. The scale consists of 16 items. The…

  20. The British research evidence for recovery, papers published between 2006 and 2009 (inclusive). Part two: a review of the grey literature including book chapters and policy documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Wright, N

    2011-05-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two which reviews the current UK evidence base for recovery in mental health. As outlined in the previous paper, over the last 4 years a vast amount has written about recovery in mental health (approximately 60% of all articles). Whereas the first review focused on the peer-reviewed evidence; this paper specifically focuses on the grey/non-peer-reviewed literature. In total, our search strategy yielded the following: 3 books, a further 11 book chapters, 12 papers, 6 policy documents and 3 publications from voluntary sector organizations. Each group of publications was analysed for content, and they are discursively presented by publication group. The findings are then presented as themes in the discussion section. The themes are: social, historical and political critique; philosophy of hope for the individual; individual identity and narrative; models and guidance for mental health practice. We conclude that there is a need for both empirical research into recovery and a clearer theoretical exposition of the concept. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  1. Chapter 11: Research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson; Janie Agyagos; Deborah M. Finch; Tracy McCarthey; Jamie Uyehara; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    Until the southwestern willow flycatcher was proposed for listing as an endangered species in 1993, it was subject to relatively little scientific scrutiny, in part because it is drab, prone to inhabiting dense, wet thickets, and difficult to identify and observe. Consequently, it remained one of the lesser-known of North American birds. Since that time, it has become...

  2. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs

  3. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs

  4. Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs.

  5. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs.

  6. Chapter Nine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Communication Barriers and the Second Language Learner. The ability to interact among human beings is made possible by communication. Human language has a ... individuals and groups for better understanding and relationships. (qtd in ...

  7. Individual Scholar Productivity Rankings in Business Ethics Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Warnick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have been a time of significant development for the academic business ethics community. While a number of scholars have contributed to advances in the field, the work of the individuals who have contributed to its progress and growth through their business ethics research is still not comprehensively understood within the academic business ethics community. This study identifies those individuals who have made major contributions to the business ethics field by ranking authors who have published business ethics-related research in the following six journals over the past 20 years: the Journal of Business Ethics, the Academy of Management Review, the Academy of Management Journal, the Business Ethics Quarterly, the Administrative Science Quarterly; and Business & Society. The results of the study should be of interest to a number of constituencies as they provide the academic business ethics community with a better understanding of the history and evolution of the field and its development towards academic maturity.

  8. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    2001-02-01

    Feb 1, 2001 ... research and financial institutions; acquiring famous faculty; multidisciplinary science replacing single disciplines; and .... patents issued for the fiscal year 2007 (Market Research ... is reducible to one of three categories –war, crises, or ..... ccismay042700.html> The Graduate School of International.

  9. Chapter 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    For the Aarhus School of Architecture contribution to this book on creativity, we have decided to focus on the role of the workplace. It has been striking after attending several of the Practice Research Symposia organised by ADAPT-r how often creative practice researchers examine the spatial org...

  10. Chapter Ten

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    differences in behavior. Research motivated from this perspective focuses on ways to ... work serves as a case study for the way cultural psychology can provide a framework for better understanding ...... emotion, and motivation. Psychological ...

  11. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    administration of 70% ethanol to induce gastric mucosal damage followed by pyloric ligation. The same procedure was ... anti-ulcer drugs has remained a field of active research ... arrythmias, impotence, gynaecomastia, nephrotoxicity, and.

  12. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    resource settings showed that the use of pap smear for routine screening of women resulted in ..... Research in Mexico, Ecuador and Venezuela for Latin ... University College Hospital by Arulogun and Maxwell (2012) and contradicts a study in ...

  13. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    research in Nigeria, this study identified predictors of child mortality. ... The hazard of under-five mortality was higher for children of mothers residing in the; South ..... This phenomenon can be explained ... crop residue, dung, straw and lignite.

  14. CHAPTER ONE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science

    2013-04-03

    cultured rice plants. Plant Soil 148:107-113. Ma JF, Takahashi E (2002). Soil, Fertilizer, and Plant Silicon Research in Japan. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. Ma JF, Yamaji N (2006). Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants ...

  15. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  16. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  17. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  18. Chapter 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    For the Aarhus School of Architecture contribution to this book on creativity, we have decided to focus on the role of the workplace. It has been striking after attending several of the Practice Research Symposia organised by ADAPT-r how often creative practice researchers examine the spatial...... organisation of their offices or workshops to form a better understanding of their practice. This has led us to investigate and discuss how the spatial context of creative practices shapes – and is shaped by – design processes. We have asked ourselves about what role the broader spatial and cultural context...

  19. Chapter Three

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TonukariJ

    Nyerhovwo J. TonukariY, *, John S. Scott-Craig and Jonathan D. Walton. Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824. Accepted 18 November 2002. The expression of four Cochliobolus carbonum endo-1,4-β-xylanase genes (XYL1, XYL2, XYL3, XYL4),.

  20. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Research article. Knowledge of Diets as A Modifiable Risk Factor of Obesity ... Frequently consumed high calorie foods included cocoa-based drinks (24.8%), .... of risky food items (fatty, junk and sugary foods) was categorized ... biological children. Details .... “constant exposure to adverts and marketing of high calorie foods ...

  1. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: To determine cost of therapy to patients of Ear Nose and Throat infections in a Nigerian ... resources are being used wisely even before the global ... economic based operational researches to improve .... calculated based on time spent in the hospital and loss ..... 2005) and may be due to low level of immunity.

  2. Latin America multidisciplinary research on heat shock proteins and cell stress: proceedings of the first conference of the Latin America Chapter of the Cell Stress Society International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausero, María A

    2015-09-01

    The First Conference of the Latin America Chapter of the Cell Stress Society International (CSSI) organized by CSSI was held in Montevideo, Uruguay, on March 11-14, 2014. The Latin America Chapter of the CSSI (LAC-CSSI) was established at the Workshop on the Molecular Biology of the Stress Response, Porto Alegre, Brazil, May 2012. The chapter's first meeting took place in the beautiful city of Montevideo and was chaired by the first (LAC-CSSI) elected president Professor María Bausero. Forty-two invited speakers presented their work to more than 100 scientists. The first day of the conference was dedicated to an introductory program for students, young investigators, and participants new to the field of molecular chaperones and the stress response. These seminars were held in the Pasteur Institute of Montevideo and the Faculty of Sciences of the University of the Republic. These institutions were carefully selected to give foreign participants a broad view of the diversity of students and institutions doing research in Uruguay, as well as an opportunity for direct interaction with our scientists and students. Invited speakers for the seminar series were Dr. Wolfgang Schumann, Dr. Cristina Bonorino, Dr. Antonio De Maio, Dr. Ian Brown, Dr. Rafael Radi, Dr. Daniel Ciocca, and Dr. Celia Quijano. The remaining days of the conference took place at the Sheraton Hotel in Montevideo, and the scientific sessions are discussed below.

  3. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, D. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Collins, L. T. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Le Heron, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility.

  4. Impact of mobile phone use on driving performance - Review of experimental literature, chapter 17. In Driver Distraction and Inattention : Advances in Research and Countermeasures, Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    BRUYAS, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The mobile phone is a technological device that can be used for a variety of purposes - to converse, to exchange text messages, to access the internet, to play games and so on. There has been much research on the impact of using a mobile phone while driving on driving performance - in the laboratory, on test-tracks and on real roads - and there is ample evidence that using this device while driving has adverse effects on driving performance. In this chapter, literature on the impact of mobile...

  5. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  6. Selection of the DC-60 cyclotron as the basic facility for the Inter-disciplinary research complex in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Chapter 2 the DC-60 specialized accelerator project of the Inter-disciplinary research complex in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University is described. The DC-60 cyclotron is intended for applied studies which can be accomplished on both the ion beams of the electron cyclotron resonance source with voltage up to 25 kV and the accelerated ions from carbon to xenon. The cyclotron is design on the base of compact magnet with weight about 74 tonnes, and it mean magnetic field is 1.6 T, section angle - 50 Deg. Design of the Inter-disciplinary research complex building in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University is described as well. Technical performances of the building and their parameters are given

  7. Tourette Association Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com Arizona Email: info@tsa-az.org Website: http://tsa-az.org/ Arkansas Support Group of Northwest ... California/Hawaii Chapter Email: cbrackett2004@yahoo.com Website: http://www.tsanorcal-hawaii.org Southern California Chapter Phone: ...

  8. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  9. Bounded Rationality in Individual Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are: (i) To give a pithy, opinionated summary of what has been learned about bounded rationality in individual decision making from experiments in economics and psychology (drawing on my 1995 Handbook of Experimental Economics chapter); and (ii) mention some promising new directions for research which would be included if that chapter were written today.

  10. Chapter 6: Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hauer, F. Richard; F. Richard Hauer,; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Stream temperature has direct and indirect effects on stream ecology and is critical in determining both abiotic and biotic system responses across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Temperature variation is primarily driven by solar radiation, while landscape topography, geology, and stream reach scale ecosystem processes contribute to local variability. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in freshwater ecosystems influences habitat distributions, physiological functions, and phenology of all aquatic organisms. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods for monitoring stream temperature, characterization of thermal profiles, and modeling approaches to stream temperature prediction. Recent advances in temperature monitoring allow for more comprehensive studies of the underlying processes influencing annual variation of temperatures and how thermal variability may impact aquatic organisms at individual, population, and community based scales. Likewise, the development of spatially explicit predictive models provide a framework for simulating natural and anthropogenic effects on thermal regimes which is integral for sustainable management of freshwater systems.

  11. Capturing Individual Uptake: Toward a Disruptive Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and illustrates a qualitative research methodology for studies of uptake. It does so by articulating a theoretical framework for qualitative investigations of uptake and detailing a research study designed to invoke and capture students' uptakes in a first-year writing classroom. The research design sought to make uptake…

  12. Academic Entrepreneurialism and Private Higher Education in Europe (Chapter 6)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we will focus on basic ideas and key concepts functioning in research on academic entrepreneurialism. The reference point here will be public institutions (the original focus of reflection both in Europe and the USA) and private institutions (under-researched from this particular analytical perspective both in Europe and in the USA). Apart from the discussion of the individual core elements of the “entrepreneurial university”, there will be discussions intended to see the d...

  13. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  14. Status of R&D on Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers at the Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers. Chapter 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlous, M. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique (COMENA) (Algeria); Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger (CRNA), Algiers (Algeria)

    2014-07-15

    In recent years, considerable success in the modification of natural polymers by irradiation with the purpose of producing properties for specific applications has been recorded. Research groups in many countries have developed new products based on radiation-processed polysaccharides. Some developed products have already been commercialized. These include plant growth promoters and protectors for application in agriculture, wound dressing hydrogels containing radiation processed polysaccharides for the health sector, and adsorbents of metal ions and organic pollutants for the protection of the environment. In Algeria, although the commercialization stage of radiation-processed polysaccharides has not yet been reached, special attention is being given to research in this area. Several studies related to the effects of ionizing radiation on polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate have been conducted. Work activities aimed at the development of materials based on natural polymers for medical, environmental and agricultural applications have either been completed or are currently being done. The results of some of these studies are presented below. (author)

  15. A new chapter in doctoral candidate training: The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Gerzer, R.; Reitz, G.

    2011-05-01

    In the field of space life sciences, the demand of an interdisciplinary and specific training of young researchers is high due to the complex interaction of medical, biological, physical, technical and other questions. The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) offers an excellent interdisciplinary training for doctoral students from different fields (biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, physics, psychology, nutrition or sports sciences and related fields) and any country. SpaceLife is coordinated by the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne. The German Universities in Kiel, Bonn, Aachen, Regensburg, Magdeburg and Berlin, and the German Sports University (DSHS) in Cologne are members of SpaceLife. The Universities of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Frankfurt, Hohenheim, and the Beihang University in Beijing are associated partners. In each generation, up to 25 students can participate in the three-year program. Students learn to develop integrated concepts to solve health issues in human spaceflight and in related disease patterns on Earth, and to further explore the requirements for life in extreme environments, enabling a better understanding of the ecosystem Earth and the search for life on other planets in unmanned and manned missions. The doctoral candidates are coached by two specialist supervisors from DLR and the partner university, and a mentor. All students attend lectures in different subfields of space life sciences to attain an overview of the field: radiation and gravitational biology, astrobiology and space physiology, including psychological aspects of short and long term space missions. Seminars, advanced lectures, laboratory courses and stays at labs at the partner institutions or abroad are offered as elective course and will provide in-depth knowledge of the chosen subfield or allow to appropriate innovative methods. In Journal Clubs of the participating working groups, doctoral students learn

  16. Managing environmental enhancement plans for individual research projects at a national primate research center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Jinhee P; Crockett, Carolyn M

    2008-05-01

    We describe a method for managing environmental enhancement plans for individual research projects at a national primate research center where most monkeys are assigned to active research projects. The Psychological Well-being Program (PWB) at the University of Washington National Primate Research Center developed an Environmental Enhancement Plan form (EEPL) that allows PWB to quantify and track changes in enrichment allowances over time while ensuring that each animal is provided with as much enrichment as possible without compromising research. Very few projects involve restrictions on toys or perches. Some projects have restrictions on food treats and foraging, primarily involving the provision of these enrichments by research staff instead of husbandry staff. Restrictions are not considered exemptions unless they entirely prohibit an element of the University of Washington Environmental Enhancement Plan (UW EE Plan). All exemptions must be formally reviewed and approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Most exemptions from elements of the UW EE Plan involve social housing. Between 2004 and 2006, the percentage of projects with no social contact restrictions increased by 1%, but those prohibiting any tactile social contact declined by 7%, and projects permitting tactile social contact during part of the study increased by 9%. The EEPL form has facilitated informing investigators about the enrichment their monkeys will receive if no restrictions or exemptions are requested and approved. The EEPL form also greatly enhances PWB's ability to coordinate the specific enrichment requirements of a project.

  17. Chapter 8: Youth Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...... their phones as indispensable to managing their social lives. Stald observes that while being connected all the time gives youth a sense of freedom, control and autonomy, their increasing access to mobile phones is a cause anytime, anywhere access to one another is now possible with mobile phones, time...

  18. Biomedical Informatics Research for Individualized Life - Long Shared Healthcare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana; Hanzlíček, Petr; Nagy, Miroslav; Přečková, Petra; Zvára, K.; Seidl, L.; Bureš, V.; Šubrt, D.; Dostálová, T.; Seydlová, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2009), s. 31-41 ISSN 0208-5216 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : electronic health record * semantic interoperability * dentistry * cardiology Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. Chapter 27. Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, O.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter author deals with superconductors and superconductivity. Different chemical materials used as high-temperature superconductors are presented. Some applications of superconductivity are presented.

  20. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  1. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 2, Part A: Chapters 3, 4, and 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1--5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 575 refs., 84 figs., 68 tabs.

  2. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 4, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.0 through 8.3.1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 74 figs., 32 tabs.

  3. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 2, Part A: Chapters 3, 4, and 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1--5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 575 refs., 84 figs., 68 tabs

  4. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  5. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  6. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  7. Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: local regional and global effects: Chapter 6 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pendleton, Burton

    2013-01-01

    Species conservation has traditionally been based on individual species within the context of their requisite habitat, which is generally defined as the communities and ecosystems deemed necessary for their presence. Conservation decisions are hampered by the fact that environmental stressors that poetically threaten the persistence of species can operate at organizational levels larger than the habitat or home range of a focal species. Resource managers must therefore simultaneously consider local, regional, and/or global scale stressors for effective conservation and management of species of concern. The wide ranging effects associated with global stressors such as climate change may exceed or exacerbate the effects of local or regional stressors, they still need to understand the direct and interactive effects of global stressors and ultimately how they affect the lands they manage. Conservation of species in southern Nevada is further complication by the fact that the region includes one of the largest and fastest growing urban centers in North America. To accomplish the goal of species conservation, resource managers must identify actionable management options that mitigate the effects of local and regional stressor in the context of the effects of global stressors that are beyond their control. Species conservation is typically focused on a subset often referred to as species of conservation concern that have either demonstrated considerable decline or are naturally rare or have limited distributions. Stressors can directly and indirectly impact species in a variety of ways and through a diversity of mechanisms. Some stressors have been more intense in the past (e.g., livestock grazing) whereas other are now only emerging as new stressors (e.g., solar energy development, climate change). The primary stressors affecting southern Nevada ecosystems are listed in table 2.1 and reviewed in detail in Chapter 2. This chapter addresses Dub-goal 1.4 in the SNAP

  8. Applied Warfighter Ergonomics: A Research Method for Evaluating Military Individual Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takagi, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to design and implement a laboratory and establish a research method focused on scientific evaluation of human factors considerations for military individual...

  9. Silicate glasses. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e. borosilicate glass. A historical overview of waste form development programs in nine countries is followed by a summary of the design criteria for borosilicate glass compositions glass compositions. In the sections on glass properties the waste form is characterized in terms of potential alterations under the influence of heat, thermal gradients, radiation, aqueous solutions and combinations thereof. The topics are phase transformations, mechanical properties, radiation effects and chemical durability. The results from studies of volcanic glasses, as natural analogues for borosilicate nuclear waste glasses in order to verify predictions obtained from short-term tests in the laboratory, have been compiled in a special section on natural analogues. A special section on advanced vitrification techniques summarizes the various actual and potential processing schemes and describes the facilities. The literature has been considered until 1985. (author). 430 refs.; 68 figs.; 29 tabs

  10. Chapter 9: Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  11. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  12. Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Motivators for Research Participation Among Individuals Who Are Incarcerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Bridget L; Faulkner, Sherilyn A; Brems, Christiane; Corey, Staci L; Eldridge, Gloria D; Johnson, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Understanding motivations of research participants is crucial for developing ethical research protocols, especially for research with vulnerable populations. Through interviews with 92 institutional review board members, prison administrators, research ethicists, and researchers, we explored key stakeholders' perceptions of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research. Primary motivators identified were a desire to contribute to society, gaining knowledge and health care, acquiring incentives, and obtaining social support. The potential for undue influence or coercion were also identified as motivators. These results highlight the need for careful analysis of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research as part of developing or reviewing ethically permissible and responsible research protocols. Future research should expand this line of inquiry to directly include perspectives of incarcerated individuals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. A Research on Mathematical Thinking Skills: Mathematical Thinking Skills of Athletes in Individual and Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, Halil; Inan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Sinan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the mathematical thinking skills of licensed athletes engaged in individual and team sports. The research is designed as a survey model. The sample of the research is composed of 59 female and 170 male licensed athletes (n = 229) and (aged 14 to 52) licensed who do the sports of shooting, billiards, archery,…

  14. How institutional change and individual researchers helped advance clinical guidelines in American health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Amit

    2013-06-01

    Clinical guidelines are important tools for managing health care quality. Research on the origins of guidelines primarily focuses on the institutional causes of their emergence and growth. Individual medical researchers, however, have played important roles. This paper develops knowledge of the role of individual medical researchers in advancing guidelines, and of how researchers' efforts were enabled or constrained by broader institutional changes. Drawing on an analytical case study focused on the role of Kerr White, John Wennberg, and Robert Brook, it shows that guidelines were a product of the interplay between institutional change in the medical field and actions by individual researchers, acting as institutional entrepreneurs. Increased government involvement in the health care field triggered the involvement of a range of new actors in health care. These new organizations created a context that allowed individual researchers to advance guidelines by creating job opportunities, providing research funding, and creating opportunities for researchers to engage with the policy process. Individual researchers availed of this context to both advance their ideas, and to draw new actors into the field. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The Research Results of the Individual Competences Influence on Direct Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Sypniewska

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the influence of individual competences on the effects of sales consultants efforts working at few well-known cosmetic companies specializing in direct sales multi-level marketing. The research proves dependence between individual competences and the level of effects. The competences profile derived from the analyses, characteristic for each study group, stresses the benefits and practical implications of this research.

  16. Conclusion. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj

  17. Nursery management [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    This handbook provides an overview of the factors that go into starting and operating a native plant nursery. Management includes all aspects of working with plants in all their phases of growth as described in Chapter 3, Crop Planning and Developing Propagation Protocols. Management also includes working with the community; organizing materials and infrastructure;...

  18. Chapter 8. Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman L. McDonald; Christina D. Vojta; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest barrier between monitoring and management is data analysis. Data languish in drawers and spreadsheets because those who collect or maintain monitoring data lack training in how to effectively summarize and analyze their findings. This chapter serves as a first step to surmounting that barrier by empowering any monitoring team with the basic...

  19. Forestry [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Gyde Lund; William A. Befort; James E. Brickell; William M. Ciesla; Elizabeth C. Collins; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Attilio Antonio Disperati; Robert W. Douglass; Charles W. Dull; Jerry D. Greer; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Vernon J. LaBau; Henry Lachowski; Peter A. Murtha; David J. Nowak; Marc A. Roberts; Pierre Schram; Mahadev D. Shedha; Ashbindu Singh; Kenneth C. Winterberger

    1997-01-01

    Foresters and other resource managers have used aerial photographs to help manage resources since the late 1920s. As discussed in chapter 1, however, it was not until the mid-1940s that their use became common. Obtaining photographic coverage was always a problem. For many areas of the world, reasonably complete coverage did not exist until after World War II. In...

  20. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  1. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  2. Chapter 5: Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 5 presents the 1) initial training; 2) periodic training, which includes: a) periodic training for employees at lower levels of the hierarchy than that of the operator; b) period training for operators; 3) operator training; 4) record of training; 5) safety culture.

  3. Chapter 0: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter deals with the background (Gabcikovo hydro power scheme was input in October 1992), project objective, project framework, equipment, establishment of the integrated modelling system, model setup, calibration and validation, definitions of scenarios for model application and with the results of model applications

  4. Chapter 6: Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.

  5. Individual Breast Cancer risk assessment in Underserved Populations: Integrating empirical Bioethics and Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily E.; Hoskins, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that individual breast cancer risk assessment may improve adherence to recommended screening and prevention guidelines, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. Further research on the use of risk assessment models in underserved minority populations is critical to informing national public health efforts to eliminate breast cancer disparities. However, implementing individual breast cancer risk assessment in underserved patient populations raises particular ethical issues that require further examination. After reviewing these issues, we will discuss how empirical bioethics research can be integrated with health disparities research to inform the translation of research findings. Our in-progress National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded study, How Do Underserved Minority Women Think About Breast Cancer?, conducted in the context of a larger study on individual breast cancer risk assessment, is presented as a model. PMID:23124498

  6. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...

  7. Institutional and Individual Research Productivity in Five Nominated Multicultural Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael Y.; Cisco, Hilary C.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2008-01-01

    Research productivity was examined across 5 highly nominated multicultural psychology journals. This yielded a ranking of 40 highly productive institutions and individuals between 1994 and 2007. The results are potentially useful in beginning to track trends in the publication of multicultural psychology studies in research journals.…

  8. Individual determinants of research utilization by nurses: a systematic review update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Lars

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions that have a better than random chance of increasing nurses' use of research are important to the delivery of quality patient care. However, few reports exist of successful research utilization in nursing interventions. Systematic identification and evaluation of individual characteristics associated with and predicting research utilization may inform the development of research utilization interventions. Objective To update the evidence published in a previous systematic review on individual characteristics influencing research utilization by nurses. Methods As part of a larger systematic review on research utilization instruments, 12 online bibliographic databases were searched. Hand searching of specialized journals and an ancestry search was also conducted. Randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational study designs examining the association between individual characteristics and nurses' use of research were eligible for inclusion. Studies were limited to those published in the English, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian languages. A vote counting approach to data synthesis was taken. Results A total of 42,770 titles were identified, of which 501 were retrieved. Of these 501 articles, 45 satisfied our inclusion criteria. Articles assessed research utilization in general (n = 39 or kinds of research utilization (n = 6 using self-report survey measures. Individual nurse characteristics were classified according to six categories: beliefs and attitudes, involvement in research activities, information seeking, education, professional characteristics, and socio-demographic/socio-economic characteristics. A seventh category, critical thinking, emerged in studies examining kinds of research utilization. Positive relationships, at statistically significant levels, for general research utilization were found in four categories: beliefs and attitudes, information seeking, education, and professional

  9. Individual determinants of research utilization by nurses: a systematic review update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions that have a better than random chance of increasing nurses' use of research are important to the delivery of quality patient care. However, few reports exist of successful research utilization in nursing interventions. Systematic identification and evaluation of individual characteristics associated with and predicting research utilization may inform the development of research utilization interventions. Objective To update the evidence published in a previous systematic review on individual characteristics influencing research utilization by nurses. Methods As part of a larger systematic review on research utilization instruments, 12 online bibliographic databases were searched. Hand searching of specialized journals and an ancestry search was also conducted. Randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational study designs examining the association between individual characteristics and nurses' use of research were eligible for inclusion. Studies were limited to those published in the English, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian languages. A vote counting approach to data synthesis was taken. Results A total of 42,770 titles were identified, of which 501 were retrieved. Of these 501 articles, 45 satisfied our inclusion criteria. Articles assessed research utilization in general (n = 39) or kinds of research utilization (n = 6) using self-report survey measures. Individual nurse characteristics were classified according to six categories: beliefs and attitudes, involvement in research activities, information seeking, education, professional characteristics, and socio-demographic/socio-economic characteristics. A seventh category, critical thinking, emerged in studies examining kinds of research utilization. Positive relationships, at statistically significant levels, for general research utilization were found in four categories: beliefs and attitudes, information seeking, education, and professional characteristics. The only

  10. Promoting the APS Chapter Program by sharing its history, best practices, and how-to guide for establishing new chapters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K

    2017-03-01

    Early establishment of physiological societies in Oklahoma and Ohio demonstrated the benefits of networking physiologists and paved the way for establishing the APS Chapter Program. Designed to promote the general objectives of the APS, the Chapter Program was officially launched in 1995, with Ohio being the first recognized chapter. There are 13 active chapters regularly engaged in numerous activities designed to advance physiology education and research. In the hopes that others will recognize the important offerings of state chapters and consider organizing one, the aims for this paper are to 1) share a brief history, 2) provide rationale for chapter initiation, and 3) describe the process involved in establishing a chapter. In light of current changes in American Medical Association and Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines, the present time may be critical in promoting chapters, as they play a vital role in sustaining recognition and support for the discipline. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Public-private collaboration and scientific impact: an analysis at the level of the individual researcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, C.; Ryan, T.K.; Andersen, J.P.

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines whether citation impact for individual researchers differs when collaborating with industry compared to work only involving academic researchers. To do this, we have identified a group of corresponding authors with addresses in Denmark with articles involving public-private collaboration for 2008-2010 and thereafter constructed a list of all articles authored by these researchers during the period 2006-2012. (Author)

  12. Individual and organizational predictors of the ethicality of graduate students' responses to research integrity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Philip J; Bent, Blake J

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective means to enhance research integrity by universities requires baseline measures of individual, programmatic, and institutional factors known to contribute to ethical decision making and behavior. In the present study, master's thesis and Ph.D. students in the fields of biological, health and social sciences at a research extensive university completed a field appropriate measure of research ethical decision making and rated the seriousness of the research issue and importance for implementing the selection response. In addition they were asked to rate their perceptions of the institutional and departmental research climate and to complete a measure of utilitarian and formalistic predisposition. Female students were found to be more ethical in their decision making compared to male students. The research ethical decision measure was found to be related to participants' ethical predisposition and overall perception of organizational and departmental research climate; however, formalism was the only individual predictor to reach statistical significance and none of the individual subscales of the research climate measure were significantly correlated to ethicality. Participants' ratings of the seriousness of the issue were correlated with their ratings of the importance of carrying out their selected response but neither was significantly predictive of the ethicality of their responses. The implications of these findings for the development of more effective training programs and environments for graduate students in research ethics and integrity are discussed.

  13. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay......-out to fill in their particular results. Thus it is possible to compare the performances measured, calculated or predicted for the different houses....

  14. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  15. Water resources (Chapter 5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available and relationships that inform the association between geology, shale gas and groundwater that is discussed in this Chapter. The mudstones and sandstones of the Adelaide Subgroup at the base of the Beaufort Group succession of sedimentary strata represent... migration to surface. The sedimentary rocks of the Ecca Group cover a further ~6% of the study area. In agreement with Rosewarne et al. (2013), who recognise a western, a central and an eastern subarea; this study recognises an additional southern subarea...

  16. ASFMRA Chapter Strategic Planning: Iowa Chapter Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trede, Larry

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the strategic planning process used by the Iowa Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers to develop a new vision, mission statement, and chapter objectives. Procedures included the use of a focus group and a quantitative survey. The results indicated a strong need for chapter member continuing education, a chapter member services program, and a strong outreach/public relations program. As a result of the strategic planning process, a new chap...

  17. Research workshops as a Means to individual and organizational learning and transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Finn M.; Sprogøe, Jonas; Nygaard Andersen, Randi

    In this empirical paper we explore experiences with organizing so called research workshops in a university of applied science. A research workshop is a action learning oriented didactical and educational format designed to be explorative, and the aim is for the participants to acquire research s...... skills and competencies. However, research workshops are also used strategically to facilitate organizational development. By way of organizational learning theory, we discuss research workshops as way to individual learning and organizational transformation.......In this empirical paper we explore experiences with organizing so called research workshops in a university of applied science. A research workshop is a action learning oriented didactical and educational format designed to be explorative, and the aim is for the participants to acquire research...

  18. Individual differences and their measurement: A review of 100 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Paul R; Lievens, Filip; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Kuncel, Nathan R

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews 100 years of research on individual differences and their measurement, with a focus on research published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. We focus on 3 major individual differences domains: (a) knowledge, skill, and ability, including both the cognitive and physical domains; (b) personality, including integrity, emotional intelligence, stable motivational attributes (e.g., achievement motivation, core self-evaluations), and creativity; and (c) vocational interests. For each domain, we describe the evolution of the domain across the years and highlight major theoretical, empirical, and methodological developments, including relationships between individual differences and variables such as job performance, job satisfaction, and career development. We conclude by discussing future directions for individual differences research. Trends in the literature include a growing focus on substantive issues rather than on the measurement of individual differences, a differentiation between constructs and measurement methods, and the use of innovative ways of assessing individual differences, such as simulations, other-reports, and implicit measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  20. Citation analysis as a measure of article quality, journal influence and individual researcher performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, Julie M.; Marshall, Gill

    2012-01-01

    The research-related performance of universities, as well as that of individual researchers, is increasingly evaluated through the use of objective measures, or metrics, which seek to support or in some cases even replace more traditional methods of peer review. In particular there is a growing awareness in research communities, government organisations and funding bodies around the concept of using evaluation metrics to analyse research citations. The tools available for ‘citation analysis’ are many and varied, enabling a quantification of scientific quality, academic impact and prestige. However there is increasing concern regarding the potential misuse of such tools, which have limitations in certain research disciplines. This article uses ‘real world’ examples from radiography research and scholarship to illustrate the range of currently available citation analysis tools. It explores the academic debate surrounding their strengths and limitations, and identifies the potential impact of citation analysis on the radiography research community. The article concludes that citation analysis is a valuable tool for researchers to use for personal reflection and research planning, yet there are inherent dangers if it is used inappropriately. Whilst citation analysis can give objective information regarding an individual, research group, journal or higher education institution, it should not be used as a total substitute for traditional qualitative review and peer assessment.

  1. Reprint of "Citation analysis as a measure of article quality, journal influence and individual researcher performance".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Julie M; Marshall, Gill

    2013-09-01

    The research-related performance of universities, as well as that of individual researchers, is increasingly evaluated through the use of objective measures, or metrics, which seek to support or in some cases even replace more traditional methods of peer review. In particular there is a growing awareness in research communities, government organisations and funding bodies around the concept of using evaluation metrics to analyse research citations. The tools available for 'citation analysis' are many and varied, enabling a quantification of scientific quality, academic impact and prestige. However there is increasing concern regarding the potential misuse of such tools, which have limitations in certain research disciplines.This article uses 'real world' examples from radiography research and scholarship to illustrate the range of currently available citation analysis tools. It explores the academic debate surrounding their strengths and limitations, and identifies the potential impact of citation analysis on the radiography research community.The article concludes that citation analysis is a valuable tool for researchers to use for personal reflection and research planning, yet there are inherent dangers if it is used inappropriately. Whilst citation analysis can give objective information regarding an individual, research group, journal or higher education institution, it should not be used as a total substitute for traditional qualitative review and peer assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An objective preconditions for implementation of the Inter-disciplinary research complex in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 the experience of large accelerating facilities implementation in Kazakhstan is illuminated. In particularly the organization experience of U-150 M cyclotron and the UKP-2-1 heavy ions accelerator is described. The technical performances of these two facilities are presented. The Kazakhstan experience in a knowledge intensive technologies implementation on the base of these facilities is shown. Studies on radiation solid state physics fulfilled on the U-150 M isochronous cyclotron and the UKP-2-1 heavy ions accelerator are described. Besides the world experience of track membranes production with help of heavy ions accelerators are overviewed. A brief review of accelerators using for track membranes production and polymers modification is given. The peculiarities of production and the track membranes properties on the base of different polymers are described. Polymers modification with help heavy ions beam (non-membrane technological application) is considered as well

  3. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  4. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  5. A systematic review of the individual determinants of research evidence use in allied health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizarondo L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L Lizarondo, K Grimmer-Somers, S KumarInternational Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaBackground: The use of evidence-based practice (EBP is often not reflected in allied health (AH practitioners’ day-to-day practice (the research-practice gap. Research suggests that considerable differences between and within AH disciplines exist, which require different approaches in order to influence practice behavior. It is therefore important to develop a better understanding of what influences individual AH practitioners’ adoption of evidence into daily practice.Objective: This systematic review aims to examine the individual characteristics of AH practitioners which determine their uptake of evidence into practice.Methods: Studies which examined individual factors or variables that influence research evidence use by any AH practitioner were included in the review. The methodological quality of the included papers was assessed using the Quality Assessment and Validity Tool for Cross-sectional Studies. A narrative summary of the findings was presented.Results: Six studies were included and the methodological quality scores indicated that two were weak and the remainder had moderate–weak quality. The review demonstrated that factors such as educational degree or academic qualification, involvement in research or EBP-related activities, and practitioners’ perceptions, attitudes and beliefs about research and EBP are significant predictors of self-reported research evidence use in AH. The effect of other factors such as professional characteristics, clinical setting/work environment, information-seeking behavior and sociodemographic variables are less clear. Whether there is an interaction effect between evidence-uptake factors has not been tested.Conclusion: Improving the research knowledge of clinicians and overcoming negative attitudes toward EBP have the potential to move AH

  6. Evolution of Research on Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Behavior Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary success of behavior-analytic interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has fueled the rapid growth of behavior analysis as a profession. One reason for this success is that for many years behavior analysts were virtually alone in conducting programmatic ASD intervention research. However, that era has…

  7. Searching for Music's Potential: A Critical Examination of Research on Music Therapy with Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordino, Robert; Comer, Ronald; Heller, Wendy B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a literature review on music therapy for individuals with autism because of the frequent use of music therapy for those with autism and recent research on the musical abilities of this population. To accomplish this narrative review, articles were searched from relevant databases, reference lists from articles, and book…

  8. Lessons Learned from Research on Individual Educational Plans in Sweden: Obstacles, Opportunities and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasson, Ingela; Asp-Onsjö, Lisa; Isaksson, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Since 1995, all Swedish compulsory schools have had a legal obligation to establish individual educational plans (IEPs) for pupils with special educational needs. However, previous research shows that there are a number of issues associated with how these plans are used in schools' overall work and identifies a discrepancy between educational…

  9. Employees as Individually and Collectively Acting Subjects—Key Contributions from Nordic Working Life Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2013-01-01

    voice and autonomy and an extensive use of empirical and actionoriented research methods. Employees are construed not only as workers resisting exploitations from management or as workers pursuing individual careers, but also as members of collectives who share ideas and aspirations and who legitimately...

  10. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  11. Disclosure of individual genetic data to research participants: the debate reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A.L.; Kroes, H.Y.; Cuppen, E.; Parker, M.; van Delden, J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite extensive debate, there is no consensus on whether individual genetic data should be disclosed to research participants. The emergence of whole-genome sequencing methods is increasingly generating unequalled amounts of genetic data, making the need for a clear feedback policy even more

  12. Quality Management. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiles, P. A. [Glan Clwyd Hospital, Bodelwyddan (United Kingdom); McLean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Christofides, S. [New Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2014-09-15

    This chapter introduces the principles and definitions of quality management systems (QMSs) for radiology facilities, to give a framework to assist in the setting up of such systems and to emphasize the role of the medical physicist in this context. While there is a diversity of terms currently in use to describe quality processes both generally and specifically within radiology, there is broad agreement that the effective management of radiation medicine services demands a quality culture that includes a systematic approach to the elements that govern the delivery of that service. Therefore, the concept of quality assurance (QA) within the radiological facility covers, in its widest sense, all those factors that affect the intended outcome, that is, a clinical diagnosis. The medical physicist has an important role in the overall QMS, especially, but not exclusively, with respect to the equipment performance. A worked example of a quality control (QC) programme is included at the end of the chapter, to demonstrate the depth of detail and involvement of the medical physicist.

  13. An index to quantify an individual's scientific research valid across disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Pablo Diniz; Campiteli, Monica Guimaraes; Kinouchi, Osame; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2005-01-01

    The number h of papers with at least h citations has been proposed to evaluate individual's scientific research production. This index is robust in several ways but yet strongly dependent on the research field. We propose a complementary index hI = h^2/N_t, with N_t being the total number of authors in the considered h papers. A researcher with index hI has hI papers with at least hI citation if he/she had published alone. We have obtained the rank plots of h and hI for four Brazilian scienti...

  14. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    OpenAIRE

    S. Schulze

    2010-01-01

    The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basi...

  15. The Importance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Research for Transgender and Gender-Nonbinary Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, Sara; Sonya Haw, J; Blumenthal, Jill; Sullivan, Brooke; Smith, Davey

    2018-04-17

    Transgender and gender-nonbinary (trans/GNB) individuals are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet they are not adequately represented in HIV research and often underserved in clinical care. By building on community strengths and addressing structural, psychological and biological challenges, we can improve the engagement of trans/GNB people in research and ultimately improve prevention, testing, and care for this population. Here, we review the current state of the science related to HIV for trans/GNB people and discuss next steps to expand research that aims to improve the lives and well-being of trans/GNB persons.

  16. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  17. Using assistive technology outcomes research to inform policy related to the employment of individuals with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Steven; Edyburn, Dave L; Rust, Kathy L; Schwanke, Todd D; Smith, Roger O

    2008-01-01

    We know that work is recognized as a central component of life for individuals with and without disabilities. It yields many physical and psychological benefits to the individual while simultaneously contributing numerous benefits to society. Lawmakers have enacted a plethora of laws designed to prevent discrimination, provide incentives for employers to hire individuals with disabilities, and facilitate job training/career preparation. Assistive technology figures prominently in disability employment law as a critical strategy for gaining access and supporting employment and upward mobility in the workplace. However, little systematic effort has been devoted to examining assistive technology use and outcomes as they relate to the employment of individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to articulate a series of issues that permeate assistive technology outcome measurement in employment settings and subsequently affect the use of research knowledge for federal and state policy makers. For each issue, the authors pose three questions for critical analysis: Does the law compel the provision of assistive technology? Does outcome data play any part in the operation of the law? When it does, what kind of data would be useful to collect and where could it be found? Finally, the authors provide a brief glimpse of the current and future research efforts concerning the RSA-911 database. The recent database summaries exemplify the importance of such a national data collection system for informing federal policy, particularly concerning the contributions of assistive technology device use and services on improving the employment of individuals with disabilities.

  18. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-09-15

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  19. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  20. Research of individual psychological particular qualities handball players 15-17 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikova H.O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The differences of individual-psychological characteristics of young handball players playing in different game roles. It is shown the relationship of certain personality characteristics of athletes with a line of attack handball players. In research took part handball players at the age of 15-17 years. It is analyzed data from questionnaires by R. Kettela and R. Rusalova. Evaluated the differences in the properties of the temperament handball players of different roles. Established that the distribution of game functions athletes must take into account their individual psychological characteristics.

  1. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  2. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  3. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  4. Chapter 15. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter used abbreviations and radiation safety of NPPs in Slovak Republic are presented. Results of monitoring of NPP Bohunice V-1 and V-2 as well as NPP Mochovce are presented. A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic in 2000 is presented. The collective dose is one of the fundamental indicators to assess the level of nuclear safety and safety culture. This is the total dose of both external and internal exposure of the whole of the body measured with a personal dosimeter and a calculated internal exposure over a certain period of time. Measured doses to the utility personnel, the staff of supplier organisations and official working visits are included

  5. Musings on privacy issues in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelMalik Philip

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper offers a state-of-the-art overview of the intertwined privacy, confidentiality, and security issues that are commonly encountered in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Key definitions are provided, along with some examples of actual and potential security and confidentiality breaches and related incidents that captured mainstream media and public interest in recent months and years. The paper then goes on to present a brief survey of the research literature on location privacy/confidentiality concerns and on privacy-preserving solutions in conventional health research and beyond, touching on the emerging privacy issues associated with online consumer geoinformatics and location-based services. The 'missing ring' (in many treatments of the topic of data security is also discussed. Personal information and privacy legislations in two countries, Canada and the UK, are covered, as well as some examples of recent research projects and events about the subject. Select highlights from a June 2009 URISA (Urban and Regional Information Systems Association workshop entitled 'Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Geographic Data in Health Research' are then presented. The paper concludes by briefly charting the complexity of the domain and the many challenges associated with it, and proposing a novel, 'one stop shop' case-based reasoning framework to streamline the provision of clear and individualised guidance for the design and approval of new research projects (involving geographical identifiers about individuals, including crisp recommendations on which specific privacy-preserving solutions and approaches would be suitable in each case.

  6. Musings on privacy issues in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Curtis, Andrew J; Abdelmalik, Philip

    2009-07-20

    This paper offers a state-of-the-art overview of the intertwined privacy, confidentiality, and security issues that are commonly encountered in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Key definitions are provided, along with some examples of actual and potential security and confidentiality breaches and related incidents that captured mainstream media and public interest in recent months and years. The paper then goes on to present a brief survey of the research literature on location privacy/confidentiality concerns and on privacy-preserving solutions in conventional health research and beyond, touching on the emerging privacy issues associated with online consumer geoinformatics and location-based services. The 'missing ring' (in many treatments of the topic) of data security is also discussed. Personal information and privacy legislations in two countries, Canada and the UK, are covered, as well as some examples of recent research projects and events about the subject. Select highlights from a June 2009 URISA (Urban and Regional Information Systems Association) workshop entitled 'Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Geographic Data in Health Research' are then presented. The paper concludes by briefly charting the complexity of the domain and the many challenges associated with it, and proposing a novel, 'one stop shop' case-based reasoning framework to streamline the provision of clear and individualised guidance for the design and approval of new research projects (involving geographical identifiers about individuals), including crisp recommendations on which specific privacy-preserving solutions and approaches would be suitable in each case.

  7. The decision making individual differences inventory and guidelines for the study of individual differences in judgment and decision-making research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelt, K.C.; Milch, K.F.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.; Weber, E.U.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in decision making are a topic of longstanding interest, but often yield inconsistent and contradictory results. After providing an overview of individual difference measures that have commonly been used in judgment and decision-making (JDM) research, we suggest that our

  8. The Impact of Individual Learning Accounts: A Study of the Early and Potential Impact of Individual Learning Accounts on Learning Providers and Learning. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael; Peters, Jane; Fletcher, Mick; Kirk, Gordon

    The impact of individual learning accounts (ILAs) on the success of learners in post-16 education sector in the United Kingdom was explored through an examination of available research on ILAs. The following were among the study's 12 messages for providers, the Department for Education and Skills, and the Individual Learning Account Centre: (1)…

  9. The Carbon_h-factor: predicting individuals' research impact at early stages of their career.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Christian Carbon

    Full Text Available Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005 introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term "research impact" to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific "impact" of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well. As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx

  10. Embryos, individuals, and persons: an argument against embryo creation and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefsen, C

    2001-01-01

    One strategy for arguing that it should be legally permissible to create human embryos, or to use spare human embryos, for scientific research purposes involves the claim that such embryos cannot be persons because they are not human individuals while twinning may yet take place. Being a human individual is considered to be by most people a necessary condition for being a human person. I argue first that such an argument against the personhood of embryos must be rationally conclusive if their destruction in public places such as laboratories is to be countenanced. I base this argument on a popular understanding of the role that the notion of privacy plays in abortion laws. I then argue that such arguments against personhood are not rationally conclusive. The claim that the early embryos is not a human individual is not nearly as obvious as some assert.

  11. Chapter 10:Hardwoods for timber bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  12. The risk of re-identification versus the need to identify individuals in rare disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Mats G; Lochmüller, Hanns; Riess, Olaf; Schaefer, Franz; Orth, Michael; Rubinstein, Yaffa; Molster, Caron; Dawkins, Hugh; Taruscio, Domenica; Posada, Manuel; Woods, Simon

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing concern in the ethics literature and among policy makers that de-identification or coding of personal data and biospecimens is not sufficient for protecting research subjects from privacy invasions and possible breaches of confidentiality due to the possibility of unauthorized re-identification. At the same time, there is a need in medical science to be able to identify individual patients. In particular for rare disease research there is a special and well-documented need for research collaboration so that data and biosamples from multiple independent studies can be shared across borders. In this article, we identify the needs and arguments related to de-identification and re-identification of patients and research subjects and suggest how the different needs may be balanced within a framework of using unique encrypted identifiers.

  13. IRB PERSPECTIVES ON THE RETURN OF INDIVIDUAL RESULTS FROM GENOMIC RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Lynn G.; Smolek, Sondra; Ponsaran, Roselle; Markey, Janell M.; Starks, Helene; Gerson, Nancy; Lewis, Susan; Press, Nancy; Juengst, Eric; Wiesner, Georgia L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Return of individual research results from genomic studies is a hotly debated ethical issue in genomic research. However, the perspective of key stakeholders—Institutional Review Board (IRB) reviewers—has been missing from this dialogue. This study explores the positions and experiences of IRB members and staff regarding this issue. Methods In depth interviews with 31 IRB professionals at six sites across the United States. Results IRB professionals agreed that research results should be returned to research participants when results are medically actionable but only if the participants wanted to know the result. Many respondents expected researchers to address the issue of return of results (ROR) in the IRB application and informed-consent document. Many respondents were not comfortable with their expertise in genomics research, and only a few described actual experiences in addressing ROR. Although participants agreed that guidelines would be helpful, most were reticent to develop them in isolation. Even where IRB guidance exists (e.g., CLIA lab certification required for return), in practice, the guidance has been overruled to allow return (e.g., no CLIA lab performs the assay). Conclusion An IRB-researcher partnership is needed to help inform responsible and feasible institutional approaches to returning research results. PMID:22241094

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Chapter 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M. O. [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    In Chapter 14, the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance were presented, along with an introduction to image forming processes. In this chapter, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be reviewed, beginning with the hardware needed and its impact on image quality. The acquisition processes and image reconstruction will be discussed, as well as the artefacts that are possible, with discussion of the important area of safety and bioeffects completing the chapter.

  15. Perspectives for development of technologies, science, knowledge intensive business and personnel training on the Inter-disciplinary research complex in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University base. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Chapter 3 the problems of nano- and microstructures formation on the base on nuclear membranes are considered. The role of accelerating technique in the obtaining of nano- and microstructures is emphasized. In particular an importance of ion implantation synthesis of nano-size cluster structures (radiation defects, phase segregations) in a solid state matter volume; formation of metallic nano-structures (nano-wires and submicron tubes, nano-clusters on the solid state surfaces) with use nuclear technology on the track membranes base is noted. It is shown, that during study of the fundamental properties of radiation defects the DC-60 cyclotron allows to create in the material the cascades of atom-atom collisions. Creation and put into operation in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University the DC-60 cyclotron gives possibility to formation of experimental and laboratory research bases for it collective use by researches, academics, students and postgraduates

  16. Career development through local chapter involvement: perspectives from chapter members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R

    2013-07-01

    The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.

  17. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulze

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT. Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research selfefficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.

  18. Employees as Individually and Collectively Acting Subjects—Key Contributions from Nordic Working Life Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hasle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nordic countries—Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden—are societies that share many features among themselves that also distinguish them from other industrialized countries. The paper poses the question whether the distinct character of the Nordic societies has generated working life research that is clearly distinguishable from similar research in other countries in terms of distinctness in topics, methods, empirical findings, or theoretical concepts. The aim of this paper is to answer this question by identifying, analyzing, and discussing selected key contributions from Nordic working life research to understand how they research and construe the conditions of humans at work with a special focus on the psychosocial well-being of industrial workers. The paper concludes that the key contributions to Nordic working life research have a distinctive emphasis on collective employee voice and autonomy and an extensive use of empirical and actionoriented research methods. Employees are construed not only as workers resisting exploitations from management or as workers pursuing individual careers, but also as members of collectives who share ideas and aspirations and who legitimately influence the management (and research using cooperation and pressure.

  19. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Matej, S. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process.

  20. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  1. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  2. Synthesis: Chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Geiser, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Driscoll, C.T.; Goodale, C.L.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition (Galloway et al. 2003). Because of past, and, in some regions, continuing increases in emissions (Lehmann et al. 2005, Nilles and Conley 2001), this N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations and damage in many ecosystems across the United States. In some ecoregions, the impact of N deposition has been severe and has changed the biotic community structure and composition of ecosystems. In the Mediterranean California ecoregion, for example (see Chapter 13), replacement of native by exotic invasive vegetation is accelerated because exotic species are often more productive under elevated N deposition than native species in some California grasslands, coastal sage scrub, and desert scrub (Fenn et al. 2010, Rao and Allen 2010, Rao et al. 2010, Weiss 1999, Yoshida and Allen 2004). Such shifts in plant community composition and species richness can have consequences beyond changes in ecosystem structure: shifts may lead to overall losses in biodiversity and further impair particular threatened or endangered species (Stevens et al. 2004). Th e extirpation of the endangered checkerspot butterfl y (Euphydryas editha bayensis), because the host plant for the larval stage disappears in N-enriched ecosystems (Fenn et al. 2010, Weiss 1999), is just one example of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition.

  3. The Students’ misconceptions profile on chapter gas kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhariyah, M. N. R.; Suprapto, N.; Suliyanah; Admoko, S.; Setyarsih, W.; Harizah, Z.; Zulfa, I.

    2018-03-01

    Students have conception and misconceptions in the learning process. Misconceptions are caused by the teacher, students, and learning source. In the previous study, the researcher developed a misconception diagnosis instrument using three-tier on chapter gas kinetic theory. There are 14 items including 5 sub-chapters on gas kinetic theory. The profile of students’ misconceptions shows that students have misconceptions in each sub-chapter. The cause of misconceptions came from preconceptions, associative thinking, reasoning, intuition, and false negative. The highest cause of misconception in this chapter is student’s humanistic thinking.

  4. Working memory studies among individuals with intellectual disability: An integrative research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Kilberg, Esther; Vakil, Eli

    2016-12-01

    Integrative research review infers generalizations about a substantive subject, summarizes the accumulated knowledge that research has left unresolved and generates a new framework on these issues. Due to methodological issues emerging from working memory (WM) studies in the population with non-specific intellectual disability (NSID) (N=64) between 1990-2014, it is difficult to conclude on WM performance in this population. This integrative research review aimed to resolve literature conflicts on WM performance among individuals with NSID and to identify the conditions/moderators that govern their WM performance compared to controls with Typical development. We used the six stages of integrative research review: problem formulation, data collection, evaluation, data analysis, results, interpretation and discussion. The findings indicate two types of moderators that determine WM performance in the population with NSID: Participants' moderators (criteria for matching the ID and TD groups, CA and MA), and task moderators [the three WM components of Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) model and task load]. Only an interaction between the two moderators determines WM performance in this population. The findings indicate a hierarchy (from more to less preserved) in WM performance of individuals with NSID: The visuospatial tasks, then some of the executive functions tasks, and the phonological loop tasks being less preserved. Furthermore, at a low level of control, the performance of participants with NSID was preserved beyond the modality and vice versa. Modality and MA/intelligence determine WM performance of individuals with ID. Educators should prepare intervention programs take the impact of the two moderators into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Individual air pollution monitors. 2. Examination of some nonoccupational research and regulatory uses and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.G.; Morris, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    Knowledge of the relationship between ambient air pollution levels measured at fixed monitoring stations and the actual exposure of the population is very limited. Indeed, there is rapidly growing evidence that fixed-station monitors do not provide adequate data for population exposure. This report examines available data for carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and presents a new analysis. Actual population exposure to CO appears to be consistently higher than expected from fixed-station data, while limited evidence suggests that exposures to SO/sub 2/ are lower. A reported general relationship between indoor and outdoor levels of SO/sub 2/ is not supported by the data. If air pollution represents a threat to public health, then more attention must be given to total population exposure to pollutants. A selective use of individual air pollution monitors that can be worn or carried appears to be required at some stage by any experimental design seeking to uncover the relation between air pollution exposure and health effects. Additionally, potential uses of individual monitoring in air pollution regulation are explored. Current status and research needs for individual air pollution monitors are examined and a first-order evaluation is given of the promise held by the candidate instrumentation technologies. A national program of support for the development of individual air pollution monitors is recommended.

  6. Scaling up experimental ocean acidification and warming research: from individuals to the ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiros, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding long-term, ecosystem-level impacts of climate change is challenging because experimental research frequently focuses on short-term, individual-level impacts in isolation. We address this shortcoming first through an inter-disciplinary ensemble of novel experimental techniques to investigate the impacts of 14-month exposure to ocean acidification and warming (OAW) on the physiology, activity, predatory behaviour and susceptibility to predation of an important marine gastropod (Nucella lapillus). We simultaneously estimated the potential impacts of these global drivers on N. lapillus population dynamics and dispersal parameters. We then used these data to parameterise a dynamic bioclimatic envelope model, to investigate the consequences of OAW on the distribution of the species in the wider NE Atlantic region by 2100. The model accounts also for changes in the distribution of resources, suitable habitat and environment simulated by finely resolved biogeochemical models, under three IPCC global emissions scenarios. The experiments showed that temperature had the greatest impact on individual level responses, while acidification has a similarly important role in the mediation of predatory behaviour and susceptibility to predators. Changes in Nucella predatory behaviour appeared to serve as a strategy to mitigate individual level impacts of acidification, but the development of this response may be limited in the presence of predators. The model projected significant large-scale changes in the distribution of Nucella by the year 2100 that were exacerbated by rising greenhouse gas emissions. These changes were spatially heterogeneous, as the degree of impact of OAW on the combination of responses considered by the model varied depending on local environmental conditions and resource availability. Such changes in macro-scale distributions cannot be predicted by investigating individual level impacts in isolation, or by considering climate stressors

  7. OCP TECD Report - TARDEC Blast Mitigation Program (BMP) and National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Michigan (MI) Chapter Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Standard, MIL-STD-3058, Occupant-Centric Protection for Military Ground Vehicles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Occupant Centric Platform Technology-Enabled...Capability Demonstration (OCP TECD), Occupant-centric, Occupant Protection , Underbody Blast, National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA...Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  8. Policy Writing as Dialogue: Drafting an Aboriginal Chapter for Canada's Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Reading

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Writing policy that applies to First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples in Canada has become more interactive as communities and their representative organizations press for practical recognition of an Aboriginal right of self-determination. When the policy in development is aimed at supporting “respect for human dignity” as it is in the case of ethics of research involving humans, the necessity of engaging the affected population becomes central to the undertaking.

  9. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  10. Learning outcomes through the cooperative learning team assisted individualization on research methodology’ course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpahan, N. F. D. B.

    2018-01-01

    All articles must contain an abstract. The research methodology is a subject in which the materials must be understood by the students who will take the thesis. Implementation of learning should create the conditions for active learning, interactive and effective are called Team Assisted Individualization (TAI) cooperative learning. The purpose of this study: 1) improving student learning outcomes at the course research methodology on TAI cooperative learning. 2) improvement of teaching activities. 3) improvement of learning activities. This study is a classroom action research conducted at the Department of Civil Engineering Universitas Negeri Surabaya. The research subjects were 30 students and lecturer of courses. Student results are complete in the first cycle by 20 students (67%) and did not complete 10 students (33%). In the second cycle students who complete being 26 students (87%) and did not complete 4 students (13%). There is an increase in learning outcomes by 20%. Results of teaching activities in the first cycle obtained the value of 3.15 with the criteria enough well. In the second cycle obtained the value of 4.22 with good criterion. The results of learning activities in the first cycle obtained the value of 3.05 with enough criterion. In the second cycle was obtained 3.95 with good criterion.

  11. Determination of hemispheric emotional valence in individual subjects: A new approach with research and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polcari Ann

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much has been theorized about the emotional properties of the hemispheres. Our review of the dominant hypotheses put forth by Schore, Joseph, Davidson, and Harmon-Jones on hemispheric emotional valences (HEV shows that none are supported by robust data. Instead, we propose that individual's hemispheres are organized to have differing HEVs that can be lateralized in either direction. Methods Probe auditory evoked potentials (AEP recorded during a neutral and an upsetting memory were used to assess HEV in 28 (20 F right-handed subjects who were either victims of childhood maltreatment (N = 12 or healthy controls. In a sub-population, we determined HEV by emotional response to lateral visual field stimulation (LVFS, in which vision is limited to one, then the other hemifield. We compare a number of morphometric and functional brain measures between individuals who have right-negative versus left-negative HEV. Results Using AEPs to determine HEV, we found 62% of controls and 67% of maltreated subjects had right negative HEV. There was a strong interaction between HEV-laterality and gender, which together accounted for 60% of individual variability in total grey matter volume (GMV. HEV-laterality was associated with differences in hippocampal volume, amygdala/hippocampal ratios, and measures of verbal, visual and global memory. HEV-laterality was associated also with different constellations of symptoms comparing maltreated subjects to controls. Emotional response to LVFS provided a convenient and complementary measure of HEV-laterality that correlated significantly with the HEVs determined by AEPs. Conclusion Our findings suggest that HEV-laterality, like handedness or gender, is an important individual difference with significant implications for brain and behavioral research, and for guiding lateralized treatments such as rTMS.

  12. Determination of hemispheric emotional valence in individual subjects: a new approach with research and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Fredric; Teicher, Martin H; Anderson, Carl; Tomoda, Akemi; Polcari, Ann; Navalta, Carryl P; Andersen, Susan L

    2007-03-06

    Much has been theorized about the emotional properties of the hemispheres. Our review of the dominant hypotheses put forth by Schore, Joseph, Davidson, and Harmon-Jones on hemispheric emotional valences (HEV) shows that none are supported by robust data. Instead, we propose that individual's hemispheres are organized to have differing HEVs that can be lateralized in either direction. Probe auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recorded during a neutral and an upsetting memory were used to assess HEV in 28 (20 F) right-handed subjects who were either victims of childhood maltreatment (N = 12) or healthy controls. In a sub-population, we determined HEV by emotional response to lateral visual field stimulation (LVFS), in which vision is limited to one, then the other hemifield. We compare a number of morphometric and functional brain measures between individuals who have right-negative versus left-negative HEV. Using AEPs to determine HEV, we found 62% of controls and 67% of maltreated subjects had right negative HEV. There was a strong interaction between HEV-laterality and gender, which together accounted for 60% of individual variability in total grey matter volume (GMV). HEV-laterality was associated with differences in hippocampal volume, amygdala/hippocampal ratios, and measures of verbal, visual and global memory. HEV-laterality was associated also with different constellations of symptoms comparing maltreated subjects to controls. Emotional response to LVFS provided a convenient and complementary measure of HEV-laterality that correlated significantly with the HEVs determined by AEPs. Our findings suggest that HEV-laterality, like handedness or gender, is an important individual difference with significant implications for brain and behavioral research, and for guiding lateralized treatments such as rTMS.

  13. Motivational assessment of non-treatment buprenorphine research participation in heroin dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papke, Gina; Greenwald, Mark K

    2012-06-01

    Heroin abuse remains an important public health problem, particularly in economically disadvantaged areas. Insight into this problem is gained from interviewing addicted individuals. However, we lack systematic data on factors that motivate heroin users to participate in non-treatment research that offers both financial incentives (compensation) and non-financial incentives (e.g., short-term medication). To better understand the relative importance of several types of personal motivations to participate in non-treatment buprenorphine research, and to relate self-motivations to social, economic, demographic and drug use factors. Heroin dependent volunteers (N=235 total; 57 female and 178 male; 136 African American, 86 Caucasian, and 13 Other) applied for non-therapeutic buprenorphine research in an urban outpatient setting from 2004 to 2008. We conducted a semi-structured behavioral economic interview, after which participants ranked 11 possible motivations for research participation. Although the study was repeatedly described as non-treatment research involving buprenorphine, participants often ranked some treatment-related motivations as important (wanting to reduce/stop heroin use, needing a medication to get stabilized/detoxify). Some motivations correlated with income, heroin use, and years since marketing of buprenorphine. Two dimensions emerged from principal component analysis of motivation rankings: (1) treatment motivation vs. greater immediate needs and (2) commitment to trying alternatives vs. a more accepting attitude toward traditional interventions. In summary, heroin addicts' self-motivations to engage in non-therapeutic research are complex--they value economic gain but not exclusively or primarily--and relate to variables such as socioeconomic factors and drug use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contrasting the ethical perspectives of biospecimen research among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer and biomedical researchers: implications for researcher training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Koskan, Alexis; Sehovic, Ivana; Pal, Tuya; Meade, Cathy; Gwede, Clement K

    2014-07-01

    While ethical concerns about participating in biospecimen research have been previously identified, few studies have reported the concerns among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer (IFRs). At the same time, biomedical researchers often lack training in discussing such concerns to potential donors. This study explores IFRs' and biomedical researchers' perceptions of ethical concerns about participating in biobanking research. In separate focus groups, IFRs and biomedical researchers participated in 90-min telephone focus groups. Focus group questions centered on knowledge about laws that protect the confidentiality of biospecimen donors, understanding of informed consent and study procedures, and preferences for being recontacted about potential incidental discovery and also study results. A total of 40 IFRs and 32 biomedical researchers participated in the focus groups. Results demonstrated discrepancies between the perceptions of IFRs and researchers. IFRs' concerns centered on health information protection; potential discrimination by insurers and employers; and preferences for being recontacted upon discovery of gene mutations or to communicate study results. Researchers perceived that participants understood laws protecting donors' privacy and (detailed study information outlined in the informed consent process), study outcomes were used to create a training tool kit to increase researchers' understanding of IFRs' concerns about biobanking.

  15. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  16. Social implications arise in embodied music cognition research which can counter musicological "individualism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    The agenda in music research that is broadly recognized as embodied music cognition has arrived hand-in-hand with a social interpretation of music, focusing on the real-world basis of its performance, and fostering an empirical approach to musician movement regarding the communicative function and potential of those movements. However, embodied cognition emerged from traditional cognitivism, which produced a body of scientific explanation of music-theoretic concepts. The analytical object of this corpus is based on the particular imagined encounter of a listener responding to an idealized "work." Although this problem of essentialism has been identified within mainstream musicology, the lingering effects may spill over into interdisciplinary, empirical research. This paper defines the situation according to its legacy of individualism, and offers an alternative sketch of musical activity as performance event, a model that highlights the social interaction processes at the heart of musical behavior. I describe some recent empirical work based on interaction-oriented approaches, arguing that this particular focus - on the social interaction process itself - creates a distinctive and promising agenda for further research into embodied music cognition.

  17. Patient Dosimetry. Chapter 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom); Castellano, I. [The Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Patient exposures arising from radiological procedures form the largest part of the population exposure from artificial sources of radiation. According to United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the annual frequency of X ray examinations is 360 per 1000 individuals worldwide. Owing to the associated risk of radiation detriment to the patient, there is a clear need to monitor and control these exposures, and to optimize the design and use of the X ray imaging equipment so that the patient dose is reduced as far as possible, consistent with achieving the required clinical image quality.

  18. Introduction. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    It is reported, that during last fifty years the antropogenous impact conducted to degradation of vast areas of Kazakhstan forage lands. For comprehensive research of ecological situation and definition and improvement of perspectives of its or preserving it is required study on radioecological conditions on territory of former nuclear sites and in zone of influence of uranium deposits. Complex researches have been ensuring by study of radiation factor impact on all objects of nature. First objects which receive different radiation doses are plants. Its actively accumulated in itself radionuclides and specifically react on quality and quantity of received radiation

  19. From the best results of medical research to therapy involving the context of an individual patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation is the process of identifying specific factors of a patient’s life situation, which is focused on individualised care. In the light of reference books, contextualisation is an integral part of therapy with an active participation of the patient and/or his/her carers. Among many factors that constitute the functioning of a person, family and socio-material situation, access to professional health care, and the ability to exercise self-care are major contextual factors of the patient’s health situation. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the fact that the limiting oneself exclusively to algorithms as procedures based on the best evidence (best evidence medical research – BEMR may raise the specific danger of underestimating the variability of individual responses of the human body under the influence of factors forming a personal context. The phenomenon of contextualisation in the treatment of an individual patient is still not adequately disseminated, although it is an important element in the decision-making process, with proven impact on the efficiency and quality of care and satisfaction of a patient.

  20. Environmental and Individual Factors Affecting Menu Labeling Utilization: A Qualitative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study uses focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the usage of these menu labels among low-income, minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were conducted at various community organizations throughout NYC in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages, over a nine-month period in 2011. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few used menu labels, despite awareness. Among the themes pertaining to menu label usage, price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding of caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits were most frequently cited as barriers to menu label usage. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695

  1. Introduction [Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Karen. Dante-Wood

    2018-01-01

    The Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnership (NRAP) is a science-management partnership among the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) regional offices and national forests (mostly in the Northern Region, and small portions of the Intermountain and Rocky Mountain Regions); USFS Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountain Research Stations; Glacier, Yellowstone...

  2. Mammography. Chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, M. J. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Maidment, A. D.A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Breast cancer is a major killer of women. The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over 1.38 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer internationally in 2008, with over 458 000 deaths. The causes are not currently known; however, it has been demonstrated that mortality can be significantly reduced if disease is detected at an early stage.

  3. Introduction, Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; C.T. Driscoll; C.L. Goodale

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides a scientific synthesis of the current state of research and knowledge about the response of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to nitrogen (N) inputs (N deposition or N additions), and, where possible, identifi es critical loads for atmospheric N deposition. It also targets policy makers and resource managers who are seeking a scientific basis...

  4. Meteorology [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. G. Fox; H. C. Humphries; K. F. Zeller; B. H. Connell; G. L. Wooldridge

    1994-01-01

    GLEES is contained within the Snowy Range Observatory. This Observatory consists of many weather stations, precipitation monitors, and stream gages scattered throughout the Snowy Range. These sites have been operated by the Wyoming Water Research Center (WWRC) since 1968. Data from the sites are available from the WWRC and were last summarized by Wesche (1982).

  5. Mammography. Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaffe, M.J.; Maidment, A.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major killer of women. The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over 1.38 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer internationally in 2008, with over 458 000 deaths. The causes are not currently known; however, it has been demonstrated that mortality can be significantly reduced if disease is detected at an early stage

  6. Starting a New Chapter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loza-Murguia Manuel G.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this new stage we want to improve the magazine to make it useful for readers, on the one hand we intend to maintain their accreditation project of the contents of the magazine and on the other hand, the boost in indexing websites popularity, who raise the visibility and therefore coverage to authors and readers who have honored us with their support and we receive frequent visits. Obviously all the works received will remain subject to internal assessment and peer review as usual. Your acceptance will be based on significance, originality and validity of the material presented. The journal is indexed by the time DIALNET. The half-yearly, from 2012 we intend to be a leader in information that is intended to finding solutions to the problems latent, on the other side seeks to raise awareness among professionals and researchers that the publication is a prerequisite to in order to will be clear what is being done as has research in the region. The Journal of the Selva Andina Research Society is a journal founded no more than two years, having failed to publish any number of this enormous amount of material in all this time. We are currently under evaluation by the SciELO Project, Bolivia and have the confidence to be meeting all the criteria that are required to be visible on the website of international prestige. We want to be a reference publication in the journal Public areas both in the international literature (particularly in Latin America and in Bolivia. As Director and Editor in Chief continued in front of it, I thank the Board of the Supreme Council on Science and Biotechnology Research Society Selva Andina renewed confidence in me during these early years, all the items they want be published should be sent to infoselvandina@gmail.com or boliviamanloza@yahoo.com. Following the usual guidelines and rules are expressed in the publication. There is an Editorial Board comprised of leading national and international professional experts who

  7. Ethical implications for clinical practice and future research in "at risk" individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Fiza; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; Cadenhead, Kristin S

    2012-01-01

    The last 15 years have witnessed a shift in schizophrenia research with increasing interest in earlier stages of illness with the hope of early intervention and ultimately prevention of psychotic illness. Large-scale longitudinal studies have identified clinical and biological risk factors associated with increased risk of psychotic conversion, which together with symptomatic and demographic risk factors may improve the power of prediction algorithms for psychotic transition. Despite these advances, 45-70% of at risk subjects in most samples do not convert to frank psychosis, but continue to function well below their age matched counterparts. The issue is of utmost importance in light of the upcoming DSM-V and the possible inclusion of the attenuated psychotic symptoms syndrome (APSS) diagnosis, with clinical and ethical implications. Clinical considerations include feasibility of reliably diagnosing the at risk state in non-academic medical centers, variable psychotic conversion rates, a non-uniform definition of conversion and extensive debate about treatment for individuals with an ill-defined outcome. On the ethical side, diagnosing APSS could lead to unnecessary prescribing of antipsychotics with long-term deleterious consequences, slow research by providing a false sense of comfort in the diagnosis, and have psychosocial implications for those who receive a diagnosis. Thus it may be prudent to engage at risk populations early and to use broad-spectrum treatments with low risk benefit ratios to relieve functional impairments, while simultaneously studying all subsets of the at risk population.

  8. Who are those “risk-taking adolescents”? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Bjork

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has illuminated the development of human brain function. Some of this work in typically-developing youth has ostensibly captured neural underpinnings of adolescent behavior which is characterized by risk-seeking propensity, according to psychometric questionnaires and a wealth of anecdote. Notably, cross-sectional comparisons have revealed age-dependent differences between adolescents and other age groups in regional brain responsiveness to prospective or experienced rewards (usually greater in adolescents or penalties (usually diminished in adolescents. These differences have been interpreted as reflecting an imbalance between motivational drive and behavioral control mechanisms, especially in mid-adolescence, thus promoting greater risk-taking. While intriguing, we caution here that researchers should be more circumspect in attributing clinically significant adolescent risky behavior to age-group differences in task-elicited fMRI responses from neurotypical subjects. This is because actual mortality and morbidity from behavioral causes (e.g. substance abuse, violence by mid-adolescence is heavily concentrated in individuals who are not neurotypical, who rather have shown a lifelong history of behavioral disinhibition that frequently meets criteria for a disruptive behavior disorder, such as conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These young people are at extreme risk of poor psychosocial outcomes, and should be a focus of future neurodevelopmental research.

  9. Research on Mathematics Learning at the "Center of Individual Development and Adaptive Education" (IDeA)--An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummheuer, Götz

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the research center "Individual Development and Adaptive Education" was constituted by the Goethe University, the German Institute for International Educational Research, and the Sigmund Freud Institute, all located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany (http://www.idea-frankfurt.eu). The research of the center focuses on the…

  10. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    expressed effects, such as turbidity and water quality, zooplankton density and size composition, or fish growth rates and assemblage composition, are the upshot of large-scale factors operating outside reservoirs and not under the direct control of reservoir managers. Realistically, abiotic and biotic conditions in reservoirs are shaped by factors working inside and outside reservoirs, with the relative importance of external factors differing among reservoirs. With this perspective, large reservoirs are viewed from a habitat standpoint within the framework of a conceptual model in which individual reservoir characteristics are influenced by both local- and landscape-scale factors (Figure 17.1). In the sections that follow, how each element of this hierarchical model influences habitat and fish assemblages in reservoirs is considered. Important in-reservoir habitat issues and reservoirs as part of larger systems, where reservoir management requires looking for real solutions outside individual reservoirs are described.

  11. Career Satisfaction and Perceived Salary Competitiveness among Individuals Who Completed Postdoctoral Research Training in Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Nelson, David E; Izmirlian, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Studies examining career satisfaction of biomedical scientists are limited, especially in the context of prior postdoctoral training. Here we focused on career satisfaction defined as satisfaction with one's career trajectory and perceived salary competitiveness among a predominantly Ph.D.-trained population of scientists who completed cancer prevention-related postdoctoral training between 1987-2011. National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) alumni (n = 114), and previous recipients of NCI-sponsored Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA/F32) postdoctoral fellowships (n = 140) completed online surveys. Associations of career satisfaction and perception of salary competitiveness with demographic, training, and employment-related factors were examined using logistic regression. Overall, 61% reported high levels of satisfaction with their career trajectory to-date. Higher salary (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07-7.69) and having more leadership roles (OR = 2.26, 95% CI:1.04-4.90) were independently associated with higher career satisfaction. Persons with race/ethnicity other than white (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20-0.82) or age ≥ 50 (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17-0.94) had lower career satisfaction levels. There were no statistically significant differences in career satisfaction levels by gender, scientific discipline, or employment sector. 74% perceived their current salary as competitive, but persons with 5-9, or ≥10 years in their current position reported lower levels (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.65; and OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.87, respectively), as did individuals in government positions (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11-0.98). These data add to the understanding of career satisfaction of those with advanced training in biomedical research by examining these measures in relation to prior postdoctoral research training and across multiple career sectors.

  12. Career Satisfaction and Perceived Salary Competitiveness among Individuals Who Completed Postdoctoral Research Training in Cancer Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Faupel-Badger

    Full Text Available Studies examining career satisfaction of biomedical scientists are limited, especially in the context of prior postdoctoral training. Here we focused on career satisfaction defined as satisfaction with one's career trajectory and perceived salary competitiveness among a predominantly Ph.D.-trained population of scientists who completed cancer prevention-related postdoctoral training between 1987-2011. National Cancer Institute (NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP alumni (n = 114, and previous recipients of NCI-sponsored Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA/F32 postdoctoral fellowships (n = 140 completed online surveys. Associations of career satisfaction and perception of salary competitiveness with demographic, training, and employment-related factors were examined using logistic regression. Overall, 61% reported high levels of satisfaction with their career trajectory to-date. Higher salary (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07-7.69 and having more leadership roles (OR = 2.26, 95% CI:1.04-4.90 were independently associated with higher career satisfaction. Persons with race/ethnicity other than white (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20-0.82 or age ≥ 50 (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17-0.94 had lower career satisfaction levels. There were no statistically significant differences in career satisfaction levels by gender, scientific discipline, or employment sector. 74% perceived their current salary as competitive, but persons with 5-9, or ≥10 years in their current position reported lower levels (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.65; and OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.87, respectively, as did individuals in government positions (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11-0.98. These data add to the understanding of career satisfaction of those with advanced training in biomedical research by examining these measures in relation to prior postdoctoral research training and across multiple career sectors.

  13. Chapter 7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The inspection and assessment activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on minimization of activity and the quantity of produced radioactive waste (RAW), and on increasing safety of waste management. The general scheme of rad-waste management in the Slovak Republic is presented. The radioactive wastes produced during the operation of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 and NPP Mochovce in 1999 are listed.Liquid RAW was treated and conditioned into a solid form at the nuclear facility Technology for treatment and conditioning of RAW. In 1999 combustible solid waste was treated at the nuclear facility Incinerator of VUJE Trnava. Produced liquid and solid RAW are stored at designed equipment at individual nuclear installations (in case of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce in compliance with the Regulation No. 67/1987 Coll. law).The status of free capacity of these storages as of 31.121999 is presented. Storage solidified product built the SE-VYZ was fully filled at the end of 1999. In 1999 there was a significant improvement in the process of radioactive waste management by: (A) issuing approval for commissioning the National Repository for RAW, (B) issuing approval for commissioning the Treatment and Conditioning Center for RAW, (C) having the application for approval to transport conditioned RAW to the National repository Mochovce in the final stage of evaluation. At the beginning of 2000 it is realistic to expect that RAW conditioned in the Conditioning center of RAW will start to be disposed at the National repository of RAW in Mochovce

  14. Cultural dimension of individualism and collectivism and its perceptual and cognitive correlates in cross-cultural research

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Čeněk

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the current findings on the dimension of individualism/collectivism, which might be a useful tool for the comparison of different cultures and for the investigation of the effect of culture as a psychological concept on individual mental processes. The validity and reliability of the concept of the dimension of individualism/collectivism is discussed. The related theory of analytic and holistic thinking is introduced within a framework of extensive comparative research in t...

  15. Incidental findings are frequent in young healthy individuals undergoing magnetic resonance imaging in brain research imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R; Deuschl, Günther

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management....

  16. RESEARCH OF THE HIGH HARMONICS INDIVIDUAL BLADE CONTROL EFFECT ON VIBRATIONS CAUSED BY THE HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR THRUST

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents numerical results analysis of main rotor vibration due to helicopter main rotor thrust pulsation.The calculation method, the object of research and numerical research results with the aim to reduce the amplitude of the vibrations transmitted to the hub from the helicopters main rotor by the individual blade control in azimuth by the installation angle of blades cyclic changes are set out in the article. The individual blades control law for a five-blade main rotor based on ...

  17. Impact of individual clinical outcomes on trial participants' perspectives on enrollment in emergency research without consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, Louisa W; Baren, Jill M; Biros, Michelle H; Fleischman, Ross J; Govindarajan, Prasanthi R; Jones, Elizabeth B; Pancioli, Arthur M; Pentz, Rebecca D; Scicluna, Victoria M; Wright, David W; Dickert, Neal W

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that patients are generally accepting of their enrollment in trials for emergency care conducted under exception from informed consent. It is unknown whether individuals with more severe initial injuries or worse clinical outcomes have different perspectives. Determining whether these differences exist may help to structure post-enrollment interactions. Primary clinical data from the Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury trial were matched to interview data from the Patients' Experiences in Emergency Research-Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury study. Answers to three key questions from Patients' Experiences in Emergency Research-Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury study were analyzed in the context of enrolled patients' initial injury severity (initial Glasgow Coma Scale and Injury Severity Score) and principal clinical outcomes (Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale and Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale relative to initial injury severity). The three key questions from Patients' Experiences in Emergency Research-Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury study addressed participants' general attitude toward inclusion in the Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury trial (general trial inclusion), their specific attitude toward being included in Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury trial under the exception from informed consent (personal exception from informed consent enrollment), and their attitude toward the use of exception from informed consent in the Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury trial in general (general exception from informed consent enrollment). Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts was performed to provide contextualization and to determine the extent to which respondents framed their attitudes in terms of clinical experience. Clinical data from Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

  18. Fundamentals of Dosimetry. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, E. M. [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Determination of the energy imparted to matter by radiation is the subject of dosimetry. The energy deposited as radiation interacts with atoms of the material, as seen in the previous chapter. The imparted energy is responsible for the effects that radiation causes in matter, for instance, a rise in temperature, or chemical or physical changes in the material properties. Several of the changes produced in matter by radiation are proportional to the absorbed dose, giving rise to the possibility of using the material as the sensitive part of a dosimeter. Also, the biological effects of radiation depend on the absorbed dose. A set of quantities related to the radiation field is also defined within the scope of dosimetry. It will be shown in this chapter that, under special conditions, there are simple relations between dosimetric and field description quantities. Thus, the framework of dosimetry is the set of physical and operational quantities that are studied in this chapter.

  19. Individual Differences in Approach-Avoidance Aptitude: Some Clues from Research on Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eCosta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Approach and avoidance are two basic behavioral aptitudes of humans whose correct balance is critical for successful adaptation to the environment. As the expression of approach and avoidance tendencies may differ significantly between healthy individuals, different psychobiological factors have been posited to account for such variability. In this regard, two main issues are still open that refers to i the role played by dopamine neurotransmission and ii the possible influence of cognitive characteristics, particularly executive functioning. The aim of the present paper was to highlight the contribution of research on Parkinson’s disease (PD to our understanding of the above issues. In particular, we here reviewed PD literature to clarify whether neurobiological and neuropsychological modifications due to PD are associated to changes in approach-avoidance related personality features. Available data indicate that PD patients may show and approach-avoidance imbalance as documented by lower novelty-seeking and higher harm-avoidance behaviors, possibly suggesting a relationship with neurobiological and neurocognitive PD-related changes. However, the literature that directly investigated this issue is still sparse and much more work is needed to better clarify it.

  20. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.4 through 8.7; Glossary and Acronyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs

  1. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 6, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.2 through 8.3.4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 35 figs., 70 tabs

  2. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs.

  3. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 5, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.1.5 through 8.3.1.17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  4. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 5, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.1.5 through 8.3.1.17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules

  5. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.4 through 8.7; Glossary and Acronyms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs.

  7. Career Satisfaction and Perceived Salary Competitiveness among Individuals Who Completed Postdoctoral Research Training in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M.; Nelson, David E.; Izmirlian, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Studies examining career satisfaction of biomedical scientists are limited, especially in the context of prior postdoctoral training. Here we focused on career satisfaction defined as satisfaction with one’s career trajectory and perceived salary competitiveness among a predominantly Ph.D.-trained population of scientists who completed cancer prevention-related postdoctoral training between 1987–2011. National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) alumni (n = 114), and previous recipients of NCI-sponsored Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA/F32) postdoctoral fellowships (n = 140) completed online surveys. Associations of career satisfaction and perception of salary competitiveness with demographic, training, and employment-related factors were examined using logistic regression. Overall, 61% reported high levels of satisfaction with their career trajectory to-date. Higher salary (odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07–7.69) and having more leadership roles (OR = 2.26, 95% CI:1.04–4.90) were independently associated with higher career satisfaction. Persons with race/ethnicity other than white (OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20–0.82) or age ≥ 50 (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17–0.94) had lower career satisfaction levels. There were no statistically significant differences in career satisfaction levels by gender, scientific discipline, or employment sector. 74% perceived their current salary as competitive, but persons with 5–9, or ≥10 years in their current position reported lower levels (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15–0.65; and OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16–0.87, respectively), as did individuals in government positions (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11–0.98). These data add to the understanding of career satisfaction of those with advanced training in biomedical research by examining these measures in relation to prior postdoctoral research training and across multiple career sectors. PMID:28121985

  8. Cultural dimension of individualism and collectivism and its perceptual and cognitive correlates in cross-cultural research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current findings on the dimension of individualism/collectivism, which might be a useful tool for the comparison of different cultures and for the investigation of the effect of culture as a psychological concept on individual mental processes. The validity and reliability of the concept of the dimension of individualism/collectivism is discussed. The related theory of analytic and holistic thinking is introduced within a framework of extensive comparative research in the field of cross-cultural psychology. Several interesting research designs on cross-cultural differences in cognition and perception are described. The empirical part contains a short report of research conducted on a sample (N=92 of Czech and Czech Vietnamese university students using a scale of horizontal and vertical individualism/collectivism (Bartoš, 2010. The results do not fully support the traditional view of individualistic Europeans and collectivistic Asians.

  9. From basic to applied research to improve outcomes for individuals who require augmentative and alternative communication: potential contributions of eye tracking research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Janice; McNaughton, David

    2014-06-01

    In order to improve outcomes for individuals who require AAC, there is an urgent need for research across the full spectrum--from basic research to investigate fundamental language and communication processes, to applied clinical research to test applications of this new knowledge in the real world. To date, there has been a notable lack of basic research in the AAC field to investigate the underlying cognitive, sensory perceptual, linguistic, and motor processes of individuals with complex communication needs. Eye tracking research technology provides a promising method for researchers to investigate some of the visual cognitive processes that underlie interaction via AAC. The eye tracking research technology automatically records the latency, duration, and sequence of visual fixations, providing key information on what elements attract the individual's attention (and which ones do not), for how long, and in what sequence. As illustrated by the papers in this special issue, this information can be used to improve the design of AAC systems, assessments, and interventions to better meet the needs of individuals with developmental and acquired disabilities who require AAC (e.g., individuals with autism spectrum disorders, Down syndrome, intellectual disabilities of unknown origin, aphasia).

  10. Teaching Students with Disabilities: A Review of Music Education Research as It Relates to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores trends in research since the 1975 passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (now known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), notes gaps in the literature, and offers suggestions for future directions music education researchers could take in exploring the needs and experiences of music teachers…

  11. How to achieve informed consent for research from Spanish-speaking individuals with low literacy: a qualitative report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Dharma E; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Henault, Lori E; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2010-01-01

    Investigators have the responsibility to ensure that prospective participants are fully informed about a research protocol prior to consenting to participate, yet many researchers face challenges when obtaining consent, since the majority of the general population has limited or no familiarity with research studies. These challenges are further magnified when obtaining consent from individuals with low literacy levels and who speak languages other than English. In this article we present findings from a qualitative study conducted with Spanish-speaking individuals with low-literacy designed to refine the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Informed Consent and Authorization Toolkit for Minimal Risk Research. Findings from this study indicate that familiarity with providing informed consent and authorization for research or the experience of being a research participant appear to play key roles in an individual's ability to understand the consent and authorization process. While the text of the consent and authorization documents can be simplified using plain language principles, comprehension of several fundamental ideas such as risk and privacy need to be safeguarded with a consent process that confirms comprehension. Recommendations are provided to address the informational needs of individuals with low literacy levels and limited or no experience with research participation.

  12. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  13. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, J.; El Fakhri, G. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images.

  14. Chapter 3: Traceability and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 3 presents: an introduction; Traceability (measurement standard, role of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Secondary Standards Laboratories, documentary standards and traceability as process review); Uncertainty (Example 1 - Measurement, M raw (SSD), Example 2 - Calibration data, N D.w 60 Co, kQ, Example 3 - Correction factor, P TP ) and Conclusion

  15. Behavioral service substitution (Chapter 9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Bouguettaya, A.; Sheng, Q.Z.; Daniel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Service-oriented design supports system evolution and encourages reuse and modularization. A key ingredient of service orientation is the ability to substitute one service by another without reconfiguring the overall system. This chapter aims to give an overview of the state of the art and open

  16. Energy and wastes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 'Energy and wastes' it is shown the wastes generation inevitability at power production, because there are no absolutely wasteless technologies. After energy production technologies analysis the data that nuclear energy is most ecologically acceptable at maintenance related radiation safety measures

  17. Noisy and individual, but doable : Shift-work research in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantermann, Thomas; Wehrens, Sophie M T; Ulhôa, Melissa A; Moreno, Claudia; Skene, Debra J

    2012-01-01

    Working around the clock is common for many occupations, as diverse as nurses, truck drivers, physicians, steel workers, and pilots. Each shift-work profession is individual in more aspects than just work hours and individual work scenarios, each posing a different impact on the health of workers.

  18. Conceiving "personality": Psychologist's challenges and basic fundamentals of the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-09-01

    Scientists exploring individuals, as such scientists are individuals themselves and thus not independent from their objects of research, encounter profound challenges; in particular, high risks for anthropo-, ethno- and ego-centric biases and various fallacies in reasoning. The Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) aims to tackle these challenges by exploring and making explicit the philosophical presuppositions that are being made and the metatheories and methodologies that are used in the field. This article introduces basic fundamentals of the TPS-Paradigm including the epistemological principle of complementarity and metatheoretical concepts for exploring individuals as living organisms. Centrally, the TPS-Paradigm considers three metatheoretical properties (spatial location in relation to individuals' bodies, temporal extension, and physicality versus "non-physicality") that can be conceived in different forms for various kinds of phenomena explored in individuals (morphology, physiology, behaviour, the psyche, semiotic representations, artificially modified outer appearances and contexts). These properties, as they determine the phenomena's accessibility in everyday life and research, are used to elaborate philosophy-of-science foundations and to derive general methodological implications for the elementary problem of phenomenon-methodology matching and for scientific quantification of the various kinds of phenomena studied. On the basis of these foundations, the article explores the metatheories and methodologies that are used or needed to empirically study each given kind of phenomenon in individuals in general. Building on these general implications, the article derives special implications for exploring individuals' "personality", which the TPS-Paradigm conceives of as individual-specificity in all of the various kinds of phenomena studied in individuals.

  19. Improving Training at School and Work: Lessons From RAND Research on Army Individual Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winkler, John

    1995-01-01

    Individual training, which prepares soldiers to perform a military occupation and which occurs in classrooms, on job sites, and through self-development, is a large and costly part of Army operations...

  20. Building individualized competences for Research Librarians in the ‘New Library’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wien, Charlotte; Dorch, Bertil F.

    Research librarians no longer need to perform as many of the traditional the chores of the research library. This is due to many factors like digitalization, changing research policies and changes in researchers’ behaviour. With these changes also comes a demand for new skills. We seek an answer...... to how this demand can be met. We argue that changes that has taken place in the research library has also led to a loss of prestige for the research librarians. We use Bourdieu’s field theory to analyse the power struggles in the academic field and in the field of the research library and to identify...

  1. Commentary: Beyond Individualism and Collectivism--A Problem, or Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiel, Elliot

    2004-01-01

    Although the constructs of individualism and collectivism appear to bring explanatory power to analyses of culture and psychology, they fail to adequately account for the complexities of social interactions and the multiplicity of people's social judgments. The research considered in the chapters in this volume offers evidence for the need to go…

  2. Graduate Education to Facilitate Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration: Identifying Individual Competencies and Developmental Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Valerie Ciocca

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research collaborations (IDRC) are considered essential for addressing the most complex global community problems concerning science, health, education, energy, the environment, and society. In spite of technological advances, supportive funding, and even researcher proclivity to collaborate, these complex interdisciplinary…

  3. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  4. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  5. Instrumentation for Dosimetry. Chapter 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdakis, J. C. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Athens (Greece); Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Measurements of absorbed dose (or air kerma) are required in varying situations in diagnostic radiology. The radiation fields vary from plain, slit and even point projection geometry, and may be stationary or moving, including rotational. Owing to the use of low photon energies for these fields, it is important that dosimeters have a satisfactory energy response. In general, the requirements for dosimeter accuracy are less stringent than those in radiation therapy; however, the dose and dose rate measurements cover a large range. Patient dosimetry (see Chapter 22) is a primary responsibility of the medical physicist specializing in diagnostic radiology and is required by legislation in many countries. Dose data are also required in the optimization of examinations for image quality and dose. Radiation measurement is also critical for occupational and public exposure control (see Chapter 24). Dose measurements are essential in acceptance testing and quality control (see Chapter 19). Several types of dosimeter can be used, provided that they have a suitable energy response, but typically, ionization chambers of a few cubic centimetres in volume, or solid state detectors specifically designed for such measurements, are used. If dosimeters are used to make measurements during an examination, they must not interfere with the examination. These devices are also used for determination of the half value layer (HVL). Special types of ionization chamber are employed for computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional radiology dosimetry.

  6. Chapter 1: A little of Radiation Physics and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 1 presents the subjects: 1) quantities and units of radiation physics which includes: the electron volt (eV); Exposure (X); Absorbed dose (D); Dose equivalent (H); Activity (A); Half-life; Radioactive decay; 2) Radiation protection which includes: irradiation and radioactive contamination; irradiation; contamination; background radiation; dose limits for individual occupationally exposed (IOE) and for the general public.

  7. Missing Chapters II: West Virginia Women in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Frances S., Ed.

    This collection of essays chronicles the contributions of 14 West Virginia women active in individual and group endeavors from 1824 to the present. Because the achievements of these women are absent from previous histories of West Virginia, their stories constitute missing chapters in the state's history. Some of these women made contributions in…

  8. Implicit and explicit learning: applications from basic research to sports for individuals with impaired movement dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, B.; van der Kamp, J.; Verneau, M.M.N.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may

  9. Implicit and explicit learning: applications from basic research to sports for individuals with impaired movement dynamics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, B.; Kamp, J. van der; Verneau, M.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may

  10. Implicit and explicit learning: applications from basic research to sports for individuals with impaired movement dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, B.; Kamp, J. van der; Verneau, M.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Masters, R.S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - Motor skills can be learned in an explicit or an implicit manner. Explicit learning places high demands on working memory capacity, but engagement of working memory is largely circumvented when skills are learned implicitly. We propose that individuals with impaired movement dynamics may

  11. Individual response technology to promote active learning within the caring sciences: An experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedén, Lena; Ahlstrom, Linda

    2016-01-01

    One major challenge in delivering lectures to large and diverse classes is the maintenance of a high standard of lecturing in order to engage students and increase their participation and involvement. The lecturer's assignment is to arrange and prepare the lecture before teaching, hence enabling students' enhanced learning. Individual response technology could encourage students' active learning and activate higher cognitive levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate individual response technology as a complement during lectures for students in higher education, in terms of the students' experiences of participation, engagement, and active learning. Also of interest was whether this technology can be considered a supportive technical system. Data were collected through a questionnaire where levels of each condition were reported on a numeric rating scale (0-10) at baseline and after the introduction of individual response technology. To get a broader perspective, two types of lectures (pediatric and statistical) were included, giving a total of four assessment times. The participants comprised 59 students in Bachelor of Nursing program at a Swedish metropolitan university. Overall, when individual response technology was used, students reported increased experience of engagement (n=82, mean 6.1 vs. n=65, mean 7.3, pactive learning (n=92, mean 7.3 vs. n=79, mean 8.2 plearning within the caring sciences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Individualism and Collectivism in Business School Pedagogy: A Research Agenda for Internationalising the Home Management Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waistell, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that today's workplaces and universities both require and promote individual and collective responsibility for work and that students need to be adequately prepared for this. UK national culture has been characterised as highly individualist. Therefore, internationalisation of home management students in the…

  13. Re-Inventing Researcher Identity: When the Individual Interacts with the Contextual Power Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertkan, Sefika; Bayrakli, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    This article is about being and becoming a qualitative researcher in Turkey, a context with a distinctive quantitative tradition shaped by the post-positivist paradigm where qualitative research has not yet reached the mature stage it enjoys elsewhere. Exploring the challenges of swimming against the tide unattended and keeping going, it argues…

  14. Researching children's individual empathic abilities in the context of their daily lives: the importance of mixed methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerig, S.; van Wesel, F.; Evers, S.J.T.M.; Krabbendam, L.

    2015-01-01

    In social neuroscience, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between agents. In this perspective paper, we argue that to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of empathy, social

  15. Research on Motivation in Collaborative Learning: Moving beyond the Cognitive-Situative Divide and Combining Individual and Social Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvela, Sanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvenoja, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose that in order to advance our understanding of motivation in collaborative learning we should move beyond the cognitive-situative epistemological divide and combine individual and social processes. Our claim is that although recent research has recognized the importance of social aspects in emerging and sustained…

  16. Distributed cognition and process management enabling individualized translational research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Links

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similarly complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team therefore built the NIH UDP Integrated Collaboration System (UDPICS to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  17. Distributed Cognition and Process Management Enabling Individualized Translational Research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Amanda E; Draper, David; Lee, Elizabeth; Guzman, Jessica; Valivullah, Zaheer; Maduro, Valerie; Lebedev, Vlad; Didenko, Maxim; Tomlin, Garrick; Brudno, Michael; Girdea, Marta; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Haendel, Melissa A; Mungall, Christopher J; Smedley, Damian; Hochheiser, Harry; Arnold, Andrew M; Coessens, Bert; Verhoeven, Steven; Bone, William; Adams, David; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Gahl, William A; Sincan, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP) applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similar complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team, therefore, built the NIH UDP integrated collaboration system (UDPICS) to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  18. Translational behavioral medicine for population and individual health: gaps, opportunities, and vision for practice-based translational behavior change research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Lewis, Megan A; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    In this commentary, we propose a vision for "practice-based translational behavior change research," which we define as clinical and public health practice-embedded research on the implementation, optimization, and fundamental mechanisms of behavioral interventions. This vision intends to be inclusive of important research elements for behavioral intervention development, testing, and implementation. We discuss important research gaps and conceptual and methodological advances in three key areas along the discovery (development) to delivery (implementation) continuum of evidence-based interventions to improve behavior and health that could help achieve our vision of practice-based translational behavior change research. We expect our proposed vision to be refined and evolve over time. Through highlighting critical gaps that can be addressed by integrating modern theoretical and methodological approaches across disciplines in behavioral medicine, we hope to inspire the development and funding of innovative research on more potent and implementable behavior change interventions for optimal population and individual health.

  19. Chapter 8: The credibility crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poumadere, M.

    1991-01-01

    In the credibility crisis, a generalized state of conflicting cognitions is probably prevalent, along with possible individual and social pathologies. These cognitive conflicts and emotional traumas are linked to both the characteristics of Chernobyl as a human-made disaster and the specific nature of Chernobyl as a nuclear disaster. Three major elements as constituents of this nature are identified: The rupture of a social contract, the loss of a socially valued object, and the sudden removal of established distances. Further research and basic information are needed in this area where little specific observation is reported. A better grasp of the impact of nuclear energy on our societies can lead to better adapted policy, increased local and social solidarity, more decentralized initiative and risk management, and better organized primary prevention in nuclear disaster. (orig./DG)

  20. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  1. A network analysis of the individual – opportunity nexus: Convergence in entrepreneurship research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus; Blenker, Per

    that two of these clusters are relatively more central in the citation network: 1) A cluster associated with aspects of individual cognition and entrepreneurial opportunities, and 2) A cluster associated with meta-theoretical aspects of the entrepreneurship discipline. The final part of the paper performs......This paper analyses the citation pattern around the single most cited article in the entrepreneurship discipline in the last decade – ’The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of resaerch’ by Shane & Venkataraman (2000).  Using a quantitative network analysis five clusters pertaining to different...... a literature review of both the Shane and Venkataraman article itself and a number of articles from the two clusters mentioned above. From this analysis two conclusions can be drawn about the citation pattern around Shane & Venkataraman (2000). The article have produced agreement on the idea of an individual-opportunity...

  2. Nuclear Weapon Effect Research at PSR (Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation) - 1983. Acute Radiation Effects on Individual Crewmember Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-31

    information and data from other IDP investigations. Along with the IDP Core Group, DNA staff members David L. Auton and Robert W. Young of Science and...Studies Cruier-Destroyer Group 8 ATTN: Dir of Libraries ATTN: Commander USA Military Academy David Taylor Naval Ship R&D Ctr ATTN: Doc Library ATTN: Code...ATIN: S. Shrier 2 cys ATTN: Security & Subnation Conflict Horizons Technology, Inc Rand Corp ATTN: J. Palmer ATTN: B. Bennett lIT Research Ins t itute

  3. Imbalance in individual researcher's peer review activities quantified for four British Ecological Society journals, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchey, Owen L; Fox, Jeremy W; Haddon, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Researchers contribute to the scientific peer review system by providing reviews, and "withdraw" from it by submitting manuscripts that are subsequently reviewed. So far as we are aware, there has been no quantification of the balance of individual's contributions and withdrawals. We compared the number of reviews provided by individual researchers (i.e., their contribution) to the number required by their submissions (i.e. their withdrawals) in a large and anonymised database provided by the British Ecological Society. The database covered the Journal of Ecology, Journal of Animal Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, and Functional Ecology from 2003-2010. The majority of researchers (64%) did not have balanced contributions and withdrawals. Depending on assumptions, 12% to 44% contributed more than twice as much as required; 20% to 52% contributed less than half as much as required. Balance, or lack thereof, varied little in relation to the number of years a researcher had been active (reviewing or submitting). Researchers who contributed less than required did not lack the opportunity to review. Researchers who submitted more were more likely to accept invitations to review. These finding suggest overall that peer review of the four analysed journals is not in crisis, but only due to the favourable balance of over- and under-contributing researchers. These findings are limited to the four journals analysed, and therefore cannot include researcher's other peer review activities, which if included might change the proportions reported. Relatively low effort was required to assemble, check, and analyse the data. Broader analyses of individual researcher's peer review activities would contribute to greater quality, efficiency, and fairness in the peer review system.

  4. Determination of hemispheric emotional valence in individual subjects: A new approach with research and therapeutic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Fredric; Teicher, Martin H; Anderson, Carl; Tomoda, Akemi; Polcari, Ann; Navalta, Carryl P; Andersen, Susan L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Much has been theorized about the emotional properties of the hemispheres. Our review of the dominant hypotheses put forth by Schore, Joseph, Davidson, and Harmon-Jones on hemispheric emotional valences (HEV) shows that none are supported by robust data. Instead, we propose that individual's hemispheres are organized to have differing HEVs that can be lateralized in either direction. Methods Probe auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recorded during a neutral and an upsetting ...

  5. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  6. Recruitment of Individuals With Dementia and Their Carers for Social Research: Lessons Learned From Nine Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Elizabeth; Fielding, Elaine; O'Reilly, Maria; Brooks, Deborah; MacAndrew, Margaret; McCrow, Judy

    2018-05-01

    Many health and social care research studies report difficulties recruiting sufficient numbers of participants, adding to time and money expenditures and potentially jeopardizing the generalizability of findings. The current article reports the effectiveness and resource requirements of recruitment strategies used in nine dementia-related studies conducted in Australia. Articles, notices, or advertisements in targeted specialist newsletters were the most cost-effective method of recruitment. The use of service providers to aid recruitment yielded mixed results, but was lengthy in terms of research time. Online and social media were low cost but not reliably effective in terms of recruitment potential. Despite using multiple strategies to maximize recruitment, significant challenges were encountered achieving the required sample sizes; in most cases these challenges resulted in delays in the recruitment phase. Implications for researchers in the fields of dementia and general social/health research are discussed. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2018; 11(3):119-128.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. 100 years of applied psychology research on individual careers: From career management to retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Wanberg, Connie R

    2017-03-01

    This article surveys 100 years of research on career management and retirement, with a primary focus on work published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Research on career management took off in the 1920s, with most attention devoted to the development and validation of career interest inventories. Over time, research expanded to attend to broader issues such as the predictors and outcomes of career interests and choice; the nature of career success and who achieves it; career transitions and adaptability to change; retirement decision making and adjustment; and bridge employment. In this article, we provide a timeline for the evolution of the career management and retirement literature, review major theoretical perspectives and findings on career management and retirement, and discuss important future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  9. Chapter 4: Agriculture and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the responses of governments to the fallout, particularly with respect to the contamination of food and the effect of governmental decisions on agriculture and trade. To put the subsequent description of events in perspective, it is prefaced with a brief explanation of how permitted levels of radiation in food can be derived from radiation dose recommendations. Although much of this work was done after Chernobyl, it is one of several possible systematic calculation methods, a knowledge of which allows a better understanding of the limits adopted under the pressure of events. (orig.)

  10. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  11. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  12. The Role of Psychometrics in Individual Differences Research in Cognition: A Case Study of the AX-CPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly R. Cooper

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigating individual differences in cognition requires addressing questions not often thought about in standard experimental designs, especially regarding the psychometric properties of the task. Using the AX-CPT cognitive control task as a case study example, we address four concerns that one may encounter when researching the topic of individual differences in cognition. First, we demonstrate the importance of variability in task scores, which in turn directly impacts reliability, particularly when comparing correlations in different populations. Second, we demonstrate the importance of variability and reliability for evaluating potential failures to replicate predicted correlations, even within the same population. Third, we demonstrate how researchers can turn to evaluating psychometric properties as a way of evaluating the feasibility of utilizing the task in new settings (e.g., online administration. Lastly, we show how the examination of psychometric properties can help researchers make informed decisions when designing a study, such as determining the appropriate number of trials for a task.

  13. The Role of Psychometrics in Individual Differences Research in Cognition: A Case Study of the AX-CPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shelly R.; Gonthier, Corentin; Barch, Deanna M.; Braver, Todd S.

    2017-01-01

    Investigating individual differences in cognition requires addressing questions not often thought about in standard experimental designs, especially regarding the psychometric properties of the task. Using the AX-CPT cognitive control task as a case study example, we address four concerns that one may encounter when researching the topic of individual differences in cognition. First, we demonstrate the importance of variability in task scores, which in turn directly impacts reliability, particularly when comparing correlations in different populations. Second, we demonstrate the importance of variability and reliability for evaluating potential failures to replicate predicted correlations, even within the same population. Third, we demonstrate how researchers can turn to evaluating psychometric properties as a way of evaluating the feasibility of utilizing the task in new settings (e.g., online administration). Lastly, we show how the examination of psychometric properties can help researchers make informed decisions when designing a study, such as determining the appropriate number of trials for a task. PMID:28928690

  14. Barriers to the use of research-based instructional strategies: The influence of both individual and situational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Henderson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Many proven research-based instructional strategies have been developed for introductory college-level physics. Significant efforts to disseminate these strategies have focused on convincing individual instructors to give up their traditional practices in favor of particular research-based practices. Yet evidence suggests that the findings of educational research are, at best, only marginally incorporated into typical introductory physics courses. In this paper we present partial results of an interview study designed to generate new ideas about why proven strategies are slow to integrate in mainstream instruction. Specifically we describe the results of open-ended interviews with five physics instructors who represent likely users of educational research. We found that these instructors have conceptions about teaching and learning that are more compatible with educational research than with their self-described instructional practices. Instructors often blamed this discrepancy on situational factors that favor traditional instruction. A theoretical model is introduced to explain these findings.

  15. Loss and modification of habitat: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  16. Beyond the Individual: The Contextual Wheel of Practice as a Research Framework for Sustainable HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Entwistle, Johanne Mose; Rasmussen, Mia Kruse; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    . To support the practice approach, we introduce the Contextual Wheel of Practice (COWOP), a framework that can: 1) help researchers and designers to better understand practices, 2) design effective interventions, and 3) facilitate collaboration between team members from different disciplines, who may...... not be familiar with the practice orientation. We describe how COWOP was developed, and our experiences using COWOP in three different cases. We then position COWOP as part of the “turn to practice” in HCI, and discuss how it can be useful to HCI researchers and be applied in domains beyond sustainability...

  17. Risky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Elisa; Levitt, Mairi

    2008-11-01

    New genetic technologies promise to generate valuable insights into the aetiology of several psychiatric conditions, as well as a wider range of human and animal behaviours. Advances in the neurosciences and the application of new brain imaging techniques offer a way of integrating DNA analysis with studies that are looking at other biological markers of behaviour. While candidate 'genes for' certain conditions, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, are said to be 'un-discovered' at a faster rate than they are discovered, many studies are being conducted on personality traits such as aggressiveness and anti-social traits. The clinical applicability and implications of these studies are often discussed within the scientific community. However, little attention has so far been paid to their possible policy implications in relation to criminality management and to Criminal Law itself. Similarly, the related ethical issues arising in the field of crime control, and the tensions between enhancing security for society and protecting civil liberties, are currently under-explored. This paper investigates these ethical issues by focusing on the views of those professionals - including judges, lawyers, probation officers and social workers - who work with individuals 'deemed at risk' of violent and aggressive behaviours. It also discusses and problematizes mainstream rhetoric and arguments around the notion of 'risky individuals'.

  18. WIN Chapters: Milestones and Future Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.; Pelegrí, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the WIN Chapters: milestones and future plans are presented. WIN-IAEA has rewarded-in the three last years - to Australia-2014, South-Africa-2013 and Sweden-2012. WIN-Global -specially WiN IAEA- can collaborate a lot with the CTBTO presenting the content of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons actually increasing the signatory members in 2015. Historical decisions on NTP are already affecting WiN IAEA. The research reactors or high flux reactors are important in the field of medical applications and other future applications. In Australia women-scientist of OPAL, can become WiN. Between the OPAL applications there is a production of silicon plates to be used in laptops/mobiles. WIN-Europe activities related with the climatic change and with the academic promotion. 2015 is also a very important year due the celebration of 20th Anniversary of WIN-Spain; plans of this Chapter and Conferences of WIN-Global are presented. In addition there are women working in ITER, in some activities in the EU, China, India, Japan, South Korea, USA and Russia both in the academic (R+D) field and into the Industry. (Author)

  19. Is a shift from research on individual medical error to research on health information technology underway? A 40-year analysis of publication trends in medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlewein, Daniel; Bruni, Tommaso; Gadebusch Bondio, Mariacarla

    2018-06-07

    In 1983, McIntyre and Popper underscored the need for more openness in dealing with errors in medicine. Since then, much has been written on individual medical errors. Furthermore, at the beginning of the 21st century, researchers and medical practitioners increasingly approached individual medical errors through health information technology. Hence, the question arises whether the attention of biomedical researchers shifted from individual medical errors to health information technology. We ran a study to determine publication trends concerning individual medical errors and health information technology in medical journals over the last 40 years. We used the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) taxonomy in the database MEDLINE. Each year, we analyzed the percentage of relevant publications to the total number of publications in MEDLINE. The trends identified were tested for statistical significance. Our analysis showed that the percentage of publications dealing with individual medical errors increased from 1976 until the beginning of the 21st century but began to drop in 2003. Both the upward and the downward trends were statistically significant (P information technology doubled between 2003 and 2015. The upward trend was statistically significant (P information technology in the USA and the UK. © 2018 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Individual differences in zoo-housed squirrel monkeys' (Saimiri sciureus) reactions to visitors, research participation, and personality ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, Zita; Wood, Lara; Haskell, Marie J

    2017-05-01

    Understanding individual differences in captive squirrel monkeys is a topic of importance both for improving welfare by catering to individual needs, and for better understanding the results and implications of behavioral research. In this study, 23 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), housed in an environment that is both a zoo enclosure and research facility, were assessed for (i) the time they spent by an observation window under three visitor conditions: no visitors, small groups, and large groups; (ii) their likelihood of participating in voluntary research; and (iii) zookeepers, ratings of personality. A Friedman's ANOVA and Wilcoxon post-hoc tests comparing mean times found that the monkeys spent more time by the window when there were large groups present than when there were small groups or no visitors. Thus, visitors do not seem to have a negative effect and may be enriching for certain individuals. Through GLMM and correlational analyses, it was found that high scores on the personality trait of playfulness and low scores on cautiousness, depression, and solitude were significant predictors of increased window approach behavior when visitors were present. The GLMM and correlational analyses assessing the links between personality traits and research participation found that low scores of cautiousness and high scores of playfulness, gentleness, affection, and friendliness, were significant predictors. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to selection bias and its potential confounding effect on cognitive studies with voluntary participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Protecting the privacy of individual general practice patient electronic records for geospatial epidemiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Konings, Paul; Hewett, Michael; Bagheri, Nasser; McRae, Ian; Del Fante, Peter

    2014-12-01

    General practitioner (GP) practices in Australia are increasingly storing patient information in electronic databases. These practice databases can be accessed by clinical audit software to generate reports that inform clinical or population health decision making and public health surveillance. Many audit software applications also have the capacity to generate de-identified patient unit record data. However, the de-identified nature of the extracted data means that these records often lack geographic information. Without spatial references, it is impossible to build maps reflecting the spatial distribution of patients with particular conditions and needs. Links to socioeconomic, demographic, environmental or other geographically based information are also not possible. In some cases, relatively coarse geographies such as postcode are available, but these are of limited use and researchers cannot undertake precision spatial analyses such as calculating travel times. We describe a method that allows researchers to implement meaningful mapping and spatial epidemiological analyses of practice level patient data while preserving privacy. This solution has been piloted in a diabetes risk research project in the patient population of a practice in Adelaide. The method offers researchers a powerful means of analysing geographic clinic data in a privacy-protected manner. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Beyond individualism: Is there a place for relational autonomy in clinical practice and research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Kelly, Susan E; Lucivero, Federica; Machirori, Mavis; Dheensa, Sandi; Prainsack, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    The dominant, individualistic understanding of autonomy that features in clinical practice and research is underpinned by the idea that people are, in their ideal form, independent, self-interested and rational gain-maximising decision-makers. In recent decades, this paradigm has been challenged from various disciplinary and intellectual directions. Proponents of 'relational autonomy' in particular have argued that people's identities, needs, interests - and indeed autonomy - are always also shaped by their relations to others. Yet, despite the pronounced and nuanced critique directed at an individualistic understanding of autonomy, this critique has had very little effect on ethical and legal instruments in clinical practice and research so far. In this article, we use four case studies to explore to what extent, if at all, relational autonomy can provide solutions to ethical and practical problems in clinical practice and research. We conclude that certain forms of relational autonomy can have a tangible and positive impact on clinical practice and research. These solutions leave the ultimate decision to the person most affected, but encourage and facilitate the consideration of this person's care and responsibility for connected others.

  3. Aggregate and Individual Replication Probability within an Explicit Model of the Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Schwarz, Wolf

    2011-01-01

    We study a model of the research process in which the true effect size, the replication jitter due to changes in experimental procedure, and the statistical error of effect size measurement are all normally distributed random variables. Within this model, we analyze the probability of successfully replicating an initial experimental result by…

  4. InSTREAM: the individual-based stream trout research and environmental assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey; Stephen K. Jackson; Roland H. Lamberson

    2009-01-01

    This report documents Version 4.2 of InSTREAM, including its formulation, software, and application to research and management problems. InSTREAM is a simulation model designed to understand how stream and river salmonid populations respond to habitat alteration, including altered flow, temperature, and turbidity regimes and changes in channel morphology. The model...

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC SPORTS INJURIES: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  6. Culture, gender, and self: a perspective from individualism-collectivism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Kim, U; Choi, S C; Gelfand, M J; Yuki, M

    1995-11-01

    Individualism and collectivism are often equated with independent vs. interdependent, agentic vs. communal, and separate vs. relational self-construals. Although these same concepts have been used to characterize both cultural and gender differences, a perspective of cultural evolution suggests it is unlikely. A division of labor within society may produce gender differences, but this cannot explain cultural differences. A study of self-construal involving 5 cultures (Australia, the United States, Hawaii, Japan, and Korea) shows that differences between these cultures are captured mostly by the extent to which people see themselves as acting as independent agents, whereas gender differences are best summarized by the extent to which people regard themselves as emotionally related to others.

  7. Measuring cultural values at the individual-level: considering morality in cross-cultural value research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin-Melanie Vauclair

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Valores compartilhados são tipicamente vistos como um dos aspectos centrais da cultura. O procedimento comum para derivar valores culturais compartilhados é feito por meio da análise das prioridades dos valores individuais no nível cultural. Este artigo delineia os problemas conceituais e metodológicos associados com esse procedimento. Descobertas feitas por meio de estudos empíricos selecionados são apresentadas para corroborar essa crítica. Meios alternativos para medir valores culturais no nível individual são apresentados e classificados em uma taxonomia de valores. Nessa taxonomia, estudos anteriores têm até agora focalizado a medição de valores por meio da importância atribuída, refletindo o que os indivíduos ou grupos sociais desejam. Contudo, argumenta-se que, se valores culturais são supostamente compartilhados, eles deveriam refletir o que é desejável, isto é, o que o indivíduo deve valorizar ou empenhar-se para alcançar como um objetivo de vida em uma determinada sociedade. Isso constitui uma nova abordagem para a mensuração de valores culturais que propõe que sejam medidos no nível individual, utilizando-se perguntas que envolvam moralidade. Sugestões são feitas sobre como os valores culturais poderiam ser operacionalizados, referindo-se aos valores morais individuais ou àqueles de um grupo social. Os benefícios da utilização de taxionomia de valores para pesquisas futuras são eventualmente descritos.

  8. An overview of the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: Chapter 1 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Turner, Kent; Raish, Carol B.; Ostoja, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    discusses the Science and Research Strategy developed by the SNAP agencies, the Science and Research Report, and need for science-based management in southern Nevada.

  9. Individual and big technology: a comparative attitudinal research to electricity generation from coal and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midden, C.J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic issue addressed in this research can be formulated as follows: how can peoples reactions to high risk energy technologies be described, analysed and compared. In this study the technologies for electricity generation of nuclear power and coal were chosen for comparison. The thesis gives a general introduction and considers: 1. policy issues involved in the introduction and implementation of large scale technologies. 2. the current electricity supply situation with particular emphasis on the contribution of nuclear power and coal. 3. recent research which has contributed to the formulation of energy policy decisions. The attitudinal framework adopted in this study is discussed in relation to other approaches for the analysis of risk perception, classification of risks and personal and collective decisions about risk taking. (Auth.)

  10. Expectation versus Reality: The Impact of Utility on Emotional Outcomes after Returning Individualized Genetic Research Results in Pediatric Rare Disease Research, a Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Cara N; Chandler, Ariel E; Towne, Meghan C; Beggs, Alan H; Holm, Ingrid A

    2016-01-01

    Much information on parental perspectives on the return of individual research results (IRR) in pediatric genomic research is based on hypothetical rather than actual IRR. Our aim was to understand how the expected utility to parents who received IRR on their child from a genetic research study compared to the actual utility of the IRR received. We conducted individual telephone interviews with parents who received IRR on their child through participation in the Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research Gene Discovery Core (GDC) at Boston Children's Hospital (BCH). Five themes emerged around the utility that parents expected and actually received from IRR: predictability, management, family planning, finding answers, and helping science and/or families. Parents expressing negative or mixed emotions after IRR return were those who did not receive the utility they expected from the IRR. Conversely, parents who expressed positive emotions were those who received as much or greater utility than expected. Discrepancies between expected and actual utility of IRR affect the experiences of parents and families enrolled in genetic research studies. An informed consent process that fosters realistic expectations between researchers and participants may help to minimize any negative impact on parents and families.

  11. Reference Management Practices of Postgraduate Students and Academic Researchers are Highly Individualized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Miller

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Melles, A., & Unsworth, K. (2015. Examining the reference management practices of humanities and social science postgraduate students and academics. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 46(4, 250-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00048623.2015.1104790 Objective – To understand patterns in reference management practices of postgraduate students and faculty members at one institution. Design – Mixed methods online survey and semi-structured interviews. Setting – Public research university in Australia. Subjects – The survey included responses from 81 postgraduate students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 8 postgraduate students and 13 faculty members. Methods – The researchers distributed an 18-item survey via email to approximately 800 people who previously registered for EndNote training sessions. Survey participants were also recruited via a website advertisement. The researchers recruited postgraduate student interview participants from the list of survey respondents. Librarians invited faculty members to participate in the semi-structured interviews. Interview audio recordings were transcribed and coded for data analysis. Main Results – The survey found that 71.4% (n=55 of respondents used reference management software (RMS and 29% (n=22 did not. Over half of the students who did not use an RMS described other ad hoc or “manual” (p. 255 methods for organizing and tracking references. The majority of participants reported using EndNote (67.53%, n=52, while few respondents reported using other RMS tools like Zotero (1.3%, n=1 or Mendeley (1.3%, n = 1. Software awareness (49.32%, n=36, recommendations from faculty members (30.14%, n=22, and University support (47.95%, n=35 were the primary motivations for choosing a specific RMS. Other important factors included ease of use (32.88%, n=24 and integration with Microsoft Word (46.58%, n=34. Students preferred RMS features that support the process of

  12. The interface between research on individual difference variables and teaching practice: The case of cognitive factors and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Biedroń

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While a substantial body of empirical evidence has been accrued about the role of individual differences in second language acquisition, relatively little is still known about how factors of this kind can mediate the effects of instructional practices as well as how empirically-derived insights can inform foreign language pedagogy, both with respect to shaping certain variables and adjusting instruction to individual learner profiles. The present paper is an attempt to shed light on the interface between research on individual difference factors and teaching practice, focusing upon variables which do not easily lend themselves to external manipulation, namely intelligence, foreign language aptitude, working memory and personality, with the role of the last of these in language learning being admittedly the least obvious. In each case, the main research findings will briefly be outlined, their potential for informing instruction will be considered, and, in the final part, the caveats concerning practical applications of research on the variables in question will be spelled out.

  13. Why Radiotherapy Works. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, S.; Nishibuchi, I.; Wondergem, J.

    2017-01-01

    The history of radiotherapy began in 1895, when Röntgen discovered X rays, and in the following year, radiation was used for medical treatment. In the early days, the development of radiotherapy was based extensively on empiricism. Radiotherapists worked closely with radiation biologists in attempting to describe and understand the phenomena produced by ionizing radiation in the clinic and in biological systems. During the ensuing 120 years, radiotherapy has been improved significantly and, in addition to radiation biology, medical physics has played an important role in the design and development of equipment, quality assurance and dosimetry. Over recent decades, advances have been made in the field of molecular biology. Currently available techniques enable us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cellular response to ionizing irradiation, and it is anticipated that the role and contributions of radiation biology in radiotherapy will remain relevant. This chapter describes the clinically important biological points, including knowledge from current molecular biology.

  14. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  15. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Robert; Debetencourt, Michel; Cregut, Andre; Grauby, Andre; Sousselier, Yves

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations [fr

  16. Alignment of single-case design (SCD) research with individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing with the what Works Clearinghouse standards for SCD research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Erica; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Ge, Jin Jin; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2015-04-01

    The authors assessed the quality of single-case design (SCD) studies that assess the impact of interventions on outcomes for individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH). More specifically, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for SCD research were used to assess design quality and the strength of evidence of peer-reviewed studies available in the peer-reviewed, published literature. The analysis yielded four studies that met the WWC standards for design quality, of which two demonstrated moderate to strong evidence for efficacy of the studied intervention. Results of this review are discussed in light of the benefits and the challenges to applying the WWC design standards to research with DHH individuals and other diverse, low-incidence populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Self-management strategies used by 'high functioning' individuals with bipolar disorder: from research to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Greg; Suto, Melinda; Hole, Rachelle; Hale, Sandra; Amari, Erica; Michalak, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex mental illness that results in substantial costs, both at a personal and societal level. Research into BD has been driven by a strongly medical model conception, with a focus upon pathology and dysfunction. Little research to date has focused upon strategies used to maintain or regain wellness in BD. Here, we present results from a qualitative study of self-management strategies used by a Canadian sample of 'high-functioning' individuals with BD. The aims of the present paper are two-fold: (1) To provide a description of the self-management strategies identified as effective by this sample of high functioning individuals and 2) to explore these results from a clinical perspective. High functioning (determined as a score of either 1 or 2 on the objectively-rated Multidimensional Scale of Independent Functioning) individuals with BD type I or II (N = 33) completed quantitative scales to assess depression, mania, psychosocial functioning and quality of life, and underwent either an individual interview or focus group about the self-management strategies they used to maintain or regain wellness. The specific self-management strategies that individuals enacted are contained within the following categories: (1) sleep, diet, rest and exercise; (2) ongoing monitoring; (3) reflective and meditative practices; (4) understanding BD and educating others; (5) connecting to others and (6) enacting a plan. These strategies are discussed in the context of current treatment interventions and research findings, offering clinicians a broad range of potential techniques or tools to assist with their efforts to support individuals with BD in maintaining or regaining wellness. The strategies adopted by a sample of people coping well with their BD show remarkable overlap with the targets of existing adjunctive psychosocial interventions for BD. The clinician can use this information to motivate clients to engage with such strategies. The present

  18. RESEARCH OF THE HIGH HARMONICS INDIVIDUAL BLADE CONTROL EFFECT ON VIBRATIONS CAUSED BY THE HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR THRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents numerical results analysis of main rotor vibration due to helicopter main rotor thrust pulsation.The calculation method, the object of research and numerical research results with the aim to reduce the amplitude of the vibrations transmitted to the hub from the helicopters main rotor by the individual blade control in azimuth by the installation angle of blades cyclic changes are set out in the article. The individual blades control law for a five-blade main rotor based on the blade frequencies is made. It allows reducing the vibration from thrust. Research takes into account the main rotor including and excluding the blade flapping motion. The minimal vibrations regime is identified.Numerical study of variable loads caused by unsteady flow around the main rotor blades at high relative speeds of flight, which transmitted to the rotor hub, is made. The scheme of a thin lifting surface and the rotor vortex theory are used for simulation of the aerodynamic loads on blades. Non - uniform loads caused by the thrust, decomposed on the blade harmonic and its overtones. The largest values of deviation from the mean amplitude thrust are received. The analysis of variable loads with a traditional control system is made. Algorithms of higher harmonics individual blade control capable of reducing the thrust pulsation under the average value of thrust are developed.Numerical research shows that individual blade control of high harmonics reduces variable loads. The necessary change in the blade installation is about ± 0,2 degree that corresponds to the maximum displacement of the additional con- trol stick is about 1 mm.To receive the overall picture is necessary to consider all six components of forces and moments. Control law with own constants will obtained for each of them. It is supposed, that each of six individual blade control laws have an impact on other components. Thus, the problem reduces to the optimization issue. The

  19. Reflections on 30+ years of smoking cessation research: from the individual to the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Harry A

    2006-01-01

    This is a personal retrospective in which I describe my career as a smoking cessation researcher and place cessation into an overall perspective of tobacco reduction. I spent approximately the first 15 years focusing primarily upon small group approaches to cessation emphasising relatively intensive behavioural interventions. It became apparent, however, that these types of approaches in isolation, even if broadly disseminated, would have relatively minimal impact on overall tobacco use. In part because I became discouraged with the potential of group programmes to reduce overall smoking prevalence, I began to focus more on population-based studies, especially in the context of 'teachable moments' including pregnancy, hospitalisation, forced abstinence in the military and existing smoking-related disease. I became concerned especially with the fact that there has been relatively little work with hard-core medically compromised smokers. It also became apparent that promoting cessation would be most likely to be effective with a comprehensive evidence-based tobacco reduction strategy including school and community-based prevention programmes, enforcement of ordinances restricting minors' access to tobacco, restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion, counter advertising and strong smoke-free policies. In recent years I have become very concerned about the overall global tobacco epidemic and the projections of dramatically increasing tobacco morbidity and mortality in developing countries. I am now devoting my primary career emphasis to global tobacco reduction initiatives, including cessation research in India and Indonesia, cessation as part of broader tobacco reduction strategies and networking to increase resources and emphasis devoted to global tobacco reduction.

  20. Chapter 4: Lateral design of cross-laminated timber buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer; Marjan Popovski; Phil Line; Shiling Pei; Steven E. Pryor

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an innovative wood product that was developed approximately two decades ago in Europe and has since been gaining in popularity. Based on the experience of European researchers and designers, it is believed that CLT can provide the U.S. market the opportunity to build mid- and high-rise wood buildings. This Chapter presents a summary of...

  1. The effects of fire on subsurface archaeological materials [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Oster; Samantha Ruscavage-Barz; Michael L. Elliott

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we concentrate on the effects of fire on subsurface archaeological deposits: the matrix containing post-depositional fill, artifacts, ecofactual data, dating samples, and other cultural and noncultural materials. In order to provide a context for understanding these data, this paper provides a summary of previous research about the potential effects of...

  2. Two new discipline-independent indices to quantify individual's scientific research output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentinuzzi, M E [Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biologicas (INSIBIO), Universidad Nacional de Tucuman and CONICET, Tucuman (Argentina); Laciar, E [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de San Juan and CONICET, San Juan (Argentina); Atrio, J L [Gerencia de Evaluaciones, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Interest in quantitative measurement of scientific output has been steadily growing because of increasing needs in the evaluation of candidates for new positions and promotions in academic careers. Recently, a new index H was proposed; it is based on an hyperbolic relationship between the number of citations and the number of papers of a given investigator, which intersects with the equality straight line. The crossing point gives the number of papers that received at least H references in a predetermined period of time. Such index neglects the contribution of the less cited papers and depends strongly on the discipline. Herein, using Hirsch's crossing point idea, we propose two new normalized indices, selectivity S and amplitude A, that are independent on the discipline and that take into account the whole spectrum of published and cited papers. The proposed method was applied to 100 scientists using information obtained from SCOPUS. The potential function appeared as the best fit to the data. Correlation coefficients were always high (r = 0.79 {+-} 0.11). Most of the authors displayed a marked selectivity because a typical researcher concentrates only on a single subject or perhaps a few while a wide reach did not predominate. In conclusion, these parameters are proposed as a way to complement the scientific evaluation process of a candidate.

  3. Two new discipline-independent indices to quantify individual's scientific research output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentinuzzi, M E; Laciar, E; Atrio, J L

    2007-01-01

    Interest in quantitative measurement of scientific output has been steadily growing because of increasing needs in the evaluation of candidates for new positions and promotions in academic careers. Recently, a new index H was proposed; it is based on an hyperbolic relationship between the number of citations and the number of papers of a given investigator, which intersects with the equality straight line. The crossing point gives the number of papers that received at least H references in a predetermined period of time. Such index neglects the contribution of the less cited papers and depends strongly on the discipline. Herein, using Hirsch's crossing point idea, we propose two new normalized indices, selectivity S and amplitude A, that are independent on the discipline and that take into account the whole spectrum of published and cited papers. The proposed method was applied to 100 scientists using information obtained from SCOPUS. The potential function appeared as the best fit to the data. Correlation coefficients were always high (r = 0.79 ± 0.11). Most of the authors displayed a marked selectivity because a typical researcher concentrates only on a single subject or perhaps a few while a wide reach did not predominate. In conclusion, these parameters are proposed as a way to complement the scientific evaluation process of a candidate

  4. Two new discipline-independent indices to quantify individual's scientific research output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentinuzzi, M. E.; Laciar, E.; Atrio, J. L.

    2007-11-01

    Interest in quantitative measurement of scientific output has been steadily growing because of increasing needs in the evaluation of candidates for new positions and promotions in academic careers. Recently, a new index H was proposed; it is based on an hyperbolic relationship between the number of citations and the number of papers of a given investigator, which intersects with the equality straight line. The crossing point gives the number of papers that received at least H references in a predetermined period of time. Such index neglects the contribution of the less cited papers and depends strongly on the discipline. Herein, using Hirsch's crossing point idea, we propose two new normalized indices, selectivity S and amplitude A, that are independent on the discipline and that take into account the whole spectrum of published and cited papers. The proposed method was applied to 100 scientists using information obtained from SCOPUS. The potential function appeared as the best fit to the data. Correlation coefficients were always high (r = 0.79 ± 0.11). Most of the authors displayed a marked selectivity because a typical researcher concentrates only on a single subject or perhaps a few while a wide reach did not predominate. In conclusion, these parameters are proposed as a way to complement the scientific evaluation process of a candidate.

  5. Why public information works: Research findings on organizational and individual impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Broad and growing public recognition of the importance of nuclear energy in the United States is evident in the public opinion polls, continued defeat of antinuclear referenda, positive Congressional actions, and open support by politicians-from the National Conference of State Legislatures to President Bush. At leadership levels, the need to address the looming electricity crisis without increasing dependence on foreign oil or greenhouse gas emissions is being voiced increasingly. Within this context, the industry is beginning to be successful in getting its message across to the American public through national advertising and media and public relations programs of the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA). And the author knows that the American Nuclear Society (ANS) Public Information Committee is working hard in complementary kinds of public education. Research shows that the public's attitudes toward nuclear energy become more favorable when they are exposed to public information and that a more active scientific community could greatly increase public recognition of the benefits that nuclear energy provides

  6. Medical records confidentiality and public health research: two values at stake? An italian survey focus on individual preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilia Toccaceli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a time when Europe is preparing to introduce new regulations on privacy protection, we conducted a survey among 1700 twins enrolled in the Italian Twin Register about the access and use of their medical records for public health research without explicit informed consent. A great majority of respondents would refuse or are doubtful about the access and use of hospital discharge records or clinical data without their explicit consent. Young and female individuals represent the modal profile of these careful people. As information retrieved from medical records is crucial for progressing knowledge, it is important to promote a better understanding of the value of public health research activities among the general population. Furthermore, public opinions are relevant to policy making, and concerns and preferences about privacy and confidentiality in research can contribute to the design of procedures to exploit medical records effectively and customize the protection of individuals’ medical data.

  7. The Fiction of Respect Individual Autonomy as a Kind Of Clínical Research Human Subject Explotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Petersen Nascimento Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article promotes a discussion of western legal concept which sees individuals as subjects of rights, discussing the advisability of such a formulation in the context of clinical trials in humans, since the commonly borderline situation of vulnerability in which they are volunteers who submit to such procedures. For this purpose, it was used as a theoretical framework to work "Critical Introduction to Law" Michel Mialle, in which the author states in a forceful way that the construction of the legal institute of the "subject of law" and the imposition of unrestricted recognition of individual autonomy constitute a construction of the bourgeois state to facilitate the domination of vulnerable, so that this, although not legally obliged to practice certain behaviors, see forced by circumstances to act in line with the interests of that institution. It is argued, therefore, that autonomy to consent to participation in scientific trials must be assessed in each case, with special attention to circumstances which might vulnerabilizar voluntary research and mitigate their individual autonomy in the face of the experiments, under penalty to be subjecting the individual to harmful procedures to their lives and health for the benefit of capital society's interests.

  8. Chapter 08: Comments on, and additional information for, wood identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    This manual has described the theory of identification (Chapter 1), the botanical basis of wood structure (Chapter 2), the use of a hand lens (Chapter 3), how to use cutting tools to prepare wood for observation with a lens (Chapter 4), and the characters used in hand lens wood identification (Chapter 5) before leading you through an identification key (Chapter 6) and...

  9. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  10. Chapter 2. The production units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the second chapter of this CD ROM the production units of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs: (1) Nuclear power plants (A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (History, Technological scheme, basic data are presented); V-1, V-2 Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (History 1972-1985, technological scheme; nuclear safety, radiation protection, heat supply, international co-operation and basic data are presented); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (History 1980-1998, technological scheme, construction completion, milestones of commissioning, safety and environmental protection as well as basic data are included). (2) Conventional sources of energy (Vojany fossil power plant (History 1959-1992, Technological units of power plant, Impact of operation on the environment, Plant of Vojany FPP Renewal and Reconstruction, Basic data are listed), Novaky fossil power plant (History 1949-1998, Technological scheme, current investment construction, basic data, Handlova heating plant). Kosice Combined Heat Power Plant (History 1960-1995, technological scheme, State metrology centre, acredited chemical laboratory, basic data). (3) Hydroelectric power plants (Trencin HPPs: Cierny Vah pumped storage HPP, Liptovska Mara HPP, Orava HPP, Sucany HPP, Miksova HPP, Nosice HPP, Velke Kozmalovce HPP, Gabcikovo HPP, Dubnica HPP, Nove Mesto n/V HPP, Madunice HPP, Kralova HPP) and Dobsina HPPs: (Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small HPPs) are presented

  11. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  12. The Chapter 1 Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose; And Others

    An overview is provided of Colorado's participation in Chapter 1, the largest federally funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students. Chapter 1 provides financial assistance to state and local education agencies to meet the special needs of educationally deprived children who reside in areas with high…

  13. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Freight forwarders and shippers may not charter, book cargo on, or otherwise deal with blocked vessels. 7. References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: [BALKANS]: Western Balkans Stabilization... the economic sanctions programs in chapter V. (Please call OFAC Compliance Programs Division for...

  14. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  15. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 1, July 2017 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction The Telemetry Standards address the here-to-date...for Federal Radio Frequency Management . Copies of that manual may be obtained from: Executive Secretary, Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee

  16. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  17. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology.

  18. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988

  19. Function of site. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In Semipalatinsk test site's history there are two stages for nuclear tests. In first stage (1949-1962) when the nuclear tests have being conducted in atmosphere, and second one (1963-1989) when underground nuclear explosions have being carried out. There were 456 nuclear tests, from which 117 were both the surface and the atmospheric explosions and other underground ones. In the chapter general characteristics of atmospheric nuclear tests, conducted on Semipalatinsk test site in 1949-1962 (chronology of conducting, release energy and kinds of nuclear explosions) are presented in tabular form. Most powerful of explosion was test of hydro- nuclear (hydrogen) bomb - prototype of thermonuclear charge in 1955 with capacity 1.6 Mt. In 1990-1992 the target-oriented radioecological investigation of territory around Semipalatinsk test site was carried out. Specialists dividing all atmospheric explosions by rate local traces, forming out of test site into 4 groups: with very strong contamination, with strong contamination, with weak contamination, and with very weak contamination. To nuclear explosions with very strong contamination were attributed the four explosions carrying out in 29.08.1949, 24.09.1951, 12.08.1953, 24.08.1956. Estimations of radiological situation including external doses of radiation and environment contamination and content of radioactive substances in human body was given by 10 European experts in collaboration with Kazakstan scientists. Results of investigation show that during past period surface contamination, called by nuclear weapons' fissile products was subjected to considerable decay. External doses completely coincidence with natural background. Remains of long living radionuclides are insignificant as well, and in 1995 its approximately were equal to annual exposition doses. One of most damaged settlements is Chagan. On it territory 530 radioactive sources with doses capacity from 100 up to 400 μR/h. Scientists of Semipalatinsk defined

  20. Chapter 6. Dwarf mistletoe surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Muir; B. Moody

    2002-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoe surveys are conducted for a variety of vegetation management objectives. Various survey and sampling techniques are used either at a broad, landscape scale in forest planning or program review, or at an individual, stand, site level for specific project implementation. Standard and special surveys provide data to map mistletoe distributions and quantify...

  1. Researching children's individual empathic abilities in the context of their daily lives: the importance of mixed methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerig, Simone; van Wesel, Floryt; Evers, Sandra J T M; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    In social neuroscience, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between agents. In this perspective paper, we argue that to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of empathy, social neuroscience research should draw on insights and methods from anthropology. First, we discuss neuropsychological studies that investigate empathy in inter-relational contexts. Second, we highlight differences between the social neuroscience and anthropological conceptualizations of empathy. Third, we introduce a new study design based on a mixed method approach, and present initial results from one classroom that was part of a larger study and included 28 children (m = 13, f = 15). Participants (aged 9-11) were administered behavioral tasks and a social network questionnaire; in addition an observational study was also conducted over a period of 3 months. Initial results showed how children's expressions of their empathic abilities were influenced by situational cues in classroom processes. This effect was further explained by children's positions within classroom networks. Our results emphasize the value of interdisciplinary research in the study of empathy.

  2. Researching children's individual empathic abilities in the context of their daily lives: The importance of Mixed Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eRoerig

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In social neuroscience, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between agents. In this perspective paper, we argue that to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying development of empathy, social neuroscience research should draw on insights and methods from anthropology. First, we discuss neuropsychological studies that investigated empathy in inter-relational context. Second, we highlight differences between the social neuroscience and anthropological conceptualization of empathy. Third, we introduce a new study design based on a mixed method approach, and present initial results of one classroom that was part of the larger study and included 28 children (m=13, f =15. Participants (age 9-11 were administered behavioral tasks and a social network questionnaire; an observational study was conducted during a period of 10 - 14 weeks. Initial results showed how children’s expressions of their empathic abilities were influenced by situational cues in classroom processes. This effect was further explained by children’s position in the classroom network. Our results emphasize the value of interdisciplinary research in the study of empathy.

  3. The social control of behavior control: behavior modification, Individual Rights, and research ethics in America, 1971-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    In 1971, the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights began a three-year study to investigate the federal funding of all research involving behavior modification. During this period, operant programs of behavior change, particularly those implemented in closed institutions, were subjected to specific scrutiny. In this article, I outline a number of scientific and social factors that led to this investigation and discuss the study itself. I show how behavioral scientists, both individually and through their professional organizations, responded to this public scrutiny by (1) self-consciously altering their terminology and techniques; (2) considering the need to more effectively police their professional turf; and (3) confronting issues of ethics and values in their work. Finally, I link this episode to the formation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, whose recommendations resulted in changes to the ethical regulation of federally funded human subjects research that persist to the present day. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Individual-Practice Framework as a design tool to understand consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscicelli, L.; Moreno, Mariale; Cooper, Tim; Fisher, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Design for behaviour change is a growing research field which aims at providing methods and tools to foster pro-environmental and pro-social action through the application of diverse theories, models and approaches from the social sciences. This chapter presents the Individual-Practice Framework,

  5. PHYSICAL OBJECT-ORIENTED MODELING IN DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUALIZED TEACHING AND ORGANIZATION OF MINI-RESEARCH IN MECHANICS COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Chirtsov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents a relatively simple method to develop interactive computer models of physical systems without computer programming skills or automatic generation of the numerical computer code for the complex physical systems. Developed computer models are available over the Internet for educational purposes and can be edited by users in an unlimited number of possibilities. An applicability of computer simulations for the massive open individualized teaching and an organization of undergraduate research are also discussed. Method. The presented approach employs an original physical object-oriented modeling method, which is an extension of object-oriented programming ideas to tasks of developing simulations of the complex physical systems. In this framework, a computer model of the physical system is constructed as a set of interconnected computer objects simulating the system components: particles and fields. Interactions between the system components are described by self-adapting algorithms that are specified during the model initiation stage and are set according to either the classical or relativistic approach. The utilized technique requires neither a priori knowledge regarding an evolution of the physical system nor a formulation of differential equations describing the physical system. Main Results. Testing of the numerical implementation and an accuracy of the algorithms was performed with the use of benchmarks with the known analytical solutions. The developed method - a physical reality constructor - has provided an opportunity to assemble a series of computer models to demonstrate physical phenomena studied in the high school and university mechanic courses. More than 150 original interactive models were included into the collections of multi-level multimedia resources to support teaching of the mechanics. The physical reality constructor was successfully tested to serve as a test bed for the independent

  6. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  7. Transforming Assessment Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis; Dolin, Jens; Tidemand, Sofie

    2018-01-01

    This chapter will identify and outline current gaps in research into assessment practice and tie the results of the ASSIST-ME project onto this outline. In this way, the chapter will present concrete research vistas that are still needed in international assessment research. The chapter concludes...... with a key theme that appears across many of the chapters in this volume, namely, issues concerning the operationalisation of complex learning goals into teaching and assessment activities....

  8. The Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Finnell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article discusses the creation, philosophy, and future directions of the Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter, a grassroots crowdfunding initiative incubated within Library Pipeline.

  9. The reinvigorated South African GRSS Chapter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Looking ahead, the South African GRSS Chapter is investigating the possibility of organizing a meeting with local GRSS members, universities, and other remote-sensing organizations with the purpose of engaging undergraduate and early postgraduate...

  10. Chapter 8: Final thought on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter presents the objective of implementing and maintaining a good safety system: to prevent the occurrence of accidents and incidents (the abnormalities must be the exception) and if they occur their consequences should be mitigated. And make other considerations.

  11. Chapter 1. Economic aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to economic aspects of aluminium production. Therefore, the perspectives of development of aluminium production, the base components of aluminium cost and economic security of enterprise are considered in this chapter.

  12. How to write a medical book chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-01-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  13. Prediction of burnout. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    A broad survey is made of the effect on burnout heat flux of various system parameters to give the reader a better initial idea of the significance of changes in individual parameters. A detailed survey is then made of various correlation equations for predicting burnout for steam -water in uniformly heated tubes, annuli, rectangular channels and rod clusters, giving details of recommended equations. Finally comments are made on the influence of heat-flux profile and swirl flow on burnout, and on the definition of dryout margin. (author)

  14. Chapter 5: Summary of model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of the model applications described in Volume III of the Final Report. This chapter dealt with the selected water management regimes; ground water flow regimes; agriculture; ground water quality; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Danube; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the river branch system; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Hrusov reservoir and with ecology in this Danube area

  15. The willingness to participate in health research studies of individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds: barriers and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingoyan, D; Schulz, H; Mösko, M

    2012-06-01

    Lower participation rates of ethnic minorities in health research studies and potential participation barriers are commonly reported. Four semi-structured focus groups of individuals with Turkish migration backgrounds living in Germany were conducted to identify potential participation barriers. Documented statements and superscripted presentation cards by the participants were evaluated with a qualitative content analysis. The following eight potential reasons for the lower participation rates were identified: role of women, lack of knowledge, lack of interest, German-Turkish interactions, mistrust, anxiety, data privacy protection and benefits of the study. Additionally, the following recruitment strategies to enhance participation rates were found: public relations, especially word-of-mouth promotion and contacting Turkish key figures, (non-) tangible incentives and trust building through transparent communication of the project and its conditions. The findings provide a wide range of potential participation barriers and implications that should be considered to enhance the participation rates of minority populations. The willingness to participate in health research studies can be increased through particular efforts, which should be tailored to the recruitment of the underrepresented target population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Chapter 29: Using an Existing Environment in the VO (IDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    The local environment of a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) can provide insight into the (still not understood) formation process of the BCG itself. BCGs are the most massive galaxies in the Universe, and their formation and evolution are a popular and current research topic (Linden et al. 2006, Bernardi et al. 2006, Lauer et al. 2006). They have been studied for some time (Sandage 1972, Ostriker & Tremaine 1975, White 1976, Thuan & Romanishin 1981, Merritt 1985, Postman and Lauer 1995, among many others). Our goal in this chapter is to study how the local environment can affect the physical and measurable properties of BCGs. We will conduct an exploratory research exercise. In this chapter, we will show how the Virtual Observatory (VO) can be effectively utilized for doing modern scientific research on BCGs. We identify the scientific functionalities we need, the datasets we require, and the service locations in order to discover and access those data. This chapter utilizes IDL's VOlib, which is described in Chapter 24 of this book and is available at http://www.nvo.noao.edu. IDL provides the capability to perform the entire range of astronomical scientific analyses in one environment: from image reduction and analysis to complex catalog manipulations, statistics, and publication quality figures. At the 2005 and 2006 NVO Summer Schools, user statistics show that IDL was the most commonly used programming language by the students (nearly 3-to-1 over languages like IRAF, Perl, and Python). In this chapter we show how the integration of IDL to the VO through VOlib provides even greater capabilities and possibilities for conducting science in the era of the Virtual Observatory. The reader should familiarize themselves with the VOlib libraries before attempting the examples in this tutorial. We first build a research plan. We then discover the service URLs we will need to access the data. We then apply the necessary functions and tools to these data before we can do our

  17. Chapter 4. Radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of hydrosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of hydrosphere

  18. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  19. Nurses’ research utilization two years after graduation—a national survey of associated individual, organizational, and educational factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nurses’ research utilization (RU) as part of evidence-based practice is strongly emphasized in today’s nursing education and clinical practice. The primary aim of RU is to provide high-quality nursing care to patients. Data on newly graduated nurses’ RU are scarce, but a predominance of low use has been reported in recent studies. Factors associated with nurses’ RU have previously been identified among individual and organizational/contextual factors, but there is a lack of knowledge about how these factors, including educational ones, interact with each other and with RU, particularly in nurses during the first years after graduation. The purpose of this study was therefore to identify factors that predict the probability for low RU among registered nurses two years after graduation. Methods Data were collected as part of the LANE study (Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education), a Swedish national survey of nursing students and registered nurses. Data on nurses’ instrumental, conceptual, and persuasive RU were collected two years after graduation (2007, n = 845), together with data on work contextual factors. Data on individual and educational factors were collected in the first year (2002) and last term of education (2004). Guided by an analytic schedule, bivariate analyses, followed by logistic regression modeling, were applied. Results Of the variables associated with RU in the bivariate analyses, six were found to be significantly related to low RU in the final logistic regression model: work in the psychiatric setting, role ambiguity, sufficient staffing, low work challenge, being male, and low student activity. Conclusions A number of factors associated with nurses’ low extent of RU two years postgraduation were found, most of them potentially modifiable. These findings illustrate the multitude of factors related to low RU extent and take their interrelationships into account. This knowledge might serve as useful input in

  20. A simple, generalizable method for measuring individual research productivity and its use in the long-term analysis of departmental performance, including between-country comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Richard

    2013-01-14

    A simple, generalizable method for measuring research output would be useful in attempts to build research capacity, and in other contexts. A simple indicator of individual research output was developed, based on grant income, publications and numbers of PhD students supervised. The feasibility and utility of the indicator was examined by using it to calculate research output from two similarly-sized research groups in different countries. The same indicator can be used to assess the balance in the research "portfolio" of an individual researcher. Research output scores of 41 staff in Research Department A had a wide range, from zero to 8; the distribution of these scores was highly skewed. Only about 20% of the researchers had well-balanced research outputs, with approximately equal contributions from grants, papers and supervision. Over a five-year period, Department A's total research output rose, while the number of research staff decreased slightly, in other words research productivity (output per head) rose. Total research output from Research Department B, of approximately the same size as A, was similar, but slightly higher than Department A. The proposed indicator is feasible. The output score is dimensionless and can be used for comparisons within and between countries. Modeling can be used to explore the effect on research output of changing the size and composition of a research department. A sensitivity analysis shows that small increases in individual productivity result in relatively greater increases in overall departmental research output. The indicator appears to be potentially useful for capacity building, once the initial step of research priority setting has been completed.

  1. How to write a competitive proposal for Horizon 2020 a research manager's handbook

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1: An Overview of Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 2: How the Research Priorities were Selected (How to Lobby) ; Chapter 3: The Research Priorities in Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 4: How Proposals are Evaluated ; Chapter 5: How to Write the ‘Impact’ of the project ; Chapter 6: The One Page Proposal ; Chapter 7: How to Streamline Proposal Writing ; Chapter 8: How to Find the Best Partners ; Chapter 9: How to Write the ‘Implementation' of the project ; Chapter 10: Legal and Financial Rules in Horizon 2020 ; Chapter 11: What is your Strategy for Horizon 2020?

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (16th, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, November 5-8, 1994). Volume 2: Research Papers, Oral Reports, and Posters (Continued).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, David, Ed.

    This PME-NA proceedings volume contains the full text of 41 research papers. In addition, brief usually one-page reports, are provided for 11 oral presentations and 13 poster sessions. The full research reports are as follows: "Cognitive Analysis of Chinese Students' Mathematical Problem Solving" (J. Cai and E. A. Silver); (2)…

  3. Paediatric Radiation Oncology. Chapter 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacak, Y.; Zaghloul, M.; Laskar, S.

    2017-01-01

    Although cancer is a typical disease of ageing adults, it can be seen at any age and cancer diagnosis in a child is not a rare situation. Every day around the world, many teenagers, young children and even infants are diagnosed with cancer. Cancer in children is an important health care problem, not only for the individual patient and medical staff, but also for families, teachers, friends and society as a whole. In every culture, children are considered innocent human beings and the diagnosis of such an ‘evil’ disease in a young child always induces feelings of unfairness and anguish. Most childhood cancers are curable; using the best treatment options, more than 80% of children with cancer may survive to adulthood. However, cure alone is not the ultimate goal for paediatric cancer treatment; late effects of treatment impact the quality of life of patients. Cure from cancer in a child means adding at least 50–60 years to his or her life, which is long enough to develop serious late effects of the treatment and the induction of secondary cancers. Thus, treatment should be tailored to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues to chemotherapy drugs and radiation. Cancer treatment can be a painful process, often involving surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and requiring very long treatment periods, which impair the motor and mental development of the child, and his or her educational activities and relations with society. Childhood cancer survivors sometimes have modest to severe sequelae of the disease itself and the treatment used, which may disrupt their development to a healthy adulthood. These cancer survivors should be fully integrated into society and be allowed to live productive lives even when lifelong rehabilitation is required to keep them active.

  4. Conservation of Paintings. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817) performed a chemical analysis of the terracotta from Tiberius's villa on the island of Capri for the first time at the end of the eighteenth century, more and more sensitive and mutually complementary physicochemical methods are being developed to study works of art and archaeological artefacts. Technological studies, studies of manufacturing techniques, of the appearance of ageing and methods for determining the age of objects are performed, firstly, to determine the authenticity of works of art, secondly, to obtain information on the technology and techniques that were used by a given master, and, thirdly, to indicate the optimum conservation techniques that should be used during renovation and conservation work of a given object. The selection of the research method used must each time be well thought out, taking into consideration mainly the purpose of the test and the nature of the tested object. For a long time now, nuclear techniques have been considered to be one of the most important research techniques for identifying works of art, due to their great sensitivity and the possibility of discovering features that are invisible to the naked eye. These methods can generally be divided into three categories: (i) The first category covers various radiography techniques such as X ray radiography, xeroradiography, computed tomography, thermal neutron induced autoradiography, X ray induced autoelectronography, gamma radiography and neutronography. These make it possible to obtain information on the internal construction of an object, they do not require that samples be collected from the object and, in this sense, are nondestructive methods. The information obtained from this type of research often comprises basic information on the object which may be expanded and supplemented using other methods. (ii) The second category includes all the analytical techniques using nuclear techniques which allow microelements to be

  5. Chapter 1: A Brief Introduction to Lignin Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elder, Thomas J. [USDA-Forest Service

    2018-04-03

    Lignin is an alkyl-aromatic polymer found in the cell walls of terrestrial plants. Lignin provides structure and rigidity to plants, is a natural, highly effective barrier against microbial attack, and enables water and nutrient transport through plant tissues. Depending on the plant species, the constituents of lignin can vary considerably, leading to substantial diversity in lignin chemistry and structure. Despite nearly a century of research and development attempting to convert lignin into valuable products, lignin in most current and planned biorefinery contexts remains underutilized, most often being burned to generate heat and power. However, the drive towards effective lignin valorization processes has witnessed a significant resurgence in the past decade, catalyzed by advances in improved understanding of lignin chemistry, structure, and plasticity in parallel with new catalytic and biological approaches to valorize this important, prevalent biopolymer. As a preface to the subsequent chapters in this book, this chapter briefly highlights the known aspects of lignin structure.

  6. Planning and setting objectives in field studies: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This chapter enumerates the steps required in designing and planning field studies on the ecology and conservation of reptiles, as these involve a high level of uncertainty and risk. To this end, the chapter differentiates between goals (descriptions of what one intends to accomplish) and objectives (the measurable steps required to achieve the established goals). Thus, meeting a specific goal may require many objectives. It may not be possible to define some of them until certain experiments have been conducted; often evaluations of sampling protocols are needed to increase certainty in the biological results. And if sampling locations are fixed and sampling events are repeated over time, then both study-specific covariates and sampling-specific covariates should exist. Additionally, other critical design considerations for field study include obtaining permits, as well as researching ethics and biosecurity issues.

  7. May 2013 Council of Chapter Representatives Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Council of Chapter Representatives met in conjunction with the ATS meeting in Philadelphia on May 18, 2012.Roll Call. The meeting was called to order at 11 AM. Representatives from Arizona, California, DC Metro, Louisiana, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island were in attendance, and by telephone from Washington.Chapter Updates. Information on chapter activities and a chapter brochure. There are currently 19 active chapters. Most are having annual meetings. Advocacy. Gary Ewart from ATS Government Relations gave a presentation on Washington activities. Highlights included activities on the SGR, a number of air pollution regulations and a letter campaign advocating regulation of cigars. ATS President 2013-14-vision for the coming year. Patrician Finn gave a summary of what she hopes to accomplish over the next year. The theme of her presidency will be health equality. ATS Executive Director-update. Steve Crane gave a positive presentation on the …

  8. Chapter 22. Cell population kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1975-01-01

    The main contribution of radioisotopes to the development of a new discipline, cell population kinetics, was shown. The aim of this science is to establish, for each tissue of the organism, the life span of its component cells and the mechanisms governing its growth, its differentiation and its homeostasis with respect to outside attacks. Labelling techniques have been used to follow the cells during these various processes. The case of non-dividing cells was considered first, taking as example, the red blood cells of which the lifetime was studied, after which the case of proliferating cells was examined using 14 C- or tritium-labelled thymidine. The methods used to measure the cell cycle parameters were described: labelled-mitosis curve method, double-labelling and continuous labelling methods, proliferation coefficient measurement. Cell kinetics were shown to allow an interpretation of radiobiological data. Finally the practical value of cell kinetics research was shown [fr

  9. Hepeviruses of fish: Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Kibenge, Frederick S. B.; Godoy, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Originally reported from California, the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) has now been isolated from eight species of salmonids in North America. Early work focused on the replication and physical characteristics of the small, round virus, but not until 20 years later was it determined to be most closely related to viruses causing hepatitis E in humans or infecting avian and mammalian hosts. The genome of CTV consists of 7269 nucleotides of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA with a genome organization similar to other members of the family Hepeviridae, although the amino acid sequence identity appears low enough to support creation of a novel genus. While CTV has not been associated with acute disease in fish, the virus was able to form persistently infected cell cultures that may aid research in treatment of hepatitis E-like viruses affecting humans or other animals. Interestingly, trout exposed to CTV were protected for about a month against subsequent exposure to Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Replicating agents suspected to be CTV can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing.

  10. Structured decision making: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Cain, James W. III

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.

  11. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  12. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  13. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System as a Functional Communication Intervention for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Practice-Based Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Kai-Chien

    2008-01-01

    This research synthesis verifies the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for improving the functional communication skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research synthesis was focused on the degree to which variations in PECS training are associated with variations in functional…

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Single Case Research Studies on Aided Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.; Heath, Amy K.; Parker, Richard I.; Rispoli, Mandy J.; Duran, Jaime B.

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals with autism cannot speak or cannot speak intelligibly. A variety of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches have been investigated. Most of the research on these approaches has been single-case research, with small numbers of participants. The purpose of this investigation was to meta-analyze the single…

  15. Proprioception as a basis for individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liutsko, Ludmila N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter the author summarises the descriptions of proprioceptive sense from different perspectives. The importance of proprioceptive sense has been shown in developmental psychology, in both the earlier and later stages of individuum formation. The author emphasises in this chapter the role of proprioception as a basis of personality and the individual differences construct. The importance of assessing behaviour at multiple levels has been pointed out by experiments of classic and modern researchers that should include not only verbal tests that would be more important for conscious mental description, but also techniques that could assess other behavioural characteristics, including automatic unconscious and pre-reflexive behaviour. The author also describes the effects of altered proprioception in humans, such as the Pinocchio effect, and other spatial perception distortions. In this chapter the importance of proprioception in acquiring new skills (embodied knowledge as automatic and conditioned reflexive behaviour has also been highlighted. Finally, the complete picture of the individuum has been presented as a multi-layered level of a body-mind union approach.

  16. Chapter 12. Nullification of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with nullification of nuclear reactors. There are tree basic methods of nullification of nuclear reactors: (1) conservation, (2) safe close (wall up, embed in concrete), (3) direct dismantlement and remotion and two combined ways: (1) combination of mothball with subsequent dismantlement and remotion and (2) combination of safe close with subsequent dismantlement and remotion. Activity levels as well as volumes of radioactive wastes connected with decommissioning of nuclear reactors are reviewed

  17. Chapter No.9. Emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    training and by realisation of several emergency exercises. The emergency exercises were carried out at all nuclear facilities and emergency transport orders were exercised as well. During five exercises (NPP Mochovce, NPP Bohunice, SE-VYZ, RU RAW and Slovak Railways) UJD carried out the inspections focused to the preparedness of members of relevant headquarters, co-operation with state authorities and documentation of exercises. In 2001 UJD took part in three international exercises. In April 2001 the international exercise RODOS which was organised by Research centre in Karlsruhe took place. This exercise was concentrated to use of new version of RODOS system and information exchange among national centres of RODOS in Europe. In May another exercise of INEX series organised by OECD/NEA together with IAEA was carried out. In frame of this exercise the UJD headquarters closely co-operated with IAEA and French regulatory support institute IPSN. Maximum effort, however, was dedicated to the preparation, co-ordination and realisation of trilateral emergency exercise in which UJD, NPP Bohunice, Austria (Local Government of Lower Austria County) and Hungary took part. In this case UJD managed and controlled for the first time the international exercise. Simultaneously this exercise, headed by UJD, was used to exercise the RODOS system in frame of national RODOS centres of Slovak Republic, Poland and Hungary. The RODOS system was tested during each international emergency exercise. Conclusions of these exercises were positively appreciated by foreign counterparts in frame of EU project. The solution of tasks of research and technology development: 'A Further Development and Preparation of Incorporation of RODOS System to the Emergency Planning and Emergency Management of the Slovak Republic' continued. Also the co-operation with IAEA in frame of regional project 'Harmonisation in Emergency Planning for Central and Eastern Europe Countries' continued in 2001. In frame of

  18. Why Research on the Pharmacogenetics of Atypical Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Is Warranted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleister, Heidi M.; Valdovinos, Maria Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Weight gain is an often-observed side effect of atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) and is particularly significant in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The majority of individuals treated with AAPs will gain at least 10% of their initial body weight over the course of therapy (Umbricht & Kane, 1996). One's genetic constitution is an…

  19. Chapter 3. Current management situation: Flammulated owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The flammulated owl (Otus flammeolus) is a western mountain species associated mainly with ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jefferyi) forests in the United States and Canada (see Chapter 4). As a neotropical migrant, this small forest owl occurs on national forests in the United States during...

  20. Chapter 8. Current management situation: Boreal owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The range of boreal owls (Aegolius funereus) in the United States includes Alaska, the mountains of the western United States, and the northern tier states from the Atlantic to Pacific (see Chapter 9). Based on the species' documented distribution (see National Geographic Society 1987, Hayward et al. 1987, Johnsgard 1988, and others) the owl may...

  1. The Chapter I Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose

    Chapter I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is the largest federally-funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students to meet the special needs of educationally deprived students who reside in areas with high concentrations of low-income families. The 1994-95 school year is the last year of…

  2. Denmark - Chapter in Handbook of Global Bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Faber, Berit A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter about bioethics in Denmark focuses on specific Danish characteristics. These are the early start of a bioethics debate, legislation and bioethics councils; the independence of the councils and the parliamentarians voting on ethical issues; the introduction and extraordinary importance...... of laymen as a part of the bioethical debate and decisions; and the strong focus on debate and educational tools....

  3. Transfer of property inter vivos : chapter 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will give an overview of the various transfer systems for movable property and immovable property. It will focus on voluntary transfers based on a legal act between the transferor and transferee. First the difference between the unitary approach and the functional approach to passing of

  4. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  5. Adaptation strategies and approaches: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Maria Janowiak; Linda Parker; Matt St. Pierre; Leslie. Brandt

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information is available on climate change adaptation, but much of it is very broad and of limited use at the finer spatial scales most relevant to land managers. This chapter contains a "menu" of adaptation actions and provides land managers in northern Wisconsin with a range of options to help forest ecosystems adapt to climate change impacts....

  6. Explanatory chapter: introducing exogenous DNA into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently introduce DNA into cells is essential for many experiments in biology. This is an explanatory chapter providing an overview of the various methods for introducing DNA into bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  8. Forest management practices and silviculture. Chapter 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala; Elon S. Verry

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of forest management and silviculture practices, and lessons learned, on the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The forests there are a mosaic of natural regeneration and conifer plantations. Verry (1969) described forest-plant communities in detail for the study watersheds (Sl through S6) on the MEF. The remaining area is described in...

  9. Chapter 13, Policy options: North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...

  10. Chapter 3: Status and trends of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Frank R. Thompson; Lynda L. Richards; Kyra C. Harper

    1999-01-01

    This chapter provides information about the vegetation cover of the Assessment area. The types and areal extent of vegetation in the Highlands are of interest for many reasons. Vegetation cover largely determines the availability of habitat for terrestrial animals, plants, and other organisms. Vegetation cover strongly influences what uses {e.g., timber, forage,...

  11. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  12. Radioactive wastes storage and disposal. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chapter 8 is essentially dedicated to radioactive waste management - storage and disposal. The management safety is being provided due to packages and facilities of waste disposal and storage. It is noted that at selection of sites for waste disposal it is necessary account rock properties and ways of the wastes delivery pathways

  13. Workplace innovation in the Netherlands: chapter 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Dhondt, S.; Korte, E. de; Oeij, P.; Vaas, F.

    2012-01-01

    Social innovation of work and employment is a prerequisite to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labor market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organizational level. This chapter focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  14. Science, practice, and place [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Place-oriented inquiry and practice are proposed as keys to overcoming the persistent gap between science and practice. This chapter begins by describing some of the reasons science fails to simplify conservation practice, highlighting the challenges associated with the social and ecological sciences of multi-scaled complexity. Place concepts help scientists and...

  15. Other pospiviroids infecting Solanaceous plants (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aside from potato spindle tuber viroid, the genus Pospiviroid contains several agents reported to naturally infect solanaceous crops (e.g. tomato, potato, pepper) or ornamental plants (e.g. Petunia hybrida, Solanum spp., Brugmansia spp.). The present chapter focuses on the following so-called solana...

  16. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter.

  17. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  18. Chapter 6: Accidents; Capitulo 6: Acidentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-01

    The chapter 6 talks about the accidents with radiators all over the world, specifically, the Stimos, in Italy, 1975, San Salvador, in El Salvador, 1989, Soreq, in Israel, 1990, Nesvizh, in Byelorussian, 1991, in Illinois, US, 1965, in Maryland, US, 1991, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1992, Fleurus, in Belgium, 2006. Comments on the accidents and mainly the learned lessons.

  19. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 2, Human factors research; Advanced I and C hardware and software; Severe accident research; Probabilistic risk assessment topics; Individual plant examination: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 2, present topics in human factors research, advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software, severe accident research, probabilistic risk assessment, and individual plant examination. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  20. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases

  1. Environmental Research Division technical progress report: January 1986--October 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    Technical process in the various research activities of Argonne National Laboratory's Environmental Research Division is reported for the period 1986-1987. Textual, graphic, and tabular information is used to briefly summarize (in separate chapters) the work of the Division's Atmospheric Physics, Environmental Effects Research, Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, and Organic Geochemistry and Environmental Instrumentation Programs. Information on professional qualifications, awards, and outstanding professional activities of staff members, as well as lists of publications, oral presentations, special events organized, and participants in educational programs, are provided in appendices at the end of each chapter. Individual projects under each division are processed separately for the data bases.

  2. Collective individualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    at a construction site. An ethnographic fieldwork, in which the researcher worked as an apprentice, will provide detailed and experiencenear insights into the complexity of these processes. Findings show that individualist and collectivist preferences influence the amount of risk the individual worker will assume...

  3. Development of a Survey Instrument to Measure TEFL Academics' Perceptions about, Individual and Workplace Characteristics for Conducting Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter; Millwater, Jan; Tones, Megan

    2013-01-01

    A 30-item survey was devised to determine Chinese TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) academics' potential for conducting research. A five-part Likert scale was used to gather data from 182 academics on four factors: (1) perceptions on teaching-research nexus, (2) personal perspectives for conducting research, (3) predispositions for…

  4. The hydrogeology of urbanization: The lost springs of Washington, D.C., late Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of D.C., and the Baltimore Long Term Ecological Research site (LTER): Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Aditi; Pavich, Milan J.; Sharp, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is a major process now shaping the environment. This field trip looks at the hydrogeology of the general Washington, D.C., area and focuses on the city's lost springs. Until 150 years ago, springs and shallow dug wells were the main source of drinking water for residents of Washington, D.C. Celebrating the nation's bicentennial, Garnett P. Williams of the U.S. Geological Survey examined changes in water supply and water courses since 1776. He examined old newspaper files to determine the location of the city's springs. This field trip visits sites of some of these springs (few of which are now flowing), discusses the hydrologic impacts of urbanization and the general geological setting, and finishes with the Baltimore Long Term Ecological Research site at Dead Run and its findings. The field trip visits some familiar locations in the Washington, D.C., area, and gives insights into their often hidden hydrologic past and present.

  5. Considerations in representing human individuals in social ecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredo, Michael J.; Teel, Tara L.; Gavin, Michael C.; Fulton, David C.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on how to integrate the human individual into social-ecological systems analysis, and how to improve research on individual thought and action regarding the environment by locating it within the broader social-ecological context. We discuss three key questions as considerations for future research: (1) is human thought conceptualized as a dynamic and adaptive process, (2) is the individual placed in a multi-level context (including within-person levels, person-group interactions, and institutional and structural factors), and (3) is human thought seen as mutually constructed with the social and natural environment. Increased emphasis on the individual will be essential if we are to understand agency, innovation, and adaptation in social-ecological systems.

  6. Ethical decision making in the conduct of research: role of individual, contextual and organizational factors. Commentary on "Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Philip J

    2012-09-01

    Despite the importance of scientific integrity to the well-being of society, recent findings suggest that training and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research are not very reliable or effective inhibitors of research misbehavior. Understanding how and why individual scientists decide to behave in ways that conform to or violate norms and standards of research is essential to the development of more effective training programs and the creation of more supportive environments. Scholars in business management, psychology, and other disciplines have identified many important factors that affect ethical behavior, including individual, contextual, and organizational factors. Surprisingly little research has been conducted to examine the role of these factors in either the development of ethical decision-making skills, or their applicability to ethical issues commonly encountered in research and other scholarly and professional activities. Interdisciplinary approaches combined with research and discipline relevant paradigms should greatly enhance understanding of the individual contextual and organizational factors involved in ethical and unethical research conduct. Such studies will inform and facilitate the development of more effective ethics education programs in the sciences and engineering professions.

  7. Performance Measurement of Research Activitities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Peyton, Margit Malmmose

    Performance measurements have made their entry into the world of universities. Every research activity is registered in a database and the output measures form the foundation for managerial decisions. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the registration practices among researchers...... the registrations as a way to be promoted and to legitimise and account for their work; on the other hand, the economic incentives behind ranking lists and bibliographic research indicators threaten the individual researcher's freedom. The findings also show how managers have difficulties in translating back...

  8. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgorsak, E. B. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Kesner, A. L. [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Soni, P. S. [Medical Cyclotron Facility, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters.

  9. Gaia DR2 documentation Chapter 3: Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Klioner, S.; Butkevich, A.; Stephenson, C.; Hernandez, J.; Lammers, U.; Bombrun, A.; Mignard, F.; Altmann, M.; Davidson, M.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Siddiqui, H.; Utrilla Molina, E.

    2018-04-01

    This chapter of the Gaia DR2 documentation describes the models and processing steps used for the astrometric core solution, namely, the Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). The inputs to this solution rely heavily on the basic observables (or astrometric elementaries) which have been pre-processed and discussed in Chapter 2, the results of which were published in Fabricius et al. (2016). The models consist of reference systems and time scales; assumed linear stellar motion and relativistic light deflection; in addition to fundamental constants and the transformation of coordinate systems. Higher level inputs such as: planetary and solar system ephemeris; Gaia tracking and orbit information; initial quasar catalogues and BAM data are all needed for the processing described here. The astrometric calibration models are outlined followed by the details processing steps which give AGIS its name. We also present a basic quality assessment and validation of the scientific results (for details, see Lindegren et al. 2018).

  10. The Interface between Research on Individual Difference Variables and Teaching Practice: The Case of Cognitive Factors and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    While a substantial body of empirical evidence has been accrued about the role of individual differences in second language acquisition, relatively little is still known about how factors of this kind can mediate the effects of instructional practices as well as how empirically-derived insights can inform foreign language pedagogy, both with…

  11. Ecological Modelling of Individual and Contextual Influences: A Person-in-Environment Framework for Hypothetico-Deductive Information Behaviour Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Sei-Ching Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses the person-in-environment framework, which proposes the inclusion of environmental factors, alongside personal factors, as the explanatory factors of individual-level information behaviour and outcome. Method: The paper first introduces the principles and schematic formulas of the person-in-environment framework.…

  12. Disapproval of Homosexuality : Comparative Research on Individual and National Determinants of Disapproval of Homosexuality in 20 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Hanneke; van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Scheepers, Peer

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we elaborate on disapproval of homosexuality in 20 European countries. We mainly focus on the explanation of differences in the disapproval of homosexuality at the individual and the national level. Data from four waves of the European Social Survey are used, using multilevel

  13. Disapproval of Homosexuality: Comparative Research on Individual and National Determinants of Disapproval of Homosexuality in 20 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, H.M. van den; Ploeg, R. van der; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, we elaborate on disapproval of homosexuality in 20 European countries. We mainly focus on the explanation of differences in the disapproval of homosexuality at the individual and the national level. Data from four waves of the European Social Survey are used, using multilevel

  14. A Long-Term Leisure Program for Individuals with Intellectual Disability in Residential Care Settings: Research to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Burke, Amie M.; Fung, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effectiveness of an individually-tailored leisure program implemented by direct care staff in a residential program for 28 adults with severe to profound intellectual disability using a multiple baseline design across two homes over a 1.5 year baseline and treatment period followed by another nearly 1.5 year maintenance phase. The…

  15. An Exploratory Study of Individual and Organizational Variable Interrelationships in Research and Development Organizations within Air Force Systems Command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    31:493). Farace defines communication as "the exchange of symbols 6 that are commonly shared by the individuals involved, and which evoke 13 Ip...1981). r 9. Evans, C. George. Supervising R&D Personnel. New York: American Management Association, 1969. 10. Farace , Richard V. and others

  16. Rehabilitation-Related Research on Disability and Employer Practices Using Individual-Based National and Administrative Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Zafar E.; Erickson, William A.; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It is useful to examine workplace factors influencing employment outcomes of individuals with disabilities and the interplay of disability, employment-related, and employer characteristics to inform rehabilitation practice. Design: A number of large national survey and administrative data sets provide information on employers and can…

  17. Physical Inactivity in U.S. Adolescents: Family, Neighborhood, and Individual Factors. Research Brief. Publication #2009-28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Mary; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Concern about physical inactivity among U.S. youth has been mounting in recent years, in light of studies suggesting that few adolescents (about one out of three) engage in recommended levels of physical activity. Although much attention has been paid to individual factors that may contribute to this problem, such as television viewing and…

  18. Using Geospatial Research Methods to Examine Resource Accessibility and Availability as it Relates to Community Participation of Individuals with Serious Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Snethen, Gretchen; Salzer, Mark S

    2018-03-01

    Greater community participation among individuals with serious mental illnesses is associated with better psychosocial and health outcomes. Typically, studies examining community participation have utilized self-report measures and been conducted in limited settings. The introduction of methodological advances to examining community participation of individuals with serious mental illnesses has the potential to advance the science of community mental health research and invigorate the work of community psychologists in this area. This study employed an innovative geospatial approach to examine the relationship between community participation and resource accessibility (i.e., proximity) and availability (i.e., concentration) among 294 individuals utilizing community mental health services throughout the United States. Findings suggest small but significant associations between community participation and the accessibility and availability of resources needed for participation. Furthermore, findings demonstrate the importance of car access for individuals residing in both urban and non-urban settings. The methods and results presented in this study have implications for community mental health research and services and provide an illustration of ways that geospatial methodologies can be used to investigate environmental factors that impact community inclusion and participation of individuals with serious mental illnesses. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  19. Chapter 13. Phonology: Stress and Vowel Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Nesset, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Where do the complex stress patterns in Modern Russian come from? And why is Москва ‘Moscow’ pronounced with an unstressed [a] in the first syllable? In this chapter, you learn about the history of two related phenomena that cause problems for learners of Russian: stress patterns and vowel reduction in unstressed syllables. Click on the links below to learn more!13.2 Akanje

  20. Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Chapter 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J. R.; Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    This chapter deals with the physics of events that occur when photons and electrons interact with matter. These are the radiations that are important for diagnostic radiology, and only those interactions that result in their attenuation, absorption and scattering are dealt with. Other interactions, such as those with nuclei, are not considered here because they only occur for radiation that is higher in energy than that used for diagnostic radiology.

  1. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P V

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  2. Chapter 1. The structure of the company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the first chapter of this CD ROM the structure of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.) in 1998 is presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The history (The origin of the SE, Plc.; Main events of 1995; Main events of 1996; Main events of 1997); (2) The bodies of SE, Plc. (General Meeting of Shareholders; Supervisory Board; Board of Directors); (3) Organizational structure of the the Company (The Headquarters of SE, Plc.; SE, Plc, Transmission System)

  3. Thick-joint welding process. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.; Terry, P.; Dickinson, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter reviews the techniques currently employed in the welding of pressure vessels, ranging from traditional manual metal arc and submerged arc processes to the more recently introduced narrow-gap and high-energy processes, e.g. electron beam and laser. The effect on the properties of the base materials being joined and the relative economics of the various processes is examined, from which guidance on the balance between joint properties and economy can be gained. (author)

  4. Assessing Individual Intellectual Output in Scientific Research: Mexico's National System for Evaluating Scholars Performance in the Humanities and the Behavioral Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Frixione

    Full Text Available Assessing the research of individual scholars is currently a matter of serious concern and worldwide debate. In order to gauge the long-term efficacy and efficiency of this practice, we carried out a limited survey of the operation and outcome of Mexico's 30-year old National System of Investigators or SNI, the country's main instrument for stimulating competitive research in science and technology. A statistical random sample of researchers listed in the area of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences-one of SNI's first and better consolidated academic divisions comprising a wide range of research disciplines, from philosophy to pedagogy to archaeology to experimental brain research-was screened comparing individual ranks or "Levels of distinction" to actual compliance with the SNI's own evaluation criteria, as reflected in major public databases of scholarly production. The same analysis was applied to members of a recent Review Committee, integrated by top-level researchers belonging to that general area of knowledge, who have been in charge of assessing and ranking their colleagues. Our results for both sets of scholars show wide disparity of individual productivity within the same SNI Level, according to all key indicators officially required (books issued by prestigious publishers, research articles appeared in indexed journals, and formation of new scientists, as well as in impact estimated by numbers of citations. Statistical calculation from the data indicates that 36% of members in the Review Committee and 53% of researchers in the random sample do not satisfy the official criteria requested for their appointed SNI Levels. The findings are discussed in terms of possible methodological errors in our study, of relevance for the SNI at large in relation to independent appraisals, of the cost-benefit balance of the organization as a research policy tool, and of possible alternatives for its thorough restructuring. As it currently stands SNI is

  5. Assessing Individual Intellectual Output in Scientific Research: Mexico's National System for Evaluating Scholars Performance in the Humanities and the Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frixione, Eugenio; Ruiz-Zamarripa, Lourdes; Hernández, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research of individual scholars is currently a matter of serious concern and worldwide debate. In order to gauge the long-term efficacy and efficiency of this practice, we carried out a limited survey of the operation and outcome of Mexico's 30-year old National System of Investigators or SNI, the country's main instrument for stimulating competitive research in science and technology. A statistical random sample of researchers listed in the area of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences-one of SNI's first and better consolidated academic divisions comprising a wide range of research disciplines, from philosophy to pedagogy to archaeology to experimental brain research-was screened comparing individual ranks or "Levels of distinction" to actual compliance with the SNI's own evaluation criteria, as reflected in major public databases of scholarly production. The same analysis was applied to members of a recent Review Committee, integrated by top-level researchers belonging to that general area of knowledge, who have been in charge of assessing and ranking their colleagues. Our results for both sets of scholars show wide disparity of individual productivity within the same SNI Level, according to all key indicators officially required (books issued by prestigious publishers, research articles appeared in indexed journals, and formation of new scientists), as well as in impact estimated by numbers of citations. Statistical calculation from the data indicates that 36% of members in the Review Committee and 53% of researchers in the random sample do not satisfy the official criteria requested for their appointed SNI Levels. The findings are discussed in terms of possible methodological errors in our study, of relevance for the SNI at large in relation to independent appraisals, of the cost-benefit balance of the organization as a research policy tool, and of possible alternatives for its thorough restructuring. As it currently stands SNI is not a model for

  6. Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, M. A.; Frey, E. C. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Imaging forms an important part of nuclear medicine and a number of different imaging devices have been developed. This chapter describes the principles and technological characteristics of the main imaging devices used in nuclear medicine. The two major categories are gamma camera systems and positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The former are used to image γ rays emitted by any nuclide, while the latter exploit the directional correlation between annihilation photons emitted by positron decay. The first section of this chapter discusses the principal components of gamma cameras and how they are used to form 2-D planar images as well as 3-D tomographic images (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)). The second section describes related instrumentation that has been optimized for PET data acquisition. A major advance in nuclear medicine was achieved with the introduction of multi-modality imaging systems including SPECT/computed tomography (CT) and PET/CT. In these systems, the CT images can be used to provide an anatomical context for the functional nuclear medicine images and allow for attenuation compensation. The third section in this chapter provides a discussion of the principles of these devices.

  7. Management of Therapy Patients. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauer, L. T. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The basic principles of radiation protection and their implementation as they apply to nuclear medicine are covered in general in Chapter 3. This chapter will look at the specific case of nuclear medicine used for therapy. In addition to the standards discussed in Chapter 3, specific guidance on the release of patients after radionuclide therapy can be found in the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 63 [20.1]. When the patient is kept in hospital following radionuclide therapy, the people at risk of exposure include hospital staff whose duties may or may not directly involve the use of radiation. This can be a significant problem. However, it is generally felt that it can be effectively managed with well trained staff and appropriate facilities. On the other hand, once the patient has been released, the groups at risk include members of the patient’s family, including children, and carers; they may also include neighbours, visitors to the household, co-workers, those encountered in public places, on public transport or at public events, and finally, the general public. It is generally felt that these risks can be effectively mitigated by the radiation protection officer (RPO) with patient-specific radiation safety precaution instructions.

  8. The Effects of Different Teaching, Research, and Service Emphases on Individual and Organizational Outcomes in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, David E.; Honoree, Andre L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative emphasis that educators give to teaching, research, and service in the business discipline and 4 other academic disciplines. The authors also investigated the effects of different faculty activity emphases on faculty teaching effectiveness, research performance, service levels, job and pay satisfaction,…

  9. A meta-analysis of single case research studies on aided augmentative and alternative communication systems with individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L; Heath, Amy K; Parker, Richard I; Rispoli, Mandy J; Duran, Jaime B

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals with autism cannot speak or cannot speak intelligibly. A variety of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches have been investigated. Most of the research on these approaches has been single-case research, with small numbers of participants. The purpose of this investigation was to meta-analyze the single case research on the use of aided AAC with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-four single-case studies were analyzed via an effect size measure, the Improvement Rate Difference (IRD). Three research questions were investigated concerning the overall impact of AAC interventions on targeted behavioral outcomes, effects of AAC interventions on individual targeted behavioral outcomes, and effects of three types of AAC interventions. Results indicated that, overall, aided AAC interventions had large effects on targeted behavioral outcomes in individuals with ASD. AAC interventions had positive effects on all of the targeted behavioral outcome; however, effects were greater for communication skills than other categories of skills. Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System and speech-generating devices were larger than those for other picture-based systems, though picture-based systems did have small effects.

  10. Assessing Individual Intellectual Output in Scientific Research: Mexico’s National System for Evaluating Scholars Performance in the Humanities and the Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frixione, Eugenio; Ruiz-Zamarripa, Lourdes; Hernández, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research of individual scholars is currently a matter of serious concern and worldwide debate. In order to gauge the long-term efficacy and efficiency of this practice, we carried out a limited survey of the operation and outcome of Mexico’s 30-year old National System of Investigators or SNI, the country’s main instrument for stimulating competitive research in science and technology. A statistical random sample of researchers listed in the area of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences—one of SNI’s first and better consolidated academic divisions comprising a wide range of research disciplines, from philosophy to pedagogy to archaeology to experimental brain research—was screened comparing individual ranks or "Levels of distinction" to actual compliance with the SNI’s own evaluation criteria, as reflected in major public databases of scholarly production. The same analysis was applied to members of a recent Review Committee, integrated by top-level researchers belonging to that general area of knowledge, who have been in charge of assessing and ranking their colleagues. Our results for both sets of scholars show wide disparity of individual productivity within the same SNI Level, according to all key indicators officially required (books issued by prestigious publishers, research articles appeared in indexed journals, and formation of new scientists), as well as in impact estimated by numbers of citations. Statistical calculation from the data indicates that 36% of members in the Review Committee and 53% of researchers in the random sample do not satisfy the official criteria requested for their appointed SNI Levels. The findings are discussed in terms of possible methodological errors in our study, of relevance for the SNI at large in relation to independent appraisals, of the cost-benefit balance of the organization as a research policy tool, and of possible alternatives for its thorough restructuring. As it currently stands SNI is not a

  11. Chapter 7. Cloning and analysis of natural product pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Bertolt

    2009-01-01

    The identification of gene clusters of natural products has lead to an enormous wealth of information about their biosynthesis and its regulation, and about self-resistance mechanisms. Well-established routine techniques are now available for the cloning and sequencing of gene clusters. The subsequent functional analysis of the complex biosynthetic machinery requires efficient genetic tools for manipulation. Until recently, techniques for the introduction of defined changes into Streptomyces chromosomes were very time-consuming. In particular, manipulation of large DNA fragments has been challenging due to the absence of suitable restriction sites for restriction- and ligation-based techniques. The homologous recombination approach called recombineering (referred to as Red/ET-mediated recombination in this chapter) has greatly facilitated targeted genetic modifications of complex biosynthetic pathways from actinomycetes by eliminating many of the time-consuming and labor-intensive steps. This chapter describes techniques for the cloning and identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, for the generation of gene replacements within such clusters, for the construction of integrative library clones and their expression in heterologous hosts, and for the assembly of entire biosynthetic gene clusters from the inserts of individual library clones. A systematic approach toward insertional mutation of a complete Streptomyces genome is shown by the use of an in vitro transposon mutagenesis procedure.

  12. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 1 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” provides an introduction to the document. /meta name=DC.title content=Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

  13. Meta-Ethnography of Qualitative Research on the Experience of Being a Partner to an Individual with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura Foran

    2017-03-01

    Several qualitative studies explore the experience of being a partner to an individual with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, but these studies remain isolated "islands of knowledge." This meta-ethnography aimed to synthesize current qualitative studies using Noblit and Hare's method. Thirteen studies were identified for inclusion. Three overarching themes were revealed: unmet expectations of relationship, renegotiating relationship roles, and separation versus togetherness. Themes interacted as a cycle with separation versus togetherness as temporal endpoints. Partners also renegotiated relationships with mental health professionals to accommodate unmet expectations. Leverage points for intervention were identified.

  14. Researches with the 600MeV Linac. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argan, P.; Audit, G.; Bechade, J.; Bloch, A.; Botton, N. de; Laget, J.M.; Martin, J.; Schuhl, C.; Tamas, G.

    The anomalies found in the cross section of the D(γ,pπ - )p reaction are explained by a contamination of muons in the pion spectra. The cross section for high momentum values and fixed angle of the undetected nucleon is in good agreement with a simple model which can not explain the shape of the angular distribution [fr

  15. Researches with the synchrotron Saturne I. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.; Legrand, D.

    Angular distributions of alpha particles from helium have been measured at 850MeV, 1370MeV incident alpha energy at SPES1, and 2560MeV on the d-α experimental set-up. Interest of these measurements is discussed [fr

  16. Researches with the synchrotron Saturne I. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurtey, R.; Bimbot, L.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Chaumeaux, A.; Couvert, P.; Garcon, M.; Garreta, D.; Gugelot, P.; Hering, W.; Le Bornec, Y.; Moss, G.; Platchkov, S.; Tabet, J.P.; Tatischeff, B.; Terrien, Y.; Thirion, J.

    Negative pion production by 613MeV protons has been investigated on a few light target nuclei. Discrete energy level spectra have been obtained for the 10 C and 13 O residual nuclei. An angular distribution has been measured at forward angles for the g.s. and a new level around 3MeV of 13 O. A preliminary estimate of all the results leads to very low cross sections [fr

  17. A history of telemetry in fishery research: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockersmith, Eric; Beeman, John W.; Adams, Noah S.; Beeman, John W.; Eiler, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Telemetry provides a powerful and flexible tool for studying fish and other aquatic animals, and its use has become increasingly commonplace. However, telemetry is gear intensive and typically requires more specialized knowledge and training than many other field techniques. As with other scientific methods, collecting good data is dependent on an understanding of the underlying principles behind the approach, knowing how to use the equipment and techniques properly, and recognizing what to do with the data collected. This book provides a road map for using telemetry to study aquatic animals, and provides the basic information needed to plan, implement, and conduct a telemetry study under field conditions. Topics include acoustic or radio telemetry study design, tag implantation techniques, radio and acoustic telemetry principles and case studies, and data management and analysis.

  18. Chapter 14. Radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Influence of radiation on foods; (2) Radiation sterilisation in health service

  19. Using Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle in Chapter Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Eley, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Student-led chapter presentations provide an excellent opportunity for instructors to evaluate a student's comprehension of the assigned chapter, as well as the student's ability to present and convey information in a public forum. Although several instructors realize the benefits of requiring students to complete chapter presentations either as…

  20. 34 CFR 97.406 - Research involving greater than minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit to individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject, or by a monitoring procedure which is not likely to contribute to the well-being of the subject, only if the IRB finds that— (a) The risk represents a minor increase over minimal risk; (b) The... Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research...

  1. Chapter 17. Electric schema and its changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feik, K.; Kmosena, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter an electric schema and its changes of the A1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice (the Slovak Republic) are described. Three turbogenerators with power 50 MW were installed in the A1 NPP. Basic description of electrical equipment installed according authentic project and authentic conception of accidental cooling are presented in detail. New conception and equipment of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling of the A1 NPP as well as final solution of electrical part with new functions of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling are presented. Shortcomings of electrical equipment, which originated and were eliminated during construction and operation, are also described.

  2. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  3. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Shepherd, J. A. [University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  4. Gaia DR2 documentation Chapter 7: Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, L.; Guy, L.; Distefano, E.; Clementini, G.; Mowlavi, N.; Rimoldini, L.; Roelens, M.; Audard, M.; Holl, B.; Lanzafame, A.; Lebzelter, T.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; Molnár, L.; Ripepi, V.; Sarro, L.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Nienartowicz, K.; De Ridder, J.; Juhász, Á.; Molinaro, R.; Plachy, E.; Regibo, S.

    2018-04-01

    This chapter of the Gaia DR2 documentation describes the models and methods used on the 22 months of data to produce the Gaia variable star results for Gaia DR2. The variability processing and analysis was based mostly on the calibrated G and integrated BP and RP photometry. The variability analysis approach to the Gaia data has been described in Eyer et al. (2017), and the Gaia DR2 results are presented in Holl et al. (2018). Detailed methods on specific topics will be published in a number of separate articles. Variability behaviour in the colour magnitude diagram is presented in Gaia Collaboration et al. (2018c).

  5. Radiological departments. Chapter 4.3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The book deals with the problems of health, labor and fire protection in the public health service of the GDR as a whole. A special chapter treats these items concerning the conditions in radiological departments. In this connection the main legal regulations are presented. Introducing remarks on generation and properties of ionizing radiations and on biological radiation effects are outlined. Further, the responsibilities in radiation protection, maximum permissible radiation doses and the handling of X-ray devices, sealed and unsealed radiation sources are discussed

  6. Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1983-03-01

    This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations

  7. Investment in electricity for development. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services

  8. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... a review of traditional research designs in ENP research, through a systematic meta-analysis of a selection of the most-cited articles on the ENP. Inspired by earlier work on awareness of research design in EU studies, ENP research is categorised according to typical choices of research design in the form...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  9. Chapter 9: The rock coast of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Adams, Peter N.; Allan, Jonathan; Ashton, Andrew; Griggs, Gary B.; Hampton, Monty A.; Kelly, Joseph; Young, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The coastline of the USA is vast and comprises a variety of landform types including barrier islands, mainland beaches, soft bluffed coastlines and hard rocky coasts. The majority of the bluffed and rocky coasts are found in the northeastern part of the country (New England) and along the Pacific coast. Rocky and bluffed landform types are commonly interspersed along the coastline and occur as a result of relative lowering of sea level from tectonic or isostatic forcing, which can occur on timescales ranging from instantaneous to millenia. Recent research on sea cliffs in the contiguous USA has focused on a broad range of topics from documenting erosion rates to identifying processes and controls on morphology to prediction modelling. This chapter provides a detailed synthesis of recent and seminal research on rocky coast geomorphology along open-ocean coasts of the continental United States (USA).

  10. A Scoping Review of Frailty and Acute Care in Middle-Aged and Older Individuals with Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, David B.; Maxwell, Colleen J.; Afilalo, Jonathan; Arora, Rakesh C.; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Basran, Jenny; Bergman, Howard; Bronskill, Susan E.; Carter, Caitlin A.; Dixon, Elijah; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Madden, Kenneth; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rolfson, Darryl; Stelfox, Henry T.; Tam-Tham, Helen; Wunsch, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    There is general agreement that frailty is a state of heightened vulnerability to stressors arising from impairments in multiple systems leading to declines in homeostatic reserve and resiliency, but unresolved issues persist about its detection, underlying pathophysiology, and relationship with aging, disability, and multimorbidity. A particularly challenging area is the relationship between frailty and hospitalization. Based on the deliberations of a 2014 Canadian expert consultation meeting and a scoping review of the relevant literature between 2005 and 2015, this discussion paper presents a review of the current state of knowledge on frailty in the acute care setting, including its prevalence and ability to both predict the occurrence and outcomes of hospitalization. The examination of the available evidence highlighted a number of specific clinical and research topics requiring additional study. We conclude with a series of consensus recommendations regarding future research priorities in this important area. PMID:28396706

  11. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal

    2013-04-01

    The International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Student Chapter Freiberg was founded in 2007 at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF) in Germany by national and international graduate and undergraduate students of various geoscientific as well as natural science disciplines. The major aim of the IAMG is to promote international cooperation in the application and use of Mathematics in Geosciences research and technology. The IAMG encourages all types of students and young scientists to found and maintain student chapters, which can even receive limited financial support by the IAMG. Following this encouragement, generations of students at TUBAF have build up and established a prosperous range of activities. These might be an example and an invitation for other young scientists and institutions worldwide to run similar activities. We, some of the current and former students behind the student chapter, have organised talks, membership drives, student seminars, guest lectures, several short courses and even international workshops. Some notable short courses were held by invited IAMG distinguished lecturers. The topics included "Statistical analysis in the Earth Sciences using R - a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics", "Geomathematical Natural Resource Modeling" and "Introduction to Geostatistics for Environmental Applications and Natural Resources Evaluation: Basic Concepts and Examples". Furthermore, we conducted short courses by ourselves. Here, the topics included basic introductions into MATLAB, object oriented programming concepts for geoscientists using MATLAB and an introduction to the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Most of those short courses lasted several days and provided an excellent and unprecedented teaching experience for us. We were given credit by attending students for filling gaps in our university's curriculum by providing in-depth and hands-on tutorials on topics, which were merely

  12. Measures of Image Quality. Chapter 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidment, A. D.A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A medical image is a pictorial representation of a measurement of an object or function of the body. This information can be acquired in one to three spatial dimensions. It can be static or dynamic, meaning that it can also be measured as a function of time. Certain fundamental properties can be associated with all of these data. Firstly, no image can exactly represent the object or function; at best, one has a measurement with an associated error equal to the difference between the true object and the measured image. Secondly, no two images will be identical, even if acquired with the same imaging system of the same anatomic region; this variability is generally referred to as noise. There are many different ways to acquire medical image data; the various mechanisms of acquisition are described in detail in the subsequent chapters. However, regardless of the method of image formation, one must be able to judge the fidelity of the image in an attempt to answer the question “How accurately does the image portray the body or the bodily function?” This judgement falls under the rubric of ‘image quality’. In this chapter, methods of quantifying image quality are described.

  13. Image Perception and Assessment. Chapter 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, I. [University of Chicago, Chicago (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The main purpose of a medical image is to provide information to a human reader, such as a radiologist, so that a diagnosis can be reached — rather than to display the beauty of the human internal workings. It is important to understand how the human visual system affects the perception of contrast and spatial resolution of structures that are present in the image. If the image is not properly displayed, or the environment is not appropriate, subtle clinical signs may go unnoticed, which can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. This chapter provides an introduction to human visual perception and task based objective assessment of an imaging system. A model for the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system is presented. This model is used to derive the greyscale standard display function for medical displays. Task based assessment measures the quality of an imaging system as the ability of an observer to perform a well defined task, based on a set of images. Metrics for observer performance are introduced, as well as experimental methodologies for the measurement of human performance. The last section of the chapter describes the estimation of task performance based on mathematical observer models.

  14. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  15. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  16. Outline of the 1996-1998 IAEA co-ordinated research project on intercomparison for individual monitoring of external exposure from photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Gustafsson, M.; Ouvrard, R.

    1999-01-01

    The outline of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project 1996-1998 on intercomparison for individual monitoring is described. The intercomparison focused on IAEA Member States in Eastern Europe and was based on the operational quantity personal dose equivalent, H p (10). The three phases of the intercomparison were: the preparatory phase including a workshop, the 'type-test' intercomparison, and the 'simulated workplace field' intercomparison. Details of the phases are given. (author)

  17. Current state in the research on electronic monitoring systems for the security and flow of objects and individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Dietrich Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets forth the current state of security systems in prisons from Romania and around the world, particularly aiming electronic systems of monitoring the flow of people, materials control and perimeter security, focusing on the research results concluded by motion detection tests and devices. The currently used systems were observed in order to put an analysis of the methodology together and implement and perfect these systems in protected areas. The protection of citizens must be performed to the extent that is allowed by the legislation.

  18. EULAR recommendations for terminology and research in individuals at risk of rheumatoid arthritis: report from the Study Group for Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlag, Danielle M; Raza, Karim; van Baarsen, Lisa G M; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Buckley, Christopher D; Burmester, Gerd R; Gabay, Cem; Catrina, Anca I; Cope, Andrew P; Cornelis, François; Dahlqvist, Solbritt Rantapää; Emery, Paul; Eyre, Stephen; Finckh, Axel; Gay, Steffen; Hazes, Johanna M; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette; Huizinga, Tom W J; Klareskog, Lars; Kvien, Tore K; Lewis, Cathryn; Machold, Klaus P; Rönnelid, Johan; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Schett, Georg; Smolen, Josef S; Thomas, Sue; Worthington, Jane; Tak, Paul P

    2012-01-01

    The Study Group for Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis was established by the EULAR Standing Committee on Investigative Rheumatology to facilitate research into the preclinical and earliest clinically apparent phases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This report describes the recommendation for terminology to be used to define specific subgroups during different phases of disease, and defines the priorities for research in this area. Terminology was discussed by way of a three-stage structured process: A provisional list of descriptors for each of the possible phases preceding the diagnosis of RA were circulated to members of the study group for review and feedback. Anonymised comments from the members on this list were fed back to participants before a 2-day meeting. 18 participants met to discuss these data, agree terminologies and prioritise important research questions. The study group recommended that, in prospective studies, individuals without RA are described as having: genetic risk factors for RA; environmental risk factors for RA; systemic autoimmunity associated with RA; symptoms without clinical arthritis; unclassified arthritis; which may be used in a combinatorial manner. It was recommended that the prefix ‘pre-RA with:’ could be used before any/any combination of the five points above but only to describe retrospectively a phase that an individual had progressed through once it was known that they have developed RA. An approach to dating disease onset was recommended. In addition, important areas for research were proposed, including research of other tissues in which an adaptive immune response may be initiated, and the identification of additional risk factors and biomarkers for the development of RA, its progression and the development of extra-articular features. These recommendations provide guidance on approaches to describe phases before the development of RA that will facilitate communication between researchers and comparisons between

  19. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy

  20. From individual coping strategies to illness codification: the reflection of gender in social science research on multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Geneviève; Lippel, Katherine

    2014-09-10

    Emerging fields such as environmental health have been challenged, in recent years, to answer the growing methodological calls for a finer integration of sex and gender in health-related research and policy-making. Through a descriptive examination of 25 peer-reviewed social science papers published between 1996 and 2011, we explore, by examining methodological designs and theoretical standpoints, how the social sciences have integrated gender sensitivity in empirical work on Multiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS). MCS is a "diagnosis" associated with sensitivities to chronic and low-dose chemical exposures, which remains contested in both the medical and institutional arenas, and is reported to disproportionately affect women. We highlighted important differences between papers that did integrate a gender lens and those that did not. These included characteristics of the authorship, purposes, theoretical frameworks and methodological designs of the studies. Reviewed papers that integrated gender tended to focus on the gender roles and identity of women suffering from MCS, emphasizing personal strategies of adaptation. More generally, terminological confusions in the use of sex and gender language and concepts, such as a conflation of women and gender, were observed. Although some men were included in most of the study samples reviewed, specific data relating to men was undereported in results and only one paper discussed issues specifically experienced by men suffering from MCS. Papers that overlooked gender dimensions generally addressed more systemic social issues such as the dynamics of expertise and the medical codification of MCS, from more consistently outlined theoretical frameworks. Results highlight the place for a critical, systematic and reflexive problematization of gender and for the development of methodological and theoretical tools on how to integrate gender in research designs when looking at both micro and macro social dimensions of environmental

  1. Tamarix, hydrology and fluvial geomorphology: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Daniel A.; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A; Quigley, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the impact of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology on the distribution and abundance of Tamarix as well as the reciprocal effects of Tamarix on hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. It examines whether flow-regime alteration favors Tamarix establishment over native species, and how Tamarix stands modify processes involved in the narrowing of river channels and the formation of floodplains. It begins with an overview of the basic geomorphic and hydrologic character of rivers in the western United States before analyzing how this setting has contributed to the regional success of Tamarix. It then considers the influence of Tamarix on the hydrogeomorphic form and function of rivers and concludes by discussing how a changing climate, vegetation management, and continued water-resource development affect the future role of Tamarix in these ecosystems.

  2. Chapter 13 - Active Rectifiers and Their Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Abdelhakim, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    This chapter investigates the control design of active rectifiers and their applications in power electronics-based power system. The harmonic emission and measures are firstly addressed as a basis of evaluating the active rectifier's effectiveness. Furthermore, the importance of new coming...... standards is highlighted. Application-oriented design of active rectifiers as a main reason behind evolvement of different topologies is discussed. Then, the main principle in designing different control schemes in single-phase and three-phase rectifiers is investigated, analyzed, and experimentally...... verified. The influence of nonideal operating conditions with possible solutions is addressed. Finally, future prospective of active rectifiers as a one of the key enabler of carbon-free power system is summarized....

  3. Environment-effect reporting. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermens, P.A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Environment-effect reporting is a tool in the resolution of one or more government bodies about activities which may have important disadvantageous impacts upon the environment. This chapter gives a treatment of environment-effect reporting as a process consisting of the preparation, draw-up, judgement and use of an environment-effect report (MER), followed by an evaluation. The contentsof an environment-effect report are indicated. The role of environment-effect reporting in relation with other procedures is discussed. Some experience with the application of environment-effect reporting is presented and a number of experiences in the application are discussed. (H.W.). 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  5. Original article Agentic and communal narcissism and subjective well-being: are narcissistic individuals unhappy? A research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The communal/agentic model of narcissism is well accepted in the current research literature (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken & Maio, 2012. This model could be particularly useful in examining the relation between narcissism and hedonistic and eudaimonic subjective well-being (SWB; Deci & Ryan, 2008. Participants and procedure In an effort to examine the relationship between narcissism and SWB, correlational analyses of survey responses obtained from students (n = 138 were conducted. Agentic narcissism was measured using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988 and communal narcissism by the Communal Narcissism Inventory (CNI; Gebauer et al., 2012. Subjective well-being measures included the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985, Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark & Tegellen, 1988, and the Social Well-being Scale (SWBS; Keyes, 1998. Self-esteem was included in the study in order to examine the potential mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between narcissism and subjective well-being. Results Agentic narcissism was positively related to the affective component of SWB whereas communal narcissism was positively related to the cognitive component of SWB. Both forms of narcissism were positively related to social well-being. All relationships were mediated by the participant’s self-esteem level. Conclusions The results indicate that both agentic narcissism and communal narcissism are positively related to SWB. The results are discussed in the context of the agentic/communal model of narcissism (Gebauer et al., 2012 and hedonistic/eudaimonic well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2008.

  6. Electronics Related to Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, R. J. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Stephenson, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Nuclear medicine imaging is generally based on the detection of X rays and γ rays emitted by radionuclides injected into a patient. In the previous chapter, the methods used to detect these photons were described, based most commonly on a scintillation counter although there are imaging devices that use either gas filled ionization detectors or semiconductors. Whatever device is used, nuclear medicine images are produced from a very limited number of photons, due mainly to the level of radioactivity that can be safely injected into a patient. Hence, nuclear medicine images are usually made from many orders of magnitude fewer photons than X ray computed tomography (CT) images, for example. However, as the information produced is essentially functional in nature compared to the anatomical detail of CT, the apparently poorer image quality is overcome by the nature of the information produced. The low levels of photons detected in nuclear medicine means that photon counting can be performed. Here each photon is detected and analysed individually, which is especially valuable, for example, in enabling scattered photons to be rejected. This is in contrast to X ray imaging where images are produced by integrating the flux entering the detectors. Photon counting, however, places a heavy burden on the electronics used for nuclear medicine imaging in terms of electronic noise and stability. This chapter will discuss how the signals produced in the primary photon detection process can be converted into pulses providing spatial, energy and timing information, and how this information is used to produce both qualitative and quantitative images.

  7. Ecological validity and infant research: An example from an experimental study on object individuation with familiar objects in 8-month-old infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    shall attempt to apply an analysis based on the concept of ecological validity on a specific experimental study within the field of infant cognition. I will attempt to show that such an analysis can be worthwhile.The presentation falls in three sections. The first section is a presentation...... might make a difference when infants reason about the physical world. For example, it might be argued that infants would probably pay more attention to ‘disappearing' familiar objects compared to novel ones. Using the so-called "violation-of-expectation" method, the study employed a design that recently...... on the infants' ability to individuate objects in the present design.In the third and final section the results obtained in the experiment are discussed, not only in relation to the existing litterature within the field of research of object individuation, but also by specificly applying the concept...

  8. Peer-to-peer over mobile ad hoc networks (Chapter 11)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qadri, N.N.; Liotta, A.; Pierre, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we review various approaches for the convergence of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), identifying strengths and weaknesses, and putting things in perspective. P2P and MANETs are among the most active research topics in pervasive computing. The convergence of P2P

  9. Healthy outdoor recreation: An integrated approach to linking physical activity with wellness goals. Chapter 38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; David M. Buchner

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the shared interest of the public health and leisure fields in promoting outdoor recreation. We describe how trans disciplinary integration of research efforts across these fields can lead to a better understanding of how outdoor recreation facilities and programs can help realize a full range of health and wellness benefits....

  10. Human interactions with the environment through time in southern Nevada [Chapter 8] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada is rich in irreplaceable cultural resources that include archeological remains, historic sites, cultural landscapes, and other areas of significance to Native Americans and other cultural groups. This chapter provides information related to Goal 2 in the SNAP Science Research Strategy, which is to “Provide for responsible use of Southern Nevada’s lands...

  11. Student Self-Perceptions of Leadership in Two Missouri FFA Chapters: A Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagay, Rachel Bartholomew; Marx, Adam A.; Simonsen, Jon C.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study is the self-perceptions of leadership engagement of FFA members in two FFA chapters in Missouri. This multiple case study used documentation of student self-perceptions, researcher observations, and focus groups. The two cases included 24 high school students comprised of FFA officers and members, who provided their…

  12. Chapter 3: Selecting materials for mine soil construction when establishing forests on Appalachian mined lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Skousen; Carl Zipper; Jim Burger; Christopher Barton; Patrick. Angel

    2017-01-01

    The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA), a method for reclaiming coal-mined land to forest (Chapter 2, this volume), is based on research, knowledge, and experience of forest soil scientists and reclamation practitioners. Step 1 of the FRA is to create a suitable rooting medium for good tree growth that is no less than 4 feet deep and consists of topsoil, weathered...

  13. Comparative Political Communication Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kenski, K.; Jamieson, K.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of comparative political communication research (CPCR). CPCR is a growing field since there is wide acknowledgement that many questions are not answered satisfactorily with single case studies. The chapter explains why political communication researchers should care

  14. An assessment of the individual and social risks of Athens population resulting from a hypothetical loss-of-coolant-accident release of the Greek Research Reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, John; Synodinou, Varvara; Varsamis, G.; Antoniades, John; Catsaros, Nicolas.

    1984-03-01

    In this report the loss-of-coolant-accident consequences for the Greek Research Reactor-1 which is located within the limits of Athens are estimated. The source term emerges from a conservative 20% coremelt with 25 isotopes taken into consideration. Individual and social risks are calculated to a distance of 20 km from the reactor site, an area covering the whole Athens region of 3,081,000 inhabitants. Latent health effects due to both initial an chronic exposure from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides and exposure to groundshine from contaminated ground are assessed. (author)

  15. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  16. Gaia DR1 documentation Chapter 6: Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, L.; Rimoldini, L.; Guy, L.; Holl, B.; Clementini, G.; Cuypers, J.; Mowlavi, N.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; De Ridder, J.; Charnas, J.; Nienartowicz, K.

    2017-12-01

    This chapter describes the photometric variability processing of the Gaia DR1 data. Coordination Unit 7 is responsible for the variability analysis of over a billion celestial sources. In particular the definition, design, development, validation and provision of a software package for the data processing of photometrically variable objects. Data Processing Centre Geneva (DPCG) responsibilities cover all issues related to the computational part of the CU7 analysis. These span: hardware provisioning, including selection, deployment and optimisation of suitable hardware, choosing and developing software architecture, defining data and scientific workflows as well as operational activities such as configuration management, data import, time series reconstruction, storage and processing handling, visualisation and data export. CU7/DPCG is also responsible for interaction with other DPCs and CUs, software and programming training for the CU7 members, scientific software quality control and management of software and data lifecycle. Details about the specific data treatment steps of the Gaia DR1 data products are found in Eyer et al. (2017) and are not repeated here. The variability content of the Gaia DR1 focusses on a subsample of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars around the South ecliptic pole, showcasing the performance of the Gaia photometry with respect to variable objects.

  17. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  18. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  19. Moving forward with imperfect information: chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Brekke, Levi D.; Kaatz, Laurna; Welling, Leigh; Hartge, Eric H.; Iseman, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarized the scope of what is known and not known about climate in the Southwestern United States. There is now more evidence and more agreement among climate scientists about the physical climate and related impacts in the Southwest compared with that represented in the 2009 National Climate Assessment (Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009). However, there remain uncertainties about the climate system, the complexities within climate models, the related impacts to the biophysical environment, and the use of climate information on decision making. Uncertainty is introduced in each step of the climate planning-an-response process--in the scenarios used to drive the climate models, the information used to construct the models, and the interpretation and use of the model' data for planning and decision making (Figure 19.1). There are server key challenge, drawn from recommendations of the authors of this report, that contribute to these uncertainties in the Southwest: - There is a dearth of climate observations at high elevations and on the lands of Native nations.

  20. Chapter 15--chew before you swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, James P

    2011-01-01

    The main text of this chapter, written by James P. Lund, summarizes most of the work related to the neural control of mastication that he conducted with his collaborators throughout the years. From his early PhD work showing that mastication is centrally patterned to his latest work related to the interaction between pain and movement, Lund will have addressed many essential questions regarding the organization and functioning of the masticatory central pattern generator (CPG). His earliest studies examined how the CPG modulates reflexes and the excitability of primary afferents, interneurons, and motoneurons forming their circuitry. He then tackled the question of how the CPG itself was modulated by different types of sensory and cortical inputs. Another series of studies focused on the organization of the subpopulations of neurons forming the CPG, their intrinsic and network properties. Shortly before his untimely passing, he had turned his attention to the potential contribution of muscle spindle afferents to the patterning of mastication as well as to the development of chronic muscle pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. University Faculty and the Value of Their Intellectual Property: Comparing IP in Teaching and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the protectionist and access functions of intellectual property for the teaching and research work of university faculty. The degree to which an individual piece of IP is protected or made accessible to others depends in large measure on its market-related characteristics, including costs of production, availability of…

  2. Intercomparison for individual monitoring of external exposure from photon radiation. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This TECDOC presents the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) have endorsed the use of the operational quantities for monitoring purposes. Specifically, personal dose equivalent, H p (d), is to be used for individual dosimetry to demonstrate compliance with the exposure limit recommendations, while for workplace area monitoring the ambient dose equivalent and the directional dose equivalent are recommended. In view of the technical difficulties associated with the introduction of these operational quantities the IAEA decided to assist Member States in their provision of appropriate dosimetry for occupational protection. In this respect, intercomparisons have proven to be a cost effective method of providing such support. A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) was started in 1997 on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation, involving more than twenty laboratories from eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union, and focusing on personnel dosimetry services for nuclear power plants. This CRP was part of the activities of the IAEA Occupational Protection Programme, the objective4s of which are to promote and internationally harmonized approach for optimizing occupational radiation protection through: the development of guides, within the IAEA activities for establishing standards for radiation protection, for restricting radiation exposures in the workplace and for applying current occupational radiation protection techniques, and the promotion of the application of these guidelines. The preparatory phase included, in May 1997, a workshop aimed at familiarizing the participants with the new operational quantities

  3. Soils of The Irkutsk Region, Agriculture Land Funds and Quality Of Soils. Chapter 3. Development of Genesis, Geography and Agrochemical Properties of Soils Studies at Experimental Stations, Higher Education Institutions and Scientific Research Institutions of Irkutsk (in the 20s-80s of XX Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Kolesnichenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this monograph, based on many years of research by the author, systematization and generalization of soil and cartographic materials of the Siberian Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, as well as the use of a large number of literary and fund sources, the characteristics of soil formation and soil cover in the Irkutsk region are given. It is shown that, due to the great extent of the territory of the region from north to south and from west to east, the heterogeneity of the relief, geological structure, climatic conditions and vegetation, the soil cover is characterized by a complex structure and a wide variety of soil types. Based on the latest research and modern ideas on the genesis of soils, a systematic description of the soils and their diagnostics is given, specific features of the temperature and water regimes of seasonally frozen soils, the structure of the soil profile, physical and chemical properties are reported, which inform the regional features of the soils forming here, determining the fertility of soils and Ways of their rational use in agricultural production. A new scheme for soil-geographical zoning of the territory of the Irkutsk region was developed, which was used as the basis for the soil map of the Irkutsk region at a scale of 1:1 500 000, published by the USSR in 1988. Areas of soil zones, sub-zones and districts were determined and the degree of their agricultural use was indicated. The calculations of the areas of the main types of soils along the soil zones, subareas and districts used in agriculture are given. The data contained in the monograph make it possible to assess the potential for further agricultural development of soils both in the southern regions of the region and in the north – in areas of new industrial construction and in the zone of the western section of the BAM. The work can serve as an explanatory note to the soil map of the Irkutsk region at a scale of 1: 1

  4. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of protected individual... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected individual. Compliance assessments that analyze compliance with § 191.15 of this chapter shall assume that an individual...

  5. Researching resilience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ungar, Michael; Liebenberg, Linda

    2009-01-01

    ... how these can be adapted to create effective interventions with at-risk youth. The chapters discuss methods that are applicable in a variety of personal circumstances and international contexts; they focus not only on the individual, but also the broader contexts in which youth find themselves, reflecting a more inclusive, less Eurocentric approach t...

  6. Chapter 2: Optical Properties of the Water Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, D. A.; Collins, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    In this chapter, and in chapter 29, the basic inter-relationship between the flux of radiant energy through the water column and the fixation of carbon by the phytoplankton in the ocean through processes of photosynthesis or primary production will be discussed.

  7. Chapter 7: Transport and load of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Related to the topic, the chapter 7 presents: 1) import License; 2) transport; 3) loading the irradiator. The information presented in this chapter is based on the Brazilian legislation, but said legislation is based on international guidelines; therefore there will be several common and different points from country to country.

  8. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 8: Instrumentation Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarteau, M; Lipton, R; Nicholson, H; Shipsey, I; Akerib, D; Albayrak-Yetkin, A; Alexander, J; Anderson, J; Artuso, M; Asner, D; Ball, R; Battaglia, M; Bebek, C; Beene, J; Benhammou, Y; Bentefour, E; Bergevin, M; Bernstein, A; Bilki, B; Blucher, E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Bowden, N; Brooijmans, G; Byrum, K; Cabrera, B; Cancelo, G; Carlstrom, J; Casey, B; Chang, C; Chapman, J; Chen, CH; Childres, I; Christian, D; Convery, M; Corso, WCJ; Cumalat, J; Cushman, P; Via, CD; Dazeley, S; Debbins, P; Deptuch, G; Dhawan, S; Benedetto, VD; DiGiovene, B; Djurcic, Z; Dye, S; Elagin, A; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Etzion, E; Fast, J; Ferretti, C; Fisher, P; Fleming, B; Francis, K; Friedman, P; Frisch, H; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gatto, C; Geronim, G; Gilchriese, G; Golwala, S; Grant, C; Grillo, A; Grünendahl, E; Gorham, P; Guan, L; Gutierrez, G; Haber, C; Hall, J; Haller, G; Hast, C; Heintz, U; Hemmick, T; Hitlin, DG; Hogan, C; Hohlmann, M; Hoppe, E; Hsu, L; Huffer, M; Irwin, K; Izraelevitch, F; Jennings, G; Johnson, M; Jung, A; Kagan, H; Kenney, C; Kettell, S; Khanna, R; Khristenko, V; Krennrich, F; Kuehn, K; Kutschke, R; Learned, J; Lee, AT; Levin, D; Liu, T; Liu, ATK; Lissauer, D; Love, J; Lynn, D; MacFarlane, D; Magill, S; Majewski, S; Mans, J; Maricic, J; Marleau, P; Mazzacane, A; McKinsey, D; Mehl, J; Mestvirisvilli, A; Meyer, S; Mokhov, N; Moshe, M; Mukherjee, A; Murat, P; Nahn, S; Narain, M; Nadel-Turonski, P; Newcomer, M; Nishimura, K; Nygren, D; Oberla, E; Onel, Y; Oreglia, M; Orrell, J; Paley, J; Para, A; Parker, S; Polychronakos, V; Pordes, S; Privitera, P; Prosser, A; Pyle, M; Raaf, J; Ramberg, E; Rameika, R; Rebel, B; Repond, J; Reyna, D; Ristori, L; Rivera, R; Ronzhin, A; Rusack, R; Russ, J; Ryd, A; Sadrozinski, H; Sahoo, H; Sanchez, MC; Sanzeni, C; Schnetzer, S; Seidel, S; Seiden, A; Schmidt, I; Shenai, A; Shutt, T; Silver, Y; Smith, W; Snowden-Ifft, D; Sonnenschein, A; Southwick, D; Spiegel, L; Stanitzki, M; Striganov, S; Su, D; Sumner, R; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Talaga, R; Tayloe, R; Tentindo, S; Terentiev, N; Thom-Levy, J; Thorn, C; Tiffenberg, J; Trischuk, W; Tschirhart, R; Turner, M; Underwood, D; Uplegger, L; Urheim, J; Vagins, M; Bibber, KV; Varner, G; Varner, R; Va' vra, J; Lippe, HVD; Wagner, R; Wagner, S; Weaverdyck, C; Wenzel, H; Weinstein, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wigman, R; Wilson, P; Winn, D; Winter, P; Woody, C; Xia, L; Xie, JQ; Ye, Z; Yeh, MF; Yetkin, T; Yoo, JH; Yu, J; Yu, JM; Zeller, S; Zhang, JL; Zhu, JJ; Zhou, B; Zhu, RY; Zitzer, B

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 8, on the Instrumentation Frontier, discusses the instrumentation needs of future experiments in the Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic Frontiers, promising new technologies for particle physics research, and issues of gathering resources for long-term research in this area.

  9. Chapter No.6. Radioactive waste (RAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    during the commissioning of this nuclear facility after UJD issued permission in 1999. Operational permission was issued by UJD after assessment of repository commissioning report in September 2001. At the end of 2001 totally 122 containers were disposed of. It is assumed that during design operational lifetime the installed NPPs will produce 2500 t of spent nuclear fuel and 3700 t of radwaste unacceptable for Mochovce repository (including radwaste generated at NPP A1) and their deep geological disposal will be necessary. Development of deep geological disposal facility in Slovakia started in 1996. On the basis of preliminary evaluation of existing geological data 15 sites potentially appropriate for underground repository were identified. Further investigation has led to reduction of this number to 4 sites in two possible host rocks which have been proposed for more detailed research. During 2001 approximately 365,5 t of solid radwaste and 474 m3 of liquid radwaste was shipped to the individual radwaste treatment technologies. 115 filled FRC containers e.g. 356,5 m3 of solid and solidified radwaste were shipped to the repository. The assessment activities were focused on reviewing of the safety documentation of activities, which were described before, on approving of technical specifications for operation safety and on an approving of quality assurance programmes. No event either at the facilities for radioactive was or during RAW transport that might have resulted in some incident or accident occurred during 2001. The inspection activity of UJD at BSC RAW was oriented on composition and inventory declaration and on the improvement of package quality from the integrity point of view. The inspection activity at RU RAW was mainly focused on commissioning process. The minimisation of RAW generation and the record keeping for the whole radioactive waste management system were the main goals of inspection activities at all nuclear installations

  10. Education and Training of Radiotherapists. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, M.

    2017-01-01

    The radiotherapist (RTT) is a member of the multidisciplinary team responsible for the preparation and delivery of a course of radiotherapy to cancer patients. The roles and responsibilities of the RTT vary significantly among countries and, in some instances, within countries. They are a reflection of both the local or broader national factors and the available resources, but must always incorporate accurate and safe practice. Irrespective of the scope of practice, roles and responsibilities, any educational programme developed for this professional group must not only prepare the RTTs for current practice, but enable them to adapt to future developments and challenges. Quality and equality of care for all patients receiving radiotherapy are the ultimate goals. To achieve these goals, educational programmes must include the subjects underpinning accurate and safe practice and must integrate academic and clinical components. Health care is undergoing reform in many countries, with a much stronger emphasis on patient centred care. However, reform of the delivery and quality of health care cannot be achieved without the parallel reform in health professional education. This need for reform is emphasized in the report on health professions education issued by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, wherein it is stated that “all health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team, emphasizing evidence-based practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics” [17.1]. This chapter deals with health care education in the United States of America, but the sentiment is equally applicable to the delivery of high quality health care for cancer patients throughout the world.

  11. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  12. Epidemiology of hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias in individuals referred to the haematology research centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran from 2006 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Ramzi, Mani; Zakerinia, Maryam; Nourani Khojasteh, Habib; Haghshenas, Mansour; Rezaei, Narges; Moayed, Vida; Rezaei, Alireza; Karimi, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias are the most frequent genetic hereditary disorders with an increasing global health burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to determine the epidemiologic pattern of hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias in individuals referred to the Haematology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, which is the most important referral center in Southern Iran during 2006 to 2011. The most frequent abnormality was β-thalassemia (β-thal) minor (24.0%), followed by α-thalassemia (α-thal) trait (10.0%), hemoglobin (Hb) S trait (4.0%) and Hb D-Punjab trait (4.0%). Because this center is a referral center, we detected a higher prevalence compared to the normal population; however, these data could help policymakers and health service providers to better programming for prevention of births affected with Hb disorders.

  13. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  14. Spontaneous Raman Scattering Diagnostics: Applications in Practical Combustion Systems. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Viet-Nguyen, Quang; Lackner, Maximilian (Editor); Winter, Franz (Editor); Agarwal, Avinash (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the recent advancements and practical aspects of laser SRS diagnostics have been reviewed wi til regards to applications in practical combustion systems. Clearly, SRS represents a theoretically and experimentally mature diagnostic technology that has become an essential tool for multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion at elevated pressures. Today, time-, space-, spectrally, and even polarization-resolved S RS diagnostics is at hand, with aid from recent innovations in theoretical and technological developments on electro-optical or electromechanical devices. Whilst a linear increase in SRS signals can be expected in high-pressure systems (this is perhaps one of the most important advantages for using SRS in high-pressure systems), there are practical (often severe) restrictions associated with pressurized vessels, due mainly to the limited degree of optical access. This narrows ti,e available choice of diagnostics that can be employed at any given time. Point-wise SRS diagnostics provides the highest accuracy on the chemical species and temperature measurements, and will continue to remain a vital approach for the study in such harsh environments. The practical design considerations and hands-on set-up guide for SRS diagnostics provided in this chapter are rarely presented elsewhere. Although the second-harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser (532 nm), combined with pulse-stretching optics or the recently introduced White Cell-based laser, seems to be the most favored excitation source of choice by the research community, UV excitation will undoubtedly continue to be used on many occasions, and especially in sooting flames. Detection methods may be divided into ICCD-based nanosecond-gate detection or a rotary-chopper electromechanical shutter-based CCD array detection, and the levels of background flame emission in individual cases would determine this critical design choice. Here, a process of Raman signal calibration based on ti,e crosstalk matrix

  15. Variables influencing wearable sensor outcome estimates in individuals with stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot investigation validating two research grade sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Chandrasekaran; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya Krishna; Mannix-Slobig, Alannah; McGee Koch, Lori; Jayaraman, Arun

    2018-03-13

    Monitoring physical activity and leveraging wearable sensor technologies to facilitate active living in individuals with neurological impairment has been shown to yield benefits in terms of health and quality of living. In this context, accurate measurement of physical activity estimates from these sensors are vital. However, wearable sensor manufacturers generally only provide standard proprietary algorithms based off of healthy individuals to estimate physical activity metrics which may lead to inaccurate estimates in population with neurological impairment like stroke and incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). The main objective of this cross-sectional investigation was to evaluate the validity of physical activity estimates provided by standard proprietary algorithms for individuals with stroke and iSCI. Two research grade wearable sensors used in clinical settings were chosen and the outcome metrics estimated using standard proprietary algorithms were validated against designated golden standard measures (Cosmed K4B2 for energy expenditure and metabolic equivalent and manual tallying for step counts). The influence of sensor location, sensor type and activity characteristics were also studied. 28 participants (Healthy (n = 10); incomplete SCI (n = 8); stroke (n = 10)) performed a spectrum of activities in a laboratory setting using two wearable sensors (ActiGraph and Metria-IH1) at different body locations. Manufacturer provided standard proprietary algorithms estimated the step count, energy expenditure (EE) and metabolic equivalent (MET). These estimates were compared with the estimates from gold standard measures. For verifying validity, a series of Kruskal Wallis ANOVA tests (Games-Howell multiple comparison for post-hoc analyses) were conducted to compare the mean rank and absolute agreement of outcome metrics estimated by each of the devices in comparison with the designated gold standard measurements. The sensor type, sensor location

  16. Possible ways of correction and treatment of sexual disturbances at men-liquidators of accident on Chernobyl NPP. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Main aspects of sexual dysfunction treatment are discussed in the chapter. It is noted that the individual comprehensive system approach to treatment is necessary. In treatment of sexual dysfunctions it is important take into account all components of disease (neuro gumoral, mental etc)

  17. Summary and evaluation of nuclear waste forms. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.; Ewing, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter data are compiled from the foregoing contributed chapters into tables. In a few cases additional more recent data not found in the chapters have been included in the tables. The following waste form data are summarized: physical properties, chemical durability, radiation effects and the status of processing techniques. In addition important aspects of the comparison of waste forms and the response of waste forms (glass and ceramic) to corrosion and radiation effects are discussed. (author). 119 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  18. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  19. Early Engagement of Stakeholders with Individual-Based Modeling Can Inform Research for Improving Invasive Species Management: The Round Goby as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Samson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual-based models (IBMs incorporating realistic representations of key range-front processes such as dispersal can be used as tools to investigate the dynamics of invasive species. Managers can apply insights from these models to take effective action to prevent further spread and prioritize measures preventing establishment of invasive species. We highlight here how early-stage IBMs (constructed under constraints of time and data availability can also play an important role in defining key research priorities for providing key information on the biology of an invasive species in order that subsequent models can provide robust insight into potential management interventions. The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, is currently spreading through the Baltic Sea, with major negative effects being reported in the wake of its invasion. Together with stakeholders, we parameterize an IBM to investigate the goby's potential spread pattern throughout the Gulf of Gdansk and the Baltic Sea. Model parameters were assigned by integrating information obtained through stakeholder interaction, from scientific literature, or estimated using an inverse modeling approach when not available. IBMs can provide valuable direction to research on invasive species even when there is limited data and/or time available to parameterize/fit them to the degree to which we might aspire in an ideal world. Co-development of models with stakeholders can be used to recognize important invasion patterns, in addition to identifying and estimating unknown environmental parameters, thereby guiding the direction of future research. Well-parameterized and validated models are not required in the earlier stages of the modeling cycle where their main utility is as a tool for thought.

  20. Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ITER Physics Expert Group on Disruptions, Control, Plasma, and MHD; ITER Physics Expert Group on Energetic Particles, Heating, Current and Drive; ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics; ITER Physics Basis Editors

    1999-12-01

    well as in plasma periphery and divertor. The planned diagnostics (Chapter 7) serve as sensors for kinetic control, while gas and pellet fuelling, auxiliary power and angular momentum input, impurity injection, and non-inductive current drive constitute the control actuators. For example, in an ignited plasma, core density controls fusion power output. Kinetic control algorithms vary according to the plasma state, e.g. H- or L-mode. Generally, present facilities have demonstrated the kinetic control methods required for a reactor scale device. Plasma initiation - breakdown, burnthrough and initial current ramp - in reactor scale tokamaks will not involve physics differing from that found in present day devices. For ITER, the induced electric field in the chamber will be ~0.3V· m-1 - comparable to that required by breakdown theory but somewhat smaller than in present devices. Thus, a start-up 3MW electron cyclotron heating system will be employed to assure burnthrough. Simulations show that plasma current ramp up and termination in a reactor scale device can follow procedures developed to avoid disruption in present devices. In particular, simulations remain in the stable area of the li-q plane. For design purposes, the resistive V·s consumed during initiation is found, by experiments, to follow the Ejima expression, 0.45μ0 RIp. Advanced tokamak control has two distinct goals. First, control of density, auxiliary power, and inductive current ramping to attain reverse shear q profiles and internal transport barriers, which persist until dissipated by magnetic flux diffusion. Such internal transport barriers can lead to transient ignition. Second, combined use poloidal field shape control with non-inductive current drive and NBI angular momentum injection to create and control steady state, high bootstrap fraction, reverse shear discharges. Active n = 1 magnetic feedback and/or driven rotation will be required to suppress resistive wall modes for steady state plasmas

  1. Synthesizing Knowledge in Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle A.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter discusses knowledge synthesis in design research, bringing together the perspectives of experimental design research, or Research in Design Context that is treated extensively elsewhere in this book, and Design Inclusive Research as well as Practice-based Design Research. Specific...... attention is paid to the question of how practice-based or problem-driven design research processes can be rigorous and yield contributions to knowledge. The main argument in this chapter is that a key to knowledge synthesis and scientific contribution is setting explicit design propositions...... that are instantiated within design artefacts, and evaluated rigorously. The chapter starts with a discussion of knowledge creation and synthesis within design research.Following this, the chapter moves on to focus on setting a methodological framework for deriving design propositions. Lastly the chapter elaborates...

  2. Seleucid, Demotic and Mediterranean mathematics versus Chapters VIII and IX of the Nine Chapters: accidental or significant similarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    Similarities of geometrical diagrams and arithmetical structures of problems have often been taken as evidence of transmission of mathematical knowledge or techniques between China and “the West”. Confronting on one hand some problems from Chapter VIII of the Nine Chapters with comparable problems...... known from Ancient Greek sources, on the other a Seleucid collection of problems about rectangles with a subset of the triangle problems from Chapter IX, it is concluded, (1) that transmission of some arithmetical riddles without method – not “from Greece” but from a transnational community of traders...

  3. Valley plugs, land use, and phytogeomorphic response: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Aaron R.; King, Sammy L.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of fluvial systems can disrupt functional processes that provide valuable ecosystem services. Channelization alters fluvial parameters and the connectivity of river channels to their floodplains which is critical for productivity, nutrient cycling, flood control, and biodiversity. The effects of channelization can be exacerbated by local geology and land-use activities, resulting in dramatic geomorphic readjustments including the formation of valley plugs. Considerable variation in the response of abiotic processes, including surface hydrology, subsurface hydrology, and sedimentation dynamics, to channelization and the formation of valley plugs. Altered abiotic processes associated with these geomorphic features and readjustments influence biotic processes including species composition, abundance, and successional processes. Considerable interest exists for restoring altered fluvial systems and their floodplains because of their social and ecological importance. Understanding abiotic and biotic responses of channelization and valley-plug formation within the context of the watershed is essential to successful restoration. This chapter focuses on the primary causes of valley-plug formation, resulting fluvial-geomorphic responses, vegetation responses, and restoration and research needs for these systems.

  4. Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de

    2002-01-01

    The Final Proceedings for Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting, 7 November 2001 - 9 November 2001 This is an interdisciplinary conference in human factors and ergonomics...

  5. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  6. Part I. Chapter IV. Coldness is coming from Wienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter author reviewed a political pressure of Austrian government and Austrian legislative assembly on Slovakia before fuel assembly insertion and commissioning of the Unit-1 of the Mochovce NPP. Mission of Walkdown II is described.

  7. Chapter 3: Assessing the Electric System Benefits of Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 3 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy presents detailed information about the energy system, specifically electricity benefits of clean energy, to help policy makers understand how to identify and assess these benefits based upon t

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  9. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter XI: concept evolution, chapter XII: design concept, and chapter XIII: operation and test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, Ken; Fujisawa, Noboru; Iida, Hiromasa

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapters XI, XII, and XIII of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workship, Phase Two A, Part 2. In the phase Two A, Part 2 workshop, we have studied critical technical issues and have also assessed scientific and technical data bases. Based on those results, the INTOR design have been modified to upgrade the design concept. The major modification items are related to plasma beta value, plasma operation scenario, reactor size reduction, neutron fluence, tritium producing blanket, and implementation of active control coils. In those chapters, the concept evolution for the design modification and main results are described. (author)

  10. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  11. Individual identification via electrocardiogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Antonio; Sansone, Mario; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario

    2015-08-14

    During last decade the use of ECG recordings in biometric recognition studies has increased. ECG characteristics made it suitable for subject identification: it is unique, present in all living individuals, and hard to forge. However, in spite of the great number of approaches found in literature, no agreement exists on the most appropriate methodology. This study aimed at providing a survey of the techniques used so far in ECG-based human identification. Specifically, a pattern recognition perspective is here proposed providing a unifying framework to appreciate previous studies and, hopefully, guide future research. We searched for papers on the subject from the earliest available date using relevant electronic databases (Medline, IEEEXplore, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge). The following terms were used in different combinations: electrocardiogram, ECG, human identification, biometric, authentication and individual variability. The electronic sources were last searched on 1st March 2015. In our selection we included published research on peer-reviewed journals, books chapters and conferences proceedings. The search was performed for English language documents. 100 pertinent papers were found. Number of subjects involved in the journal studies ranges from 10 to 502, age from 16 to 86, male and female subjects are generally present. Number of analysed leads varies as well as the recording conditions. Identification performance differs widely as well as verification rate. Many studies refer to publicly available databases (Physionet ECG databases repository) while others rely on proprietary recordings making difficult them to compare. As a measure of overall accuracy we computed a weighted average of the identification rate and equal error rate in authentication scenarios. Identification rate resulted equal to 94.95 % while the equal error rate equal to 0.92 %. Biometric recognition is a mature field of research. Nevertheless, the use of physiological signals

  12. Implications of climate and land use change: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jefferson S.; Murgueitio, Enrique; Calle, Zoraida; Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara; Stallard, Robert F.; Balvanera, Patricia; Hall, Jefferson S.; Kirn, Vanessa; Yanguas-Fernandez, Estrella

    2015-01-01

    This chapter relates ecosystem services to climate change and land use. The bulk of the chapter focuses on ecosystem services and steepland land use in the humid Neotropics – what is lost with land-cover changed, and what is gained with various types of restoration that are sustainable given private ownership. Many case studies are presented later in the white paper. The USGS contribution relates to climate change and the role of extreme weather events in land-use planning.

  13. A common framework for conservation planning: Linking individual and metapopulation models [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry R. Noon; Kevin S. McKelvey

    1996-01-01

    Many populations exhibit pronounced spatial structure: dispersed areas of high population density embedded in areas of low density, with population centers connected through dispersal. This recognition has led many conservation biologists to embrace the metapopulation concept (Levins 1970) as the appropriate paradigm for reserve design structures (reviewed in Hanski...

  14. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 4: Cosmic Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J. L. [MIT, LNS; Ritz, S. [UC, Santa Cruz; Beatty, J. J. [Ohio State U.; Buckley, J. [Washington U., Seattle; Cowen, D. F. [Penn State U.; Cushman, P. [Minnesota U.; Dodelson, S. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Galbiati, C. [PNPI, CSTD; Honscheid, K. [Ohio State U.; Hooper, D. [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Kaplinghat, M. [UC, Irvine; Kusenko, A. [Unlisted; Matchev, K. [Florida U.; McKinsey, D. [Yale U.; Nelson, A. E. [Washington U., Seattle; Olinto, A. [Chicago U., EFI; Profumo, S. [UC, Santa Cruz; Robertson, H. [Washington U., Seattle; Rosenberg, L. [Unlisted; Sinnis, G. [Los Alamos; Tait, T. M.P. [UCLA

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 4, on the Cosmic Frontier, discusses the program of research relevant to cosmology and the early universe. This area includes the study of dark matter and the search for its particle nature, the study of dark energy and inflation, and cosmic probes of fundamental symmetries.

  15. Planning the Future of U.S. Particle Physics (Snowmass 2013): Chapter 3: Energy Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, R.; et al.

    2014-01-23

    These reports present the results of the 2013 Community Summer Study of the APS Division of Particles and Fields ("Snowmass 2013") on the future program of particle physics in the U.S. Chapter 3, on the Energy Frontier, discusses the program of research with high-energy colliders. This area includes experiments on the Higgs boson, the electroweak and strong interactions, and the top quark. It also encompasses direct searches for new particles and interactions at high energy.

  16. Recreation use on federal lands in southern Nevada [Chapter 10] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice M. McSweeney

    2013-01-01

    Providing for appropriate, diverse, and high quality recreation use of southern Nevada’s lands and ensuring responsible visitor use is an ongoing challenge for Federal agencies that manage much of this land (fig. 1.1). This chapter examines recreation on these Federal lands and addresses Sub-goal 2.4 in the SNAP Science Research Strategy (table 1.1). The demands for...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-16

    Jan 16, 2015 ... expressed in Prostatic adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate while Ck8 and Ki67 ... Ki67 antigen is a useful proliferation marker [13]. ... This study therefore examined the individual expression and the.

  18. Individual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  19. Physical properties of organic soils. Chapter 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry; Don H. Boelter; Juhani Paivanen; Dale S. Nichols; Tom Malterer; Avi Gafni

    2011-01-01

    Compared with research on mineral soils, the study of the physical properties of organic soils in the United States is relatively new. A comprehensive series of studies on peat physical properties were conducted by Don Boelter (1959-1975), first at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) and later throughout the northern Lakes States to investigate how to express bulk...

  20. Inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry. Chapter 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a new technique for elemental and isotopic analysis which is currently attracting a great deal of interest. This relatively new technique has found wide applications in different fields of research viz., nuclear, geological, biological and environmental sciences

  1. Chapter 12. Information needs: Boreal owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward

    1994-01-01

    Most humans are reluctant to make decisions without thorough knowledge of the consequences of those decisions. Therefore, a desire for further research is almost universal in any complex management arena. The value of further study is determined, in part, by the cost in time and resources to obtain new information and the cost of making incorrect decisions without the...

  2. Research Review: Harnessing the power of individual participant data in a meta-analysis of the benefits and harms of the Incredible Years parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Patty; Gardner, Frances; Landau, Sabine; Harris, Victoria; Mann, Joanna; Hutchings, Judy; Beecham, Jennifer; Bonin, Eva-Maria; Scott, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    Parenting programs aim to reduce children's conduct problems through improvement of family dynamics. To date, research on the precise benefits and possible harms of parenting programs on family well-being has been unsystematic and likely to be subject to selective outcome reporting and publication bias. Better understanding of program benefits and harms requires full disclosure by researchers of all included measures, and large enough numbers of participants to be able to detect small effects and estimate them precisely. We obtained individual participant data for 14 of 15 randomized controlled trials on the Incredible Years parenting program in Europe (total N = 1,799). We used multilevel modeling to estimate program effects on 13 parent-reported outcomes, including parenting practices, children's mental health, and parental mental health. Parental use of praise, corporal punishment, threats, and shouting improved, while parental use of tangible rewards, monitoring, or laxness did not. Children's conduct problems and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms improved, while emotional problems did not. Parental mental health (depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and stress) did not improve. There was no evidence of harmful effects. The Incredible Years parenting program improves the aspects of family well-being that it is primarily designed to improve: parenting and children's conduct problems. It also improves parent-reported ADHD symptoms in children. Wider benefits are limited: the program does not improve children's emotional problems or parental mental health. There are no signs of harm on any of the target outcomes. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. A new socioeconomic status measure for vaccine research in children using individual housing data: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Hammer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently developed HOUSES, an individual housing-based socioeconomic status (SES measurement for health disparities research. We assessed whether HOUSES was associated with risk of pertussis and pertussis vaccine up-to-date status in children. Methods The study utilized a previous population-based case-control study cohort assembled during the 2004–2005 pertussis outbreak. We collected data on pertussis vaccine status (up-to-date status at the time of the index date. Using a z-score for housing value, actual square footage, and numbers of bedrooms and bathrooms, HOUSES was formulated in continuous variable and categorized into quartiles. Vaccine up-to-date status was compared among subjects with different SES as measured by HOUSES using a chi-square test and logistic regression models. Results Of the 391 eligible pediatric subjects (median age of 13.1 years with male sex of 55 %, 363 (93 % were successfully geocoded to formulate HOUSES index. HOUSES was not associated with the risk of pertussis (p = 0.82. Pertussis vaccine up-to-date statuses were 79, 86, 83, and 94 % for children in the first (the lowest SES, second, third, and fourth quartiles of HOUSES, respectively (p = 0.03. HOUSES as a continuous variable was associated with pertussis vaccine up-to-date status (adjusted OR: 1.15 per increment of one unit of HOUSES, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.27, p = 0.008. Conclusion While HOUSES is not associated with the risk of pertussis, it predicts vaccine up-to-date status among children with different SES. HOUSES may be a useful tool for vaccine delivery research among children.

  4. Computer codes for problems of isotope and radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remer, M.

    1986-12-01

    A survey is given of computer codes for problems in isotope and radiation research. Altogether 44 codes are described as titles with abstracts. 17 of them are in the INIS scope and are processed individually. The subjects are indicated in the chapter headings: 1) analysis of tracer experiments, 2) spectrum calculations, 3) calculations of ion and electron trajectories, 4) evaluation of gamma irradiation plants, and 5) general software

  5. An Acupuncture Research Protocol Developed from Historical Writings by Mathematical Reflections: A Rational Individualized Acupoint Selection Method for Immediate Pain Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schroeder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While balancing yin and yang is one basic principle of Chinese medicine, balancing methods for combination of meridians and acupoints had been described throughout the history of Chinese medicine. We have identified six historical systems for combinations of acupuncture points in historical writings. All of them represent symmetrical combinations which are defined by the steps in the Chinese Clock. Taking the historical systems as a basis, we calculated the possible combinations that fit into these systems they revealed, leading to a total of 19 systems offering new balancing combinations. Merging the data of these 19 systems, there are 7 combinatorial options for every meridian. On the basis of this data, we calculated 4-meridian combinations with an ideal balance pattern, which is given when all meridians balance each other. We identified 5 of these patterns for every meridian, so we end up with 60 patterns for all the 12 meridians but we find multiple overlapping. Finally, 15 distinct patterns remain. By combining this theoretical concept with the Image and Mirror Concept, we developed an acupuncture research protocol. This protocol potentially solves some problems of acupuncture trials because it represents a rational reproducible procedure independent of examiner experience, but the resulting treatment is individualized.

  6. Intelligent Control and Health Monitoring. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Kumar, Aditya; Mathews, H. Kirk; Rosenfeld, Taylor; Rybarik, Pavol; Viassolo, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced model-based control architecture overcomes the limitations state-of-the-art engine control and provides the potential of virtual sensors, for example for thrust and stall margin. "Tracking filters" are used to adapt the control parameters to actual conditions and to individual engines. For health monitoring standalone monitoring units will be used for on-board analysis to determine the general engine health and detect and isolate sudden faults. Adaptive models open up the possibility of adapting the control logic to maintain desired performance in the presence of engine degradation or to accommodate any faults. Improved and new sensors are required to allow sensing at stations within the engine gas path that are currently not instrumented due in part to the harsh conditions including high operating temperatures and to allow additional monitoring of vibration, mass flows and energy properties, exhaust gas composition, and gas path debris. The environmental and performance requirements for these sensors are summarized.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  8. Patterns of citations of open access and non-open access conservation biology journal papers and book chapters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, Michael C; Bradley, J Stuart

    2010-06-01

    Open access (OA) publishing, whereby authors, their institutions, or their granting bodies pay or provide a repository through which peer-reviewed work is available online for free, is championed as a model to increase the number of citations per paper and disseminate results widely, especially to researchers in developing countries. We compared the number of citations of OA and non-OA papers in six journals and four books published since 2000 to test whether OA increases number of citations overall and increases citations made by authors in developing countries. After controlling for type of paper (e.g., review or research paper), length of paper, authors' citation profiles, number of authors per paper, and whether the author or the publisher released the paper in OA, OA had no statistically significant influence on the overall number of citations per journal paper. Journal papers were cited more frequently if the authors had published highly cited papers previously, were members of large teams of authors, or published relatively long papers, but papers were not cited more frequently if they were published in an OA source. Nevertheless, author-archived OA book chapters accrued up to eight times more citations than chapters in the same book that were not available through OA, perhaps because there is no online abstracting service for book chapters. There was also little evidence that journal papers or book chapters published in OA received more citations from authors in developing countries relative to those journal papers or book chapters not published in OA. For scholarly publications in conservation biology, only book chapters had an OA citation advantage, and OA did not increase the number of citations papers or chapters received from authors in developing countries.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  10. Chapter 8: Materials for Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Materials science and processing research in space can be thought of as a field of study that began with the sounding rocket experiments in the 1950s. Material science studies of the lunar surface materials returned during the Apollo missions enabled the study of lunar resource utilization. The study of materials science and processing in space continued with over 30 years of microgravity materials processing research which continues today in the International Space Station. These studies are the technical foundation that could enable lower cost human exploration through the use of in-situ propellant production, the production of energy from space resources, and the eventual establishment of a substantial portion of humanity living self sufficiently off Earth.

  11. Annotating individual human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A; Topol, Eric J; Schork, Nicholas J

    2011-10-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to rapidly, accurately and affordably sequence entire individual human genomes. As impressive as this ability seems, however, it will not likely amount to much if one cannot extract meaningful information from individual sequence data. Annotating variations within individual genomes and providing information about their biological or phenotypic impact will thus be crucially important in moving individual sequencing projects forward, especially in the context of the clinical use of sequence information. In this paper we consider the various ways in which one might annotate individual sequence variations and point out limitations in the available methods for doing so. It is arguable that, in the foreseeable future, DNA sequencing of individual genomes will become routine for clinical, research, forensic, and personal purposes. We therefore also consider directions and areas for further research in annotating genomic variants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ANNOTATING INDIVIDUAL HUMAN GENOMES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; Topol, Eric J.; Schork, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to rapidly, accurately and affordably sequence entire individual human genomes. As impressive as this ability seems, however, it will not likely to amount to much if one cannot extract meaningful information from individual sequence data. Annotating variations within individual genomes and providing information about their biological or phenotypic impact will thus be crucially important in moving individual sequencing projects forward, especially in the context of the clinical use of sequence information. In this paper we consider the various ways in which one might annotate individual sequence variations and point out limitations in the available methods for doing so. It is arguable that, in the foreseeable future, DNA sequencing of individual genomes will become routine for clinical, research, forensic, and personal purposes. We therefore also consider directions and areas for further research in annotating genomic variants. PMID:21839162

  13. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  14. Ecological impacts of non-native species: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Griffiths, R.A.; Kuzmin, S.L.; Heatwole, Harold; Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  15. Reproducible Bioinformatics Research for Biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the current Big Data problem in Bioinformatics and the resulting issues with performing reproducible computational research. The core of the chapter provides guidelines and summaries of current tools/techniques that a noncomputational researcher would need to learn to pe...

  16. Assessment of Research Needs for Advanced Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1985-11-01

    The DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Working Group (AFCWG) was formed and asked to perform a scientific evaluation of the current status of fuel cells, with emphasis on identification of long-range research that may have a significant impact on the practical utilization of fuel cells in a variety of applications. The AFCWG held six meetings at locations throughout the country where fuel cell research and development are in progress, for presentations by experts on the status of fuel cell research and development efforts, as well as for inputs on research needs. Subsequent discussions by the AFCWG have resulted in the identification of priority research areas that should be explored over the long term in order to advance the design and performance of fuel cells of all types. Surveys describing the salient features of individual fuel cell types are presented in Chapters 2 to 6 and include elaborations of long-term research needs relating to the expeditious introduction of improved fuel cells. The Introduction and the Summary (Chapter 1) were prepared by AFCWG. They were repeatedly revised in response to comments and criticism. The present version represents the closest approach to a consensus that we were able to reach, which should not be interpreted to mean that each member of AFCWG endorses every statement and every unexpressed deletion. The Introduction and Summary always represent a majority view and, occasionally, a unanimous judgment. Chapters 2 to 6 provide background information and carry the names of identified authors. The identified authors of Chapters 2 to 6, rather than AFCWG as a whole, bear full responsibility for the scientific and technical contents of these chapters.

  17. A process industry perspective. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, J. [Metsae-Serla Oyj (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Process industries, whether they are base metals, chemicals, plastics or wood-processing, have certain common features that influence their potential to adapt to changing requirements: - The products are primarily business-to-business commodities. - The proportion of invested capital to turnover is high. - The operating life of equipment is long, 15-40 years, and the basic technology is selected when the equipment is designed. - In free competition an individual operator cannot acquire a dominating market share. Thus, competitiveness is determined by cost-effectiveness. - The preference for the mass production paradigm has increased the plant size so that every new investment project leads to an over-capacity situation at least for the continent in question. The above outlines the starting point for this article, which explores the common future of the process industry and energy. The article mainly focuses on Finland and Europe, with the time span of 5 to 15 years. It is sensible to study the future of the process industry primarily on the basis of various scenarios. However, we have not tried to create new scenario sets but have utilised the excellent material accumulated in recent years in this field. The applied sustainable development scenarios Jazz and Geo are in true conflict in almost all issues related to ecological studies. The process industry on the whole, not to mention individual companies, has relatively little influence on the decision of a specific economic region regarding the scheme it selects. The global trend appears to be leaning more towards the Jazz scenario even though the existing structures are strongly attracted to the Geo scenario. With the exception of some local operators, it appears that customers are not likely to present challenges regarding carbon dioxide to the process industry. As both equipment and phenomena have longterm influences, the importance of a sustainable energy strategy is emphasised at the level of both companies

  18. Individual killer whale vocal variation during intra-group behavioral dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebner, Dawn M.

    The scientific goal of this dissertation was to carefully study the signal structure of killer whale communications and vocal complexity and link them to behavioral circumstances. The overall objective of this research sought to provide insight into killer whale call content and usage which may be conveying information to conspecifics in order to maintain group cohesion. Data were collected in the summers of 2006 and 2007 in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia. For both individuals and small groups, vocalizations were isolated using a triangular hydrophone array and the behavioral movement patterns were captured by a theodolite and video camera positioned on a cliff overlooking the hyrophone locations. This dissertation is divided into four analysis chapters. In Chapter 3, discriminant analysis was used to validate the four N04 call subtypes which were originally parsed due to variations in slope segments. The first two functions of the discriminant analysis explained 97% of the variability. Most of the variability for the N04 call was found in the front convex and the terminal portions of the call, while very little variability was found in the center region of the call. This research revealed that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N04 call. No correlations of behaviors to acoustic parameters obtained were found. The aim of the Chapter 4 was to determine if killer whale calling behavior varied prior to and after the animals had joined. Pulsed call rates were found to be greater pre- compared to post-joining events. Two-way vocal exchanges were more common occurring 74% of the time during pre-joining events. In Chapter 5, initiated and first response to calls varied between age/sex class groups when mothers were separated from an offspring. Solo mothers and calves initiated pulsed calls more often than they responded. Most of the no vocal responses were due to mothers who were foraging. Finally, observations of the frequency split in N04

  19. Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. Chapter 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sai Baba, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric method for the determination of vapour pressures and thermodynamic properties is described. The aim of the article is to give a general introduction to the method rather than to give a critical review of the technique. The latest developments in this area of research are reviewed by the peers in the field during the triennial international mass spectrometric conferences. The Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric method is being applied for thermodynamic measurements. In recent times, laser vaporisation mass spectrometric methods have emerged as a source of determination of vapour pressures at very high temperatures and beyond the pressure regime far exceeding Knudsen effusion range

  20. Radio Frequency Microelectromechanical Systems [Book Chapter Manuscript

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olsson, Roy H. [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Radio frequency microelectromechanical system (RF MEMS) devices are microscale devices that achieve superior performance relative to other technologies by taking advantage of the accuracy, precision, materials, and miniaturization available through microfabrication. To do this, these devices use their mechanical and electrical properties to perform a specific RF electrical function such as switching, transmission, or filtering. RF MEMS has been a popular area of research since the early 1990s, and within the last several years, the technology has matured sufficiently for commercialization and use in commercial market systems.

  1. Chapter 8. Activation mechanisms of chemokine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia C; Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2009-01-01

    binding. Attempts to unravel the activation mechanism of 7TM receptors have led to the conclusion that activation involves movements of the transmembrane segments VI and VII in particular, as recently gathered in the Global Toggle Switch Model. However, to understand the activation mechanism completely......, more research has to be done in this field. Chemokine receptors are interesting tools in this matter. First, the chemokine system has a high degree of promiscuity that allows several chemokines to target one receptor in different ways, as well as a single chemokine ligand to target several receptors...

  2. The neurobiology of individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  3. Chapter 9. Personnel qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The overall training system and the development of projects for training of all categories of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice, SE-VYZ and NPP Mochovce staff were the subject of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) attention. During 2000, the following inspections were carried out on nuclear personnel training: (a) NPP Bohunice: an inspection focused on compliance with requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of Bohunice plant staff ; (b) NPP Mochovce: an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of NPP Mochovce staff; an inspection focused on verifying the simulator aided training; an inspection focused on checking the preparedness of NPP Mochovce operation and technical personnel for NPP Mochovce Unit 2 operation; (c) Technology for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste Bohunice (BSC): an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of SE-VYZ staff; VUJE Trnava: verification of technical equipment and professional skills of VUJE Trnava staff and tasks arising out of the 'Authorisation on nuclear installation staff training'. Examinations of selected personnel were scheduled according to the plan of examining committee meetings. For each examined person written tests are generated by the computer from the database of test questions at the Training Centre of VUJE Trnava for individual positions - categories of selected staff of NPP V-1 and NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce so that the examination questions both in written and oral part equally cover individual facilities and regimes of operation of NPP. The database is continuously updated, thereby containing new questions resulting from the recent changes carried out at NPPs. A part of the examination in case of promotion to a higher position is the practical part, which is conducted under

  4. Chapter No.8. Personnel qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    selected personnel were scheduled according to the plan of examining committee meetings. For each examined person written tests are generated by the computer from the database of test questions at the Training Centre of VUJE Trnava for individual positions - categories of selected staff of NPP V-1 and NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce so that the examination questions both in written and oral part equally cover individual facilities and regimes of operation of NPP. The database is continuously updated, thereby containing new questions resulting from the recent changes carried out at NPP's. A part of the examination in case of promotion to a higher position is the practical part, which is conducted under the direct supervision of the trainer within 4 to 10 weeks after the successful completion of both written and oral of examinations. Last year the committee held ten sessions for the oral theoretical examination. The number of licenses issued in 2001 and the total number of valid licenses is given. Conclusions from inspections and tests as well as results from operation and start up of nuclear units confirm that in this area a high standard of operational safety is being achieved on a permanent basis. Increasing the qualification of UJD staff Increasing the qualification of UJD staff was done in a form of training and courses scheduled in the plan of training for UJD staff for 2001. This training composed of specialised qualification study, functional study, as well as study aimed at maintaining qualification (continual and periodical exercise). Training courses organised by the Government Office of Slovakia and the IAEA were also of a significant benefit and UJD staff participated on foreign training courses, seminars and conferences, focusing on maintaining and improvement of professional skills

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-02-15

    Feb 15, 2011 ... Health related quality of life among adolescents with sickle cell disease in Saudi ... original work is properly cited. ... [38] examined HRQoL in children with SCD specifically in relation to painful events at ..... childhood illness is explained in the balance of family demands (stressors from individual, family, and.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... Methods: Focus group discussions with adolescents, parents of infants and adolescents, and .... Both individual interviews and FGDs revealed similar views; therefore .... emotional solidarity in case of adverse events, mosquito nets, food, .... and of their parents/caretakers and therefore may not reflect the.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-26

    Aug 26, 2015 ... Epilepsy had negative impact on the lives of individuals with the condition; 40.8% had ... 55.3% of participants (or their families) considered epilepsy to be of spiritual/ .... marital status 75 (64.6%) were unmarried, divorced or single. A ..... Ogunlesi T, Ogundeyi M, Olowu A. Pattern of childhood .... Emotions.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-29

    Sep 29, 2017 ... 1Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital .... stable angina pectoris and inaccessible medical data, and a ..... blockers in patients with heart failure plus atrial fibrillation: an individual-patient data meta-analysis. .... prior renal failure, prior heart failure, prior stroke, prior CABG, eGFR, ...

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-05-21

    ", and a total score of 3 is interpreted as "full insight". (iii) Oslo social support scale which is a 3-item scale that assesses the level of an individual's social support. The scale asks about the ease of getting help from neighbours, ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-14

    Mar 14, 2018 ... both formative and summative assessments, including bedside clinical examinations ... individual bedside teaching as core strategies of learning. There is at .... participants. The disparity in the curriculum design of the undergraduate .... The healthcare system in SA is faced with resource constraints, which.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-25

    May 25, 2015 ... Abstract. Introduction: insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) stood at center in the current efforts to prevent and control malaria at community and individual levels. Though ITNs are the most prominent measure for large-scale deployment in highly endemic areas their compliance in terms of ownership and usage ...

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... Abstract. Introduction: Electroencephalography (EEG) remains the most important investigative modality in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with epilepsy. Children living with epilepsy in the developing world are faced with challenges of lack of access to appropriate diagnostic evaluation and a.

  13. Global comparison of national individual food consumption surveys as a basis for health research and integration in national health surveillance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Inge; Aglago, Elom K; Mullee, Amy; De Keyzer, Willem; Leclercq, Catherine; Allemand, Pauline; Balcerzak, Agnieszka; Zotor, Francis B; Gunter, Marc J

    2017-11-01

    Individual food consumption surveys (IFCS) are performed to evaluate compliance with food/nutrient intake requirements or exposure to potential harmful dietary contaminants/components. In this review, we inventoried methods and designs used in national IFCS and discussed the methodologies applied across countries. Literature searches were performed using fixed sets of search terms in different online databases. We identified IFCS in thirty-nine countries from six world continents. National IFCS systems are available in most of the high-income countries, while such surveys are scarce in low- and middle-income countries (e.g. Africa, Eastern Europe and several Asian countries). Few countries (n 9) have their national IFCS incorporated into national health and nutrition surveys, allowing the investigation of dietary-related disease outcomes. Of the integrated surveys, most have the advantage of being continuous/regular, contrary to other IFCS that are mostly erratic. This review serves as the basis to define gaps and needs in IFCS worldwide and assists in defining priorities for resource allocation. In addition, it can serve as a source of inspiration for countries that do not have an IFCS system in place yet and advocate for national IFCS to be incorporated into national health and nutrition surveys in order to create: (1) research opportunities for investigating diet-disease relationships and (2) a frame to plan and evaluate the effect of diet-related policies (e.g. promotion of local nutrient-rich foods) and of nutrition recommendations, such as food-based dietary guidelines. Countries that integrate their IFCS within their national health and nutrition survey can serve as proof-of-principle for other countries.

  14. 42 CFR 68a.1 - What is the scope and purpose of the NIH Clinical Research Loan Repayment Program for Individuals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) CLINICAL RESEARCH LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM FOR... to the award of educational loan payments under the NIH Clinical Research Loan Repayment Program for... relative to income, to conduct clinical research as NIH employees. ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  18. Mineral Nutrition of Plants. Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai

    1995-01-01

    auditing by individual nations. However, a general estimate of the annual world consumption of elements and their compounds is presented.

  19. Chapter 9. Personnel qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on the overall training system and on developing programmes for individual categories for NPP V-1 Bohunice, NPP V-2 Bohunice, NPP Mochovce and SE-VYZ. The fundamental theoretical and periodical training for both Bohunice and Mochovce NPPs personnel, simulator training for NPP Bohunice, and periodical simulator training for Bohunice personnel is carried out by the VUJE Training center in Trnava, whereas the simulator training and periodical training for NPP Mochovce is carried at Mochovce plant. Based on a successful passing of examination before the examining committee, UJD issues, a certificate on special professional skills of selected staff of nuclear installations for specific activity for the given type of nuclear installation and for the following positions: (a)Shift manager for scientific start up with the right of manipulation; (b) Shift supervisor; (c) Unit supervisor; (d) Primary circuit operator; (e) Secondary circuit operator; (f) Reactor physicist; (g) Shift manager for scientific start up without the right of manipulation. Examination of selected personnel is described. Last year the examining committee held twelve session for oral theoretical examination. The number of licenses issued in 1999 and the total number of valid licenses is given.Conclusions from inspections carried out by UJD and inspections and tests carried out by the NPP operators in 1999, as well as results from operation and start up of nuclear units confirm that the standard of professional skills of the staff at nuclear installations a high standard of operational safety is being achieved on a permanent basis. Increasing the qualification of UJD staff was done in a form of training and courses scheduled in the plan of training for the staff for 1999. These training, composed of specialized qualification study, functional study, as well as study aimed at maintaining qualification. Training courses organized

  20. A Review of Research on Direct-Care Staff Data Collection Regarding the Severity and Function of Challenging Behavior in Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Emily K.; Peck, Janelle A.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    In working with individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), it is direct care staff who are often required to collect data on individuals' behavior which is used as the basis for implementation of empirically based approaches for intervention and treatment. Due to limited resources, indirect and descriptive measures of…