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Sample records for research home tobacco

  1. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change. IDRC is ...

  2. African Tobacco Control Research Initiative Scoping Exercise ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Tobacco Control Research Initiative (ATCRI) was established in ... of taxation, advertising bans, smoke-free places and graphic health warnings. ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work.

  3. Mediation designs for tobacco prevention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Taborga, Marcia P.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research designs and statistical analyses to investigate how tobacco prevention programs achieve their effects on tobacco use. A theoretical approach to program development and evaluation useful for any prevention program guides the analysis. The theoretical approach focuses on action theory for how the program affects mediating variables and on conceptual theory for how mediating variables are related to tobacco use. Information on the mediating mechanisms by which tobacco prevention programs achieve effects is useful for the development of efficient programs and provides a test of the theoretical basis of prevention efforts. Examples of these potential mediating mechanisms are described including mediated effects through attitudes, social norms, beliefs about positive consequences, and accessibility to tobacco. Prior research provides evidence that changes in social norms are a critical mediating mechanism for successful tobacco prevention. Analysis of mediating variables in single group designs with multiple mediators are described as well as multiple group randomized designs which are the most likely to accurately uncover important mediating mechanisms. More complicated dismantling and constructive designs are described and illustrated based on current findings from tobacco research. Mediation analysis for categorical outcomes and more complicated statistical methods are outlined. PMID:12324176

  4. Tobacco Research and Its Relevance to Science, Medicine and Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso TC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a historical review and a vision for the future of tobacco plant research. This is the perspective of an experienced tobacco scientist who devoted his total professional career to tobacco research. From the very beginning, pioneering tobacco research was the foundation of plant science at the dawn of modern development, in such areas as light, nutrition, genetics, growth control, disorders and metabolism. Tobacco research led to current advancements in plant biotechnology. In addition, tobacco plant research contributed significantly to public health research in radioactive elements, mycotoxins, and air pollutants. However, public support for tobacco research has today greatly declined to almost total elimination because of a sense of political correctness. This author points out that tobacco is one of the most valuable research tools, and is a most abundant source of scientific information. Research with tobacco plants will contribute far beyond the frontiers of agricultural science: tobacco can be a source of food supply with nutrition value similar to that of milk; tobacco can be a source of health supplies including medical chemicals and various vaccines; tobacco can be a source of biofuel. All we need is to treat tobacco with respect; the use of tobacco is only in its initial stages.

  5. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  6. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative ... action on tobacco will cause economic harm to governments, businesses, farmers, and poor families. ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  7. Economics of tobacco control research initiative: Operating costs for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics of tobacco control research initiative: Operating costs for capacity building ... (but misinformed) beliefs about the economic benefits of the tobacco industry ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  8. Advance of molecular marker application in the tobacco research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... nature, codominant inheritance, easy access, easy and ... available DNA marker types employed in tobacco research, the second .... and organization of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes ... maternal genome of tobacco.

  9. The FDA “Deeming Rule” and Tobacco Regulatory Research

    OpenAIRE

    Backinger, Cathy L.; Meissner, Helen I.; Ashley, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In May 2016, the Food and Drug Administration extended its tobacco regulatory authorities to other products meeting the definition of a tobacco product (Deeming Rule). This authority now includes, but is not limited to, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes, as well as all cigars, pipes, and hookahs (waterpipes). The FDA’s Center for Tobacco Products has been able to fund research projects addressing these newly deemed tobacco products through a variety of...

  10. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  11. Cutting down tobacco | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... ill health and birth defects from handling agricultural chemicals and tobacco leaf. ... The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control ... being pulled from school to work, women going sleepless to run curing kilns, ...

  12. Action research in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette

    2016-01-01

    quality in a joint effort between care workers, residents at the nursing home, and researchers. It concludes that the project led to empowerment of the residents and staff and played an important role in the development of democratic knowledge building about better quality and ethics in elder care....

  13. Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control : A How-to Introductory ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control : A How-to Introductory Manual for Researchers and Development Practitioners. Couverture du livre Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control : A How-to Introductory Manual for. Auteur(s):. Alison Mathie et Anne Carnozzi. Maison(s) d'édition: CRDI. 15 janvier 2005. ISBN :.

  14. Research on the model of home networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xiang; Feng, Xiancheng

    2007-11-01

    It is the research hotspot of current broadband network to combine voice service, data service and broadband audio-video service by IP protocol to transport various real time and mutual services to terminal users (home). Home Networking is a new kind of network and application technology which can provide various services. Home networking is called as Digital Home Network. It means that PC, home entertainment equipment, home appliances, Home wirings, security, illumination system were communicated with each other by some composing network technology, constitute a networking internal home, and connect with WAN by home gateway. It is a new network technology and application technology, and can provide many kinds of services inside home or between homes. Currently, home networking can be divided into three kinds: Information equipment, Home appliances, Communication equipment. Equipment inside home networking can exchange information with outer networking by home gateway, this information communication is bidirectional, user can get information and service which provided by public networking by using home networking internal equipment through home gateway connecting public network, meantime, also can get information and resource to control the internal equipment which provided by home networking internal equipment. Based on the general network model of home networking, there are four functional entities inside home networking: HA, HB, HC, and HD. (1) HA (Home Access) - home networking connects function entity; (2) HB (Home Bridge) Home networking bridge connects function entity; (3) HC (Home Client) - Home networking client function entity; (4) HD (Home Device) - decoder function entity. There are many physical ways to implement four function entities. Based on theses four functional entities, there are reference model of physical layer, reference model of link layer, reference model of IP layer and application reference model of high layer. In the future home network

  15. Using tobacco-industry marketing research to design more effective tobacco-control campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2002-06-12

    To improve tobacco-control efforts by applying tobacco-industry marketing research and strategies to clinical and public health smoking interventions, we analyzed previously secret tobacco-industry marketing documents. In contrast to public health, the tobacco industry divides markets and defines targets according to consumer attitudes, aspirations, activities, and lifestyles. Tobacco marketing targets smokers of all ages; young adults are particularly important. During the 1980s, cost affected increasing numbers of young and older smokers. During the 1990s, eroding social acceptability of smoking emerged as a major threat, largely from increasing awareness of the dangers of secondhand smoke among nonsmokers and smokers. Physicians and public health professionals should use tobacco-industry psychographic approaches to design more relevant tobacco-control interventions. Efforts to counter tobacco marketing campaigns should include people of all ages, particularly young adults, rather than concentrating on teens and young children. Many young smokers are cost sensitive. Tobacco-control messages emphasizing the dangers of secondhand smoke to smokers and nonsmokers undermine the social acceptability of smoking.

  16. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) : Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and DHSC partner to fight antimicrobial resistance in animals ... the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC)—are partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that. ... Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China) ... Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam.

  17. Tobacco control | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... ... tobacco use, the social nature of the activity, and the relatively recent innovation of flavouring the tobacco. ... Clean air for ourselves and our children ... They cultivated media contacts, leading to numerous newspaper articles, ... An awareness-raising video documents the economic problems associated ...

  18. Behavioral Economic Laboratory Research in Tobacco Regulatory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidey, Jennifer W; Cassidy, Rachel N; Miller, Mollie E; Smith, Tracy T

    2016-10-01

    Research that can provide a scientific foundation for the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco policy decisions is needed to inform tobacco regulatory policy. One factor that affects the impact of a tobacco product on public health is its intensity of use, which is determined, in part, by its abuse liability or reinforcing efficacy. Behavioral economic tasks have considerable utility for assessing the reinforcing efficacy of current and emerging tobacco products. This paper provides a narrative review of several behavioral economic laboratory tasks and identifies important applications to tobacco regulatory science. Behavioral economic laboratory assessments, including operant self-administration, choice tasks and purchase tasks, can be used generate behavioral economic data on the effect of price and other constraints on tobacco product consumption. These tasks could provide an expedited simulation of the effects of various tobacco control policies across populations of interest to the FDA. Tobacco regulatory research questions that can be addressed with behavioral economic tasks include assessments of the impact of product characteristics on product demand, assessments of the abuse liability of novel and potential modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs), and assessments of the impact of conventional and novel products in vulnerable populations.

  19. Gender Sensitive Research for Tobacco Control in Brazil | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender Sensitive Research for Tobacco Control in Brazil ... long-term climate action to reduce social inequality, promote greater gender parity, and empower ... IDRC and the Government of India announce their renewed support for research.

  20. Research Toward Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Hammon

    2010-12-31

    This final report was compiled from the detailed annual reports that were submitted for efforts in 2008 and 2009, and from individual task reports from 2010. Reports, case studies, and presentations derived from this work are available through the Building America website. The BIRA team is led by ConSol, a leading provider of energy solutions for builders since 1983. In partnership with over fifty builders, developers, architects, manufactures, researchers, utilities, and agencies, research work was performed in California, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Washington, Oregon, and Hawaii and five (5) climate regions (Hot-Dry, Marine, Hot-Humid, Cold, and Hot/Mixed Dry). In addition to research work, the team provided technical assistance to our partners whose interests span the entire building process. During the three year budget period, the BIRA team performed analyses of several emerging technologies, prototype homes, and high performance communities through detailed computer simulations and extensive field monitoring to meet the required climate joule milestone targets.

  1. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Rosen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Results: Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02. Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02. Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Conclusions: Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure.

  2. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura J; Myers, Vicki; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Kott, Jeff

    2015-12-18

    Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM). We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02). Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02). Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM) in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure.

  3. Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control: A How-to Introductory ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to engage in tobacco control research using qualitative methods and tools. ... Understandably, many policymakers need statistical evidence to make policy ... Fund (RRF) for Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks will fund social science, population ...

  4. Converging research needs across framework convention on tobacco control articles: making research relevant to global tobacco control practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan; Backinger, Cathy L

    2013-04-01

    Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute's process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts' recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC.

  5. Tobacco industry consumer research on socially acceptable cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, P M; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    To describe tobacco industry consumer research to inform the development of more "socially acceptable" cigarette products since the 1970s. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. 28 projects to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes were identified from Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, British American Tobacco, and Lorillard tobacco companies. Consumer research and concept testing consistently demonstrated that many smokers feel strong social pressure not to smoke, and this pressure increased with exposure to smoking restrictions. Tobacco companies attempted to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes with less visible sidestream smoke or less odour. When presented in theory, these product concepts were very attractive to important segments of the smoking population. However, almost every product developed was unacceptable in actual product tests or test markets. Smokers reported the complete elimination of secondhand smoke was necessary to satisfy non-smokers. Smokers have also been generally unwilling to sacrifice their own smoking satisfaction for the benefit of others. Many smokers prefer smoke-free environments to cigarettes that produce less secondhand smoke. Concerns about secondhand smoke and clean indoor air policies have a powerful effect on the social acceptability of smoking. Historically, the tobacco industry has been unable to counter these effects by developing more socially acceptable cigarettes. These data suggest that educating smokers about the health dangers of secondhand smoke and promoting clean indoor air policies has been difficult for the tobacco industry to counter with new products, and that every effort should be made to pursue these strategies.

  6. Is there an association between home-tobacco outlet proximity and smoking status in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; K Seid, Abdu; Stock, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    and/or tobacco outlets on smoking habits for the first time in a population based survey in Denmark. Method: Data came from the 2011 Danish national alcohol and drug survey of the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research of Aarhus University (response rate 64%) and registries of Statistics Denmark were...... between residing close to a tobacco outlet and the prevalence of current and previous smoking. However, no significant association was found between distance from residence to tobacco outlets and smoking habits. Discussion: The prevalence of current smokers (24%) is in accordance with the 2011 annual......Abstract It is well established that exposure to point-of-sale tobacco promotion or impulse purchases and access to and distance to tobacco outlets are related to youth and adult smoking. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of distance from residence to the nearest alcohol...

  7. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...

  8. Feasibility of Measuring Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution in Homes: Report from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rosen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke air pollution (TSAP measurement may persuade parents to adopt smoke-free homes and thereby reduce harm to children from tobacco smoke in the home. In a pilot study involving 29 smoking families, a Sidepak was used to continuously monitor home PM2.5 during an 8-h period, Sidepak and/or Dylos monitors provided real-time feedback, and passive nicotine monitors were used to measure home air nicotine for one week. Feedback was provided to participants in the context of motivational interviews. Home PM2.5 levels recorded by continuous monitoring were not well-accepted by participants because of the noise level. Also, graphs from continuous monitoring showed unexplained peaks, often associated with sources unrelated to indoor smoking, such as cooking, construction, or outdoor sources. This hampered delivery of a persuasive message about the relationship between home smoking and TSAP. By contrast, immediate real-time PM2.5 feedback (with Sidepak or Dylos monitor was feasible and provided unambiguous information; the Dylos had the additional advantages of being more economical and quieter. Air nicotine sampling was complicated by the time-lag for feedback and questions regarding shelf-life. Improvement in the science of TSAP measurement in the home environment is needed to encourage and help maintain smoke-free homes and protect vulnerable children. Recent advances in the use of mobile devices for real-time feedback are promising and warrant further development, as do accurate methods for real-time air nicotine air monitoring.

  9. Epidemiology and the Tobacco Epidemic: How Research on Tobacco and Health Shaped Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I provide a perspective on the tobacco epidemic and epidemiology, describing the impact of the tobacco-caused disease epidemic on the field of epidemiology. Although there is an enormous body of epidemiologic evidence on the associations of smoking with health, little systematic attention has been given to how decades of research have affected epidemiology and its practice. I address the many advances that resulted from epidemiologic research on smoking and health, such as demonstration of the utility of observational designs and important parameters (the odds ratio and the population attributable risk), guidelines for causal inference, and systematic review approaches. I also cover unintended and adverse consequences for the field, including the strategy of doubt creation and the recruitment of epidemiologists by the tobacco industry to serve its mission. The paradigm of evidence-based action for addressing noncommunicable diseases began with the need to address the epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, an imperative for action documented by epidemiologic research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Community knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about environmental tobacco smoke in homes and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeff; Greenbank, Susan; McDowell, Michelle; Mahoney, Catherine; Mazerolle, Paul; Occhipinti, Stefano; Steginga, Suzanne

    2008-08-01

    to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in cars and homes in Queensland. 1,026 randomly selected Queensland residents (84% response) participated in a computer assisted telephone survey to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about ETS in cars and homes; and attitudes towards restrictions on smoking in a range of contexts. Most respondents are aware of the negative health effects of ETS and have smoking bans in their cars (75.8%) and homes (76.8%), however bans are less prevalent for smokers (cars: 37.9%; homes: 51%; p=0.000). For cars/homes, most smokers who did not have smoking bans would not smoke at all around pregnant women (67.7%/53.7%); fewer would refrain for childrennon-smoking adults (31.3%/17.9%); and children 13-17 years (30.9%/21.2%). Parent smokers are less likely to not smoke at all around children>or=2 years (p=0.000) compared to non-parent smokers. Most respondents support car/ home smoking bans for childrenhomes, however this varies by context, smoking and parental status.

  11. Advance of molecular marker application in the tobacco research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) is one of the most important commercial crops in the world. During the last two decades, molecular markers have entered the scene of genetic improvement in different fields of agricultural research. The principles and characteristics of several molecular markers such as RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, ...

  12. Levels of Urine Cotinine from Hookah Smoking and Exposure to Hookah Tobacco Secondhand Smoke in Hookah Lounges and Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Liles, Sandy; Jackson, Sheila R; Posis, Alexander Ivan B; Chatfield, Dale A; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2018-03-01

    Nicotine, an addictive drug, is present in all forms of tobacco products, including hookah tobacco, which is not yet regulated in the United States. This study aimed to investigate the uptake of nicotine in hookah smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at indoor hookah social events in natural settings where hookah tobacco was smoked exclusively. We quantified cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in the urine of 105 hookah smokers and 103 non-smokers. Participants provided spot urine samples the morning of and the morning after attending an indoor hookah-only smoking social event at a hookah lounge or in a private home. Following a social event where exclusively hookah tobacco was smoked, urinary cotinine levels increased significantly 8.5 times (geometric mean (GM): 16.0 ng/mg to 136.1 ng/mg) among hookah smokers, and 2.5 times (GM: 0.4 ng/mg to 1.0 ng/mg) among non-smokers exposed exclusively to hookah tobacco SHS. Among hookah smokers, the highest increase in urinary cotinine levels post a hookah event was found in occasional hookah smokers in which GM levels increased significantly 31.2 times post smoking (from 2.0 ng/mg to 62.3 ng/mg). Reported reasons for preference to smoke hookah at home by hookah smokers who attended a hookah social event in a private home included recreational purposes, socializing with friends and family, 'Me' time and relaxing at home, more comfortable to smoke hookah at home, owning a hookah and hookah tobacco, eating and drinking while smoking hookah, and saving money by smoking at home and not going to hookah lounges. Hookah tobacco smoke is a source of substantial nicotine exposure. Our results call for protecting hookah smokers' and non-smokers' health by requiring accurate hookah tobacco labels, raising taxes on hookah tobacco, reducing the spread of hookah lounges, and encouraging voluntary bans on smoking hookah tobacco in private homes.

  13. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 in 3 countries, representing 39% of the world's population, monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth ... 1.4 billion people, or 20% of the world's population, are protected by comprehensive national smoke-free laws. ...

  14. Setting research priorities in tobacco control: a stakeholder engagement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindson, Nicola; Richards-Doran, Dan; Heath, Laura; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-12-01

    The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group (TAG) conducts systematic reviews of the evidence for tobacco cessation and prevention interventions. In 2016 TAG conducted a priority-setting, stakeholder engagement project to identify where further research is needed in the areas of tobacco control and smoking cessation. The project comprised two surveys and a workshop. A range of stakeholders participated, including members of the public (smokers and ex-smokers), clinicians, researchers, research funders, health-care commissioners and public health organizations. The first survey phase identified unanswered research questions in the field of tobacco control. The second phase asked participants to rank these, with overall rankings calculated by combining scores across participants. The workshop allowed attendees to discuss prioritization of topics and questions in more depth. Workshop discussions were transcribed and analysed thematically, and a final voting activity at the close of the workshop allowed participants to choose topics to prioritize and to de-prioritize. A total of 304 stakeholders (researchers, health professionals, smokers and ex-smokers, guideline developers, research funders and policymakers, representing 28 countries) identified 183 unanswered research questions. These were categorized into 15 research categories. A total of 175 participants prioritized categories and questions in the second survey phase, with 'electronic cigarettes'; 'addressing inequalities'; and 'mental health and other substance abuse' prioritized as the top three categories. Forty-three stakeholders attended the workshop and discussed reasons for and against category prioritization. Prioritized research categories largely mirrored those in the survey stage, although 'treatment delivery' also emerged as a key category. Five cross-cutting themes emerged: efficacy; relative efficacy; cost effectiveness; addressing inequalities; and different types of evidence. There are many unanswered

  15. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  16. Businesses' voluntary pro-health tobacco policies: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    Research on the role of businesses in tobacco control has focused primarily on retailers, advertising firms and the hospitality industry, all of which have tended to support tobacco industry interests and resist effective tobacco control policies. However, in several countries, businesses have a history of voluntarily adopting tobacco-related policies that may advance tobacco control objectives. These phenomena have received little research attention. Existing literature on businesses ending tobacco sales, instituting voluntary workplace smoking restrictions and establishing non-smoker only hiring policies was reviewed. A research agenda on voluntary business initiatives would enhance and complement research on mandatory tobacco control policies by identifying new advocacy opportunities; suggesting avenues for strengthening or reinforcing existing policy initiatives; laying the groundwork for new mandatory policies; helping to inform ethical debates about contentious voluntary policies; and contributing to a better understanding of how alliances between the tobacco industry and other businesses might be weakened.

  17. Tobacco smoking – popularity and main trends on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bartoń

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year smoking leads to the premature death of over 5 million people around the world. However, the tobacco industry took actions like introducing cigarettes which contain less nicotine and tar aimed at not only maintaining the old clientele, but also attracting a new one. The knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking became widespread in the second half of the 20th century and changed attitudes towards smoking. In recent years, in many markets in the world a new device representing an alternative to tobacco products was introduced. Electronic cigarettes are designed to deliver nicotine into the respiratory system in the form of an aerosol. They have been gaining more and more popularity, as evidenced by the increase in the percentage of users as well as in the numbers of publications about them. Currently, opinions are divided and the e-cigarette has almost as many supporters as opponents. All this resembles the situation concerning conventional cigarettes in the 20th century. The aim of the study is to gather the most significant information concerning, on the one hand, the spreading popularity of tobacco smoking and, on the other, the research topics undertaken by contemporary scientists, as well as the government actions meant to protect from dangers of nicotine addiction in the 20th and 21st century. New developments of products containing this highly addictive substance call for systematic research in the interest of public health.

  18. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand

  19. Home economics in development through action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2010-01-01

    This research study aimed at describing and developing home economics education through an action research approach in 2 schools and classes grade 6. The study went through 3 phases, an explorative phase with preliminary observations, interviews and discussions with teachers and pupils. Next...... in discursive phase changes have been implemented and conducted in accordance with findings. Third phase the explicative phase results were translated into text books for pupil's grade 4 to7 and to a teachers' guide. The subject is analysed theoretical through a model of the subject and research field. Findings...... and suggestions were discussed in relation to theories of learning, education and home economics. The overall perspectives were to involve pupils, to make them responsible by active and critical participation, and lastly to evaluate education in different ways....

  20. Index to Research in Home Economics: 1972-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Nelma I.; Lefebvre, Verna M.

    This index lists 945 research articles from 4 English-language journals in the field of home economics: the "Canadian Home Economics Journal," volumes 23-30; the "Home Economics Research Journal" (United States), volumes 1-14; the "Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics" (United Kingdom), volumes 1-10; and the…

  1. Family attitudes about tobacco smoke exposure of young children at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousey, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    To explore families' attitudes about smoking and their perceptions of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on their children. Qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with a semistructured guide in 20 households containing a child under age 5. Content analysis was done on the interview data. Families identified "health protection" as the parental responsibility for children and emphasized helping children make decisions not to smoke. Some reported negative experiences with ETS exposure as children themselves or health problems in their children, reinforcing their opposition to smoke exposure for their children. Most parents said they did not allow smoking in their homes, but some later disclosed that they made exceptions for family and friends. Some parents, however, limited their children's contact with smoking members of their families. Smoking parents expressed guilt about ETS exposure of their children and tried to limit smoking to certain areas of their houses, such as the basement. Other parents, mostly the nonsmokers, did not identify ETS as a problem. Families who maintained smoke-free households identified that family and friends had to "respect" their wishes. To protect children from the negative effects of ETS exposure, nurses should discuss not only if parents smoke but also if family members and friends are allowed to smoke in the home. It would be helpful to assess the priority that parents set on ETS and how they attempt to prevent it in their daily lives.

  2. The density of tobacco retailers in home and school environments and relationship with adolescent smoking behaviours in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, N K; Tisch, C; Pearce, J; Richardson, E A; Mitchell, R

    2016-01-01

    Neighbourhood retailing of tobacco products has been implicated in affecting smoking prevalence rates. Long-term smoking usually begins in adolescence and tobacco control strategies have often focused on regulating 'child spaces', such as areas in proximity to schools. This cross-sectional study examines the association between adolescent smoking behaviour and tobacco retail outlet density around home and school environments in Scotland. Data detailing the geographic location of every outlet registered to sell tobacco products in Scotland were acquired from the Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register and used to create a retail outlet density measure for every postcode. This measure was joined to individual responses of the Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (n=20 446). Using logistic regression models, we explored the association between the density of retailers, around both home and school address, and smoking behaviours. Those living in the areas of highest density of retailers around the home environment had 53% higher odds of reporting having ever smoked (95% CI 1.27 to 1.85, pretail density had lower odds of having ever smoked (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86 pretail outlets in residential neighbourhoods is associated with increased odds of both ever smoked and current smoking among adolescents in Scotland. Policymakers may be advised to focus on reducing the overall density of tobacco outlets, rather than concentrating on 'child spaces'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Assessing consumer responses to potential reduced-exposure tobacco products: a review of tobacco industry and independent research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Vaughan W; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Parascandola, Mark; Shields, Peter G; Connolly, Gregory N

    2009-12-01

    Internal tobacco industry documents and the mainstream literature are reviewed to identify methods and measures for evaluating tobacco consumer response. The review aims to outline areas in which established methods exist, identify gaps in current methods for assessing consumer response, and consider how these methods might be applied to evaluate potentially reduced exposure tobacco products and new products. Internal industry research reviewed included published articles, manuscript drafts, presentations, protocols, and instruments relating to consumer response measures were identified and analyzed. Peer-reviewed research was identified using PubMed and Scopus. Industry research on consumer response focuses on product development and marketing. To develop and refine new products, the tobacco industry has developed notable strategies for assessing consumers' sensory and subjective responses to product design characteristics. Independent research is often conducted to gauge the likelihood of future product adoption by measuring consumers' risk perceptions, responses to product, and product acceptability. A model that conceptualizes consumer response as comprising the separate, but interacting, domains of product perceptions and response to product is outlined. Industry and independent research supports the dual domain model and provides a wide range of methods for assessment of the construct components of consumer response. Further research is needed to validate consumer response constructs, determine the relationship between consumer response and tobacco user behavior, and improve reliability of consumer response measures. Scientifically rigorous consumer response assessment methods will provide a needed empirical basis for future regulation of potentially reduced-exposure tobacco products and new products, to counteract tobacco industry influence on consumers, and enhance the public health.

  4. Pilot Mentorship Program for Tobacco Control Researchers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ). Point-of-sale advertising refers to the display of promotional materials where tobacco products are sold. View moreTobacco Industry Marketing Practices at Point-of-Sale (Argentina and Guatemala) ...

  5. Tobacco packaging and labeling policies under the U.S. Tobacco Control Act: research needs and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2012-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (the "Act"), enacted in June 2009, gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products. The current paper reviews the provisions for packaging and labeling, including the existing evidence and research priorities. Narrative review using electronic literature search of published and unpublished sources in 3 primary areas: health warnings, constituent labeling, and prohibitions on the promotional elements of packaging. The Act requires 9 pictorial health warnings covering half of cigarette packages and 4 text warnings covering 30% of smokeless tobacco packages. The Act also prohibits potentially misleading information on packaging, including the terms "light" and "mild," and provides a mandate to require disclosure of chemical constituents on packages. Many of the specific regulatory provisions are based on the extent to which they promote "greater public understanding of the risks of tobacco." As a result, research on consumer perceptions has the potential to shape the design and renewal of health warnings and to determine what, if any, information on product constituents should appear on packages. Research on consumer perceptions of existing and novel tobacco products will also be critical to help identify potentially misleading information that should be restricted under the Act. Packaging and labeling regulations required under the Act will bring the United States in line with international standards. There is an immediate need for research to evaluate these measures to guide future regulatory action.

  6. Parents’ educational level and second-hand tobacco smoke exposure at home in a sample of Portuguese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo D. Vitória

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS exposure is a major and entirely avoidable health risk for children's health, well-being and development. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the association between parents’ educational level and children's SHS home exposure.A self-administered questionnaire was conducted within a sample of 949 students in 4th grade (mean age 9.56 ± 0.75, 53.4% male. The sample was randomly selected from all schools located at Lisbon District, Portugal.The current study confirmed that Portuguese children are exposed to unacceptable high levels of SHS at home, mainly by their parents’ smoke. Prevalence of smokers was higher amongst parents with low educational level. Children of parents with low educational level were more likely to suffer SHS exposure at home. These results confirmed the social inequalities associated with smoking, support the relevance of more research on this subject and stress the need for more interventions to control this problem. Some interventions should be specifically aimed at less educated parents, particularly at less educated mothers. Keywords: Air pollution, Health promotion, Parenting, Pediatrics, Poverty, Preventive medicine, Public health practice, Risk factors, Smoking, Tobacco

  7. Tobacco Control and Treatment for the Pediatric Clinician: Practice, Policy, and Research Updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Brian P; Wilson, Karen M

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and exposure to tobacco smoke harms children from conception forward. There is no safe level of tobacco exposure. Although overall smoking rates have declined, the advent of new products, such as electronic cigarettes, threatens to perpetuate nicotine addiction without clear health benefits. In addition to reviewing traditional and new tobacco products, we discuss the unique role that pediatricians should play in tobacco treatment and control efforts. New policies and technologies can empower pediatric clinicians and pediatric health care systems to help parent smokers quit, and new policies outside of the health care setting might help prevent smoking initiation as well as improve cessation treatments. Future research is needed to continue to study the consequences of tobacco use exposure as well as the best ways to help patients and parents stop tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Research on the Ordered Mesoporous Silica for Tobacco Harm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Y Li, Z.; Ding, J. X.; Hu, Z. J.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, G.; Huang, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    For reducting tobacco harm, this paper prepared an ordered mesoporous silica by using triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as template. The property of this material was characterized by the X-ray scattering spectrum(XRD), Transmission electron microscopy(TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Nitrogen adsorption/desorption. Then this ordered mesoporous silica was added into the cigarette filter in order to researching its effect of cigarette harm index. The result shows that the feature of SBA-15 was grain morphology, ordered arrangement, tubular porous 2-D hexagonal structure. The application of SBA-15 in cigarette filter can selectively reduce harmful components in cigarette smoke such as crotonaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, benzo pyrene and tar. The synthesized SBA-15 could properly reduce cigarette harm index.

  9. Building tobacco control research in Thailand: meeting the need for innovative change in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Stephen L; Mock, Jeremiah; Hense, Sibasis; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kungskulniti, Nipapun

    2012-01-28

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past two decades locally relevant tobacco control research has been scant. Experience shows that tobacco control measures should be based on sound research findings to ensure that measures are appropriate for local conditions and that they are likely to have an impact. Research should also be integrated within tobacco control measures to ensure ongoing learning and the production of knowledge. Thailand, a middle-income country, has a public health community with a record of successful tobacco control and a longstanding commitment to research. Thailand's comprehensive approach includes taxation; bans on tobacco advertising, sponsorship and promotion; smoke-free areas; graphic cigarette pack warnings; social marketing campaigns; cessation counseling; and an established tobacco control research program. The purpose of this study was to document and analyze the development of tobacco control research capacity in Thailand and the impact of research on Thai tobacco control measures. We used mixed methods including review of historical documentation and policy reports, qualitative interviews with key members of Thailand's tobacco control community, and an analysis of research productivity. In Thailand, tobacco control research has evolved through three phases: (1) discovery of the value of research in the policymaking arena, (2) development of a structure to support research capacity building through international collaborations supported by foreign funding agencies, and (3) delivery of locally relevant research made possible largely through substantial stable funding from a domestic health promotion foundation. Over two decades, Thai tobacco control advocates have constructed five steppingstones to success: (1) adapting foreign research to inform policymaking and lobbying for more support for domestic research; (2) attracting foreign funding agencies to support small-scale research and capacity building; (3

  10. Building tobacco control research in Thailand: meeting the need for innovative change in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamann Stephen L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs over the past two decades locally relevant tobacco control research has been scant. Experience shows that tobacco control measures should be based on sound research findings to ensure that measures are appropriate for local conditions and that they are likely to have an impact. Research should also be integrated within tobacco control measures to ensure ongoing learning and the production of knowledge. Thailand, a middle-income country, has a public health community with a record of successful tobacco control and a longstanding commitment to research. Thailand's comprehensive approach includes taxation; bans on tobacco advertising, sponsorship and promotion; smoke-free areas; graphic cigarette pack warnings; social marketing campaigns; cessation counseling; and an established tobacco control research program. The purpose of this study was to document and analyze the development of tobacco control research capacity in Thailand and the impact of research on Thai tobacco control measures. Method We used mixed methods including review of historical documentation and policy reports, qualitative interviews with key members of Thailand's tobacco control community, and an analysis of research productivity. Findings In Thailand, tobacco control research has evolved through three phases: (1 discovery of the value of research in the policymaking arena, (2 development of a structure to support research capacity building through international collaborations supported by foreign funding agencies, and (3 delivery of locally relevant research made possible largely through substantial stable funding from a domestic health promotion foundation. Over two decades, Thai tobacco control advocates have constructed five steppingstones to success: (1 adapting foreign research to inform policymaking and lobbying for more support for domestic research; (2 attracting foreign funding agencies to support small

  11. The marketing of dissolvable tobacco: social science and public policy research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G; Kim, Annice E; Tessman, Greta K; MacMonegle, Anna J; Choiniere, Conrad J; Evans, Sarah E; Johnson, Robin D

    2012-01-01

    The latest generation of smokeless tobacco products encompasses a wide range of offerings, including what is commonly referred to as dissolvable tobacco. Designed to deliver nicotine upon dissolving or disintegrating in a user's mouth, dissolvable tobacco products currently appear in various United States markets as strips, orbs, sticks, and lozenges. The emergence of these new products poses distinct opportunities and challenges for social and behavioral science and public health research and raises important public policy questions.

  12. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  13. Home Economics Archive: Research, Tradition and History (HEARTH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click here to go to the Mann Library Home Page Click here to return to the HEARTH Home Page Click , Tradition and History HEARTH is a core electronic collection of books and journals in Home Economics and Archive: Research, Tradition and History (HEARTH). Ithaca, NY: Albert R. Mann Library, Cornell University

  14. Nurses' use of qualitative research approaches to investigate tobacco use and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Annette S H; Bottorff, Joan L; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are increasingly used by nurse scientists to explore a wide variety of topics relevant to practice and/or health policy issues. The purpose of this chapter is to review the contributions of nurse scientists to the field of tobacco control through the use of qualitative research methods. A systematic literature search strategy was used to identify 51 articles published between 1980 and 2008. The majority (84%) of reviewed articles were authored by North American nurse scientists. Cessation was the most commonly (85%) studied aspect of tobacco control. Six qualitative research approaches were used: qualitative descriptive (55%), narrative analysis (8%), phenomenology (6%), grounded theory (14%), ethnography (12%), and case study (6%). Qualitative descriptive methods were primarily one-off studies to address practical problems or issues encountered in practice, and often validated current understandings related to tobacco. Researchers who used other types of qualitative methods and who conducted qualitative studies as part of programs of research were more likely to make more substantive contributions to the evolving field of tobacco control. These contributions related to how smoking intertwines with personal and social identities, the influence of social context on tobacco use, and nurses' involvement in tobacco control (both of their own tobacco use and in assisting others). Nurse scientists interested in exploring tobacco-related issues are encouraged to consider the full range of qualitative research approaches. Qualitative research methods contribute to our understanding of tobacco use arising from nursing practice, health care and policy, along with the field of tobacco control in general.

  15. Tackling the epidemic: Tobacco control research at IDRC | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-08

    Mar 8, 2018 ... Other policy measures such as regulations on marketing, packaging, and products are effective ... IDRC-supported projects and impact have continued to grow since the Centre's initial ... Tobacco and taxes: A winning strategy.

  16. Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Andes, Linda; Morton, Jeremy; Bashir, Rizwan; Fouad, Heba; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Caixeta, Roberta; Dias, Rula Cavaco; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Kashiwabara, Mina; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2016-12-01

    Children are vulnerable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure because of limited control over their indoor environment. Homes remain the major place where children may be exposed to SHS. Our study examines the magnitude, patterns and determinants of SHS exposure in the home among children in 21 countries (19 low-income and middle-income countries and 2 high-income countries). Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data, a household survey of people 15 years of age or older. Data collected during 2009-2013 were analysed to estimate the proportion of children exposed to SHS in the home. GATS estimates and 2012 United Nations population projections for 2015 were also used to estimate the number of children exposed to SHS in the home. The proportion of children younger than 15 years of age exposed to SHS in the home ranged from 4.5% (Panama) to 79.0% (Indonesia). Of the approximately one billion children younger than 15 years of age living in the 21 countries under study, an estimated 507.74 million were exposed to SHS in the home. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines accounted for almost 84.6% of the children exposed to SHS. The prevalence of SHS exposure was higher in countries with higher adult smoking rates and was also higher in rural areas than in urban areas, in most countries. A large number of children were exposed to SHS in the home. Encouraging of voluntary smoke-free rules in homes and cessation in adults has the potential to reduce SHS exposure among children and prevent SHS-related diseases and deaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Rules in Homes among Socially-Disadvantaged Populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarz, Katarzyna; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kaleta, Dorota

    2017-04-21

    This study aims to examine the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in homes among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland, along with the prevalence and correlates of voluntary implementation of smoke-free home rules. Data concerning 1617 respondents from a cross-sectional study completed in the Piotrkowski District were used, which was part of the "Reducing Social Inequalities in Health" program. Overall, 19.4% of the respondents declared exposure to ETS at home. In the non-smokers group, 15.5%, including 6.6% males and 18.3% females, were exposed to ETS in their place of residence ( p smoker status and lack of ETS-associated health risk awareness, were found to be significantly associated with no adoption of total smoking bans at home. Socially-disadvantaged non-smokers, especially females from rural areas in Poland, still constitute a large population exposed to ETS in their homes-a challenge from the perspective of public health. Focused efforts are required to address social norms around exposing others to ETS.

  18. Tobacco Control: Visualisation of Research Activity Using Density-Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Benchmarking Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Groneberg-Kloft

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of death and disease and therefore tobacco control research is extremely important. However, research in this area is often hampered by a lack in funding and there is a need for scientometric techniques to display research efforts. Methods: The present study combines classical bibliometric tools with novel scientometric and visualizing techniques in order to analyse and categorise research in the field of tobacco control. Results: All studies related to tobacco control and listed in the ISI database since 1900 were identified by the use of defined search terms.Using bibliometric approaches, a continuous increase in qualitative markers such as collaboration numbers or citations were found for tobacco control research. The combination with density equalizing mapping revealed a distinct global pattern of research productivity and citation activity. Radar chart techniques were used to visualize bi- and multilateral research cooperation and institutional cooperation. Conclusions: The present study supplies a first scientometricapproach that visualises research activity in the field of tobacco control. It provides data that can be used for funding policy and the identification of research clusters.

  19. Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate

  20. Implications of Tobacco Industry Research on Packaging Colors for Designing Health Warning Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-09-01

    Health warning labels (HWLs) are an important way to educate the public about the dangers of tobacco products. Tobacco companies conducted research to understand how pack colors affect consumers' perceptions of the products and make packages and their labeling more visually prominent. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents concerning the tobacco industry's internal research on how cigarette package colors and design influence the visual prominence of packages and consumers' perceptions of the harmfulness of the products. The companies found that black is visually prominent, placing dark pack elements on a contrasting light background makes them stand out more, and black text on a white background is more prominent than white text on a black background. Yellow most quickly and effectively seizes and holds consumers' attention and signals warning or danger, while white connotes health and safety. Using black text on a bright contrasting background color, particularly yellow, attracts consumers' attention to the message. Tobacco industry research on pack color choices that make pack elements more prominent, attract and keep consumers' attention, and convey danger instead of health should guide governments in specifying requirements for HWLs. These factors suggest that HWLs printed on a yellow background with black lettering and borders would most effectively seize and keep consumers' attention and signal the danger of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Tobacco companies' internal research on improving the prominence of pack elements suggests that HWLs using black lettering on a contrasting yellow background would most effectively seize and hold consumers' attention and signal the danger of cigarettes and other tobacco products. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The funding will provide scholarships to master's students in schools of public health, economics, agriculture, environment, and other disciplines related to tobacco control ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI ... Prevalence and predictors of cigarette smoking among adolescents of Ethiopia : school based cross sectional survey.

  2. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Rules in Homes among Socially-Disadvantaged Populations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Milcarz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in homes among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland, along with the prevalence and correlates of voluntary implementation of smoke-free home rules. Data concerning 1617 respondents from a cross-sectional study completed in the Piotrkowski District were used, which was part of the “Reducing Social Inequalities in Health” program. Overall, 19.4% of the respondents declared exposure to ETS at home. In the non-smokers group, 15.5%, including 6.6% males and 18.3% females, were exposed to ETS in their place of residence (p < 0.0001. Complete smoke-free rules were adopted by 22.1% of the study participants. Two factors, smoker status and lack of ETS-associated health risk awareness, were found to be significantly associated with no adoption of total smoking bans at home. Socially-disadvantaged non-smokers, especially females from rural areas in Poland, still constitute a large population exposed to ETS in their homes—a challenge from the perspective of public health. Focused efforts are required to address social norms around exposing others to ETS.

  3. National Cancer Institute's leadership role in promoting State and Community Tobacco Control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginexi, Elizabeth M; Vollinger, Robert E

    2016-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been at the vanguard of funding tobacco control research for decades with major efforts such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) in 1988 and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) in 1991, followed by the Tobacco Research Initiative for State and Community Interventions in 1999. Most recently, in 2011, the NCI launched the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative to address gaps in secondhand smoke policies, tax and pricing policies, mass media countermeasures, community and social norms and tobacco marketing. The initiative supported large scale research projects and time-sensitive ancillary pilot studies in response to expressed needs of state and community partners. This special issue of Tobacco Control showcases exciting findings from the SCTC. In this introductory article, we provide a brief account of NCI's historical commitment to promoting research to inform tobacco control policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Should academic journals publish e-cigarette research linked to tobacco companies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M; Etter, Jean-François; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-08-01

    Electronic cigarettes are currently polarizing professional opinion. Some public health experts regard them as an effective smoking cessation aid and a vital means of reducing active and passive smoking, while others regard them as another attempt by the tobacco industry to create new customers and addicts. These different attitudes unsurprisingly yield different conclusions regarding both the appropriate regulation of e-cigarettes and the ethical status of research funded by, or conducted in, cooperation with the tobacco industry. This paper examines whether e-cigarette research linked to the tobacco industry should be regarded as an exception to the rule that tobacco industry research is so tainted by conflicts of interest that journals should refuse to publish them, or at the very least treat them as a special case for scrutiny. Despite the fact that e-cigarettes can be used for smoking cessation, most of the conflicts of interest that apply to other tobacco research also apply to e-cigarette research linked to that industry. Journals that currently refuse to publish findings from studies linked to tobacco companies have no reason to make an exception in the case of e-cigarettes. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Mentoring Cambodian and Lao health professionals in tobacco control leadership and research skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, L Hyder; Job, J; Knutsen, S; Montgomery, S; Petersen, F; Rudatsikira, E; Singh, P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the programme was to ultimately affect public health practice and policy in the Kingdom of Cambodia and Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) by training key health professionals to conduct tobacco control research. Encouraged by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, a global partnership formed to build effective leadership to develop and guide national tobacco control agendas. The partners were the Ministries of Health (Cambodia and Lao PDR), non-government organisations (Adventist Development and Relief Agency in Cambodia and Laos) and an academic institution (Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA). 16 health professionals, 10 from Cambodia and 6 from Lao PDR, were selected by local advisory committees to enter a two-year, intensive tobacco research graduate certificate and research training programme. We developed a "Global Tobacco Control Methods" (GTCM) 28 unit certificate programme that was offered in five sessions from September 2003 to September 2005 at the National Institute of Public Health, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. As part of their coursework, the 16 trainees actively participated in the development and implementation of two research projects. In the first project, "Healthy Doc Healthy Patient" (HDHP), trainees adapted an existing, self-administered questionnaire designed to assess health practices and beliefs of medical students in Cambodia and Lao PDR. The second project involved the design of a national prevalence of tobacco use and health beliefs study in Cambodia using a multi-stage, cluster sample method. Trainees were sponsored to attend and present at international tobacco control conferences to enhance their awareness of the tobacco epidemic. As of September 2005, 14 trainees (8 from Cambodia and 6 from Lao PDR) completed the courses in the GTCM certificate programme. The HDHP study sampled four medical school classes (years 3, 4, 5 and 6) in both Cambodia (n = 330, 71.1% response rate

  6. 78 FR 19713 - Possible Role of Independent Third Parties in Industry-Sponsored Tobacco Product Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... tobacco product research could be subject to third-party governance? For example, could it be applied to... governance? For example, should both the design and conduct of research studies be subject to third-party... more key functions, including the design and conduct of research, the oversight of specific studies...

  7. Research support for effective state and community tobacco control programme response to electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Lee, Youn Ok; Curry, Laurel E; Farrelly, Matthew C; Rogers, Todd

    2014-07-01

    To identify unmet research needs of state and community tobacco control practitioners pertaining to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes) that would inform policy and practice efforts at the state and community levels, and to describe ENDS-related research and dissemination activities of the National Cancer Institute-funded State and Community Tobacco Control Research Initiative. To determine specific research gaps relevant to state and community tobacco control practice, we analysed survey data collected from tobacco control programmes (TCPs) in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (N=51). Survey items covered a range of ENDS issues: direct harm to users, harm of secondhand vapour, cessation, flavours, constituents and youth access. There is no ENDS topic on which a majority of state TCP managers feel very informed. They feel least informed about harms of secondhand vapour while also reporting that this information is among the most important for their programme. A majority (N=31) of respondents indicated needs for research on the implications of ENDS products for existing policies. TCP managers report that ENDS research is highly important for practice and need research-based information to inform decision making around the inclusion of ENDS in existing tobacco control policies. For optimal relevance to state and community TCPs, research on ENDS should prioritise study of the health effects of ENDS use and secondhand exposure to ENDS vapour in the context of existing tobacco control policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. The emerging marijuana retail environment: Key lessons learned from tobacco and alcohol retail research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Henriksen, Lisa; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Haardoerfer, Regine; Freisthler, Bridget

    2018-06-01

    The emerging retail market for recreational marijuana use warrants research and surveillance as such markets are established in more US states. This research can be informed by the existing literature regarding tobacco and alcohol, which highlights the impact of spatial access to tobacco and alcohol retailers and exposure to tobacco and alcohol marketing on smoking and drinking among youth and young adults. Prior research indicates that tobacco and alcohol retailers, as well as medical marijuana dispensaries, are disproportionately located in neighborhoods characterized by socioeconomic disadvantage and by higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and young adults. Moreover, retail marketing or point-of-sale practices may differentially target subpopulations and differ by neighborhood demography and local policy. This literature and the methods employed for studying the tobacco and alcohol market could inform research on the retail environment for marijuana, as current gaps exist. In particular, much of the existing literature involves cross-sectional research designs; longitudinal studies are needed. Moreover, standardized measures are needed for systematic monitoring of industry marketing practices and to conduct research examining neighborhood differences in exposure to retail marketing for marijuana and its contribution to use modality and frequency, alone and in combination with nicotine and alcohol. The use of standardized measures for tobacco and alcohol marketing have been critical to develop an evidence base from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that document the impact of retail marketing on substance use by adolescents and adults. Similar research is needed to establish an evidence base to inform federal, state, and local regulations of marijuana. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with secondhand tobacco smoke in the home: an exploratory cross-sectional study among women in Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Berit Petersen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, female smoking rates are currently low (1 %. However, because of male smoking rates (overall 7.7 % and up to 27 % depending on region, women and children’s risk of second hand smoke (SHS exposure is a pressing concern. In order to develop effective public health interventions that prevent the uptake and exposure to smoking, thereby averting the projected increase in tobacco-induced disease, an understanding of Ethiopian women’s practices regarding tobacco is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore Ethiopian women’s tobacco use and prevalence of SHS exposure, and to identify covariates associated with SHS exposure. Methods We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study in Southern Ethiopia between August and October 2014, and systematically sampled households in Aleta Wondo town and surrounding districts. Trained interviewers verbally administered surveys to women 18–55 years of age. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results None of the 353 participants reported current tobacco use and less than 1 % reported ever use, however, 11 % reported ever use of the stimulant leaf khat. Twenty-seven women (7.6 % reported living with a tobacco user, however, twice that number (14.4 % overall, and 22 % of urban participants reported that smoking occurred daily in their home. When controlling for other factors, living with a tobacco user (OR = 9.91, 95 % CI [3.32, 29.59], allowing smoking in the home (OR = 5.67, 95 % CI [2.51, 12.79], place of residence (OR = 2.74, 95 % CI [1.11, 6.74], and exposure to point-of-sale advertising within the last 30 days (OR = 2.87, 95 % CI [1.26, 6.54] contributed significantly to a model predicting the likelihood of reporting daily occurrence of smoking/SHS in the home. Conclusions While few women reported having ever used tobacco, one in seven women in this study reported that smoking/SHS occurred

  10. Factors associated with secondhand tobacco smoke in the home: an exploratory cross-sectional study among women in Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Berit; Thompson, Lisa M; Dadi, Gezahegn Bekele; Tolcha, Alemu; Cataldo, Janine K

    2016-08-31

    In Ethiopia, female smoking rates are currently low (1 %). However, because of male smoking rates (overall 7.7 % and up to 27 % depending on region), women and children's risk of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is a pressing concern. In order to develop effective public health interventions that prevent the uptake and exposure to smoking, thereby averting the projected increase in tobacco-induced disease, an understanding of Ethiopian women's practices regarding tobacco is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore Ethiopian women's tobacco use and prevalence of SHS exposure, and to identify covariates associated with SHS exposure. We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study in Southern Ethiopia between August and October 2014, and systematically sampled households in Aleta Wondo town and surrounding districts. Trained interviewers verbally administered surveys to women 18-55 years of age. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. None of the 353 participants reported current tobacco use and less than 1 % reported ever use, however, 11 % reported ever use of the stimulant leaf khat. Twenty-seven women (7.6 %) reported living with a tobacco user, however, twice that number (14.4 %) overall, and 22 % of urban participants reported that smoking occurred daily in their home. When controlling for other factors, living with a tobacco user (OR = 9.91, 95 % CI [3.32, 29.59]), allowing smoking in the home (OR = 5.67, 95 % CI [2.51, 12.79]), place of residence (OR = 2.74, 95 % CI [1.11, 6.74)]), and exposure to point-of-sale advertising within the last 30 days (OR = 2.87, 95 % CI [1.26, 6.54]) contributed significantly to a model predicting the likelihood of reporting daily occurrence of smoking/SHS in the home. While few women reported having ever used tobacco, one in seven women in this study reported that smoking/SHS occurred daily in their homes. Therefore SHS exposure is a potential health

  11. Tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns: research needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Wakefield, Melanie; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up.

  12. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S Fryer

    Full Text Available Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology.Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12-25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research.We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs.The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults.

  13. Mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adults: A methodological review of current strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Craig S; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Clark, Rachael S; Plano Clark, Vicki L

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use among young people is a complex and serious global dilemma that demands innovative and diverse research approaches. The purpose of this methodological review was to examine the current use of mixed methods research in tobacco control with youth and young adult populations and to develop practical recommendations for tobacco control researchers interested in this methodology. Using PubMed, we searched five peer-reviewed journals that publish tobacco control empirical literature for the use of mixed methods research to study young populations, age 12-25 years. Our team analyzed the features of each article in terms of tobacco control topic, population, youth engagement strategies, and several essential elements of mixed methods research. We identified 23 mixed methods studies published by authors from five different countries reported between 2004 and 2015. These 23 articles examined various topics that included tobacco use behavior, tobacco marketing and branding, and cessation among youth and young adults. The most common mixed methods approach was variations of the concurrent design in which the qualitative and quantitative strands were administered at the same time and given equal priority. This review documented several innovative applications of mixed methods research as well as challenges in the reporting of the complex research designs. The use of mixed methods research in tobacco control has great potential for advancing the understanding of complex behavioral and sociocultural issues for all groups, especially youth and young adults.

  14. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance. PMID:28458910

  15. Tobacco industry globalization and global health governance: towards an interdisciplinary research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Shifting patterns of tobacco production and consumption, and the resultant disease burden worldwide since the late twentieth century, prompted efforts to strengthen global health governance through adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. While the treaty is rightfully considered an important achievement, to address a neglected public health issue through collective action, evidence suggests that tobacco industry globalization continues apace. In this article, we provide a systematic review of the public health literature and reveal definitional and measurement imprecision, ahistorical timeframes, transnational tobacco companies and the state as the primary units and levels of analysis, and a strong emphasis on agency as opposed to structural power. Drawing on the study of globalization in international political economy and business studies, we identify opportunities to expand analysis along each of these dimensions. We conclude that this expanded and interdisciplinary research agenda provides the potential for fuller understanding of the dual and dynamic relationship between the tobacco industry and globalization. Deeper analysis of how the industry has adapted to globalization over time, as well as how the industry has influenced the nature and trajectory of globalization, is essential for building effective global governance responses. This article is published as part of a thematic collection dedicated to global governance.

  16. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  17. Wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of thirdhand tobacco smoke contamination on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Penelope J E; Matt, Georg E; Chatfield, Dale; Zakarian, Joy M; Fortmann, Addie L; Hoh, Eunha

    2013-09-01

    Secondhand smoke contains a mixture of pollutants that can persist in air, dust, and on surfaces for months or longer. This persistent residue is known as thirdhand smoke (THS). Here, we detail a simple method of wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of accumulated THS on surfaces. We analyzed findings from 5 real-world studies to investigate the performance of wipe sampling for nicotine on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels in relation to smoking behavior and smoking restrictions. The intraclass correlation coefficient for side-by-side samples was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94). Wipe sampling for nicotine reliably distinguished between private homes, private cars, rental cars, and hotels with and without smoking bans and was significantly positively correlated with other measures of tobacco smoke contamination such as air and dust nicotine. The sensitivity and specificity of possible threshold values (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/m(2)) were evaluated for distinguishing between nonsmoking and smoking environments. Sensitivity was highest at a threshold of 0.1 μg/m(2), with 74%-100% of smoker environments showing nicotine levels above threshold. Specificity was highest at a threshold of 10 μg/m(2), with 81%-100% of nonsmoker environments showing nicotine levels below threshold. The optimal threshold will depend on the desired balance of sensitivity and specificity and on the types of smoking and nonsmoking environments. Surface wipe sampling for nicotine is a reliable, valid, and relatively simple collection method to quantify THS contamination on surfaces across a wide range of field settings and to distinguish between nonsmoking and smoking environments.

  18. Coordinating Body for Tobacco Control Research (Uruguay) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And, although the country has good research capacity, research projects are often carried out in isolation from one another. ... IDRC is pleased to announce a new funding opportunity aimed at fostering effective, long-term climate action to reduce social inequality, promote greater gender parity, and empower women and ...

  19. Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children Aged 13-15 and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Van, Duong Khanh; Khue, Luong Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8).

  20. Ideas of home in palliative care research: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryselius, Kristina; Benzein, Eva; Persson, Carina

    2018-04-23

    To explore the concept of home and its' expressed spatialities in current palliative care research. Home is a central environment for living, caring, and dying. However, pure investigations of the sets of ideas linked to the concept seemed missing. Although identified as an important location, spatial perspectives expressed through the concept of home appeared unexplored. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis. Scientific articles published between January 2009 and September 2015. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis. Resulting attributes were explored from two geographically informed spatial perspectives. As main results, six attributes were identified and explored: Home as actor-capable of acting; emotional environment-something people have feelings for; place-a part of personal identity and a location; space-complex and relational spatial connections and a site for care; setting-passive background and absolute space; becoming-a fluid spatiality constantly folded. Examples of attributes and suggestions for further concept development were identified. The concept reflects various sets of ideas as well as expressing both relational and absolute perspectives of space. The most challenging for nursing research and practice seems to be investigation, operationalization, and testing the implementation of sets of ideas reflecting a relational thinking of space. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Secret science: tobacco industry research on smoking behaviour and cigarette toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Collishaw, Neil E; Callard, Cynthia

    2006-03-04

    A lack of scientific data remains the principal obstacle to regulating cigarette toxicity. In particular, there is an immediate need to improve our understanding of the interaction between smoking behaviour and product design, and its influence on cigarette deliveries. This article reviews internal tobacco industry documents on smoking behaviour research undertaken by Imperial Tobacco Limited (ITL) and British-American Tobacco (BAT). BAT documents indicate that smokers vary their puffing behaviour to regulate nicotine levels and compensate for low-yield cigarettes by smoking them more intensely. BAT research also shows that the tar and nicotine delivered to smokers is substantially greater than the machine-smoked yields reported to consumers and regulators. Internal documents describe a strategy to maximise this discrepancy through product design. In particular, BAT developed elastic cigarettes that produced low yields under standard testing protocols, whereas in consumers' hands they elicited more intensive smoking and provided higher concentrations of tar and nicotine to smokers. Documents also show that BAT pursued this product strategy despite the health risks to consumers and ethical concerns raised by senior scientists, and paired it with an equally successful marketing campaign that promoted these cigarettes as low-tar alternatives for health-concerned smokers. Overall, the documents seem to reveal a product strategy intended to exploit the limitations of the testing protocols and to intentionally conceal from consumers and regulators the potential toxicity of BAT products revealed by BAT's own research. Tobacco industry research underscores the serious limitations of the current cigarette testing protocols and the documents describe deceptive business practices that remain in place.

  2. Gaps in tobacco control research in accordance with WHO FCTC guidelines: a systematic literature review in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunya Benjakul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence-based policy is a term often applied in various field of public health including tobacco control policy. Strengthening evidence -based tobacco control policy development should also base on reliable evidence, in particular research approach. The coverage of tobacco control research under WHO FCTC guidelines is crucial issues. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted for identifying the gaps in tobacco control research. The search for relevant publications was done by the search engine. The key inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined, focusing on published original article conducting in Thai context, both English and Thai language in the past 5 years. The quality of articles was assessed. The text of articles was analyzed based on WHO FCTC articles, at totally 15 articles as well as the 2 nd National Strategic Plan for Tobacco Control 2015 - 2019. Results The initial search resulted in 1,048 abstracts. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria for two rounds, 176 original articles were selected for the review. In the article reviewed, the most of WHO FCTC articles applying into the research conceptual framework was article 20 (63.1% with the purpose of gain new knowledge on tobacco harms and effects on health and cross sectional survey design for surveillance tobacco use among various groups. The rest of articles were focused on research related WHO FCTC article 12 (31.0% and article 14 (19.3%. Three articles did not conducted as a research framework, articles 5.3, 9 - 10 and 19. However, those resulted were implemented in specific area, setting and target groups that's not applicable for scaling up. Conclusions The successful transformation of research results to effective tobacco control policy under WHO FCTC depends on various issuers, especially time-based for conducting the research that sufficient to prove the project outcome and appropriate budget for comprehensive research design, coverage

  3. Tobacco Industry Research on Nicotine Replacement Therapy: "If Anyone Is Going to Take Away Our Business It Should Be Us".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Dorie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is recommended for tobacco cessation on the basis of pharmaceutical industry research showing its effectiveness when combined with counseling. The tobacco industry opposed NRT when it first appeared in the 1980s but by 2016 was marketing its own NRT products. We used internal tobacco industry documents dated 1960 through 2010 to identify the industry's perceptions of NRT. As early as the 1950s, tobacco companies developed nonsmoked nicotine replacements for cigarettes, but they stopped out of concern that marketing such products would trigger Food and Drug Administration regulation of cigarettes. In the 1990s, after pharmaceutical companies began selling prescription NRT, tobacco companies found that many smokers used NRT to supplement smoking rather than to quit. In 2009, once the Food and Drug Administration began regulating tobacco, tobacco companies restarted their plans to capture the nicotine market. Although the tobacco industry initially viewed NRT as a threat, it found that smokers often combined NRT with smoking rather than using it as a replacement and began marketing their own NRT products.

  4. Information Technology in the Home Barriers, Opportunities, and Research Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Rosalind

    2000-01-01

    ...; but what are the implications of increased Information Technology (IT) in the home? Can increased in-home IT create opportunities that will change the way we live and function within our homes and communities and facilitate greater societal benefits...

  5. Addressing NCDs through research and capacity building in LMICs: lessons learned from tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturke, Rachel; Vorkoper, Susan; Duncan, Kalina; Levintova, Marya; Parascondola, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting research capacity building and addressing the growing burden of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries. One program in particular, the NIH International Tobacco and Health Research and Capacity Building Program (TOBAC program), offers an important model for conducting research and building research capacity simultaneously. This article describes the lessons learned from this unique funding model and demonstrates how a relatively modest investment can make important contributions to scientific evidence and capacity building that could inform ongoing and future efforts to tackle the global burden of NCDs.

  6. Addressing NCDs through research and capacity building in LMICs: lessons learned from tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sturke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting research capacity building and addressing the growing burden of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries. One program in particular, the NIH International Tobacco and Health Research and Capacity Building Program (TOBAC program, offers an important model for conducting research and building research capacity simultaneously. This article describes the lessons learned from this unique funding model and demonstrates how a relatively modest investment can make important contributions to scientific evidence and capacity building that could inform ongoing and future efforts to tackle the global burden of NCDs.

  7. Inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in tobacco use-related surveillance and epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Randall L; Dunn, Patricia M

    2008-01-01

    Researchers and public health advocates have long recognized the importance of demographic characteristics such as sex, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status in their efforts to understand and control the use of tobacco among population groups. Targeting prevention and cessation efforts based upon such characteristics has consistently been demonstrated to be both efficient and effective. In recent years, attention has modestly turned to how two additional demographic variables, sexual orientation and gender identity, can add to our understanding of how to reduce tobacco use. Research of tobacco industry papers has clearly documented targeted media campaigns to encourage smoking among lesbians and gays in the marketplace. The tobacco industry has long understood the role that sexual orientation can play in the uptake of smoking and the targeted marketing of brands. Those concerned with tobacco use prevention and cessation research have consequently responded to address tobacco use by lesbians and gays, and bisexuals and transgender people as well, but even more can be done. This article reviews what is known about smoking in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations and then reviews recommendations from four panels created to examine this topic. In conclusion, we recommend that sexual orientation and gender identity be considered for inclusion as variables in all major research and epidemiological studies of tobacco use. Just as such studies, without hesitation, measure sex, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, they need to also include questions assessing sexual orientation and gender identity. Although these new variables need not be the primary focus of these studies, at a minimum, considering their use as controlling variables should be explored. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people can benefit from being openly included in the work researchers conduct to inform the design of tobacco control programs and policies.

  8. Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Military Commission Seal VWAP Login Home Go ABOUT US Organization Overview Organizational Chart Families VWAP Login CCTV Sites Travel Media MC News CCTV Sites Travel Today at OMC Home Today at OMC Daily

  9. Telecommuting (Work-At-Home) at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinidhi, Saragur M.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a study in evaluating the viability of providing a work-at-home (telecommuting) program for Lewis Research Center's corporate employees using Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Case studies have been presented for a range of applications from casual data access to interactive access. The network performance of telemedia applications were studied against future requirements for such level of remote connectivity. Many of the popular ISDN devices were characterized for network and service functionality. A set of recommendations to develop a telecommuting policy have been proposed.

  10. Digital media in the home: technical and research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Corbera, Jordi

    2005-03-01

    This article attempts to identify some of the technology and research challenges facing the digital media industry in the future. We first discuss several trends in the industry, such as the rapid growth of broadband Internet networks and the emergence of networking and media-capable devices in the home. Next, we present technical challenges that result from these trends, such as effective media interoperability in devices, and provide a brief overview of Windows Media, which is one of the technologies in the market attempting to address these challenges. Finally, given these trends and the state of the art, we argue that further research on data compression, encoder optimization, and multi-format transcoding can potentially make a significant technical and business impact in digital media. We also explore the reasons that research on related techniques such as wavelets or scalable video coding is having a relatively minor impact in today"s practical digital media systems.

  11. Creating demand for foreign brands in a 'home run' market: tobacco company tactics in South Korea following market liberalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Kelley; Holden, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To analyse the tactics transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) used to increase market share in South Korea after market liberalisation in 1988, and the subsequent impact of TTCs' activities on the domestic industry and ultimately public health. Internal tobacco industry documents were searched iteratively and analysed by keyword related to strategies for increasing market share in Korea since liberalisation. Following market liberalisation, TTCs faced entrenched cultural and institutional barriers in Korea which hindered increased sales of cigarette imports. TTCs identified population groups more favourably inclined towards imported brands, developed new distribution channels and used promotional activities targeting these groups. The growth in market share by TTCs suggests that these activities were successful at challenging the Korea Tobacco & Ginseng Corporation (KTGC) monopoly. In response, KTGC shifted to a proactive marketing approach and adopted strategies similar to TTCs. This, in turn, made the Korean market highly competitive. Findings show that, after market liberalisation, there was an upward trend in cigarette consumption and smoking prevalence among the targeted population groups, notably youth and young women. Governments engaging in trade negotiations that may lead to the opening of domestic tobacco markets need a fuller understanding of previous industry activities for expanding into emerging markets as well as how the domestic industry can change accordingly. To protect public health, the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control measures, guided by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed as part of such negotiations.

  12. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to three years of age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baker, R. J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Dostál, Miroslav; Keller, J. A.; Nožička, J.; Kotěšovec, F.; Dejmek, Jan; Loomis, D.; Šrám, Radim

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 7 (2006), s. 1126-1132 ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : ETS-environmental tobacco smoke * respiratory diseases * children health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.861, year: 2006

  13. Secondhand smoke exposure of children at home and prevalence of parental smoking following implementation of the new tobacco control law in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z L; Deng, H Y; Wu, C P; Lam, W L; Kuok, W S; Liang, W J; Wang, H L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) of children at home and the prevalence of parental smoking after implementation of the new tobacco control law in Macao. This study explored whether the smoking ban in public places in Macao has decreased the prevalence of smoking or led to increased SHS exposure of children at home. As smokers cannot smoke in public places any more, they may smoke at home more frequently; a displacement effect of smoke-free legislation. Cross-sectional survey. This study surveyed 337 fathers and 538 mothers. Questions from a subset of key questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2nd edition) were applied to assess the SHS exposure of children and the prevalence of parental smoking since the smoking ban. A classification tree analysis was used to analyse the factors increasing SHS exposure of children. The prevalence of SHS exposure in children at home was 41.3%. The prevalence rates of paternal and maternal smoking were 43.7% and 3.8%, respectively. Compared with data reported by the Health Bureau of Macao SAR in 2011, the prevalence of parental smoking and the prevalence of SHS exposure of children at home have not decreased since the smoking ban. Analysis of the factors increasing the prevalence of SHS exposure of children indicated that fathers with an education level below high school were more likely to contribute to this increase, compared with fathers with a high school education or more (48.2% vs 32.4%, respectively). In addition, fathers represented the majority of smokers at home, accounting for 92.0% of 415 smoking parents. The prevalence of paternal smoking (82.0%) in the group of children with SHS exposure was much higher than that in the unexposed group (16.7%, Chi-squared test = 367.199, P = 0.000). The SHS exposure of children increased consistently with the decrease in paternal education level. This was consistent with the increasing prevalence of paternal smoking as paternal education level decreased. SHS

  14. Exploring perception of Indians about plain packaging of tobacco products: a mixed method research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eArora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products.12 focus group discussions (n=124, stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 - May 2012 , Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favoured by majority of participants (69% and key stakeholders (92%. The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and promotional value of the tobacco pack (>80%, prevent initiation of tobacco use among children and youth (>60%, motivate tobacco users to quit (>80%, increase noticeability and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs (>90%,reduce tobacco usage (75% of key stakeholders. Majority of participants favoured light grey colour for plain packaging. This study provides key evidence to advocate with Indian Government and other countries in South Asia region to introduce plain packaging legislation for all tobacco products.

  15. Price and tax measures and illicit trade in the framework convention on tobacco control: what we know and what research is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walbeek, Corne; Blecher, Evan; Gilmore, Anna; Ross, Hana

    2013-04-01

    Article 6 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control commits Parties to use tax and price policies to reduce tobacco use, whereas Article 15 commits Parties to implement measures to eliminate the illicit trade in tobacco products. This paper identifies research gaps/needs, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, if adequately addressed, would help in implementing Articles 6 and 15. Based on a recent comprehensive review on the impact of tax and price on tobacco consumption and a summary of reviews and narratives about the illicit tobacco market, research gaps are identified. Countries have highly diverse research needs, depending on the stage of the tobacco epidemic, previous research and data availability, and making a ranking of research needs infeasible. Broad issues for further research are the following: (1) monitoring tobacco consumption, prices, and taxes, (2) assessing the effectiveness of the tax structure in generating revenue and reducing tobacco use, (3) strengthening the tax administration system in order to reduce tax evasion and tax avoidance, (4) improving our understanding of the political economy of tobacco tax policy, and (5) employing a multidisciplinary approach to assessing the magnitude of illicit tobacco trade. At a technical level, the case for increasing excise taxes to improve public health and increase government revenue is easily made, but the political and policy environment is often not supportive. In order to effectively impact policy, the required approach would typically make use of rigorous economic techniques, and be cognizant of the political economy of raising excise taxes.

  16. Exploring new operational research opportunities within the Home Care context: the chemotherapy at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahed, Salma; Marcon, Eric; Sahin, Evren; Feillet, Dominique; Dallery, Yves

    2009-06-01

    Home Care (HC) services provide complex and coordinated medical and paramedical care to patients at their homes. As health care services move into the home setting, the need for developing innovative approaches that improve the efficiency of home care organizations increases. We first conduct a literature review of investigations dealing with operation planning within the area of home care management. We then address a particular issue dealing with the planning of operations related to chemotherapy at home as it is an emergent problem in the French context. Our interest is focused on issues specific to the anti-cancer drug supply chain. We identify various models that can be developed and analyze one of them.

  17. Nursing home research: the first International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG) research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Yves; Resnick, Barbara; Katz, Paul R; Little, Milta O; Ouslander, Joseph G; Bonner, Alice; Geary, Carol R; Schumacher, Karen L; Thompson, Sarah; Martin, Finbarr C; Wilbers, Joachim; Zúñiga, Franziska; Ausserhofer, D; Schwendimann, R; Schüssler, S; Dassen, Theo; Lohrmann, Christa; Levy, Cari; Whitfield, Emily; de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Dilles, Tinne; Azermai, Majda; Bourgeois, Jolyce; Orrell, Martin; Grossberg, George T; Kergoat, Hélène; Thomas, David R; Visschedijk, Jan; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Handajani, Yvonne S; Widjaja, Nelly T; Turana, Yuda; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie; Morley, John E

    2014-05-01

    The International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics held its first conference on nursing home research in St Louis, MO, in November 2013. This article provides a summary of the presentations. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Smart homes, private homes? An empirical study of technology researchers' perceptions of ethical issues in developing smart-home health technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchley, Giles; Huxtable, Richard; Murtagh, Madeleine; Ter Meulen, Ruud; Flach, Peter; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2017-04-04

    Smart-home technologies, comprising environmental sensors, wearables and video are attracting interest in home healthcare delivery. Development of such technology is usually justified on the basis of the technology's potential to increase the autonomy of people living with long-term conditions. Studies of the ethics of smart-homes raise concerns about privacy, consent, social isolation and equity of access. Few studies have investigated the ethical perspectives of smart-home engineers themselves. By exploring the views of engineering researchers in a large smart-home project, we sought to contribute to dialogue between ethics and the engineering community. Either face-to-face or using Skype, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 early- and mid-career smart-home researchers from a multi-centre smart-home project, who were asked to describe their own experience and to reflect more broadly about ethical considerations that relate to smart-home design. With participants' consent, interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach. Two overarching themes emerged: in 'Privacy', researchers indicated that they paid close attention to negative consequences of potential unauthorised information sharing in their current work. However, when discussing broader issues in smart-home design beyond the confines of their immediate project, researchers considered physical privacy to a lesser extent, even though physical privacy may manifest in emotive concerns about being watched or monitored. In 'Choice', researchers indicated they often saw provision of choice to end-users as a solution to ethical dilemmas. While researchers indicated that choices of end-users may need to be restricted for technological reasons, ethical standpoints that restrict choice were usually assumed and embedded in design. The tractability of informational privacy may explain the greater attention that is paid to it. However, concerns about physical privacy may

  19. From the American Academy of Pediatrics: Policy statement--Tobacco use: a pediatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Tobacco use and secondhand tobacco-smoke (SHS) exposure are major national and international health concerns. Pediatricians and other clinicians who care for children are uniquely positioned to assist patients and families with tobacco-use prevention and treatment. Understanding the nature and extent of tobacco use and SHS exposure is an essential first step toward the goal of eliminating tobacco use and its consequences in the pediatric population. The next steps include counseling patients and family members to avoid SHS exposures or cease tobacco use; advocacy for policies that protect children from SHS exposure; and elimination of tobacco use in the media, public places, and homes. Three overarching principles of this policy can be identified: (1) there is no safe way to use tobacco; (2) there is no safe level or duration of exposure to SHS; and (3) the financial and political power of individuals, organizations, and government should be used to support tobacco control. Pediatricians are advised not to smoke or use tobacco; to make their homes, cars, and workplaces tobacco free; to consider tobacco control when making personal and professional decisions; to support and advocate for comprehensive tobacco control; and to advise parents and patients not to start using tobacco or to quit if they are already using tobacco. Prohibiting both tobacco advertising and the use of tobacco products in the media is recommended. Recommendations for eliminating SHS exposure and reducing tobacco use include attaining universal (1) smoke-free home, car, school, work, and play environments, both inside and outside, (2) treatment of tobacco use and dependence through employer, insurance, state, and federal supports, (3) implementation and enforcement of evidence-based tobacco-control measures in local, state, national, and international jurisdictions, and (4) financial and systems support for training in and research of effective ways to prevent and treat tobacco use and SHS

  20. Publications as an indicator of increased tobacco control research productivity (quantity and quality) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Anette; Glover, Marewa; Bullen, Chris; Viehbeck, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco control (TC) research capacity and productivity are critical for developing evidence-informed interventions that will reduce the harmful effects of smoking. The aim of this paper was to investigate New Zealand's (NZ) TC research capacity along with the quantity and quality of publications, following two government initiatives aimed, in part, at improving the quantity and quality of NZ TC research. Scopus was searched for articles with at least one NZ author and where the topic was of primary relevance to TC. Publications were organized into two time periods, following the government initiatives, 1993-2003 and 2004-2009. We analyzed the number of publications, publication journals, type of publications, impact (using the impact factor), and authorship. There has been an increase in number and impact of publications and number of authors. The number of publications has increased from an average of 14 (1994-2003) to 38 per year (2004-2009). The number of journals published increased from 64 to 86. The impact during 2004-2009 was almost threefold than in 1993-2003. The number of authors increased from 212 to 345, and the number of authors who had at least one first-authored publication increased from 80 to 124. These results show an encouraging trend in NZ TC research, with an increase in research productivity, quality, and in research capacity. It is possible that government-initiated and -funded infrastructural support contributed to increasing needed TC research, which supports the worth of such initiatives.

  1. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  2. Recruiting and retaining youth and young adults: challenges and opportunities in survey research for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Hair, Elizabeth C; Smith, Alexandria; Bennett, Morgane; Rath, Jessica Miller; Thomas, Randall K; Fahimi, Mansour; Dennis, J Michael; Vallone, Donna

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation studies of population-based tobacco control interventions often rely on large-scale survey data from numerous respondents across many geographic areas to provide evidence of their effectiveness. Significant challenges for survey research have emerged with the evolving communications landscape, particularly for surveying hard-to-reach populations such as youth and young adults. This study combines the comprehensive coverage of an address-based sampling (ABS) frame with the timeliness of online data collection to develop a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of young people aged 15-21. We constructed an ABS frame, partially supplemented with auxiliary data, to recruit this hard-to-reach sample. Branded and tested mail-based recruitment materials were designed to bring respondents online for screening, consent and surveying. Once enrolled, respondents completed online surveys every 6 months via computer, tablet or smartphone. Numerous strategies were utilized to enhance retention and representativeness RESULTS: Results detail sample performance, representativeness and retention rates as well as device utilization trends for survey completion among youth and young adult respondents. Panel development efforts resulted in a large, nationally representative sample with high retention rates. This study is among the first to employ this hybrid ABS-to-online methodology to recruit and retain youth and young adults in a probability-based online cohort panel. The approach is particularly valuable for conducting research among younger populations as it capitalizes on their increasing access to and comfort with digital communication. We discuss challenges and opportunities of panel recruitment and retention methods in an effort to provide valuable information for tobacco control researchers seeking to obtain representative, population-based samples of youth and young adults in the U.S. as well as across the globe. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  3. TOBACCO CONTROL

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is farmed in more than 125 countries and the problems associated with this ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is one of the world's leading institutions in the generation and application of new ... assumptions about the relative safety ... In Kenya, researchers at Maseno University work.

  4. Overview of the consortium of hospitals advancing research on tobacco (chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley William T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Consortium of Hospitals Advancing Research on Tobacco (CHART is a network of six projects and a research coordinating unit funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research. The CHART projects will assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions initiated during hospitalization and continued post-discharge. Methods/design Along with a seventh project funded previously under the NIH Challenge grants, the CHART projects will assess smoking cessation strategies delivered to approximately 10,000 hospitalized smokers across a geographically diverse group of nearly 20 private, public, academic, and community hospitals. The CHART research coordinating unit at Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research provides organizational and data coordination support, facilitating the development of common measures for combining data from multiple CHART projects. Discussion The targeted enrollment in CHART, if achieved, will represent the largest, most diverse pooled dataset of hospitalized smokers receiving smoking cessation assistance, and is designed to contribute to the dissemination and implementation of smoking cessation interventions provided by hospital systems.

  5. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  6. Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    AF Branding & Trademark Licensing Join the Air Force Home About Us The Air Force Symbol Display Resources Document Library TM Connect Search AF Branding and Trademark Licensing Program: important links Legal Documents 10 U.S.C. § 2260 15 U.S.C. § 167;167; 1114-1125 DODI 5535.12, DoD Branding and

  7. Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    intersect as Attack Wing leaders change roles The 112th COS postured as cyber shield for Pa. infrastructure 111th Attack Wing 111th Attack Wing 21st Century Guard Airmen Home News Photos Art Video Resources - The Balance Search 111th Attack Wing: COMMUNITY/ENVIRO May 16, 2018; Pa. Department of Health update

  8. Collaborative research and action to control the geographic placement of outdoor advertising of alcohol and tobacco products in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbarth, D P; Schnopp-Wyatt, D; Katz, D; Williams, J; Silvestri, B; Pfleger, M

    2001-01-01

    Community activists in Chicago believed their neighborhoods were being targeted by alcohol and tobacco outdoor advertisers, despite the Outdoor Advertising Association of America's voluntary code of principles, which claims to restrict the placement of ads for age-restricted products and prevent billboard saturation of urban neighborhoods. A research and action plan resulted from a 10-year collaborative partnership among Loyola University Chicago, the American Lung Association of Metropolitan Chicago (ALAMC), and community activists from a predominately African American church, St. Sabina Parish. In 1997 Loyola University and ALAMC researchers conducted a cross-sectional prevalence survey of alcohol and tobacco outdoor advertising. Computer mapping was used to locate all 4,247 licensed billboards in Chicago that were within 500- and 1,000-foot radiuses of schools, parks, and playlots. A 50% sample of billboards was visually surveyed and coded for advertising content. The percentage of alcohol and tobacco billboards within the 500- and 1,000-foot zones ranged from 0% to 54%. African American and Hispanic neighborhoods were disproportionately targeted for outdoor advertising of alcohol and tobacco. Data were used to convince the Chicago City Council to pass one of the nation's toughest anti-alcohol and tobacco billboard ordinances, based on zoning rather than advertising content. The ordinance was challenged in court by advertisers. Recent Supreme Court rulings made enactment of local billboard ordinances problematic. Nevertheless, the research, which resulted in specific legislative action, demonstrated the importance of linkages among academic, practice, and grassroots community groups in working together to diminish one of the social causes of health disparities.

  9. Factors associated with home hazards: Findings from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Muhammad H; Tan, Maw P; Mackenzie, Lynette; Lovarini, Meryl; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul B; Clemson, Lindy

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have investigated home hazards as a risk factor for falls without considering factors associated with the presence of home hazards. The present study aimed to determine patterns of home hazards among urban community-dwelling older Malaysians, and to identify factors contributing to home hazards. Cross-sectional data from the initial wave of the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study were used. Basic demographics were obtained from the Global Questionnaire. Basic and instrumental activities of daily living were measured using the Katz and Lawton-Brody scales, and home hazards were identified using the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool. Participants were also asked if they had fallen in the previous 12 months. Data were analyzed from 1489 participants. Hazards were frequently identified (>30%) in the toilet and bathroom areas (no grab rail, no non-slip mat, distant toilet), slippery floors, no bedside light access and inappropriate footwear. Lower educational attainment, traditional housing, Chinese ethnicity, greater number of home occupants, lower monthly expenditure, poor vision and younger age were the factors independently associated with home hazards. This study provides evidence that home hazards are a product of the interaction of the individual's function within their home environment. Hazards are also influenced by local sociocultural and environmental factors. The relationship between home hazards and falls appears complex and deserves further evaluation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 387-395. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Tobacco outlet density and tobacco knowledge, beliefs, purchasing behaviours and price among adolescents in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Helena; Shortt, Niamh K; Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Richardson, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Richard J; Pearce, Jamie R

    2018-06-01

    Despite long-term falls in global adult smoking prevalence and over 50 years of tobacco control policies, adolescent smoking persists. Research suggests greater densities of tobacco retail outlets in residential neighbourhoods are associated with higher adolescent smoking rates. Policies to reduce retail outlets have therefore been identified by public health researchers as a potential 'new frontier' in tobacco control. Better understanding of the pathways linking density of tobacco retailers and smoking behaviour could support these policies. In this study we use path analysis to assess how outlet density in the home environment is related to adolescent tobacco knowledge, beliefs, retail purchases and price in Scotland. We assessed 22,049 13 and 15 year old respondents to the nationally representative cross-sectional 2010 Scottish School Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey. Outlet density was based on Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register, 2012, data. A spatially-weighted Kernel Density Estimation measure of outlet density within 400 m of respondents' home postcode was grouped into tertiles. The analysis considered whether outlet density was associated with the number of cigarette brands adolescents could name, positive beliefs about smoking, whether smokers purchased cigarettes from shops themselves or through adult proxies and perceived cost of cigarettes. Models were stratified by adolescent smoking status. The path analyses indicated that outlet density was not associated with most outcomes, but small, significant direct effects on knowledge of cigarette brands among those who had never smoked were observed. With each increase in outlet density tertile the mean number of brands adolescents could name rose by 0.07 (mean = 1.60; SD = 1.18; range = 4). This suggests greater outlet densities may have affected adolescents' knowledge of cigarette brands but did not encourage positive attitudes to smoking, purchases from shops or lower cigarette

  11. Price and Tax Measures and Illicit Trade in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: What We Know and What Research Is Required

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Article 6 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control commits Parties to use tax and price policies to reduce tobacco use, whereas Article 15 commits Parties to implement measures to eliminate the illicit trade in tobacco products. This paper identifies research gaps/needs, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, if adequately addressed, would help in implementing Articles 6 and 15. Methods: Based on a recent comprehensive review on the impact of tax and price on tobacco consumption and a summary of reviews and narratives about the illicit tobacco market, research gaps are identified. Results: Countries have highly diverse research needs, depending on the stage of the tobacco epidemic, previous research and data availability, and making a ranking of research needs infeasible. Broad issues for further research are the following: (1) monitoring tobacco consumption, prices, and taxes, (2) assessing the effectiveness of the tax structure in generating revenue and reducing tobacco use, (3) strengthening the tax administration system in order to reduce tax evasion and tax avoidance, (4) improving our understanding of the political economy of tobacco tax policy, and (5) employing a multidisciplinary approach to assessing the magnitude of illicit tobacco trade. Conclusions: At a technical level, the case for increasing excise taxes to improve public health and increase government revenue is easily made, but the political and policy environment is often not supportive. In order to effectively impact policy, the required approach would typically make use of rigorous economic techniques, and be cognizant of the political economy of raising excise taxes. PMID:22987785

  12. Message Formats and Their Influence on Perceived Risks of Tobacco Use: A Pilot Formative Research Project in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Claudia R.; Galarce, Ezequiel M.; Nagler, Eve; Aghi, Mira; Sorensen, Glorian; Gupta, Prakash C.; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.; Viswanath, K.

    2013-01-01

    In India, tobacco kills 900 000 people every year though the burden of tobacco is faced disproportionately in poorer states such as Bihar. Teachers may be a particularly influential group in setting norms around tobacco use in the Indian context. However, tobacco use among teachers remains high and perceptions of tobacco-related health risks are…

  13. 'The industry must be inconspicuous': Japan Tobacco's corruption of science and health policy via the Smoking Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Kaori; Proctor, Robert N

    2018-02-04

    To investigate how and why Japan Tobacco, Inc. (JT) in 1986 established the Smoking Research Foundation (SRF), a research-funding institution, and to explore the extent to which SRF has influenced science and health policy in Japan. We analysed documents in the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents archive, along with recent Japanese litigation documents and published documents. JT's effort to combat effective tobacco control was strengthened in the mid-1980s, following privatisation of the company. While remaining under the protection of Japan's Ministry of Finance, the semiprivatised company lost its 'access to politicos', opening up a perceived need for collaboration with global cigarette makers. One solution, arrived at through clandestine planning with American companies, was to establish a third-party organisation, SRF, with the hope of capturing scientific and medical authority for the industry. Guarded by powerful people in government and academia, SRF was launched with the covert goal of influencing tobacco policy both inside and outside Japan. Scholars funded by SRF have participated in international conferences, national advisory committees and tobacco litigation, in most instances helping the industry to maintain a favourable climate for the continued sale of cigarettes. Contrary to industry claims, SRF was never meant to be independent or neutral. With active support from foreign cigarette manufacturers, SRF represents the expansion into Asia of the denialist campaign that began in the USA in 1953. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. After the double helix: Rosalind Franklin's research on Tobacco mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H; Morgan, Gregory J

    2008-06-01

    Rosalind Franklin is best known for her informative X-ray diffraction patterns of DNA that provided vital clues for James Watson and Francis Crick's double-stranded helical model. Her scientific career did not end when she left the DNA work at King's College, however. In 1953 Franklin moved to J. D. Bernal's crystallography laboratory at Birkbeck College, where she shifted her focus to the three-dimensional structure of viruses, obtaining diffraction patterns of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) of unprecedented detail and clarity. During the next five years, while making significant headway on the structural determination of TMV, Franklin maintained an active correspondence with both Watson and Crick, who were also studying aspects of virus structure. Developments in TMV research during the 1950s illustrate the connections in the emerging field of molecular biology between structural studies of nucleic acids and of proteins and viruses. They also reveal how the protagonists of the "race for the double helix" continued to interact personally and professionally during the years when Watson and Crick's model for the double-helical structure of DNA was debated and confirmed.

  15. The Nursing Home Culture-Change Movement: Recent Past, Present, and Future Directions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anna N.; Schnelle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a retrospective approach to critique the research base underlying the nursing home culture-change movement--an effort to radically transform the nation's nursing homes by delivering resident-directed care and empowering staff. The article traces the development of the movement from its inception 10 years ago to 2005, when the…

  16. Research supporting the congruence between rehabilitation principles and home health nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, L J

    1999-01-01

    A grounded-theory study of 30 home health nurses conducted in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area used unstructured audiotaped interviews to elicit data as to how home health nurses define their practice. The purpose of the study was to develop a beginning substantive research-based theory of home health nursing practice. The model that emerged consists of three stages by which nurses attain autonomy in their practice. Adaptation was found to be the core category, in that nurses cannot function effectively or successfully in the home health arena unless they are or learn to be adaptable. Data also revealed that home health nurses either knowingly or unknowingly use rehabilitation nursing principles in their practice, thereby lending credence to the supposition that home health nursing practice is congruent with rehabilitation nursing principles.

  17. "The magic is in the mix": lessons from research capacity building in the Canadian tobacco control community, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara L; Viehbeck, Sarah M; Cohen, Joanna E; Chia, Marie C

    2013-02-25

    Global public health issues, including tobacco use, will be addressed most effectively if informed by relevant evidence. Additional capacity is needed to undertake and sustain relevant and rigorous research that will inform and enable learning from interventions. Despite the undisputed importance of research capacity building (RCB), there is little evidence about how to create relevant capacities. RCB for tobacco control in Canada from 2000-2010 offers a rich experience from which to learn. Lessons were derived using structured data collection from seven capacity-building initiatives and an invitational workshop, at which reflections on major contributions and lessons learned were discussed by initiative leads. Ten years of RCB for tobacco control in Canada revealed the importance of a) taking an organic approach to RCB, b) targeting and sustaining investments in a mix of RCB activities, c) vision and collaborative leadership at organizational and initiative levels, d) a focus on building community, and e) studying capacity building. The experience also provided tangible examples of RCB initiatives and how independent investments can be linked to create a coherent approach. Looking ahead, promising directions may include positioning RCB within a broader context of "field building", focusing on practical approaches to sustainability, and enhancing research on RCB.

  18. 78 FR 38055 - Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation Program (U18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... brand and subbrand (sections 904, 915 of the FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C. 387d, 387o). Please visit http://www... science. CTP's strategic public health goals include: Decreasing initiation of tobacco product use... Control Act; (3) plan, build, adapt, or expand data collection/information sharing mechanisms, management...

  19. Associations of Adolescents' Cigarette, Waterpipe, and Dual Tobacco Use With Parental Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Dierking, Leah; Kheriallah, Khalid; Mzayek, Fawaz; Pbert, Lori; Ward, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    mother and father) tobacco use with adolescents' tobacco use differed significantly if the adolescent is a waterpipe smoker or dual user compared to an adolescent cigarette smoker. (3) Adolescents' exposed to their mothers' WPS or dual use were more likely to be a waterpipe smoker or dual user. High likelihood of adolescents' cigarette, waterpipe and dual use is found in homes where parental tobacco use is rampant with both parents smoking either cigarette, waterpipe or both. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The psychology of home environments: a call for research on residential space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lindsay T; Gosling, Samuel D; Travis, Christopher K

    2015-05-01

    Homes are important: People devote much of their thought, time, and resources to selecting, modifying, and decorating their living spaces, and they may be devastated when their homes must be sold or are destroyed. Yet the empirical psychological literature says virtually nothing about the roles that homes might play in people's lives. We argue that homes provide an informative context for a wide variety of studies examining how social, developmental, cognitive, and other psychological processes play out in a consequential real-world setting. The topic of homes is also well suited to collaborations with a diverse array of disciplines ranging from architecture and engineering to sociology and law. We illustrate the potential insights to be gained from studying homes with an exploratory study that maps the psychological ambiances (e.g., romance, comfort, togetherness) that people desire in their homes; we identify six broad ambiance dimensions (restoration, kinship, storage, stimulation, intimacy, productivity) that show mean differences across rooms. We connect these findings to existing work on situation selection in emotion regulation. These ideas provide only an initial foray into the domain of residential space, but they hint at the productive roles that homes and other spaces could play in psychological theorizing and research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. A diaper bank and home visiting partnership: Initial exploration of research and policy questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lois S; Condon, Eileen M; Deng, Shirley Z; Ordway, Monica Roosa; Marchesseault, Crista; Miller, Andrea; Alfano, Janet Stolfi; Weir, Alison M

    2018-03-01

    The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need. In this descriptive qualitative pilot study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 home visitors from Minding the Baby ® (MTB), a home visiting intervention for young parents. MTB clinicians routinely distribute diapers in partnership with The Diaper Bank in Connecticut. We used directed content analysis to code and analyze interview transcripts. These preliminary findings indicate that partnerships between home visiting programs and diaper banks may benefit families by improving diaper access, reducing stigma, and fostering trusting relationships with home visitors. Home visiting program benefits including engagement or re-engagement with families may need to be balanced with potential effects on clinical and therapeutic relationships. Recommendations for next steps in research and related policy questions are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Public involvement in research within care homes: benefits and challenges in the APPROACH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, Katherine; Goodman, Claire; Morbey, Hazel; Davies, Sue L; Masey, Helen; Dickinson, Angela; Martin, Wendy; Victor, Christina

    2016-12-01

    Public involvement in research (PIR) can improve research design and recruitment. Less is known about how PIR enhances the experience of participation and enriches the data collection process. In a study to evaluate how UK care homes and primary health-care services achieve integrated working to promote older people's health, PIR was integrated throughout the research processes. This paper aims to present one way in which PIR has been integrated into the design and delivery of a multisite research study based in care homes. A prospective case study design, with an embedded qualitative evaluation of PIR activity. Data collection was undertaken in six care homes in three sites in England. Six PIR members participated: all had prior personal or work experience in care homes. Qualitative data collection involved discussion groups, and site-specific meetings to review experiences of participation, benefits and challenges, and completion of structured fieldwork notes after each care home visit. PIR members supported recruitment, resident and staff interviews and participated in data interpretation. Benefits of PIR work were resident engagement that minimized distress and made best use of limited research resources. Challenges concerned communication and scheduling. Researcher support for PIR involvement was resource intensive. Clearly defined roles with identified training and support facilitated involvement in different aspects of the data collection process. This can also ensure that vulnerable older people who participate in research have a positive experience that reinforces the value of their views. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Until recently, the Chinese tobacco industry has been run as a state-owned monopoly. It is reported ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India.

  4. Implementation and research priorities for FCTC Articles 13 and 16: tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship and sales to and by minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Rebekah H; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-04-01

    Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS), and Article 16 calls for prohibition of tobacco sales to and by minors. Although these mandates are based on sound science, many countries have found provision implementation to be rife with challenges. This paper reviews the history of tobacco marketing and minor access restrictions in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, identifying past challenges and successes. We consider current challenges to FCTC implementation, how these barriers can be addressed, and what research is necessary to support such efforts. Specifically, we identify implementation and research priorities for FCTC Articles 13 and 16. Although a solid evidence base underpins the FCTC's call for TAPS bans and minor access restrictions, we know substantially less about how best to implement these restrictions. Drawing on the regulatory experiences of high-, middle-, and low-income countries, we discern several implementation and research priorities, which are organized into 4 categories: policy enactment and enforcement, human capital expertise, the effects of FCTC marketing and youth access policies, and knowledge exchange and transfer among signatories. Future research should provide detailed case studies on implementation successes and failures, as well as insights into how knowledge of successful restrictions can be translated into tobacco control policy and practice and shared among different stakeholders. Tobacco marketing surveillance, sales-to-minors compliance checks, enforcement and evaluation of restriction policies, and capacity building and knowledge transfer are likely to prove central to effective implementation.

  5. A fundamental research of growth, metabolism and product formation of tobacco suspension cells at different scales

    OpenAIRE

    Ullisch, David

    2012-01-01

    For over two decades, plant cell cultures have been promising hosts for the expression of recombinant proteins such as hormones, growth factors, full-size antibodies and antigens. So far, over 700 different plant cell cultures are stored in the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ) in Braunschweig. Among these plant cell cultures, the tobacco cell line Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) was chosen as a good host cell line for the production of recombinant proteins...

  6. White matter development and tobacco smoking in young adults: A systematic review with recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogliettino, Alex R; Potenza, Marc N; Yip, Sarah W

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are critical vulnerability periods for initiation of tobacco smoking. White matter development is ongoing during this time and may be influenced by exposure to nicotine. Synthesis of findings from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of adolescent and young adult smokers may be helpful in understanding the relationship between neurodevelopment and initiation and progression of tobacco-use behaviors and in guiding further research. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify DTI studies comparing adolescent and young adult (mean age adult studies. Directions for further research are also discussed. All identified studies reported increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) among adolescent/young adult smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Increased FA was most frequently reported in regions of the corpus callosum (genu, body and spenium), internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Findings of increased FA among adolescent/young adult smokers are contrary to those from most adult studies and thus raise the possibility of differential effects of nicotine on white matter across the lifespan. Further research including multiple time points is needed to test this hypothesis. Other areas warranting further research include DTI studies of e-cigarette use and studies incorporating measures of pubertal stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality Improvement in Home-Based Child Care Settings: Research Resources to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharmila; Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    This "Topic of Interest" provides a comprehensive list of research in the Research Connections collection that was published in 2005 or later addressing issues related to quality improvement specifically in home-based child care. The resources are grouped under the following headings: Overviews, Summaries, and Reviews of Quality…

  8. We are Not Hard-to-Reach: Community Competent Research to Address Racial Tobacco-Related Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Webb Hooper is Associate Director for Cancer Disparities Research and Director of the Office of Cancer Disparities Research in the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center at Case Western Reserve University. She is also Professor of Oncology, Family Medicine & Community Health and Psychological Sciences. Dr. Webb Hooper is a licensed clinical health psychologist whose research interests are in chronic illness prevention and cancer risk behaviors, with an emphasis on minority health and racial/ethnic disparities. Much of her research focuses on tobacco use and weight management interventions, the development of culturally specific approaches, and understanding relationships between behavior change and race/ethnicity, cultural variables, modifiable risk factors, and the biological stress response. Dr. Webb Hooper has received international recognition for her contributions to nicotine and tobacco research, and is a leader in the field of cancer health disparities. Her research goal is to make a significant public health impact by reducing the prevalence of cancer and cancer health disparities in high-risk populations. Her long-term goal is to help eliminate disparities in chronic diseases. Dr. Webb Hooper’s research has been funded with over $9 million dollars by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), American Cancer Society (ACS), CVS Health Foundation, and the Florida Department of Health James and Esther King Biomedical Research Program.  In addition, Dr. Webb Hooper serves on committees for the NIH, several peer-reviewed journal editorial boards, is an Associate Editor of the Ethnicity & Disease Journal, and is Co-Chair of the Health Disparities Network of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. WebEx When it's time, join the meeting. Meeting number (access code):  857 862 211 Meeting password:  Colloqu1@ Join by phone 1-650-479-3207 Call-in toll number (US/Canada) Can't join the meeting? IMPORTANT NOTICE:  Please note that this WebEx service allows

  9. Safety in home care: A research protocol for studying medication management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easty Anthony

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is an ongoing global priority, with medication safety considered a prevalent, high-risk area of concern. Yet, we have little understanding of the supports and barriers to safe medication management in the Canadian home care environment. There is a clear need to engage the providers and recipients of care in studying and improving medication safety with collaborative approaches to exploring the nature and safety of medication management in home care. Methods A socio-ecological perspective on health and health systems drives our iterative qualitative study on medication safety with elderly home care clients, family members and other informal caregivers, and home care providers. As we purposively sample across four Canadian provinces: Alberta (AB, Ontario (ON, Quebec (QC and Nova Scotia (NS, we will collect textual and visual data through home-based interviews, participant-led photo walkabouts of the home, and photo elicitation sessions at clients' kitchen tables. Using successive rounds of interpretive description and human factors engineering analyses, we will generate robust descriptions of managing medication at home within each provincial sample and across the four-province group. We will validate our initial interpretations through photo elicitation focus groups with home care providers in each province to develop a refined description of the phenomenon that can inform future decision-making, quality improvement efforts, and research. Discussion The application of interpretive and human factors lenses to the visual and textual data is expected to yield findings that advance our understanding of the issues, challenges, and risk-mitigating strategies related to medication safety in home care. The images are powerful knowledge translation tools for sharing what we learn with participants, decision makers, other healthcare audiences, and the public. In addition, participants engage in knowledge exchange

  10. Packaging colour research by tobacco companies: the pack as a product characteristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco companies use colour on cigarette packaging and labelling to communicate brand imagery, diminish health concerns, and as a replacement for prohibited descriptive words ('light' and 'mild') to make misleading claims about reduced risks. We analysed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify additional ways in which cigarette companies tested and manipulated pack colours to affect consumers' perceptions of the cigarettes' flavour and strength. Cigarette companies' approach to package design is based on 'sensation transference' in which consumers transfer sensations they derive from the packaging to the product itself. Companies manipulate consumers' perceptions of the taste and strength of cigarettes by changing the colour of the packaging. For example, even without changes to the tobacco blends, flavourings or additives, consumers perceive the taste of cigarettes in packages with red and darker colours to be fuller flavoured and stronger, and cigarettes in packs with more white and lighter colours are perceived to taste lighter and be less harmful. Companies use pack colours to manipulate consumers' perceptions of the taste, strength and health impacts of the cigarettes inside the packs, thereby altering their characteristics and effectively creating new products. In countries that do not require standardised packaging, regulators should consider colour equivalently to other changes in cigarette characteristics (eg, physical characteristics, ingredients, additives and flavourings) when making determinations about whether or not to permit new products on the market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  12. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  13. Challenges to conducting research with older people living in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Sue; Longhurst, Susan; Higginson, Irene J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although older people are increasingly cared for in nursing homes towards the end of life, there is a dearth of research exploring the views of residents. There are however, a number of challenges and methodological issues involved in doing this. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of these, along with residents' views on taking part in a study of the perceptions of dignity of older people in care homes and make recommendations for future research in these settings. M...

  14. Ethics and gender issues in palliative care in nursing homes: an Austrian participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitinger, Elisabeth; Heimerl, Katharina

    2014-06-01

    The development of palliative care in nursing homes in German-speaking countries has gained in importance within the past 15-20 years. Ethical and gender issues are core aspects of a palliative care culture and should therefore be better understood. The aim of this study was to highlight insights regarding ethical and gender issues, based on the experiences of professionals in nursing homes. A 2-year participatory action research study was performed in collaboration with three nursing homes in Austria. The article focusses on 10 group discussions with interdisciplinary professional teams that were conducted to generate ethical narratives. Thematic and narrative analysis was undertaken both individually and within the interdisciplinary research team. Findings and interpretations were validated with practitioners and researchers. A total of 36 narratives were collected and summarised within eight themes concerning the theoretical journey of a nursing home resident with relatives from entry into the house until death. The most burdensome ethical dilemmas are not the ones around death and dying but rather those relating to small-scale everyday work/life issues. Sharing experiences and feelings in ethical discussions provides relief. Emotions are important facilitators of insight into ethical dilemmas. Gender issues can be observed in care situations as well as in the organisational structure of nursing homes. Opportunities to share experiences and perspectives around ethical questions in interdisciplinary group discussions help professionals to better understand difficult issues and find appropriate ways of managing them. There is a need for communication structures such as facilitated ethical discussions that enable nursing home staff to reflect their everyday decisions. Expression of emotions should be encouraged in ethical decision-making processes in nursing homes. Gender-sensitive reflection supports the development of palliative care as organisational culture.

  15. Vested Interests in addiction research and policy. Alliance between tobacco and alcohol industries to shape public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela

    2013-05-01

    The tobacco and alcohol industries share common policy goals when facing regulation, opposing policies such as tax increases and advertising restrictions. The collaboration between these two industries in the tobacco policy arena is unknown. This study explored if tobacco and alcohol companies built alliances to influence tobacco legislation and, if so, how those alliances worked. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. In the early 1980s, tobacco companies started efforts to build coalitions with alcohol and other industries to oppose cigarette excise taxes, clean indoor air policies and tobacco advertising and promotion constraints. Alcohol companies were often identified as a key partner and source of financial support for the coalitions. These coalitions had variable success interfering with tobacco control policy-making. The combined resources of tobacco and alcohol companies may have affected tobacco control legislation. These alliances helped to create the perception that there is a broader base of opposition to tobacco control. Advocates should be aware of the covert alliances between tobacco, alcohol and other industries and expose them to correct this misperception. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Towards global consensus on outcome measures for atopic eczema research: results of the HOME II meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis; Boers, Maarten; Thomas, Kim; Chalmers, Joanne; Roekevisch, Evelien; Schram, Mandy; Allsopp, Richard; Aoki, Valeria; Apfelbacher, Christian; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Charman, Carolyn; Cohen, Arnon; Dohil, Magdalene; Flohr, Carsten; Furue, Masutaka; Gieler, Uwe; Hooft, Lotty; Humphreys, Rosemary; Ishii, Henrique Akira; Katayama, Ichiro; Kouwenhoven, Willem; Langan, Sinéad; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Merhand, Stephanie; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murrell, Dedee F; Nankervis, Helen; Ohya, Yukihiro; Oranje, Arnold; Otsuka, Hiromi; Paul, Carle; Rosenbluth, Yael; Saeki, Hidehisa; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Stalder, Jean-Francois; Svensson, Ake; Takaoka, Roberto; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Weidinger, Stephan; Wollenberg, Andreas; Williams, Hywel

    2012-09-01

    The use of nonstandardized and inadequately validated outcome measures in atopic eczema trials is a major obstacle to practising evidence-based dermatology. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative is an international multiprofessional group dedicated to atopic eczema outcomes research. In June 2011, the HOME initiative conducted a consensus study involving 43 individuals from 10 countries, representing different stakeholders (patients, clinicians, methodologists, pharmaceutical industry) to determine core outcome domains for atopic eczema trials, to define quality criteria for atopic eczema outcome measures and to prioritize topics for atopic eczema outcomes research. Delegates were given evidence-based information, followed by structured group discussion and anonymous consensus voting. Consensus was achieved to include clinical signs, symptoms, long-term control of flares and quality of life into the core set of outcome domains for atopic eczema trials. The HOME initiative strongly recommends including and reporting these core outcome domains as primary or secondary endpoints in all future atopic eczema trials. Measures of these core outcome domains need to be valid, sensitive to change and feasible. Prioritized topics of the HOME initiative are the identification/development of the most appropriate instruments for the four core outcome domains. HOME is open to anyone with an interest in atopic eczema outcomes research. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Quality of Care and Job Satisfaction in the European Home Care Setting: Research Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Van Eenoo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the European population is ageing, a growing number of elderly will need home care. Consequently, high quality home care for the elderly remains an important challenge. Job satisfaction among care professionals is regarded as an important aspect of the quality of home care. Aim: This paper describes a research protocol to identify elements that have an impact on job satisfaction among care professionals and on quality of care for older people in the home care setting of six European countries. Methods: Data on elements at the macro-level (policy, meso-level (care organisations and micro-level (clients are of importance in determining job satisfaction and quality of care. Macro-level indicators will be identified in a previously published literature review. At meso- and micro-level, data will be collected by means of two questionnaires utilsed with both care organisations and care professionals, and by means of interRAI Home Care assessments of clients. The client assessments will be used to calculate quality of care indicators. Subsequently, data will be analysed by means of linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses, correlations and multilevel techniques. Conclusions and Discussion: These results can guide health care policy makers in their decision making process in order to increase the quality of home care in their organisation, in their country or in Europe.

  18. Quality of Care and Job Satisfaction in the European Home Care Setting: Research Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Roest, Henriëtte; van Hout, Hein; Declercq, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Since the European population is ageing, a growing number of elderly will need home care. Consequently, high quality home care for the elderly remains an important challenge. Job satisfaction among care professionals is regarded as an important aspect of the quality of home care. Aim: This paper describes a research protocol to identify elements that have an impact on job satisfaction among care professionals and on quality of care for older people in the home care setting of six European countries. Methods: Data on elements at the macro-level (policy), meso-level (care organisations) and micro-level (clients) are of importance in determining job satisfaction and quality of care. Macro-level indicators will be identified in a previously published literature review. At meso- and micro-level, data will be collected by means of two questionnaires utilsed with both care organisations and care professionals, and by means of interRAI Home Care assessments of clients. The client assessments will be used to calculate quality of care indicators. Subsequently, data will be analysed by means of linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses, correlations and multilevel techniques. Conclusions and Discussion: These results can guide health care policy makers in their decision making process in order to increase the quality of home care in their organisation, in their country or in Europe. PMID:28435423

  19. Smart homes, private homes? An empirical study of technology researchers? perceptions of ethical issues in developing smart-home health technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Birchley, Giles; Huxtable, Richard; Murtagh, Madeleine; ter Meulen, Ruud; Flach, Peter; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    Background Smart-home technologies, comprising environmental sensors, wearables and video are attracting interest in home healthcare delivery. Development of such technology is usually justified on the basis of the technology?s potential to increase the autonomy of people living with long-term conditions. Studies of the ethics of smart-homes raise concerns about privacy, consent, social isolation and equity of access. Few studies have investigated the ethical perspectives of smart-home engine...

  20. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lighters—anything that you connect with your smoking habit. Get rid of all old chewing tobacco containers ... nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking or using chewing tobacco. Some people gain weight ...

  1. Prevalence and predictors of home and automobile smoking bans and child environmental tobacco smoke exposure: a cross-sectional study of U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic women with young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegler Michelle C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure on child health are well documented. Because young children's primary exposure to ETS occurs in homes and automobiles, voluntary smoking restrictions can substantially reduce exposure. We assessed the prevalence of home and automobile smoking bans among U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanics in the southwestern United States, and examined the influence of mother's country of birth and smoking practices on voluntary smoking bans and on child ETS exposure. Methods U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic mothers of children aged 2 through 12 years were systematically sampled from health clinics in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In-person interviews were conducted with 269 mothers (75.4% response rate to obtain information on main study outcomes (complete versus no/partial home and automobile smoking bans; child room and automobile ETS exposure and risk factors (mother's country of birth, maternal and household smoking behaviors. Data were analyzed with chi square tests and logistic regression models. Results Three-fourths (74–77% of U.S.-born and 90–95% of Mexico-born mothers reported complete automobile and home smoking bans. In multivariate analyses, mother's U.S nativity, mother's current smoking, and presence of other adult smokers in the home were associated with significantly increased odds of not having a complete home or automobile smoking ban. Mother's smoking was associated with child ETS exposure both indoors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.31 and in automobiles (OR = 2.97. Children of U.S.-born mothers had increased odds of exposure to ETS indoors (OR = 3.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–7.69, but not in automobiles. Having complete smoking bans was associated with substantially reduced odds of child ETS exposure both indoors (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.04–0.27 and in automobiles (OR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36. Conclusion This study of Hispanic mothers in the southwestern U

  2. Adaptation of a nursing home culture change research instrument for frontline staff quality improvement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christine W; Palmer, Jennifer A; Mills, Whitney L; Pimentel, Camilla B; Allen, Rebecca S; Wewiorski, Nancy J; Dillon, Kristen R; Snow, A Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Enhanced interpersonal relationships and meaningful resident engagement in daily life are central to nursing home cultural transformation, yet these critical components of person-centered care may be difficult for frontline staff to measure using traditional research instruments. To address the need for easy-to-use instruments to help nursing home staff members evaluate and improve person-centered care, the psychometric method of cognitive-based interviewing was used to adapt a structured observation instrument originally developed for researchers and nursing home surveyors. Twenty-eight staff members from 2 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing homes participated in 1 of 3 rounds of cognitive-based interviews, using the instrument in real-life situations. Modifications to the original instrument were guided by a cognitive processing model of instrument refinement. Following 2 rounds of cognitive interviews, pretesting of the revised instrument, and another round of cognitive interviews, the resulting set of 3 short instruments mirrored the concepts of the original longer instrument but were significantly easier for frontline staff to understand and use. Final results indicated frontline staff found the revised instruments feasible to use and clinically relevant in measuring and improving the lived experience of a changing culture. This article provides a framework for developing or adapting other measurement tools for frontline culture change efforts in nursing homes, in addition to reporting on a practical set of instruments to measure aspects of person-centered care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Challenges to conducting research with older people living in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginson Irene J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although older people are increasingly cared for in nursing homes towards the end of life, there is a dearth of research exploring the views of residents. There are however, a number of challenges and methodological issues involved in doing this. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of these, along with residents' views on taking part in a study of the perceptions of dignity of older people in care homes and make recommendations for future research in these settings. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to obtain the views on maintaining dignity of 18 people aged 75 years and over, living in two private nursing homes in South East London. Detailed field notes on experiences of recruiting and interviewing participants were kept. Results Challenges included taking informed consent (completing reply slips and having a 'reasonable' understanding of their participation; finding opportunities to conduct interviews; involvement of care home staff and residents' families and trying to maintain privacy during the interviews. Most residents were positive about their participation in the study, however, five had concerns either before or during their interviews. Although 15 residents seemed to feel free to air their views, three seemed reluctant to express their opinions on their care in the home. Conclusion Although we experienced many challenges to conducting this study, they were not insurmountable, and once overcome, allowed this often unheard vulnerable group to express their views, with potential long-term benefits for future delivery of care.

  4. The care unit in nursing home research: evidence in support of a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, Carole A; Morgan, Debra G; Squires, Janet E; Boström, Anne-Marie; Slaughter, Susan E; Cummings, Greta G; Norton, Peter G

    2011-04-14

    Defining what constitutes a resident care unit in nursing home research is both a conceptual and practical challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence in support of a definition of care unit in nursing homes by demonstrating: (1) its feasibility for use in data collection, (2) the acceptability of aggregating individual responses to the unit level, and (3) the benefit of including unit level data in explanatory models. An observational study design was used. Research (project) managers, healthcare aides, care managers, nursing home administrators and directors of care from thirty-six nursing homes in the Canadian prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba provided data for the study. A definition of care unit was developed and applied in data collection and analyses. A debriefing session was held with research managers to investigate their experiences with using the care unit definition. In addition, survey responses from 1258 healthcare aides in 25 of the 36 nursing homes in the study, that had more than one care unit, were analyzed using a multi-level modeling approach. Trained field workers administered the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), a 58-item self-report survey reflecting 10 organizational context concepts, to healthcare aides using computer assisted personal interviews. To assess the appropriateness of obtaining unit level scores, we assessed aggregation statistics (ICC(1), ICC(2), η², and ω²), and to assess the value of using the definition of unit in explanatory models, we performed multi-level modeling. In 10 of the 36 nursing homes, the care unit definition developed was used to align the survey data (for analytic purposes) to specific care units as designated by our definition, from that reported by the facility administrator. The aggregation statistics supported aggregating the healthcare aide responses on the ACT to the realigned unit level. Findings from the multi-level modeling further supported unit level aggregation. A

  5. Improving quality and safety in nursing homes and home care: the study protocol of a mixed-methods research design to implement a leadership intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Ree, Eline; Johannessen, Terese; Strømme, Torunn; Storm, Marianne; Aase, Ingunn; Ullebust, Berit; Holen-Rabbersvik, Elisabeth; Hurup Thomsen, Line; Sandvik Pedersen, Anne Torhild; van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Bal, Roland; Aase, Karina

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Nursing homes and home care face challenges across different countries as people are living longer, often with chronic conditions. There is a lack of knowledge regarding implementation and impact of quality and safety interventions as most research evidence so far is generated in hospitals. Additionally, there is a lack of effective leadership tools for quality and safety improvement work in this context. Methods and analysis The aim of the ‘Improving Quality and Safety in Primary Care—Implementing a Leadership Intervention in Nursing Homes and Homecare’ (SAFE-LEAD) study is to develop and evaluate a research-based leadership guide for managers to increase quality and safety competence. The project applies a mixed-methods design and explores the implications of the leadership guide on managers’ and staffs’ knowledge, attitudes and practices. Four nursing homes and four home care services from different Norwegian municipalities will participate in the intervention. Surveys, process evaluation (interviews, observations) and document analyses will be conducted to evaluate the implementation and impact of the leadership intervention. A comparative study of Norway and the Netherlands will establish knowledge of the context dependency of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data (2017/52324 and 54855). The results will be disseminated through scientific articles, two PhD dissertations, an anthology, presentations at national and international conferences, and in social media, newsletters and in the press. The results will generate knowledge to inform leadership practices in nursing homes and home care. Moreover, the study will build new theory on leadership interventions and the role of contextual factors in nursing homes and home care. PMID:29599394

  6. Improving quality and safety in nursing homes and home care: the study protocol of a mixed-methods research design to implement a leadership intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Siri; Ree, Eline; Johannessen, Terese; Strømme, Torunn; Storm, Marianne; Aase, Ingunn; Ullebust, Berit; Holen-Rabbersvik, Elisabeth; Hurup Thomsen, Line; Sandvik Pedersen, Anne Torhild; van de Bovenkamp, Hester; Bal, Roland; Aase, Karina

    2018-03-28

    Nursing homes and home care face challenges across different countries as people are living longer, often with chronic conditions. There is a lack of knowledge regarding implementation and impact of quality and safety interventions as most research evidence so far is generated in hospitals. Additionally, there is a lack of effective leadership tools for quality and safety improvement work in this context. The aim of the 'Improving Quality and Safety in Primary Care-Implementing a Leadership Intervention in Nursing Homes and Homecare' (SAFE-LEAD) study is to develop and evaluate a research-based leadership guide for managers to increase quality and safety competence. The project applies a mixed-methods design and explores the implications of the leadership guide on managers' and staffs' knowledge, attitudes and practices. Four nursing homes and four home care services from different Norwegian municipalities will participate in the intervention. Surveys, process evaluation (interviews, observations) and document analyses will be conducted to evaluate the implementation and impact of the leadership intervention. A comparative study of Norway and the Netherlands will establish knowledge of the context dependency of the intervention. The study is approved by the Norwegian Centre for Research Data (2017/52324 and 54855). The results will be disseminated through scientific articles, two PhD dissertations, an anthology, presentations at national and international conferences, and in social media, newsletters and in the press. The results will generate knowledge to inform leadership practices in nursing homes and home care. Moreover, the study will build new theory on leadership interventions and the role of contextual factors in nursing homes and home care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Virtual rehabilitation: what are the practical barriers for home-based research?

    OpenAIRE

    Threapleton, Kate; Drummond, Avril E.R.; Standen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality technologies are becoming increasingly accessible and affordable to deliver, and consequently the interest in applying virtual reality within rehabilitation is growing. This has resulted in the emergence of research exploring the utility of virtual reality and interactive video gaming interventions for home use by patients. The aim of this paper is to highlight the practical factors and difficulties that may be encountered in research in this area, and to make recommendations ...

  8. Implementation and Research Priorities for FCTC Articles 13 and 16: Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship and Sales to and by Minors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS), and Article 16 calls for prohibition of tobacco sales to and by minors. Although these mandates are based on sound science, many countries have found provision implementation to be rife with challenges. Objective: This paper reviews the history of tobacco marketing and minor access restrictions in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, identifying past challenges and successes. We consider current challenges to FCTC implementation, how these barriers can be addressed, and what research is necessary to support such efforts. Specifically, we identify implementation and research priorities for FCTC Articles 13 and 16. Discussion: Although a solid evidence base underpins the FCTC’s call for TAPS bans and minor access restrictions, we know substantially less about how best to implement these restrictions. Drawing on the regulatory experiences of high-, middle-, and low-income countries, we discern several implementation and research priorities, which are organized into 4 categories: policy enactment and enforcement, human capital expertise, the effects of FCTC marketing and youth access policies, and knowledge exchange and transfer among signatories. Future research should provide detailed case studies on implementation successes and failures, as well as insights into how knowledge of successful restrictions can be translated into tobacco control policy and practice and shared among different stakeholders. Conclusion: Tobacco marketing surveillance, sales-to-minors compliance checks, enforcement and evaluation of restriction policies, and capacity building and knowledge transfer are likely to prove central to effective implementation. PMID:23291641

  9. Message formats and their influence on perceived risks of tobacco use: a pilot formative research project in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Claudia R; Galarce, Ezequiel M; Nagler, Eve; Aghi, Mira; Sorensen, Glorian; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Viswanath, K

    2013-04-01

    In India, tobacco kills 900,000 people every year though the burden of tobacco is faced disproportionately in poorer states such as Bihar. Teachers may be a particularly influential group in setting norms around tobacco use in the Indian context. However, tobacco use among teachers remains high and perceptions of tobacco-related health risks are unexplored. To qualitatively explore perceptions about tobacco use among teachers in Bihar and to examine how risk information may be communicated through a variety of message formats, 12 messages on tobacco health risks varying in formats were tested in focus groups with teachers from Bihar. Participants stated that teachers were already aware of tobacco-related health risks. To further increase awareness of these risks, the inclusion of evidence-based facts in messages was recommended. Communicating risk information using negative emotions had a great appeal to teachers and was deemed most effective for increasing risk perception. Messages using narratives of teachers' personal accounts of quitting tobacco were deemed effective for increasing knowledge about the benefits of quitting. To conclude, messages using evidence-based information, possibly with negative emotions, testimonials with role models and those messages emphasizing self-efficacy in the format of narratives appear to appeal to teachers in Bihar.

  10. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  11. How does tobacco smoke influence the morphometry of the fetus and the umbilical cord?-Research on pregnant women with intrauterine growth restriction exposed to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Bizoń, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Proper structure of the umbilical cord is important for the fetal development. We evaluated effects of toxic factors from tobacco smoke on fetal and umbilical cord morphometry. 109 women in weeks 29-40 of pregnancy (31 smokers with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); 28 non-smoking women with IUGR; 50 healthy pregnancies) were included. In smokers with IUGR, cotinine, cadmium and lead concentrations were significantly higher than in controls (mean 55.23ng/l; 1.52ng/ml; 14.85ng/ml vs 1.07; 0.34; 9.42) and inverse correlation between lead concentration and uncoiled umbilical cord was significant (r=-0.80). In smokers with IUGR, area of Wharton's jelly was increased compared to nonsmokers and controls. Inverse correlations occurred between cotinine and cadmium concentration and fetal percentile in smokers (r=-0.87; r=-0.87) and non-smokers (r=-0.47; r=-0.78) with IUGR. Exposure to tobacco smoke measured by cotinine, cadmium and lead concentration has an impact on fetal growth and umbilical cord morphometry and correlates with intensity of IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Smart Homes for Elderly Healthcare-Recent Advances and Research Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sumit; Aghayi, Emad; Noferesti, Moein; Memarzadeh-Tehran, Hamidreza; Mondal, Tapas; Pang, Zhibo; Deen, M Jamal

    2017-10-31

    Advancements in medical science and technology, medicine and public health coupled with increased consciousness about nutrition and environmental and personal hygiene have paved the way for the dramatic increase in life expectancy globally in the past several decades. However, increased life expectancy has given rise to an increasing aging population, thus jeopardizing the socio-economic structure of many countries in terms of costs associated with elderly healthcare and wellbeing. In order to cope with the growing need for elderly healthcare services, it is essential to develop affordable, unobtrusive and easy-to-use healthcare solutions. Smart homes, which incorporate environmental and wearable medical sensors, actuators, and modern communication and information technologies, can enable continuous and remote monitoring of elderly health and wellbeing at a low cost. Smart homes may allow the elderly to stay in their comfortable home environments instead of expensive and limited healthcare facilities. Healthcare personnel can also keep track of the overall health condition of the elderly in real-time and provide feedback and support from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research and development in smart home based remote healthcare technologies.

  13. Smart Homes for Elderly Healthcare—Recent Advances and Research Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayi, Emad; Noferesti, Moein; Memarzadeh-Tehran, Hamidreza; Mondal, Tapas; Deen, M. Jamal

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in medical science and technology, medicine and public health coupled with increased consciousness about nutrition and environmental and personal hygiene have paved the way for the dramatic increase in life expectancy globally in the past several decades. However, increased life expectancy has given rise to an increasing aging population, thus jeopardizing the socio-economic structure of many countries in terms of costs associated with elderly healthcare and wellbeing. In order to cope with the growing need for elderly healthcare services, it is essential to develop affordable, unobtrusive and easy-to-use healthcare solutions. Smart homes, which incorporate environmental and wearable medical sensors, actuators, and modern communication and information technologies, can enable continuous and remote monitoring of elderly health and wellbeing at a low cost. Smart homes may allow the elderly to stay in their comfortable home environments instead of expensive and limited healthcare facilities. Healthcare personnel can also keep track of the overall health condition of the elderly in real-time and provide feedback and support from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research and development in smart home based remote healthcare technologies. PMID:29088123

  14. Smart Homes for Elderly Healthcare—Recent Advances and Research Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Majumder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in medical science and technology, medicine and public health coupled with increased consciousness about nutrition and environmental and personal hygiene have paved the way for the dramatic increase in life expectancy globally in the past several decades. However, increased life expectancy has given rise to an increasing aging population, thus jeopardizing the socio-economic structure of many countries in terms of costs associated with elderly healthcare and wellbeing. In order to cope with the growing need for elderly healthcare services, it is essential to develop affordable, unobtrusive and easy-to-use healthcare solutions. Smart homes, which incorporate environmental and wearable medical sensors, actuators, and modern communication and information technologies, can enable continuous and remote monitoring of elderly health and wellbeing at a low cost. Smart homes may allow the elderly to stay in their comfortable home environments instead of expensive and limited healthcare facilities. Healthcare personnel can also keep track of the overall health condition of the elderly in real-time and provide feedback and support from distant facilities. In this paper, we have presented a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research and development in smart home based remote healthcare technologies.

  15. The landscape of tobacco control in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Paracandola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco use prevalence in Africa is projected to rise over the next 15 years without stronger tobacco control measures. However, little research details the scope of tobacco control research being conducted in Africa. A systematic literature review was conducted to better understand the landscape of tobacco control efforts in Africa. Methods A literature search of tobacco research conducted in all African countries from 1996 to 2016 was performed in PubMed, Embase, and African Index Medicus. Published abstracts meeting the inclusion criteria of focusing on nicotine or tobacco product(s and having been conducted in one or more African countries were selected for full coding and analysis. The authors coded on study characteristics such as type of research, tobacco product, and country. Three coders double-coded 5% of the articles reviewed to ensure agreement. Results This review found 645 relevant articles, in French and English, representing 52 African countries. South Africa was the focus of the greatest proportion of these published tobacco control research articles (23%, followed by Nigeria (17%, Egypt (13%, and Tunisia (12%. Reporting the prevalence of tobacco use was the focus of 51% of these articles. Other areas of research included the potential determinants of tobacco use (28%; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco products or policies (26%; and biological consequences of tobacco use (25%. Most studies (63% discussed cigarettes, and 15% studied smokeless tobacco. Youth-targeted studies comprised 25% of all research in Africa. Publications per year increased between 1996 and 2015, quadrupling in number by 2015. Conclusions A comprehensive review of the literature provides a baseline understanding of the tobacco control landscape and the increased attention countries are showing to tobacco and tobacco control. This research may inform opportunities for further research and for strengthening networks and thereby the

  16. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among adolescents in the schools of Kalaiya, Nepal: a cross-sectional questionnaire based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Bhaskar

    2016-03-01

    School based interventions and tobacco education are necessary to prevent initiation and cessation of tobacco use. Legislations related to tobacco control should be enforced to decrease availability, accessibility and affordability of tobacco products. Social norms of tobacco use among parents and others at home as well as at public place should be modified to curb the tobacco use among school students.

  17. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... past 30 days. † Any tobacco product includes cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco (including chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvable tobacco), tobacco pipes, bidis, hookah, and electronic cigarettes. § Where percentages are missing, sample sizes were ...

  18. A Research Agenda on Assessing and Remediating Home Dampness and Mold to Reduce Dampness-Related Health Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Cosmology Center

    2015-05-28

    This report briefly summarizes, based on recent review articles and selected more recent research reports, current scientific knowledge on two topics: assessing unhealthy levels of indoor D/M in homes and remediating home dampness-related problems to protect health. Based on a comparison of current scientific knowledge to that required to support effective, evidence-based, health-protective policies on home D/M, gaps in knowledge are highlighted, prior questions and research questions specified, and necessary research activities and approaches recommended.

  19. A Research Agenda on Assessing and Remediating Home Dampness and Mold to Reduce Dampness-Related Health Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report briefly summarizes, based on recent review articles and selected more recent research reports, current scientific knowledge on two topics: assessing unhealthy levels of indoor D/M in homes and remediating home dampness-related problems to protect health. Based on a comparison of current scientific knowledge to that required to support effective, evidence-based, health-protective policies on home D/M, gaps in knowledge are highlighted, prior questions and research questions specified, and necessary research activities and approaches recommended.

  20. New media and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  1. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bedah AM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly

  2. Support for a ban on tobacco powerwalls and other point-of-sale displays: findings from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Allen, Jane A; Kosa, Katherine M; Curry, Laurel E

    2015-02-01

    This study uses focus group data to document consumer perceptions of powerwall and other point-of-sale (POS) tobacco displays, and support for a ban on tobacco displays. Four focus groups were conducted in 2012 by a trained moderator. The study comprised 34 adult residents of New York State, approximately half with children under age 18 years living at home. Measures used in the study were awareness and perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, and level of support for a ban on tobacco displays. Analysis focused on perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, level of support for a ban on tobacco displays and reasons participants oppose a display ban. This study documents a general lack of concern about tobacco use in the community, which does not appear to be associated with support for a ban on POS tobacco displays. Although all participants had seen tobacco powerwalls and most considered them to be a form of advertising, participants were divided as to whether they played a role in youth smoking. Additional research is warranted to determine what factors individuals weigh in assigning value to a ban on POS tobacco displays and other tobacco control policies and how educational efforts can influence those assessments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Dr William Kerr ‘Bill’ Collins, Recipient of the 2010 Tobacco Science Research Conference Lifetime Achievement Award

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore JM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is my distinct pleasure to make this presentation of the TSRC Lifetime Achievement Award to Dr Bill Collins from NC State University. Bill is well known in academic and industry circles for his contributions to Tobacco Science. Some have suggested that Bill Collins is the single person most identified with flue-cured tobacco at NC State and probably world-wide.

  4. Overview of research work activities in German language in the Home Automation area; Ueberblick deutschsprachiger Forschungsaktivitaeten im Bereich Home Automation. Forschungsinstitute, Themen, Ergebnisse - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2010-02-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at research work carried out in Germany and Austria on 'smart homes'. The aim of the project was to determine which work has already been carried out in Germany and Austria so that work in Switzerland can be concentrated on questions that have not been looked at in Germany and Austria. The appropriate research institutions are listed. Concrete projects are briefly described and their relevance for Swiss efforts is examined. Various Home Automation project categories are listed, as are the most important research institutes involved. The particular research projects in Germany and Austria and their relevance to Swiss efforts are listed.

  5. "Conclusions about exposure to ETS and health that will be unhelpful to us": how the tobacco industry attempted to delay and discredit the 1997 Australian National Health and Medical Research Council report on passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, L; Chapman, S

    2003-12-01

    Major reviews of the health effects of passive smoking have been subjected to tobacco industry campaigns to refute the scientific evidence. Following the 1992 US Environmental Protection Agency review, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) initiated a review of the health effects of passive smoking. At the time of this review, evidence that environmental tobacco smoke causes disease was being increasingly accepted in courts of law and voluntary adoption of smoking restrictions was rapidly growing. To demonstrate how the tobacco industry attempted to delay and discredit the publication of a report on passive smoking that the tobacco industry anticipated to contain recommendations that would be unfavourable to their business. A search of tobacco industry documents on the Master Settlement Agreement websites was conducted using the terms and acronyms representative of the NHMRC review. The tobacco industry sought to impede the progress of the NHMRC Working Party by launching an intensive campaign to delay and discredit the report. The main strategies used were attempts to criticise the science, extensive use of Freedom of Information provisions to monitor all activity of the group, legal challenges, ad hominem attacks on the credibility of the Working Party members, rallying support from industry allies, and influencing public opinion through the media. The Australian tobacco industry deliberately impeded the NHMRC Working Party's progress and successfully prevented the publication of the report's recommendations. The tobacco industry's motivation and capacity to disrupt the advancement of scientific knowledge and policy in tobacco control should be recognised and anticipated.

  6. Tobacco control recommendations identified by LGBT Atlantans in a community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence; Damarin, Amanda K; Marshall, Zack

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are increasingly aware that disproportionately high smoking rates severely impact the health of their communities. Motivated to make a change, a group of LGBT community members, policymakers, and researchers from Atlanta carried out a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. This formative research study sought to identify recommendations for culturally relevant smoking prevention and cessation interventions that could improve the health of Atlanta's LGBT communities. Data presented here come from four focus groups with 36 participants and a community meeting with 30 participants. Among study participants, the most favored interventions were providing LGBT-specific cessation programs, raising awareness about LGBT smoking rates, and getting community venues to go smoke-free. Participants also suggested providing reduced-cost cessation products for low-income individuals, using LGBT "role models" to promote cessation, and ensuring that interventions reach all parts of the community. Findings reinforce insights from community-based research with other marginalized groups. Similarities include the importance of tailoring cessation programs for specific communities, the need to acknowledge differences within communities, and the significance of community spaces in shaping discussions of cessation. Further, this study highlights the need for heightened awareness. The Atlanta LGBT community is largely unaware that high smoking rates affect its health, and is unlikely to take collective action to address this problem until it is understood.

  7. Cultural perspectives concerning adolescent use of tobacco and alcohol in the Appalachian mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael G; Toborg, Mary A; Denham, Sharon A; Mande, Mary J

    2008-01-01

    Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence.

  8. China: the tipping point in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Judith

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco control in China, the world's largest producer and consumer of tobacco, began in the 1980s with the first national prevalence survey and a conference on tobacco held in Tianjin. Since then, there have been dozens of research papers, partial restrictions on smoking and tobacco advertising, public education campaigns, and the ratification of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but progress has been slow. The state-owned tobacco industry remains a major obstacle to tobacco control. In the last few years, tobacco control efforts have accelerated beyond expectations. The triggering event was the publication on tobacco by the Chinese Central Party School, the ideological think tank of the Communist Party, followed by a spate of activity: directives to government officials; regulations issued by the Ministry of Education, the People's Liberation Army and the Healthy City Standards; tobacco clauses in national advertising and philanthropy laws; the creation of a Smoke-free Beijing; an increase in tobacco taxation; and a national smoke-free law currently in draft. There is a crucial need for China to build upon these recent developments, in accepting the economic research evidence of the debit of tobacco to the economy; in implementing robust, comprehensive legislation; in increasing cigarette price through taxation and, most challenging of all, to tackle the power and influence of the state tobacco monopoly over tobacco control. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  10. Funding a Health Disparities Research Agenda: The Case of Medicare Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, Joan K.

    2014-01-01

    Medicare home health care provides critical skilled nursing and therapy services to patients in their homes, generally after a period in an inpatient facility or nursing home. Disparities in access to, or outcomes of, home health care can result in patient deterioration and increased cost to the Medicare program if patient care needs intensify.…

  11. [Research of controlling of smart home system based on P300 brain-computer interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjia; Yang, Chengjie

    2014-08-01

    Using electroencephalogram (EEG) signal to control external devices has always been the research focus in the field of brain-computer interface (BCI). This is especially significant for those disabilities who have lost capacity of movements. In this paper, the P300-based BCI and the microcontroller-based wireless radio frequency (RF) technology are utilized to design a smart home control system, which can be used to control household appliances, lighting system, and security devices directly. Experiment results showed that the system was simple, reliable and easy to be populirised.

  12. In-Home Display – a Review of Experiences from Research Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Billewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies on smart metering. The aim of smart metering is not only automated billing and two-way communication with a smart meter. The measure of success of the implementation of smart metering is the level of customer engagement and their cooperation with energy companies, as well as the consequences of such involvement changing electricity-using habits. This article focuses on one device for smart metering – in-home display (IHD. The paper characterizes an IHD’s functions and describes international experiences of research and conclusions of studies.

  13. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra N. Bazzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.

  14. Campbell Creek Research Homes: FY2013 Annual Performance Report OCT.1, 2012 SEP. 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL; Odukomaiya, Wale O [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    1.INTRODUCTION AND PROJECT OVERVIEW The Campbell Creek project is funded and managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Technology Innovation, Energy Efficiency, Power Delivery and Utilization Office. Technical support is provided under contract by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The project was designed to determine the relative energy efficiency of typical new home construction, of retrofitting of existing homes, and of high-performance new homes built from the ground up for energy efficiency. This project was designed to compare three houses that represent current construction practices: a base case (Builder House CC1); a modified house that could represent a major energy-efficient retrofit (Retrofit House CC2); and a house constructed from the ground up to be a high-performance home (High Performance House CC3). To enable a valid comparison, it was necessary to simulate occupancy in all three houses and extensively monitor the structural components and the energy usage by component. In October 2013, the base case was also modified by replacing the builder-grade heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system with a high-efficiency variable-speed unit. All three houses are two-story, slab-on-grade, framed construction. CC1 and CC2 are approximately 2,400 ft2. CC3 has a pantry option, used primarily as a mechanical equipment room, that adds approximately 100 ft2. All three houses are all-electric (with the exception of a gas log fireplace that is not used during the testing) and use air-source heat pumps for heating and cooling. The three homes are located in Knoxville in the Campbell Creek Subdivision. CC1 and CC2 are next door to each other with a south-facing orientation; CC3 has a north-facing orientation and is located across the street and a couple of houses down. The energy data collected will be used to determine the benefits of retrofit packages and high-performance new home

  15. Under pressure, out of control, or home alone? Reviewing research and policy debates on the occupational health and safety effects of outsourcing and home-based work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Michael; Bohle, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The practice of outsourcing or subcontracting of work has grown rapidly in most countries over the past two decades. Outsourcing, de-institutionalization, and a range of other practices have also resulted in a growth of home-based work. Home-based workers, even when not part of a subcontracting process, operate in an isolated situation remote from their employer and other workers. Do such work arrangements expose workers to greater risk of injury, illness, or assault? The authors reviewed international studies of the occupational health and safety (OHS) effects of subcontracting and home-based work undertaken over the past 20 years. Of the 25 studies analyzed, 92 percent found poorer OHS outcomes. The studies were examined for clues about the reasons for these negative outcomes. The authors also identified similarities and differences between subcontracting and home-based work. Despite the evidence of poor OHS outcomes, research into outsourcing has stalled in recent years. With notable exceptions, governments have taken little account of findings on these work arrangements in their laws and policies, in part because neoliberal ideas dominate national and global policy agendas. The authors examine policy challenges and regulatory responses and make suggestions for future research and policy interventions.

  16. Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Use of Cigarettes, E-cigarettes and Hookah in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Tess Boley; McConnell, Rob; Low, Brittany Wagman; Unger, Jennifer B; Pentz, Mary Ann; Urman, Robert; Berhane, Kiros; Chou, Chih Ping; Liu, Fei; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica

    2018-05-28

    Tobacco marketing has expanded from cigarettes to other tobacco products through many promotional channels. Marketing exposure is associated with use of that tobacco product. However, it's unclear if marketing for one product leads to subsequent use of other tobacco products. This prospective cohort study assessed self-reported marketing exposure for six tobacco products across five marketing channels in 11th/12th grade students in 2014. Approximately 16 months later a follow-up survey was conducted online (N=1553) to assess initiation of cigarettes, e-cigarettes and hookah. Adolescent never smokers with frequent exposure to cigarette marketing on the Internet and in stores are more than two times as likely to begin smoking as young adults (Internet OR 2.98 [95% CI, 1.56-5.66); Stores OR, 2.83 [95% CI, 1.23-6.50]). Never users of e-cigarettes were significantly more likely to initiate use, if exposed to Internet, store and outdoor e-cigarette marketing. Never users of hookah were more likely to use hookah after seeing it marketed in stores. Youth exposed to marketing of e-cigarettes, hookah, cigars, smokeless and pipe tobacco in stores were two to three times more likely to begin smoking cigarettes even though the marketed products were not cigarettes. Adolescent exposure to marketing of tobacco products is associated with initiation of those products as young adults. Exposure to marketing for non-cigarette tobacco products is associated with subsequent cigarette smoking, even when the promoted products are not cigarettes. Future research and interventions should consider the influence of marketing from multiple tobacco products on adolescent tobacco use. Adolescents grow up in a rich media environment with exposure to tobacco marketing in both their homes (e.g., through the Internet and television) and their communities (e.g., stores and billboards). This prospective study provides evidence that adolescents exposed to tobacco marketing for multiple tobacco

  17. Older adult perceptions of smart home technologies: implications for research, policy & market innovations in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, J; D'Ambrosio, L A; Reimer, B; Pratt, M R

    2007-01-01

    Advances in information communications technology and related computational power are providing a wide array of systems and related services that form the basis of smart home technologies to support the health, safety and independence of older adults. While these technologies offer significant benefits to older people and their families, they are also transforming older adults into lead adopters of a new 24/7 lifestyle of being monitored, managed, and, at times, motivated, to maintain their health and wellness. To better understand older adult perceptions of smart home technologies and to inform future research a workshop and focus group was conducted with 30 leaders in aging advocacy and aging services from 10 northeastern states. Participants expressed support of technological advance along with a variety of concerns that included usability, reliability, trust, privacy, stigma, accessibility and affordability. Participants also observed that there is a virtual absence of a comprehensive market and policy environment to support either the consumer or the diffusion of these technologies. Implications for research, policy and market innovation are discussed.

  18. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D Myers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials’ decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer some confirmation of the validity of laboratory experimental studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  19. Achieving external validity in home advantage research: generalizing crowd noise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Tony D

    2014-01-01

    Different factors have been postulated to explain the home advantage phenomenon in sport. One plausible explanation investigated has been the influence of a partisan home crowd on sports officials' decisions. Different types of studies have tested the crowd influence hypothesis including purposefully designed experiments. However, while experimental studies investigating crowd influences have high levels of internal validity, they suffer from a lack of external validity; decision-making in a laboratory setting bearing little resemblance to decision-making in live sports settings. This focused review initially considers threats to external validity in applied and theoretical experimental research. Discussing how such threats can be addressed using representative design by focusing on a recently published study that arguably provides the first experimental evidence of the impact of live crowd noise on officials in sport. The findings of this controlled experiment conducted in a real tournament setting offer a level of confirmation of the findings of laboratory studies in the area. Finally directions for future research and the future conduct of crowd noise studies are discussed.

  20. SpaceScience@Home: Authentic Research Projects that Use Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, B. J. H.

    2008-06-01

    In recent years, several space science research projects have enlisted the help of large numbers of non-professional volunteers, ``citizen scientists'', to aid in performing tasks that are critical to a project, but require more person-time (or computing time) than a small professional research team can practically perform themselves. Examples of such projects include SETI@home, which uses time from volunteers computers to process radio-telescope observation looking for signals originating from extra-terrestrial intelligences; Clickworkers, which asks volunteers to review images of the surface of Mars to identify craters; Spacewatch, which used volunteers to review astronomical telescopic images of the sky to identify streaks made by possible Near Earth Asteroids; and Stardust@home, which asks volunteers to review ``focus movies'' taken of the Stardust interstellar dust aerogel collector to search for possible impacts from interstellar dust particles. We shall describe these and other similar projects and discuss lessons learned from carrying out such projects, including the educational opportunities they create.

  1. Young adolescents, tobacco advertising, and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Yolanda; González, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and tobacco advertising. The subjects of the double-stratified cluster sample were 1910 students at the same grade level in 33 schools; 86.6% were 13 or 14 years old, and 51.2% were boys. We generated measures for attitudes to tobacco advertising from replies to seven questions with ordinal scales by an analysis of categorical principal components. To relate attitude to tobacco advertising and the profiles of these adolescents, we used multiple regression and logistic regression models. Attitudes to tobacco advertising are related to some home and school factors, but most significantly to tobacco and alcohol consumption, to amount of time at home without adults, and to peer influence. It is possible to draw up profiles of the students most vulnerable to tobacco advertising, and to cluster them in two groups, the "vitalists" and the "credulous." The effect of cigarette ads is different between these groups. This study can help to orientate smoking prevention.

  2. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    consistent with the observed decline in prevalence. As standardised packaging is implemented in different countries, research programmes should be initiated to capture long term effects on tobacco use prevalence, behaviour, and uptake. We did not find any evidence suggesting standardised packaging may increase tobacco use.

  3. Review of Researches on Agricultural Industry Chain at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge; SONG; Taiyan; YANG; Jianhui; LIU

    2014-01-01

    Management of agricultural industry chain is the main form of modern agricultural industrialization. Integration and optimization of agricultural chain have great significance in deepening the reform in the countryside,quickening the development of agricultural modernization and establishing new system of agricultural management. Based on the theory sources and contents of agricultural chain as well as the current researches at home and abroad,this paper hackles and concludes information technology,logistics management and food safety and quality in foreign agricultural chain as well as the organization model,operation mechanism,integration and optimization,promotion and extension,financing and risk prevention,influencing factors as well as performance evaluation in domestic agricultural chain and offers relevant review in order to provide further reference for future researches.

  4. Medical staff involvement in nursing homes: development of a conceptual model and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Renée; Rosenthal, Marsha; Wetle, Terrie; Tyler, Denise; Clark, Melissa; Intrator, Orna

    2014-02-01

    Medical staff (physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) involvement in nursing homes (NH) is limited by professional guidelines, government policies, regulations, and reimbursements, creating bureaucratic burden. The conceptual NH Medical Staff Involvement Model, based on our mixed-methods research, applies the Donabedian "structure-process-outcomes" framework to the NH, identifying measures for a coordinated research agenda. Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews conducted with medical directors, administrators and directors of nursing, other experts, residents and family members and Minimum Data Set, the Online Certification and Reporting System and Medicare Part B claims data related to NH structure, process, and outcomes were analyzed. NH control of medical staff, or structure, affects medical staff involvement in care processes and is associated with better outcomes (e.g., symptom management, appropriate transitions, satisfaction). The model identifies measures clarifying the impact of NH medical staff involvement on care processes and resident outcomes and has strong potential to inform regulatory policies.

  5. Unimaginable homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kristian; Klausen, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The chapter draw from critical mediatization theory, critical intimacy theory, and cultural gerontology and asks: How do elderly people practice their mediatized homes? Which roles do media play in constituting and disturbing the flows of bodies into the home? Moreover: how do dominant...... in the making of the mediatized home space. We conclude by returning to the research questions and making explicit how researching flows of bodies that in many ways inhabit homes of the in-between contributes to both gerontological and geomediatization research agendas....

  6. Secondhand smoke exposure at home among middle and high school students in the United States - does the type of tobacco product matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian; Kraemer, Alexander

    2017-01-19

    A decline in the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has been observed in the United States of America (USA) during the past few decades. Nevertheless, nearly half of non-smoking students are still exposed to SHS. This paper aims to describe the factors associated with SHS exposure stratified by type of exposure (overall, cigarettes and electronic cigarettes). The analysis is based on secondary data taken from the National Youth Tobacco Survey 2014. Overall, 22,007 middle and high school students from the USA are included in the sample. Descriptive and bivariate statistics as well as binary logistic regression models were performed. Overall, 44.5% (n=9,798) of the study participants declared themselves to be exposed to SHS, 29.1% (n=6,394) declared to be exposed to SHS caused by cigarette smoke and 9.4% (n=2,067) claimed that a person who lives with them uses electronic cigarettes. There is a considerable overlap between the two types of SHS exposure, because 74.9% (n=1,548) of students declaring that a person within their household uses electronic cigarettes also declare a person in the household smoking cigarettes. The strengths of association between independent variables and SHS exposure differs by type of exposure and also by smoking status of respondents. Although only small differences are obvious in the factors associated with SHS exposure stratified by the type of tobacco product, there are still some variations which should be considered in policy making to allow for a targeted approach in prevention campaigns or legislation.

  7. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Performance Don’t get trapped. Nicotine in cigarettes, cigars, and spit tobacco is addictive. Nicotine narrows your ...

  8. A Tobacco Cessation Intervention with Rural, Medically Underserved, Blue-collar Employees: A Quasiexperimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telisa Stewart

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Participants at the intervention worksite increased their knowledge regarding the dangers of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. Among current tobacco users, the intervention appeared to increase family rules regarding secondhand smoke exposure in their homes and vehicles.

  9. Current use of smokeless tobacco among adolescents in the Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Much of the epidemiologic research on tobacco focuses on smoking, especially cigarette smoking, but little attention on smokeless tobacco (SLT. Methods Using data from the Republic of Congo Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2006, we estimated the prevalence of SLT use among in-school adolescents. We also assessed the association between SLT use and cigarette smoking as well as the traditional factors which are associated with cigarette smoking among adolescents (e.g. age, sex, parental or peer smoking. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR and adjusted odds ratios (AOR together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to measure magnitudes of associations. Results Of the 3,034 respondents, 18.0% (18.0% males and 18.1% females reported having used smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, sniff or dip in the last 30 days. In multivariate analysis, no significant associations were observed between age and sex on one hand and current smokeless tobacco use on the other. Cigarette smokers were more than six times likely to report current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 6.65; 95% CI [4.84, 9.14]. Having parents or friends smokers was positively associated with using smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.98; 95% CI [1.51, 2.59] for parents who smoked cigarettes, AOR = 1.82; 95% CI [1.41, 2.69] for some friends who smoked cigarettes, and AOR = 2.02; 95% CI [1.49, 2.47] for most or all friends who smoked cigarettes. Respondents who reported have seen tobacco advertisement on TV, billboards and in newspapers/magazines were 1.95 times more likely to report current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.95; 95% CI [1.34, 3.08]. Perception that smoking was harmful to health was negatively associated with current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 0.60; 95% CI [0.46, 0.78]. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed to reduce teen [cigarette] smoking must also be designed to reduce other forms of

  10. Current use of smokeless tobacco among adolescents in the Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter

    2010-01-14

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Much of the epidemiologic research on tobacco focuses on smoking, especially cigarette smoking, but little attention on smokeless tobacco (SLT). Using data from the Republic of Congo Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2006, we estimated the prevalence of SLT use among in-school adolescents. We also assessed the association between SLT use and cigarette smoking as well as the traditional factors which are associated with cigarette smoking among adolescents (e.g. age, sex, parental or peer smoking). Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to measure magnitudes of associations. Of the 3,034 respondents, 18.0% (18.0% males and 18.1% females) reported having used smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, sniff or dip) in the last 30 days. In multivariate analysis, no significant associations were observed between age and sex on one hand and current smokeless tobacco use on the other. Cigarette smokers were more than six times likely to report current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 6.65; 95% CI [4.84, 9.14]). Having parents or friends smokers was positively associated with using smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.98; 95% CI [1.51, 2.59] for parents who smoked cigarettes, AOR = 1.82; 95% CI [1.41, 2.69] for some friends who smoked cigarettes, and AOR = 2.02; 95% CI [1.49, 2.47] for most or all friends who smoked cigarettes). Respondents who reported have seen tobacco advertisement on TV, billboards and in newspapers/magazines were 1.95 times more likely to report current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.95; 95% CI [1.34, 3.08]). Perception that smoking was harmful to health was negatively associated with current use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 0.60; 95% CI [0.46, 0.78]). Prevention programs aimed to reduce teen [cigarette] smoking must also be designed to reduce other forms of tobacco use. The teenagers environment at home, at school and

  11. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Kireev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  12. Researching family through the everyday lives of children across home and day care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates family as a conflictual community with a specific starting point in exploring children's lives across day-care institution and home. Children's development is theorised in relation to taking part in different communities across different contexts. The article draws...... on an ethnographically inspired research project with 6 families living in a small town in Denmark. The analysis points to how the children's possibilities of participation are created across their different life contexts and that the social interplay and conflicts between the children in the day-care institution have...... impacts on the relation and interaction between parents and children. Parenting in that way reaches far beyond the family and includes taking into account various issues in the other places where the children spend their time. The children's developmental possibilities are shaped by the relations...

  13. Researching family through the everyday lives of children across home and day care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    on an ethnographically inspired research project with 6 families living in a small town in Denmark. The analysis points to how the children's possibilities of participation are created across their different life contexts and that the social interplay and conflicts between the children in the day-care institution have......The article investigates family as a conflictual community with a specific starting point in exploring children's lives across day-care institution and home. Children's development is theorised in relation to taking part in different communities across different contexts. The article draws...... impacts on the relation and interaction between parents and children. Parenting in that way reaches far beyond the family and includes taking into account various issues in the other places where the children spend their time. The children's developmental possibilities are shaped by the relations...

  14. Report on a comprehensive research study (home welfare apparatus system - interface); Sogo chosa kenkyu (zaitaku fukushi kiki system - interface) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In the light of the increasing role of welfare at home with the advance of the aging society, the paper conducted an investigational study on the R and D of the home welfare apparatus system - interface. In the study, making the most of the leading home care apparatus systems (welfare technohouses) installed at seven places in the country, the paper carried out a stay experiment on how the life is in the welfare house into which home welfare apparatus is integrated, and an experiment to assess biological data on aged people. Especially as to the support apparatus used for smooth life motions in houses such as movement, excretion and bathing, examined were the linkage with house bodies, care apparatus used, mutual interface with welfare apparatus, etc. By the experiments to assess these home welfare apparatus, an analytical study was conducted on the points to be improved in welfare apparatus and housing equipment, and at the same time on the course of the research/development. Concerning a system for the research study, a research promotion committee was established in Technology Research Association of Medical and Welfare Apparatus, the members of which are learned persons from the industrial circle, the government and universities. 111 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D.; Carol, J.; Balbach, E.; McGee, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of secondhand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal.
DESIGN—Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview.
SUBJECTS—54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry.
RESULTS—Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS—The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.


Keywords: films; movies; television; tobacco use PMID:10629243

  16. Impact of Tobacco Taxes and Price Increases in Ukraine, Russia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will assess how different tobacco taxation scenarios will affect cigarette consumption, smoking prevalence, tobacco excise tax revenues, and tobacco smuggling, all of which directly or indirectly influence public health. The information generated will also support efforts by tobacco control and health NGOs in ...

  17. Translating research into practice in nursing homes: can we close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anna N; Applebaum, Robert A; Schnelle, John F; Simmons, Sandra F

    2012-10-01

    A gap between research and practice in many nursing home (NH) care areas persists despite efforts by researchers, policy makers, advocacy groups, and NHs themselves to close it. The reasons are many, but two factors that have received scant attention are the dissemination process itself and the work of the disseminators or change agents. This review article examines these two elements through the conceptual lens of Roger's innovation dissemination model. The application of general principles of innovation dissemination suggests that NHs are characteristically slow to innovate and thus may need more time as well as more contact with outside change agents to adopt improved practices. A review of the translation strategies used by NH change agents to promote adoption of evidence-based practice in NHs suggests that their strategies inconsistently reflect lessons learned from the broader dissemination literature. NH-related research, policy, and practice recommendations for improving dissemination strategies are presented. If we can make better use of the resources currently devoted to disseminating best practices to NHs, we may be able to speed NHs' adoption of these practices.

  18. Tobacco use patterns in traditional and shared parenting families: a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greaves Lorraine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although researchers have focused on women's smoking during pregnancy and the postpartum period and the influence of household interactions on their tobacco reduction efforts, little attention has been given to parents' efforts to regulate smoking during the child-rearing years. The objective of this study was to examine how parenting young children and gender relations reflected in couple dynamics influence household tobacco use patterns and, specifically, women's tobacco reduction efforts. Methods As part of a longitudinal, grounded-theory study with 28 couples to examine the place of tobacco in the lives of new parents, each parent participated in one or two individual, semi-structured interviews during the first three years postpartum. Grounded theory methods and a gender relations framework were used to analyze transcribed data. Results Two different parenting styles that couples adhered to were identified. These parenting styles reflected performances of femininities and masculinities, and were associated with particular smoking patterns. Traditional parenting reinforced by women's alignment with emphasized femininities and men's alignment with hegemonic masculinities placed women with smoking partners at risk for relapse. Women's actions to be supportive partners facilitated couples' continued smoking. In shared parenting dyads, egalitarian practices tended to support successful transitions to smoke-free homes. Women's ability to exert more influence around family decision making, and the acceptance of new masculine identities associated with fatherhood were influential. In non-smoking dyads where the mother, father, or both reduced or stopped smoking, we observed a subtext of potential conflict in the event either the mother or father relapsed. Conclusions Decisions about tobacco use are made within relationships and social contexts that vary based on each individual's relationship to tobacco, divisions of domestic

  19. Tobacco use patterns in traditional and shared parenting families: a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Joy L; Greaves, Lorraine; Chan, Anna

    2010-05-10

    Although researchers have focused on women's smoking during pregnancy and the postpartum period and the influence of household interactions on their tobacco reduction efforts, little attention has been given to parents' efforts to regulate smoking during the child-rearing years. The objective of this study was to examine how parenting young children and gender relations reflected in couple dynamics influence household tobacco use patterns and, specifically, women's tobacco reduction efforts. As part of a longitudinal, grounded-theory study with 28 couples to examine the place of tobacco in the lives of new parents, each parent participated in one or two individual, semi-structured interviews during the first three years postpartum. Grounded theory methods and a gender relations framework were used to analyze transcribed data. Two different parenting styles that couples adhered to were identified. These parenting styles reflected performances of femininities and masculinities, and were associated with particular smoking patterns. Traditional parenting reinforced by women's alignment with emphasized femininities and men's alignment with hegemonic masculinities placed women with smoking partners at risk for relapse. Women's actions to be supportive partners facilitated couples' continued smoking. In shared parenting dyads, egalitarian practices tended to support successful transitions to smoke-free homes. Women's ability to exert more influence around family decision making, and the acceptance of new masculine identities associated with fatherhood were influential. In non-smoking dyads where the mother, father, or both reduced or stopped smoking, we observed a subtext of potential conflict in the event either the mother or father relapsed. Decisions about tobacco use are made within relationships and social contexts that vary based on each individual's relationship to tobacco, divisions of domestic labour and childcare, and other activities that impact tobacco use

  20. Tobacco use among students in Bihar (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhirendra N; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh

    2004-01-01

    Determination of the prevalence and attitudes toward tobacco use was assessed among 13-15 years school students in Bihar (India). Schools having grade 8-10 in Bihar. A two stage cluster sample design was used. SUDAAN and the C-sample procedure in Epi-Info was used for statistical analysis. Of the 2636 respondents, 71.8% (76.5% boys, 57.2% girls) were ever tobacco users; of them 48.9% had used tobacco before 10 years of age. Current use was reported by 58.9% (Boys 61.4%, Girls 51.2%); smokeless tobacco by 55.6% (Boys 57.6%, Girls 49.2%); and smoking by 19.4% (23.0% boys, 7.8% girls). Nearly one third (29%) students were exposed to ETS inside their homes and nearly half (48%) outside their homes. Almost all students reported watching cigarette and gutka advertisements in almost all kinds of media and events. Tobacco use by parents and friends, knowledge on harmful effects of chewing tobacco, smoking and environmental smoke, and attitudes on tobacco use by others were strongly associated with student tobacco use. Current tobacco use was reported significantly more by students who received pocket money/or were earning than by students who did not receive any pocket money/or did not earn (p value for trend <0.0001). Over half of current users (56%) bought their tobacco products from stores; of these, over 3/4th (77.2%) of them despite their age, had no difficulty in procuring these products. Teaching in schools regarding harmful effects of tobacco use was non-existent (3%). This urgently requires a comprehensive prevention program in schools and the community especially targeted towards girls.

  1. Research on the cultivation path of smart home-based care service mode in Internet+ vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qingchao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Home-based care for the aged is an effective method to solve the problem of caring the aged in China. This thesis analyzes some problems existing in the development of current home-based care service for the aged in our country and the positive effects brought by Internet+ in home-based care service. It proposes a new service mode of care for the aged--Internet+ home-based care service, and explains the establishment of this system and the responsibilities of the participants. Also, it explores the path to realize the establishment of Internet+ home-based care service mode so as to promote the healthy development of home-based care service in China.

  2. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  3. Research on the cultivation path of smart home-based care service mode in Internet+ vision

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Qingchao

    2016-01-01

    Home-based care for the aged is an effective method to solve the problem of caring the aged in China. This thesis analyzes some problems existing in the development of current home-based care service for the aged in our country and the positive effects brought by Internet+ in home-based care service. It proposes a new service mode of care for the aged--Internet+ home-based care service, and explains the establishment of this system and the responsibilities of the participants. Also, it explor...

  4. Research of home energy management system based on technology of PLC and ZigBee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Shen, Jiaojiao

    2015-12-01

    In view of the problem of saving effectively energy and energy management in home, this paper designs a home energy intelligent control system based on power line carrier communication and wireless ZigBee sensor networks. The system is based on ARM controller, power line carrier communication and wireless ZigBee sensor network as the terminal communication mode, and realizes the centralized and intelligent control of home appliances. Through the combination of these two technologies, the advantages of the two technologies complement each other, and provide a feasible plan for the construction of energy-efficient, intelligent home energy management system.

  5. Patterns of youth tobacco and polytobacco usage: The shift to alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Naqvi, Syeda Mahrukh H; Plunk, Andrew D; Ji, Ming; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013). We used as indicators past month use of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, pipes, bidis, and kreteks) and regressed resulting classes on sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. Nine classes emerged: cigarette smokers (33.4% of sample, also included small probabilities for use of cigars and e-cigarettes), cigar smokers (16.8%, nearly exclusive), smokeless tobacco users (12.3%, also included small probabilities for cigarettes, cigars, snus), hookah smokers (11.8%), tobacco smokers/chewers (10.7%, variety of primarily traditional tobacco products), tobacco/hookah smokers (7.2%), tobacco/snus/e-cig users (3.3%), e-cigarette users (2.9%,), and polytobacco users (1.7%, high probabilities for all products). Compared to cigarette smokers, tobacco/hookah smokers and hookah smokers were more likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Polytobacco users were more likely to report dependence (AOR:2.77, 95% CI:[1.49-5.18]), whereas e-cigarette users were less likely (AOR:0.49, 95% CI:[0.24-0.97]). Findings are consistent with other research demonstrating shifts in adolescent tobacco product usage towards non-cigarette tobacco products. Continuous monitoring of these patterns is needed to help predict if this shift will ultimately result in improved public health.

  6. Research methods of Talking About The Smokes: an International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project study with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David P; Briggs, Viki L; Couzos, Sophia; Davey, Maureen E; Hunt, Jennifer M; Panaretto, Kathryn S; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron

    2015-06-01

    To describe the research methods and baseline sample of the Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project. The TATS project is a collaboration between research institutions and Aboriginal community-controlled health services (ACCHSs) and their state and national representative bodies. It is one of the studies within the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, enabling national and international comparisons. It includes a prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent ex-smokers; a survey of non-smokers; repeated cross-sectional surveys of ACCHS staff; and descriptions of the tobacco policies and practices at the ACCHSs. Community members completed face-to-face surveys; staff completed surveys on paper or online. We compared potential biases and the distribution of variables common to the main community baseline sample and unweighted and weighted results of the 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS). The baseline survey (Wave 1) was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. 2522 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in 35 locations (the communities served by 34 ACCHSs and one community in the Torres Strait), and 645 staff in the ACCHSs. Sociodemographic and general health indicators, smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempts. The main community baseline sample closely matched the distribution of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in the weighted NATSISS by age, sex, jurisdiction and remoteness. There were inconsistent differences in some sociodemographic factors between our sample and the NATSISS: our sample had higher proportions of unemployed people, but also higher proportions who had completed Year 12 and who lived in more advantaged areas. In both surveys, similar percentages of smokers reported having attempted to quit in the past year, and daily smokers reported similar numbers of cigarettes smoked per day. The

  7. A Research Review: The Importance of Families and the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Parents are a child's first educator. A child's family and home environment has a strong impact on his/her language and literacy development and educational achievement. This impact is stronger during the child's early years but continues throughout their school years. Many background variables affect the impact of the family and home environment…

  8. Research and implementation of geographic information service mode in digital home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, B.; Liu, K.; Gan, Y.; Zhong, M.

    2014-04-01

    Accompanying infrastructure improvements and networking technology innovation, the development of digital home service industry has gotten more and more attention. However, the digital home service levels have not sufficiently met rising demand from users. Therefore, it is urgent to propose and develop new service modes for the digital home. Geographic information services can provide various spatial information services such as map search, spatial information query. It has become an inevitable trend to implement geographic information services in the digital home. This paper proposes three new geographic information services modes for the digital home after sufficient requirement analysis: pushed information service mode, interactive information service mode, personalized information service mode. The key technologies to implement geographic information services on digital televisions are studied, involving digital television middleware technology, network transmission technology and visualization technology. According to the service modes' characteristics mentioned above, a service system in the digital home is established to implement geographic information services on the basis of digital television. The implementation of geographic information services in the digital home not only enriches the digital home services content, but also promotes geographic information from specialization to public popularity.

  9. Home or hospital birth: a prospective study of midwifery care in the Netherlands: research in progress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1965 two-thirds of all births in the Netherlands occurred at home. In the next 25 years, that situation became reversed with more than two-thirds of births occurring in hospital and less than one-third at home. Until the 1970's a woman with an uncomplicated pregnancy was expected to give birth

  10. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  11. Report on the comprehensive investigational research (at-home welfare apparatus system); Sogo chosa kenkyu (zaitaku fukushi kiki system) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted on the research and development of an at-home welfare apparatus system. In this study, a stay experiment was carried out on whether aged or handicapped people can easily live in welfare houses into which at-home welfare apparatus was integrated, using high-tech at-home nursing apparatus systems (welfare techno house: WTH) which were installed at seven places in Japan based on `the development of a system supporting independent excretion.` In addition, the following were conducted: experiments on at-home welfare apparatus in terms of the evaluation of performance/operability/safety, physical physiology reactions, nursing burden/estimate of independence, two-way communication, examination of housing environments, etc. In WTH Chofu, a test on evaluating welfare apparatus was conducted by people with limbs paralysis and healthy case workers. In WTH Sapporo, by a working group studying biological information, examinations were made on the situation of standing up of healthy adults, old people and people with paralysis of one side of the body from various types of chairs, beds, wheel chairs, portable toilets and sitting down on them. An examination was also made on harmony with psychological function and physically adaptable function by a working group studying at-home nursing apparatus. 75 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Youth access to tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, N A

    1999-01-01

    To start smoking, young people need a supply of tobacco products. Reducing youth access to tobacco is a new approach to preventing tobacco use that has been a focus of federal, state, and local tobacco control efforts over the past decade. All 50 states ban tobacco sales to minors, but compliance is poor because laws are not enforced. Consequently, young people have little trouble obtaining tobacco products. Commercial sources of tobacco (stores and vending machines) are important for underage smokers, who often purchase their own cigarettes. Underage youths also obtain tobacco from noncommercial sources such as friends, relatives, older adolescents, and adults. Educating retailers about tobacco sales laws has not produced long-term improvement in their compliance. Active enforcement of tobacco sales laws changes retailer behavior, but whether this reduces young people's access to tobacco or their tobacco use is not clear. The effectiveness of new local, state, and federal actions that aim to reduce youth access to tobacco remains to be determined. Can enforcing tobacco sales laws reduce young people's access to tobacco? If so, will this prevent or delay the onset of their tobacco use? How will youths' sources of tobacco change as commercial sources are restricted? What are the social (noncommercial) sources of tobacco for minors and how can youths' access to tobacco from these sources be reduced? What is the impact of the new federal policies aimed at reducing youth access to tobacco? Do new state and local laws that ban youth possession or use of tobacco have a net positive or negative impact on youth attitudes, access to tobacco, or tobacco use? What is the relative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of efforts to reduce the supply of tobacco compared to those that aim to reduce demand for tobacco? Will either work alone or are both necessary to achieve reductions in youth smoking?

  13. Home Environment, Self-Concept and Urban Student Achievement: A Bibliography and Review of Research. NJ Urban Education Research Reports No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Carol; Bloom, Joel S.

    This review analyzes recent research on student personality, social and home environment, and the influence of these factors on academic achievement, particularly among minority and disadvantaged students. Several factors which purportedly affect student achievement and which are examined in the review include: (1) socioeconomic status and its…

  14. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... 2004 [accessed 2015 Aug 17]. National Cancer Institute. Cigars: Health Effects and Trends [ PDF –2.93 MB] . ...

  15. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Nicotine - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  16. Probing a Proactive Home: Challenges in Researching and Designing Everyday Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Mäyrä

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a 3-year interdisciplinary study, this article presents an approach in which proactive information technology was introduced into homes, and discusses the derived design principles from a human-centered perspective. The application of proactive computing in homes will face particularly sensitive conditions, as familiar and reliable household elements remain strongly preferred. Since there is considerable resistance towards the increase of information technology in homes, both the calm system behaviors and the degree of variety in aesthetic designs will play major roles in the acceptance of proactive technology. If proactive technology will be an embedded part of a home’s structures and furniture, it needs to blend with the normal, cozy standards of a real living environment and aim to enhance the homeyness or the key social and aesthetic qualities of homes.

  17. Formative research on creating smoke-free homes in rural communities

    OpenAIRE

    Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Butler, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The home is a significant place for exposure to secondhand smoke for children and non-smoking adults. This study explored factors that would convince families to adopt household smoking bans and actions to create and maintain smoke-free homes. Interviews were conducted with adults in 102 households in rural Georgia. Participating families had a young adolescent and included households with a mix of smokers and non-smokers and smoking ban status. Families reported they would consider a total b...

  18. Beware of Data Gaps in Home Care Research: The Streetlight Effect and Its Implications for Policy Making on Long-Term Services and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Deborah D.; DeLiema, Marguerite; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Policy initiatives increasingly seek greater use of home- and community-based services for older persons and those with chronic care needs, yet large gaps persist in our knowledge of home care, an indispensable component of long-term services and supports. Unrecognized data gaps, including the scope of home care provided by private hire and nonmedical providers, can distort knowledge and poorly inform long-term services and supports policy. The purpose of this article is to examine these gaps by describing the universe of formal home care services and provider types in relationship to major national sources. Findings reveal four distinct home care sectors and that the majority of formal home care is provided in the sectors that are understudied. We discuss the policy implications of data gaps and conclude with recommendations on where to expand and refine home care research. PMID:26062611

  19. Beware of Data Gaps in Home Care Research: The Streetlight Effect and Its Implications for Policy Making on Long-Term Services and Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Deborah D; DeLiema, Marguerite; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2015-10-01

    Policy initiatives increasingly seek greater use of home- and community-based services for older persons and those with chronic care needs, yet large gaps persist in our knowledge of home care, an indispensable component of long-term services and supports. Unrecognized data gaps, including the scope of home care provided by private hire and nonmedical providers, can distort knowledge and poorly inform long-term services and supports policy. The purpose of this article is to examine these gaps by describing the universe of formal home care services and provider types in relationship to major national sources. Findings reveal four distinct home care sectors and that the majority of formal home care is provided in the sectors that are understudied. We discuss the policy implications of data gaps and conclude with recommendations on where to expand and refine home care research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Work Engagement: A Double-Edged Sword? A Study of the Relationship between Work Engagement and the Work-Home Interaction Using the ARK Research Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine Listau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate how being engaged at work affects academics’ work-home interaction. Using the Conservation of Resources theory as a theoretical framework, the study contributes to existing research by examining the relationship between the work engagement subscales (i.e. vigour, dedication, and absorption and both work-home facilitation and work-home conflict. In order to test the hypotheses, a Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling analysis was conducted using a large sample of academics from the Norwegian university sector (N = 4378. The results indicated that vigour and dedication had a positive relationship with work-home facilitation and a negative relationship with work-home conflict. In contrast, absorption was not significantly related to work-home facilitation, but was positively associated with work-home conflict. Thus, we conclude that work engagement seems to have the potential to create both positive and negative outcomes.

  1. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in Poland 2009-2010--study strengths, limitations and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Usidame, Bukola; Biliński, Przemysław; Raciborski, Filip; Samoliński, Bolesław; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Fronczak, Adam

    2012-01-01

    A tobacco surveillance system is crucial for improving the planning and implementation of effective tobacco control policies. The purpose of the presented study was to describe a review of the process of implementation and methodological assumption of a Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Poland. The study strengths and limitations are evaluated, as well as some recommendations given for further tobacco surveillance activities in Poland. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was implemented in Poland between 2008-2010. The survey population selection process was based on a three-stage stratified geographically-clustered sample of a non-institutional population aged 15 years and over. Those who lived in institutions were not surveyed. The GATS questionnaire was very detailed and provides a significant amount of data. The filed work was preceded by several training sessions for all survey staff and the pretest. Questionnaires were administered in respondents' homes during the face-to-face interviews. Of the 14,000 households selected for the survey, 8,948 (63.9%) households and 7,840 (93.9%) sampled individuals completed the interviews. The total survey response rate was 65.1%. GATS was an important step towards obtaining representative, current data on the tobacco epidemic in Poland. Basic results of the study are currently available. More in-depth analysis will provide useful data for public health experts and policymakers to assign resources and establish health priorities. Unfortunately, competing targets and lack of awareness on the part of stakeholders still constrains the financial resources available to those undertaking tobacco control research in Poland. The circumscribed capacity to undertake multidisciplinary policy research limits both the quality and quantity of such studies. There is an urgent need to establish a nationally coordinated plan for surveillance of data collection, use, access and dissemination, with defined institutional roles

  2. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) inside or outside the home among school-going adolescents in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: Data from the Kampala Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2002 was used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of self reported exposure to ...

  3. Preventing tobacco-caused cancer: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleans, C T

    1995-11-01

    Nicotine addiction is the most common serious medical problem in the country. Tobacco use is responsible for 30% of cancer deaths in the United States and 90% of all lung cancer deaths. The physical addiction to nicotine explains why over 30% of Americans continue to smoke or use tobacco despite their desires and efforts to quit. The testimony summarized in this paper recommends four broad strategies for preventing tobacco-caused cancers in the United States: a) mandating and reimbursing effective treatments for nicotine addiction; b) increasing Federal and state tobacco excise taxes and earmarking a fraction of tax revenues for tobacco prevention and cessation; c) enacting other policy changes to prevent tobacco use and addiction among children, including expanded clean indoor air legislation, comprehensive youth tobacco access legislation, and the regulation of tobacco products and their advertising and promotion; and d) expanding tobacco control research and critical Federal research support. Specific recommendations are given for each broad strategy.

  4. US Media Coverage of Tobacco Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Lown, E Anne; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    Media coverage of tobacco industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives represents a competitive field where tobacco control advocates and the tobacco industry vie to shape public and policymaker understandings about tobacco control and the industry. Through a content analysis of 649 US news items, we examined US media coverage of tobacco industry CSR and identified characteristics of media items associated with positive coverage. Most coverage appeared in local newspapers, and CSR initiatives unrelated to tobacco, with non-controversial beneficiaries, were most commonly mentioned. Coverage was largely positive. Tobacco control advocates were infrequently cited as sources and rarely authored opinion pieces; however, when their voices were included, coverage was less likely to have a positive slant. Media items published in the South, home to several tobacco company headquarters, were more likely than those published in the West to have a positive slant. The absence of tobacco control advocates from media coverage represents a missed opportunity to influence opinion regarding the negative public health implications of tobacco industry CSR. Countering the media narrative of virtuous companies doing good deeds could be particularly beneficial in the South, where the burdens of tobacco-caused disease are greatest, and coverage of tobacco companies more positive.

  5. The pediatric resident training on tobacco project: baseline findings from the Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Norman; Schwab, Joseph; Haddock, Christopher keith; Pyle, Sara; Moore, Glenisha; Meshberg, Sarah

    2005-07-01

    Pediatricians have an important and unique role to play in the anti-tobacco arena. They may prevent relapse to smoking in women who stopped smoking during pregnancy, encourage parents to protect infants and young children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), prevent the onset of smoking in children and adolescents, and help patients and parents who smoke or use other forms of tobacco to quit. Unfortunately, few pediatricians intervene on tobacco use or ETS, and few pediatric residency training programs prepare residents to address tobacco. The Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project is a 4-year randomized prospective study of the effectiveness of training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco in patients and parents. In this paper, we present findings from the Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey. Fifteen pediatric residency training programs participated in the Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project, and they were assigned randomly to special and standard training conditions. The Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey was administered to 1770 participants, a minimum of 100 from each site. The Parent/Guardian Survey was designed to describe the population under study. It addressed demographic information, family tobacco use, rules concerning smoking in the home and elsewhere, smoking behavior and beliefs, and parent/guardian reports of resident intervention on tobacco. Data analyses described the population served by Continuity Clinics associated with the pediatric residency training programs and determined the degree to which residents addressed tobacco in parents/guardians. The parents/guardians were primarily low-income African American and Hispanic females. Approximately 20% reported that they smoked cigarettes, and about 60% prohibited smoking in their home. Seventy percent of the parents reported that the resident asked about cigarette smoking, and about half indicated that the resident talked with them about ETS. However, only

  6. The case for the plain packaging of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon; Rimmer, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires nations that have ratified the convention to ban all tobacco advertising and promotion. In the face of these restrictions, tobacco packaging has become the key promotional vehicle for the tobacco industry to interest smokers and potential smokers in tobacco products. This paper reviews available research into the probable impact of mandatory plain packaging and internal tobacco industry statements about the importance of packs as promotional vehicles. It critiques legal objections raised by the industry about plain packaging violating laws and international trade agreements. Searches for available evidence were conducted within the internal tobacco industry documents through the online document archives; tobacco industry trade publications; research literature through the Medline and Business Source Premier databases; and grey literature including government documents, research reports and non-governmental organization papers via the Google internet search engine. Plain packaging of all tobacco products would remove a key remaining means for the industry to promote its products to billions of the world's smokers and future smokers. Governments have required large surface areas of tobacco packs to be used exclusively for health warnings without legal impediment or need to compensate tobacco companies. Requiring plain packaging is consistent with the intention to ban all tobacco promotions. There is no impediment in the FCTC to interpreting tobacco advertising and promotion to include tobacco packs.

  7. Tobacco cessation Clinical Practice Guideline use by rural and urban hospital nurses: a pre-implementation needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Patricia M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was a pre-program evaluation of hospital-based nurses' tobacco intervention beliefs, confidence, training, practice, and perceived intervention barriers and facilitators. It was designed to identify relevant information prior to implementing tobacco cessation guidelines across a large northern rural region, home to 1 urban and 12 rural hospitals. Methods This cross-sectional survey was distributed by nurse managers to nurses in the 13 hospitals and returned by nurses (N = 269 via mail to the researchers. Results Nurses were somewhat confident providing cessation interventions, agreed they should educate patients about tobacco, and 94% perceived tobacco counselling as part of their role. Although only 11% had received cessation training, the majority reported intervening, even if seldom--91% asked about tobacco-use, 96% advised quitting, 89% assessed readiness to quit, 88% assisted with quitting, and 61% arranged post-discharge follow-up. Few performed any of these steps frequently, and among those who intervened, the majority spent Conclusions The findings showed nurses' willingness to engage in tobacco interventions. What the majority were doing maps onto the recommended minimum of 1-3 minutes but intervention frequency and follow-up were suboptimal. The rural-urban differences suggest a need for more research to explore the strengths of rural practice which could potentially inform approaches to smoking cessation in urban hospitals.

  8. Fundamental elements in examining a child’s right to education: A study of home education research and regulation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda JACKSON

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Home education provides valuable educational and developmental opportunities for children. An examination of Australia’s research indicates many best educational practices, including more informed mediation, contextualised learning, and opportunities to exercise autonomy. Key features include learning embedded in communities and program modification in response to students’ needs. Current state and territory legal requirements are examined within the context of this research and Australia’s obligations to international human rights treaties. All jurisdictions accept home education as one way to meet compulsory education requirements. The extent to which respective laws then reflect understanding of home education research and practice varies. Most jurisdictions allow for a varietyof educational approaches. Some oversight regulation could however be modified to reflect a better understanding of home education. Consultation with home educators and reference to research would assist the development of more uniform legislation and policy across Australia, and enable better regulatory practice.

  9. Quasi-experimental evidence on tobacco tax regressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Steven F

    2018-01-01

    Tobacco taxes are known to reduce tobacco consumption and to be regressive, such that tobacco control policy may have the perverse effect of further harming the poor. However, if tobacco consumption falls faster amongst the poor than the rich, tobacco control policy can actually be progressive. We take advantage of persistent and committed tobacco control activities in South Africa to examine the household tobacco expenditure burden. For the analysis, we make use of two South African Income and Expenditure Surveys (2005/06 and 2010/11) that span a series of such tax increases and have been matched across the years, yielding 7806 matched pairs of tobacco consuming households and 4909 matched pairs of cigarette consuming households. By matching households across the surveys, we are able to examine both the regressivity of the household tobacco burden, and any change in that regressivity, and since tobacco taxes have been a consistent component of tobacco prices, our results also relate to the regressivity of tobacco taxes. Like previous research into cigarette and tobacco expenditures, we find that the tobacco burden is regressive; thus, so are tobacco taxes. However, we find that over the five-year period considered, the tobacco burden has decreased, and, most importantly, falls less heavily on the poor. Thus, the tobacco burden and the tobacco tax is less regressive in 2010/11 than in 2005/06. Thus, increased tobacco taxes can, in at least some circumstances, reduce the financial burden that tobacco places on households. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of tobacco control measures and smuggling in Panama

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to describe the evolution of the demand for tobacco in Panama from ... informal market may benefit the tobacco industry. The research team also ... public service establishments (such as bars, restaurants, casinos, and hotels).

  11. Smoke & Mirrors: The Canadian Tobacco War | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control: An International Journal "A must read for potential or current lobbyists against ... a global leader in the public health crusade to regulate the powerful tobacco ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Research Awards 2019.

  12. Tobacco Content in Video Games: Categorization of Tobacco Typologies and Gamer Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-11-15

    in formulating tobacco control strategies to address tobacco content in games. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Towards global consensus on outcome measures for atopic eczema research: results of the HOME II meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis; Boers, Maarten; Thomas, Kim; Chalmers, Joanne; Roekevisch, Evelien; Schram, Mandy; Allsopp, Richard; Aoki, Valeria; Apfelbacher, Christian; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Charman, Carolyn; Cohen, Arnon; Dohil, Magdalene; Flohr, Carsten; Furue, Masutaka; Gieler, Uwe; Hooft, Lotty; Humphreys, Rosemary; Ishii, Henrique Akira; Katayama, Ichiro; Kouwenhoven, Willem; Langan, Sinéad; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Merhand, Stephanie; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murrell, Dedee F.; Nankervis, Helen; Ohya, Yukihiro; Oranje, Arnold; Otsuka, Hiromi; Paul, Carle; Rosenbluth, Yael; Saeki, Hidehisa; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Stalder, Jean-Francois; Svensson, Ake; Takaoka, Roberto; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Weidinger, Stephan; Wollenberg, Andreas; Williams, Hywel

    2012-01-01

    The use of nonstandardized and inadequately validated outcome measures in atopic eczema trials is a major obstacle to practising evidence-based dermatology. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative is an international multiprofessional group dedicated to atopic eczema outcomes

  14. Coming Out and Leaving Home: A Policy and Research Agenda for LGBT Homeless Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Ward, James Dean

    2017-01-01

    Each year, it is estimated between 320,000 and 400,000 LGBT youth encounter homelessness. They are at increased risk of victimization and abuse and face stigmatization for being both homeless and a sexual or gender minority. These youth are more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to become homeless after being forced out of their homes.…

  15. The Investigation of Research-Based Home Parental Involvement Practices, Parental Style, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Myron Jamal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of home parental involvement practices, parental style and student achievement. Dimensions of parental involvement practices are parental instruction, parental reinforcement, parental modeling, and parental encouragement. Dimensions of parental style are authoritarian, permissive, and…

  16. Towards global consensus on outcome measures for atopic eczema research : Results of the HOME II meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Jochen; Spuls, Phyllis; Boers, Maarten; Thomas, Kim; Chalmers, Joanne; Roekevisch, Evelien; Schram, Mandy; Allsopp, Richard; Aoki, Valeria; Apfelbacher, Christian; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Charman, Carolyn; Cohen, Arnon; Dohil, Magdalene; Flohr, Carsten; Furue, Masutaka; Gieler, Uwe; Hooft, Lotty; Humphreys, Rosemary; Ishii, Henrique Akira; Katayama, Ichiro; Kouwenhoven, Willem; Langan, Sinéad; Lewis-Jones, Sue; Merhand, Stephanie; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murrell, Dedee F; Nankervis, Helen; Ohya, Yukihiro; Oranje, Arnold; Otsuka, Hiromi; Paul, Carle; Rosenbluth, Yael; Saeki, Hidehisa; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Stalder, Jean-Francois; Svensson, Ake; Takaoka, Roberto; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Weidinger, Stephan; Wollenberg, Andreas; Williams, Hywel

    The use of nonstandardized and inadequately validated outcome measures in atopic eczema trials is a major obstacle to practising evidence-based dermatology. The Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative is an international multiprofessional group dedicated to atopic eczema outcomes

  17. Individualism and Collectivism in Business School Pedagogy: A Research Agenda for Internationalising the Home Management Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waistell, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that today's workplaces and universities both require and promote individual and collective responsibility for work and that students need to be adequately prepared for this. UK national culture has been characterised as highly individualist. Therefore, internationalisation of home management students in the…

  18. Assessing and Comparing Physical Environments for Nursing Home Residents: Using New Tools for Greater Research Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Lois J.; Kane, Rosalie A.; Degenholtz, Howard B.; Miller, Michael J.; Grant, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We developed and tested theoretically derived procedures to observe physical environments experienced by nursing home residents at three nested levels: their rooms, the nursing unit, and the overall facility. Illustrating with selected descriptive results, in this article we discuss the development of the approach. Design and Methods: On…

  19. Institutionalized elderly people and malnutrition: research on the patients of a nursing home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rondoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common finding in hospitalized or institutionalized elderly people. In the literature, PEM is not mentioned as being related to individual ability of the patient to feed him or herself correctly. This study analyzed the 56 patients of a nursing home divided into two groups: self-sufficient and non self-sufficient regarding feeding. Levels of serum albumin, transferrin, prealbumin and hemoglobin (Hb were examined and compared to body mass index (BMI calculated with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fifty-three percent of patients were self-sufficient, while 47% were not self-sufficient for feeding of which 83.3% were women and 16.7% men. Levels below the average range were 49.1% for lymphocyte count, 52.9% for serum albumin, 13.7% for serum transferrin and 52.9% for serum prealbumin. No significant differences were found in terms of patient age, while the mean values of the parameters examined in the two groups, self-sufficient and not, were lower in the patients who were not self-sufficient, even if statistical significance was not reached. Serum albumin was in inverse proportion to age (P<0.05 and 46.1% of individuals with low levels of transferrin also showed low levels of Hb. Anemia was in direct proportion (P<0.05 to age. Measurement of BMI showed values below 22.5 (cut off for risk for malnutrition in 33.4% of the subjects examined. Of the three hematochemical parameters, analysis of a possible relationship with BMI showed only a significant and directly proportional correlation with prealbumin (P<0.05%. These data should be considered in the context of an epidemiological research study carried out in a conditioned and limited environment, where PEM, detected using hematochemical parameters, amounted to 50% of the patients, whereas BMI identified only approximately one-third of patients at risk of malnutrition. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women. Mean values of the

  20. Prevalence and determinants of tobacco consumption among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    background: About 6.8% of Indian women consume tobacco and only 21.0% receive 'full' antenatal .... either home or higher facility) facility to the mother and her new-born.[15] The time of participant recruitment and data collection was the period of post-partum stay at the ... The mean age of the women who did and did not.

  1. Approaches to tobacco control: the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M Lober; Lowe, J B

    2004-02-01

    Tobacco production, distribution, and use are international issues with significant health and economic implications. This paper provides an overview of the effective approaches to tobacco control including decreasing demand for tobacco products through taxation, consumer education, research, bans on advertising and promotion, warning labels, and restrictions on public smoking. The effectiveness of reducing the supply of tobacco products through prohibition, restrictions on youth access, crop substitution, trade restrictions, and control of smuggling, will also be discussed. Decreasing smoking, particularly among young people, by preventing or delaying initiation, preventing regular use, and increasing cessation through behavioural approaches for all ages is reviewed. Cessation methods including pharmacological approaches, 'quitlines', Internet programmes, and the targeting of specific populations are discussed. Internet availability of tobacco products and sustainability of current efforts are presented as continuing challenges to tobacco control.

  2. Branding the rodeo: a case study of tobacco sports sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Haber, Lawrence A; Wedl, Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Rodeo is one of the few sports still sponsored by the tobacco industry, particularly the US Smokeless Tobacco Company. Rodeo is popular in rural communities, where smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent. We used previously secret tobacco industry documents to examine the history and internal motivations for tobacco company rodeo sponsorship. Rodeos allow tobacco companies to reach rural audiences and young people, enhance brand image, conduct market research, and generate positive press. Relationships with athletes and fans were used to fight proposed restrictions on tobacco sports sponsorship. Rodeo sponsorship was intended to enhance tobacco sales, not the sport. Rural communities should question the tradition of tobacco sponsorship of rodeo sports and reject these predatory marketing practices.

  3. Branding the Rodeo: A Case Study of Tobacco Sports Sponsorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Lawrence A.; Wedl, Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Rodeo is one of the few sports still sponsored by the tobacco industry, particularly the US Smokeless Tobacco Company. Rodeo is popular in rural communities, where smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent. We used previously secret tobacco industry documents to examine the history and internal motivations for tobacco company rodeo sponsorship. Rodeos allow tobacco companies to reach rural audiences and young people, enhance brand image, conduct market research, and generate positive press. Relationships with athletes and fans were used to fight proposed restrictions on tobacco sports sponsorship. Rodeo sponsorship was intended to enhance tobacco sales, not the sport. Rural communities should question the tradition of tobacco sponsorship of rodeo sports and reject these predatory marketing practices. PMID:19910357

  4. Videoconferencing for Health Care Provision for Older Adults in Care Homes: A Review of the Research Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbould, Louise; Mountain, Gail; Hawley, Mark S; Ariss, Steven

    2017-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to map the research evidence on the use of videoconferencing for remote health care provision for older adults in care homes. The review aimed to identify the nature and extent of the existing evidence base. Databases used were Embase, Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Reviews. The review identified 26 articles for inclusion, of which 14 were case studies, making the most used study design. Papers described videoconferencing as being used for assessment, management of health care, clinical support, and diagnosis, with eight of the papers reporting the use of videoconferencing for more than one clinical purpose. A further eight papers reported the use of videoconferencing for assessment alone. The literature reported the collection of various types of data, with 12 papers describing the use of both qualitative and quantitative data. The outcomes mainly addressed staff satisfaction ( n = 9) and resident satisfaction ( n = 8). Current evidence supports the feasibility of videoconferencing in care homes. However, research needs to be undertaken to establish the contexts and mechanisms that underpin the successful implementation of videoconferencing in care homes and to define useful measures for success.

  5. Videoconferencing for Health Care Provision for Older Adults in Care Homes: A Review of the Research Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Newbould

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A scoping review was conducted to map the research evidence on the use of videoconferencing for remote health care provision for older adults in care homes. The review aimed to identify the nature and extent of the existing evidence base. Databases used were Embase, Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Reviews. The review identified 26 articles for inclusion, of which 14 were case studies, making the most used study design. Papers described videoconferencing as being used for assessment, management of health care, clinical support, and diagnosis, with eight of the papers reporting the use of videoconferencing for more than one clinical purpose. A further eight papers reported the use of videoconferencing for assessment alone. The literature reported the collection of various types of data, with 12 papers describing the use of both qualitative and quantitative data. The outcomes mainly addressed staff satisfaction (n=9 and resident satisfaction (n=8. Current evidence supports the feasibility of videoconferencing in care homes. However, research needs to be undertaken to establish the contexts and mechanisms that underpin the successful implementation of videoconferencing in care homes and to define useful measures for success.

  6. Cross sectional study of young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFadyen, L; Hastings, G; MacKintosh, A M

    2001-03-03

    To examine young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing and to determine the association, if any, between this and their smoking behaviour. Cross sectional, quantitative survey, part interview and part self completion, administered in respondents' homes. North east England. Stratified random sample of 629 young people aged 15 and 16 years who had "opted in" to research through a postal consent procedure. There was a high level of awareness of and involvement in tobacco marketing among the 15-16 year olds sampled in the study: around 95% were aware of advertising and all were aware of some method of point of sale marketing. Awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing were both significantly associated with being a smoker: for example, 30% (55/185) of smokers had received free gifts through coupons in cigarette packs, compared with 11% (21/199) of non-smokers (Pawareness of coupon schemes, brand stretching, and tobacco marketing in general were all independently associated with current smoking status. Teenagers are aware of, and are participating in, many forms of tobacco marketing, and both awareness and participation are associated with current smoking status. This suggests that the current voluntary regulations designed to protect young people from smoking are not working, and that statutory regulations are required.

  7. Improvement of pressure ulcer prevention care in private for-profit residential care homes: an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Enid Wy; Hung, Maria Sy; Woo, Kevin

    2016-11-25

    A need exits to develop a protocol for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs) in private for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong, where the incidence of PUs is relatively high and which have high proportion of non-professional care staff. The implementation of such protocol would involve changes in the practice of care, likely evoking feelings of fear and uncertainty that may become a barrier to staff adherence. We thus adopted the Systems Model of Action Research in this study to manage the process of change for improving PU prevention care and to develop a pressure ulcer prevention protocol for private for-profit nursing homes. A total of 474 residents and care staff who were health workers, personal care workers, and/or nurses from four private, for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong participated in this study. Three cyclic stages and steps, namely, unfreezing (planning), changing (action), and refreezing (results) were carried out. During each cycle, focus group interviews, field observations of the care staff's practices and inspections of the skin of the residents for pressure ulcers were conducted to evaluate the implementation of the protocol. Qualitative content analysis was adopted to analyse the data. The data and methodological triangulation used in this study increased the credibility and validity of the results. The following nine themes emerged from this study: prevention practices after the occurrence of PUs, the improper use of pressure ulcer prevention materials, non-compliance with several prevention practices, improper prevention practices, the perception that the preventive care was being performed correctly, inadequate readiness to use the risk assessment tool, an undesirable environment, the supplying of unfavorable resources, and various management styles in the homes with or without nurses. At the end of the third cycle, the changes that were identified included improved compliance with the revised risk assessment method, the timely and appropriate

  8. Improvement of pressure ulcer prevention care in private for-profit residential care homes: an action research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid WY Kwong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A need exits to develop a protocol for preventing pressure ulcers (PUs in private for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong, where the incidence of PUs is relatively high and which have high proportion of non-professional care staff. The implementation of such protocol would involve changes in the practice of care, likely evoking feelings of fear and uncertainty that may become a barrier to staff adherence. We thus adopted the Systems Model of Action Research in this study to manage the process of change for improving PU prevention care and to develop a pressure ulcer prevention protocol for private for-profit nursing homes. Methods A total of 474 residents and care staff who were health workers, personal care workers, and/or nurses from four private, for-profit nursing homes in Hong Kong participated in this study. Three cyclic stages and steps, namely, unfreezing (planning, changing (action, and refreezing (results were carried out. During each cycle, focus group interviews, field observations of the care staff’s practices and inspections of the skin of the residents for pressure ulcers were conducted to evaluate the implementation of the protocol. Qualitative content analysis was adopted to analyse the data. The data and methodological triangulation used in this study increased the credibility and validity of the results. Results The following nine themes emerged from this study: prevention practices after the occurrence of PUs, the improper use of pressure ulcer prevention materials, non-compliance with several prevention practices, improper prevention practices, the perception that the preventive care was being performed correctly, inadequate readiness to use the risk assessment tool, an undesirable environment, the supplying of unfavorable resources, and various management styles in the homes with or without nurses. At the end of the third cycle, the changes that were identified included improved compliance with the

  9. Nearly Half Of Small Employers Using Tobacco Surcharges Do Not Provide Tobacco Cessation Wellness Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Bains, Jaskaran; Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Cook, Benjamin Lê

    2018-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed employer plans in the small-group marketplace to charge tobacco users up to 50 percent more for premiums-known as tobacco surcharges-but only if the employer offered a tobacco cessation program and the employee in question failed to participate in it. Using 2016 survey data collected by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust on 278 employers eligible for Small Business Health Options Program, we examined the prevalence of tobacco surcharges and tobacco cessation programs in the small-group market under this policy and found that 16.2 percent of small employers used tobacco surcharges. Overall, 47 percent of employers used tobacco surcharges but failed to offer tobacco cessation counseling. Wellness program prevalence was lower in states that allowed tobacco surcharges, and 10.8 percent of employers in these states were noncompliant with the ACA by charging tobacco users higher premiums without offering cessation programs. Efforts should be undertaken to improve the monitoring and enforcement of ACA tobacco rating rules.

  10. Tobacco imagery in video games: ratings and gamer recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-09-01

    To assess whether tobacco content found in video games was appropriately labelled for tobacco-related content by the Entertainment and Software Ratings Board (ESRB). Sixty-five gamer participants (self-identified age range 13-50) were interviewed in-person (n=25) or online (n=40) and asked (A) to list favourite games and (B) to name games that they could recall containing tobacco content. The ESRB database was searched for all games mentioned to ascertain whether they had been assigned tobacco-related content descriptors. Games were independently assessed for tobacco content by examining user-created game wiki sites and watching YouTube videos of gameplay. Games with tobacco-related ESRB content descriptors and/or with tobacco imagery verified by researchers were considered to contain tobacco content. Games identified by participants as including tobacco but lacking verifiable tobacco content were treated as not containing tobacco content. Participants recalled playing 140 unique games, of which 118 were listed in the ESRB database. Participants explicitly recalled tobacco content in 31% (37/118) of the games, of which 94% (35/37) included independently verified tobacco content. Only 8% (9/118) of the games had received ESRB tobacco-related content descriptors, but researchers verified that 42% (50/118) contained such content; 42% (49/118) of games were rated 'M' for mature (content deemed appropriate for ages 17+). Of these, 76% (37/49) contained verified tobacco content; however, only 4% (2/49) received ESRB tobacco-related content descriptors. Gamers are exposed to tobacco imagery in many video games. The ESRB is not a reliable source for determining whether video games contain tobacco imagery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Community-based distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum haemorrhage at home births: results from operations research in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, S; Carnahan, L; Akosah, E; Asare, G; Agyemang, R; Dickson, R; Kapungu, C; Owusu-Ansah, L; Robinson, N; Mensah-Homiah, J

    2014-02-01

    To report on a rigorous distribution and monitoring plan to track misoprostol for community-based distribution to reduce postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in rural Ghana. Operations research. Rural Ghana. Women in third trimester of pregnancy presenting to primary health centres (PHCs) for antenatal care (ANC). Ghana Health Service (GHS), Millennium Village Projects, and the University of Illinois at Chicago conducted an operations research study designed to assess the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of community-based distribution of misoprostol to prevent PPH at home deliveries in rural Ghana. One thousand doses (3000 tablets, 200 μg each) were obtained from the Family Health Division of GHS. Three 200-μg tablets of misoprostol (600 μg) in foil packets were packaged together in secured transparent plastic packets labelled with pictorial messages and distributed to midwives at seven PHCs for distribution to pregnant women. Correct use of misoprostol in home deliveries and retrieval of unused misoprostol doses, PPH rates and maternal mortality. Of the 999 doses distributed to midwives, 982 (98.3%) were successfully tracked, with a 1.7% lost to follow-up rate. Midwives distributed 654 doses to women at third-trimester ANC visits. Of women who had misoprostol to use at home, 81% had an institutional delivery and were able to return the misoprostol safely to the midwife. Of the women that used misoprostol, 99% used the misoprostol correctly. This study clearly demonstrates that misoprostol distributed antenatally to pregnant women can be used accurately and reliably by rural Ghanaian women, and should be considered for policy implementation across Ghana and other countries with high home birth rates and maternal mortality ratios. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. The 'ripple effect': Towards researching improvisational music therapy in dementia care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; Tsiris, Giorgos; Wood, Stuart; Powell, Harriet; Graham, Janet; Sanderson, Richard; Millman, Rachel; Gibson, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Increased interest in, and demand for, music therapy provision for persons with dementia prompted this study's exploration of music therapists' strategies for creating musical communities in dementia care settings, considering the needs and resources of people affected by dementia. Focus group discussions and detailed iterative study of improvisational music therapy work by six experienced practitioners clarify the contextual immediacy and socio-musical complexities of music therapy in dementia care homes. Music therapy's 'ripple effect', with resonances from micro (person-to-person musicking), to meso (musicking beyond 'session time') and macro level (within the care home and beyond), implies that all who are part of the dementia care ecology need opportunities for flourishing, shared participation, and for expanded self-identities; beyond 'staff', 'residents', or 'being in distress'. On such basis, managers and funders might consider an extended brief for music therapists' roles, to include generating and maintaining musical wellbeing throughout residential care settings. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Comparative research on decommissioning disposal effect of two uranium mines at home and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuke; Peng Daofeng; Liu Qingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Taking two typical decommissioned uranium mines at home and abroad for an example, disposal means and effects of two uranium mines were compared and analyzed in three aspects of waste dump disposal, mine sealing treatment, and wastewater disposal. The results showed that two uranium mines were basically identical in the disposal standards and disposal means, but the works in the source survey, wastewater disposal and long-term supervision done by oversea uranium mine were more detailed than domestic uranium mine. (authors)

  14. Formative research on creating smoke-free homes in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Butler, Susan

    2009-02-01

    The home is a significant place for exposure to secondhand smoke for children and non-smoking adults. This study explored factors that would convince families to adopt household smoking bans and actions to create and maintain smoke-free homes. Interviews were conducted with adults in 102 households in rural Georgia. Participating families had a young adolescent and included households with a mix of smokers and non-smokers and smoking ban status. Families reported they would consider a total ban to protect children from secondhand smoke and protect family members if they got sick. Few described difficulties in enforcement with over half of smokers accepting the rules. Situations that made it hard to enforce restrictions were if there was a visitor who smoked, a smoker who had cravings, and bad weather outside when the smoker desired to smoke. Smokers explained that family members could assist them in quitting by talking to them, not purchasing cigarettes for them, not smoking around them, and supporting them. Ideas for promoting smoke-free homes were having a no smoking sign, saying no to visitors who want to smoke, removing ashtrays, and creating a place outside for smokers. These findings can inform interventions designed to create and maintain smoke-free households.

  15. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERCHLORATE BY TOBACCO PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in the plant tissues. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of tobacco plants in phytoremediation, a technology that employs plants to degrade,...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  17. Listening to the community: Using formative research to strengthen maternity waiting homes in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nancy A; Vian, Taryn; Kaiser, Jeanette L; Ngoma, Thandiwe; Mataka, Kaluba; Henry, Elizabeth G; Biemba, Godfrey; Nambao, Mary; Hamer, Davidson H

    2018-01-01

    The WHO recommends maternity waiting homes (MWH) as one intervention to improve maternal and newborn health. However, persistent structural, cultural and financial barriers in their design and implementation have resulted in mixed success in both their uptake and utilization. Guidance is needed on how to design a MWH intervention that is acceptable and sustainable. Using formative research and guided by a sustainability framework for health programs, we systematically collected data from key stakeholders and potential users in order to design a MWH intervention in Zambia that could overcome multi-dimensional barriers to accessing facility delivery, be acceptable to the community and be financially and operationally sustainable. We used a concurrent triangulation study design and mixed methods. We used free listing to gather input from a total of 167 randomly sampled women who were pregnant or had a child under the age of two (n = 59), men with a child under the age of two (n = 53), and community elders (n = 55) living in the catchment areas of four rural health facilities in Zambia. We conducted 17 focus group discussions (n = 135) among a purposive sample of pregnant women (n = 33), mothers-in-law (n = 32), traditional birth attendants or community maternal health promoters (n = 38), and men with a child under two (n = 32). We administered 38 semi-structured interviews with key informants who were identified by free list respondents as having a stake in the condition and use of MWHs. Lastly, we projected fixed and variable recurrent costs for operating a MWH. Respondents most frequently mentioned distance, roads, transport, and the quality of MWHs and health facilities as the major problems facing pregnant women in their communities. They also cited inadequate advanced planning for delivery and the lack of access to delivery supplies and baby clothes as other problems. Respondents identified the main problems of MWHs specifically as over-crowding, poor

  18. How Tobacco Control Measures and Smuggling Influence Demand ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    How Tobacco Control Measures and Smuggling Influence Demand in Panama. Panama's tobacco epidemic demonstrates ... Their goal: establish a new threshold for increasing the luxury tax on tobacco products, including cigarettes, based on the monthly evolution of cigarette sales. The researchers will survey brands in ...

  19. Health Impacts of Tobacco Cultivation in Bangladesh | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... health problems among men, women, and children in Bangladesh will examine the health and socio-economic impact of tobacco cultivation. To date, the health hazards of growing tobacco have not been documented or well researched, particularly in low-and middle-income countries with high rates of tobacco cultivation.

  20. Smokeless Tobacco - An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking, especially cigarette smoking, is the most common form of tobacco consumption world-wide. It is generally accepted that smoking carries health risks for smokers. The combustion and pyrolysis products of tobacco generated during smoking are considered to be responsible for the harmful effects. Smokeless tobacco, another wide-spread form of tobacco use, is not subjected to burning and produces no combustion or pyrolysis products. Therefore, there is an increasingly intense debate about the potential role of smokeless tobacco in reducing the harm of tobacco use.

  1. People with dementia in nursing home research: a methodological review of the definition and identification of the study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Rebecca; Jünger, Saskia; Reuther, Sven; Schwab, Christian G G; Dichter, Martin N; Holle, Bernhard; Halek, Margareta

    2016-04-05

    There are various definitions and diagnostic criteria for dementia, leading to discrepancies in case ascertainment in both clinical practice and research. We reviewed the different definitions, approaches and measurements used to operationalize dementia in health care studies in German nursing homes with the aim of discussing the implications of different approaches. We conducted a systematic search of the MEDLINE and CINAHL databases to identify pre-2016 studies conducted in German nursing homes that focused on residents with dementia or cognitive impairment. In- or exclusion of studies were consented by all authors; data extraction was independently carried out by 2 authors (RP, SJ). The studies' sampling methods were compared with respect to their inclusion criteria, assessment tools and methods used to identify the study population. We summarized case ascertainment methods from 64 studies. Study participants were identified based on a diagnosis that was evaluated during the study, or a recorded medical dementia diagnosis, or a recorded medical diagnosis either with additional cognitive screenings or using screening tests exclusively. The descriptions of the diagnostics that were applied to assess a diagnosis of dementia were not fully transparent in most of the studies with respect to either a clear reference definition of dementia or applied diagnostic criteria. If reported, various neuropsychological tests were used, mostly without a clear rationale for their selection. Pragmatic considerations often determine the sampling strategy; they also may explain the variances we detected in the different studies. Variations in sampling methods impede the comparability of study results. There is a need to consent case ascertainment strategies in dementia studies in health service research in nursing homes. These strategies should consider resource constraints and ethical issues that are related to the vulnerable population of nursing home residents. Additionally

  2. Brain Research to Ameliorate Impaired Neurodevelopment - Home-based Intervention Trial (BRAIN-HIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantshetti Niranjana S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This randomized controlled trial aims to evaluate the effects of an early developmental intervention program on the development of young children in low- and low-middle-income countries who are at risk for neurodevelopmental disability because of birth asphyxia. A group of children without perinatal complications are evaluated in the same protocol to compare the effects of early developmental intervention in healthy infants in the same communities. Birth asphyxia is the leading specific cause of neonatal mortality in low- and low-middle-income countries and is also the main cause of neonatal and long-term morbidity including mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Mortality and morbidity from birth asphyxia disproportionately affect more infants in low- and low-middle-income countries, particularly those from the lowest socioeconomic groups. There is evidence that relatively inexpensive programs of early developmental intervention, delivered during home visit by parent trainers, are capable of improving neurodevelopment in infants following brain insult due to birth asphyxia. Methods/Design This trial is a block-randomized controlled trial that has enrolled 174 children with birth asphyxia and 257 without perinatal complications, comparing early developmental intervention plus health and safety counseling to the control intervention receiving health and safety counseling only, in sites in India, Pakistan, and Zambia. The interventions are delivered in home visits every two weeks by parent trainers from 2 weeks after birth until age 36 months. The primary outcome of the trial is cognitive development, and secondary outcomes include social-emotional and motor development. Child, parent, and family characteristics and number of home visits completed are evaluated as moderating factors. Discussion The trial is supervised by a trial steering committee, and an independent data monitoring

  3. Brain research to ameliorate impaired neurodevelopment--home-based intervention trial (BRAIN-HIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, Jan L; McClure, Elizabeth; Biasini, Fred; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Pasha, Omrana; Chomba, Elwyn; Shearer, Darlene; Wright, Linda; Thorsten, Vanessa; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Dhaded, Sangappa M; Mahantshetti, Niranjana S; Bellad, Roopa M; Abbasi, Zahid; Carlo, Waldemar

    2010-04-30

    This randomized controlled trial aims to evaluate the effects of an early developmental intervention program on the development of young children in low- and low-middle-income countries who are at risk for neurodevelopmental disability because of birth asphyxia. A group of children without perinatal complications are evaluated in the same protocol to compare the effects of early developmental intervention in healthy infants in the same communities. Birth asphyxia is the leading specific cause of neonatal mortality in low- and low-middle-income countries and is also the main cause of neonatal and long-term morbidity including mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Mortality and morbidity from birth asphyxia disproportionately affect more infants in low- and low-middle-income countries, particularly those from the lowest socioeconomic groups. There is evidence that relatively inexpensive programs of early developmental intervention, delivered during home visit by parent trainers, are capable of improving neurodevelopment in infants following brain insult due to birth asphyxia. This trial is a block-randomized controlled trial that has enrolled 174 children with birth asphyxia and 257 without perinatal complications, comparing early developmental intervention plus health and safety counseling to the control intervention receiving health and safety counseling only, in sites in India, Pakistan, and Zambia. The interventions are delivered in home visits every two weeks by parent trainers from 2 weeks after birth until age 36 months. The primary outcome of the trial is cognitive development, and secondary outcomes include social-emotional and motor development. Child, parent, and family characteristics and number of home visits completed are evaluated as moderating factors. The trial is supervised by a trial steering committee, and an independent data monitoring committee monitors the trial. Findings from this trial have the potential

  4. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, research has yet to explore differences in cigarette smoking rates ... Meanwhile, existing studies on the impact of tobacco taxes are based on ... Associação de Controle do Tabagismo, Promoção da Saúde e dos Direitos Humanos.

  5. Internet protocol television for personalized home-based health information: design-based research on a diabetes education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen Mary; Clarke, Ken; Alzougool, Basil; Hines, Carolyn; Tidhar, Gil; Frukhtman, Feodor

    2014-03-10

    The use of Internet protocol television (IPTV) as a channel for consumer health information is a relatively under-explored area of medical Internet research. IPTV may afford new opportunities for health care service providers to provide health information and for consumers, patients, and caretakers to access health information. The technologies of Web 2.0 add a new and even less explored dimension to IPTV's potential. Our research explored an application of Web 2.0 integrated with IPTV for personalized home-based health information in diabetes education, particularly for people with diabetes who are not strong computer and Internet users, and thus may miss out on Web-based resources. We wanted to establish whether this system could enable diabetes educators to deliver personalized health information directly to people with diabetes in their homes; and whether this system could encourage people with diabetes who make little use of Web-based health information to build their health literacy via the interface of a home television screen and remote control. This project was undertaken as design-based research in two stages. Stage 1 comprised a feasibility study into the technical work required to integrate an existing Web 2.0 platform with an existing IPTV system, populated with content and implemented for user trials in a laboratory setting. Stage 2 comprised an evaluation of the system by consumers and providers of diabetes information. The project succeeded in developing a Web 2.0 IPTV system for people with diabetes and low literacies and their diabetes educators. The performance of the system in the laboratory setting gave them the confidence to engage seriously in thinking about the actual and potential features and benefits of a more widely-implemented system. In their feedback they pointed out a range of critical usability and usefulness issues related to Web 2.0 affordances and learning fundamentals. They also described their experiences with the system in

  6. MEASUREMENT ISSUES IN HOME-VISITING RESEARCH WITHIN TRIBAL COMMUNITIES: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Bolan, Marc; Chomos, Julianna C; Heath, Debra; Miles, Jon; Salvador, Melina; Whitmore, Corrie; Barlow, Allison

    2018-05-04

    In this article, Tribal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) grantees share strategies they have developed and adopted to address the most common barriers to effective measurement (and thus to effective evaluation) encountered in the course of implementation and evaluation of their home-visiting programs. We identify key challenges in measuring outcomes in Tribal MIECHV Programs and provide practical examples of various strategies used to address these challenges within diverse American Indian and Alaska Native cultural and contextual settings. Notably, high-quality community engagement is a consistent thread throughout these strategies and fundamental to successful measurement in these communities. These strategies and practices reflect the experiences and innovative solutions of practitioners working on the ground to deliver and evaluate intervention programs to tribal communities. They may serve as models for getting high-quality data to inform intervention while working within the constraints and requirements of program funding. The utility of these practical solutions extends beyond the Tribal MIECHV grantees and offers the potential to inform a broad array of intervention evaluation efforts in tribal and other community contexts. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Tobacco talk: reflections on corporate power and the legal framing of consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Peter

    2010-12-01

    This article examines how North Carolina tobacco farmers think about the moral ambiguities of tobacco business. Drawing on ethnographic research with tobacco farmers and archival research on the tobacco industry, I specify the core psychological defense mechanisms that tobacco companies have crafted for people associated with the industry. I also document local social, cultural, and economic factors in rural North Carolina that underpin ongoing rural dependence on tobacco despite the negativity that surrounds tobacco and structural adjustments. This article contributes to our knowledge about tobacco farmers and tobacco farming communities, which is important for tobacco-control strategies. I reflect on ethical and economic paradoxes related to the rise of corporate social responsibility in the tobacco industry, where an official legal framing of consumption, focused on informed adult consumer autonomy and health education, is promoted to undermine more robust public health prevention efforts.

  8. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  9. Smokeless Tobacco: Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t start. If you do use them, quit. Addiction to Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine, which ... Smoking and Health E-mail: tobaccoinfo@cdc.gov Phone: 1-800-CDC-INFO Media Inquiries: Contact CDC’s ...

  10. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  11. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in smokeless tobacco include polonium–210 (a radioactive element found in tobacco fertilizer) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ( ... study of the 40 most widely used popular brands of moist snuff showed that the amount of ...

  12. What we fund Tobacco control

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Appraisal of the perceived economic value of the tobacco industry to ... Mechanisms for prioritising health in trade negotiations and other ... Population health and poverty ... Research projects that address multiple NCD risk factors .... In general, the process for soliciting, reviewing and awarding grants follows this timeline.

  13. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to tobacco control policy in Turkey--2003 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguder, Toker; Polat, Halil; Arpad, Ceylan; Khoury, Rule Nabil; Warren, Charles W; Lee, Juliette; Lea, Veronica

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Turkey in 2003 and 2009 to examine changes in tobacco use and important tobacco control measures. The GYTS were conducted in grades 7-9 in 2003 and 7-10 in 2009 in Turkey. Data in this paper are limited to 13 to 15 year old students. A total of 15,957 students from 202 schools participated in 2003 and 5,054 students from 69 schools participated in 2009. The overall response rate was 92.1% in 2003 and 87.5% in 2009. Between 2003 and 2009 current cigarette smoking did not change significantly for either boys (9.4% to 10.2%) or girls (3.5% to 5.3%). Current cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in 2003 and in 2009. In 2009, half of students reported they had been exposed to second hand smoking (SHS) at home and 80% reported they had been exposed to SHS in public places. Three in ten students reported they had been exposed to pro-tobacco advertising in newspapers or magazines; one in ten had an object with a cigarette brand logo on it; and 7% had been offered free cigarettes by a cigarette company representative. Two-thirds of current cigarette smokers reported that they wanted to stop smoking; and almost two-thirds had been taught in school in the past year about the dangers of smoking. Passing and implementing the Law No. 4207 on Prevention of Hazards of Tobacco Products, ratifying the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), raising tax on tobacco, and requiring pictorial warning labels were important steps forward for tobacco control in Turkey. However, as to the tobacco control much work yet to be accomplished including developing an effective enforcement plan for all tobacco control efforts.

  14. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  15. Role of Oxides of Nitrogen in Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Formation in Flue-Cured Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor TB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is known to contain a class of nitrosamines known as tobacco-specific nitrosamines or TSNA. Nitrosation of naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids is commonly accepted as the mechanism of TSNA formation in tobacco. Because green and freshly harvested tobaccos are virtually free of TSNA, formation and accumulation of TSNA are generally considered to occur during the curing process. Most recent hypotheses have focused on microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and other oxides of nitrogen (NOcompounds that react with tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA during curing. This natural microbial process remains the prevalent hypothesis for TSNA formation in burley and other air-cured tobaccos. However, a different mechanism for the formation of TSNA in flue-cured tobacco, independent of microbial activity, is documented in this paper. It is common practice to flue-cure Virginia or blonde tobacco in bulk barns that incorporate forced air ventilation and temperature control. For the last thirty-five years, many modern bulk barns in North America generally have used liquid propane gas (LPG with direct-fired burners that exhaust combustion gases directly into the barn where the tobacco is exposed to those gases. Our studies indicate that LPG combustion by-products in the exhaust stream, namely NO, react with naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA. Heat exchange curing methods preclude exposure of the tobacco to combustion gases and by-products, thereby eliminating this significant source of TSNA formation, without degrading leaf quality or smoking character. Research findings from 1998 and 1999 are presented to demonstrate the role of NOgases in TSNA formation and the significance of direct-fired curing as a primary source of TSNA formation in flue-cured tobacco. Also, data from an extensive barn conversion program in 2000, which resulted in a 94% average reduction in TSNA levels in cured flue-cured leaf, are presented.

  16. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, M D; Bitton, A; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated. Searches of previously secret tobacco industry documents, primarily the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and British American Tobacco collections. Additional information was collected through discussions with editors of DSM-III, and library and general internet searches. The tobacco companies regarded the inclusion of tobacco dependence as a diagnosis in DSM-III as an adverse event. It worked to influence the content of the DSM-III and its impact following publication. These efforts included public statements and private lobbying of DSM-III editors and high ranking APA officers by prominent US psychiatrists with undisclosed ties to the tobacco industry. Following publication of DSM-III, tobacco companies contracted with two US professors of psychiatry to organise a conference and publish a monograph detailing controversies surrounding DSM-III. The tobacco industry and its allies lobbied to narrow the definition of tobacco dependence in serial revisions of DSM-III. Following publication of DSM-III, the industry took steps to try to mitigate its impact. These actions mirror industry tactics to influence medical research and policy in various contexts worldwide. Such tactics slow the spread of a professional and public understanding of smoking and health that otherwise would reduce smoking, smoking induced disease, and tobacco company profits.

  17. The vector of the tobacco epidemic: tobacco industry practices in low and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-03-01

    To understand transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs) practices in low and middle-income countries which serve to block tobacco-control policies and promote tobacco use. Systematic review of published research on tobacco industry activities to promote tobacco use and oppose tobacco-control policies in low and middle-income countries. TTCs' strategies used in low and middle-income countries followed four main themes-economic activity; marketing/promotion; political activity; and deceptive/manipulative activity. Economic activity, including foreign investment and smuggling, was used to enter new markets. Political activities included lobbying, offering voluntary self-regulatory codes, and mounting corporate social responsibility campaigns. Deceptive activities included manipulation of science and use of third-party allies to oppose smoke-free policies, delay other tobacco-control policies, and maintain support of policymakers and the public for a pro-tobacco industry policy environment. TTCs used tactics for marketing, advertising, and promoting their brands that were tailored to specific market environments. These activities included direct and indirect tactis, targeting particular populations, and introducing new tobacco products designed to limit marketing restrictions and taxes, maintain the social acceptability of tobacco use, and counter tobacco-control efforts. TTCs have used similar strategies in high-income countries as these being described in low and middle-income countries. As required by FCTC Article 5.3, to counter tobacco industry pressures and to implement effective tobacco-control policies, governments and health professionals in low and middle-income countries should fully understand TTCs practices and counter them.

  18. Animal experimental research of the endothelialization of home-made atrial septal defect occluder device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mingwu; Zhou Aiqing; Li Feng; Gao Wei; Yu Zhiqing; Tang Ning; Zhang Lan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the endothelialization of Chinese nitinol atrial septal defect occluder device. Methods: Atrial septal defect with controllable size was created by the Brockenborough needle and Rashkind balloon atrial septostomy, the occluder devices were implanted in six piglets (mean weight 7.5 kg). Two pigs were killed each time after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after the device implantation and then the explanted devices were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: The devices were found covering with collagen fibrosis together with diffuse endothelial cells spreading over the primer 1 month after implantation. The implants were covered mostly by neointima 3 months after implantation and completely covered by confluent endothelial cells 6 months after the implantation. Endothelial cells were not found on the smooth marker band at 3 months, however, did exist by 6 months. Conclusions: Home-made atrial septal defect occluder devices were mostly endothelialised 3 months after the implantation and did completely at 6 months

  19. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  20. Development of project wings home visits, a mental health intervention for Latino families using community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolyn; Hermann, Denise; Bartels, Anna; Matamoros, Pablo; Dick-Olson, Linda; Guerra de Patino, Janeth

    2012-11-01

    As the Latino population in the United States experiences rapid growth, the well-being of Latino adolescents is a growing concern because of their high rates of mental health problems. Latino adolescents have higher rates of mental health problems than their peers, including depressive symptoms, suicide attempts, and violence. Sophisticated, realistic health promotion efforts are needed to reduce these risk behaviors and enhance protective factors. Parents and schools can be key protective factors, or assets, in adolescents' lives. This article details the steps undertaken to develop Project Wings Home Visits, a collaborative school-based, community-linked mental health promotion intervention for Latino adolescents and their families. Core to the intervention is the use of a community health worker model to provide home-based outreach and education to parents of Latino adolescents. The intervention was developed using a community-based participatory research approach that involved the cooperation of a community health care system, a public high school, and a university. Our process demonstrates the benefits, strengths, and challenges of using community-based participatory research in creating and implementing health promotion interventions.

  1. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  2. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  3. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  4. Flying the Nest: How the Home Department Shapes Researchers' Career Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of the socialization environment--nest--for the career destinations of early career researchers. In a sample of research groups in the fields of science and engineering at universities in Germany, we identify research orientation, output, funding as well as openness to industry and commercialization as relevant…

  5. Comparisons of the Composition of Tobacco Smoke and the Smokes from Various Tobacco Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By the late 1970s, eight technologies in the design of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette were classified as significant. The eight included: The tobacco blend, the filter tip, filter-tip additives, reconstituted tobacco sheet, paper additives, air dilution via paper porosity, expanded tobacco, and air dilution via filter-tip perforation. In addition to these eight cigarette-design technologies was another proposed technology which involved the incorporation of a substitute for some or all of the tobacco in the cigarette filler. Despite considerable research and development (R&D effort on various tobacco substitutes that indicated the replacements in most instances fulfilled the definition of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette with regard to the chemical and biological properties of their mainstream smoke, tobacco substitute-containing cigarettes failed to attain consumer acceptability. As a result, several marketed products containing tobacco substitutes had an extremely brief tenure in the marketplace. Outlined herein is a summary of some detailed research conducted on the composition of the mainstream smokes from cigarettes containing either all-substitute filler or fillers comprising various substitute and tobacco mixtures as well as an all-tobacco cigarette.

  6. Tobacco, e-cigarettes, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa A; Hecht, Stephen S

    2017-04-01

    The availability of the Children's Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular, and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life, such as obesity, behavioral problems, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies.

  7. Tobacco, E-Cigarettes and Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa A.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the review The availability of the Children’s Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Findings Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life such as obesity, behavioral problems and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. While e-cigarettes appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Summary Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies. PMID:28059903

  8. User preferences and usability of iVitality: optimizing an innovative online research platform for home-based health monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Osch M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mara van Osch,1 AJM Rövekamp,2 Stephanie N Bergman-Agteres,1 Liselotte W Wijsman,3,4 Sharon J Ooms,5 Simon P Mooijaart,3,4,6 Joan Vermeulen71Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, 2Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, 3Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, 4Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Ageing, Leiden, 5Department of Geriatric Medicine, Radboud Alzheimer Centre, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, 6Institute for Evidence-Based Medicine in Old Age, Leiden, 7Research School, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the NetherlandsBackground: The iVitality online research platform has been developed to gain insight into the relationship between early risk factors (ie, poorly controlled hypertension, physical or mental inactivity and onset and possibly prevention of dementia. iVitality consists of a website, a smartphone application, and sensors that can monitor these indicators at home. Before iVitality can be implemented, it should fit the needs and preferences of users, ie, offspring of patients with dementia. This study aimed to explore users’ motivation to participate in home-based health monitoring research, to formulate requirements based on users’ preferences to optimize iVitality, and to test usability of the smartphone application of iVitality.Methods: We recruited 13 participants (aged 42–64 years, 85% female, who were offspring of patients with dementia. A user-centered methodology consisting of four iterative phases was used. Three semistructured interviews provided insight into motivation and acceptance of using iVitality (phase 1. A focus group with six participants elaborated on expectations and preferences regarding iVitality (phase 2. Findings from phase 1 and 2 were triangulated by two semistructured interviews (phase 3. Four participants assessed the usability of the smartphone application (phase 4 using a think aloud

  9. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts. To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive Substances Misuse Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Tobacco about tobacco pricing policies (n = 12). Participants frequently lacked specific knowledge of details of military pricing policy, and the impact higher prices might have on military tobacco use. Most participants thought tobacco should not be sold at military stores, but many also felt that this policy change was unlikely due to tobacco industry pressure, and DoD reliance on tobacco profits to support Morale, Welfare, and Recreation funds. Achieving a tobacco-free military will require changing pricing policy, but this study suggests that for effective implementation, military leadership must also understand and articulate more clearly the rationale for doing so. Previous work has found that adherence to military tobacco pricing policy is inconsistent at best. This study suggests that lack of knowledge about the policy and conflicting pressures resulting from the funding stream tobacco sales represent extend to high level military policy leaders. Without clearer information and direction, these leaders are unlikely to be able to establish and implement better tobacco pricing policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. How did formative research inform the development of a home-based neonatal care intervention in rural Ghana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Z; Manu, A; Tawiah-Agyemang, C; Gyan, T; Turner, K; Weobong, B; Ten Asbroek, A H A; Kirkwood, B R

    2008-12-01

    Formative research is often used to inform intervention design, but the design process is rarely reported. This study describes how an integrated home visit intervention for newborns in Ghana was designed. As a first step in the design process, the known intervention parameters were listed, information required to refine the intervention was then identified and a formative research strategy designed. The strategy included synthesizing available data, collecting data on newborn care practices in homes and facilities, on barriers and facilitators to adopting desired behaviors and on practical issues such as whom to include in the intervention. The data were used to develop an intervention plan through workshops with national and international stakeholders and experts. The intervention plan was operationalized by district level committees. This included developing work plans, a creative brief for the materials and completing a community volunteer inventory. The intervention was then piloted and the intervention materials were finalized. The design process took over a year and was iterative. Throughout the process, literature was reviewed to identify the best practice. The intervention focuses on birth preparedness, using treated bednets in pregnancy, early and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, special care for small babies and prompt care seeking for newborns with danger signs. The need for a problem-solving approach was identified to help ensure behavior change. A subset of behaviors were already being performed adequately, or were the focus of other interventions, but were important to reinforce in the visits. These include attending antenatal care and care seeking for danger signs in pregnancy. On the basis of the intervention content, the timing of newborn deaths and the acceptability of visits, two antenatal and three visits in the first week of life (days 1, 3 and 7) were planned. Several household members were identified to include in the visits as they

  11. Demarketing of Tobacco Products and Consumers Behavior Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jacennik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Demarketing of tobacco products includes methods aimed at changing the consumer behavior and the marketing environment. The main strategies consist of price manipulation, anti-smoking advertising, regulations restricting or banning tobacco advertising, limitations of distribution or consumption of tobacco products, and warning messages on packages and advertisements. These measures influence either directly or indirectly the following psychosocial and environmental variables: health beliefs, social attractiveness of smoking, accessibility of tobacco products and associated behaviors. The article presents a review of international research on the demarketing of tobacco and its effects for the formation and change of health behavior.

  12. Evidence supporting product standards for carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Stepanov, Irina; Severson, Herb; Jensen, Joni A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Horn, Kimberly; Khariwala, Samir S; Martin, Julia; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States vary significantly in yields of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). With the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration now has the authority to establish product standards. However, limited data exist determining the relative roles of pattern of smokeless tobacco use versus constituent levels in the smokeless tobacco product in exposure of users to carcinogens. In this study, smokeless tobacco users of brands varying in nicotine and TSNA content were recruited from three different regions in the U.S. Participants underwent two assessment sessions. During these sessions, demographic and smokeless tobacco use history information along with urine samples to assess biomarkers of exposure and effect were collected. During the time between data collection, smokeless tobacco users recorded the amount and duration of smokeless tobacco use on a daily basis using their diary cards. Results showed that independent of pattern of smokeless tobacco use and nicotine yields, levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products played a significant role in carcinogen exposure levels. Product standards for reducing levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products are necessary to decrease exposure to these toxicants and potentially to reduce risk for cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  14. Association between tobacco industry denormalization beliefs, tobacco control community discontent and smokers' level of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Selby, Peter; Cunningham, John A

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco industry denormalization (TID) informs the public about the tobacco industry's role in the tobacco epidemic and is an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Although TID beliefs have been noted in adult smokers and associated with intent to quit, research has not evaluated whether they are affected by smokers' level of nicotine dependence. The present article sought to concurrently examine how attitudes towards the tobacco industry and tobacco control groups may differ among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. In addition, it evaluated how these attitudes and beliefs may be associated with smokers' intentions to reduce or quit smoking. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. Attitudes towards the tobacco industry were mixed among the entire cohort and differences in beliefs towards the tobacco industry were not found among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. However, smokers that held strong TID beliefs were 5 times more intent to quit smoking than those without such beliefs. Compared to smokers with low level of nicotine dependence, heavy smokers were more likely to report strong overall displeasure with the tobacco control community (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.23-3.19, p=0.005), however there were no differences with regards to future intent to quit. The absence of strong negative sentiment toward the tobacco industry among smokers as a whole suggests that more targeted anti-industry messages are needed, raising greater awareness of tobacco industry practices within smokers and non-smokers alike. As heavier smokers' discontent with the tobacco control community highlights increasing social disapproval and pressure to quit smoking, future educational and media strategies used for smoking cessation purposes may benefit from emphasizing more of the positive attributes associated with quitting smoking, as opposed to the negative features of

  15. Can Tobacco Control Be Transformative? Reducing Gender Inequity and Tobacco Use among Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure. PMID:24402065

  16. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15-20 fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States. PMID:24806664

  17. Talking to Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans about tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Joseph, Anne M; Polusny, Melissa A; Chlebeck, Bernadette; Brock, Betsy; Gulden, Ashley; Fu, Steven S

    2011-07-01

    Our goal in this study was to examine beliefs and attitudes about tobacco use in the newest generation of combat veterans, those who served in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]). We held 5 focus groups (n = 17) with Minnesota Army National Guard soldiers who had recently returned from combat deployment in support of OEF/OIF. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. We found that it is common to use tobacco in the combat zone for stress and anger management and boredom relief. Tobacco was also a tool for staying alert, a way to socialize, and provided a chance to take breaks. Participants recognized the culture of tobacco use in the military. Stress, nicotine dependence, the tobacco environment at drill activities, and perceived inaccessibility of cessation tools perpetuated use at home and served as a barrier to cessation. Repeatedly, participants cited tobacco policies (such as increased taxes and smoke-free workspaces) as motivators for quitting. There are specific circumstances common to combat zones that promote tobacco use. Results suggest that environmental changes that address the prominence of tobacco in military culture, the acceptance of nonsmoking breaks, and cessation programs that address stress issues and make cessation aids available may be effective in reducing tobacco use.

  18. Targeting youth and concerned smokers: evidence from Canadian tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollay, R W

    2000-06-01

    To provide an understanding of the targeting strategies of cigarette marketing, and the functions and importance of the advertising images chosen. Analysis of historical corporate documents produced by affiliates of British American Tobacco (BAT) and RJ Reynolds (RJR) in Canadian litigation challenging tobacco advertising regulation, the Tobacco Products Control Act (1987): Imperial Tobacco Limitee & RJR-Macdonald Inc c. Le Procurer General du Canada. Careful and extensive research has been employed in all stages of the process of conceiving, developing, refining, and deploying cigarette advertising. Two segments commanding much management attention are "starters" and "concerned smokers". To recruit starters, brand images communicate independence, freedom and (sometimes) peer acceptance. These advertising images portray smokers as attractive and autonomous, accepted and admired, athletic and at home in nature. For "lighter" brands reassuring health concerned smokers, lest they quit, advertisements provide imagery conveying a sense of well being, harmony with nature, and a consumer's self image as intelligent. The industry's steadfast assertions that its advertising influences only brand loyalty and switching in both its intent and effect is directly contradicted by their internal documents and proven false. So too is the justification of cigarette advertising as a medium creating better informed consumers, since visual imagery, not information, is the means of advertising influence.

  19. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  20. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  1. Focused Ethnography as Research Method: A Case Study of Techno Music Producers in Home-Recording Studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michael Kühn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translator's Introduction: Jan-Michael Kühn's essay introduces the reader to Hubert Knoblauch's focused ethnography [fokussierte Ethnographie] as an ethnographic fieldwork method. More than a decade after Knoblauch's first publications on this method, there are precious few guides to focused ethnography in the English language, save one (Knoblauch 2005. At any rate, there are certainly no introductions to this methodology that also use EDM scenes as a case study. Kühn's article was originally published in German in Soziologie Magazin, a student-run journal published from Martin Luther University in Halle (Saale but operated by an editorial network that spans Germany. As a result, Kühn orients his writing towards an audience of junior researchers, post-docs and graduate students, highlighting the ways in which focused ethnography suits the circumstances of early research careers, where one may have difficulty securing long-term research stays for fieldwork of broader scope. In particular, he notes that Knoblauch's methods require a very narrow scope for the project (i.e., a "field sector" rather than the whole field, a reliance on the researcher's previous knowledge of the field, and short bursts of intense ethnographic activity in order to create work that is tightly focused but still rigorous and generative of fresh knowledge and new concepts.KEYWORDS: qualitative methods; cultural production; music production; home-recording; technoculture

  2. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries. View more. The Economics ...

  3. Impact of Prices and Taxes on Tobacco Product Use in Argentina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New research will explore the benefits and limitations of tobacco pricing and tax strategies on reducing tobacco use ... From “gender as usual” to “gender as transformative” ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.

  4. Perceived harms and benefits of tobacco, marijuana, and electronic vaporizers among young adults in Colorado: implications for health education and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; McDonald, Emily Anne; Sidhu, Sohrab; Barry, Rachel; Richers Maruyama, Tracey A; Sheon, Nicolas M; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate how young adults perceive and compare harms and benefits of marijuana and tobacco products in the context of a legal marijuana market in Colorado. Semi-structured qualitative interviews. Denver, CO, USA. Thirty-two young adults (aged 18-26 years) who used tobacco/marijuana/vaporizers. Semi-structured interviews addressed perceived harms and benefits of various tobacco and marijuana products and personal experiences with these products. Young adults evaluated harms and benefits using five dimensions: (1) combustion-smoking was considered more harmful than non-combustible products (e.g. e-cigarettes, vaporizers and edibles); (2) potency-edibles and marijuana concentrates were perceived as more harmful than smoking marijuana flower because of potential to receive too large a dose of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); (3) chemicals-products containing chemical additives were seen as more harmful than 'pure' or 'natural' plant products; (4) addiction-participants recognized physiological addiction to nicotine, but talked primarily about psychological or life-style dependence on marijuana; and (5) source of knowledge-personal experiences, warning labels, campaigns, the media and opinions of product retailers and medical practitioners affected perceptions of harms and benefits. Among young adults in Colorado, USA, perceived harms and benefits of tobacco and marijuana include multiple dimensions. Health educational campaigns could benefit from addressing these dimensions, such as the potency of nicotine and cannabis concentrates and harmful chemicals present in the organic material of tobacco and marijuana. Descriptors such as 'natural' and 'pure' in the promotion or packaging of tobacco and marijuana products might be misleading. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Implementation strategies of Systems Medicine in clinical research and home care for cardiovascular disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Carbone, Federico; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Fiuza, Manuela; Pinto, Fausto J; Martelli, Antonietta; Palombo, Domenico; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Mach, François; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2014-11-01

    Insights from the "-omics" science have recently emphasized the need to implement an overall strategy in medical research. Here, the development of Systems Medicine has been indicated as a potential tool for clinical translation of basic research discoveries. Systems Medicine also gives the opportunity of improving different steps in medical practice, from diagnosis to healthcare management, including clinical research. The development of Systems Medicine is still hampered however by several challenges, the main one being the development of computational tools adequate to record, analyze and share a large amount of disparate data. In addition, available informatics tools appear not yet fully suitable for the challenge because they are not standardized, not universally available, or with ethical/legal concerns. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a very promising area for translating Systems Medicine into clinical practice. By developing clinically applied technologies, the collection and analysis of data may improve CV risk stratification and prediction. Standardized models for data recording and analysis can also greatly broaden data exchange, thus promoting a uniform management of CVD patients also useful for clinical research. This advance however requires a great organizational effort by both physicians and health institutions, as well as the overcoming of ethical problems. This narrative review aims at providing an update on the state-of-art knowledge in the area of Systems Medicine as applied to CVD, focusing on current critical issues, providing a road map for its practical implementation. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radioactivity of tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashawati, A.; Al-Dalal, Z.; Al-Akel, B.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2002-04-01

    This report shows the results of studies related to radioactivity in tobacco and its pathways to human being. Tobacco contains high concentrations of natural radioactive materials especially polonium 210 and lead 210, which may reach a value of 27 mBq/g. The amount of polonium 210 in tobacco is related to the concentration of radon (the main source of polonium 210 in the agricultural areas) in addition to the over use of phosphate fertilizers for tobacco plantation. Radioactive materials present in tobacco enter the human body through smoking where 210 Po concentrates in the Alveolar lung; this may cause health risks including lung cancer. In addition, radiation doses due to smoking have been reported and some results of the studies carried out for radioactivity in tobacco at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  7. Women and tobacco: moving from policy to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, V; Kaufman, N; Nichter, M; Samet, J; Yoon, S Y

    2000-01-01

    A gender perspective contributes to a better understanding of the epidemiological trends, social marketing strategies, economic policies, and international actions relating to women and the tobacco epidemic. Evidence is provided in this article for the negative impact of tobacco use by women and of passive smoking on the health of women and children. Use of tobacco by women is increasing and this is related to the tobacco industry's aggressive advertising, sponsorship and promotion strategies. Policy directions are proposed in this article. At all levels, a multi-pronged strategy--including changes in legislation and fiscal policies, improvements in gender-sensitive health services, and cessation programmes--should be considered. Much more gender-specific research on tobacco use is needed, particularly in developing countries. Women's empowerment and leadership should be at the centre of all tobacco control efforts and are essential for the success of national programmes and the recently introduced Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  8. Consent, including advanced consent, of older adults to research in care homes: a qualitative study of stakeholders' views in South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Fiona; Prout, Hayley; Bayer, Antony; Duncan, Donna; Nuttall, Jacqueline; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C

    2013-08-09

    Care home residents, especially those lacking capacity to provide consent for themselves, are frequently excluded from research, thus limiting generalisability of study findings. We set out to explore stakeholders' views about the ethical and practical challenges associated with recruiting care home residents into research studies. Qualitative individual interviews with care home residents (n = 14), their relatives (n = 14), and general practitioners (GPs) (n = 10), and focus groups (n = 2) with care home staff. Interviews focused on the issues of older adults consenting to research in care homes, including advanced consent, in general and through reference to a particular study on the use of probiotics to prevent Antibiotic Associated Diarrhoea. Data were analysed using a thematic approach incorporating themes that had been identified in advance, and themes derived from the data. Researchers discussed evidence for themes, and reached consensus on the final themes. Respondents were generally accepting of low risk observational studies and slightly less accepting of low risk randomised trials of medicinal products. Although respondents identified some practical barriers to informed consent, consenting arrangements were considered workable. Residents and relatives varied in the amount of detail they wanted included in information sheets and consent discussions, but were generally satisfied that an advanced consent model was acceptable and appropriate. Opinions differed about what should happen should residents lose capacity during a research study. Research staff should be mindful of research guidance and ensure that they have obtained an appropriate level of informed consent without overwhelming the participant with unnecessary detail. For research involving medicinal products, research staff should also be more explicit when recruiting that consent is still valid should an older person lose capacity during a trial provided the individual did not previously state a

  9. Cosmic ray research in Hanoi: The Auger experiment and measurements made at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Dinh; Nguyen Tien Dung; Bui Duc Hieu; Nguyen Phuc; Pham Trung Phuong; Darriulat, Pierre; Dang Quang Thieu; Thuan Vo Van

    2003-01-01

    The VATLY is a new laboratory in Hanoi dedicated to research in the field of comic ray physics. Its various activities are briefly reviewed. The vertical cosmic muon flux has been measured using a segmented scintillator hodoscope and the results have been published in Ref. [1]. An orientable scintillation telescope has been constructed for measurement of the zenith angle dependence of the muon flux, of which preliminary results are reported here. They are in good agreement with the predictions of air shower model

  10. Cosmic ray research in Hanoi: The Auger experiment and measurements made at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham Ngoc Dinh; Nguyen Tien Dung; Bui Duc Hieu; Nguyen Phuc; Pham Trung Phuong; Darriulat, Pierre; Dang Quang Thieu; Thuan Vo Van

    2003-07-14

    The VATLY is a new laboratory in Hanoi dedicated to research in the field of comic ray physics. Its various activities are briefly reviewed. The vertical cosmic muon flux has been measured using a segmented scintillator hodoscope and the results have been published in Ref. [1]. An orientable scintillation telescope has been constructed for measurement of the zenith angle dependence of the muon flux, of which preliminary results are reported here. They are in good agreement with the predictions of air shower model.

  11. The Chemical Components Identified in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke Prior to 1954: A Chronology of Classical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the excellent fractionation and identification technologies developed during the early-1950s, the compositions of tobacco and tobacco smoke, both classified as highly complex mixtures, have been defined more completely than the composition of any other highly complex commercial product such as coffee. By year-end 1953, the many years of research by scientists using classical chemical techniques to define the composition of tobacco and its smoke provided meaningful information on the nature of over 300 tobacco components and fewer than 100 tobacco smoke components. Those involved in the pre-1954 research not only provided the cornerstone of our knowledge of the two compositions but also deserve the gratitude of their successors for the early information generated on tobacco and its smoke. This article is our tribute to those researchers who generated much meaningful knowledge on the composition of tobacco and tobacco smoke prior to 1954 despite the now known fractionation and analytical limitations of the so-called classical chemical techniques. It also notes the similarity of some of the early and more recent research results obtained on the chemical and biological properties of smoke condensate and several of its components from tobacco with those obtained by Roffo in the 1930s on a destructive distillate of tobacco.

  12. Protecting children and families from tobacco and tobacco-related NCDs in the Western Pacific: good practice examples from Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, A M; Mercado, S P; Klein, J D; Kaundan, M s/o K; Koong, H N; Garcia, E

    2017-09-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are generally considered diseases of adulthood, but NCD risk factors like tobacco use often are taken up during childhood and adolescence, and second-hand smoke exposure affects child survival and development. At a regional meeting of the Asia Pacific Child and Family Health Alliance for Tobacco Control, members reviewed existing good practices of child-focused tobacco control approaches using health promotion strategies. These interventions were implemented nationally in Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. Three good practice national examples were identified that focused on creating supportive tobacco-free environments and upgrading cessation skills among paediatricians. These country examples highlight strategic areas to protect children and families from the harms of tobacco, as part of NCD prevention and control. Training paediatricians in brief cessation advice has enabled them to address tobacco-using parents. Fully enforcing smoke-free public areas has led to an increase in smoke-free homes. The Tobacco Free Generation is a tobacco control 'endgame' strategy that taps into a social movement to deglamorize tobacco use and empower youth born in and after year 2000 to reject tobacco and nicotine addiction. Tobacco control is pivotal in the fight against NCDs; health promotion strategies to protect children and youth from tobacco have a critical role to play in NCD prevention and control. Frontline health workers, including primary care paediatricians, need to step up and actively advocate for full implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, including tobacco tax increases and smoke-free areas, while monitoring patients and their parents for tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure, preventing adolescent smoking uptake, and offering cessation support. A life-course approach incorporating child-focused efforts to prevent initiation of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure with measures promoting

  13. Why and how the tobacco industry sells cigarettes to young adults: evidence from industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2002-06-01

    To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., "young adult") were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing.

  14. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. 20 year IRIS: impact on seismological research at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hilst, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    : The positive impact of IRIS, through its programs (GSN, PASSCAL, DMS, EO) and its workshops, on seismological research and community building can hardly be overestimated. The Data Management System has been very successful in bringing data to users for research and education anywhere in the world; it enables routine, and in many cases real time, analysis of massive amounts of waveform data for a spectacularly diverse range of studies. (I will give examples of surface wave tomography and inverse scattering studies of the core mantle boundary.) The support that PASSCAL provides for the planning and execution of field campaigns allows seismologists to shift attention from operational issues to exciting science, and the required data dissemination through DMS does not only result in tremendously valuable data sets but also contributes to community building through (international) collaboration. Europe, Australia, and Asia also have rich histories of network and portable array seismometry, and in many areas the cumulative station density exceeds that of North America (even, perhaps, with USArray). Moreover, in some cases, such as the use of temporary, roving arrays of broad band seismometers, activities overseas may have preceded and inspired developments in the US. However, the absence of effective central systems for management and dissemination of quality-controlled data has left many unique historical and regional data sets underutilized. This situation is changing, however. As an example I will mention the NERIES initiative to build a better infrastructure for seismological research and education in Europe. Apart from providing an example, through international collaboration IRIS can continue to play an important role in the improvement of the global seismological infrastructure.

  16. Bringing home sustainability and climate change research and developments via on-line virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granshaw, F. D.

    2016-12-01

    One of the key challenges of sustainability and climate education is one of accessibility. For example many of the sites where significant climate research is taking place in National Parks are largely inaccessible to the average park visitor. Likewise, taking students to visit exemplary efforts in environmentally sustainable design or habitat restoration projects may be logistically difficult or impossible for the average class. Yet despite these difficulties, finding ways to give students, park visitors, and the general public a chance to explore these areas is critical to their developing sustainability and climate literacy. To address this issue, the author has been working with National Park staff and community groups to develop desktop virtual reality environments that showcase glacier-climate research sites, developments designed with environmental sustainability in mind, and urban watersheds being rehabilitated by volunteer groups and public agencies. These environments provide the user with a chance to take a virtual walk through a site of interest, access data collected at the site, and even listen to researchers and site stewards talk about key activities taking place there. Though they are used as proxies for actual visits via independent on-line exploration, media for public talks, or the framework for student lab exercises, they these virtual environments have also been used to encourage and guide actual sites visits. A focus of this talk will be a recently launched project involving the construction of a library showcasing environmental sustainability projects in the Portland Metropolitan area. In addition to being a resource for local sustainability educators, the library will be a contribution to international sustainability education efforts as it is being developed under the umbrella of a UN affiliate (Greater Portland Sustainability Education Network).

  17. Monitoring tobacco brand websites to understand marketing strategies aimed at tobacco product users and potential users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Patricia; Cruz, Tess Boley; Tsai, Kai-Ya; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Pattarroyo, Monica; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-09-11

    Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites. This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Website content was analyzed by tobacco product category and data from all website visits (n = 699) were analyzed. Adult smokers (n=32) coded websites during a one-year period, indicating whether or not they observed any of 53 marketing themes, seven interactive activities, or five external links to social media sites. Most (58%) websites required online registration before entering, however e-cigarette websites used click-through age verification. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature themes related to "party" lifestyle, and e-cigarette websites were much more likely to feature themes related to harm reduction. Cigarette sites featured greater levels of interactive content compared to other tobacco products. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature activities related to events and music. Compared to cigarette sites, both cigar and e-cigarette sites were more likely to direct visitors to external social media sites. Marketing methods and strategies normalize tobacco use by providing website visitors with positive themes combined with interactive content, and is an area of future research. Moreover, all tobacco products under federal regulatory authority should be required to use more stringent age verification gates. Findings indicate the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should require brand websites of all tobacco products under its regulatory authority use more stringent age verification gates by requiring all visitors be at least 18 years

  18. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  19. Randomized controlled trial examining the adjunctive use of nicotine lozenges with MyLastDip: An eHealth smokeless tobacco cessation intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Danaher

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with previous research, the MyLastDip Web-based tobacco cessation intervention encouraged long-term levels of tobacco and smokeless tobacco abstinence. The addition of nicotine lozenges significantly improved both participant engagement and self-reported 7-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence at 3 months and when considering 3- and 6-month repeated point prevalence tobacco abstinence.

  20. Poly-Tobacco Use among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M.; Huang, Li-Ling; Sutfin, Erin L.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette use by adolescents is declining, emerging tobacco products are becoming increasingly popular and youth may use more than one type of tobacco product. The purposes of this study were: (1) to assess patterns of poly-tobacco use among a representative sample of high school students and (2) to determine how beliefs correlate with poly-tobacco use. Data came from the 2013 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 4092). SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Among all high school students in NC in 2013, 29.7% reported current any tobacco use, with 19.1% reporting current poly-tobacco use, and 10.6% reporting current use of only one product. Among poly-tobacco users, 59.3% reported that one of the products they currently used was cigarettes. Positive tobacco product beliefs were found to be significantly associated with poly-tobacco use. Communication campaigns, policy efforts, and future research are needed for prevention, regulation, and control of poly-tobacco use among adolescents, which represents a significant public health problem. PMID:26580636

  1. Tobacco Advertising and Promotional Expenditures in Sports and Sporting Events - United States, 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Odani, Satomi; Sturgis, Stephanie; Harless, Charles; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca

    2016-08-19

    Smokeless tobacco has been actively promoted by tobacco companies using endorsements by major sport figures, and research indicates that tobacco advertising can lead to youth initiation of tobacco use (1,2). Television and radio advertisements for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco have been prohibited since 1969,* and the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement(†) further prohibited tobacco companies from targeting youths with tobacco product advertisements in specified areas. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under authority of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), prohibited tobacco-brand sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship of sports and entertainment events or other social or cultural events using the tobacco brand name or anything identifiable with any brand of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco).(§) However, corporate-name tobacco sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship using the name of the corporation that manufactures regulated tobacco products) is still permitted under certain conditions.(¶) To monitor tobacco advertising and promotional activities in sports in the United States, CDC analyzed trends in sports-related marketing expenditures for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco during 1992-2013 using data from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). During 1992-2013, sports-related marketing expenditures, adjusted by the consumer price index to constant 2013 dollars, decreased significantly for both cigarettes (from $136 million in 1992 to $0 in 2013) and smokeless tobacco (from $34.8 million in 1992 to $2.1 million in 2013). During 2010-2013, after the prohibition of tobacco-brand sponsorship in sports under the FSPTCA, cigarette manufacturers reported no spending (i.e., $0) on sports-related advertising and promotional activities; in contrast, smokeless tobacco manufacturers reported expenditures of $16.3 million on advertising and promoting smokeless tobacco in sports during 2010-2013. These findings indicate that despite prohibitions

  2. Application of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to assess factors that may influence implementation of tobacco use treatment guidelines in the Viet Nam public health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDevanter, Nancy; Kumar, Pritika; Nguyen, Nam; Nguyen, Linh; Nguyen, Trang; Stillman, Frances; Weiner, Bryan; Shelley, Donna

    2017-02-28

    Services to treat tobacco dependence are not readily available to smokers in low-middle income countries (LMICs) where smoking prevalence remains high. We are conducting a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of two strategies for implementing tobacco use treatment guidelines in 26 community health centers (CHCs) in Viet Nam. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), prior to implementing the trial, we conducted formative research to (1) identify factors that may influence guideline implementation and (2) inform further modifications to the intervention that may be necessary to translate a model of care delivery from a high-income country (HIC) to the local context of a LMIC. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with CHC medical directors, health care providers, and village health workers (VHWs) in eight CHCs (n = 40). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and translated into English. Two qualitative researchers used both deductive (CFIR theory driven) and inductive (open coding) approaches to analysis developed codes and themes relevant to the aims of this study. The interviews explored four out of five CFIR domains (i.e., intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and individual characteristics) that were relevant to the analysis. Potential facilitators of the intervention included the relative advantage of the intervention compared with current practice (intervention characteristics), awareness of the burden of tobacco use in the population (outer setting), tension for change due to a lack of training and need for skill building and leadership engagement (inner setting), and a strong sense of collective efficacy to provide tobacco cessation services (individual characteristics). Potential barriers included the perception that the intervention was more complex (intervention characteristic) and not necessarily compatible (inner setting) with current workflows and staffing

  3. Adolescent tobacco use and its determinants: evidence from Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Bangladesh 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M A; Goh, Kim-Leng; Khan, M M H

    2015-03-01

    Adolescent tobacco use (ATU) is on the rise worldwide and the problem is particularly severe in developing countries. Based on nationally representative data, this study aims to investigate the association between ATU and its possible correlates for Bangladesh, where the prevalence rate of ATU is high. The data set is extracted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Bangladesh conducted in 2007. The survey collected information from a total of 3113 students from 52 schools, with a response rate of 100% at the school level, while a response rate of 88.9% was achieved from the students. Students covered in the survey were in grades 7, 8, 9, and 10, with age ranging from 11 to 17 years. The prevalence rate of ATU at the time of the survey was 8.4%, while 35.6% of the students had used at least a type of tobacco products before. Logistic regressions were used to obtain the odds ratios (ORs) in favor of ATU for each of the possible determinants and the confidence intervals (CIs) of these ratios. Use of tobacco among friends (OR = 3.46; CI = 2.37-5.05), the experience of seeing others smoking at home (OR = 2.10; CI = 1.36-3.22) or other places (OR = 1.6; CI = 1.02-2.57), receiving pocket money (OR = 7.6; CI = 4.59-13.28), receiving free tobacco from vendors (OR = 2.3; CI = 1.44-3.78), and exposure to advertisements and promotions of tobacco products (OR = 1.83; CI = 1.23-2.79) were associated with a higher likelihood of ATU. Increased awareness of health hazards of tobacco use through education in schools helped mitigate the problem of ATU. The findings of this study have ramifications for tobacco control prevention strategies in Bangladesh. © 2013 APJPH.

  4. The role of tobacco-specific media exposure, knowledge, and smoking status on selected attitudes toward tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D; Viswanath, K; Blendon, Robert J; Vallone, Donna

    2010-02-01

    In August 2007, the President's Cancer Panel urged the leadership of the nation to "summon the political will to address the public health crisis caused by tobacco use" (President's Cancer Panel, N, 2007, Promoting healthy lifestyles: Policy, program, and personal recommendations for reducing cancer risk. http://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/advisory/pcp/pcp07rpt/pcp07rpt.pdf). While some research has examined predictors of public support for tobacco control measures, little research has examined modifiable factors that may influence public attitudes toward tobacco control. We used the American Legacy Foundation's 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey 2 to examine the contribution of smoking status, knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco, and tobacco-specific media exposure (antitobacco messages, news coverage of tobacco issues, and protobacco advertising) on U.S. adults' attitudes toward tobacco control. In addition, we assessed whether smoking status moderates the relationship between tobacco-specific media exposure and policy attitudes. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were employed. Results suggest that knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco and smoking status are associated with attitudes toward tobacco control and that exposure to tobacco-specific information in the media plays a role only in some instances. We found no evidence of effect modification by smoking status on the impact of exposure to tobacco-specific media on attitudes toward tobacco control. Understanding the impact of readily modifiable factors that shape policy attitudes is essential if we are to target outreach and education in a way that is likely to sway public support for tobacco control.

  5. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R; Joseph, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms. Data sources/methods: Researchers reviewed tobacco industry documents from the document depository in Minneapolis, Minnesota and the tobacco industry's website, The Tobacco Archive, in a systematic fashion. A combined technique was employed using title keywords, dates, and names to search the 4(b) index. Findings: A review of internal tobacco company documents reveal that during the late 1980s, the industry and its market research firms recognised the importance of the AAPI community as a potential business market. Documents describe the population growth in this community, the high prevalence of smoking in countries of origin, high purchasing power of AAPI immigrants, cultural predisposition to smoking, opportunities afforded by the high proportion of retail businesses under AAPI ownership, barriers to developing the AAPI market, comprehensive campaigns, and political and lobbying efforts. Comprehensive campaigns were designed to integrate promotion efforts in AAPI consumer, retail, and business communities. Conclusions: The documents show that the tobacco industry developed specific promotion strategies to target the AAPI population. Tobacco control initiatives in the AAPI group have been slower to develop than in other targeted ethnic groups, and may benefit by increased awareness of industry methods to promote tobacco use. PMID:12198269

  6. Impact of tobacco tax and price policies on tobacco use in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It aims to fill critical gaps in tobacco tax and price research in China, an area ... to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South. ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.

  7. Considerations and recommendations for conducting qualitative research interviews with palliative and end-of-life care patients in the home setting: a consensus paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivell, Stephanie; Prout, Hayley; Hopewell-Kelly, Noreen; Baillie, Jessica; Byrne, Anthony; Edwards, Michelle; Harrop, Emily; Noble, Simon; Sampson, Catherine; Nelson, Annmarie

    2015-12-08

    To present and discuss the views of researchers at an academic palliative care research centre on research encounters with terminally ill patients in the home setting and to generate a list of recommendations for qualitative researchers working in palliative and end-of-life care. Eight researchers took part in a consensus meeting to discuss their experiences of undertaking qualitative interviews. The researchers were of varying backgrounds and all reported having experience in interviewing terminally ill patients, and all but one had experience of interviewing patients in their home environment. The main areas discussed by researchers included: whether participation in end-of-life research unintentionally becomes a therapeutic experience or an ethical concern; power relationships between terminally ill patients and researchers; researcher reflexivity and reciprocity; researchers' training needs. Qualitative methods can complement the home environment; however, it can raise ethical and practical challenges, which can be more acute in the case of research undertaken with palliative and patients at the end-of-life. The ethical and practical challenges researchers face in this context has the potential to place both participant and researcher at risk for their physical and psychological well-being. We present a set of recommendations for researchers to consider prior to embarking on qualitative research in this context and advocate researchers in this field carefully consider the issues presented on a study-by-study basis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Why do we not see the corporate interests of the alcohol industry as clearly as we see those of the tobacco industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2013-04-01

    To compare the current status of global alcohol corporations with tobacco in terms of their role in global governance and to document the process by which this difference has been achieved and the consequences for alcohol control policy. Participant observation in the global political arena, review of industry materials (submissions, publications, conference presentations, websites) and review of published literature formed the basis for the current analysis. Recent events in the global political arena have highlighted the difference in perception of the alcohol and tobacco industries which has allowed alcohol corporations to participate in the global governance arena in a way in which tobacco has not been able. The transnational producers of alcohol have waged a sophisticated and successful campaign during the past three decades, including sponsorship of intergovernmental events, funding of educational initiatives, research, publications and sponsoring sporting and cultural events. A key aspect has been the framing of arguments to undermine perceptions of the extent of alcohol-related harms to health by promoting ideas of a balance of benefits and harms. An emphasis on the heaviest drinkers has been used to promote the erroneous idea that 'moderate' drinkers experience no harm and a goal of alcohol policy should be to ensure they are unaffected by interventions. This leads to highly targeted interventions towards the heaviest drinkers rather than effective regulation of the alcohol market. A sophisticated campaign by global alcohol corporations has promoted them as good corporate citizens and framed arguments with a focus on drinkers rather than the supply of alcohol. This has contributed to acceptance in the global governance arena dealing with policy development and implementation to an extent which is very different from tobacco. This approach, which obscures the contribution supply and marketing make to alcohol-related harm, has also contributed to failure by

  9. Neighborhood archetypes for population health research: is there no place like home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weden, Margaret M; Bird, Chloe E; Escarce, José J; Lurie, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a new, latent archetype approach for studying place in population health. Latent class analysis is used to show how the number, defining attributes, and change/stability of neighborhood archetypes can be characterized and tested for statistical significance. The approach is demonstrated using data on contextual determinants of health for US neighborhoods defined by census tracts in 1990 and 2000. Six archetypes (prevalence 13-20%) characterize the statistically significant combinations of contextual determinants of health from the social environment, built environment, commuting and migration patterns, and demographics and household composition of US neighborhoods. Longitudinal analyses based on the findings demonstrate notable stability (76.4% of neighborhoods categorized as the same archetype ten years later), with exceptions reflecting trends in (ex)urbanization, gentrification/downgrading, and racial/ethnic reconfiguration. The findings and approach is applicable to both research and practice (e.g. surveillance) and can be scaled up or down to study health and place in other geographical contexts or historical periods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the Predictive Validity of the Susceptibility to Smoking Construct for Tobacco Cigarettes, Alternative Tobacco Products, and E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Adam G; Kennedy, Ryan David; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-12-06

    predicting the use of e-cigarettes, cigarillos or little cigars, cigars, hookah, and smokeless tobacco among secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  12. Open source home care technology : technical design and development, user research, cost-benefit analysis, and business modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marike Hettinga; Ander de Keijzer; Guido van Alphen; Jan M. Nauta; Elles Gyaltsen-Lohuis; Niels Donninger; Rens Balkenende

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the work in progress for the Hightech@home project. The aim of this project is to develop technology and knowledge concerning open source home care technology, utilizing open standards. Currently, there is limited availability of high tech sensor and communication technology

  13. Defenders against Threats or Enablers of Opportunities: The Screening Role Played by Gatekeepers in Researching Older People in Care Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourfield, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper emerges from a case study of the system of statutory reviews in older people's care homes in the UK. Informed by a review of selected literature on gaining access, this paper provides a critical account of the process of negotiating access with gatekeepers (chiefly, care home managers). The negotiations were time-consuming and largely…

  14. Self-Report Measures of the Home Learning Environment in Large Scale Research: Measurement Properties and Associations with Key Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Frank; Nguyen, Cuc; Cloney, Daniel S.; Tayler, Collette; Adams, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Favourable home learning environments (HLEs) support children's literacy, numeracy and social development. In large-scale research, HLE is typically measured by self-report survey, but there is little consistency between studies and many different items and latent constructs are observed. Little is known about the stability of these items and…

  15. Defining Tobacco Regulatory Science Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Heather L; Berman, Micah; Hanson, Kacey; Kelder, Steven; Solis, Amy; Villanti, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Meissner, Helen I; Anderson, Roger

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration funded a network of 14 Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) with a mission that included research and training. A cross-TCORS Panel was established to define tobacco regulatory science (TRS) competencies to help harmonize and guide their emerging educational programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Panel's work to develop core TRS domains and competencies. The Panel developed the list of domains and competencies using a semistructured Delphi method divided into four phases occurring between November 2013 and August 2015. The final proposed list included a total of 51 competencies across six core domains and 28 competencies across five specialized domains. There is a need for continued discussion to establish the utility of the proposed set of competencies for emerging TRS curricula and to identify the best strategies for incorporating these competencies into TRS training programs. Given the field's broad multidisciplinary nature, further experience is needed to refine the core domains that should be covered in TRS training programs versus knowledge obtained in more specialized programs. Regulatory science to inform the regulation of tobacco products is an emerging field. The paper provides an initial list of core and specialized domains and competencies to be used in developing curricula for new and emerging training programs aimed at preparing a new cohort of scientists to conduct critical TRS research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  17. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Lawrence, Deirdre; Fernander, Anita; Ponder, Paris K

    2007-10-01

    Few frameworks have addressed work-force diversity, inequities and inequalities as part of a comprehensive approach to eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. This paper summarizes the literature and describes the known disparities that exist along the tobacco disease continuum for minority racial and ethnic groups, those living in poverty, those with low education and blue-collar and service workers. The paper also discusses how work-force diversity, inequities in research practice and knowledge allocation and inequalities in access to and quality of health care are fundamental to addressing disparities in health. We examined the available scientific literature and existing public health reports to identify disparities across the tobacco disease continuum by minority racial/ethnic group, poverty status, education level and occupation. Results indicate that differences in risk indicators along the tobacco disease continuum do not explain fully tobacco-related cancer consequences among some minority racial/ethnic groups, particularly among the aggregate groups, blacks/African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The lack of within-race/ethnic group data and its interactions with socio-economic factors across the life-span contribute to the inconsistency we observe in the disease causal paradigm. More comprehensive models are needed to understand the relationships among disparities, social context, diversity, inequalities and inequities. A systematic approach will also help researchers, practitioners, advocates and policy makers determine critical points for interventions, the types of studies and programs needed and integrative approaches needed to eliminate tobacco-related disparities.

  18. Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Nursing Homes Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... Reason For Living in A Nursing Home Some type of disability with activities of daily living (ADLs) ...

  19. Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are part of home healthcare agencies. You may benefit from home care if you are dealing with ... it will trigger an emergency response or checkup phone call. Newer technologies ... or mobile testing technology (home diagnostics), including x-rays and ...

  20. Home | SREL Herpetology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Herpetology Program Herp Home Research Publications Herps of SC /GA P.A.R.C. Outreach SREL Home powered by Google Search Herpetology at SREL The University of SREL herpetology research programs have always included faculty of the University of Georgia, post

  1. The Tobacco Industry’s Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkyu Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS, is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO report’s argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word “deadly” from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  2. Child protection and out of home care: Policy, practice, and research connectionsAustralia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an outline of the early development of care and protection in Australia and New Zealand as a backdrop to an overview of child protection systems and policies and the current childprotection profile in both countries. Key issues that have become the focus of policy reform are canvassed and legislative and policy initiatives to promote child safety as well as strengthen families are elaborated. An overview of trends in relation to out of home care, including routes into care, care arrangements and permanency policies is provided. The article profiles selected research studies from Australia focusing on outcomes of care: stability of care, mental health and educational outcomes of looked after children, abuse in care, and routes out of care through reunification and aging out. Other issues treated are the overrepresentation of indigenous children in care systems in both countries and the challenges of maintaining cultural connections. The article concludes with a brief comparative analysis identifying similarities and differences in child welfare systems in both countries.

  3. Political economy of tobacco control policy on public health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, E B R; Iwase, Nobutada; Shimizu, Shinji

    2003-02-01

    Tobacco use, particularly smoking, remains the number one cause of preventable disease and mortality in Japan. This review of the tobacco control policy and public health is the first to offer a composite review of the subject within Japan. This review attempts to evaluate the most important aspects of the current political economy of the tobacco control policy, and concludes that more effective control policies must be employed to minimize the impact of smoking on the public's health in Japan. Further the article attempts to place the approaches in the larger context of tobacco control, providing a vision for the future of tobacco prevention and control based on current knowledge. Tobacco use will remain the leading cause of preventable illness and death in Japan, until tobacco prevention and control efforts are commensurate with the harm caused by tobacco. Taken together, the results of various studies have clearly shown that control measures can influence tobacco smoking patterns, and in turn, the rate of tobacco-related problems. Government tobacco taxes have not kept pace with inflation for years. Availability of tobacco is virtually unlimited with easy access and the prices being very low due to the strong currency of Japan. Thus Japan must be one of the most tobacco accessible countries. It is important to ensure that people are not conditioned to smoke tobacco by an unduly favourable economic and commercial environment. For that reason, prevention advocates have called for substantial regulation of tobacco products and appeal for both tobacco tax increases and tobacco taxes to be indexed to inflation. In this review, present tobacco related public health policies in Japan are discussed with implication for prevention of tobacco related problems. Continued research in this area will be necessary to determine the most effective policies of reducing tobacco related problems in Japan.

  4. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  5. LHC@home gets new home

    CERN Multimedia

    Oates, John

    2007-01-01

    "The distributed computing project LHC@home is moving to London from Cern in Switzerland. Researchers at Qeen Mary University have been trialling the system since June, but are now ready for the offical launch" (1 page)

  6. ACCUMULATION OF PERCHLORATE IN TOBACCO PLANTS: DEVELOPMENT OF A PLANT KINETIC MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in plant tissues. This research determined the uptake, translocation, and accumulation of perchlorate in tobacco plants. Three hydroponics growth studies were completed u...

  7. Science for Tobacco Control Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Vardavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent adoption of the Tobacco Products Directive is a unique opportunity to enhance the regulation of tobacco products in the European Union. In this presentation a brief overview of the development of an EU common reporting format for submission of data on ingredients contained in tobacco and related products will be presented, as an example of European tobacco regulatory science.

  8. Destroyed documents: uncovering the science that Imperial Tobacco Canada sought to conceal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Chaiton, Michael; Lee, Alex; Collishaw, Neil

    2009-11-10

    In 1992, British American Tobacco had its Canadian affiliate, Imperial Tobacco Canada, destroy internal research documents that could expose the company to liability or embarrassment. Sixty of these destroyed documents were subsequently uncovered in British American Tobacco's files. Legal counsel for Imperial Tobacco Canada provided a list of 60 destroyed documents to British American Tobacco. Information in this list was used to search for copies of the documents in British American Tobacco files released through court disclosure. We reviewed and summarized this information. Imperial Tobacco destroyed documents that included evidence from scientific reviews prepared by British American Tobacco's researchers, as well as 47 original research studies, 35 of which examined the biological activity and carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke. The documents also describe British American Tobacco research on cigarette modifications and toxic emissions, including the ways in which consumers adapted their smoking behaviour in response to these modifications. The documents also depict a comprehensive research program on the pharmacology of nicotine and the central role of nicotine in smoking behaviour. British American Tobacco scientists noted that ".. the present scale of the tobacco industry is largely dependent on the intensity and nature of the pharmacological action of nicotine," and that "... should nicotine become less attractive to smokers, the future of the tobacco industry would become less secure." The scientific evidence contained in the documents destroyed by Imperial Tobacco demonstrates that British American Tobacco had collected evidence that cigarette smoke was carcinogenic and addictive. The evidence that Imperial Tobacco sought to destroy had important implications for government regulation of tobacco.

  9. Availability of tobacco cessation services in substance use disorder treatment programs: Impact of state tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Amanda J; Bagwell-Adams, Grace; Jayawardhana, Jayani

    2017-08-01

    Given the high prevalence of smoking among substance use disorder (SUD) patients, the specialty SUD treatment system is an important target for adoption and implementation of tobacco cessation (TC) services. While research has addressed the impact of tobacco control on individual tobacco consumption, largely overlooked in the literature is the potential impact of state tobacco control policies on availability of services for tobacco cessation. This paper examines the association between state tobacco control policy and availability of TC services in SUD treatment programs in the United States. State tobacco control and state demographic data (n=51) were merged with treatment program data from the 2012 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (n=10.413) to examine availability of TC screening, counseling and pharmacotherapy services in SUD treatment programs using multivariate logistic regression models clustered at the state-level. Approximately 60% of SUD treatment programs offered TC screening services, 41% offered TC counseling services and 26% offered TC pharmacotherapy services. Results of multivariate logistic regression showed the odds of offering TC services were greater for SUD treatment programs located in states with higher cigarette excise taxes and greater spending on tobacco prevention and control. Findings indicate cigarette excise taxes and recommended funding levels may be effective policy tools for increasing access to TC services in SUD treatment programs. Coupled with changes to insurance coverage for TC under the Affordable Care Act, state tobacco control policy tools may further reduce tobacco use in the United States. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with tobacco use among adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EO Owolabi

    environmental tobacco smoke, either at home or in the workplace. Results: Of ... and 22.6 ± 8.0 years for men and women, respectively. ... (80%) of smokers are now found.9–11 ... Over the past 20 years, a modest reduction in the prevalence of.

  11. Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Physical Activity among Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy four percent (74%) and 69% of the non-smoking respondents were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home and workplace respectively. The study further revealed that 15%, 23% and 87% of the total respondents reported no work-, transport- or recreational- related physical activity respectively; and ...

  12. Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmawati, S; Danardono, M; Ng, N; Prabandari, Y; Nichter, Mark

    2009-04-01

    Tobacco advertising in Indonesia is among the most aggressive and innovative in the world, and tobacco advertisements saturate the environment. Tobacco companies are politically and financially powerful in the country because they are one of the largest sources of government revenue. As a result, there are few restrictions on tobacco marketing and advertising. National surveys reveal that 62% of men and 1% to 3% of women are smokers. Over 90% of smokers smoke clove cigarettes (kretek). This paper examines the social and cultural reasons for smoking in Indonesia and discusses how the tobacco industry reads, reproduces and works with culture as a means of selling cigarettes. An analysis is provided of how kretek tobacco companies represent themselves as supporters of Indonesian national identity. This analysis is used to identify strategies to break the chains of positive association that currently support widespread smoking. Between November 2001 and March 2007, tobacco advertisements were collected from a variety of sources, including newspapers and magazines. Frequent photographic documentation was made of adverts on billboards and in magazines. Advertisements were segmented into thematic units to facilitate analysis. In all, 30 interviews were conducted with smokers to explore benefits and risks of smoking, perceptions of advertisements and brand preferences. Focus groups (n = 12) were conducted to explore and pretest counter advertisements. Key themes were identified in tobacco advertisements including control of emotions, smoking to enhance masculinity and smoking as a means to uphold traditional values while simultaneously emphasising modernity and globalisation. Some kretek advertisements are comprised of indirect commentaries inviting the viewer to reflect on the political situation and one's position in society. After identifying key cultural themes in cigarette advertisements, our research group is attempting to engage the tobacco industry on "cultural

  13. Advertisement and knowledge of tobacco products among Ellisras rural children aged 11 to 18 years: Ellisras Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Kotsedi D; Kemper, Han C G; Amusa, Lateef O; Motshwane, Marcus

    2013-08-02

    Tobacco products use is the leading cause of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. This study explores an exposure to tobacco advertisements factors and knowledge, an association with snuff/pipe usage and cigarette smoking among Ellisras rural children aged between 11 to 18 years. A total of 1654 subjects (854 boys and 800 girls) who were part of the Ellisras Longitudinal Study completed the questionnaire. A significant (p advertising tobacco products among the Ellisras rural boys (17% boys and 12.8% for girls, p advertisements of tobacco products on the TV screens, videos or movies. Exposure to tobacco products advertisements was high among Ellisras rural children. Though tobacco products legislation exists in South Africa, efforts should be taken by the health professionals to emphasize the danger of using tobacco products even among the illiterate. Teachers and parents should refrain from advertising tobacco products at schools and at homes.

  14. Point-of-purchase tobacco environments and variation by store type--United States, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-08

    To promote its products, the tobacco industry spent $8.2 billion on marketing in 1999, an increase of $1.5 billion over the previous year. Tobacco advertising in various media increases tobacco consumption and adolescents are more susceptible than adults to being influenced by some forms of tobacco advertising. To describe the retail tobacco advertising and marketing environment, researchers from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation-sponsored ImpacTeen Project collected and analyzed store observation data in 163 communities throughout the United States. This report summarizes the extent of point-of-purchase (POP) tobacco advertising and marketing found in various types of stores. The findings in this report indicate that certain retail environments frequented by teenagers heavily promote tobacco use. To reduce demand for tobacco products among adolescents, public health efforts should address POP environment exposure to tobacco advertising and marketing.

  15. Homing oneself

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2009-01-01

    What is home? A building, a physical and mental phenomenon, or a concept?  There are many homes and ways `to home oneself´. Many of us quite often dwell in other places than at home (as professional commuters between two places, as travellers staying in hotels, as children of divorced parents...

  16. Systematic Review to Inform Dual Tobacco Use Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William Douglas; Horn, Kimberly A; Gray, Tiffany

    2015-10-01

    With more tobacco products now available and heavily marketed, dual tobacco use is increasing among youth. We systematically reviewed literature on dual tobacco use interventions, with an emphasis on mass health communication strategies. The review identified 46 articles meeting initial criteria and ultimately included 8 articles. Included studies reported a mix of health communication and social marketing techniques. Although there is a body of research on dual tobacco use, there is limited literature describing interventions aimed at controlling it. Design and evaluation of such interventions showing reductions in dual use of cigarettes, smokeless, and alternative products would advance the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  18. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  19. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  20. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigar use have generally declined, sharp increases in e-cigarette and hookah tobacco use among teens in previous ... dangers of using electronic nicotine delivery systems, like e-cigarettes. Many e-cigarettes contain nicotine, the same highly ...

  1. Tobacco Control in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manufactured tobacco production in Cameroon (tons) ... Africa has a responsibility to resist the carrot of industrial temptation. ...... parliamentary systems, unitary versus federal designs and the relative development and influence of the judicial ...

  2. Women and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smokers appear less attractive and prematurely old. 5 Women have been extensively targeted by tobacco marketing. These ads are dominated by themes associating cigarettes with social desirability, independence, weight control and having fun. Like most other ...

  3. Federal approaches to the regulation of noncigarette tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Michael J A

    2012-11-01

    Under a grant funded by ClearWay Minnesota(SM) and in partnership with nationally recognized experts in tobacco product regulation, the Public Health Law Center investigated how laws at every level apply, or fail to apply, to noncigarette tobacco products--also called "other tobacco products." During the years 2010-2011, standard legal research techniques were used to identify and compile relevant statutes, regulations, decisions, pleadings, proposals, and related materials. Sources included standard commercial legal databases such as LexisNexis and Westlaw, online sources for pending rules and legislation, and direct contact with courts for legal pleadings and unpublished decisions. These legal authorities related to many aspects of the regulation, including price, flavorants, youth access, marketing restrictions, and product design of other tobacco products. Five of these products were used as case studies: dissolvable tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, little cigars, snus, and water pipes. Research during the years 2010-2011 revealed that the federal regulation of other tobacco products lags behind the regulation of more "traditional" tobacco products, such as cigarettes and moist snuff. Federal regulatory options to expand regulation of these products were identified. The article highlights several federal policy interventions that would address gaps in the regulation of other tobacco products. The FDA must determine whether these interventions will benefit public health and, if so, to what extent--the legal criteria for intervention under the federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Home, Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj; Mullins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The article places focus on how smart technologies integrated in a one family- home and particular the window offer unique challenges and opportunities for designing buildings with the best possible environments for people and nature. Toward an interdisciplinary approach, we address the interaction...... between daylight defined in technical terms and daylight defined in aesthetic, architectural terms. Through field-tests of a Danish carbon-neutral home and an analysis of five key design parameters, we explore the contradictions and potentials in smart buildings, using the smart window as example of how...... to the energy design is central. The study illuminates an approach of the design of smart houses as living organisms by connecting technology with the needs of the occupants with the power and beauty of daylight....

  5. Understanding the vector in order to plan effective tobacco control policies: an analysis of contemporary tobacco industry materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B

    2012-03-01

    This paper builds on tobacco document research by analysing contemporary materials to explore how the global tobacco market has changed, how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) are responding and the implications for tobacco control. The methods involved analysis of a variety of materials, including tobacco company annual reports, investor relations materials, financial analyst reports, market research reports and data. Once China, where TTCs have little market share, is excluded, global cigarette volumes are already declining. Nevertheless, industry profits continue to increase. This pattern is explained by the pricing power of TTCs-their ability to increase prices faster than volumes fall, a consequence of market failure. Pricing power is now fundamental to the long term future of TTCs. Consequently, and in light of growing regulations, the business model of the TTCs is changing. Product innovation is now a key marketing technique used to drive consumers to buy more expensive (ie, profitable) premium cigarettes. Contrary to established wisdom, high tobacco excise rates, particularly where increases in excise are gradual, can benefit TTCs by enabling price (profit) increases to be disguised. Large intermittent tax increases likely have a greater public health benefit. TTC investments in smokeless tobacco appear designed to eliminate competition between smokeless tobacco and cigarettes, thereby increasing the pricing power of TTCs while enabling them to harness the rhetoric of harm reduction. Monitoring TTCs can inform effective policy development. The value maximising approach of TTCs suggests that a ban on product innovation and more informed tobacco excise policies are needed.

  6. Lost and misplaced items and assistive devices in nursing homes: Identifying problems and technological opportunities through participatory design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Weernink, C E; Sweegers, L; Relou, L; van der Zijpp, T J; van Hoof, J

    2018-02-06

    Modern healthcare, including nursing home care, goes together with the use of technologies to support treatment, the provision of care and daily activities. The challenges concerning the implementation of such technologies are numerous. One of these emerging technologies are location technologies (RTLS or Real-Time Location Systems). that can be utilized in the nursing home for monitoring the use and location of assets. This paper describes a participatory design study of RTLS based on context mapping, conducted in two nursing home organizations. Rather than investigating the technological possibilities, this study investigates the needs and wishes from the perspective of the care professional. The study identified semantic themes that relate to the practicalities of lost and misplaced items in the nursing home, as well as latent themes that cover the wishes regarding technology in the nursing homes. The organizational culture and building typology may play a role in losing items. The participants in this study indicated that RTLS can provide a solution to some of the challenges that they encounter in the workplace. However, the implementation of new technologies should be done with care and should be integrated into existing ICT systems in order to minimize additional training and posing a burden on the workload.

  7. Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... increased rapidly and often at the expense of traditional food crops and livestock activities. ... Researchers will compare tobacco and non-tobacco farmers in terms of ... While this project aims to replace one cash crop with another, a recently ...

  8. Tobacco Use. Adolescent Health Highlight. Publication #2012-33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte; Terzian, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has steadily declined among adolescents during the last fifteen years, although use of some tobacco products, like cigars, has seen recent increases. However, large numbers of teens continue to use tobacco products. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents key research findings; describes prevalence and trends; illustrates…

  9. Prevalence of Tobacco Consumption and Its Contributing Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco consumption epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats that the world is facing and attracts the attention of researchers to identify the cause for the same in specific groups. Medical students act as mentors to fight against tobacco use, but several reports suggest that a good number of ...

  10. Taxation of Tobacco Products in West Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 déc. 2011 ... Taxation of Tobacco Products in West Africa. In December 2007, Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) undertook an ... Dans ce bulletin du BRAS: Faites connaissance avec Kathryn Touré, la nouvelle directrice ...

  11. Tobacco Product Use Patterns, and Nicotine and Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposure: NHANES 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Sabado, Melanie; El-Toukhy, Sherine; Vogtmann, Emily; Freedman, Neal D; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2017-10-01

    Background: Few studies have examined differences in product consumption patterns and nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) exposure between single versus dual- and poly-tobacco users. We applied the Tobacco Product Use Patterns (T-PUPs) model to fill this gap in the literature. Methods: Data from adults (age ≥18 years) who used any tobacco products during the 5 days prior to participating in the 1999-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Participants were classified into seven T-PUPs: (1) cigarettes only, (2) noncigarette combustibles only, (3) noncombustibles only, (4) dual noncigarette combustibles and noncombustibles, (5) dual cigarettes and noncombustibles, (6) dual cigarettes and noncigarette combustibles, and (7) poly-tobacco use. Weighted regression models were used to compare product consumption, serum cotinine, and urinary total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (i.e., NNAL) levels between single-, dual-, and poly-tobacco T-PUPs. Results: Dual- and poly-tobacco T-PUPs were associated with lower product consumption compared with single-product T-PUPs only in some cases (e.g., dual cigarette and noncombustible users smoked cigarettes on 0.6 fewer days in the past 5 days compared with cigarette-only users; P product T-PUPs. Conclusions: Product consumption, and nicotine and TSNAs exposure of dual- and poly-tobacco product category users somewhat differ from those of single-product category users as defined by the T-TUPs model. Impact: Higher levels of cotinine and NNAL among dual- and poly-tobacco T-TUPs users compared with the single-product T-TUPs users may indicate health concerns. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(10); 1525-30. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almack, Kathryn; Simpson, Paul; Billings, Barbara; Mall, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Background: Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. Methods: The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors). Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion—itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people’s care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff. PMID:29642460

  13. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Paul; Almack, Kathryn; Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Simpson, Paul; Billings, Barbara; Mall, Naresh

    2018-04-07

    Background : Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors) . Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion-itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people's care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff.

  14. Turning the Co-Production Corner: Methodological Reflections from an Action Research Project to Promote LGBT Inclusion in Care Homes for Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Willis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT residents are often invisible in long-term care settings. This article presents findings from a community-based action research project, which attempted to address this invisibility through co-produced research with LGBT community members. Particular Question: What conditions enable co-produced research to emerge in long-term residential care settings for older people? Aims of Project: To analyse outcomes and challenges of action-oriented, co-produced research in the given context. In particular, we explore how co-production as a collaborative approach to action-orientated research can emerge during the research/fieldwork process; and reflect critically on the ethics and effectiveness of this approach in advancing inclusion in context. Methods: The project was implemented across six residential care homes in England. Reflections are based on qualitative evaluation data gathered pre- and post-project, which includes 37 interviews with care home staff, managers and community advisors (two of whom are co-authors. Results and Conclusions: We discuss how the co-production turn emerged during research and evaluate how the politics of this approach helped advance inclusion—itself crucial to well-being. We argue for the value of co-produced research in instigating organizational change in older people’s care environments and of non-didactic storytelling in LGBT awareness-raising amongst staff.

  15. Women's health, equality and empowerment in tobacco farming - findings from two counties in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Jie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Research takes place in Yunnan, the most important tobacco producing province in China, to gather empirical evidence of women´s role in tobacco farming. Methods Research adopts mixed methods. Quantitative data was collected with structured questionnaire while qualitative data was obtained through individual interviews and focus group discussions. Participatory research method was employed as well in order to better understand the workload of women. Due to sensitivity of tobacco control in Yunnan, respondents had to be reached through personal contacts. Thus a convenience sampling method was used. The information was collected from a sample of 436 female tobacco farmers in two counties in October - November 2015. Results Women spend 50% of working hours on tobacco farming. In tobacco farming season, women work 16+ hours a day and on average they spend 2-3 hours more than their husbands on tobacco farming. 50.1% of respondents had to hire temporary help and 58.0% had to exchange labour (without pay with neighbours / relatives for tobacco farming. 62.4% of respondents borrowed money for tobacco farming. The average income from tobacco farming is US$1,490, accounting for about 26-35% of the household income. Respondents experienced discomforts while growing and picking tobacco leaf, but did not associate these discomforts with tobacco farming. 50.5% of respondents were not aware of negative health effect of tobacco farming. There is no mechanism or entity representing tobacco farmers to bargain with the tobacco corporation. Instead, farmers lost autonomy over farming activity under the pressure of both government and tobacco corporation. Women are even more vulnerable because they rarely participate in decision making at community and above levels although they have significant power over family finance and household farming activity.. Conclusions Being at the bottom of exploitation chain, women lack awarness, knowledge, resource and

  16. Creating a new home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Housing research is increasingly focusing on how different groups of residents use their dwelling and transform it into a home. In this article, we look at the homes of immigrants in Danish social housing. The article is based on qualitative interviews with Somali, Iraqi and Turkish immigrants, a...

  17. Barriers to, and facilitators of, the prevention of unintentional injury in children in the home: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Janet; Garside, Ruth; Pearson, Mark

    2011-04-01

    This review considers barriers to, and facilitators of, success for interventions to reduce unintentional injury to children in the home through supply and/or installation of home safety equipment, and looks at risk assessments. A systematic review of qualitative research. Bibliographic databases were searched for studies on interventions to reduce unintentional child injury in the home, or on related attitudes and behaviours. Studies were quality appraised, findings extracted, and a conceptual framework was developed to assess factors affecting the success of interventions. Nine peer-reviewed journal articles were included. Barriers and facilitators were highlighted at organisational, environmental and personal levels. Effective provision of safety equipment involves ongoing support with installation and maintenance. Take up and success of interventions depends on adjusting interventions according to practical limitations and parents' cultural expectations. A particular barrier was parents' inability to modify rented or shared accommodation. The review highlights ways in which health inequalities affect the take up and success of home safety interventions, and how health workers can use this knowledge to facilitate future interventions.

  18. Facilitating home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan, Valerie; Chadderton, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The birth of a baby is a family experience. However, in the United Kingdom birth often occurs outside the family environment, in hospital. Both home and hospital births have risks and benefits, but research shows that, for most women, it is as safe to give birth at home as it is in hospital. Women report home-birth to be satisfying with lowered risks of intervention and less likelihood of being separated from their family. It is also more cost effective for the National Health Service. Yet, whilst midwives are working hard to promote home birth as an option, it remains controversial. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the safety of home birth and the needs of women and midwives when a home birth is chosen. It provides an overview of care required and the role of the midwife in the ensuring care is woman-centred and personalised.

  19. Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T

    2018-02-19

    Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure at Home and at Work in 15 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Gaurang P; Lee, John Tayu; Arora, Monika; Millett, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    strongly influenced by SHS exposure. Using nationally representative Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2008-2011) data from 15 LMICs, we studied socioeconomic inequalities in SHS exposure at homes and at workplaces. The study showed that in most LMICs, SHS exposure at homes is higher among the poor and the less educated. At workplaces, SHS exposure is higher among the less educated groups. Accelerating implementation of pro-equity tobacco control interventions and strengthening of efforts targeted at the socioeconomically disadvantaged groups are needed to reduce inequalities in SHS exposure in LMICs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  1. Youth tobacco product use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hebert, Christine J; Nonnemaker, James M; Kim, Annice E

    2015-03-01

    Noncigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular among youth, especially cigarette smokers. Understanding multiple tobacco product use is necessary to assess the effects of tobacco products on population health. This study examines multiple tobacco product use and associated risk factors among US youth. Estimates of current use were calculated for cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes, pipes, bidis, kreteks, snus, and dissolvable tobacco by using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 24 658), a nationally representative sample of US middle and high school students. Associations between use patterns and demographic characteristics were examined by using multinomial logistic regression. Among youth, 14.7% currently use 1 or more tobacco products. Of these, 2.8% use cigarettes exclusively, and 4% use 1 noncigarette product exclusively; 2.7% use cigarettes with another product (dual use), and 4.3% use 3 or more products (polytobacco use). Twice as many youth use e-cigarettes alone than dual use with cigarettes. Among smokers, polytobacco use was significantly associated with male gender (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] = 3.71), by using flavored products (aRRR = 6.09), nicotine dependence (aRRR = 1.91), tobacco marketing receptivity (aRRR = 2.52), and perceived prevalence of peer use of tobacco products (aRRR = 3.61, 5.73). More than twice as many youth in the United States currently use 2 or more tobacco products than cigarettes alone. Continued monitoring of tobacco use patterns is warranted, especially for e-cigarettes. Youth rates of multiple product use involving combustible products underscore needs for research assessing potential harms associated with these patterns. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. 75 FR 2879 - Use of Tobacco Marketing Descriptors to Convey Modified Risk; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... information, research, and ideas on tobacco product marketing descriptors that may be considered similar to...] Use of Tobacco Marketing Descriptors to Convey Modified Risk; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and... authority to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products to protect the public...

  3. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and…

  4. Biomarkers of exposure to new and emerging tobacco delivery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Suzaynn F; Blount, Benjamin C; Jacob, Peyton; Saliba, Najat A; Bernert, John T; El Hellani, Ahmad; Jatlow, Peter; Pappas, R Steven; Wang, Lanqing; Foulds, Jonathan; Ghosh, Arunava; Hecht, Stephen S; Gomez, John C; Martin, Jessica R; Mesaros, Clementina; Srivastava, Sanjay; St Helen, Gideon; Tarran, Robert; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K; Blair, Ian A; Kimmel, Heather L; Doerschuk, Claire M; Benowitz, Neal L; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2017-09-01

    Accurate and reliable measurements of exposure to tobacco products are essential for identifying and confirming patterns of tobacco product use and for assessing their potential biological effects in both human populations and experimental systems. Due to the introduction of new tobacco-derived products and the development of novel ways to modify and use conventional tobacco products, precise and specific assessments of exposure to tobacco are now more important than ever. Biomarkers that were developed and validated to measure exposure to cigarettes are being evaluated to assess their use for measuring exposure to these new products. Here, we review current methods for measuring exposure to new and emerging tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes, little cigars, water pipes, and cigarillos. Rigorously validated biomarkers specific to these new products have not yet been identified. Here, we discuss the strengths and limitations of current approaches, including whether they provide reliable exposure estimates for new and emerging products. We provide specific guidance for choosing practical and economical biomarkers for different study designs and experimental conditions. Our goal is to help both new and experienced investigators measure exposure to tobacco products accurately and avoid common experimental errors. With the identification of the capacity gaps in biomarker research on new and emerging tobacco products, we hope to provide researchers, policymakers, and funding agencies with a clear action plan for conducting and promoting research on the patterns of use and health effects of these products.

  5. Misplaced Trust: Racial Differences in Use of Tobacco Products and Trust in Sources of Tobacco Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E; Sharif, Mienah Z; Morey, Brittany N

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the rates of utilization of alternative tobacco products have increased. Providing health information about tobacco products from trustworthy sources may help decrease the popularity of these products. Using a nationally representative study of adults, we fill the current gap in research on racial and ethnic disparities in utilization of alternative tobacco products as well as in trust of sources of health information about tobacco products. Data came from the Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 3738), which was collected in 2015. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds of use of seven different tobacco product (eg, hookah, e-cigarettes, etc.), trust in seven different sources of e-cigarette health information (eg, family or friends, health care providers, etc.), and trust in six different sources of tobacco health information, adjusting for control variables. There were disparities in utilization of alternative tobacco products and in trust, in tobacco companies across racial and ethnic groups. Blacks and Asians were far more likely than whites to trust tobacco (adjusted odds ratios = 8.67 and 4.34) and e-cigarette companies (adjusted odds ratios = 6.97 and 3.13) with information about the health effects of e-cigarettes than whites. The popularity of alternative tobacco products appears to be high and may offset recent observed decreases in cigarette use. Blacks and Asians appear to trust tobacco companies as sources of information when compared to whites. Higher levels of trust in tobacco companies among Asians and blacks may translate to greater susceptibility to utilize tobacco products among these groups, thereby increasing disparities. There is a need for social marketing and education efforts focused on increasing awareness of adverse health effects of using alternative tobacco products as well as on the untrustworthiness of tobacco and e-cigarette companies, especially among racial and ethnic minorities. © The Author

  6. Work-home interface in a cross-cultural context: a framework for future research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putnik, K.; Houkes, I.; Jansen, N.; Nijhuis, F.; Kant, IJ.

    2018-01-01

    With dual-income families on the increase, combining work and family obligations is a daily reality for many individuals. Unsatisfactory combinations of work and home duties can result in various unfavourable individual and organisational outcomes. Therefore, its proper understanding is essential in

  7. Assessment of the Tobacco Dependence Screener Among Smokeless Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Nasir; Beebe, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    concurrent validity among ST users. These findings are consistent with the results of previous cigarette smoking studies evaluating TDS. A self-administered tobacco dependence measure for ST users based on a clinical definition of dependence is an effective tool in research setting. ST dependence research is still evolving. This is the first study of the TDS among ST users providing preliminary evidence about some of the psychometric properties of the scale. Similar to cigarette smokers, TDS is an effective measure of ST dependence. Study showed moderate reliability and affirmative concurrent validity of the TDS among ST users. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  9. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Betsy; Carlson, Samantha C; Moilanen, Molly; Schillo, Barbara A

    2016-12-01

    Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646) were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%), content on tobacco company websites (39.1%), and tobacco coupons (15.7%). Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52-2.37). Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  10. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Brock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646 were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%, content on tobacco company websites (39.1%, and tobacco coupons (15.7%. Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52–2.37. Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.

  11. Lo que da buen resultado en casa. Resultados de la investigacion y Actividades de aprendizaje: Sentido comun y diversion para ninos y adultos (What Works at Home. Research Findings and Learning Activities: Common Sense and Fun for Adults and Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Shirley, Ed.

    As part of an effort to encourage Hispanic parents to help their children in school, this home learning guide, which can also be obtained in taped versions, provides parents with learning activities with which to engage their children. Based on research findings, the activities are divided into the following categories: curriculum of the home,…

  12. Home hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agar, John W; Perkins, Anthony; Heaf, James G

    2015-01-01

    We describe the infrastructure that is necessary for hemodialysis in the home focusing on physical requirements, the organization of plumbing and water, and the key features that should guide the selection of machines that are suitable for home use.......We describe the infrastructure that is necessary for hemodialysis in the home focusing on physical requirements, the organization of plumbing and water, and the key features that should guide the selection of machines that are suitable for home use....

  13. Are students exposed to tobacco smoke in German schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent 6th grade school children are exposed to tobacco smoke by others. As biomarker for the exposure to tobacco smoke nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine. Our study population consisted of 771 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years who according to a questionnaire did not smoke. In addition we analysed the data of 459 school children who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the spontaneous urine sample were determined by HPLC methods.On average in about 20% of all non-smoking children, who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home, biomarker (nicotine or cotinine were detected in the urine. The percentage of the detected biomarker values (nicotine and/or cotinine in the urine of the school children varied between 0% and 50% between schools. In addition we determined the proportion of smoking classmates per school. No positive association was found between the detected biomarker values of the non-smoking school children not exposed to tobacco smoke at home and the proportion of smokers per school. The concentration of biomarker depending on the time of day the urine samples were collected showed higher nicotine and cotinine values when the urine sample was collected between 10 and 12 o'clock in the morning compared to urine samples collected between 7 and 10 a.m.In spite of the limitations our study provides some evidence that children are exposed involuntarily to tobacco smoke by others at school. That is why our results support the requirement of a general legal ban on smoking for teachers, the school staff and students.

  14. Multilevel analysis of the individual and contextual factors of tobacco use among Mexican adolescents using the National Addiction Survey (NAS, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Zavala Arciniega

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The tobacco industry has targeted low and middle-income countries and vulnerable groups such as women and young people. In Mexico we observe a slow decrease in tobacco consumption among adults, while in adolescents the trend in tobacco use shows an increase. Previous research in Mexico do not measure determinants at neighborhood level. The aim of the study is evaluate whether the contextual and individual factors are associated with tobacco use among Mexican adolescents. Methods Data from this study came from NAS 2011 and National Census 2010. Descriptive statistics were estimated after adjusting for sampling weights. The study had two levels: individual (adolescents between 12-17 years and contextual (neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by sex was conducted. Results The final sample includes 2785 adolescents from 364 neighborhoods. Prevalence of 30 days smoking in women adolescents was 3.8% and in male adolescents was 10.3%. Female adolescents exposed to second hand smoke at home were more likely to be a current smoker (OR 2.87 CI: 1.37,6.04 and in those who have an employment (OR 4.35 CI: 1.03,18.3. School attendance was inversely associated with tobacco use (OR 0.38 CI: 0.16,0.89. In Male adolescents the likelihood of being a current smoker increase according to age (OR 4.35 CI: 1.51,12.4 for 15-17 vs 12-14 and in those exposed to second hand smoke at home (OR 5.03 CI 2.38,10.6, while school attendance decrease the likelihood of being a current smoker (OR 0.14 CI: 0.05,0.39. Conclusions This study suggest that school attendance is a protective factor for smoking. Second hand smoke at home is an important factor of tobacco use. Have an employment increase the likelihood of being a current smoker only in female adolescents. Implement a successful tobacco control policy in Mexico needs to take into account educational, economics, social and gender determinants.

  15. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  16. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  17. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 sept. 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  18. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A

  19. ThinkHome Energy Efficiency in Future Smart Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Reinisch; Mario J. Kofler; Félix Iglesias; Wolfgang Kastner

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Smart homes have been viewed with increasing interest by both home owners and the research community in the past few years. One reason for this development is that the use of modern automation technology in the home or building promises considerable savings of energy, therefore, simultaneously reducing the operational costs of the building over its whole lifecycle. However, the full potential of smart homes still lies fallow, due to the complexity and diversity of the systems, badly ...

  20. Nursing Home Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data that is used by the Nursing Home Compare tool can be downloaded for public use. This functionality is primarily used by health policy researchers and the...

  1. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trauma and EMS Cancer and Research Health Information Technology Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative ... The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the ...

  2. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  3. Every document and picture tells a story: using internal corporate document reviews, semiotics, and content analysis to assess tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S J; Dewhirst, T; Ling, P M

    2006-06-01

    In this article we present communication theory as a conceptual framework for conducting documents research on tobacco advertising strategies, and we discuss two methods for analysing advertisements: semiotics and content analysis. We provide concrete examples of how we have used tobacco industry documents archives and tobacco advertisement collections iteratively in our research to yield a synergistic analysis of these two complementary data sources. Tobacco promotion researchers should consider adopting these theoretical and methodological approaches.

  4. Young adults' perceptions about established and emerging tobacco products: results from eight focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Ricardo J; Jupka, Keri; Berman, Susan; Zellin, Stacie; Vijaykumar, Santosh

    2012-02-01

    In order to sustain their market, tobacco producers target young adults through novel product design and marketing strategies. Public health professionals need to understand young adults' risks perceptions about and use of new tobacco products to best inform tobacco control interventions. In 2009, researchers conducted 8 focus groups with 67 young adults stratified by self-reported tobacco use and nonuse, residence in rural and urban areas, and living in a state with or without a statewide smoking restriction policy. Participants provided feedback about their knowledge and risk perceptions about and use of tobacco products and marketing. Participants reported a high level of familiarity with a wide range of novel tobacco products. A great deal of confusion and disagreement appeared with regard to absolute and relative risk of different tobacco products. Participants readily discussed using smokeless tobacco products as alternatives to smoking when smoking is prohibited. Fewer differences in tobacco-related knowledge risk perceptions and use were found between urban and rural participants and those in smoke-free policy and nonpolicy states than between user and nonuser groups. Both users and nonusers were familiar with and skeptical about tobacco marketing and prevention efforts. Young adults are familiar with many tobacco products, but they convey little understanding of relative risks of new or trendy tobacco products, such as snus or hookah. Mindful of industry innovation, tobacco control advocates must continuously update prevention efforts, seeking new strategies to limit promotion, marketing, and use of new and conventional products.

  5. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND...

  6. An Inventory of Methods for the Assessment of Additive Increased Addictiveness of Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Kienhuis, Anne S; Talhout, Reinskje

    2016-07-01

    Cigarettes and other forms of tobacco contain the addictive drug nicotine. Other components, either naturally occurring in tobacco or additives that are intentionally added during the manufacturing process, may add to the addictiveness of tobacco products. As such, these components can make cigarette smokers more easily and heavily dependent.Efforts to regulate tobacco product dependence are emerging globally. Additives that increase tobacco dependence will be prohibited under the new European Tobacco Product Directive. This article provides guidelines and recommendations for developing a regulatory strategy for assessment of increase in tobacco dependence due to additives. Relevant scientific literature is summarized and criteria and experimental studies that can define increased dependence of tobacco products are described. Natural tobacco smoke is a very complex matrix of components, therefore analysis of the contribution of an additive or a combination of additives to the level of dependence on this product is challenging. We propose to combine different type of studies analyzing overall tobacco product dependence potential and the functioning of additives in relation to nicotine. By using a combination of techniques, changes associated with nicotine dependence such as behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations can be examined to provide sufficient information.Research needs and knowledge gaps will be discussed and recommendations will be made to translate current knowledge into legislation. As such, this article aids in implementation of the Tobacco Product Directive, as well as help enable regulators and researchers worldwide to develop standards to reduce dependence on tobacco products. This article provides an overall view on how to assess tobacco product constituents for their potential contribution to use and dependence. It provides guidelines that help enable regulators worldwide to develop standards to reduce dependence on tobacco products

  7. Rural Indiana Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This report examines alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use in rural parts of Indiana, as well as public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. The report is based on epidemiological, health, and criminal justice indicators; focus groups; and in-depth interviews with local officials, researchers, service providers, and civic leaders.…

  8. Polonium-210 in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.; Tso, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the measurements that have been made on tobacco and tobacco products and to indicate the studies that show the amount of 210 Po transferred to mainstream smoke and inhaled. The amounts reported to be in the lung are summarized. The authors have shown what average values might be expected in the lung due to normal deposition and clearance of the smoke aerosol and to compare these values with the measurements. The average dose to cells in the bronchial epithelium was estimated for the activities reported to be on the bronchial surface, and a comparison of this dose with a known tumorigenic alpha dose was made

  9. State-Specific Prevalence of Tobacco Product Use Among Adults - United States, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Satomi; Armour, Brian S; Graffunder, Corinne M; Willis, Gordon; Hartman, Anne M; Agaku, Israel T

    2018-01-26

    Despite recent declines in cigarette smoking prevalence, the tobacco product landscape has shifted to include emerging tobacco products* (1,2). Previous research has documented adult use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes by state (3); however, state-specific data on other tobacco products are limited. To assess tobacco product use in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC), CDC and the National Cancer Institute analyzed self-reported use of six tobacco product types: cigarettes, cigars, regular pipes, water pipes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and smokeless tobacco products among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). Prevalence of ever-use of any tobacco product ranged from 27.0% (Utah) to 55.4% (Wyoming). Current (every day or some days) use of any tobacco product ranged from 10.2% (California) to 27.7% (Wyoming). Cigarettes were the most common currently used tobacco product in all states and DC. Among current cigarette smokers, the proportion who currently used one or more other tobacco products ranged from 11.5% (Delaware) to 32.3% (Oregon). Differences in tobacco product use across states underscore the importance of implementing proven population-level strategies to reduce tobacco use and expanding these strategies to cover all forms of tobacco marketed in the United States. Such strategies could include comprehensive smoke-free policies, tobacco product price increases, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to clinical smoking cessation resources (1,4).

  10. Home Automation and Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Surinder Kaur,; Rashmi Singh; Neha Khairwal; Pratyk Jain

    2016-01-01

    Easy Home or Home automation plays a very important role in modern era because of its flexibility in using it at different places with high precision which will save money and time by decreasing human hard work. Prime focus of this technology is to control the household equipment’s like light, fan, door, AC etc. automatically. This research paper has detailed information on Home Automation and Security System using Arduino, GSM and how we can control home appliances using Android application....

  11. Introduction to tobacco control supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues.

  12. Developing a smoke free homes initiative in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmajam, Sreedevi; Nichter, Mark; Sairu, P; Aswathy, S; Mini, G K; Bindu, V C; Pradeepkumar, A S; Thankappan, K R

    2015-05-10

    Results of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Kerala, India found that 42 % of adults were exposed to second hand smoke (SHS) inside the home. Formative research carried out in rural Kerala suggests that exposure may be much higher. Numerous studies have called for research and intervention on SHS exposure among women and children as an important component of maternal and child health activities. Community-based participatory research was carried out in Kerala. First, a survey was conducted to assess prevalence of SHS exposure in households. Next, a proof of concept study was conducted to develop and test the feasibility of a community-wide smoke free homes initiative. Educational materials were developed and pretested in focus groups. After feasibility was established, pilot studies were implemented in two other communities. Post intervention, surveys were conducted as a means of assessing changes in community support. At baseline, between 70 and 80 % of male smokers regularly smoked inside the home. Over 80 % of women had asked their husband not to do so. Most women felt powerless to change their husband's behavior. When women were asked about supporting a smoke free homes intervention, 88 % expressed support for the idea, but many expressed doubt that their husbands would comply. Educational meetings were held to discuss the harms of second hand smoke. Community leaders signed a declaration that their community was part of the smoke free homes initiative. Six months post intervention a survey was conducted in these communities; between 34 and 59 % of men who smoked no longer smoked in their home. The smoke free homes initiative is based on the principle of collective efficacy. Recognizing the difficulty for individual women to effect change in their household, the movement establishes a smoke free community mandate. Based on evaluation data from two pilot studies, we can project that between a 30 and 60 % reduction of smoking in the home may be achieved, the

  13. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  14. Research and Development of Information and Communication Technology-based Home Blood Pressure Monitoring from Morning to Nocturnal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi; Tomitani, Naoko; Matsumoto, Yuri; Hamasaki, Haruna; Okawara, Yukie; Kondo, Maiko; Nozue, Ryoko; Yamagata, Hiromi; Okura, Ayako; Hoshide, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Asians have specific characteristics of hypertension (HTN) and its relationship with cardiovascular disease. The morning surge in blood pressure (BP) in Asians is more extended, and the association slope between higher BP and the risk for cardiovascular events is steeper in this population than in whites. Thus, 24-hour BP control including at night and in the morning is especially important for Asian patients with HTN. There are 3 components of "perfect 24-hour BP control": the 24-hour BP level, adequate dipping of nocturnal BP (dipper type), and adequate BP variability such as the morning BP surge. The morning BP-guided approach using home BP monitoring (HBPM) is the first step toward perfect 24-hour BP control. After controlling morning HTN, nocturnal HTN is the second target. We have been developing HBPM that can measure nocturnal BP. First, we developed a semiautomatic HBPM device with the function of automatic fixed-interval BP measurement during sleep. In the J-HOP (Japan Morning Surge Home Blood Pressure) study, the largest nationwide home BP cohort, we successfully measured nocturnal home BP using this device with data memory, 3 times during sleep (2, 3, and 4 am), and found that nocturnal home BP is significantly correlated with organ damage independently of office and morning BP values. The second advance was the development of trigger nocturnal BP (TNP) monitoring with an added trigger function that initiates BP measurements when oxygen desaturation falls below a variable threshold continuously monitored by pulse oximetry. TNP can detect the specific nocturnal BP surges triggered by hypoxic episodes in patients with sleep apnea syndrome. We also added the lowest heart rate-trigger function to TNP to detect the "basal nocturnal BP," which is determined by the circulating volume and structural cardiovascular system without any increase in sympathetic tonus. This double TNP is a novel concept for evaluating the pathogenic pressor mechanism of nocturnal BP

  15. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  16. Parental decision-making on utilisation of out-of-home respite in children's palliative care: findings of qualitative case study research - a proposed new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, J; Payne, S; Connaire, K; McCarron, M

    2016-01-01

    Respite in children's palliative care aims to provide a break for family's from the routine of caring. Parental decision-making regarding the utilisation of out-of-home respite is dependent on many interlinking factors including the child's age, diagnosis, geographical location and the family's capacity to meet their child's care needs. A proposed model for out-of-home respite has been developed based on the findings of qualitative case study research. Utilising multiple, longitudinal, qualitative case study design, the respite needs and experiences of parents caring for a child with a life-limiting condition were explored. Multiple, in-depth interviews were undertaken with the parents identified by a hospital-based children's palliative care team. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Each individual case consists of a whole study. Cross-case comparison was also conducted. Nine families were recruited and followed for two years. A total of 19 in-depth interviews were conducted with mothers and fathers (one or both) caring for a child with a life-limiting condition in Ireland. Each family reported vastly different needs and experiences of respite from their own unique perspective. Cross-case comparison showed that for all parents utilising respite care, regardless of their child's age and condition, home was the location of choice. Many interlinking factors influencing these decisions included: past experience of in-patient care, and trust and confidence in care providers. Issues were raised regarding the impact of care provision in the home on family life, siblings and the concept of home. Respite is an essential element of children's palliative care. Utilisation of out-of-home respite is heavily dependent on a number of interlinked and intertwined factors. The proposed model of care offers an opportunity to identify how these decisions are made and may ultimately assist in identifying the elements of responsive and family-focused respite that are important

  17. A systematic review protocol: social network analysis of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Raglan; Davey, Rachel; Lovett, Ray; van der Sterren, Anke; Corbett, Joan; Cochrane, Tom

    2014-08-08

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world. Evidence indicates that behaviours such as tobacco use can influence social networks, and that social network structures can influence behaviours. Social network analysis provides a set of analytic tools to undertake methodical analysis of social networks. We will undertake a systematic review to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature regarding social network analysis and tobacco use. The review will answer the following research questions: among participants who use tobacco, does social network structure/position influence tobacco use? Does tobacco use influence peer selection? Does peer selection influence tobacco use? We will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and search the following databases for relevant articles: CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Informit Health Collection; PsycINFO; PubMed/MEDLINE; Scopus/Embase; Web of Science; and the Wiley Online Library. Keywords include tobacco; smoking; smokeless; cigarettes; cigar and 'social network' and reference lists of included articles will be hand searched. Studies will be included that provide descriptions of social network analysis of tobacco use.Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method data that meets the inclusion criteria for the review, including methodological rigour, credibility and quality standards, will be synthesized using narrative synthesis. Results will be presented using outcome statistics that address each of the research questions. This systematic review will provide a timely evidence base on the role of social network analysis of tobacco use, forming a basis for future research, policy and practice in this area. This systematic review will synthesise the evidence, supporting the hypothesis that social network structures can influence tobacco use. This will also include exploring the relationship between social

  18. How Tobacco Companies are Perceived Within the United Kingdom: An Online Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Sinclair, Lesley; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Power, Emily; Bauld, Linda

    2016-08-01

    that they encourage new smokers or have made cigarettes more addictive, and just over a half attributed most of the responsibility for smoking-related health problems to tobacco companies. As consumers do not appear fully informed about the role of tobacco companies in initiating and perpetuating the tobacco epidemic, tobacco industry denormalization campaigns may be of potential value. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. How to Conduct Store Observations of Tobacco Marketing and Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Ashley L; Johnson, Trent O; Byerly, Katherine W; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-02-18

    As tobacco companies continue to heavily market their products at the point of sale, tobacco control groups seek strategies to combat the negative effects of this marketing. Store observations, which have been widely used by researchers and practitioners alike, are an excellent surveillance tool. This article provides a guide for public health practitioners interested in working in the tobacco retail environment by detailing the steps involved in conducting store observations of tobacco marketing and products including 1) obtaining tobacco product retailer lists, 2) creating measures, 3) selecting a mode of data collection, 4) training data collectors, and 5) analyzing data. We also highlight issues that may arise while in the field and provide information on disseminating results of store observations, including the potential policy implications.

  20. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  1. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  2. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  3. Data Management Plan: Opening access to economic data to prevent tobacco related diseases in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Woolfrey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that tobacco-related data from selected Africa countries can be collected and distributed from an Open Data platform. The platform and data will improve the capacity for tobacco control research in key sub-Saharan African countries, and help develop a continent-wide research approach to tobacco control. 

  4. Effects of a Tobacco-Free Work Site Policy on Employee Tobacco Attitudes and Behaviors, Travis County, Texas, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Sarah E; Metzger, Kristi; Guerra, Andrea; Patton-Levine, Jessie; Singh, Sandeepkumar; Wilson, William T; Huang, Philip

    2017-12-14

    The adoption of tobacco-free policies in behavioral health settings is an important step in reducing staff tobacco use as well as the high rates of tobacco use among people with mental illness and behavioral disorders. Studies have demonstrated the importance of staff support when implementing tobacco-free workplace policies, but there is limited research examining tobacco use prevalence among staff and staff attitude before and after policy adoption. Integral Care, a local authority for behavioral health and developmental disabilities in Austin, Texas, and Austin Public Health embarked on a comprehensive planning process before implementing a 100% tobacco-free campus policy. The objectives were 1) assess staff tobacco use and attitudes toward a tobacco-free policy, 2) communicate policy to staff, 3) provide staff education and training, and 4) provide cessation resources. Integral Care and Austin Public Health conducted a web-based employee survey 6 months before and 6 and 12 months after implementation of the policy to measure tobacco use prevalence and attitudes among employees. Employees had significant improvements in tobacco use prevalence and attitudes toward the tobacco-free policy from pre-implementation to post-implementation. Tobacco use prevalence among staff decreased from 27.6% to 13.8%, and support for the policy increased from 60.6% to 80.3% at 12 months post-implementation. Adoption of 100% tobacco-free campus policies in behavioral health settings can result in significant reductions in staff tobacco use. Leadership should provide staff with education, training, and cessation support before adoption of tobacco-free work site policies to ensure success.

  5. Population Health Trial for Smokeless Tobacco Cessation With Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severson, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    ... (chewing tobacco and snuff) has not been a focus of medical services or research, Epidemiological data suggest that while smoking has continued to decline both in the general population and within the military, the use...

  6. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  7. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed.

  8. Globalisation of tobacco industry influence and new global responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D.; Bettcher, D.

    2000-01-01

    The globalisation of tobacco marketing, trade, research, and industry influence represents a major threat to public health worldwide. Drawing upon tobacco industry strategy documents prepared over several decades, this paper will demonstrate how the tobacco industry operates as a global force, regarding the world as its operating market by planning, developing, and marketing its products on a global scale. The industry has used a wide range of methods to buy influence and power, and penetrate markets across the world. It has an annual turnover of almost US$400 billion. In contrast, until recently tobacco control lacked global leadership and strategic direction and had been severely underfunded. As part of moving towards a more sustainable form of globalisation, a global enabling environment linked to local actions should focus on the following strategies: global information management; development of nationally and locally grounded action; global regulation, legal instruments, and foreign policy; and establishment of strong partnerships with purpose. As the vector of the tobacco epidemic, the tobacco industry's actions fall far outside of the boundaries of global corporate responsibility. Therefore, global and local actions should not provide the tobacco industry with the two things that it needs to ensure its long term profitability: respectability and predictability.


Keywords: globalisation of tobacco marketing PMID:10841858

  9. Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

  10. Gender differences in tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, N E; Winders, S E; Wewers, M E

    1991-01-01

    Gender differences in overall tobacco use clearly exist. In general, men are more likely to use tobacco products than are women. However, this simple generalization, ignoring type of tobacco products, time, and culture, masks many more interesting gender differences in tobacco use. There are pronounced gender differences in tobacco use of specific tobacco products within some cultures but not others. Yet these differences have changed across time, including narrowing and widening of this gender gap, depending on culture and tobacco product. This article addresses these issues and presents possible psychosocial, biological, and psychobiological explanations for these phenomena. In addition, the implications of these differences and ways to learn more about these important differences are discussed.

  11. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Klausner, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 doc...

  12. Brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C; Barr, Mera S; Wass, Caroline E; Lipsman, Nir; Lozano, Andres M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; George, Tony P

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide, but many smokers are simply unable to quit. Psychosocial and pharmaceutical treatments have shown modest results on smoking cessation rates, but there is an urgent need to develop treatments with greater efficacy. Brain stimulation methods are gaining increasing interest as possible addiction therapeutics. The purpose of this paper is to review the studies that have evaluated brain stimulation techniques on tobacco addiction, and discuss future directions for research in this novel area of addiction interventions. Electronic and manual literature searches identified fifteen studies that administered repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrostimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or deep brain stimulation (DBS). rTMS was found to be the most well studied method with respect to tobacco addiction. Results indicate that rTMS and tDCS targeted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were the most efficacious in reducing tobacco cravings, an effect that may be mediated through the brain reward system involved in tobacco addiction. While rTMS was shown to reduce consumption of cigarettes, as yet no brain stimulation technique has been shown to significantly increase abstinence rates. It is possible that the therapeutic effects of rTMS and tDCS may be improved by optimization of stimulation parameters and increasing the duration of treatment. Although further studies are needed to confirm the ability of brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction, this review indicates that rTMS and tDCS both represent potentially novel treatment modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of corporate sponsorship as a tobacco marketing tool: a review of tobacco industry sponsorship in the USA, 1995-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, N J; Siegel, M

    2001-09-01

    To describe the nature and extent of tobacco company sponsorship in the USA during the period 1995-99 and analyse this sponsorship in a marketing context. A cross-sectional study of tobacco company sponsorships identified through a customised research report from IEG Inc, and from internet web site searches. First, a customised report was received from IEG Inc, which identified sponsorship activities for Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, Brown & Williamson, Lorillard, and US Tobacco for the years 1997 and 1998. Second, the internet was systematically searched for tobacco industry sponsorships during the period 1995-99 by the same parent companies and their respective brands. During the period 1995-99, tobacco companies sponsored at least 2733 events, programmes, and organisations in the USA. Sponsorships involved all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and the minimum total funding amount of these sponsorships was $365.4 million. Tobacco corporate sponsorships involved numerous small, community based organisations, both through direct funding and through grants to larger umbrella organisations, and many of these organisations were part of the public health infrastructure. Tobacco corporate sponsorship serves as an important marketing tool for tobacco companies, serving both a sales promotion and public relations function. Public health practitioners need to develop better surveillance systems for monitoring tobacco sponsorship, to seek out alternative funding sources for tobacco company sponsored events and organisations, and to consider promoting a ban on tobacco sponsorship, possibly linking such regulation to the creation of alternative funding sources.

  14. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910192

  15. The role of sensory perception in the development and targeting of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Carrie M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-01-01

    To examine tobacco industry research on smoking-related sensory effects, including differences in sensory perception across smoker groups, and to determine whether this research informed targeted product development and impacted the development of commercial tobacco products. We searched previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available online through document databases housed at Tobacco Documents Online, the British American Tobacco Document Archive and the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. We identified relevant documents using a snowball sampling method to first search the databases using an initial set of key words and to then establish further search terms. Sensory research is a priority within the tobacco industry directly impacting commercial markets both in the United States and internationally. Sensory factors contribute to smoker satisfaction and product acceptance, and play an important role in controlling puffing behavior. Cigarette manufacturers have capitalized on distinct sensory preferences across gender, age and ethnic groups by tailoring products for specific populations. Regulation of tobacco products is needed to address product changes that are used to reinforce or contribute to tobacco dependence; for instance, the incorporation of additives that target attributes such as smoothness, harshness and aftertaste. Greater understanding of the role of sensory effects on smoking behavior may also help to inform the development of tobacco treatment options that support long-term tobacco abstinence.

  16. Youth curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars: prevalence and associations with advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B; Wu, Charles C; Tworek, Cindy; Chen, Jiping; Borek, Nicolette

    2014-08-01

    Curiosity about cigarettes is a reliable predictor of susceptibility to smoking and established use among youth. Related research has been limited to cigarettes, and lacks national-level estimates. Factors associated with curiosity about tobacco products, such as advertising, have been postulated but rarely tested. To describe the prevalence of curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars among youth and explore the association between curiosity and self-reported tobacco advertising exposure. Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of 24,658 students, were used. In 2013, estimates weighted to the national youth school population were calculated for curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars among never users of any tobacco product. Associations between tobacco advertising and curiosity were explored using multivariable regressions. Curiosity about cigarettes (28.8%); cigars (19.5%); and smokeless tobacco (9.7%) was found, and many youth were curious about more than one product. Exposure to point-of-sale advertising (e.g., OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.19, 1.54 for cigarette curiosity); tobacco company communications (e.g., OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.38, 2.09 for cigarette curiosity); and tobacco products, as well as viewing tobacco use in TV/movies (e.g., OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.20, 1.58 for cigarette curiosity) were associated with curiosity about each examined tobacco product. Despite decreasing use of tobacco products, youth remain curious about them. Curiosity is associated with various forms of tobacco advertising. These findings suggest the importance of measuring curiosity as an early warning signal for potential future tobacco use and evaluating continued efforts to limit exposure to tobacco marketing among youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health to Reduce Tobacco-Related Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bridgette E; Dube, Shanta R; Babb, Stephen; McAfee, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive tobacco prevention and control efforts that include implementing smoke-free air laws, increasing tobacco prices, conducting hard-hitting mass media campaigns, and making evidence-based cessation treatments available are effective in reducing tobacco use in the general population. However, if these interventions are not implemented in an equitable manner, certain population groups may be left out causing or exacerbating disparities in tobacco use. Disparities in tobacco use have, in part, stemmed from inequities in the way tobacco control policies and programs have been adopted and implemented to reach and impact the most vulnerable segments of the population that have the highest rates of smokings (e.g., those with lower education and incomes). Education and income are the 2 main social determinants of health that negatively impact health. However, there are other social determinants of health that must be considered for tobacco control policies to be effective in reducing tobacco-related disparities. This article will provide an overview of how tobacco control policies and programs can address key social determinants of health in order to achieve equity and eliminate disparities in tobacco prevention and control. Tobacco control policy interventions can be effective in addressing the social determinants of health in tobacco prevention and control to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities when they are implemented consistently and equitably across all population groups. Taking a social determinants of health approach in tobacco prevention and control will be necessary to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [Cognitive modifications associated with tobacco smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecacheux, Marie; Karila, Laurent; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Dupont, Patrick; Benyamina, Amine; Maman, Judith; Lebert, Amandine; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-09-01

    Tobacco is an important source of somatic diseases and causes high mortality. It is associated with cognitive disorders which tend to maintain addictive mechanisms. In the short term, the nicotine contained in tobacco enhances attention and memory. To realize this review, we made a research, we made a research on Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, Google Scholar using the single or combined key-words "tobacco", "nicotine", "addiction", "dependence", "cognitive disorders", "executive function", "memory", "attention", "neuropsychological". We selected English or French articles from 1987 to 2008 by privileging controlled studies. This effect can be observed in smokers (with or without withdrawal symptoms), non-smokers and in patients suffering from cognitive disorders. In the long term, tobacco accelerates dementia processes. It is associated with an increased risk of cognitive deterioration. This deterioration concerns mainly memory and processing speed. These results were reported in prospective studies. They contradict early reports, that suggested smoking could actually be protective against certain central neural system disorders. These early results relayed on case-control studies, which were certainly biased by a "healthy survival effect". Further studies are required to evaluate nicotine's long term effect and its potential efficacy in treating and preventing cognitive disorders or dementia.

  19. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  20. [Aiming for the adolescent market: internet and video games, the new strategies of the tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to tobacco advertisement is associated with smoking initiation among the youth, its elimination is a key objective to effectively curb the tobacco epidemic. Historically, the tobacco industry has pioneered the use of new communication technologies to keep and expand their market. Nowadays, Internet and video games have transcended the entertainment sphere, becoming significant media for massive communication and providing new opportunities for advertisement. The present essay reviews the existing literature on tobacco presence in the Internet and video games to define research and policy tasks required to develop effective means for tobacco advertisement regulation and control.

  1. [The cynical game of the tobacco industry. Many years' efforts to deny or cover-up the negative effects of tobacco are revealed by the forced publication of internal documents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Mats; Hallhagen, Erika; Boëthius, Göran

    2002-06-13

    Scrutiny of internal tobacco industry documents, now available on the Internet, reveals that Sweden and Finland were classified as "priority 1" areas in which to intensify efforts to resist tobacco control measures. In the late 1980s Philip Morris increased its activities in Scandinavia in order to counteract penal taxation threats and marketing restrictions. Swedish scientists were engaged by the tobacco industry in the "White Coat" project, a program expected to shed doubt on research linking passive smoking to health risks. The Swedish tobacco company Swedish Match collaborated with Philip Morris in challenging measures to limit tobacco use, including the new, stricter tobacco law proposed in the early 1990s.

  2. Quit history, intentions to quit, and reasons for considering quitting among tobacco users in India: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Wave 1 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumal, G G; Pednekar, M S; Gupta, P C; Sansone, G C; Quah, A C K; Bansal-Travers, M; Fong, G T

    2014-12-01

    Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010 revealed that more than one-third (35%) of adults in India use tobacco in some form: 21% use smokeless tobacco, 9% smoke, and 5% are mixed users (they smoke and use smokeless tobacco), and the quit rate is very low. In an effort to decrease prevalence of tobacco use, it is thus important to understand the factors that are related to intention to quit among Indian tobacco users. Research has shown consistently that intention to quit is a strong predictor of future quitting. The present study reports the factors encouraging quitting tobacco products in India. Cross-sectional data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Survey conducted in four cities and surrounding rural areas (i.e. Mumbai [Maharashtra], Patna [Bihar], Indore [Madhya Pradesh], and Kolkata [West Bengal]) between August 2010 and December 2011 were analyzed. A total of 8051 tobacco users (15+ years) were randomly sampled from 8586 households: 1255 smokers, 5991 smokeless users, and 805 mixed (smoke and smokeless) users. Validated, standardized questions were asked about current tobacco use, intention to quit, and factors encouraging quitting. Overall, 19.6% of tobacco users intended to quit. Smokers had less intention to quit as compared to smokeless tobacco users whereas mixed users had more intention to quit (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.12-1.97) compared to smokeless tobacco users. Highly educated people were more likely to report intention to quit (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.09-3.02) compared to less educated. Advice by doctors to quit tobacco had a strong impact on intention to quit (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.29-2.15). Tobacco users who were exposed to antitobacco messages at work places (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.23-2.46), at restaurants (OR = 1.65, CI = 1.12-2.43), bars (OR = 1.81, CI = 1.07-3.06), on public transportation (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.49-3.08) and on tobacco packages (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.29-2.14) also

  3. Tobacco and Marijuana Initiation Among African American and White Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sara M; Patel, Roshni P; Cheh, Paul; Hsia, Jason; Rolle, Italia V

    2016-04-01

    broader understanding of the patterns of initiation to tobacco and marijuana use. Some public health interventions aimed at preventing and reducing combustible tobacco use among African American young adults may be strengthened by considering marijuana use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Home Within Me

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreuzer, Maria; Mühlbacher, Hans; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    In an increasingly globalized, digitalized and perceived unmanageable world, consumers strive for belongingness, identification and security and re-discover the importance of home. Home is central to peoples’ individual as well as collective identities and their self-development (McCracken, 1989...... in Austria and the sample consisted of 15 locals (study 1) and 17 first generation immigrants (study 2) to identify possible commonalities and differences. This research adds to existing literature by 1) empirically confirming the existence of dimensions of home (e.g., physical, social, temporary...

  5. Impact of the implementation of a smoke free law in Serbia on exposure to tobacco smoke in different settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosic Bibic Nada

    2017-05-01

    Results indicate that the implementation of the Smoke Free Law in Serbia led to a decrease in exposure to tobacco smoke in all places where smoking is banned. Legislation should be improved to protect customers and workers from exposure to tobacco smoke in the hospitality sector. It is necessary to improve compliance with the law as 23% of the population is exposed to tobacco smoke at work despite the ban. High exposure to tobacco smoke in citizens’ homes calls for implementation of campaigns aimed at the general population.

  6. A snapshot of tobacco-related messages relayed in pediatric offices in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Judith; Raughley, Erin; Chang, Christine D; Chidekel, Aaron

    2003-10-01

    Much research exists demonstrating that pediatricians should counsel patients and families about tobacco. However, few data are available about tobacco-related messages relayed in pediatric offices. Since an anti-tobacco office environment can be a strong component of an active tobacco prevention program, we evaluated pediatric offices in Delaware to characterize tobacco-related messages. A convenience sample of 32 of 63 (51%) pediatric offices in Delaware was directly evaluated for the presence of tobacco-related messages. Fifty-five of 63 (87%) pediatric practices in Delaware were contacted by telephone to inquire about the presence of a tobacco coordinator. The 32 practices represented 71 physicians, were located in all three counties throughout the state, and were urban and non-urban in setting. The same investigator evaluated practices in a single site visit. All were located in smoke-free buildings. At one office, people were seen smoking outside; however, the presence of discarded cigarettes was much more common. Thirteen practices (41%) employed smokers, most of whom smoked outside during work hours. Twenty-one of 28 practices (75%) had waiting room magazines containing tobacco advertisements. Fifteen practices (47%) offered anti-tobacco literature while six practices (19%) displayed visual media, none exclusively addressing tobacco. Nine practices (28%) use chart flags to identify smokers. None of 55 pediatric practices in Delaware contacted by telephone identified an office tobacco prevention coordinator. Our data indicate that, in Delaware, the pediatric offices we visited overall convey a limited message about tobacco and could strengthen tobacco prevention strategies. Research measuring the impact of office-based anti-tobacco messages is needed. If these messages are effective in preventing tobacco use, practitioners can supplement active counseling with indirect interventions that require minimal maintenance once established and that place no

  7. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1)...

  8. Effective prevention programs for tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, M A

    1999-01-01

    Several types of prevention programs have shown effects on delaying or reducing youth tobacco use for periods of 1-5 years or more. These are referred to as evidence-based programs. However, they are not widely used. At the same time, with few exceptions, adolescent tobacco use rates have been stable or have increased in the 1990s. The challenge for prevention is to identify critical components shared by effective prevention programs--that is, components most associated with effect, and then to evaluate factors that are most likely to promote adoption, implementation, and diffusion of effective programs across schools and communities in the United States. Effective tobacco prevention programs focus on counteracting social influences on tobacco use, include either direct training of youth in resistance and assertiveness skills or, for policy and community organization interventions, direct or indirect (through adults) training in community activism, and are mainly theory-based, with an emphasis on three levels of theory: (a) personal (attitudes, normative expectations, and beliefs); (b) social (social or group behavior); and/or (c) environmental (communications and diffusion). Program effects increase with the use of booster sessions, standardized implementor training and support, multiple program components, and multiple levels of theory. Overall, multi-component community programs that have a school program as a basis, with supportive parent, media, and community organization components, have shown the most sustained effects on tobacco use. Positive program adoption by the school or community, extent and quality of program implementation, and existence of credible networks of leaders to promote the program are critical for any effect. Research on predictors of adoption, implementation, and diffusion of evidence-based programs is scanty relative to outcome research. In addition, more research is needed on why multi-component programs appear to be most effective

  9. Effectiveness of tax and price policies in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Straif, Kurt; Leon, Maria E

    2011-05-01

    Over 20 experts on economics, epidemiology, public policy and tobacco control were asked by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to evaluate the strength of the available evidence on the effects of tax and price policies to prevent and reduce tobacco use. Draft papers presenting and assessing the evidence on the following topics were developed by the experts in an 8-month period prior to the meeting: tobacco industry pricing strategies and tax related lobbying; tax, price and aggregate demand for tobacco; tax, price and adult tobacco use, use among young people and use among the poor; tax avoidance and tax evasion; and the economic and health impact of tobacco taxation. Subsequently, papers were peer reviewed, revised and resubmitted for final discussion at a 6-day meeting at IARC in Lyon, France, where a consensus evaluation of 18 concluding statements using the pre-established criteria of the IARC Cancer Prevention Handbooks took place. Studies published (or accepted for publication) in the openly available scientific literature were the main source of evidence for the review and evaluation; other types of publications were included when appropriate. In support of 12 of the 18 conclusions, the experts agreed that there was sufficient evidence of effectiveness of increased tobacco excise taxes and prices in reducing overall tobacco consumption and prevalence of tobacco use and improvement of public health, including by preventing initiation and uptake among young people, promoting cessation among current users and lowering consumption among those who continue to use. For the remaining six concluding statements the evidence was strong (four statements) or limited (two statements). The evidence presented and assessed in IARC Handbook volume 14 documents the effectiveness of tax and price policies in the control of tobacco use and improvement of public health.

  10. Impact of Presence of Children on Indoor Tobacco Restrictions in Households of Urban and Rural Adult Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Benjamin T; Hinton, Alice; Lu, Rong; Cooper, Sarah; Nagaraja, Haikady; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2018-04-10

    Secondhand smoke exposure in children is changing as a result of new public policy and electronic nicotine products (e-cigarettes). We examined factors related to self-imposed indoor household tobacco restrictions, with emphasis on children in the household and associations with combustible and noncombustible product use. A cross-sectional survey of urban and rural Ohio adult tobacco users classified participants as exclusive combustible users, smokeless tobacco (SLT) users, e-cigarette users, or dual users. They were further stratified according to combustible or noncombustible product use and the presence of indoor tobacco use restrictions. Multiple logistic regression determined factors associated with indoor tobacco restrictions. A total of 1210 tobacco users participated, including 25.7% with children living in the home. Half allowed combustible and two thirds allowed noncombustible tobacco use indoors. Urban location (odds ratio [OR] = 1.58), younger age (OR = 0.88 per 5 year), male sex (OR = 1.40), college education (OR = 1.40), household income of more than $15,000 (OR = 1.78), and being married (OR = 2.43) were associated with a higher likelihood of banning combustible products indoors. SLT (OR = 8.12) and e-cigarette (OR = 5.85) users were more likely to have indoor bans compared to combustible users. Children in the household (OR = 1.89), older age (OR = 1.12 per 5 years), and nonwhite race (OR = 1.68) were associated with a higher likelihood of banning noncombustible products indoors. Combustible (OR = 4.54) and e-cigarette (OR = 3.04) users were more likely than SLT users to have indoor bans. Indoor restrictions on tobacco use remain infrequent in homes with children and are associated with user type and socioeconomic factors. Public policy should target modifiable risk factors for in-home secondhand smoke exposure. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Tobacco industry efforts to erode tobacco advertising controls in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, T; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review strategies of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) at creating a favourable advertising environment for their products in Hungary, with special regard to efforts resulting in the liberalisation of tobacco advertising in 1997. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents relevant to Hungary available on the World Wide Web. Transcripts of speeches of members of the Parliament during the debate of the 1997 advertising act were also reviewed. The tobacco companies not only entered the Hungarian market by early participation in the privatisation of the former state tobacco monopoly, but also imported theirsophisticated marketing experiences. Evasion and violation of rules in force, creation of new partnerships, establishment and use of front groups, finding effective ways for influencing decision makers were all parts of a well orchestrated industry effort to avoid a strict marketing regulation for tobacco products.

  12. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among adolescents in an Ethiopian school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit Abazinab Ababulgu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is responsible for 6 million deaths globally per year, of which 600,000 deaths are due to secondhand smoke (SHS mainly among women and children. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure among school-going adolescents and highlights the essential determinants in developing successful strategies to prevent adverse health effects in Ethiopia. The analysis is based on a school based cross sectional study where 1673 students with 98.2% of response rate from grade 9-12, aged 13-19 were included. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire that is adapted from the global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were obtained as estimates of prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were made using logistic regression on SPSS version 20.0 software in order to predict factors associated with SHS exposure. About 17% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home, whereas more than half (60.8% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in public places. In multivariate analysis, sex, parent smoking, peer smoking, and absence of discussion in the classroom about dangers of smoking were seen significantly associated with SHS exposure. The prevalence of SHS exposure among adolescents in Ethiopia is highest. Moreover, exposure to SHS in public places is much higher than at home.

  13. Improving Elderly's Dental Hygiene Through Nursing Home Staff's Dental Health Education at the Nursing Home

    OpenAIRE

    Santoso, Bedjo; Eko Ningtyas, Endah Aryati; Fatmasari, Diyah

    2017-01-01

    Stomatitis often occurs in elderly at nursing home. They need nursing home staff assistance to maintain their dental and oral health. Therefore, nursing home staff need dental health education. Lecture or discussion methods, which are more effective to improve knowledge, attitude and skill of nursing home staff was the purpose of this research. The research design was quasi-experiment research and pretest-posttest with control group. The sample was 42 nursing home staffs and 74 elderlies, div...

  14. Tobacco and the Movies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-01-01

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  15. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  17. Exposure to tobacco marketing and support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported noticing marketing on campus. There was strong support for smoke-free restrictions on campus, including restaurants and bars (82%), and for prohibitions on campus marketing. The presence of campus policies was associated with reduced exposure to marketing and increased policy support. There is strong support among students to remove tobacco marketing from campus and to introduce comprehensive smoke-free restrictions.

  18. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears between...

  19. Development of a clinical pharmacy model within an Australian home nursing service using co-creation and participatory action research: the Visiting Pharmacist (ViP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Rohan A; Lee, Cik Yin; Beanland, Christine; Goeman, Dianne P; Petrie, Neil; Petrie, Barbara; Vise, Felicity; Gray, June

    2017-11-03

    To develop a collaborative, person-centred model of clinical pharmacy support for community nurses and their medication management clients. Co-creation and participatory action research, based on reflection, data collection, interaction and feedback from participants and other stakeholders. A large, non-profit home nursing service in Melbourne, Australia. Older people referred to the home nursing service for medication management, their carers, community nurses, general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists, a multidisciplinary stakeholder reference group (including consumer representation) and the project team. Feedback and reflections from minutes, notes and transcripts from: project team meetings, clinical pharmacists' reflective diaries and interviews, meetings with community nurses, reference group meetings and interviews and focus groups with 27 older people, 18 carers, 53 nurses, 15 GPs and seven community pharmacists. The model was based on best practice medication management standards and designed to address key medication management issues raised by stakeholders. Pharmacist roles included direct client care and indirect care. Direct care included home visits, medication reconciliation, medication review, medication regimen simplification, preparation of medication lists for clients and nurses, liaison and information sharing with prescribers and pharmacies and patient/carer education. Indirect care included providing medicines information and education for nurses and assisting with review and implementation of organisational medication policies and procedures. The model allowed nurses to refer directly to the pharmacist, enabling timely resolution of medication issues. Direct care was provided to 84 older people over a 15-month implementation period. Ongoing feedback and consultation, in line with participatory action research principles, informed the development and refinement of the model and identification of enablers and challenges. A collaborative

  20. The Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) project: origins, aims, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald M; Douglas, Clifford E; Beasley, John K

    2006-12-01

    Research on previously secret tobacco industry documents has grown substantially during the past decade, since these documents first became available as the result of private and governmental litigation and investigations by the US Congress and the US Food and Drug Administration. Complementary research on tobacco litigation testimony is now being conducted through the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) project. We obtained transcripts of depositions and trial testimony, deposition and trial exhibits, expert reports, and other litigation documents from law firms, court reporter firms, individual lawyers and witnesses, tobacco company websites, and other sources. As of 3 March 2006, the publicly available collection of DATTA (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) contained 4850 transcripts of depositions and trial testimony, including a total of about 820,000 transcript pages. Transcripts covered testimony from 1957 to 2005 (85% were for testimony from 1990 to 2005) given by more than 1500 witnesses in a total of 232 lawsuits. Twelve research teams were established to study the transcripts, with each team covering a particular topic (for example, the health consequences of tobacco use, addiction and pharmacology, tobacco advertising and promotion, tobacco-product design and manufacture, economic impact of tobacco use, youth initiation of tobacco use, and public understanding of the risks of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke). The teams used qualitative research methods to analyse the documents, and their initial findings are published throughout this journal supplement.

  1. Home and Building Energy Management Systems | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home and Building Energy Management Systems Home and Building Energy Management Systems NREL researchers are developing tools to understand the impact of changes in home and building energy use and how researchers who received a record of invention for a home energy management system in a smart home laboratory

  2. Tobacco control: reducing cancer incidence and saving lives. American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) supports the elimination of tobacco products. Toward that goal, ASCO urges the adoption of national policy that strengthens regulation of the sale, promotion, and distribution of such products. To reduce cancer mortality, our regulatory policies must recognize that the nicotine within tobacco is an addictive substance, the use of which leads to 30% of all cancer deaths and a total of 419,000 deaths each year. Tobacco-related advertising and promotion should be banned. At a minimum, national policies should: ban billboards; limit advertising to black and white text only; prohibit the sale or giveaway of products that contain tobacco brand names or logos; prohibit brand name sponsorship of sporting or entertainment events; and require stronger and more prominent warning labels on all tobacco products. Despite existing state laws prohibiting sale of tobacco products to minors, children are able to buy such products easily. National regulation of the sale and distribution of tobacco products is necessary to eliminate children's access to tobacco. Where sales are permitted, they should be limited to face-to-face purchases by individuals 18 and older. Vending machines and other means of distributing tobacco without a face-to-face purchase should be outlawed. To the extent tobacco sales are allowed to continue, the federal government should mandate that the tobacco industry contribute substantial funds for a national public education campaign to prevent young people from smoking and other tobacco use. ASCO has long advocated a substantial increase (in the range of $2) in the federal excise tax on cigarettes and other tobacco products- a measure known to decrease consumption, particularly among children. Revenue from a tax on tobacco products should be used to support retraining for tobacco farmers, biomedical research, health care delivery, and antitobacco education. United State trade policies should discourage the export

  3. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  4. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part contains...

  5. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.

  6. Psychiatric Disorders in Smokers Seeking Treatment for Tobacco Dependence: Relations with Tobacco Dependence and Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fleming, Michael F.; Bittrich, Amy A.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Leitzke, Cathlyn J.; Zehner, Mark E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the relation of psychiatric disorders to tobacco dependence and cessation outcomes. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined with…

  7. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Avey, Jaedon P; Trinidad, Susan B; Beans, Julie A; Robinson, Renee F

    2015-01-01

    American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders) surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes.

  8. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  9. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  10. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Shirane

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs' efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness.TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy.There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small

  12. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental

  13. At Home with Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Anita

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects the methodological challenges presented in the research process, where the principle of 'following the field’ means that the researcher must also follow students engaged in online activities in their own homes. The ethnographic studies are a part of a PhD project...

  14. Awareness of Tobacco-Related Health Harms among Vulnerable Populations in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driezen, Pete; Abdullah, Abu S.; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, A. K. M. Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thompson, Mary E.; Quah, Anne C. K.; Xu, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use among vulnerable populations in Bangladesh and whether vulnerability was associated with the presence of complete home smoking bans. Data came from Wave 3 (2011–2012) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey, a nationally-representative survey of 3131 tobacco users and 2147 non-users. Socio-demographic measures of disadvantage were used as proxy measures of vulnerability, including sex, residential location, education and income. Outcome measures were awareness of the harmful effects of (a) cigarette smoking and (b) smokeless tobacco use and (c) whether respondents had complete smoking bans in their homes. Logistic regression was used to examine whether the adjusted prevalence of each outcome differed by socio-demographic proxies of vulnerability. Smaller percentages of women, the illiterate, urban slum residents and low-income Bangladeshis were aware of the health harms of tobacco. These vulnerable groups generally had lower odds of awareness compared to the least disadvantaged groups. Incomplete knowledge of tobacco’s harms may prevent vulnerable groups from taking steps to protect their health. Development goals, such as increasing literacy rates and empowering women, can complement the goals of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:27571090

  15. Awareness of Tobacco-Related Health Harms among Vulnerable Populations in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Driezen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use among vulnerable populations in Bangladesh and whether vulnerability was associated with the presence of complete home smoking bans. Data came from Wave 3 (2011–2012 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey, a nationally-representative survey of 3131 tobacco users and 2147 non-users. Socio-demographic measures of disadvantage were used as proxy measures of vulnerability, including sex, residential location, education and income. Outcome measures were awareness of the harmful effects of (a cigarette smoking and (b smokeless tobacco use and (c whether respondents had complete smoking bans in their homes. Logistic regression was used to examine whether the adjusted prevalence of each outcome differed by socio-demographic proxies of vulnerability. Smaller percentages of women, the illiterate, urban slum residents and low-income Bangladeshis were aware of the health harms of tobacco. These vulnerable groups generally had lower odds of awareness compared to the least disadvantaged groups. Incomplete knowledge of tobacco’s harms may prevent vulnerable groups from taking steps to protect their health. Development goals, such as increasing literacy rates and empowering women, can complement the goals of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  16. Results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-12-01

    We used Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected over time to monitor articles of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The GYTS is a school-based survey, conducted in 23 countries in WHO EMR countries from 1999-2008. The prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was high compared to cigarette use in all countries. In general, the following changes were observed between baseline and repeated surveys: in five countries fewer youth supported a ban on smoking in public places. In four countries more youth saw actors smoking on TV and were exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) outside of home. Fewer youth were offered free cigarettes in ten countries; in eight countries youth saw less advertisement on TV; in seven countries youth had fewer items with a tobacco logo, discussed more reasons for smoking and dangers of smoking, and were less exposed to SHS at home; in six countries youth saw less advertisement at sports events. The GYTS data can be used for monitoring, evaluation of national tobacco control plans and defining future directions for tobacco control. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  20. Implications and priorities of tobacco control in Belgium and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bartsch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to define what tobacco control is both in Europe and around the world. The situation of tobacco control in Belgium will be compared to other European countries using the tobacco control scale (TCS. If countries demonstrating a high TCS score have lower tobacco smoking prevalence than countries with a low TCS, it is not known whether the decrease in smoking prevalence over several years is well correlated with the increase in TCS score in each country during the same period. Moreover the article will raise the question of how far research will continue control into controlling the use of tobacco. The remaining 20% of smokers in the best tobacco control scale countries who are still smoking are not similar to the 20% that are now ex-smokers. Indeed we are now facing the "hard core smokers", who show great resistance to policy measures and be considered as ill individuals requiring specialised care rather than individuals with bad habits. The future tobacco control scale should place more importance on the quality of care and the implication of European countries providing improved access to this form of care and validated forms of treatment of this chronic, difficult to treat disease.

  1. Tobacco and cannabis use trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Suris, J.C.; Berchtold, A.; Bélanger, R.; Akre, C.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this longitudinal research is to answer the following question: What is the relationship between tobacco and cannabis use trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood? And more specifically we are interested in: A. If the use of one of the substances (tobacco or cannabis) decreases overtime, does the use of the other one increase to compensate? Are other substances (such as alcohol, for example) also used to compensate in these cases? B. Does the probability...

  2. Government Pricing Policy and Behavioral Consumption of Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Firend, A.R

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the impact of tobacco tax on government revenues and consumer's behavior towards price increases. In this examines historical trends of tobacco tax hikes in Malaysia and consumer's reaction towards anticipated price increases. Methodology consisted of qualitative and quantitative data collection for triangulation in addition to review reports and studies of governmental and independent agencies. Findings suggest that price increases has a minimal affect on consumption h...

  3. Report on a comprehensive research study (home welfare apparatus system - lifestyle); Sogo chosa kenkyu (zaitaku fukushi kiki system - lifestyle) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted on evacuation of aged people at disaster, life maintenance, and welfare apparatus which is applicable to the future change of life style and its harmony with the living environment. In the study of care apparatus, reported were the apparatus operational interface using the indoor environmental control simulation system, safety on moving/transfer equipment, experiment on opening/closing power of sliding doors, study of electric-driven wheel chairs, study of the sitting pressure of various wheel chairs, etc. In relation to the living environment, the paper reported planning of houses introducing care apparatus, assessment of system kitchen, disaster prevention measures for aged/handicapped people, study on performance of the combined use in the living environment, assessment of drops in floor level in the living space, etc. Also reported were assessment on the living environmental control state of serious paralyzers of the limbs, study of a network to support care at home, etc. 48 refs., 117 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  5. Developing inclusive residential care for older lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) people: An evaluation of the Care Home Challenge action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Simpson, Paul; Willis, Paul B; Almack, Kathryn

    2018-03-01

    There have been substantial achievements in legislative and human rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) older people and their visibility in health and social care has equally increased. These appear to have surpassed the ability of care services to meet their needs given documented concerns about the accessibility, inclusiveness and safety of care services particularly institutionalised care. This requires systemic change not easy to operationalise. This paper describes an action research initiative where six care homes belonging to a national care provider, collaborated to assess and develop their services with the support of local LGBT "Community Advisors" and academic partners. Framed within Rogers' (2003) change management framework and combined with a participatory leadership approach, a programme of intervention was implemented comprising structured activities around seven key areas thought to promote LGBT inclusion. A formal evaluation was conducted involving 35 pre- and post-intervention qualitative interviews with 18 people (community advisors; care home managers and senior managers). The findings are presented across three key themes (1) starting points on the journey; (2) challenges encountered along the journey (organisational and interpersonal); and (3) making change happen; opportunities, initiatives and gains. We make recommendations on the value of a programme approach for achieving tangible outcomes that demonstrate increased inclusion for older LGBT people living in long-term care settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  7. Reinforcement of smoking and drinking: tobacco marketing strategies linked with alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela M

    2011-10-01

    We investigated tobacco companies' knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Tobacco companies' numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

  8. The Online Parent Information and Support project, meeting parents' information and support needs for home-based management of childhood chronic kidney disease: research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Veronica; Knafl, Kathleen; Sanatacroce, Sheila; Hall, Andrew; Smith, Trish; Campbell, Malcolm; Webb, Nicholas J A

    2012-09-01

    This article is a report of a protocol for studying the development and evaluation of an online parent information and support package for home-based care of children with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5. The study is funded by a National Institute of Health Research, Research for Patient Benefit Grant awarded (December 2010). Approval to undetake the study was obtained from the Department of Health National Research Ethics Service (June 2011). Children with chronic kidney disease require skilled, home-based care by parents, supported by professionals. Parents have identified a need for continuously available online resources to supplement professional support, and structured resources tailored to parents' needs are highlighted by policy makers as key to optimizing care; yet, online resource provision is patchy with little evidence base. Using mixed methods, we will (i) conduct parent/child/young person/professional/patient and parent volunteer focus groups to explore views on existing resources, (ii) collaboratively define gaps in provision, identify desirable components, develop/test resources and conduct a feasibility randomized controlled trial, and (iii) of usual professional support versus usual support supplemented by the package. Eighty parents of children with chronic kidney disease will be randomized. Primary outcomes will assess parents' self-efficacy and views of resources, using standardized measures at entry and 24 weeks, and semi-structured interviews at 24 weeks. We will finalize trial components for a later definitive trial. By working collaboratively, we will derive a detailed insight into parents' information and support needs and experiences of using the package, and should see improved parental self-efficacy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the tobacco-dependent subject′s perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: Nicotine-dependent male subjects attending a tertiary level de-addiction center in North India were recruited. Demographic and clinical data was recorded. Open-ended questions were asked to know user′s perspective about the measures by which tobacco use can be effectively stopped in the country. The subjects were allowed as many responses as they desired. Results: A total of 46 subjects were recruited. The median age of the sample was 35 years, with median duration of tobacco use being 12 years. All subjects were males, and most were married, employed, and had urban residence. Supply reducing measures were the most commonly reported to stop tobacco (67.4% of subjects followed by people quitting tobacco use by themselves (19.6% and raising awareness through media (13.1%. Conclusion: This pilot study reflects the perspectives of tobacco users for the measures likely to be effective in tobacco cessation. Evaluating the effect of implementation of individual policies may help focusing towards measures that yield greatest benefits.

  10. Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Tobacco and Tobacco Additives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    This paper describes a new method for the simultaneous determination of heavy metal ions in tobacco and tobacco additives by ... The HPLC system consisted of a Waters 2690 Alliance separation ..... 1 Z.H. Shi and C.G. Fu, Talanta, 1997, 44, 593. ... 5 Q.F. Hu, G.Y. Yang, J.Y. Yin and Y. Yao, Talanta, 2002, 57, 751.

  11. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. "I always thought they were all pure tobacco": American smokers' perceptions of "natural" cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-12-01

    To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as "natural" and American smokers' views of the "naturalness" (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Cigarette advertisements have used the term "natural" since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that "natural" referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term "additive-free", introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term "natural" in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed "natural" cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable "regular" brands. Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of "natural" cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to "denaturalise" smoking.

  13. Reducing domestic exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a review of attitudes and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, E; Courage, C; Rushton, L

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews research on attitudes and behaviours towards environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), with a special focus on child health and the indoor environment. Research needs and ways forward to encourage reductions in domestic ETS levels are discussed. Published material was identified through online literature searches (Medline, Toxline, Cancerlit, Biosis, Embase, Enviroline, Sociological Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index, Academic Index and Psychinfo). The literature search strategy employed search terms such as "passive smoking" or "environmental tobacco smoke" with "attitude" or "awareness" and other synonyms. Additional publications were identified by citation chasing and expert advice. Focusing on the UK, studies that provided survey-derived data about attitudes and behaviours in relation to ETS exposure in the indoor environment were selected for review. Published studies from other countries were also included when they provided information pertinent to this review. Most people are aware of the health risks associated with ETS exposure, and there is a high level of support for smoking restrictions in public places to protect non-smokers from ETS. However, although there is concern among both non-smoking and smoking parents about children and second-hand smoke, many people allow children to be exposed to ETS in the home. The review suggests that traditional health promotion campaigns have had only limited success in encouraging ETS risk reduction measures in the home. Because ETS is a public health priority, particularly in relation to child health, the barriers to the uptake of such measures need to be explored in detail to inform the future promotion of reductions in domestic levels of ETS.

  14. Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Setting Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. Methods The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Results Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Conclusions Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low

  15. Measuring Armenia's progress on the Tobacco Control Scale: an evaluation of tobacco control in an economy in transition, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-02-27

    This study aimed to measure the 5-year progress in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Armenia by applying the Tobacco Control Scale, a rapid assessment tool developed to assess the strength of tobacco control policies in Europe. Armenia, an economy in transition, has extreme smoking rates among men (62.5%) despite acceding to FCTC in 2004. However, little research has been carried out to evaluate Armenia's progress in tobacco control. The Tobacco Control Scale total score was estimated for Armenia using the original methodology; however, a different source of data was used in estimating the subscores on tobacco price and tobacco control spending. Armenia's total score on Tobacco Control Scale has considerably improved from 2005 to 2009, mostly due to larger health warnings and advertising ban, and increased public spending on tobacco control. The scores for smoke-free public places, advertising ban, health warnings and treatment categories were below the European average in 2005 and 2007, while the price score was higher. Neither total tobacco control score nor any of its components showed a significant predictive value in a simple regression analysis using the total score and subscores as predictors for log-transformed per capita tobacco consumption. Higher than the European average price score for Armenia cannot be explained by the concept of affordability alone and may reflect a measurement error due to peculiarities of transition economies. The applicability of the Tobacco Control Scale could be limited to countries with mature economies, but not to transition countries such as Armenia with different social, political and economic environment. The scale modification, such as an adjustment for the policy enforcement and the effectiveness of public tobacco control spending along with alternative measures of affordability would be warranted to enhance its applicability in low-income and middle-income countries.

  16. Jump2Health Website™ for Head Start parents to promote a healthy home environment: Results from formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurajada, Navya; Reed, Debra B; Taylor, Ashlee L

    2017-12-13

    Background: In US, approximately 23% of children between the ages of 2-5 years are overweight or obese. Parents need access to information to create healthy home environments for obesity prevention, yet participation for in-person education programs is challenging. Web-based interventions are promising educational tools due to 24/7 availability. However, information is limited on their development and evaluation. Design and Methods: This study reports on a rigorous development process that included six focus group discussions (FGD) with stakeholders (three FGD each with parents and teachers) to assess education needs and inform the development of the Jump2Health Website ™ by a multidisciplinary team. After development, the Website was evaluated by telephone interviews with stakeholders (five parents and six teachers) and reviewed by an expert panel of five Registered Dietitians. Results: Twenty Head Start parents and 22 Head Start teachers participated in the FGD. To address the needs identified by these stakeholders, the Website was designed to include components that were enabling and motivating, such as descriptions of health benefits by achieving the desired behaviours, short videos on easy meal preparation, and tip sheets on how to achieve healthy behaviours in easy, economical ways. Stakeholder evaluation of the Website indicated that the information was helpful, easy to use, and would be beneficial for parents. Conclusions: The development of Jump2Health Website ™ was strengthened by FGD with stakeholders that assessed educational needs. Interviews with stakeholders and an expert panel review showed that the Website may be an effective educational method to teach parents about healthy behaviours related to obesity prevention.

  17. Jump2Health Website™ for Head Start parents to promote a healthy home environment: Results from formative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navya Gurajada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In US, approximately 23% of children between the ages of 2-5 years are overweight or obese. Parents need access to information to create healthy home environments for obesity prevention, yet participation for in-person education programs is challenging. Web-based interventions are promising educational tools due to 24/7 availability. However, information is limited on their development and evaluation. Design and Methods: This study reports on a rigorous development process that included six focus group discussions (FGD with stakeholders (three FGD each with parents and teachers to assess education needs and inform the development of the Jump2Health Website™ by a multidisciplinary team. After development, the Website was evaluated by telephone interviews with stakeholders (five parents and six teachers and reviewed by an expert panel of five Registered Dietitians. Results: Twenty Head Start parents and 22 Head Start teachers participated in the FGD. To address the needs identified by these stakeholders, the Website was designed to include components that were enabling and motivating, such as descriptions of health benefits by achieving the desired behaviours, short videos on easy meal preparation, and tip sheets on how to achieve healthy behaviours in easy, economical ways. Stakeholder evaluation of the Website indicated that the information was helpful, easy to use, and would be beneficial for parents. Conclusions: The development of Jump2Health Website™ was strengthened by FGD with stakeholders that assessed educational needs. Interviews with stakeholders and an expert panel review showed that the Website may be an effective educational method to teach parents about healthy behaviours related to obesity prevention.

  18. Trends in US newspaper and television coverage of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David E; Pederson, Linda L; Mowery, Paul; Bailey, Sarah; Sevilimedu, Varadan; London, Joel; Babb, Stephen; Pechacek, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The news media plays an important role in agenda setting and framing of stories about tobacco control. The purpose of this study was to examine newspaper, newswire and television coverage of tobacco issues in the USA over a 7-year period. Analyses of 2004-2010 news media surveillance system data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office on Smoking and Health, based on content analysis and quantitative methods. Information on extent of news coverage, and types of tobacco-related themes, were examined from articles in 10 newspapers and 2 major newswires, as well as transcripts from 6 national television networks. The overall extent of newspaper, newswire and television stories about tobacco, and level of coverage by specific media outlets, varied over time, especially for newspapers. Nevertheless, there was an average of 3 newspaper stories, 4 newswire stories, and 1 television tobacco-related story each day. Television stories were more likely to contain cessation/addiction or health effects/statistics themes and less likely to contain secondhand smoke or policy/regulation themes than newspaper/newswire stories. There was more variation in the choice of tobacco theme among individual newspapers/newswires than television media outlets. News coverage of tobacco in the USA was relatively constant from 2004 to 2010. Audiences were more likely to be exposed to different tobacco themes in newspapers/newswires than on television. Tracking information about tobacco news stories can be used by advocates, programs and others for planning and evaluation, and by researchers for hypothesis generation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. PLANNED HOME BIRTH: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Serdinšek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Home birth is as old as humanity, but still most middle- and high-income countries consider hospitals as the safest birth settings, as complications regarding birth are highly unpredictable. Despite this there are a few countries in which home birth in integrated into official healthcare system (the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Canada etc.. Home births can be divided into unplanned and planned, and the latter can be further categorized by the presence of the birth attendants. This review focuses on planned home births, which are differently represented throughout the world. In the United States 0.6-1.0% of all children are born at home, in the United Kingdom 2-3%, in Canada 1.6% and in the Netherlands 20-30%. For Slovenia, the number of planned home births is unknown; however, in 2010 0.1% of children were born outside medical facilities.Conclusions: The safety of home birth in still under the debate. While research confirms smaller number of obstetric interventions and some complications in mothers who give birth at home, the data regarding the neonatal and perinatal mortality and morbidity is still conflicting. This confirms the need for large multicentric trials in this field. Current home birth guidelines emphasize that women should be well informed regarding the possible advantages and disadvantages of home births. In addition, the emphasis is on definition of selection criteria for home birth, indications for intrapartal transfer to the hospital and appropriate education of birth attendants.