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Sample records for research grounding line

  1. Grounding line processes on the Totten Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S.; Watson, C. S.; Galton-Fenzi, B.; Peters, L. E.; Coleman, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Totten Glacier has been an area of recent interest due to its large drainage basin, much of which is grounded below sea level and has a history of large scale grounding line movement. Reports that warm water reaches the sub-ice shelf cavity have led to speculation that it could be vulnerable to future grounding line retreat. Over the Antarctic summer 2016/17 an array of 6 GPS and autonomous phase-sensitive radar (ApRES) units were deployed in the grounding zone of the Totten Glacier. These instruments measure changes in ice velocity and thickness which can be used to investigate both ice dynamics across the grounding line, and the interaction between ice and ocean in the subglacial cavity. Basal melt rates calculated from the ApRES units on floating ice range from 1 to 17 m/a. These values are significantly lower than previous estimates of basal melt rate produced by ocean modelling of the subglacial cavity. Meanwhile, GPS-derived velocity and elevation on the surface of the ice show a strong tidal signal, as does the vertical strain rate within the ice derived from internal layering from the ApRES instruments. These results demonstrate the significance of the complex grounding pattern of the Totten Glacier. The presence of re-grounding points has significant implications for the dynamics of the glacier and the ocean circulation within the subglacial cavity. We discuss what can be learned from our in situ measurements, and how they can be used to improve models of the glacier's future behaviour.

  2. Ground Loop Impedance of Long EHV Cable Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohno, Teruo; Bak, Claus Leth; Sørensen, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The distance protection scheme without communication is often applied to the backup protection of EHV cable lines. For a reliable operation of a ground distance relay, the ground loop impedance of EHV cable lines needs to have a linear relationship to the distance from the relay location...... to the fault location. The discontinuity of the ground loop impedance at cross-bonding points may have an ill effect on the reliable operation of the ground distance relay. However, the cause and parameters of the discontinuity and its effects on the ground distance relay protection have not been discussed...... in literature. Through the calculation of the ground loop impedance for cable lines, it has been found that, for long EHV cable lines, the reliable operation of the ground distance relay is possible with a typical relay setting. Effects of parameters, such as substation grounding, cable layouts...

  3. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic ice sheet grounding lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.

    2002-01-01

    As continental ice from Antartica reaches the grounding line and begins to float, its underside melts into the ocean. Results obtained with satellite radar interferometry reveal that bottom melt rates experienced by large outlet glaciers near their grounding lines are far higher than generally assumed.

  4. Grounded theory in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.

  5. GROUNDED THEORY METHODOLOGY and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH in TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  6. Grounding line transient response in marine ice sheet models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Drouet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine ice-sheet stability is mostly controlled by the dynamics of the grounding line, i.e. the junction between the grounded ice sheet and the floating ice shelf. Grounding line migration has been investigated within the framework of MISMIP (Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project, which mainly aimed at investigating steady state solutions. Here we focus on transient behaviour, executing short-term simulations (200 yr of a steady ice sheet perturbed by the release of the buttressing restraint exerted by the ice shelf on the grounded ice upstream. The transient grounding line behaviour of four different flowline ice-sheet models has been compared. The models differ in the physics implemented (full Stokes and shallow shelf approximation, the numerical approach, as well as the grounding line treatment. Their overall response to the loss of buttressing is found to be broadly consistent in terms of grounding line position, rate of surface elevation change and surface velocity. However, still small differences appear for these latter variables, and they can lead to large discrepancies (> 100% observed in terms of ice sheet contribution to sea level when cumulated over time. Despite the recent important improvements of marine ice-sheet models in their ability to compute steady state configurations, our results question the capacity of these models to compute short-term reliable sea-level rise projections.

  7. Marine line fish research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available This report outlines the framework for a marine line fish programme under the aegis of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). An attempt is made to assess the state of knowledge about South African marine line...

  8. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar experience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of published research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tenants of qualitative research paradigm with specific reference to ground theory. The paper aims to encourage readers to think how they might possibly use the grounded theory method in medical education research and to apply such a method to their own areas of interest. The important features of a grounded theory as well as its implications for medical education research are explored. Data collection and analysis are also discussed. It seems to be reasonable to incorporate knowledge of this kind in medical education research.

  9. Ground-based transmission line conductor motion sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Milano, U.

    1988-01-01

    A ground-based-conductor motion-sensing apparatus is provided for remotely sensing movement of electric-power transmission lines, particularly as would occur during the wind-induced condition known as galloping. The apparatus is comprised of a motion sensor and signal-generating means which are placed underneath a transmission line and will sense changes in the electric field around the line due to excessive line motion. The detector then signals a remote station when a conditioning of galloping is sensed. The apparatus of the present invention is advantageous over the line-mounted sensors of the prior art in that it is easier and less hazardous to install. The system can also be modified so that a signal will only be given when particular conditions, such as specific temperature range, large-amplitude line motion, or excessive duration of the line motion, are occurring

  10. Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Torabi, Sima; Akbar Zeinaloo, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar expe­rience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of pub­lished research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which is based on the grounded theory tradition. The purpose of this paper is to introduce basic tena...

  11. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, P.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  12. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibrations and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima NPP accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination, a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count data, expressed in counts per second (cps), need to be converted to a terrestrial component of the exposure rate at 1 meter (m) above ground, or surface activity of the isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large-scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, because production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish a common calibration line very early into the event. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and that are potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  13. Sensitivity of grounding line dynamics to basal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardini, O.; Brondex, J.; Chauveau, G.; Gillet-chaulet, F.; Durand, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of a warming climate, the dynamical contribution of Antarctica to future sea level rise is still tainted by high uncertainties. Among the processes entering these uncertainties is the link between basal hydrology, friction and grounding line dynamics. Recent works have shown how sensitive is the response of the grounding line retreat to the choice of the form of the friction law. Indeed, starting from the same initial state, grounding line retreat rates can range over almost two orders of magnitude depending on the friction law formulation.Here, we use a phenomenological law that depends on the water pressure and allows a continuous transition from a Weertman-type friction at low water pressure to a Coulomb-type friction at high water pressure. This friction law depends on two main parameters that control the Weertman and Coulomb regimes. The range of values for these two parameters is only weakly physically constrained, and it can be shown that, for a given basal shear stress, different couples of parameters can conduct to the same sliding velocity. In addition, we show that close to the grounding line where basal water pressure is high, determining these two parameters might conduct to an ill-posed inverse problem with no solution.The aim of this presentation is to discuss a methodology to guide the choice of the two friction parameters and explore the sensitivity of the grounding line dynamics to this initial choice. We present results obtained both on a synthetic configuration used by the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison exercise and for the Amundsen sea sector using the experiments proposed by InitMIP-Antarctica, the first exercise in a series of ISMIP6 ice-sheet model intercomparison activities.

  14. Comb-Line Filter with Coupling Capacitor in Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kitamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comb-line filter with a coupling capacitor in the ground plane is proposed. The filter consists of two quarter-wavelength microstrip resonators. A coupling capacitor is inserted into the ground plane in order to build strong coupling locally along the resonators. The filtering characteristics are investigated through numerical simulations as well as experiments. Filtering characteristics that have attenuation poles at both sides of the passband are obtained. The input susceptances of even and odd modes and coupling coefficients are discussed. The filters using stepped impedance resonators (SIRs are also discussed, and the effects of the coupling capacitor for an SIR structure are shown.

  15. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field....... The chapter has two goals. First, we wish to provide an explicit paradigmatic positioning of the grounded theory methodology, discussing the most relevant views of ontology and epistemology that can be used as alternative starting points for conducting grounded theory research. While the chapter introduces...... our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our...

  16. Evaluation of Fibre Lifetime in Optical Ground Wire Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunvalds, R.; Ciekurs, A.; Porins, J.; Supe, A.

    2017-06-01

    In the research, measurements of polarisation mode dispersion of two OPGWs (optical ground wire transmission lines), in total four fibres, have been carried out, and the expected lifetime of the infrastructure has been assessed on the basis of these measurements. The cables under consideration were installed in 1995 and 2011, respectively. Measurements have shown that polarisation mode dispersion values for cable installed in 1995 are four times higher than that for cable installed in 2011, which could mainly be explained by technological differences in fibre production and lower fibre polarisation mode dispersion requirements in 1995 due to lack of high-speed (over 10 Gbit/s) optical transmission systems. The calculation methodology of non-refusal work and refusal probabilities, using the measured polarisation mode dispersion parameters, is proposed in the paper. Based on reliability calculations, the expected lifetime is then predicted, showing that all measured fibres most likely will be operational within minimum theoretical service life of 25 years accepted by the industry.

  17. Grounded theory research: literature reviewing and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Gerry; Marland, Glenn R; Atkinson, Jacqueline

    2007-11-01

    This paper is a report of a discussion of the arguments surrounding the role of the initial literature review in grounded theory. Researchers new to grounded theory may find themselves confused about the literature review, something we ourselves experienced, pointing to the need for clarity about use of the literature in grounded theory to help guide others about to embark on similar research journeys. The arguments for and against the use of a substantial topic-related initial literature review in a grounded theory study are discussed, giving examples from our own studies. The use of theoretically sampled literature and the necessity for reflexivity are also discussed. Reflexivity is viewed as the explicit quest to limit researcher effects on the data by awareness of self, something seen as integral both to the process of data collection and the constant comparison method essential to grounded theory. A researcher who is close to the field may already be theoretically sensitized and familiar with the literature on the study topic. Use of literature or any other preknowledge should not prevent a grounded theory arising from the inductive-deductive interplay which is at the heart of this method. Reflexivity is needed to prevent prior knowledge distorting the researcher's perceptions of the data.

  18. Research Schools: Grounding Research in Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Christina; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2008-01-01

    Education lacks a strong infrastructure for connecting research with educational practice and policy. The need for this linkage grows as findings in cognitive science and biology become ever more relevant to education. Teachers often lack the background knowledge needed to interpret scientific results, whereas scientists often lack an…

  19. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.

  20. Line list for the ground state of CaF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shilin; Bernath, Peter F.

    2018-05-01

    The molecular potential energy function and electronic dipole moment function for the ground state of CaF were studied with MRCI, ACPF, and RCCSD(T) ab initio calculations. The RCCSD(T) potential function reproduces the experimental vibrational intervals to within ∼2 cm-1. The RCCSD(T) dipole moment at the equilibrium internuclear separation agrees well with the experimental value. Over a wide range of internuclear separations, far beyond the range associated with the observed spectra, the ab initio dipole moment functions are similar and highly linear. An extended Morse oscillator (EMO) potential function was also obtained by fitting the observed lines of the laboratory vibration-rotation and pure rotation spectra of the 40CaF X2Σ+ ground state. The fitted potential reproduces the observed transitions (v ≤ 8, N ≤ 121, Δv = 0, 1) within their experimental uncertainties. With this EMO potential and the RCCSD(T) dipole moment function, line lists for 40CaF, 42CaF, 43CaF, 44CaF, 46CaF, and 48CaF were computed for v ≤ 10, N ≤ 121, Δv = 0-10. The calculated emission spectra are in good agreement with an observed laboratory spectrum of CaF at a sample temperature of 1873 K.

  1. Grounding Lines Detecting Using LANDSAT8 Oli and CRYOSAT-2 Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Guo, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.

    2018-04-01

    The grounding zone is the region where ice transitions from grounded ice sheet to freely floating ice shelf, grounding lines are actually more of a zone, typically over several kilometers. The mass loss from Antarctica is strongly linked to changes in the ice shelves and their grounding lines, since the variation in the grounding line can result in very rapid changes in glacier and ice-shelf behavior. Based on remote sensing observations, five global Antarctic grounding line products have been released internationally, including MOA, ASAID, ICESat, MEaSUREs, and Synthesized grounding lines. However, the five products could not provide the annual grounding line products of the whole Antarctic, even some products have stopped updating, which limits the time series analysis of Antarctic material balance to a certain extent. Besides, the accurate of single remote-sensing data based grounding line products is far from satisficed. Therefore, we use algorithms to extract grounding lines with SAR and Cryosat-2 data respectively, and combine the results of two kinds of grounding lines to obtain new products, we obtain a mature grounding line extraction algorithm process, so that we can realize the extraction of grounding line of the Antarctic each year in the future. The comparison between fusion results and the MOA product results indicate that there is a maximum deviation of 188.67 meters between the MOA product and the fusion result.

  2. Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

  3. Impact of Basal Conditions on Grounding-Line Retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koellner, S. J.; Parizek, B. R.; Alley, R. B.; Muto, A.; Holschuh, N.; Nowicki, S.

    2017-12-01

    An often-made assumption included in ice-sheet models used for sea-level projections is that basal rheology is constant throughout the domain of the simulation. The justification in support of this assumption is that physical data for determining basal rheology is limited and a constant basal flow law can adequately approximate current as well as past behavior of an ice-sheet. Prior studies indicate that beneath Thwaites Glacier (TG) there is a ridge-and-valley bedrock structure which likely promotes deformation of soft tills within the troughs and sliding, more akin to creep, over the harder peaks; giving rise to a spatially variable basal flow law. Furthermore, it has been shown that the stability of an outlet glacier varies with the assumed basal rheology, so accurate projections almost certainly need to account for basal conditions. To test the impact of basal conditions on grounding-line evolution forced by ice-shelf perturbations, we modified the PSU 2-D flowline model to enable the inclusion of spatially variable basal rheology along an idealized bedrock profile akin to TG. Synthetic outlet glacier "data" were first generated under steady-state conditions assuming a constant basal flow law and a constant basal friction coefficient field on either a linear or bumpy sloping bed. In following standard procedures, a suite of models were then initialized by assuming different basal rheologies and then determining the basal friction coefficients that produce surface velocities matching those from the synthetic "data". After running each of these to steady state, the standard and full suite of models were forced by drastically reducing ice-shelf buttressing through side-shear and prescribed basal-melting perturbations. In agreement with previous findings, results suggest a more plastic basal flow law enhances stability in response to ice-shelf perturbations by flushing ice from farther upstream to sustain the grounding-zone mass balance required to prolong the

  4. An analysis model of the secondary tunnel lining considering ground-primary support-secondary lining interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seong-Ho; Chang, Seok-Bue [Yooshin Engineering Corporation, Seoul(Korea); Lee, Sang-Duk [Ajou University, Suwon(Korea)

    2002-06-30

    It is the common practice to over design the reinforcement for the secondary tunnel lining due to the lack of rational insight into the ground loosening loads, and due to the conservative application of the empirical design methods. The main loads of the secondary lining are the ground loosening loads and the ground water pressure, and the ground load is critical in the reinforcement design of the secondary lining in the case of drained tunnel. If the external load is absent around a tunnel. the reasons of the load for secondary tunnel lining are the deterioration of the primary supports such as shotcrete, steel rib, and rock bolts. Accordingly, the analysis method considering the ground-primary supports-secondary lining interaction should be required for the rational design of the secondary tunnel lining. In this paper, the interaction was conceptually described by the simple mass-spring model and the load transfer from the ground and primary supports to the secondary lining is showed by the ground-primary supports-secondary lining reaction curves for the theoretical solution of a circular tunnel, And also, the application of this proposed model to numerical analysis is verified in order to check the potential for the tunnel with the complex analysis conditions. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. Multilateral Research Opportunities in Ground Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. International collaboration provides an opportunity to leverage other nations' investments to meet common goals. The Humans In Space Community shares a common goal to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration within and beyond Low Earth Orbit. Meeting this goal requires efficient use of limited resources and International capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) is our primary platform to conduct microgravity research targeted at reducing human health and performance risks for exploration missions. Access to ISS resources, however, is becoming more and more constrained and will only be available through 2020 or 2024. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is actively pursuing methods to effectively utilize the ISS and appropriate ground analogs to understand and mitigate human health and performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. HRP developed a plan to use ground analogs of increasing fidelity to address questions related to exploration missions and is inviting International participation in these planned campaigns. Using established working groups and multilateral panels, the HRP is working with multiple Space Agencies to invite International participation in a series of 30- day missions that HRP will conduct in the US owned and operated Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) during 2016. In addition, the HRP is negotiating access to Antarctic stations (both US and non-US), the German :envihab and Russian NEK facilities. These facilities provide unique capabilities to address critical research questions requiring longer duration simulation or isolation. We are negotiating release of international research opportunities to ensure a multilateral approach to future analog research campaigns, hoping to begin multilateral campaigns in the

  6. SLG(Single-Line-to-Ground Fault Location in NUGS(Neutral Un-effectively Grounded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wenhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the SLG(Single-Line-to-Ground fault location methods in NUGS(Neutral Un-effectively Grounded System, including ungrounded system, resonant grounded system and high-resistance grounded system which are widely used in Northern Europe and China. This type of fault is hard to detect and location because fault current is the sum of capacitance current of the system which is always small(about tens of amperes. The characteristics of SLG fault in NUGS and the fault location methods are introduced in the paper.

  7. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  8. The Way of Reducing Current Values in Optical Ground Wires at Asymmetrical Faults on Overhead Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egamnazarov Georgiy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the fact that the installing costs of an optical ground wire on overhead lines directly depend on its cross-section, which in turn depends on the level of fault current it should withstand, in order to reduce these current values in the optical ground wire, I suggested performing its isolated descents from the end towers of the line with its transition to an optical cable. The research was carried out on the example of a 500 kV overhead line in the National Electric Power Grid. The Method of Symmetrical Components for calculating asymmetrical fault currents was not used; therefore, calculations were carried out on the base of presenting the line as a multi-wire system for the considered case as a five-wire system (optical ground wire, steel ground wire, and three phase wires. Such approach allows taking into account the initial asymmetry of the line parameters and modeling any kind of asymmetrical faults. The analyses of calculated results were performed. The conclusive evidence that the optical ground wire isolated descents from the end towers of the line give the possibility of reducing the level of maximal fault current distribution values in it and therefore its cross section, is presented.

  9. Rapid grounding line migration induced by internal variability of a marine-terminating ice stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, A.; Schoof, C.; Tziperman, E.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have found significant variability in the velocity of ice streams to be a prominent feature of geomorphologic records in the Siple Coast (Catania et al. 2012) and other regions in West Antarctica (Dowdeswell et al. 2008). Observations indicate that grounding line position is strongly influenced by ice stream variability, producing rapid grounding line migration in the recent past (Catania et al. 2006) and the modern (Joughin & Tulaczyk 2002). We analyze the interaction of grounding line mass flux and position in a marine-terminating ice stream using a stretch-coordinate flowline model. This model is based on that described in Schoof (2007), with a mesh refined near the grounding line to ensure accurate resolution of the mechanical transition zone. Here we have added lateral shear stress (Dupont & Alley 2005) and an undrained plastic bed (Tulaczyk et al. 2000). The parameter dependence of ice stream variability seen in this model compares favorably to both simpler (Robel et al. 2013) and more complex (van der Wel et al. 2013) models, though with some key differences. We find that thermally-induced internal ice stream variability can cause very rapid grounding line migration even in the absence of retrograde bed slopes or external forcing. Activation waves propagate along the ice stream length and trigger periods of rapid grounding line migration. We compare the behavior of the grounding line due to internal ice stream variability to changes triggered externally at the grounding line such as the rapid disintegration of buttressing ice shelves. Implications for Heinrich events and the Marine Ice Sheet Instability are discussed.

  10. Ground-Wave Propagation Effects on Transmission Lines through Error Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Campos Felipe Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic transient calculation of overhead transmission lines is strongly influenced by the natural resistivity of the ground. This varies from 1-10K (Ω·m depending on several media factors and on the physical composition of the ground. The accuracy on the calculation of a system transient response depends in part in the ground return model, which should consider the line geometry, the electrical resistivity and the frequency dependence of the power source. Up to date, there are only a few reports on the specialized literature about analyzing the effects produced by the presence of an imperfectly conducting ground of transmission lines in a transient state. A broad range analysis of three of the most often used ground-return models for calculating electromagnetic transients of overhead transmission lines is performed in this paper. The behavior of modal propagation in ground is analyzed here into effects of first and second order. Finally, a numerical tool based on relative error images is proposed in this paper as an aid for the analyst engineer to estimate the incurred error by using approximate ground-return models when calculating transients of overhead transmission lines.

  11. Research on Integrated Geophysics Detect Potential Ground Fissure in City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, R.

    2017-12-01

    North China confined aquifer lied 70 to 200 meters below the earth's surface has been exploited for several decades, which resulted in confined water table declining and has generated a mass of ground fissure. Some of them has reached the surface and the other is developing. As it is very difficult to stop the ground fissure coming into being, measures of avoiding are often taken. It brings great potential risk to urban architecture and municipal engineering. It is very important to find out specific distribution and characteristic of potential ground fissure in city with high resolution. The ground fissure is concealed, therefor, geophysical method is an important technology to detecting concealed ground fissure. However, it is very difficult to detect the characteristics of the superficial part of ground fissure directly, as it lies dozens of meters below and has only scores of centimeters fault displacement. This paper studies applied ground penetration radar, surface wave and shallow refleciton seismic to detect ground fissure. It sets up model of surface by taking advantage of high resolution of ground penetrating radar data, constrains Reilay wave inversion and improves its resolution. The high resolution reflection seismic is good at detecting the geology structure. The data processing and interpretation technique is developmented to avoid the pitfall and improve the aliability of the rusult. The experiment has been conducted in Shunyi District, Beijing in 2016. 5 lines were settled to collect data of integrated geophysical method. Development zone of concealed ground fissure was found and its ultra shallow layer location was detected by ground penetrating radar. A trial trench of 6 meters in depth was dug and obvious ground fissure development was found. Its upper end was 1.5 meters beneath the earth's surface with displacement of 0.3 meters. The favorable effect of this detection has provided a new way for detecting ground fissure in cities of China, such

  12. Research of footwear lining materials thermoconductive properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksudova, U.; Ilkhamova, M.; Mirzayev, N.; Pazilova, D.

    2017-11-01

    Protective properties of footwear are influenced by a number of factors and the most important of them are: design features of the top and the bottom of the footwear, it’s shape, physical and mechanical properties of the components of which they are made. In course of work there were researched thermoconductive properties of different lining membrane materials used for production of high temperature protective footwear. Research results allow to select the appropriate materials by reference to thermoconductive properties during design of protective footwear for extreme conditions to prolong the wearer’s time of comfortable stay in conditions of exposure of elevated temperatures to a stack.

  13. Development Ground Fault Detecting System for D.C Voltage Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Taek Soo; Song Ung Il; Gwon, Young Dong; Lee Hyoung Kee [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    It is necessary to keep the security of reliability and to maximize the efficiency of maintenance by prompt detection of a D.C feeder ground fault point at the built ed or a building power plants. At present, the most of the power plants are set up the ground fault indicator lamp in the monitor room. If a ground fault occurs on DC voltage feeder, a current through the ground fault relay is adjusted and the lamps have brightened while the current flows the relay coil. In order to develop such a system, it is analyzed a D.C feeder ground circuit theoretically and studied a principles which can determine ground fault point or a polarity discrimination and a phase discrimination of the line. So, the developed system through this principles can compute a resistance ground fault current and a capacitive ground fault current. It shows that the system can defect a ground fault point or a bad insulated line by measuring a power plant D.C feeder insulation resistance at the un interruptible power status, and therefore the power plant could protect an unexpected service interruption . (author). 18 refs., figs.

  14. Research of grounding capacitive current of neutral non-grounding auxiliary system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shan; Liu Li; Huang Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    In the domestic and abroad standards, the grounding capacitive current limitation in the non-grounding electric auxiliary system is less than 10 A. Limiting capacitive current in the standard aims to speed up the arc extinguishing to reduce the duration of arc over-voltage, but not to prevent the arc producing, The arc over-voltage harm is related to the multiple, frequency and duration of the over-voltage. When the insulation vulnerabilities appear in the equipment, the arc over-voltage may result in insulation vulnerabilities of the electrical equipment breakdown, which leads to multiple, short-circuit accidents. The cable connector, accessory and electromotor winding are all insulation vulnerabilities. Setting the arc suppression coil which can counteract the grounding capacitive current makes the arc vanish quickly. Using the casting bus which remarkably reduces the ground capacitance of the electric transmission line makes the equipment safer. (authors)

  15. Influence of damage and basal friction on the grounding line dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondex, Julien; Gagliardini, Olivier; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Durand, Gael

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of grounding line dynamics is a major issue in the prediction of future sea level rise due to ice released from polar ice sheets into the ocean. This dynamics is complex and significantly affected by several physical processes not always adequately accounted for in current ice flow models. Among those processes, our study focuses on ice damage and evolving basal friction conditions. Softening of the ice due to damaging processes is known to have a strong impact on its rheology by reducing its viscosity and therefore promoting flow acceleration. Damage creates where shear stresses are high enough which is usually the case at shear margins and in the vicinity of pinning points in contact with ice-shelves. Those areas are known to have a buttressing effect on ice shelves contributing to stabilize the grounding line. We aim at evaluating the extent to which this stabilizing effect is hampered by damaging processes. Several friction laws have been proposed by various author to model the contact between grounded-ice and bedrock. Among them, Coulomb-type friction laws enable to account for reduced friction related to low effective pressure (the ice pressure minus the water pressure). Combining such a friction law to a parametrization of the effective pressure accounting for the fact that the area upstream the grounded line is connected to the ocean, is expected to have a significant impact on the grounding line dynamics. Using the finite-element code Elmer/Ice within which both the Coulomb-type friction law, the effective pressure parametrization and the damage model have been implemented, the goal of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of the grounding line dynamics to damage and to an evolving basal friction. The relative importance between those two processes on the grounding line dynamics is addressed as well.

  16. Measurement of Line-to-Ground Capacitance in Distribution Network Considering Magnetizing Impedance’s Frequency Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal injection method (SIM is widely applied to the insulation parameters’ measurement in distribution network for its convenience and safety. It can be divided into two kinds of patterns: injecting a specific frequency signal or several frequencies’ groups, and scanning frequency in a scheduled frequency scope. In order to avoid the disadvantages in related researches, improved signal injection method (ISIM, in which the frequency characteristic of the transformer magnetizing impedance is taken into consideration, is proposed. In addition, optimization for signal injection position has been accomplished, and the corresponding three calculation methods of line-to-ground capacitance has been derived. Calculations are carried out through the vector information (vector calculation method, the amplitude information (amplitude calculation method, the phase information (phase calculation method of voltage and current in signal injecting port, respectively. The line-to-ground capacitance is represented by lumped parameter capacitances in high-voltage simulation test. Eight different sinusoidal signals are injected into zero-sequence circuit, and then line-to-ground capacitance is calculated with the above-mentioned vector calculation method based on the voltage and the current data of the injecting port. The results obtained by the vector calculation method show that ISIM has a wider application frequency range compared with signal injection method with rated parameters (RSIM and SIM. The RSIM is calculated with the rated transformer parameters of magnetizing impedance, and the SIM based on the ideal transformer model, and the relative errors of calculation results of ISIM are smaller than that for other methods in general. The six groups of two-frequency set are chosen in a specific scope which is recommended by vector calculation results. Based on ISIM, the line-to-ground capacitance calculations through the amplitude calculation method and

  17. Improved Discretization of Grounding Lines and Calving Fronts using an Embedded-Boundary Approach in BISICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. F.; Cornford, S. L.; Schwartz, P.; Bhalla, A.; Johansen, H.; Ng, E.

    2017-12-01

    Correctly representing grounding line and calving-front dynamics is of fundamental importance in modeling marine ice sheets, since the configuration of these interfaces exerts a controlling influence on the dynamics of the ice sheet. Traditional ice sheet models have struggled to correctly represent these regions without very high spatial resolution. We have developed a front-tracking discretization for grounding lines and calving fronts based on the Chombo embedded-boundary cut-cell framework. This promises better representation of these interfaces vs. a traditional stair-step discretization on Cartesian meshes like those currently used in the block-structured AMR BISICLES code. The dynamic adaptivity of the BISICLES model complements the subgrid-scale discretizations of this scheme, producing a robust approach for tracking the evolution of these interfaces. Also, the fundamental discontinuous nature of flow across grounding lines is respected by mathematically treating it as a material phase change. We present examples of this approach to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  18. Pseudo-field line resonances in ground Pc5 pulsation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sarafopoulos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study four representative cases of Pc5 ground pulsation events with discrete and remarkably stable frequencies extended at least in a high-latitude range of ~20°; a feature that erroneously gives the impression for an oscillation mode with "one resonant field line". Additionally, the presented events show characteristic changes in polarization sense, for a meridian chain of stations from the IMAGE array, and maximize their amplitude at or close to the supposed resonant magnetic field shell, much like the typical FLR. Nevertheless, they are not authentic FLRs, but pseudo-FLRs, as they are called. These structures are produced by repetitive and tilted twin-vortex structures caused by magnetopause surface waves, which are probably imposed by solar wind pressure waves. The latter is confirmed with in-situ measurements obtained by the Cluster satellites, as well as the Geotail, Wind, ACE, and LANL 1994-084 satellites. This research effort is largely based on two recent works: first, Sarafopoulos (2004a has observationally established that a solar wind pressure pulse (stepwise pressure variation produces a twin-vortex (single vortex current system over the ionosphere; second, Sarafopoulos (2004b has studied ground events with characteristic dispersive latitude-dependent structures and showed that these are associated with twin-vortex ionosphere current systems. In this work, we show that each pseudo-FLR event is associated with successive and tilted large-scale twin-vortex current systems corresponding to a magnetopause surface wave with wavelength 10-20RE. We infer that between an authentic FLR, which is a spatially localized structure with an extent 0.5RE in the magnetospheric equatorial plane, and the magnetopause surface wavelength, there is a scale factor of 20-40. A chief observational finding, in this work, is that there are Pc5 ground pulsation events showing two gradual and latitude dependent phase-shifts of 180°, at the

  19. Classroom research in religious education: The potential of grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rothgangel, Martin; Saup, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common qualitative research strategies in social sciences. Currently, many applications of this theory are being developed for religious education. In the article it is argued that grounded theory deserves special attention for classroom research in religious education. For this reason, the basic features (fundamental openness and concurrence of data collection and analysis; constant comparison and asking analytical questions) as well as the coding strategie...

  20. Radioecological Observatories - Breeding Grounds for Innovative Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin; Urso, Laura; Wichterey, Karin; Willrodt, Christine [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany); Beresford, Nicholas A.; Howard, Brenda [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina [Stockholms Universitet - SU, Universitetsvaegen 10, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Dowdall, Mark; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA, P.O. Box 55, NO-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Eyrolle- Boyer, Frederique; Guillevic, Jerome; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gashchak, Sergey [Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology - Chornobyl Center, 77th Gvardiiska Dyviiya str.7/1, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Ikaeheimonen, Tarja; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Michalik, Boguslaw [Glowny Instytut Gornictwa - GIG, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Avenida complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oughton, Deborah; Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - NMBU, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Aas (Norway); Sweeck, Lieve [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK.CEN), Avenue Herrmann- Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Yoschenko, Vasyl [National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine (NUBiP of Ukraine), Herojiv Obrony st., 15, Kyiv-03041 (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Within the EC-funded (FP7) Network of Excellence STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology, www.star-radioecology.org) the concept of Radioecological Observatories is currently being implemented on a European level for the first time. Radioecological Observatories are radioactively (and chemically) contaminated field sites that will provide a focus for joint long-term radioecological research. The benefit of this innovative approach is to create synergistic research collaborations by sharing expertise, ideas, data and resources. Research at the Radioecological Observatories will primarily focus on radioecological challenges outlined in the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). Mechanisms to use these sites will be established under the EC-funded project COMET (Coordination and Implementation of a Pan-European Instrument for Radioecology, www.comet-radioecology.org). The European Radioecological Observatory sites were selected using a structured, progressive approach that was transparent, consistent and objective. A first screening of potential candidate sites was conducted based on the following exclusion criteria: long-term perspective for shared field work and suitability for addressing the radioecological challenges of the SRA. The proposed sites included former uranium mining and milling sites in France and Germany, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) in Ukraine/Belarus and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland. All candidate sites were prioritized based on evaluation criteria which comprised scientific issues, available infrastructure, administrative/legal constraints and financial considerations. Multi-criteria decision analysis, group discussions and recommendations provided by external experts were combined to obtain a preference order among the suggested sites. Using this approach, the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Poland and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) were selected as Radioecological Observatories. The two sites have similar multi

  1. Mapping the Antarctic grounding line with CryoSat-2 radar altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, J. L.; Dawson, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    The grounding line, where grounded ice begins to float, is the boundary at which the ocean has the greatest influence on the ice-sheet. Its position and dynamics are critical in assessing the stability of the ice-sheet, for mass budget calculations and as an input into numerical models. The most reliable approaches to map the grounding line remotely are to measure the limit of tidal flexure of the ice shelf using differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) or ICESat repeat-track measurements. However, these methods are yet to provide satisfactory spatial and temporal coverage of the whole of the Antarctic grounding zone. It has not been possible to use conventional radar altimetry to map the limit of tidal flexure of the ice shelf because it performs poorly near breaks in slope, commonly associated with the grounding zone. The synthetic aperture radar interferometric (SARin) mode of CryoSat-2, performs better over steeper margins of the ice sheet and allows us to achieve this. The SARin mode combines "delay Doppler" processing with a cross-track interferometer, and enables us to use elevations based on the first return (point of closest approach or POCA) and "swath processed" elevations derived from the time-delayed waveform beyond the first return, to significantly improve coverage. Here, we present a new method to map the limit of tidal motion from a combination of POCA and swath data. We test this new method on the Siple Coast region of the Ross Ice Shelf, and the mapped grounding line is in good agreement with previous observations from DinSAR and ICESat measurements. There is, however, an approximately constant seaward offset between these methods and ours, which we believe is due to the poorer precision of CryoSat-2. This new method has improved the coverage of the grounding zone across the Siple Coast, and can be applied to the rest of Antarctica.

  2. Qualitative Research: A Grounded Theory Example and Evaluation Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative research paradigm, although occasionally applied, is not widely discussed in agribusiness and agricultural economics literature. The primary goals of this paper are (a) to present insights into qualitative research approaches and processes by outlining grounded theory as an example of a systematic and rigorous qualitative approach, and (b) to discuss criteria for scientific rigor applicable to qualitative research. In addition, assessing qualitative research is demonstrated by...

  3. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  4. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  5. On-line, proximate analysis of ground beef directly at a meat grinder outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Tøgersen, G; Hammond, R P; Hildrum, K I

    1996-07-01

    The fat, moisture and protein contents of ground beef were determined on-line by a diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy instrument at the outlet of a meat grinder. Beef samples in the range of 6.2-21.7% fat, 59.6-72.9% moisture and 18.1-20.7% protein were studied. Calibrations from samples ground with hole diameters of 4, 8, 13 or 19 mm in the grinder plate were validated. In addition, calibrations of combinations of these samples from the different hole diameters were validated. Prediction errors, expressed as root mean square error of cross validation of the beef samples, were 0.73-1.50% for fat, 0.75-1.33% for moisture and 0.23-0.32% for protein, depending on the hole diameter of the grinder plate. Calibrations from samples ground with the smallest hole diameters gave lowest prediction errors. The present prediction error results are only slightly higher compared to reported prediction error results using conventional at- and off-line NIR instruments. It is concluded that the on-line NIR prediction results were acceptable for samples ground with grinder plates of 4, 8 or 13 mm hole diameter.

  6. [The grounded theory as a methodological alternative for nursing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; da Nóbrega, Maria Miriam

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a method of interpretative and systematic research with appliance to the development of studies in nursing called "the grounded theory", whose theoretical support is the symbolic interactionism. The purpose of the paper is to describe the grounded theory as an alternative methodology for the construction of knowledge in nursing. The study highlights four topics: the basic principle, the basic concepts, the trajectory of the method and the process of analysis of the data. We conclude that the systematization of data and its interpretation, based on social actors' experience, constitute strong subsidies to generate theories through this research tool.

  7. Pseudo-field line resonances in ground Pc5 pulsation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sarafopoulos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study four representative cases of Pc5 ground pulsation events with discrete and remarkably stable frequencies extended at least in a high-latitude range of ~20°; a feature that erroneously gives the impression for an oscillation mode with "one resonant field line". Additionally, the presented events show characteristic changes in polarization sense, for a meridian chain of stations from the IMAGE array, and maximize their amplitude at or close to the supposed resonant magnetic field shell, much like the typical FLR. Nevertheless, they are not authentic FLRs, but pseudo-FLRs, as they are called. These structures are produced by repetitive and tilted twin-vortex structures caused by magnetopause surface waves, which are probably imposed by solar wind pressure waves. The latter is confirmed with in-situ measurements obtained by the Cluster satellites, as well as the Geotail, Wind, ACE, and LANL 1994-084 satellites. This research effort is largely based on two recent works: first, Sarafopoulos (2004a has observationally established that a solar wind pressure pulse (stepwise pressure variation produces a twin-vortex (single vortex current system over the ionosphere; second, Sarafopoulos (2004b has studied ground events with characteristic dispersive latitude-dependent structures and showed that these are associated with twin-vortex ionosphere current systems. In this work, we show that each pseudo-FLR event is associated with successive and tilted large-scale twin-vortex current systems corresponding to a magnetopause surface wave with wavelength 10-20RE. We infer that between an authentic FLR, which is a spatially localized structure with an extent 0.5RE in the magnetospheric equatorial plane, and the magnetopause surface wavelength, there is a scale factor of 20-40. A chief observational finding, in this work, is that there are Pc5 ground pulsation events showing two gradual and latitude

  8. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  9. Active water exchange and life near the grounding line of an Antarctic outlet glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shin; Sawagaki, Takanobu; Fukuda, Takehiro; Aoki, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    The grounding line (GL) of the Antarctic ice sheet forms the boundary between grounded and floating ice along the coast. Near this line, warm oceanic water contacts the ice shelf, producing the ice sheet's highest basal-melt rate. Despite the importance of this region, water properties and circulations near the GL are largely unexplored because in-situ observations are difficult. Here we present direct evidence of warm ocean-water transport to the innermost part of the subshelf cavity (several hundred meters seaward from the GL) of Langhovde Glacier, an outlet glacier in East Antarctica. Our measurements come from boreholes drilled through the glacier's ∼400-m-thick grounding zone. Beneath the grounding zone, we find a 10-24-m-deep water layer of uniform temperature and salinity (-1.45 °C; 34.25 PSU), values that roughly equal those measured in the ocean in front of the glacier. Moreover, living organisms are found in the thin subglacial water layer. These findings indicate active transport of water and nutrients from the adjacent ocean, meaning that the subshelf environment interacts directly and rapidly with the ocean.

  10. Reflecting on e-Recruiting Research Using Grounded Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, Joost; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the e-Recruiting literature through a grounded theory lens. The large number of publications and the increasing diversity of publications on e-Recruiting research, as the most studied area within e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management), calls for a

  11. Infusing Participants' Voices into Grounded Theory Research: A Poetic Anthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Brianna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article augments the author's grounded theory study of student and teacher interactions in alternative education classrooms by presenting poetic transcription as a way to portray the essences and experiences of the participants. The author builds on the experimental writing traditions of other researchers to embrace her own experiences as a…

  12. Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan S.

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center, I engaged in the research and development of electrical ground support equipment for NASA's Constellation Program. Timing characteristics playa crucial role in ground support communications. Latency and jitter are two problems that must be understood so that communications are timely and consistent within the Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS). I conducted latency and jitter tests using Alien-Bradley programmable logic controllers (PLCs) so that these two intrinsic network properties can be reduced. Time stamping and clock synchronization also play significant roles in launch processing and operations. Using RSLogix 5000 project files and Wireshark network protocol analyzing software, I verified master/slave PLC Ethernet module clock synchronization, master/slave IEEE 1588 communications, and time stamping capabilities. All of the timing and synchronization test results are useful in assessing the current KGCS operational level and determining improvements for the future.

  13. The on-line electric vehicle wireless electric ground transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This book details the design and technology of the on-line electric vehicle (OLEV) system and its enabling wireless power-transfer technology, the “shaped magnetic field in resonance” (SMFIR). The text shows how OLEV systems can achieve their three linked important goals: reduction of CO2 produced by ground transportation; improved energy efficiency of ground transportation; and contribution to the amelioration or prevention of climate change and global warming. SMFIR provides power to the OLEV by wireless transmission from underground cables using an alternating magnetic field and the reader learns how this is done. This cable network will in future be part of any local smart grid for energy supply and use thereby exploiting local and renewable energy generation to further its aims. In addition to the technical details involved with design and realization of a fleet of vehicles combined with extensive subsurface charging infrastructure, practical issues such as those involved with pedestrian safety are c...

  14. Extensive Holocene ice sheet grounding line retreat and uplift-driven readvance in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, J.; Scherer, R. P.; Albrecht, T.; Coenen, J. J.; Powell, R. D.; Reese, R.; Stansell, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Whitehouse, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) reached its Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) extent 29-14 kyr before present. Numerical models used to project future ice-sheet contributions to sea-level rise exploit reconstructions of post-LGM ice mass loss to tune model parameterizations. Ice-sheet reconstructions are poorly constrained in areas where floating ice shelves or a lack of exposed geology obstruct conventional glacial-geological techniques. In the Weddell and Ross Sea sectors, ice-sheet reconstructions have traditionally assumed progressive grounding line (GL) retreat throughout the Holocene. Contrasting this view, using three distinct lines of evidence, we show that the GL retreated hundreds of kilometers inland of its present position, before glacial isostatic rebound during the Mid to Late Holocene caused the GL to readvance to its current position. Evidence for retreat and readvance during the last glacial termination includes (1) widespread radiocarbon in sediment cores recovered from beneath ice streams along the Siple and Gould Coasts, indicating marine exposure at least 200 km inland of the current GL, (2) ice-penetrating radar observations of relic crevasses and other englacial structures preserved in slow-moving grounded ice, indicating ice-shelf grounding and (3) an ensemble of new ice-sheet simulations showing widespread post-LGM retreat of the GL inland of its current location and later readvance. The model indicates that GL readvance across low slope ice-stream troughs requires uplift-driven grounding of the ice shelf on topographic highs (ice rises). Our findings highlight ice-shelf pinning points and lithospheric response to unloading as drivers of major ice-sheet fluctuations. Full WAIS collapse likely requires GL retreat well beyond its current position in the Ronne and Ross Sectors and linkage via Amundsen Sea sector glaciers.

  15. Investigating Margin and Grounding Line Dynamics with a Coupled Ice and Sea Level Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, J.; Milne, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from the coupling of an adaptive mesh glaciological model (BISICLES) with a model of glacial isostatic adjustment and sea level. We apply this coupled model to study the deglaciation of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from the last glacial maximum. The proximity of the GrIS to the much larger Laurentide results in an east-west gradient in sea level rates across Greenland during the deglaciation. We investigate the impacts of this sea level gradient on ice and grounding line dynamics at the margins, as well as the influence of both local and non-local ice on sea level and ice dynamics.

  16. Using market research for product line development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, B H; Kivney, N

    1993-08-01

    A marketing research study determined patient needs and wants in order to tailor services within a family maternity care unit. In addition, an educational program, implemented in an effort to change the behavior of the caregivers in the clinical area, is described.

  17. Research on advancement of technique for assessing ground seismic intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Keiichi; Kaneko, Masahiro; Honda, Riki; Tabuchi, Yoshihiro

    1997-01-01

    In the aseismatic design of nuclear power stations, as the characteristics of earthquake motion inputted in released base surface, the maximum amplitude and the frequency characteristics of earthquake motion, the presumption of earthquake motion using fault model, the time of continuation and the change of amplitude envelope with time are to be examined. In this research, in order to upgrade the earthquake motion used for aseismatic design, the method of evaluating quantitatively the amplifying characteristics of earthquake motion in unfair ground and the technique of setting design earthquake motion that can consider the change of structural state were investigated. The course of the research carried out so far is outlined. As to the amplifying characteristics of earthquake motion in unfair ground, the technique of analysis, the index showing the degree of amplifying of earthquake motion, the index showing the degree of unfairness of ground, the amplifying characteristics of earthquake motion in tray type base, and the evaluation of frequency zone of large degree of amplifying are reported. As to the design earthquake motion taking the plasticizing of structures in consideration, the analysis condition, the equivalent peculiar frequency and the equivalent damping constant and the design earthquake motion taking the plasticizing of structures in consideration are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Lonergan's philosophy as grounding for cross-disciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Anne

    2014-04-01

    Increasingly, nurses conduct scientific inquiry into complex health-care problems by collaborating on teams with researchers from other highly specialized fields. As cross-disciplinary research proliferates and becomes institutionalized globally, researchers will increasingly encounter the need to integrate their particular research perspectives within inquiries without sacrificing the potential contributions of their discipline-specific expertise. The work of the philosopher Bernard Lonergan (1904–1984) offers the necessary philosophical grounding. Here, I defend a role for philosophy in cross-disciplinary research and present selected ideas in Lonergan's work. These include: (1) a dynamic, normative pattern that each inquirer operates uniquely also forms the common core, or unity, in knowing; (2) the possibility of cross-disciplinary knowledge development is dependent on each researcher's consciousness of her or his attentiveness, intelligence, reasonableness, and responsibleness; and (3) shifts in researchers' viewpoints, or horizons, facilitate their collaborative inquiry and their grasp of the unity in knowing. The desire to know, shared by team members, drives their inquiry. Lonergan's stance is consistent with nursing values because it respects, but does not unconditionally privilege, any researcher or discipline. Arguments support a claim that Lonergan's perspective is well suited to guide nurse researchers participating on cross-disciplinary health research teams.

  19. Ground-based observation of emission lines from the corona of a red-dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J H; Wichmann, R

    2001-08-02

    All 'solar-like' stars are surrounded by coronae, which contain magnetically confined plasma at temperatures above 106 K. (Until now, only the Sun's corona could be observed in the optical-as a shimmering envelope during a total solar eclipse.) As the underlying stellar 'surfaces'-the photospheres-are much cooler, some non-radiative process must be responsible for heating the coronae. The heating mechanism is generally thought to be magnetic in origin, but is not yet understood even for the case of the Sun. Ultraviolet emission lines first led to the discovery of the enormous temperature of the Sun's corona, but thermal emission from the coronae of other stars has hitherto been detectable only from space, at X-ray wavelengths. Here we report the detection of emission from highly ionized iron (Fe XIII at 3,388.1 A) in the corona of the red-dwarf star CN Leonis, using a ground-based telescope. The X-ray flux inferred from our data is consistent with previously measured X-ray fluxes, and the non-thermal line width of 18.4 km s-1 indicates great similarities between solar and stellar coronal heating mechanisms. The accessibility and spectral resolution (45,000) of the ground-based instrument are much better than those of X-ray satellites, so a new window to the study of stellar coronae has been opened.

  20. Fun at Antarctic grounding lines: Ice-shelf channels and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Reinhard; Mayer, Christoph; Eisen, Olaf; Helm, Veit; Ehlers, Todd A.; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Favier, Lionel; Hewitt, Ian H.; Ng, Felix; Fürst, Johannes J.; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Bergeot, Nicolas; Matsuoka, Kenichi

    2017-04-01

    Meltwater beneath the polar ice sheets drains, in part, through subglacial conduits. Landforms created by such drainages are abundant in areas formerly covered by ice sheets during the last glacial maximum. However, observations of subglacial conduit dynamics under a contemporary ice sheet are lacking. We present results from ice-penetrating radar to infer the existence of subglacial conduits upstream of the grounding line of Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The conduits are aligned with ice-shelf channels, and underlain by esker ridges formed from sediment deposition due to reduced water outflow speed near the grounding line. In turn, the eskers modify local ice flow to initiate the bottom topography of the ice-shelf channels, and create small surface ridges extending onto the shelf. Relict features on the shelf are interpreted to indicate a history of these interactions and variability of past subglacial drainages. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation, and ice-shelf stability. To investigate the role of sediment transport beneath ice sheets further, we model the sheet-shelf system of the Ekstömisen catchment, Antarctica. A 3D finite element model (Elmer/ICE) is used to solve the transients full Stokes equation for isotropic, isothermal ice with a dynamic grounding line. We initialize the model with surface topography from the TanDEM-X satellites and by inverting simultaneously for ice viscosity and basal drag using present-day surface velocities. Results produce a flow field which is consitent with sattelite and on-site observations. Solving the age-depth relationship allows comparison with radar isochrones from airborne data, and gives information about the atmospheric/dynamic history of this sector. The flow field will eventually be used to identify potential sediment sources and sinks which we compare with more than 400 km of

  1. Research for the Influence of Distribution Network Line Reclosing Current on Line Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kansheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the distribution network line structure and reclosing control strategy, the system simulation model of distribution network lines has established based on the real-time digital simulation RTDS. Based on this, distribution network switching impulse current characteristic has researched with different capacity, different distribution and different load power factor under the different voltage switching angles. The results of the study provide a scientific basis for distribution network line protection setting, in order to further lay the foundation for improvement the validity and reliability of distribution network line protection action.

  2. Decision making process and factors contributing to research participation among general practitioners: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Seng Fah; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Lee, Ping Yein; Ismail, Irmi Zarina; Khoo, Ee Ming; Tahir, Noor Azizah; Idris, Iliza; Ismail, Mastura; Abdullah, Adina

    2018-01-01

    The participation of general practitioners (GPs) in primary care research is variable and often poor. We aimed to develop a substantive and empirical theoretical framework to explain GPs' decision-making process to participate in research. We used the grounded theory approach to construct a substantive theory to explain the decision-making process of GPs to participate in research activities. Five in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted among 21 GPs. Purposeful sampling followed by theoretical sampling were used to attempt saturation of the core category. Data were collected using semi-structured open-ended questions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked prior to analysis. Open line-by-line coding followed by focus coding were used to arrive at a substantive theory. Memoing was used to help bring concepts to higher abstract levels. The GPs' decision to participate in research was attributed to their inner drive and appreciation for primary care research and their confidence in managing their social and research environments. The drive and appreciation for research motivated the GPs to undergo research training to enhance their research knowledge, skills and confidence. However, the critical step in the GPs' decision to participate in research was their ability to align their research agenda with priorities in their social environment, which included personal life goals, clinical practice and organisational culture. Perceived support for research, such as funding and technical expertise, facilitated the GPs' participation in research. In addition, prior experiences participating in research also influenced the GPs' confidence in taking part in future research. The key to GPs deciding to participate in research is whether the research agenda aligns with the priorities in their social environment. Therefore, research training is important, but should be included in further measures and should comply with GPs' social

  3. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines for rhabdomyosarcoma research: Utility and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R.P. Hinson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Despite intergroup clinical trials conducted in Europe and North America, outcomes for high risk patients with this disease have not significantly improved in the last several decades, and survival of metastatic or relapsed disease remains extremely poor. Accrual into new clinical trials is slow and difficult, so in vitro cell line research and in vivo xenograft models present an attractive alternative for preclinical research for this cancer type. Currently, 30 commonly used human RMS cell lines exist, with differing origins, karyotypes, histologies, and methods of validation. Selecting an appropriate cell line for RMS research has important implications for outcomes. There are also potential pitfalls in using certain cell lines including contamination with murine stromal cells, cross-contamination between cell lines, discordance between the cell line and its associated original tumor, imposter cell lines, and nomenclature errors that result in the circulation of two or more presumed unique cell lines that are actually from the same origin. These pitfalls can be avoided by testing for species-specific isoenzymes, microarray analysis, assays for subtype-specific fusion products, and short tandem repeat analysis.

  4. Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Lines for Rhabdomyosarcoma Research: Utility and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Ashley R. P.; Jones, Rosanne; Crose, Lisa E. S.; Belyea, Brian C.; Barr, Frederic G.; Linardic, Corinne M.

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Despite intergroup clinical trials conducted in Europe and North America, outcomes for high risk patients with this disease have not significantly improved in the last several decades, and survival of metastatic or relapsed disease remains extremely poor. Accrual into new clinical trials is slow and difficult, so in vitro cell-line research and in vivo xenograft models present an attractive alternative for preclinical research for this cancer type. Currently, 30 commonly used human RMS cell lines exist, with differing origins, karyotypes, histologies, and methods of validation. Selecting an appropriate cell line for RMS research has important implications for outcomes. There are also potential pitfalls in using certain cell lines including contamination with murine stromal cells, cross-contamination between cell lines, discordance between the cell line and its associated original tumor, imposter cell lines, and nomenclature errors that result in the circulation of two or more presumed unique cell lines that are actually from the same origin. These pitfalls can be avoided by testing for species-specific isoenzymes, microarray analysis, assays for subtype-specific fusion products, and short tandem repeat analysis. PMID:23882450

  5. Research on application of LADAR in ground vehicle recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jinhui; Shen, Zhuoxun

    2009-11-01

    For the requirement of many practical applications in the field of military, the research of 3D target recognition is active. The representation that captures the salient attributes of a 3D target independent of the viewing angle will be especially useful to the automatic 3D target recognition system. This paper presents a new approach of image generation based on Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) data. Range image of target is obtained by transformation of point cloud. In order to extract features of different ground vehicle targets and to recognize targets, zernike moment properties of typical ground vehicle targets are researched in this paper. A technique of support vector machine is applied to the classification and recognition of target. The new method of image generation and feature representation has been applied to the outdoor experiments. Through outdoor experiments, it can be proven that the method of image generation is stability, the moments are effective to be used as features for recognition, and the LADAR can be applied to the field of 3D target recognition.

  6. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-04-28

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena.

  7. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523

  8. Global Research Patterns on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio Terenzio; Leucci, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with the analysis of worldwide research patterns concerning ground penetrating radar (GPR) during 1995-2014. To do this, the Thomson Reuters' Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) and the Social Sciences Citation Index accessed via the Web of Science Core Collection were the two bibliographic databases taken as a reference. We pay attention to the document typology and language, the publication trend and citations, the subject categories and journals, the collaborations between authors, the productivity of the authors, the most cited articles, the countries and the institutions involved, and other hot issues. Concerning the main research subfields involving GPR use, there were five, physical-mathematical, sedimentological-stratigraphical, civil engineering/engineering geology/cultural heritage, hydrological (HD), and glaciological (GL), subfields.

  9. Autonomous Inspection Robot for Power Transmission Lines Maintenance While Operating on the Overhead Ground Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a mobile robot capable of clearing such obstacles as counterweights, anchor clamps, and torsion tower. The mobile robot walks on overhead ground wires in 500KV power tower. Its ultimate purpose is to automate to inspect the defect of power transmission line. The robot with 13 motors is composed of two arms, two wheels, two claws, two wrists, etc. Each arm has 4 degree of freedom. Claws are also mounted on the arms. An embedded computer based on PC/104 is chosen as the core of control system. Visible light and thermal infrared cameras are installed to obtain the video and temperature information, and the communication system is based on wireless LAN TCP/IP protocol. A prototype robot was developed with careful considerations of mobility. The new sensor configuration is used for the claw to grasp the overhead ground wires. The bridge is installed in the torsion tower for the robot easy to cross obstacles. The new posture plan is proposed for obstacles cleaning in the torsion tower. Results of experiments demonstrate that the robot can be applied to execute the navigation and inspection tasks.

  10. Autonomous Inspection Robot for Power Transmission Lines Maintenance While Operating on the Overhead Ground Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a mobile robot capable of clearing such obstacles as counterweights, anchor clamps, and torsion tower. The mobile robot walks on overhead ground wires in 500KV power tower. Its ultimate purpose is to automate to inspect the defect of power transmission line. The robot with 13 motors is composed of two arms, two wheels, two claws, two wrists, etc. Each arm has 4 degree of freedom. Claws are also mounted on the arms. An embedded computer based on PC/104 is chosen as the core of control system. Visible light and thermal infrared cameras are installed to obtain the video and temperature information, and the communication system is based on wireless LAN TCP/IP protocol. A prototype robot was developed with careful considerations of mobility. The new sensor configuration is used for the claw to grasp the overhead ground wires. The bridge is installed in the torsion tower for the robot easy to cross obstacles. The new posture plan is proposed for obstacles cleaning in the torsion tower. Results of experiments demonstrate that the robot can be applied to execute the navigation and inspection tasks.

  11. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  12. Ka-Band, MEMS Switched Line Phase Shifters Implemented in Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Varaljay, Nicholas C.

    2005-01-01

    Ka-band MEMS switched line phase shifters implemented in finite ground coplanar waveguide are described in this paper. The phase shifters are constructed of single-pole double-throw (SPDT) switches with additional reference and phase offset transmission line lengths. The one- and two-bit phase shifters are fabricated on high resistivity (HR) silicon with a dielectric constant, Epsilon(sub T) = 11.7 and a substrate thickness, t = 500microns. The switching architectures integrated within the phase shifters consist of MEMS switches that are doubly anchored cantilever beam capacitive switches with additional high inductive sections (MEMS LC device). The SPDT switch is composed of a T-junction with a MEMS LC device at each output port. The one-bit phase shifter described in this paper has an insertion loss (IL) and return loss (RL) of 0.9 dB and 30 dB while the two-bit described has an IL and RL of 1.8 dB and 30 dB respectively. The one-bit phase shifter's designed offset phase is 22.5deg and actual measured phase shift is 21.8deg. The two-bit phase shifter's designed offset phase is 22.5deg, 45deg, and 67.5deg and the actual measured phase shifts are 21.4deg, 44.2deg, and 65.8deg, respectively.

  13. Staying theoretically sensitive when conducting grounded theory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James

    2016-09-01

    Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice.

  14. UJV line for research into radioactive wastes solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.; Feist, I.; Kepak, F.; Nachmilner, L.; Napravnik, J.; Novak, M.; Pecak, V.; Vojtech, O.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental line with a capacity of 0.01 m 3 /h was developed and built for research of the solidification of liquid radioactive wastes at the Nuclear Research Institute. The line allows the research and pilot plant testing of processes based on vitrification but also on other procedures including calcination. It consists of a horizontal calciner, a resistance melting unit, a homogenization device for research into cementation of the calcinate, and equipment for the disposal of gaseous emissions. The facility is provided with a control console which allows remote control and the control of all basic operating parameters. The design of the line allows its eventual completion with other equipment. (Z.M.)

  15. GROUND SUBSIDENCE ALONG SHANGHAI METRO LINE 6 BY PS-InSAR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban economy, convenient, safe, and efficient urban rail transit has become the preferred method for people to travel. In order to ensure the safety and sustainable development of urban rail transit, the PS-InSAR technology with millimeter deformation measurement accuracy has been widely applied to monitor the deformation of urban rail transit. In this paper, 32 scenes of COSMO-SkyMed descending images and 23 scenes of Envisat ASAR images covering the Shanghai Metro Line 6 acquired from 2008 to 2010 are used to estimate the average deformation rate along line-of-sight (LOS direction by PS-InSAR method. The experimental results show that there are two main subsidence areas along the Shanghai Metro Line 6, which are located between Wuzhou Avenue Station to Wulian Road Station and West Gaoke Road Station to Gaoqing Road Station. Between Wuzhou Avenue Station and Wulian Road Station, the maximum displacement rate in the vertical direction of COSMO-SkyMed images is −9.92 mm/year, and the maximum displacement rate in the vertical direction of Envisat ASAR images is −8.53 mm/year. From the West Gaoke Road Station to the Gaoqing Road Station, the maximum displacement rate in the vertical direction of COSMO-SkyMed images is −15.53 mm/year, and the maximum displacement rate in the vertical direction of Envisat ASAR images is −17.9 mm/year. The results show that the ground deformation rates obtained by two SAR platforms with different wavelengths, different sensors and different incident angles have good consistence with each other, and also that of spirit leveling.

  16. Simulation and experimental research on line throwing rocket with flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bin Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The finite segment method is used to model the line throwing rocket system. A dynamic model of line throwing rocket with flight motion based on Kane's method is presented by the kinematics description of the system and the consideration of the forces acting on the system. The experiment designed according to the parameters of the dynamic model is made. The simulation and experiment results, such as range, velocity and flight time, are compared and analyzed. The simulation results are basically agreed with the test data, which shows that the flight motion of the line throwing rocket can be predicted by the dynamic model. A theoretical model and guide for the further research on the disturbance of rope and the guidance, flight control of line throwing rocket are provided by the dynamic modeling.

  17. ATOMIC DATA FOR ABSORPTION-LINES FROM THE GROUND-LEVEL AT WAVELENGTHS GREATER-THAN-228-ANGSTROM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERNER, DA; BARTHEL, PD; TYTLER, D

    1994-01-01

    We list wavelengths, statistical weigths and oscillator strengths for 2249 spectral lines arising from the ground states of atoms and ions. The compilation covers all wavelengths longward of the HeII Lyman limit at 227.838 Angstrom and all the ion states of all elements from hydrogen to bismuth (Z =

  18. Main line maser emission in the OH ground state Λdoublet as a result of overlapping far infrared transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelling, M.

    1977-01-01

    Transitions 2πsub(1/2), j = 5/2, F = 3 → 2πsub(3/2), j = 3/2, F = 2 and 2πsub(1/2), j = 5/2, F = 2 → 2πsub(3/2), J = 3/2, F = 1 have overlapping Doppler line wings at a kinetic temperature of 100 K. This alters the transport of radiation in each line from that which would occur in the absence of line overlap. As a result, the upper levels of the ground state Λ-doublet become overpopulated. (author)

  19. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meaning, action and interaction, self and perspectives. As research design incorporates both methodology and methods, the authors aim to expose the linkages between the 16 assumptions and essential grounded theory methods, highlighting the application of the latter in light of the former. Analyzing the links between symbolic interactionism and essential grounded theory methods provides novice researchers and researchers new to grounded theory with a foundation from which to design an evolved grounded theory research study.

  20. Research on the Test of Transmission Line Galloping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lichun; Li, Qing; lv, Zhongbin; Ji, Kunpeng; Liu, Bin

    2018-03-01

    The load of iced transmission line and the load generated by galloping after the conductor are covered by ice all may cause severe circuit faults, such as tripping, conductor breaking, armor clamp damage and even tower collapse, thus severely threatening running safety of power system. The generation and development processes of galloping of power transmission line is very complicated, and numerous factors may influence the galloping excitation, such as environmental factors, terrain factors and structural parameters of power transmission line; in which, the ice covering of conductor is one of necessary factors causing galloping. Therefore, researches on ice covering increasing test of different types of conductors under different meteorological conditions have been conducted in large-sized multi-functional phytotron, thus obtaining the relation curve of ice covering increasing of conductor along with time under different conditions, and analyzing factors influencing increasing of ice covering. The research result shows that under the same ice covering conditions, the increasing of ice covering of conductor with small diameter is relatively rapid; both environmental temperature and wind speed have obvious influence on increasing of ice covering of conductor, and the environmental temperature will decide the type of ice covering of conductor surface. Meanwhile, after wind tunnel tests targeting conductors with different ice covering shapes, pneumatic stability loss characteristics of conductors with different ice shapes have been obtained. Research results have important scientific reference value for revealing the mechanism of galloping of iced power transmission line, and have relatively high engineering practicability value for promoting realization of early warning system for galloping of iced power transmission line.

  1. Linking Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory Methods in a Research Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Chamberlain-Salaun; Jane Mills; Kim Usher

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on Corbin and Strauss’ evolved version of grounded theory. In the third edition of their seminal text, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, the authors present 16 assumptions that underpin their conception of grounded theory methodology. The assumptions stem from a symbolic interactionism perspective of social life, including the themes of meanin...

  2. On-line Monitoring of Instrumentation in Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    This publication is the result of a benchmarking effort undertaken under the IAEA coordinated research project on improved instrumentation and control (I&C) maintenance techniques for research reactors. It lays the foundation for implementation of on-line monitoring (OLM) techniques and establishment of the validity of those for improved maintenance practices in research reactors for a number of applications such as change to condition based calibration, performance monitoring of process instrumentation systems, detection of process anomalies and to distinguish between process problems/effects and instrumentation/sensor issues. The techniques and guidance embodied in this publication will serve the research reactor community in providing the technical foundation for implementation of OLM techniques. It is intended to be used by Member States to implement I&C maintenance and to improve performance of research reactors.

  3. Impact of SSSC on Measured Impedance in Single Phase to Ground Fault Condition on 220 kV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the impact of SSSC on measured impedance for single phase to ground fault condition. The presence of Static Synchronous SSSC on a transmission line has a great influence on the ZRelay in distance protection. The protection of the high voltage 220 kV single circuit transmission line in eastern Algerian electrical transmission networks is affected in the case with resistance fault RF. The paper investigate the effect of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC on the measured impedance (Relay taking into account the distance fault point (n and fault resistance (RF. The resultants simulation is performed in MATLAB software environment.

  4. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics: Vehicle Dynamic Characterization and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    subassemblies that would be common on ground vehicles. Powertrain Systems: Gas Powered, Diesel , Turbo Diesel , Gas Turbine, Hybrid: Gas- Electric...PROPULSE (Hybrid Diesel - Electric System with Export Power), Command Zone (integrated vehicle control and diagnostic system), and TerraMax (Unmanned... Diesel -Electric, Series, Parallel. Power Distribution: RWD, FWD, AWD, open diff, LSD, Torsen diff, differential braking (traction control), drive by

  5. Overview of risk analysis research on tanker groundings and collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1999-01-01

    for evaluation of the oil outlfow performance of alternative tanker designs in the event of a collision or grounding. The present paper is an invited contribution oto the first meeting of the Committee on Evaluating Double Hull Alterntive Tanker Designs held at the National Academy of Sciences' Georgetown...

  6. Textbook research as scientific research: towards a common ground for research on mathematics textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Lianghuo

    2011-01-01

    This article explores research issues and methods of textbook research. Drawing on literatures and the author’s own work in the area of mathematics textbook research, it conceptualizes textbooks as an intermediate variable in the context of education and hence defines textbook research as disciplined inquiry into issues about textbooks and the relationships between textbooks and other factors in education. Furthermore, it argues that to further advance the field of textbook research, research...

  7. On increasing the spectral efficiency and transmissivity in the data transmission channel on the spacecraft-ground tracking station line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, M. N.; Kostenko, V. I.; Likhachev, S. F.

    2018-01-01

    The algorithms for achieving a practical increase in the rate of data transmission on the space-craft-ground tracking station line has been considered. This increase is achieved by applying spectral-effective modulation techniques, the technology of orthogonal frequency compression of signals using millimeterrange radio waves. The advantages and disadvantages of each of three algorithms have been revealed. A significant advantage of data transmission in the millimeter range has been indicated.

  8. 800 kW transmission line research at Leatherhead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1964-05-29

    The experimental transmission line was installed at Leatherhead to enable the Central Electricity Research Laboratories to study the insulators, fittings, and conductors likely to be needed for ac power transmission at voltages up to the equivalent of 800 kV three-phase. Continuous recording will be made of corona power loss and radio and television interference. For this purpose C.E.R.L. has developed a statistical radio-interference recorder. The instrumentation also includes an automatic corona-loss bridge and data logger.

  9. Preparatory research to develop an operational method to calibrate airborne sensor data using a network of ground calibration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, E.J.; Smith, G.M.; Lawless, K.P.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an operational method to convert airborne spectral radiance data to reflectance using a number of well-characterized ground calibration sites located around the UK. The study is in three phases. First, a pilot study has been conducted at a disused airfield in southern England to test the feasibility of the open-quote empirical line close-quote method of sensor calibration. The second phase is developing methods to predict temporal changes in the bidirectional reflectance of ground calibration sites. The final phase of the project will look at methods to extend such calibrations spatially. This paper presents some results from the first phase of this study. The viability of the empirical line method of correction is shown to depend upon the use of ground targets whose in-band reflectance encompasses that of the targets of interest in the spectral band(s) concerned. The experimental design for the second phase of the study, in which methods to predict temporal trends in the bidirectional reflectance of these sites will be developed, is discussed. Finally, it is planned to develop an automated method of searching through Landsat TM data for the UK to identify a number of candidate ground calibration sites for which the model can be tested. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  10. [Memorandum IV: Theoretical and Normative Grounding of Health Services Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, W; Farin, E; Menzel-Begemann, A; Meyer, T

    2016-05-01

    With Memoranda and other initiatives, the German Network for Health Service Research [Deutsches Netzwerk Versorgungsforschung e.V. (DNVF)] is fostering the methodological quality of care research studies for years. Compared to the standards of empirical research, questions concerning the role and function of theories, theoretical approaches and scientific principles have not been taken up on its own. Therefore, the DNVF e.V. has set up a working group in 2013, which was commissioned to prepare a memorandum on "theories in health care research". This now presented memorandum will primarily challenge scholars in health care services research to pay more attention to questions concerning the theoretical arsenal and the background assumptions in the research process. The foundation in the philosophy of science, the reference to normative principles and the theory-bases of the research process are addressed. Moreover, the memorandum will call on to advance the theorizing in health services research and to strengthen not empirical approaches, research on basic principles or studies with regard to normative sciences and to incorporate these relevant disciplines in health services research. Research structures and funding of health services research needs more open space for theoretical reflection and for self-observation of their own, multidisciplinary research processes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Introduction. Leave no stone unturned: Perspectives on ground stone artefact research

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Rosenberg; Yorke Rowan; Tatjana Gluhak

    2016-01-01

    Ground stone tools served in many physical and social contexts through millennia, reflecting a wide variety of functions. Although ground stone tool studies were neglected for much of early archaeology, the last few decades witnessed a notable international uptick in the way archaeologists confront this multifaceted topic. Today, with the advance of archaeology as a discipline, research into ground stone artefacts is moving into a new phase that integrates high resolution documentation with n...

  12. Elaborations of grounded theory in information research: arenas/social worlds theory, discourse and situational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, A.C.; Sen, B.A.; Rosa, A.; Ellis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores elaborations of Grounded Theory in relation to Arenas/Social Worlds Theory. The notions of arenas and social worlds were present in early applications of Grounded Theory but have not been as much used or recognised as the general Grounded Theory approach, particularly in the information studies field. The studies discussed here are therefore very unusual in information research. The empirical contexts of these studies are those of (1) the role of discourse in the organisat...

  13. The importance of symbolic interaction in grounded theory research on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, D L

    2001-01-01

    A variety of grounded theory studies are presented in this issue of Health Care for Women International that attend to different factors and situations impacting women's health. In this paper I will provide the basic principles of symbolic interactionism (SI) for the reader unfamiliar with the conceptual underpinnings of the grounded theory research method. I will discuss why SI is a fitting perspective for use in the study of women, women's perspectives, and women's health. I will conclude with a brief discussion of challenges to researchers maintaining the symbolic interaction perspective in grounded theory research.

  14. Representing grounding line migration in synchronous coupling between a marine ice sheet model and a z-coordinate ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D. N.; Snow, K.; Holland, P.; Jordan, J. R.; Campin, J.-M.; Heimbach, P.; Arthern, R.; Jenkins, A.

    2018-05-01

    Synchronous coupling is developed between an ice sheet model and a z-coordinate ocean model (the MITgcm). A previously-developed scheme to allow continuous vertical movement of the ice-ocean interface of a floating ice shelf ("vertical coupling") is built upon to allow continuous movement of the grounding line, or point of floatation of the ice sheet ("horizontal coupling"). Horizontal coupling is implemented through the maintenance of a thin layer of ocean ( ∼ 1 m) under grounded ice, which is inflated into the real ocean as the ice ungrounds. This is accomplished through a modification of the ocean model's nonlinear free surface evolution in a manner akin to a hydrological model in the presence of steep bathymetry. The coupled model is applied to a number of idealized geometries and shown to successfully represent ocean-forced marine ice sheet retreat while maintaining a continuous ocean circulation.

  15. Developing a Guideline for Reporting and Evaluating Grounded Theory Research Studies (GUREGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Grimshaw-Aagaard, Søsserr Lone Smilla; Hansen, Carrinna

    2018-01-01

    theory research studies. The study was conducted in three phases. Phase 1: A structured literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Libraries, PsycInfo and SCOPUS to identify recommendations for reporting and evaluating grounded theory. Phase 2: A selective review of the methodological grounded theory...

  16. A Brush with Research: Teaching Grounded Theory in the Art and Design Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Mike; Barrett, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to social research that allows for new concepts and theories to emerge from gathered data, as opposed to relying on either established theory or personal conjecture to interpret social processes. Although Grounded Theory is a well-known method within social science literature, it is relatively unknown in…

  17. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  18. On-ground detection of an electron-positron annihilation line from thunderclouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, D; Tsuchiya, H; Enoto, T; Yamada, S; Yuasa, T; Kawaharada, M; Kitaguchi, T; Nakazawa, K; Kokubun, M; Kato, H; Okano, M; Tamagawa, T; Makishima, K

    2016-02-01

    Thunderclouds can produce bremsstrahlung gamma-ray emission, and sometimes even positrons. At 00:27:00 (UT) on 13 January 2012, an intense burst of gamma rays from a thundercloud was detected by the GROWTH experiment, located in Japan, facing the Sea of Japan. The event started with a sharp gamma-ray flash with a duration of gamma-ray emission lasting for ∼60 s. The spectrum of this prolonged emission reached ∼10 MeV, and contained a distinct line emission at 508±3(stat.)±5(sys.) keV, to be identified with an electron-positron annihilation line. The line was narrow within the instrumental energy resolution (∼80keV), and contained 520±50 photons which amounted to ∼10% of the total signal photons of 5340±190 detected over 0.1-10 MeV. As a result, the line equivalent width reached 280±40 keV, which implies a nontrivial result. The result suggests that a downward positron beam produced both the continuum and the line photons.

  19. Ground Zero in the Debate over Stem-Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Describes how political, legal, and ethical battles over embryonic stem-cell research are focused on the University of Wisconsin at Madison, where the cells were first isolated. Addresses the issue of access to the university's stem cells and a recent presidential decision regarding funding for stem-cell research.(EV)

  20. The results of research on the effectiveness of line management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Lapushkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the relevance of research concerning the management system effectiveness in the project company. It shows that the emergence of independent commercial enterprises in the electrical power sector led both to deterioration of continuous processes controllability and to serious failures in functioning of infrastructure processes (repairs, invoice, and receipt of monetary funds. But, at the same time, a number of processes showed an increase of operation efficiency due to decrease in expenses when functioning.Coordination of activities between holding and company showed that process to come up with the weighty arguments in favor of one or other management decisions was the most complicated.The objective of the article is worded as follows: to reveal the regularities for the management efficiency to depend both on the echelons of regulation to make a decision at various times of delay (time from the decision-making moment before impact on object/subject of management and on the abovementioned factors.The research was carried out using the model of the control loop. When conducting research, the model used only line (proportional link, as the most often encountered in the development of management systems in organizations. Line (proportional link is the link with the output value changing with time according to the same law, as the input value. In management the proportional link means that managerial decisions and the impact on employees is proportional to the rejection of planned and actual performances of company activities.To assess the quality of management at different stages of the regulation, principles of regulation and management structures the article suggests to use the indicators of management costs, the integrated indicator of management error, the coefficient of regulation quality, the ratio of discounted costs, and the efficiency of regulation. It also proposes to use the efficiency factor of regulation to show which

  1. Ground-breaking virtual research in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Jespersen, Kristina Risom; Buck, Nuka

    2008-01-01

    MAPP also focuses on virtual reality. In the research project RIPS - the Role of Information Processing in NPD Strategy - a simulation of a product development process was used as a data collection instrument.......MAPP also focuses on virtual reality. In the research project RIPS - the Role of Information Processing in NPD Strategy - a simulation of a product development process was used as a data collection instrument....

  2. Historical fencing and scientific research medieval weapons: common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Hrynchyshyn

    2015-07-01

    We considered various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. It is proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods The various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. Proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods.

  3. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  4. Study of a phase-to-ground fault on a 400 kV overhead transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagăr, A.; Popa, G. N.; Diniş, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Power utilities need to supply their consumers at high power quality level. Because the faults that occur on High-Voltage and Extra-High-Voltage transmission lines can cause serious damages in underlying transmission and distribution systems, it is important to examine each fault in detail. In this work we studied a phase-to-ground fault (on phase 1) of 400 kV overhead transmission line Mintia-Arad. Indactic® 650 fault analyzing system was used to record the history of the fault. Signals (analog and digital) recorded by Indactic® 650 were visualized and analyzed by Focus program. Summary of fault report allowed evaluation of behavior of control and protection equipment and determination of cause and location of the fault.

  5. Kosovo’s Ground Flash Density and Protection of Transmission Lines of the Kosovo Power System from Atmospheric Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Prebreza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the protection of transmission power lines of the Kosovo Power System from atmospheric discharges, with the use of surge arresters. Atmospheric discharges represent one of the main causes of interruptions for the Kosovo Power System. In addition, the ground flash density for Kosovo is given. The transmission lines with the worst performance regarding atmospheric discharges are discussed in more detail and are presented recommendations about the surge arresters used to protect the system from these overvoltages. The data provided by the localized lightning system in Kosovo enable us to provide a detailed correlation of the reported outages of the Kosovo Power System and corresponding atmospheric discharges. Recommendations for protection in terms of surge arresters are given followed by subsequent dynamic simulations using MATLAB software.

  6. Lightning current distribution to ground at a power line tower carrying a radio base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Radio base stations are often mounted on towers of power transmission lines. They are usually powered from the low-voltage network through an isolating transformer, to separate the high- and low-voltage networks. The isolating transformer ensures security at customers' premises in the case of nearby

  7. An automatic optimum number of well-distributed ground control lines selection procedure based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Somayeh; Valadan Zoej, Mohammad Javad; Salehi, Bahram

    2018-05-01

    The procedure of selecting an optimum number and best distribution of ground control information is important in order to reach accurate and robust registration results. This paper proposes a new general procedure based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is applicable for all kinds of features (point, line, and areal features). However, linear features due to their unique characteristics are of interest in this investigation. This method is called Optimum number of Well-Distributed ground control Information Selection (OWDIS) procedure. Using this method, a population of binary chromosomes is randomly initialized. The ones indicate the presence of a pair of conjugate lines as a GCL and zeros specify the absence. The chromosome length is considered equal to the number of all conjugate lines. For each chromosome, the unknown parameters of a proper mathematical model can be calculated using the selected GCLs (ones in each chromosome). Then, a limited number of Check Points (CPs) are used to evaluate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each chromosome as its fitness value. The procedure continues until reaching a stopping criterion. The number and position of ones in the best chromosome indicate the selected GCLs among all conjugate lines. To evaluate the proposed method, a GeoEye and an Ikonos Images are used over different areas of Iran. Comparing the obtained results by the proposed method in a traditional RFM with conventional methods that use all conjugate lines as GCLs shows five times the accuracy improvement (pixel level accuracy) as well as the strength of the proposed method. To prevent an over-parametrization error in a traditional RFM due to the selection of a high number of improper correlated terms, an optimized line-based RFM is also proposed. The results show the superiority of the combination of the proposed OWDIS method with an optimized line-based RFM in terms of increasing the accuracy to better than 0.7 pixel, reliability, and reducing systematic

  8. RESEARCH OF MOISTURE MIGRATION DURING PARTIAL FREEZING OF GROUND BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Stefanovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «ideal product» is proposed for the study of mass transfer during partial freezing of food products by freezing plate. The ideal product is a product, in which number of factors affecting the «real product» (meat are excluded. These factors include chemical composition of meat, quality grade of raw material (NOR, DFD, PSE, cryoscopic temperature that determines the degree of water transformation into ice, the phenomenon of osmosis, rate of freezing, etc. By using the concept of «ideal product» and its implementation in a physical experiment, it is proved that the “piston effect” causing the migration of moisture is due to frozen crust formation during partial freezing of the body. During partial freezing of the product by freezing plate, «ideal» and «real» food environment is transformed from closed system into open one with inflow of moisture to unfrozen part of the body. In the «ideal product», there is an expulsion of unfrozen moisture from freezing front, so the water appears on the body surface. Thus, the displacement of moisture increases by the same law, according to which the thickness (weight of frozen layer increases. During partial freezing of ground meat, moisture does not appear on the surface of the product, but hydrates the unfrozen part of meat. The reason of this phenomenon is the expulsion of water during formation of frozen crust and water-binding capacity of meat.

  9. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…

  10. Normal mode splitting and ground state cooling in a Fabry—Perot optical cavity and transmission line resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua-Jun; Mi Xian-Wu

    2011-01-01

    Optomechanical dynamics in two systems which are a transmission line resonator and Fabrya—Perot optical cavity via radiation—pressure are investigated by linearized quantum Langevin equation. We work in the resolved sideband regime where the oscillator resonance frequency exceeds the cavity linewidth. Normal mode splittings of the mechanical resonator as a pure result of the coupling interaction in the two optomechanical systems is studied, and we make a comparison of normal mode splitting of mechanical resonator between the two systems. In the optical cavity, the normal mode splitting of the movable mirror approaches the latest experiment very well. In addition, an approximation scheme is introduced to demonstrate the ground state cooling, and we make a comparison of cooling between the two systems dominated by two key factors, which are the initial bath temperature and the mechanical quality factor. Since both the normal mode splitting and cooling require working in the resolved sideband regime, whether the normal mode splitting influences the cooling of the mirror is considered. Considering the size of the mechanical resonator and precooling the system, the mechanical resonator in the transmission line resonator system is easier to achieve the ground state cooling than in optical cavity. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. Brazilian pediatric research groups, lines of research, and main areas of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila H.A. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Brazilian scientific production in the pediatrics field has been increasing significantly. It is important to identify the distribution and activity of these groups in the country and the main study areas, contributing with data for better resource allocation by institutions. METHODS: An active research was conducted in the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico [CNPq] website, using as filters the macro area of the research group (Health Sciences, the area (Medicine, and descriptors related to pediatrics. Research lines and main area of pediatric research groups were classified according to the subject predominantly studied by each group. The scientific production of the leader of the pediatric research group between 2011 and 2014 was also analyzed. RESULTS: Most pediatric research groups in Brazil have more than five years of activity and are concentrated in the Southeast and South regions of the country; São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, and Minas Gerais are the states with most groups. Of the 132 specific pediatric research groups analyzed, 14.4% have lines of research in multiple areas and 11.4% in child and adolescent health. Among the 585 lines of research of these groups, the most prevalent areas were: oncology, infectious diseases, epidemiology, and gastroenterology. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric research groups in Brazil have relevant scientific production, including works published in international publications, and are concentrated in regions with higher socioeconomic index. Most groups registered in CNPq started their activity in the last five years (46%, reflecting the recent growth of scientific production in this area.

  12. The Flipped Classroom: Fertile Ground for Nursing Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean S

    2015-07-16

    In the flipped classroom (FC) students view pre-recorded lectures or complete pre-class assignments to learn foundational concepts. Class time involves problem-solving and application activities that cultivate higher-level cognitive skills. A systematic, analytical literature review was conducted to explore the FC's current state of the science within higher education. Examination of this model's definition and measures of student performance, student and faculty perceptions revealed an ill-defined educational approach. Few studies confirmed FC effectiveness; many lacked rigorous design, randomized samples, or control of extraneous variables. Few researchers conducted longitudinal studies to determine sufficiently trends related to FC practice. This study proves relevant to nurse educators transitioning from traditional teaching paradigms to learner-centered models, and provides insight from faculty teaching across disciplines around the world. It reveals pertinent findings and identifies current knowledge gaps that call for further inquiry.

  13. Extrinsic Parameter Calibration for Line Scanning Cameras on Ground Vehicles with Navigation Systems Using a Calibration Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wendel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Line scanning cameras, which capture only a single line of pixels, have been increasingly used in ground based mobile or robotic platforms. In applications where it is advantageous to directly georeference the camera data to world coordinates, an accurate estimate of the camera’s 6D pose is required. This paper focuses on the common case where a mobile platform is equipped with a rigidly mounted line scanning camera, whose pose is unknown, and a navigation system providing vehicle body pose estimates. We propose a novel method that estimates the camera’s pose relative to the navigation system. The approach involves imaging and manually labelling a calibration pattern with distinctly identifiable points, triangulating these points from camera and navigation system data and reprojecting them in order to compute a likelihood, which is maximised to estimate the 6D camera pose. Additionally, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to estimate the uncertainty of the offset. Tested on two different platforms, the method was able to estimate the pose to within 0.06 m/1.05 ∘ and 0.18 m/2.39 ∘ . We also propose several approaches to displaying and interpreting the 6D results in a human readable way.

  14. Research on Line Patrol Strategy of 110kV Transmission Line after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning faults occupy in the majority of instantaneous fault and reclosing can usually be successful, so power supply can be restored without immediate patrol in many cases. Firstly, this paper introduces the lightning fault positioning and identifying method. Then test electrical performance of insulators after lightning strike from 110kV lines. Data shows that lightning strike has little effect on the electric performance of insulator. Finally, illustrating disposal process of the 110 kV transmission line after lightning fault, certifying that the power supply reliability be ensured without line patrol.

  15. Electric dipole moment function and line intensities for the ground state of carbon monxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hua-Jun; Cheng Xin-Lu; Wu Jie; Liu Hao

    2015-01-01

    An accurate electric dipole moment function (EDMF) is obtained for the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule (X 1 Σ + ) by fitting the experimental rovibrational transitional moments. Additionally, an accurate ab initio EDMF is found using the highly accurate, multi-reference averaged coupled-pair functional (ACPF) approach with the basis set, aug-cc-pV6Z, and a finite-field with ±0.005 a.u. (The unit a.u. is the abbreviation of atomic unit). This ab initio EDMF is very consistent with the fitted ones. The vibrational transition matrix moments and the Herman–Wallis factors, calculated with the Rydberg–Klein–Rees (RKR) potential and the fitted and ab initio EDMFs, are compared with experimental measurements. The consistency of these line intensities with the high-resolution transmission (HITRAN) molecular database demonstrates the improved accuracy of the fitted and ab initio EDMFs derived in this work. (paper)

  16. Spreading Speed of Magnetopause Reconnection X-Lines Using Ground-Satellite Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying; Walsh, Brian M.; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; McWilliams, Kathryn A.; Nishitani, Nozomu

    2018-01-01

    Conceptual and numerical models predict that magnetic reconnection starts at a localized region and then spreads out of the reconnection plane. At the Earth's magnetopause this spreading would occur primarily in local time along the boundary. Different simulations have found the spreading to occur at different speeds such as the Alfvén speed and speed of the current carriers. We use conjugate Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft and Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar measurements to observationally determine the X-line spreading speed at the magnetopause. THEMIS probes the reconnection parameters locally, and SuperDARN tracks the reconnection development remotely. Spreading speeds under different magnetopause boundary conditions are obtained and compared with model predictions. We find that while spreading under weak guide field could be explained by either the current carriers or the Alfvén waves, spreading under strong guide field is consistent only with the current carriers.

  17. Overview of ground coupled heat pump research and technology transfer activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, V. D.; Mei, V. C.

    Highlights of DOE-sponsored ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are presented. ORNL, in cooperation with Niagara Mohawk Power Company, Climate Master, Inc., and Brookhaven National Laboratory developed and demonstrated an advanced GCHP design concept with shorter ground coils that can reduce installed costs for northern climates. In these areas it can also enhance the competitiveness of GCHP systems versus air-source heat pumps by lowering their payback from 6 to 7 years to 3 to 5 years. Ground coil heat exchanger models (based primarily on first principles) have been developed and used by others to generate less conservative ground coil sizing methods. An aggressive technology transfer initiative was undertaken to publicize results of this research and make it available to the industry. Included in this effort were an international workshop, trade press releases and articles, and participation in a live teleconference on GCHP technology.

  18. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  19. On-line NIR analysis of fat, water and protein in industrial scale ground meat batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøgersen, G; Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Bakker, E A; Hildrum, K I

    1999-01-01

    Fat, water and protein contents in industrial scale meat batches were determined on-line by near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. The NIR instrument was mounted at the outlet of a large meat grinder, and the measurements were performed in an industrial environment. Beef and pork samples, with chemical compositions of 7-26% fat, 58-75% water and 15-21% protein, were processed with hole diameters of 13mm in the grinder plate. Calibrations were made both for a combined set of beef and pork samples, and for separate sets of beef and pork samples. Validations were either done by full cross validation of the calibration set, or by bias corrected prediction of a test set. Prediction errors for the two sample sets, expressed as root mean square errors of cross validation or standard error of prediction, were in the ranges 0.82-1.49% fat, 0.94-1.33% water and 0.35-0.70% protein, depending of sample set and species of animal. The presented application is an improvement to the existing manual meat standardisation procedure, and has been implemented for regular use in a Norwegian meat manufacturing plant.

  20. Economic Impact Analysis of Short Line Railroads : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Rail transportation is of vital : importance to the state of : Louisiana and is a key : component of the states : business infrastructure, supporting agricultural, petroleum, chemical, and manufacturing : industries across the state. Short line (C...

  1. Simulation and experimental research on line throwing rocket with flight

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-bin Gu; Ming Lu; Jian-qing Liu; Qin-xing Dong; Zhen-xiong Wang; Jiang-hai Chen

    2014-01-01

    The finite segment method is used to model the line throwing rocket system. A dynamic model of line throwing rocket with flight motion based on Kane's method is presented by the kinematics description of the system and the consideration of the forces acting on the system. The experiment designed according to the parameters of the dynamic model is made. The simulation and experiment results, such as range, velocity and flight time, are compared and analyzed. The simulation results are basicall...

  2. Cytoskeletal Regulation Dominates Temperature-Sensitive Proteomic Changes of Hibernation in Forebrain of 13-Lined Ground Squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy – wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins dihydropyrimidinase

  3. Cytoskeletal regulation dominates temperature-sensitive proteomic changes of hibernation in forebrain of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson G Hindle

    Full Text Available 13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy - wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins

  4. Up-regulation of Long Non-coding RNA TUG1 in Hibernating Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques J. Frigault

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation is associated with multiple physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that allow animals to endure colder temperatures. We hypothesize that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, a group of non-coding transcripts with diverse functions, are differentially expressed during hibernation. In this study, expression levels of lncRNAs H19 and TUG1 were assessed via qRT-PCR in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. TUG1 transcript levels were significantly elevated 1.94-fold in skeletal muscle of hibernating animals when compared with euthermic animals. Furthermore, transcript levels of HSF2 also increased 2.44-fold in the skeletal muscle in hibernating animals. HSF2 encodes a transcription factor that can be negatively regulated by TUG1 levels and that influences heat shock protein expression. Thus, these observations support the differential expression of the TUG1–HSF2 axis during hibernation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for differential expression of lncRNAs in torpid ground squirrels, adding lncRNAs as another group of transcripts modulated in this mammalian species during hibernation.

  5. Up-regulation of Long Non-coding RNA TUG1 in Hibernating Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigault, Jacques J; Lang-Ouellette, Daneck; Morin, Pier

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian hibernation is associated with multiple physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that allow animals to endure colder temperatures. We hypothesize that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a group of non-coding transcripts with diverse functions, are differentially expressed during hibernation. In this study, expression levels of lncRNAsH19 and TUG1 were assessed via qRT-PCR in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). TUG1 transcript levels were significantly elevated 1.94-fold in skeletal muscle of hibernating animals when compared with euthermic animals. Furthermore, transcript levels of HSF2 also increased 2.44-fold in the skeletal muscle in hibernating animals. HSF2 encodes a transcription factor that can be negatively regulated by TUG1 levels and that influences heat shock protein expression. Thus, these observations support the differential expression of the TUG1-HSF2 axis during hibernation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for differential expression of lncRNAs in torpid ground squirrels, adding lncRNAs as another group of transcripts modulated in this mammalian species during hibernation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Linking the Intercultural and Grounded Theory: Methodological Issues in Migration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sheridan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Connecting intercultural research with Grounded Theory was advocated in the early history of intercultural theorising and includes the development of researchers' intercultural competencies. Such competency comes to the fore where intercultural theory places an equal emphasis on home and host cultures in migration research. In this context we have found a Grounded Theory approach particularly suitable for disentangling complex interlinkings within migration experiences and their individual outcomes. Grounded Theory allows for the exploration of various theories in different fields and the emergence of new or deeper interpretations of intercultural experiences, including where research has not engaged deeply with or avoided intercultural contexts. The use of software, based on Grounded Theory, provides the resource for systematically exploring the inter-related nature of data. In addition, engaging in intercultural research, in particular, raises questions around our practice as social science researchers: adherence to ethics guidelines, for instance, can be in some conflict with the relations we build with members of communities whose cultural values, for instance around friendship or trust, impact on the norms of both our own and institutional expectations. This leads to reflection on the relationship with research participants in terms of our own intercultural experiences and position. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901363

  7. A three-dimensional full Stokes model of the grounding line dynamics: effect of a pinning point beneath the ice shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Favier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The West Antarctic ice sheet is confined by a large area of ice shelves, fed by inland ice through fast flowing ice streams. The dynamics of the grounding line, which is the line-boundary between grounded ice and the downstream ice shelf, has a major influence on the dynamics of the whole ice sheet. However, most ice sheet models use simplifications of the flow equations, as they do not include all the stress components, and are known to fail in their representation of the grounding line dynamics. Here, we present a 3-D full Stokes model of a marine ice sheet, in which the flow problem is coupled with the evolution of the upper and lower free surfaces, and the position of the grounding line is determined by solving a contact problem between the shelf/sheet lower surface and the bedrock. Simulations are performed using the open-source finite-element code Elmer/Ice within a parallel environment. The model's ability to cope with a curved grounding line and the effect of a pinning point beneath the ice shelf are investigated through prognostic simulations. Starting from a steady state, the sea level is slightly decreased to create a contact point between a seamount and the ice shelf. The model predicts a dramatic decrease of the shelf velocities, leading to an advance of the grounding line until both grounded zones merge together, during which an ice rumple forms above the contact area at the pinning point. Finally, we show that once the contact is created, increasing the sea level to its initial value does not release the pinning point and has no effect on the ice dynamics, indicating a stabilising effect of pinning points.

  8. Reflecting on the role of literature in qualitative public administration research:learning from grounded theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); N. Karsten (Niels)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen undertaking qualitative research, public administration scholars must walk a thin line between being theoretically sensitive and imposing preconceived ideas on their work. This article identifies opportunities and pitfalls in using literature in qualitative public administration

  9. On-line prediction of chemical composition of semi-frozen ground beef by non-invasive NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøgersen, G; Arnesen, J F; Nilsen, B N; Hildrum, K I

    2003-04-01

    The chemical composition of industrial scale batches of frozen beef was measured on-line during grinding by near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. The MM55E filter based non-contact NIR instrument was mounted at the outlet of a meat grinder, and the fat, moisture and protein contents determined from the average of each filter reading throughout the grinding of the batch. The filters were selected from full spectra measurements to be as insensitive to water crystallization as possible. For on-line calibration and prediction, 55 beef batches of 400-800 kg in the range of 7.66-22.91% fat, 59.36-71.48% moisture, and 17.04-20.76% protein, were ground through 4 or 13 mm hole plates. The regression results, presented as root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) were between 0.48 and 1.11% for fat, 0.43 and 0.97% for moisture and 0.41 and 0.47% for protein.

  10. Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, R J; Capes-Davis, A; Davis, J M; Downward, J; Freshney, R I; Knezevic, I; Lovell-Badge, R; Masters, J R W; Meredith, J; Stacey, G N; Thraves, P; Vias, M

    2014-09-09

    Cell-line misidentification and contamination with microorganisms, such as mycoplasma, together with instability, both genetic and phenotypic, are among the problems that continue to affect cell culture. Many of these problems are avoidable with the necessary foresight, and these Guidelines have been prepared to provide those new to the field and others engaged in teaching and instruction with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the problems and to enable them to deal with them effectively. The Guidelines cover areas such as development, acquisition, authentication, cryopreservation, transfer of cell lines between laboratories, microbial contamination, characterisation, instability and misidentification. Advice is also given on complying with current legal and ethical requirements when deriving cell lines from human and animal tissues, the selection and maintenance of equipment and how to deal with problems that may arise.

  11. Kennedy Space Center: Constellation Program Electrical Ground Support Equipment Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Keegan

    2010-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is NASA's spaceport, launching rockets into space and leading important human spaceflight research. This spring semester, I worked at KSC on Constellation Program electrical ground support equipment through NASA's Undergraduate Student Research Program (USRP). This report includes a discussion of NASA, KSC, and my individual research project. An analysis of Penn State's preparation of me for an internship and my overall impressions of the Penn State and NASA internship experience conclude the report.

  12. Many Teenagers Can't Distinguish Harassment Lines, Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    A national survey finds that, when it comes to sexual harassment in school, many students do not know where to draw the line. Based on the first nationally representative survey in a decade of students in grades 7-12, the study conducted by the American Association of University Women (AAUW), found that 48 percent of nearly 2,000 students surveyed…

  13. Researches in increase of efficiency of electrokinetic process of ground cleaning from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, L.B.; Shcheglov, M.Y.; Nikolaevsky, V.B.; Tkachenko, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Potentially perspective method of decontamination of ground is electrokinetic method, which basic advantage consists in an opportunity of its application for clearing ground with low filtering by ability directly on a place of local contaminated (in situ). Thus moving the large volumes of the contaminated ground is excluded. Base of this method is the processes of electromigration and electro-osmotic, proceeding in a contaminated ground lay at imposing an electrical field of a constant current. Electrokinetic method of cleaning of ground from radionuclides provides their transfer in water-soluble, mobile form, carry as positive or negative ions under influence of an electrical field into electrode chambers with their subsequent recycling.Electrokinetic method in practice can be realized as follows: in the contaminated ground establish special electrode devices, fill their electrolyte and connect to a source of a constant current. Formed in the anode device as a result of electrochemical decomposition of water the ions of hydrogen under action of an electrical field move to the cathode, thus cooperate with a ground and superside cations of radioactive elements. Desorbed cations of contaminate act in catholyte, which periodically or continuously is exposed to clearing, for example, on sorption column. Last years the experts MosNPO Radon carry out complex researches directed on development of electrokinetic technology of cleaning ground from radionuclides and heavy metals. To the present time laboratory and bench tests of electrokinetic method are carried out. The basic attention at study of process of cleaning was given to objects contaminated Cs-137, most difficult recovery an element, which is strongly fixed by clay minerals and can enter into crystal structure. (authors)

  14. Detecting the single line to ground short circuit fault in the submarine’s power system using the artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behniafar Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric marine instruments are newly inserted in the trade and industry, for which the existence of an equipped and reliable power system is necessitated. One of the features of such a power system is that it cannot have an earth system causing the protection relays not to be able to detect the single line to ground short circuit fault. While on the other hand, the occurrence of another similar fault at the same time can lead to the double line fault and thereby the tripping of relays and shortening of vital loads. This in turn endangers the personals' security and causes the loss of military plans. From the above considerations, it is inferred that detecting the single line to ground fault in the marine instruments is of a special importance. In this way, this paper intends to detect the single line to ground fault in the power systems of the marine instruments using the wavelet transform and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network. In the numerical analysis, several different types of short circuit faults are simulated on several marine power systems and the proposed approach is applied to detect the single line to ground fault. The results are of a high quality and preciseness and perfectly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Research progress in mutational effects of aerospace on crop and ground simulation on aerospace environment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxiang; Wang Jing; Zhao Linshu; Guo Huijun; Zhao Shirong; Zheng Qicheng; Yang Juncheng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the current status of aerospace botany research in aboard was briefly introduced. The research progress of mutational effects of aerospace on crop seed and its application in germplasm enhancement and new variety development by using recoverable satellite techniques in China has been reviewed. The approaches and its experimental advances of ground simulation on aerospace environmental factors were analyzed at different angles of particle biology, physical field biology and gravity biology

  16. Grounded theory, a kvalitatív kutatás klasszikus mérföldköve (Grounded theory, the classic milestone of qualitative research)

    OpenAIRE

    Mitev, Ariel Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    A grounded theory olyan kutatási módszer, ahol az elmélet az empirikus adatokból fejlődik ki és abban gyökerezik (Glaser - Strauss, 1967). Annak ellenére, hogy a módszer nemzetközileg rendkívül népszerű, a grounded theory nem igazán vert gyökeret a hazai menedzsment- és marketingkutatás talajában. A cikk célja a grounded theory kulcsfontosságú mozzanatainak bemutatása és a módszer népszerűsítése. / === / Grounded theory is a research method in which theory emerges from the data and is grounde...

  17. Some Long-Standing and Emerging Research Lines in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Early research on child development in Africa was dominated by expatriates and was primarily addressed to the topics of testing the cross-cultural validity of theories developed "in the West," and the search for universals. After a brief review of the outcome of that research, we propose two additional types of motivation that seem…

  18. A Novel Protection Method for Single Line-to-Ground Faults in Ungrounded Low-Inertia Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuming Jing

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel protection method for single line-to-ground (SLG faults in ungrounded low-inertia microgrids. The proposed method includes microgrid interface protection and unit protection. The microgrid interface protection is based on the difference between the zero-sequence voltage angle and the zero-sequence current angle at the microgrid interconnection transformer for fast selection of the faulty feeder. The microgrid unit protection is based on a comparison of the three zero-sequence current phase directions at each junction point of load or distributed energy resources. Methods are also included to locate the minimum fault section. The fault section location technology operates according to the coordination of microgrid unit protection. The proposed method responds to SLG faults that may occur in both the grid and the microgrid. Simulations of an ungrounded low-inertia microgrid with a relay model were carried out using Power System Computer Aided Design (PSCAD/Electromagnetic Transients including DC (EMTDC.

  19. FISHING GROUND, CACTH COMPOSITION, HOOK RATE AND LENGTH DISTRIBUTION OF BILLFISHES CAUGHT BY TUNA LONG LINE IN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathur Rochman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Billfishes area by cacth of tuna long line vessels in Indian Ocean. Billfish are consist of swordfish Xiphias gladius, black marlin Makaira indica, indo facific blue marlin Makaira mazara, stripe marlin Tetrapturus audax, indo facific sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and shortbill spearfish Tetrapturus angustirostris. Besides that, billfishes also have important economic value compared with tuna as an exsported species such as swordfish and marlin. To optimize the catch of billfishes in Indian Ocean, data and information of potential fishing ground, size and catch composition of this species are needed. The billfishes cacth composition collected in 2011 were dominated by 45% swordfish, 20% black marlin, 19% blue marlin,9% short bill spearfish, 6% sailfish and 1%stripe marlin. The billfishes size range which were caught between 60 - 280 cm LJFL (Lower Jaw Fork Length. The sword fish average length was 150 cm, blue marlin 197 cm, black Marlin 189 cm, sailfish 150cm ,short bill spearfish 144 cm and stripe marlin159 cm. From this observation, it was found that most of billfishes caught were in mature.

  20. The Future of Ground Magnetometer Arrays in Support of Space Weather Monitoring and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Mark; Zesta, Eftyhia

    2017-11-01

    A community workshop was held in Greenbelt, Maryland, on 5-6 May 2016 to discuss recommendations for the future of ground magnetometer array research in space physics. The community reviewed findings contained in the 2016 Geospace Portfolio Review of the Geospace Section of the Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Science of the National Science Foundation and discussed the present state of ground magnetometer arrays and possible pathways for a more optimal, robust, and effective organization and scientific use of these ground arrays. This paper summarizes the report of that workshop to the National Science Foundation (Engebretson & Zesta, as well as conclusions from two follow-up meetings. It describes the current state of U.S.-funded ground magnetometer arrays and summarizes community recommendations for changes in both organizational and funding structures. It also outlines a variety of new and/or augmented regional and global data products and visualizations that can be facilitated by increased collaboration among arrays. Such products will enhance the value of ground-based magnetometer data to the community's effort for understanding of Earth's space environment and space weather effects.

  1. Development and use of interactive displays in real-time ground support research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Donald C.; Hammons, Kvin R.; Malone, Jacqueline C.; Nesel, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is one of the world's most advanced aeronautical research flight test support facilities. A variety of advanced and often unique real-time interactive displays has been developed for use in the mission control centers (MCC) to support research flight and ground testing. These dispalys consist of applications operating on systems described as real-time interactive graphics super workstations and real-time interactive PC/AT compatible workstations. This paper reviews these two types of workstations and the specific applications operating on each display system. The applications provide examples that demonstrate overall system capability applicable for use in other ground-based real-time research/test facilities.

  2. On-line repository of audiovisual material feminist research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Prado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a collection of audiovisual material available in the repository of the Interdisciplinary Seminar of Feminist Research Methodology SIMReF (http://www.simref.net.

  3. GRI proposes to hold the line on research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Gas Research Institute has proposed a 1993 US research and development program totaling $201.8 million, the same level as the 1991 but down from $212.9 million this year. GRI filed the 1993 proposal and its 1993-97 R and D plan with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. If FERC approves the plan, interstate gas pipeline companies would support the GRI research by collecting a surcharge of 1.51 cents/Mcf on nondiscounted gas transactions and 8 cents/Mcf/month on uniform demand or reservations. The proposed budget is based on a revised funding mechanism FERC is considering for GRI. The research agency's general expanses and capital budget would remain at the 1992 level of $9.8 million

  4. A "Star Wars" Objector Lays His Research on the Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Sheila

    1987-01-01

    For one optical scientist, Harrison Barrett, the decision not to accept funding for research related to the Strategic Defense Initiative has meant giving up a major part of his work in optical computing. (MSE)

  5. Earthquake ground motion research in Sapporo city; Sapporoshi ni okeru jishindo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasatani, T [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City established in May 1996 has inaugurated collection of information on ground structures and observations of strong earthquakes in Sapporo City. The Research Group on Earthquake Ground Motion in Sapporo City has carried out geological investigations, electric logging and PS logging to date in three boring holes each with a depth of about 100 m, 200 m and 600 m. According to the result of the logging in the new Ishikari Bay port (600-m deep hole), the S-wave velocity has increased slowly as it starts from the ground surface to greater depths, but showed no noticeable velocity boundaries in this range of the depth. The Sapporo municipal office has drilled three observation wells (500-m deep) for the purpose of determining focal points of microtremors directly under the city area. Hole-bottom observation has been inaugurated since the beginning of this year. According to comparison of the results of loggings at great depths, a depth at which the S-wave velocity reaches about 700 m/s becomes greater toward the sea area. The result of calculations on amplification characteristics of the SH wave on rock beds revealed that a seismic wave of about 0.5 Hz is amplified by a little more than two times. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Christina Goulding Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers Sage Publications No of pages: 186 £18.99 0761966838 0761966838 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Leslie

    2003-10-01

    Much has been written about the grounded theory approach to qualitative research, however the number of books devoted solely to this methodology remains relatively few. Therefore, any new book dedicated to the subject is always likely to attract attention - especially given the increasing popularity of grounded theory in healthcare research.

  7. A Novel High-Frequency Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio-Based Grounding Electrode Line Fault Supervision in Ultra-High Voltage DC Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Teng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the fault monitoring performance of grounding electrode lines in ultra-high voltage DC (UHVDC transmission systems, a novel fault monitoring approach based on the high-frequency voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR is proposed in this paper. The VSWR is defined considering a lossless transmission line, and the characteristics of the VSWR under different conditions are analyzed. It is shown that the VSWR equals 1 when the terminal resistance completely matches the characteristic impedance of the line, and when a short circuit fault occurs on the grounding electrode line, the VSWR will be greater than 1. The VSWR will approach positive infinity under metallic earth fault conditions, whereas the VSWR in non-metallic earth faults will be smaller. Based on these analytical results, a fault supervision criterion is formulated. The effectiveness of the proposed VSWR-based fault supervision technique is verified with a typical UHVDC project established in Power Systems Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC(PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can reliably identify the grounding electrode line fault and has strong anti-fault resistance capability.

  8. Real-time on-line space research laboratory environment monitoring with off-line trend and prediction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2007-06-01

    With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked, processed and analyzed daily on the ground on a continuous basis for the space station reduced gravity environment characterization, the vehicle design requirements verification and science data collection. To help understand the impact of the unique spacecraft environment on the science data, an artificial intelligence monitoring system was developed, which detects in near real time any change in the reduced gravity environment susceptible to affect the on-going experiments. Using a dynamic graphical display, the monitoring system allows science teams, at any time and any location, to see the active vibration disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost and extra-vehicular activities that might impact the reduced gravity environment the experiments are exposed to. The monitoring system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many increments (an increment usually lasts 6 months) collected onboard the station for selected disturbances. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential systems failures. The monitoring system has two operating modes: online and offline. Both near real-time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line detection and trend analysis are discussed in this paper.

  9. Unveiling the chemistry of interstellar CH. Spectroscopy of the 2 THz N = 2 ← 1 ground state line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesemeyer, H.; Güsten, R.; Menten, K. M.; Durán, C. A.; Csengeri, T.; Jacob, A. M.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.; Wyrowski, F.

    2018-04-01

    Context. The methylidyne radical CH is commonly used as a proxy for molecular hydrogen in the cold, neutral phase of the interstellar medium. The optical spectroscopy of CH is limited by interstellar extinction, whereas far-infrared observations provide an integral view through the Galaxy. While the HF ground state absorption, another H2 proxy in diffuse gas, frequently suffers from saturation, CH remains transparent both in spiral-arm crossings and high-mass star forming regions, turning this light hydride into a universal surrogate for H2. However, in slow shocks and in regions dissipating turbulence its abundance is expected to be enhanced by an endothermic production path, and the idea of a "canonical" CH abundance needs to be addressed. Aim. The N = 2 ← 1 ground state transition of CH at λ149 μm has become accessible to high-resolution spectroscopy thanks to the German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies (GREAT) aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Its unsaturated absorption and the absence of emission from the star forming regions makes it an ideal candidate for the determination of column densities with a minimum of assumptions. Here we present an analysis of four sightlines towards distant Galactic star forming regions, whose hot cores emit a strong far-infrared dust continuum serving as background signal. Moreover, if combined with the sub-millimeter line of CH at λ560 μm , environments forming massive stars can be analyzed. For this we present a case study on the "proto-Trapezium" cluster W3 IRS5. Methods: While we confirm the global correlation between the column densities of HF and those of CH, both in arm and interarm regions, clear signposts of an over-abundance of CH are observed towards lower densities. However, a significant correlation between the column densities of CH and HF remains. A characterization of the hot cores in the W3 IRS5 proto-cluster and its envelope demonstrates that the sub

  10. Grounding line migration through the calving season at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, observed with terrestrial radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Surui; Dixon, Timothy H.; Voytenko, Denis; Deng, Fanghui; Holland, David M.

    2018-04-01

    Ice velocity variations near the terminus of Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, were observed with a terrestrial radar interferometer (TRI) during three summer campaigns in 2012, 2015, and 2016. We estimate a ˜ 1 km wide floating zone near the calving front in early summer of 2015 and 2016, where ice moves in phase with ocean tides. Digital elevation models (DEMs) generated by the TRI show that the glacier front here was much thinner (within 1 km of the glacier front, average ice surface is ˜ 100 and ˜ 110 m above local sea level in 2015 and 2016, respectively) than ice upstream (average ice surface is > 150 m above local sea level at 2-3 km to the glacier front in 2015 and 2016). However, in late summer 2012, there is no evidence of a floating ice tongue in the TRI observations. Average ice surface elevation near the glacier front was also higher, ˜ 125 m above local sea level within 1 km of the glacier front. We hypothesize that during Jakobshavn Isbræ's recent calving seasons the ice front advances ˜ 3 km from winter to spring, forming a > 1 km long floating ice tongue. During the subsequent calving season in mid- and late summer, the glacier retreats by losing its floating portion through a sequence of calving events. By late summer, the entire glacier is likely grounded. In addition to ice velocity variation driven by tides, we also observed a velocity variation in the mélange and floating ice front that is non-parallel to long-term ice flow motion. This cross-flow-line signal is in phase with the first time derivative of tidal height and is likely associated with tidal currents or bed topography.

  11. Metabolic changes associated with the long winter fast dominate the liver proteome in 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Grabek, Katharine R; Epperson, L Elaine; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Martin, Sandra L

    2014-05-15

    Small-bodied hibernators partition the year between active homeothermy and hibernating heterothermy accompanied by fasting. To define molecular events underlying hibernation that are both dependent and independent of fasting, we analyzed the liver proteome among two active and four hibernation states in 13-lined ground squirrels. We also examined fall animals transitioning between fed homeothermy and fasting heterothermy. Significantly enriched pathways differing between activity and hibernation were biased toward metabolic enzymes, concordant with the fuel shifts accompanying fasting physiology. Although metabolic reprogramming to support fasting dominated these data, arousing (rewarming) animals had the most distinct proteome among the hibernation states. Instead of a dominant metabolic enzyme signature, torpor-arousal cycles featured differences in plasma proteins and intracellular membrane traffic and its regulation. Phosphorylated NSFL1C, a membrane regulator, exhibited this torpor-arousal cycle pattern; its role in autophagosome formation may promote utilization of local substrates upon metabolic reactivation in arousal. Fall animals transitioning to hibernation lagged in their proteomic adjustment, indicating that the liver is more responsive than preparatory to the metabolic reprogramming of hibernation. Specifically, torpor use had little impact on the fall liver proteome, consistent with a dominant role of nutritional status. In contrast to our prediction of reprogramming the transition between activity and hibernation by gene expression and then within-hibernation transitions by posttranslational modification (PTM), we found extremely limited evidence of reversible PTMs within torpor-arousal cycles. Rather, acetylation contributed to seasonal differences, being highest in winter (specifically in torpor), consistent with fasting physiology and decreased abundance of the mitochondrial deacetylase, SIRT3. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Metabolic changes associated with the long winter fast dominate the liver proteome in 13-lined ground squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Grabek, Katharine R.; Epperson, L. Elaine; Karimpour-Fard, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Small-bodied hibernators partition the year between active homeothermy and hibernating heterothermy accompanied by fasting. To define molecular events underlying hibernation that are both dependent and independent of fasting, we analyzed the liver proteome among two active and four hibernation states in 13-lined ground squirrels. We also examined fall animals transitioning between fed homeothermy and fasting heterothermy. Significantly enriched pathways differing between activity and hibernation were biased toward metabolic enzymes, concordant with the fuel shifts accompanying fasting physiology. Although metabolic reprogramming to support fasting dominated these data, arousing (rewarming) animals had the most distinct proteome among the hibernation states. Instead of a dominant metabolic enzyme signature, torpor-arousal cycles featured differences in plasma proteins and intracellular membrane traffic and its regulation. Phosphorylated NSFL1C, a membrane regulator, exhibited this torpor-arousal cycle pattern; its role in autophagosome formation may promote utilization of local substrates upon metabolic reactivation in arousal. Fall animals transitioning to hibernation lagged in their proteomic adjustment, indicating that the liver is more responsive than preparatory to the metabolic reprogramming of hibernation. Specifically, torpor use had little impact on the fall liver proteome, consistent with a dominant role of nutritional status. In contrast to our prediction of reprogramming the transition between activity and hibernation by gene expression and then within-hibernation transitions by posttranslational modification (PTM), we found extremely limited evidence of reversible PTMs within torpor-arousal cycles. Rather, acetylation contributed to seasonal differences, being highest in winter (specifically in torpor), consistent with fasting physiology and decreased abundance of the mitochondrial deacetylase, SIRT3. PMID:24642758

  13. Reclosing operation characteristics of the flux-coupling type SFCL in a single-line-to ground fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, B.I.; Cho, Y.S.; Choi, H.S.; Ha, K.H.; Choi, S.G.; Chul, D.C.; Sung, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    The recloser that is used in distribution systems is a relay system that behaves sequentially to protect power systems from transient and continuous faults. This reclosing operation of the recloser can improve the reliability and stability of the power supply. For cooperation with this recloser, the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) must properly perform the reclosing operation. This paper analyzed the reclosing operation characteristics of the three-phase flux-coupling type SFCL in the event of a ground fault. The fault current limiting characteristics according to the changing number of turns of the primary and secondary coils were examined. As the number of turns of the first coil increased, the first maximum fault current decreased. Furthermore, the voltage of the quenched superconducting element also decreased. This means that the power burden of the superconducting element decreases based on the increasing number of turns of the primary coil. The fault current limiting characteristic of the SFCL according to the reclosing time limited the fault current within a 0.5 cycles (8 ms), which is shorter than the closing time of the recloser. In other words, the superconducting element returned to the superconducting state before the second fault and normally performed the fault current limiting operation. If the SFCL did not recover before the recloser reclosing time, the normal current that was flowing in the transmission line after the recovery of the SFCL from the fault would have been limited and would have caused losses. Therefore, the fast recovery time of a SFCL is critical to its cooperation with the protection system.

  14. Reclosing operation characteristics of the flux-coupling type SFCL in a single-line-to ground fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, B. I.; Cho, Y. S.; Choi, H. S.; Ha, K. H.; Choi, S. G.; Chul, D. C.; Sung, T. H.

    2011-11-01

    The recloser that is used in distribution systems is a relay system that behaves sequentially to protect power systems from transient and continuous faults. This reclosing operation of the recloser can improve the reliability and stability of the power supply. For cooperation with this recloser, the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) must properly perform the reclosing operation. This paper analyzed the reclosing operation characteristics of the three-phase flux-coupling type SFCL in the event of a ground fault. The fault current limiting characteristics according to the changing number of turns of the primary and secondary coils were examined. As the number of turns of the first coil increased, the first maximum fault current decreased. Furthermore, the voltage of the quenched superconducting element also decreased. This means that the power burden of the superconducting element decreases based on the increasing number of turns of the primary coil. The fault current limiting characteristic of the SFCL according to the reclosing time limited the fault current within a 0.5 cycles (8 ms), which is shorter than the closing time of the recloser. In other words, the superconducting element returned to the superconducting state before the second fault and normally performed the fault current limiting operation. If the SFCL did not recover before the recloser reclosing time, the normal current that was flowing in the transmission line after the recovery of the SFCL from the fault would have been limited and would have caused losses. Therefore, the fast recovery time of a SFCL is critical to its cooperation with the protection system.

  15. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  16. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  17. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  18. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F [Editor

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  4. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2010-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  5. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  6. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  7. Tools for adequacy of research lines of research institutes: the example of IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacramento, Jose Miguel Noronha

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to assist research institutes, notably the IPEN, in order to improve their assertiveness in the process of defining their research lines. New evolutionary speeds have increased exponentially requiring greater synchronism and multiple and coordinated action from the three fundamental elements in order to assure the development of the contemporary society: Government, Productive Structure and Infrastructure in Science and Technology. This environment increasingly dynamic and mutant imposes greater proximity with the socioeconomic environment when former client-consumer has become the co-creator of knowledge and supplier of energy now contained in a new standard of social relations, called Networked Society. The difference in time for the University, the Productive Structure and Government is function of its main activities: Science, Market and the achievement of Public Opinion, respectively. The equation that will harmonize and find synergies between these three dimensions is the contemporary challenge for those who seek to innovate and advance knowledge in order to improve the standard of living of the society. In this work is shown that research institutes must believe in the words of Robert Plomin and start connecting to the several links in different chains in order to make use of a collective intelligence that continuously expands in speed and quality higher than in any other time in human history. The comparison among the results obtained from the different methodologies of analysis proposed in this work allows finding out strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities of the IPEN providing subsidies in order to find better ways to tailor its performance to the new demands. (author)

  8. Life lines: An art history of biological research around 1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Around 1800, the scientific "illustrator" emerged as a new artistic profession in Europe. Artists were increasingly sought after in order to picture anatomical dissections and microscopic observations and to translate drawings into artworks for books and journals. By training and technical expertise, they introduced a particular kind of knowledge into scientific perception that also shaped the common image of nature. Illustrations of scientific publications, often undervalued as a biased interpretation of facts and subordinate to logic and description, thus convey an 'art history' of science in its own right, relevant both for the understanding of biological thought around 1800 as well as for the development of the arts and their historiography. The article is based on an analysis of botanical treatises produced for the Göttingen Society of Sciences in 1803, during an early phase of microscopic cell research, in order to determine the constitutive role of artistic knowledge and the media employed for the visualization and conceptualization of biological issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  10. Business analysis methodology in telecommunication industry – the research based on the grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Nenickova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the grounded theory using in the qualitative research as a basis to build a business analysis methodology for the implementation of information systems in telecommunication enterprises in Czech Republic. In the preparation of the methodology I have used the current needs of telecommunications companies, which are characterized mainly by high dependence on information systems. Besides that, this industry is characterized by high flexibility and competition and compressing of the corporate strategy timeline. The grounded theory of business analysis defines the specifics of the telecommunications industry, focusing on the very specific description of the procedure for collecting the business requirements and following the business strategy.

  11. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  12. Beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for ion beam transport line used in applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, V.A.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Arkhipov, A.V.; Illes, A.; Bodnar, K.; Illes, Z.; Havancsak, K.

    1999-01-01

    Ion beam transport line for applied research on U-400 cyclotron, beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for condensed matter studies are described. The main features of Windows-based real time program are considered

  13. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  14. The effect of ground borne vibrations from high speed train on overhead line equipment (OHLE) structure considering soil-structure interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2018-06-15

    At present, railway infrastructure experiences harsh environments and aggressive loading conditions from increased traffic and load demands. Ground borne vibration has become one of these environmental challenges. Overhead line equipment (OHLE) provides electric power to the train and is, for one or two tracks, normally supported by cantilever masts. A cantilever mast, which is made of H-section steel, is slender and has a poor dynamic behaviour by nature. It can be seen from the literature that ground borne vibrations cause annoyance to people in surrounding areas especially in buildings. Nonetheless, mast structures, which are located nearest and alongside the railway track, have not been fully studied in terms of their dynamic behaviour. This paper presents the effects of ground borne vibrations generated by high speed trains on cantilever masts and contact wire located alongside railway tracks. Ground borne vibration velocities at various train speeds, from 100 km/h to 300 km/h, are considered based on the consideration of semi-empirical models for predicting low frequency vibration on ground. A three-dimensional mast structure with varying soil stiffness is made using a finite element model. The displacement measured is located at the end of cantilever mast which is the position of contact wire. The construction tolerance of contact stagger is used as an allowable movement of contact wire in transverse direction. The results show that the effect of vibration velocity from train on the transverse direction of mast structure is greater than that on the longitudinal direction. Moreover, the results obtained indicate that the ground bourn vibrations caused by high speed train are not strong enough to cause damage to the contact wire. The outcome of this study will help engineers improve the design standard of cantilever mast considering the effect of ground borne vibration as preliminary parameter for construction tolerances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  15. Coupling and corona effects research plan for transmission lines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, J E; Formanek, V C

    1976-06-01

    Concern has arisen over the possible effects of electric and magnetic fields produced by EHV-UHV transmission lines. Past and ongoing research concerning the electric and magnetic field effects from EHV-UHV transmission lines was reviewed as it pertains to the following areas: (1) electromagnetic interference, (2) acoustic noise, (3) generation of gaseous effluents, and (4) safety considerations of induced voltages and currents. The intent of this review was to identify the short and long range research projects required to address these areas. The research plan identifies and gives priority to twenty programs in corona and coupling effects. In the case of the corona effects, a number of programs were recommended for acoustic noise and electromagnetic interference to delineate improved power line design criteria in terms of social, meteorological, geographical and cost constraints. Only one project is recommended in the case of ozone generation, because the results of comprehensive analyses, laboratory studies and field measurements have demonstrated that power lines do not contribute significant quantities of ozone. In the case of the coupling effects, a number of programs are recommended for HVAC transmission lines to improve the theoretically developed design guidelines by considering practical constraints. For HVDC transmission lines, programs are suggested to engender a better theoretical understanding and practical measurements capability for the coupling mechanisms of the dc electric and magnetic field with nearby objects. The interrelationship of the programs and their role in a long-term research plan is also discussed.

  16. Experimental research of joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on thermal capacity of frozen ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motenko, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Most gas and petroleum fields are located in permafrost zones, with some being on saline territories. Oil pollution of soils can occur in different ways and at different points such as during the extraction, processing and storage, and during transportation of oil and petroleum products. Oil producing pollution and salinization of soil often happen together. In this case, the sources of salts are the formation fluid, commercial waste water, the contents of the granaries and other geochemically active substances used for the extraction and desalting of crude oil. Joint salinization and contamination can also happen during the rupture of oil pipelines in saline areas. Although there is research available on the properties of saline soils and on properties of soils polluted with petroleum, there are no studies that describe changes of ground properties with joint pollution of salt and petroleum. This paper presented a study that examined the joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on the thermal characteristics of thawed and frozen grounds, particularly on thermal capacity. The paper outlined the purpose of the research and described the experimental methods. It was concluded that an increase of salinization increases the heat capacity of frozen soil because the amount of unfrozen water increases with increasing salinization. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Experimental research of joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on thermal capacity of frozen ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motenko, R.G. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Geocryology; Grechishcheva, E.S. [Fundamentproek, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Most gas and petroleum fields are located in permafrost zones, with some being on saline territories. Oil pollution of soils can occur in different ways and at different points such as during the extraction, processing and storage, and during transportation of oil and petroleum products. Oil producing pollution and salinization of soil often happen together. In this case, the sources of salts are the formation fluid, commercial waste water, the contents of the granaries and other geochemically active substances used for the extraction and desalting of crude oil. Joint salinization and contamination can also happen during the rupture of oil pipelines in saline areas. Although there is research available on the properties of saline soils and on properties of soils polluted with petroleum, there are no studies that describe changes of ground properties with joint pollution of salt and petroleum. This paper presented a study that examined the joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on the thermal characteristics of thawed and frozen grounds, particularly on thermal capacity. The paper outlined the purpose of the research and described the experimental methods. It was concluded that an increase of salinization increases the heat capacity of frozen soil because the amount of unfrozen water increases with increasing salinization. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  18. DISSECTING THE POWER SOURCES OF LOW-LUMINOSITY EMISSION-LINE GALAXY NUCLEI VIA COMPARISON OF HST-STIS AND GROUND-BASED SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Anca; Castillo, Christopher A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States); Shields, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Using a sample of ∼100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of Hα and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which transition objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at ≲10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The transition objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broad Hα emission in the high-resolution data, as well as the strongest density gradients, supporting the composite model for these systems as accreting sources surrounded by star-forming activity. The narrow-line LINERs appear to be the weaker counterparts of the Type 1 LINERs, where the low accretion rates cause the disappearance of the broad-line component. The enhanced sensitivity of the HST observations reveals a 30% increase in the incidence of accretion-powered systems at z ≈ 0. A comparison of the strength of the broad-line emission detected at different epochs implies potential broad-line variability on a decade-long timescale, with at least a factor of three in amplitude.

  19. Ethical issues in bipolar disorders pedigree research: privacy concerns, informed consent, and grounds for waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa S

    2002-02-01

    Focusing on bipolar disorders research, this article considers ethical issues of informed consent and privacy arising in genetic pedigree research at two stages: the construction of tentative pedigrees to determine family eligibility for study and, subsequently, the enrollment of subjects in and conduct of the family study. Increasing concern to protect the privacy of family members of primary subjects or probands, following ethical controversy over a survey study at Virginia Commonwealth University, has led some researchers and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) to apply informed consent requirements to those represented on a tentative pedigree at the initial stage of research. This article analyzes the possible benefits, risks, and burdens to prospective subjects of seeking prospective consent for pedigree construction at this initial stage. It argues that the likely risk-benefit ratio favors granting a waiver of consent requirements for this stage of pedigree research and presents grounds for IRBs to grant such a waiver. The article closes by considering particular ethical concerns that should be addressed in the informed consent discussion when enrolling subjects in pedigree studies of bipolar disorder, including concerns about subjects' competence to consent, management of interim and incidental findings, and issues particular to psychiatric research.

  20. ["Grounded theory" develops medicine. Popular research method for exploring human behavior can discover new connections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulesius, Hans; Barfod, Toke; Ekström, Helene; Håkansson, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Grounded theory (GT) is a popular research method for exploring human behavior. GT was developed by the medical sociologists Glaser and Strauss while they studied dying in hospitals in the 1960s resulting in the book "Awareness of dying". The goal of a GT is to generate conceptual theories by using all types of data but without applying existing theories and hypotheses. GT procedures are mostly inductive as opposed to deductive research where hypotheses are tested. A good GT has a core variable that is a central concept connected to many other concepts explaining the main action in the studied area. A core variable answers the question "What's going on?". Examples of core variables are: "Cutting back after a heart attack"--how people adapt to life after a serious illness; and "Balancing in palliative cancer care"--a process of weighing, shifting, compensating and compromising when treating people with a progressive and incurable illness trajectory.

  1. Mixed-field GCR Simulations for Radiobiological Research using Ground Based Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Rusek, Adam; Cucinotta, Francis

    Space radiation is comprised of a large number of particle types and energies, which have differential ionization power from high energy protons to high charge and energy (HZE) particles and secondary neutrons produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Ground based accelerators such as the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are used to simulate space radiation for radiobiology research and dosimetry, electronics parts, and shielding testing using mono-energetic beams for single ion species. As a tool to support research on new risk assessment models, we have developed a stochastic model of heavy ion beams and space radiation effects, the GCR Event-based Risk Model computer code (GERMcode). For radiobiological research on mixed-field space radiation, a new GCR simulator at NSRL is proposed. The NSRL-GCR simulator, which implements the rapid switching mode and the higher energy beam extraction to 1.5 GeV/u, can integrate multiple ions into a single simulation to create GCR Z-spectrum in major energy bins. After considering the GCR environment and energy limitations of NSRL, a GCR reference field is proposed after extensive simulation studies using the GERMcode. The GCR reference field is shown to reproduce the Z and LET spectra of GCR behind shielding within 20 percents accuracy compared to simulated full GCR environments behind shielding. A major challenge for space radiobiology research is to consider chronic GCR exposure of up to 3-years in relation to simulations with cell and animal models of human risks. We discuss possible approaches to map important biological time scales in experimental models using ground-based simulation with extended exposure of up to a few weeks and fractionation approaches at a GCR simulator.

  2. NASA Langley and NLR Research of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Hoekstra, Jacco M.; Wing, David J.; Lohr, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) is a concept of future air traffic operations that proposes to distribute information, decision-making authority, and responsibility among flight crews, the air traffic service provider, and aeronautical operational control organizations. This paper provides an overview and status of DAG-TM research at NASA Langley Research Center and the National Aerospace Laboratory of The Netherlands. Specific objectives of the research are to evaluate the technical and operational feasibility of the autonomous airborne component of DAG-TM, which is founded on the operational paradigm of free flight. The paper includes an overview of research approaches, the airborne technologies under development, and a summary of experimental investigations and findings to date. Although research is not yet complete, these findings indicate that free flight is feasible and will significantly enhance system capacity and safety. While free flight cannot alone resolve the complex issues faced by those modernizing the global airspace, it should be considered an essential part of a comprehensive air traffic management modernization activity.

  3. Modeling of HVDC System to Improve Estimation of Transient DC Current and Voltages for AC Line-to-Ground Fault—An Actual Case Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohoon Kwon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new modeling method for high voltage direct current (HVDC systems and associated controllers is presented for the power system simulator for engineering (PSS/E simulation environment. The aim is to improve the estimation of the transient DC voltage and current in the event of an AC line-to-ground fault. The proposed method consists primary of three interconnected modules for (a equation conversion; (b control-mode selection; and (c DC-line modeling. Simulation case studies were carried out using PSS/E and a power systems computer aided design/electromagnetic transients including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC model of the Jeju– Haenam HVDC system in Korea. The simulation results are compared with actual operational data and the PSCAD/EMTDC simulation results for an HVDC system during single-phase and three-phase line-to-ground faults, respectively. These comparisons show that the proposed PSS/E modeling method results in the improved estimation of the dynamic variation in the DC voltage and current in the event of an AC network fault, with significant gains in computational efficiency, making it suitable for real-time analysis of HVDC systems.

  4. The emission function of ground-based light sources: State of the art and research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio

    2018-05-01

    To understand the night sky radiance generated by the light emissions of urbanised areas, different researchers are currently proposing various theoretical approaches. The distribution of the radiant intensity as a function of the zenith angle is one of the most unknown properties on modelling skyglow. This is due to the collective effects of the artificial radiation emitted from the ground-based light sources. The emission function is a key property in characterising the sky brightness under arbitrary conditions, therefore it is required by modellers, environmental engineers, urban planners, light pollution researchers, and experimentalists who study the diffuse light of the night sky. As a matter of course, the emission function considers the public lighting system, which is in fact the main generator of the skyglow. Still, another class of light-emitting devices are gaining importance since their overuse and the urban sprawl of recent years. This paper will address the importance of the emission function in modelling skyglow and the factors involved in its characterization. On this subject, the author's intention is to organise, integrate, and evaluate previously published research in order to state the progress of current research toward clarifying this topic.

  5. Consumer opinions about print and on-line pay contents according to primary research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Jäckel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the sub results of a primer research project process. Themain objective of survey was to explore the effectof the digitalization onto themedia consumption habits, with a strange look ontothe print and the on-line paycontents. During the research we applied qualitative and quantitative methods. Weanalysed the most important changes of the media consumption preferences withthe help of expert interviews and consumers surveystaking the influencing role ofthe international trends onto consideration. Basedon the results of the researchcan be characterised the main target groups of on-line pay contents and the printmediums.

  6. Two-dimensional transport of dust from an infinite line source at ground level: non-zero roughness height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.

    1992-07-01

    The previous study (Eltayeb and Hassan, 1992) of the two-dimensional diffusion equation of dust over a rough ground surface, which acts as a dust source of variable strength, under the influence of horizontal wind and gravitational attraction is here extended to all finite values of the roughness height Z 0 . An analytic expression is obtained for the concentration of dust for a general strength of the source. The result reduces to the previously known solutions as special cases. The expression for the concentration has been evaluated for some representative example of the source strength g(X). It is found that the concentration decreases with roughness height at any fixed point above ground level. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  7. Numerical modelling of ground vibration caused by elevated high-speed railway lines considering structure-soil-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Construction of high speed railway lines has been an increasing trend in recent years. Countries like Denmark and Sweden plan to expand and upgrade their railways to accommodate high-speed traffic. To benefit from the full potential of the reduced commuting times, these lines must pass through...... densely populated urban areas with the collateral effect of increased noise and vibrations levels. This paper aims to quantify the vibrations levels in the area surrounding an elevated railway line built as a multi-span bridge structure. The proposed model employs finite-element analysis to model......-space. The paper analyses the effects of structure-soil-structure interaction on the dynamic behaviour of the surrounding soil surface. The effects of different soil stratification and material properties as well as different train speeds are assessed. Finally, the drawbacks of simplifying the numerical model...

  8. On-line rituals: a new field of research: neo-pagan and Muslim cyber rituals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Larsson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although secularisation and institutional specialisation have reduced the importance and influence of churchoriented religion, people still have a need for religion and transcendence. By looking at two so-called on-line rituals — a neo-pagan blot and a Muslim dhikr, the author examines and illustrates how religiosity may be articulated on the Internet. Although Internet research is often discussed in relation to methodological and theoretical problems, rituals performed on-line should be included in the academic study of religion. Common problems associated with Internet research (questions of representation, source criticism, etc. in themselves stimulate the development of new methods and theories for studying on-line religiosity.

  9. Frequency domain analysis of the lightning current distribution to ground at the transmission line tower with cellular phone base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cellular phone base stations are often placed in the poles of power transmission lines. We consider the case when such base stations are powered from the low-voltage network. Of special concern is the current that might be led through the cable metallic shields to other customers' premises in case

  10. SIRTA, a ground-based atmospheric observatory for cloud and aerosol research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haeffelin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based remote sensing observatories have a crucial role to play in providing data to improve our understanding of atmospheric processes, to test the performance of atmospheric models, and to develop new methods for future space-borne observations. Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, a French research institute in environmental sciences, created the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA, an atmospheric observatory with these goals in mind. Today SIRTA, located 20km south of Paris, operates a suite a state-of-the-art active and passive remote sensing instruments dedicated to routine monitoring of cloud and aerosol properties, and key atmospheric parameters. Detailed description of the state of the atmospheric column is progressively archived and made accessible to the scientific community. This paper describes the SIRTA infrastructure and database, and provides an overview of the scientific research associated with the observatory. Researchers using SIRTA data conduct research on atmospheric processes involving complex interactions between clouds, aerosols and radiative and dynamic processes in the atmospheric column. Atmospheric modellers working with SIRTA observations develop new methods to test their models and innovative analyses to improve parametric representations of sub-grid processes that must be accounted for in the model. SIRTA provides the means to develop data interpretation tools for future active remote sensing missions in space (e.g. CloudSat and CALIPSO. SIRTA observation and research activities take place in networks of atmospheric observatories that allow scientists to access consistent data sets from diverse regions on the globe.

  11. Current uses of ground penetrating radar in groundwater-dependent ecosystems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Catarina; Alcalá, Francisco J; Carvalho, Jorge M; Ribeiro, Luís

    2017-10-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a high-resolution technique widely used in shallow groundwater prospecting. This makes GPR ideal to characterize the hydrogeological functioning of groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDE). This paper reviews current uses of GPR in GDE research through the construction of a database comprising 91 worldwide GPR case studies selected from the literature and classified according to (1) geological environments favouring GDE; (2) hydrogeological research interests; and (3) field technical and (4) hydrogeological conditions of the survey. The database analysis showed that inland alluvial, colluvial, and glacial formations were the most widely covered geological environments. Water-table depth was the most repeated research interest. By contrast, weathered-marl and crystalline-rock environments as well as the delineation of salinity interfaces in coastal and inland areas were less studied. Despite that shallow groundwater propitiated GDE in almost all the GPR case studies compiled, only one case expressly addressed GDE research. Common ranges of prospecting depth, water-table depth, and volumetric water content deduced by GPR and other techniques were identified. Antenna frequency of 100MHz and the common offset acquisition technique predominated in the database. Most of GPR case studies were in 30-50° N temperate latitudes, mainly in Europe and North America. Eight original radargrams were selected from several GPR profiles performed in 2014 and 2015 to document database classes and identified gaps, as well as to define experimental ranges of operability in GDE environments. The results contribute to the design of proper GPR surveys in GDE research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. On Line Neutron Flux Mapping in Fuel Coolant Channels of a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbot, Loic; Domergue, Christophe; Villard, Jean-Francois; Destouches, Christophe; Braoudakis, George; Wassink, David; Sinclair, Bradley; Osborn, John-C.; Wu, Huayou; Blandin, C.; Thevenin, Mathieu; Corre, Gwenole; Normand, Stephane

    2013-06-01

    This work deals with the on-line neutron flux mapping of the OPAL research reactor. A specific irradiation device has been set up to investigate fuel coolant channels using subminiature fission chambers to get thermal neutron flux profiles. Experimental results are compared to first neutronic calculations and show good agreement (C/E ∼0.97). (authors)

  13. Influence of rock spalling on concrete lining in shaft sinking at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Nago, Makito; Koike, Masashi; Matsubara, Makoto; Sugawara, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    A shaft is the shortest way to access the deep underground. In shaft sinking through large-scale faults or under low competence factor, spalling of shaft walls is likely to occur. Although earlier studies indicated that rock spalling is an undesirable phenomenon that threatens safety in excavation work and causes delay in construction schedule, there have been few studies which discussed damage to concrete lining induced by spalling. Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been constructing three shafts (one for ventilation and the others for access) to a depth of 500 m in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. During the construction of the Ventilation Shaft (4.5 m diameter) below a depth of 250 m, rock spalling occurred at several depths and an open crack developed in the concrete lining installed just above the location of the rock spalling. In this study, the geometry of the shaft wall was measured using a three-dimensional laser scanner. Numerical analysis was also conducted to estimate changes in stress distribution and deformation induced by rock spalling in both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. As a result, it was clarified that rock spalling induced a vertical tensile stress in the concrete lining. Especially, the tensile stress in a concrete lining was likely to exceed the tensile strength of the concrete lining when it developed more than 100 cm into the wall rock. (author)

  14. Research on Poppers Used as Electrical Connectors in High Speed Textile Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leśnikowski Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on poppers used as electrical connectors connecting fragments of textile signal lines. These lines can be used in intelligent clothing for connecting electronic modules implemented in it. Intelligent (smart clothing can be used, among others, in the health monitoring of the elderly, newborn babies, or people working in hazardous conditions, for example, firefighters and soldiers. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of poppers, widely used in clothing, as electrical connectors connecting parts of the textile signal lines designed for transmission of high-speed digital signals. The paper presents examples of measured parameters characterizing transmission properties of two fragments of the coplanar, textile transmission line connected to each other using conventional poppers. The presented measurement results contain the so-called s parameters, characteristic impedance of the poppers, and eye measurements characterizing distortions of digital signals passing through the tested line. In the article, the effect of temperature and humidity of air surrounding the tested poppers on their characteristic impedance was also presented. This property and its stability are important in signal lines designed for high-speed data transmission.

  15. Research and application on imaging technology of line structure light based on confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenfeng; Xiao, Zexin; Wang, Xiaofen

    2009-11-01

    In 2005, the theory of line structure light confocal microscopy was put forward firstly in China by Xingyu Gao and Zexin Xiao in the Institute of Opt-mechatronics of Guilin University of Electronic Technology. Though the lateral resolution of line confocal microscopy can only reach or approach the level of the traditional dot confocal microscopy. But compared with traditional dot confocal microscopy, it has two advantages: first, by substituting line scanning for dot scanning, plane imaging only performs one-dimensional scanning, with imaging velocity greatly improved and scanning mechanism simplified, second, transfer quantity of light is greatly improved by substituting detection hairline for detection pinhole, and low illumination CCD is used directly to collect images instead of photoelectric intensifier. In order to apply the line confocal microscopy to practical system, based on the further research on the theory of the line confocal microscopy, imaging technology of line structure light is put forward on condition of implementation of confocal microscopy. Its validity and reliability are also verified by experiments.

  16. Blurring the Line between Researcher and Researched in Interview Studies: A Feminist Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Megan R.; Chmielewski, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary is intended to serve as a companion to the authors' original research article ("Psychosocial Influences on Bisexual Women's Body Image Negotiating Gender and Sexuality," "Psychology of Women Quarterly," v37 n2 p224-241 Jun 2013) and to contribute to the conversation on feminist research methods. In it,…

  17. Compatibility between Text Mining and Qualitative Research in the Perspectives of Grounded Theory, Content Analysis, and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to illustrate that text mining and qualitative research are epistemologically compatible. First, like many qualitative research approaches, such as grounded theory, text mining encourages open-mindedness and discourages preconceptions. Contrary to the popular belief that text mining is a linear and fully automated…

  18. Supporting a Diverse Community of Undergraduate Researchers in Satellite and Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R.; Liou-Mark, J.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. remains in grave danger of losing its global competitive edge in STEM. To find solutions to this problem, the Obama Administration proposed two new national initiatives: the Educate to Innovate Initiative and the $100 million government/private industry initiative to train 100,000 STEM teachers and graduate 1 million additional STEM students over the next decade. To assist in ameliorating the national STEM plight, the New York City College of Technology has designed its NSF Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program in satellite and ground-based remote sensing to target underrepresented minority students. Since the inception of the program in 2008, a total of 45 undergraduate students of which 38 (84%) are considered underrepresented minorities in STEM have finished or are continuing with their research or are pursuing their STEM endeavors. The program is comprised of the three primary components. The first component, Structured Learning Environments: Preparation and Mentorship, provides the REU Scholars with the skill sets necessary for proficiency in satellite and ground-based remote sensing research. The students are offered mini-courses in Geographic Information Systems, MATLAB, and Remote Sensing. They also participate in workshops on the Ethics of Research. Each REU student is a member of a team that consists of faculty mentors, post doctorate/graduate students, and high school students. The second component, Student Support and Safety Nets, provides undergraduates a learning environment that supports them in becoming successful researchers. Special networking and Brown Bag sessions, and an annual picnic with research scientists are organized so that REU Scholars are provided with opportunities to expand their professional community. Graduate school support is provided by offering free Graduate Record Examination preparation courses and workshops on the graduate school application process. Additionally, students are supported by college

  19. A Grounded Theory Approach in a Branding Context: Challenges and lessons learnt during the research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Rindell, PhD.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss challenges and lessons learnt when conducting a classic grounded theory study in a marketing context. The paper focuses on two specific challenges that were met during a specific research process. The first challenge related to positioning the study, namely, specifying“what the study is a study of”. The second challenge concerned the choice between formal or substantive theory. Both challenges were accentuated as the emerged core category concerned a phenomenon that has caught less attention in marketing, that is, the temporal dimension in corporate images. By the temporal dimension in corporate images we mean that corporate images often have roots in earlier times through consumer memories. In other words, consumers are not tabula rasa, that is, blank sheets of paper on which communication messages can be printed. Rather, consumers have a pre-understanding of the company that works as an interpretation framework for company actions in the present. The lessons learnt from this research process can be summarized as “stay faithful to the data”, “write memos on issues you reflect upon although they might be in another substantial field” as they might become useful later, and, “look into thinking in other disciplines” as disciplines do not develop equally.

  20. Making Sense of Grounded Theory Approach: Implications for Medial Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Tavokol; S Torabi; AA Zeialoo

    2009-01-01

    This article first gives a definition of grounded theory and its development and use in medicine and medical education. The fundamental differences of grounded theory with quantitative methods are discussed along a full discussion of the steps required to use a grounded theory approach. At the end the questions in the area of medical education which can best addressed with this approach are provided. 

  1. Making Sense of Grounded Theory Approach: Implications for Medial Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Tavokol

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article first gives a definition of grounded theory and its development and use in medicine and medical education. The fundamental differences of grounded theory with quantitative methods are discussed along a full discussion of the steps required to use a grounded theory approach. At the end the questions in the area of medical education which can best addressed with this approach are provided. 

  2. MODULAR RESEARCH EQUIPMENT FOR ON-LINE INSPECTION IN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davrajh, S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The significance of inspection processes increases when producing parts with high levels of customer input. These processes must adapt to variations in significant product characteristics. Mass customisation and reconfigurable manufacturing are currently being researched as ways to respond to high levels of customer input. This paper presents the research and development of modular inspection equipment that was designed to meet the on-line quality requirements of mass customisation and reconfigurable manufacturing environments. Simulated results were analysed for application in an industrial environment. The implementation of the equipment in South Africa is briefly discussed. The research indicates that manufacturers need only invest in the required equipment configurations when they are needed for on-line inspection.

  3. How Iranian Medical Trainees Approach their Responsibilities in Clinical Settings; A Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Asemani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems we are now experiencing “responsibility problems” among medical trainees (MTs and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on “responsibility” especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings. Method: This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998. Results: “Try to find acceptance toward expectations”, “try to be committed to meet the expectations” and “try to cope with unacceptable expectations” were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was “to preserve the integrity of student identity” which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, “responsibility” is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions. Conclusion: “Acceptance” was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs’ responsibility. Therefore, investigating the “process of acceptance” regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs.

  4. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1987-10-01

    MATRIX is a group of scientists who have common interests in utilizing x-ray synchrotron radiation for materials research. This group has developed a specialized beam line (X-18A) for x-ray scattering studies at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The beam line was designed to optimize experimental conditions for diffuse scattering and surface/interface studies. An extension of diffuse scattering to provide better quantitative data has been shown as well as a unique application to the solution of the phase problem. In the x-ray surface scattering area the first reported experiment to illustrate the capabilities for studying monolayers on water was performed. Current beam line upgrade projects are also described. In addition to a change to a UHV system and improvements dictated by operational experience, two new systems are described, a unique small angle scattering chamber (SAXS) for dynamic studies of nucleation and growth and a surface scattering chamber. 5 figs

  5. 1 to 2 GeV/c beam line for hypernuclear and kaon research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    A kaon beam line operating in the range from 1.0 to 2.0 GeV/c is proposed. The line is meant for kaon and pion research in a region hitherto inaccessible to experimenters. Topics in hypernuclear and kaon physics of high current interest include the investigation of doubly strange nuclear systems with the K - ,K + reaction, searching for dibaryon resonances, hyperon-nucleon interactions, hypernuclear γ rays, and associated production of excited hypernuclei. The beam line would provide separated beams of momentum analyzed kaons at intensities greater than 10 6 particles per spill with a momentum determined to one part in a thousand. This intensity is an order of magnitude greater than that currently available. 63 references

  6. Brazilian pediatric research groups, lines of research, and main areas of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila H.A. Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: The pediatric research groups in Brazil have relevant scientific production, including works published in international publications, and are concentrated in regions with higher socioeconomic index. Most groups registered in CNPq started their activity in the last five years (46%, reflecting the recent growth of scientific production in this area.

  7. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar Recent Advances @ the ELEDIA Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salucci, Marco; Tenuti, Lorenza; Nardin, Cristina; Oliveri, Giacomo; Viani, Federico; Rocca, Paolo; Massa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The application of non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT/NDE) methodologies in civil engineering has raised a growing interest during the last years because of its potential impact in several different scenarios. As a consequence, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technologies have been widely adopted as an instrument for the inspection of the structural stability of buildings and for the detection of cracks and voids. In this framework, the development and validation of GPR algorithms and methodologies represents one of the most active research areas within the ELEDIA Research Center of the University of Trento. More in detail, great efforts have been devoted towards the development of inversion techniques based on the integration of deterministic and stochastic search algorithms with multi-focusing strategies. These approaches proved to be effective in mitigating the effects of both nonlinearity and ill-posedness of microwave imaging problems, which represent the well-known issues arising in GPR inverse scattering formulations. More in detail, a regularized multi-resolution approach based on the Inexact Newton Method (INM) has been recently applied to subsurface prospecting, showing a remarkable advantage over a single-resolution implementation [1]. Moreover, the use of multi-frequency or frequency-hopping strategies to exploit the information coming from GPR data collected in time domain and transformed into its frequency components has been proposed as well. In this framework, the effectiveness of the multi-resolution multi-frequency techniques has been proven on synthetic data generated with numerical models such as GprMax [2]. The application of inversion algorithms based on Bayesian Compressive Sampling (BCS) [3][4] to GPR is currently under investigation, as well, in order to exploit their capability to provide satisfactory reconstructions in presence of single and multiple sparse scatterers [3][4]. Furthermore, multi-scaling approaches exploiting level

  8. Thoughts and Practice on Some Problems about Research and Application of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yun CHEN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main problems about research and application of two-line hybrid rice were reviewed, including the confusing nomenclature and male sterile lines classification, the unclear characteristics of photoperiod and temperature responses and the unsuitable site selection for male sterile line and hybrid rice seed production. In order to efficiently and accurately use dual-purpose genic male sterile lines, four types, including PTGMS (photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, TGMS (thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice, reverse PTGMS and reverse TGMS, were proposed. A new idea for explaining the mechanism of sterility in dual-purpose hybrid rice was proposed. The transition from sterile to fertile was involved in the cooperative regulation of major-effect sterile genes and photoperiod and/or temperature sensitive ones. The minor-effect genes with accumulative effect on sterility were important factors that affected the critical temperature of sterility transfer. In order to make better use of dual-purpose lines, the characterization of responses to photoperiod and temperature of PTGMS should be made and the identification method for the characterization of photoperiod and temperature responses of PTGMS should also be put forward. The optimal ecological site for seed production could be determined according to the historical climate data and the requirements for the meteorological conditions during the different periods of seed production.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  10. How youth get engaged: grounded-theory research on motivational development in organized youth programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Larson, Reed

    2011-01-01

    For youth to benefit from many of the developmental opportunities provided by organized programs, they need to not only attend but become psychologically engaged in program activities. This research was aimed at formulating empirically based grounded theory on the processes through which this engagement develops. Longitudinal interviews were conducted with 100 ethnically diverse youth (ages 14–21) in 10 urban and rural arts and leadership programs. Qualitative analysis focused on narrative accounts from the 44 youth who reported experiencing a positive turning point in their motivation or engagement. For 38 of these youth, this change process involved forming a personal connection. Similar to processes suggested by self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), forming a personal connection involved youth's progressive integration of personal goals with the goals of program activities. Youth reported developing a connection to 3 personal goals that linked the self with the activity: learning for the future, developing competence, and pursuing a purpose. The role of purpose for many youth suggests that motivational change can be driven by goals that transcend self-needs. These findings suggest that youth need not enter programs intrinsically engaged--motivation can be fostered--and that programs should be creative in helping youth explore ways to form authentic connections to program activities.

  11. Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar: Research Perspectives in COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    can be used by GPR operators to identify the signatures generated by uncommon targets or by composite structures. Repeated evaluations of the electromagnetic field scattered by known targets can be performed by a forward solver, in order to estimate - through comparison with measured data - the physics and geometry of the region investigated by the GPR. It is possible to identify three main areas, in the GPR field, that have to be addressed in order to promote the use of this technology in the civil engineering. These are: a) increase of the system sensitivity to enable the usability in a wider range of conditions; b) research novel data processing algorithms/analysis tools for the interpretation of GPR results; c) contribute to the development of new standards and guidelines and to training of end users, that will also help to increase the awareness of operators. In this framework, the COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar", proposed by Lara Pajewski, "Roma Tre" University, Rome, Italy, has been approved in November 2012 and is going to start in April 2013. It is a 4-years ambitious project already involving 17 European Countries (AT, BE, CH, CZ, DE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HR, IT, NL, NO, PL, PT, TR, UK), as well as Australia and U.S.A. The project will be developed within the frame of a unique approach based on the integrated contribution of University researchers, software developers, geophysics experts, Non-Destructive Testing equipment designers and producers, end users from private companies and public agencies. The main objective of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of systems. In this interdisciplinary Action, advantages and limitations of GPR will be highlighted, leading to the identification of gaps in knowledge and technology

  12. Corporate reputation and CSR reporting to stakeholders: Gaps in the literature and future lines of research

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ruiz, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the underdeveloped stream of research that analyses corporate reputation as an outcome of corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting. Design/methodology/approach - The author systematically reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on the CSR reporting-reputation relationship, identify several gaps in the body of knowledge and provide new lines of study to develop this relevant stream of researc...

  13. Status and Needs Research for On-line Monitoring of VOCs Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Qiang; Zhong, Qi; Zhao, Jinbao; Yang, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Based on atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution control requirements during the twelfth-five year plan and the current status of monitoring and management at home and abroad, instrumental architecture and technical characteristics of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) for VOCs emission from stationary sources are investigated and researched. Technological development needs of VOCs emission on-line monitoring techniques for stationary sources in china are proposed from the system sampling pretreatment technology and analytical measurement techniques.

  14. Mapping Fractures in KAERI Underground Research Tunnel using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seung-Sep; Kwon, Jang-Soon

    2016-04-01

    The proportion of nuclear power in the Republic of Korea occupies about 40 percent of the entire electricity production. Processing or disposing nuclear wastes, however, remains one of biggest social issues. Although low- and intermediate-level nuclear wastes are stored temporarily inside nuclear power plants, these temporary storages can last only up to 2020. Among various proposed methods for nuclear waste disposal, a long-term storage using geologic disposal facilities appears to be most highly feasible. Geological disposal of nuclear wastes requires a nuclear waste repository situated deep within a stable geologic environment. However, the presence of small-scale fractures in bedrocks can cause serious damage to durability of such disposal facilities because fractures can become efficient pathways for underground waters and radioactive wastes. Thus, it is important to find and characterize multi-scale fractures in bedrocks hosting geologic disposal facilities. In this study, we aim to map small-scale fractures inside the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) using ground penetrating radar (GPR). The KURT is situated in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The survey target is a section of wall cut by a diamond grinder, which preserves diverse geologic features such as dykes. We conducted grid surveys on the wall using 500 MHz and 1000 MHz pulseEKKO PRO sensors. The observed GPR signals in both frequencies show strong reflections, which are consistent to form sloping planes. We interpret such planar features as fractures present in the wall. Such fractures were also mapped visually during the development of the KURT. We confirmed their continuity into the wall from the 3D GPR images. In addition, the spatial distribution and connectivity of these fractures are identified from 3D subsurface images. Thus, we can utilize GPR to detect multi-scale fractures in bedrocks, during and after developing underground disposal facilities. This study was

  15. Research on Ground Motion Metal Target Based on Rocket Projectile by Using Millimeter Wave Radiometer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How to detect the ground motion metal target effectively is an important guarantee for precision strike in the process of Rocket Projectile flight. Accordingly and in view of the millimeter- wave radiation characteristic of the ground motion metal target, a mathematical model was established based on Rocket Projectile about millimeter-wave detection to the ground motion metal target. Through changing various parameters in the process of Rocket Projectile flight, the detection model was studied by simulation. The parameters variation and effective range of millimeter wave radiometer were obtained in the process of rotation and horizontal flight. So a certain theoretical basis was formed for the precision strike to the ground motion metal target.

  16. Personnel and Vehicle Data Collection at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and its Distribution for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    28 Magnetometer Applied Physics Model 1540-digital 3-axis fluxgate 5 Amplifiers Alligator Technologies USBPGF-S1 programmable instrumentation...Acoustic, Seismic, magnetic, footstep, vehicle, magnetometer , geophone, unattended ground sensor (UGS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  17. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  18. Analysis of line integrated electron density using plasma position data on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Y. U.; Chung, J.

    2010-01-01

    A 280 GHz single-channel horizontal millimeter-wave interferometer system has been installed for plasma electron density measurements on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. This system has a triangular beam path that does not pass through the plasma axis due to geometrical constraints in the superconducting tokamak. The term line density on KSTAR has a different meaning from the line density of other tokamaks. To estimate the peak density and the mean density from the measured line density, information on the position of the plasma is needed. The information has been calculated from tangentially viewed visible images using the toroidal symmetry of the plasma. Interface definition language routines have been developed for this purpose. The calculated plasma position data correspond well to calculation results from magnetic analysis. With the position data and an estimated plasma profile, the peak density and the mean density have been obtained from the line density. From these results, changes of plasma density themselves can be separated from effects of the plasma movements, so they can give valuable information on the plasma status.

  19. FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement an on-line research and education information service. Annual status report, September 1992--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE) is a diversified information services company that is recognized as the major electronic link between the higher education community and the Federal government in the field of research administration. FIE provides a range of information related services to the government, academic and private sectors, including database management, software development and technical support. FEDIX is the on-line information service designed, developed and implemented by FIE to accomplish the following objectives: (1). Broaden the participation of the education community in Federal research and education programs by providing free and unrestricted on-line access to information from all participating Federal agencies; and (2). Provide the education community with on-line access to a single keyword-searchable system for research and educational funding opportunities at the participating Federal agencies.

  20. Selection of Grounded Theory as an Appropriate Research Methodology for a Dissertation: One Student’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Jones, Ed.D.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Doctoral students wanting to use grounded theory as a methodological approach for their dissertation often face multiple challenges gaining acceptance of their approach by their committee. This paper presents the case that the author used to overcome these challenges through the process of eliminating other methodologies, leaving grounded theory as the preferred method for the desired research issue. Through examining the approach used successfully by the author, other doctoral students will be able to frame similar arguments justifying the use of grounded theory in their dissertations and seeing the use of the method continue to spread into new fields and applications. This paper examines the case built for selecting grounded theory as a defensible dissertation approach. The basic research issue that I wanted to investigate was how practitioners in an applied field sought information in their work; in other words, how they researched. I further narrowed the investigation down to a more specific field, but the paper presented here is left in broader form so that other students can see the approach in more general terms.

  1. Research on Flow Field Perception Based on Artificial Lateral Line Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijie Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In nature, the lateral line of fish is a peculiar and important organ for sensing the surrounding hydrodynamic environment, preying, escaping from predators and schooling. In this paper, by imitating the mechanism of fish lateral canal neuromasts, we developed an artificial lateral line system composed of micro-pressure sensors. Through hydrodynamic simulations, an optimized sensor structure was obtained and the pressure distribution models of the lateral surface were established in uniform flow and turbulent flow. Carrying out the corresponding underwater experiment, the validity of the numerical simulation method is verified by the comparison between the experimental data and the simulation results. In addition, a variety of effective research methods are proposed and validated for the flow velocity estimation and attitude perception in turbulent flow, respectively and the shape recognition of obstacles is realized by the neural network algorithm.

  2. Retrievals of ethane from ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar observations with updated line parameters: determination of the optimum strategy for the Jungfraujoch station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, W.; Perrin, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Sudo, K.; Yashiro, H.; Gauss, M.; Demoulin, P.; Servais, C.; Mahieu, E.

    2012-04-01

    Ethane (C2H6) is the most abundant Non-Methane HydroCarbon (NMHC) in the Earth's atmosphere, with a lifetime of approximately 2 months. C2H6 has both anthropogenic and natural emission sources such as biomass burning, natural gas loss and biofuel consumption. Oxidation by the hydroxyl radical is by far the major C2H6 sink as the seasonally changing OH concentration controls the strong modulation of the ethane abundance throughout the year. Ethane lowers Cl atom concentrations in the lower stratosphere and is a major source of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and carbon monoxide (by reaction with OH). Involved in the formation of tropospheric ozone and in the destruction of atmospheric methane through changes in OH, C2H6 is a non-direct greenhouse gas with a net-global warming potential (100-yr horizon) of 5.5. The retrieval of ethane from ground-based infrared (IR) spectra is challenging. Indeed, the fitting of the ethane features is complicated by numerous interferences by strong water vapor, ozone and methane absorptions. Moreover, ethane has a complicated spectrum with many interacting vibrational modes and the current state of ethane parameters in HITRAN (e.g. : Rothman et al., 2009, see http://www.hitran.com) was rather unsatisfactory in the 3 μm region. In fact, PQ branches outside the 2973-3001 cm-1 range are not included in HITRAN, and most P and R structures are missing. New ethane absorption cross sections recorded at the Molecular Spectroscopy Facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Harrison et al., 2010) are used in our retrievals. They were calibrated in intensity by using reference low-resolution spectra from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. Pseudoline parameters fitted to these ethane spectra have been combined with HITRAN 2004 line parameters (including all the 2006 updates) for all other species encompassed in the selected microwindows. Also, the improvement brought by the update of the line positions and intensities

  3. The SH-SY5Y cell line in Parkinson's disease research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xicoy, Helena; Wieringa, Bé; Martens, Gerard J M

    2017-01-24

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating and highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease for which only symptomatic treatment is available. In order to develop a truly effective disease-modifying therapy, improvement of our current understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying PD pathogenesis and progression is crucial. For this purpose, standardization of research protocols and disease models is necessary. As human dopaminergic neurons, the cells mainly affected in PD, are difficult to obtain and maintain as primary cells, current PD research is mostly performed with permanently established neuronal cell models, in particular the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y lineage. This cell line is frequently chosen because of its human origin, catecholaminergic (though not strictly dopaminergic) neuronal properties, and ease of maintenance. However, there is no consensus on many fundamental aspects that are associated with its use, such as the effects of culture media composition and of variations in differentiation protocols. Here we present the outcome of a systematic review of scientific articles that have used SH-SY5Y cells to explore PD. We describe the cell source, culture conditions, differentiation protocols, methods/approaches used to mimic PD and the preclinical validation of the SH-SY5Y findings by employing alternative cellular and animal models. Thus, this overview may help to standardize the use of the SH-SY5Y cell line in PD research and serve as a future user's guide.

  4. Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory project. A project on research stage of investigating prediction from ground surface. Project report at fiscal year of 2000 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This was a detailed plan after fiscal year 2000 on the first stage of the Research stage at investigating prediction from ground surface' in three researches carried out at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) according to the 'Basic plan on research of underground science at MIU', based on progress of investigation and research before fiscal year 1999. This project contains following three items as its general targets; establishment of general investigating techniques for geological environment, collection of informations on deep underground environment, and development on foundation of engineering technology at super-deep underground. And, targets at investigating prediction stage from ground surface contain acquisition of geological environment data through investigations from ground surface to predict changes of the environment accompanied with underground geological environment and construction of experimental tunnel, to determine evaluating method on prediction results, and to determine plannings of an investigating stage accompanied with excavation of the tunnel by carrying out detail design of the tunnel. Here were introduced about results and problems on the investigation of the first phase, the integration of investigating results, and the investigation and researches on geology/geological structure, hydrology and geochemistry of groundwater, mechanical properties of rocks, and the mass transfer. (G.K.)

  5. Research on cutoff wavelength of dominant mode and field patterns in trapezoidal microshield lines

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Hai; WU, Yujiang

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the position of the metallic signal strip on the cutoff characteristic of the dominant mode and the field patterns in 3 types of trapezoidal microshield lines are calculated by the edge-based finite element method. These trapezoidal microshield lines include trapezoidal microshield lines with a single signal line, dual signal lines, and 3 signal lines. The cutoff wavelength of the dominant mode can be adjusted by changing the dimensions of metallic signal strips as w...

  6. Extreme Temperatures and Health in Spain in a Context of Climate Change: Some Lines of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Linares

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat wave that occurred in Europe in the summer of 2003 led health authorities to develop Prevention Plans to minimize the impacts of heat waves on citizens´ health. Spain developed, based on existing research, a High Temperature Prevention Plan, which was in force until 2015, when it was updated. This paper summarizes studies carried out in our country that led to the updating of this Plan. We also analyze some studies conducted in Spain regarding cold waves and their attributable mortality; the temporal evolution of heat impacts according to age groups; the detection of specially susceptible groups; the geographic variability of the health effects of heat waves and their applicability to the improvement of Prevention Plans; and future lines of research in the field of extreme temperatures and their impact on health.

  7. A cooperative NRC/CEA research project on earthquake ground motion on soil sites: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, A.J.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1989-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a multi-phase experiment being conducted jointly by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. The objective of the experiment is to collect a comprehensive set of data on the propagation of earthquake ground motions vertically through a shallow soil column (on the order of several tens of meters). The data will be used to validate several of the available engineering computer codes for modeling earthquake ground motion. The data set will also be used to develop an improved understanding of the earthquake source function and the potential for non-linear effects controlling the propagation through the shallow soil column

  8. Ground penetrating radar measurements at the ONKALO research tunnel and eastern part of the Olkiluoto investigation area at July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipola, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements were carried out at ONKALO research site in summer 2006. Measurements included 400 metres of measurements inside ONKALO access tunnel and about 1800 metres of measurements on the ground, at the eastern parts of Olkiluoto investigation area. The purpose of the measurements done inside the access tunnel was to investigate, whether it would be possible to locate deformation structures or long fractures in the rock mass below the tunnel. The purpose of the measurements made on top of the ground was to investigate, whether it would be possible to locate glacio-isostatic faults from the soils. A secondary target was to try and locate the rock surface. The chosen part of ONKALO tunnel was measured using five different frequencies, which enabled comparing the results to each other. It also enabled getting a higher resolution picture of the top rock, than what would have been possible using only one low-frequency antenna. The on-the-ground measurements were measured using only one frequency. (orig.)

  9. Researches on Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom’s quality cultivated on coffee grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the possibility of using coffee grounds for cultivating Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms and determine the nutritional composition of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms produced on coffee grounds substrate. The results revealed a good fruiting of the fungus on coffee grounds and the biological effectiveness (weight of fresh mushroom reached about 97% after 30 days. We determined the total protein content in vitamin C, the total polyphenols and the activity of Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs enzyme on 32 samples of fresh Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom (top and bottom and subjected to heat treatments (blanching, boiling and freezing. The protein content was ranged between the values of 16.9 and 25.1g/ 100g and the Vitamin C content within the range of values presented 64.32-564.95 mg/100g. The polyphenol content results varied significantly in the analyzed samples varying between 1.887 – 7.667 mg GAE / 100 g vegetable product. The determination of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme responsible for enzymatically blackening of the fungus presented values in the range 0.274- 0.610mg / 100g.

  10. Sloped Ground Lines - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  11. Moral Stress, Moral Practice, and Ethical Climate in Community-Based Drug-Use Research: Views From the Front Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B; True, Gala; Alexander, Leslie; Fried, Adam L

    2013-01-01

    The role of front-line researchers, those whose responsibilities include face-to-face contact with participants, is critical to ensuring the responsible conduct of community-based drug use research. To date, there has been little empirical examination of how front-line researchers perceive the effectiveness of ethical procedures in their real-world application and the moral stress they may experience when adherence to scientific procedures appears to conflict with participant protections. This study represents a first step in applying psychological science to examine the work-related attitudes, ethics climate, and moral dilemmas experienced by a national sample of 275 front-line staff members whose responsibilities include face-to-face interaction with participants in community-based drug-use research. Using an anonymous Web-based survey we psychometrically evaluated and examined relationships among six new scales tapping moral stress (frustration in response to perceived barriers to conducting research in a morally appropriate manner); organizational ethics climate; staff support; moral practice dilemmas (perceived conflicts between scientific integrity and participant welfare); research commitment; and research mistrust. As predicted, front-line researchers who evidence a strong commitment to their role in the research process and who perceive their organizations as committed to research ethics and staff support experienced lower levels of moral stress. Front-line researchers who were distrustful of the research enterprise and frequently grappled with moral practice dilemmas reported higher levels of moral stress. Applying psychometrically reliable scales to empirically examine research ethics challenges can illuminate specific threats to scientific integrity and human subjects protections encountered by front-line staff and suggest organizational strategies for reducing moral stress and enhancing the responsible conduct of research.

  12. Operation modes research of liquefied natural gas storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Korolev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG in the space-rocket equipment is motivated by some advantages. That is why a lot of tests and works are actively carried out now on rocket engines using liquefied natural gas.To provide the engine tests and subsequent rocket complex operation a creation of LNG storages is demanded as a part of ground processing equipment and support for their safe operation conditions.One of LNG danger factor is its low boiling temperature, and also changing the condition, density and LNG boiling temperature at storage due to evaporation of light component, namely methane. At refill of the storages having fuel remains with a new LNG portion these factors can lead to formation of the stratified macro-layers and cause a mode of the intensive mixing that is called "rollover", with almost instant evaporation of LNG big mass and sharp pressure boost, capable to result in the storage distraction with catastrophic effects.The work objectives are formulated such as a technique development for forecasting of the LNG parameters in operating storages including the rollover mode, a comparison of calculated results of the LNG parameters with the experimental data, and a definition of possible recommendations for safe operation of LNG storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment.The paper reviews 12 publications concerning the issues and proceeding processes at operation of LNG storages, including the rollover mode.To verify the reliability of process simulation results in the LNG, represented in models by the binary methane-ethane mixture the calculated values have been compared with the experimental data for a LNG storage mode in the reservoir of a ground test complex.The reliability of developed models of the heat-mass-exchange processes in stratified on density and temperature in LNG storage with emergence of conditions for the rollover mode has been verified by comparing the settlement characteristics to the published

  13. Research of the Effectiveness of Using Air and Ground Low-grade Heat for Buildings Heating in Different Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on zoning of the Russian Federation based on efficiency of utilization of the low-grade heat of ground and air as well as combinations thereof for heating buildings. When modeling thermal behavior of geothermal HHS in the climatic conditions of various regions of the Russian Federation we considered the effect of long-term recovery of geothermal heat on the thermal behavior of the ground, as well as the effect of the ground pore water phase transitions on the operational efficiency of geothermal heat pump heating systems. The zoning took into account temperature drop of the ground mass caused by many years of heat recovery from the ground. Ground temperatures expected for the 5th year of geothermal HHS operation were used as design ground mass temperatures.

  14. RESEARCH ON VISUALIZATION OF GROUND LASER RADAR DATA BASED ON OSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D laser scanning is a new advanced technology integrating light, machine, electricity, and computer technologies. It can conduct 3D scanning to the whole shape and form of space objects with high precision. With this technology, you can directly collect the point cloud data of a ground object and create the structure of it for rendering. People use excellent 3D rendering engine to optimize and display the 3D model in order to meet the higher requirements of real time realism rendering and the complexity of the scene. OpenSceneGraph (OSG is an open source 3D graphics engine. Compared with the current mainstream 3D rendering engine, OSG is practical, economical, and easy to expand. Therefore, OSG is widely used in the fields of virtual simulation, virtual reality, science and engineering visualization. In this paper, a dynamic and interactive ground LiDAR data visualization platform is constructed based on the OSG and the cross-platform C++ application development framework Qt. In view of the point cloud data of .txt format and the triangulation network data file of .obj format, the functions of 3D laser point cloud and triangulation network data display are realized. It is proved by experiments that the platform is of strong practical value as it is easy to operate and provides good interaction.

  15. Research on Visualization of Ground Laser Radar Data Based on Osg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Hu, C.; Zhang, F.; Xue, H.

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning is a new advanced technology integrating light, machine, electricity, and computer technologies. It can conduct 3D scanning to the whole shape and form of space objects with high precision. With this technology, you can directly collect the point cloud data of a ground object and create the structure of it for rendering. People use excellent 3D rendering engine to optimize and display the 3D model in order to meet the higher requirements of real time realism rendering and the complexity of the scene. OpenSceneGraph (OSG) is an open source 3D graphics engine. Compared with the current mainstream 3D rendering engine, OSG is practical, economical, and easy to expand. Therefore, OSG is widely used in the fields of virtual simulation, virtual reality, science and engineering visualization. In this paper, a dynamic and interactive ground LiDAR data visualization platform is constructed based on the OSG and the cross-platform C++ application development framework Qt. In view of the point cloud data of .txt format and the triangulation network data file of .obj format, the functions of 3D laser point cloud and triangulation network data display are realized. It is proved by experiments that the platform is of strong practical value as it is easy to operate and provides good interaction.

  16. From the high ground to the swamp: A model for immersive journalism research

    OpenAIRE

    Niblock, S

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a reflexive, praxis-based methodology for conducting journalism research from a practitioner-academic perspective. Journalism research methods that are interactive, iterative and which rest on a dynamic communicative partnership between academics and practitioners, offer the best way for understanding change in our dynamic field. This permits the researcher to coalesce and strengthen their identity as a practitioner-academic and develop research projects that are mutuall...

  17. Towards designing and implementing an empirically grounded research for humanitarian logistics after nepal earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baharmand, Hossein; Comes, M.; Lauras, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper proposes a research design for effective use of qualitative data from field research in a quantitative analysis of humanitarian logistics. Design/methodology/approach Our research design is composed of qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative part has four steps:

  18. A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

  19. Qualitative Research as Policy Knowledge: Framing Policy Problems and Transforming Education from the Ground Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Michael J.; Anderson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    As educational research becomes privatized, commodified and commercialized, research relevance increasingly means being incorporated into neoliberal ideological and economic agendas. Within this social context, qualitative research in particular is often deemed less relevant (if not irrelevant) because it does not provide prescriptions for best…

  20. Market Research in Public Education: AASA Keeps Its Ear to the Ground to Devise Strategic Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of marketing research can be gauged simply through an examination of the wide range of organizations that use research. These organizations include small and large businesses, manufacturing and technology companies, policymakers, nonprofit organizations and government agencies. Marketing research focuses on the identification of…

  1. Refurbishment of Pakistan research reactor (PARR-1) for stainless steel lining of the reactor pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahuddin, A.; Israr, M.; Hussain, M.

    2002-01-01

    Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) is a pool-type research reactor. Reactor aging has resulted in the increase of water seepage from the concrete walls of the reactor pool. To stop the seepage, it was decided to augment the existing pool walls with an inner lining of stainless steel. This could be achieved only if the pool walls could be accessed unhindered and without excessive radiation doses. For this purpose a partial decommissioning was done by removing all active core components including standard/control fuel elements, reflector elements, beam tubes, thermal shield, core support structure, grid plate and the pool's ceramic tiles, etc. An overall decommissioning program was devised which included procedures specific to each item. This led to the development of a fuel transport cask for transportation, and an interim fuel storage bay for temporary storage of fuel elements (until final disposal). The safety of workers and the environment was ensured by the use of specially designed remote handling tools, appropriate shielding and pre-planned exposure reduction procedures based on the ALARA principle. During the implementation of this program, liquid and solid wastes generated were legally disposed of. It is felt that the experience gained during the refurbishment of PARR-1 to install the stainless steel liner will prove useful and better planning and execution for the future decommissioning of PARR-1, in particular, and for other research reactors like PARR-2 (27 kW MNSR), in general. Furthermore, due to the worldwide activities on decommissioning, especially those communicated through the IAEA CRP on 'Decommissioning Techniques for Research Reactors', the importance of early planning has been well recognized. This has made possible the implementation of some early steps like better record keeping, rehiring of trained manpower, and creation of interim and final waste storage. (author)

  2. Research of Obstacle Recognition Technology in Cross-Country Environment for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yibing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being aimed at the obstacle recognition problem of unmanned ground vehicles in cross-country environment, this paper uses monocular vision sensor to realize the obstacle recognition of typical obstacles. Firstly, median filtering algorithm is applied during image preprocessing that can eliminate the noise. Secondly, image segmentation method based on the Fisher criterion function is used to segment the region of interest. Then, morphological method is used to process the segmented image, which is preparing for the subsequent analysis. The next step is to extract the color feature S, color feature a and edge feature “verticality” of image are extracted based on the HSI color space, the Lab color space, and two value images. Finally multifeature fusion algorithm based on Bayes classification theory is used for obstacle recognition. Test results show that the algorithm has good robustness and accuracy.

  3. Research on the evaluation indicators of skilled employees’ career success based on grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulei Chu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: summarized and sorted career success evaluation indicators of skilled employees Design/methodology/approach: Based on Grounded Theory, through interviews and questionnaires to railway skilled employees Findings and Originality/value: the study shows that “subjective career success”, including work-family balance, life satisfaction, career satisfaction, perception of career success, “objective career success”, including level of total revenue venue, growth rate of wage and times of promotion, “knowledge and skills career success” including upgrade of knowledge and skills, classification of skills, external competitiveness and job autonomy, are three important career success evaluation indicators of skilled employees. Originality/value: The results show that different age groups, different titles and different positions of skilled employees, there is a significant difference in the choice of career success evaluation indicators. It provides a useful reference to establish a career development system for the skilled employees.

  4. Experimental research on dispersion parameters of ground water around the area of CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun

    1993-01-01

    The dispersion are important parameters in modeling the migration of pollutant in the ground water. Due to the complexity of geological media, variant dispersion is expected according to the difference of the geological media. Three parts are included in physical simulation in the laboratory column, tracer experiment in the field and the prediction of dispersion using the stochastic model. Experimental results show that the dispersion obtained in the column are three orders of magnitude smaller than that obtained in the field. Using the field values of conductivity and stochastic theory, the calculated asymptotic longitudinal and lateral dispersion are 370 and 0.45 meters respectively and the correlation length is 400 meters approximately. Using the dispersion obtained from the formula in the paper can enhance the precision of the model prediction, the distance heeded to reach the Fick's dispersion is 6 km approximately

  5. ARMA models for earthquake ground motions. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Mark K.; Kwiatkowski, Jan W.; Nau, Robert F.; Oliver, Robert M.; Pister, Karl S.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains an analysis of four major California earthquake records using a class of discrete linear time-domain processes commonly referred to as ARMA (Autoregressive/Moving-Average) models. It has been possible to analyze these different earthquakes, identify the order of the appropriate ARMA model(s), estimate parameters and test the residuals generated by these models. It has also been possible to show the connections, similarities and differences between the traditional continuous models (with parameter estimates based on spectral analyses) and the discrete models with parameters estimated by various maximum likelihood techniques applied to digitized acceleration data in the time domain. The methodology proposed in this report is suitable for simulating earthquake ground motions in the time domain and appears to be easily adapted to serve as inputs for nonlinear discrete time models of structural motions. (author)

  6. Large scale seismic test research at Hualien site in Taiwan. Results of site investigation and characterization of the foundation ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Toshiro; Kokusho, Takeharu; Nishi, Koichi

    1998-01-01

    An international joint research program called ''HLSST'' is under way. Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST) is to be conducted to investigate Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) during large earthquakes in the field in Hualien, a high seismic region in Taiwan. A 1/4-scale model building was constructed on the excavated gravelly ground, and the backfill material of crushed stones was placed around the model plant. The model building and the foundation ground were extensively instrumented to monitor structure and ground response. To accurately evaluate SSI during earthquakes, geotechnical investigation and forced vibration test were performed during construction process namely before/after the base excavation, after the structure construction and after the backfilling. Main results are as follows. (1) The distribution of the mechanical properties of the gravelly soil are measured by various techniques including penetration tests and PS-logging and it found that the shear wave velocities (Vs) change clearly and it depends on changing overburden pressures during the construction process. (2) Measuring Vs in the surrounding soils, it found that the Vs is smaller than that at almost same depth in the farther location. Discussion is made further on the numerical soil model for SSI analysis. (author)

  7. Preliminary Results from Powell Research Group on Integrating GRACE Satellite and Ground-based Estimates of Groundwater Storage Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Reitz, M.; Rodell, M.; Sanford, W. E.; Save, H.; Wiese, D. N.; Croteau, M. J.; McGuire, V. L.; Pool, D. R.; Faunt, C. C.; Zell, W.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater storage depletion is a critical issue for many of the major aquifers in the U.S., particularly during intense droughts. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite-based estimates of groundwater storage changes have attracted considerable media attention in the U.S. and globally and interest in GRACE products continues to increase. For this reason, a Powell Research Group was formed to: (1) Assess variations in groundwater storage using a variety of GRACE products and other storage components (snow, surface water, and soil moisture) for major aquifers in the U.S., (2) Quantify long-term trends in groundwater storage from ground-based monitoring and regional and national modeling, and (3) Use ground-based monitoring and modeling to interpret GRACE water storage changes within the context of extreme droughts and over-exploitation of groundwater. The group now has preliminary estimates from long-term trends and seasonal fluctuations in water storage using different GRACE solutions, including CSR, JPL and GSFC. Approaches to quantifying uncertainties in GRACE data are included. This work also shows how GRACE sees groundwater depletion in unconfined versus confined aquifers, and plans for future work will link GRACE data to regional groundwater models. The wealth of ground-based observations for the U.S. provides a unique opportunity to assess the reliability of GRACE-based estimates of groundwater storage changes.

  8. Beyond Assessment: Conducting Theoretically Grounded Research on Service-Learning in Gerontology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tina M; Pearl, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Service-learning is a useful pedagogical tool and high-impact practice, providing multiple benefits. Gerontology (and other) courses frequently include service-learning activities but lack theory-based, intentional research on outcomes. Here, the authors define service-learning and contextualize it in higher education, provide an overview of research and assessment in service-learning and gerontology courses, demonstrate the shortcomings of program evaluations, and offer suggestions for future research to advance and generate theory.

  9. Branching Fractions and log(gf)s for Weak Lines of Co II connected to the Ground and Low Metastable Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James Edward; Feigenson, Thomas; Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.

    2018-01-01

    New branching fraction (BF) measurements and log(gf)s of Highly Reliable Lines (HRLs) of Co II are reported. Our measurements test and confirm earlier work by Salih et al. [1985] and Mullman et al. [1998] and expand the earlier BF measurements to include more weak and very weak HRLs. HRLs are UV lines that connect to the population reservoir levels including the ground and low metastable levels of Co+. Such levels contain most of the cobalt in the photospheres of typical F, G, and K stars used in abundance studies. HRLs are essentially immune to departures from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) because they connect to the primary reservoir levels. Lightly-populated high-lying levels of the ion and essentially all levels of the neutral atom have some possibility of being pulled out of LTE through various reactions. Weak and very weak HRLs are needed to determine Co abundances in higher metallicity stars while dominant branches are useful in low metallicity stars of abundance surveys. A large set of HRLs with reliable log(gf)s is desired to avoid blending and saturation problems in photospheric studies. The relative abundance of Fe-peak elements changes as a function of metallicity [e.g. Henry et al. 2010, Sneden et al. 2016] but contributions to the trends from nuclear physics effects in early stars need to be cleanly separated from effect due to limitations of classic photospheric models based on One Dimensional (1D) and LTE approximations. The 1D/LTE approximations of classic photospheric models, which work in well in metal rich dwarf stars such as the Sun, are a source of some concern in Metal Poor (MP) giant stars due to much lower electron and atom pressures. Our new measurements on HRLS of Co II are applied to determine stellar abundances in MP stars.Henry, R. B. C., Cowan, J. J., & Sobeck, J, 2010, ApJ 709, 715Mullman, K. L., Cooper, J. C., & Lawler, J. E. 1998, ApJ, 495, 503Salih, S., Lawler, J. E., & Whaling, W. 1985, PhRvA, 31, 744Sneden et al. 2016

  10. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining. PMID:26549926

  11. The hydro- and multi-isotope geochemistry of iron-rich ground waters emerging at the southern Baltic Sea coast line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Marko; Wu, Zijun; Escher, Peter; Struck, Ulrich; Dellwig, Olaf; Schafmeister, Maria; Böttcher*, Michael E.

    2013-04-01

    Iron-rich groundwater springs emerging at the shore zone of the southern Baltic Sea (BS; Site Meschendorf) were examined on a seasonal base for a period of about two years. Besides major, minor, and trace elements, stable isotopes of water (H-2, O-18), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; C-13), and sulfate (S-34) were analyzed. The stream bed sediment was extracted for the geochemistry of the newly formed precipitates and further characterized via SEM-EDAX. Subsequently, the hydrogeochemical results were subjected to a thermodynamic analysis via the PHREEQC speciation model. The springs emerge from small pits (about 60 cm diameter; up to 15cm depth). Surrounding sediments are sandy with gravels found at depth and corresponding high permeabilities. The positions of different springs on the shore zone were stable during the investigation period while the shape of the pits and the stream beds may vary due to wind- and wave-driven forces. Selected measurements of spring yield discharges close to 10 L/min. The H-2 and O-18 contents of the spring waters indicate the ground water to originate from relatively young mixed meteoric waters. The hydrochemistry of the springs was similar and showed some variability in between which indicates that the genetic processes for the ground water before reaching the surface may slightly differ. The springs are characterized by dissolved Ca, Mg, Na, DIC and sulfate, mainly reflecting the interaction with soils and bedrocks in the recharge area that is dominated by marly till. The oxygen-free ground water is rich in Fe, P, and DIC. Iron and dissolved sulfate originate from the oxidation of pyrite, as further confirmed by the 34-S signature of sulfate. The carbon isotope signature of DIC indicates a mixture of biogenic CO2 from the soil zone with some water-rock interaction with carbonate minerals. The streams flow towards the BS and, in contact with the atmosphere, outgas carbon dioxide and takes up oxygen. Upon CO2-degassing, C-12 is

  12. Doing Qualitative Comparative Research on Teaching: Challenges and Benefits of Working with Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen the completion of an increasing number of qualitative comparative research projects on teaching. Challenges and benefits which might arise from a qualitative international comparative research design have been considered. However, very little has been published on challenges and benefits which may arise from using…

  13. The field-tested and grounded technological rule as product of mode 2 management research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The relevance problem of academic management research in organization and management is an old and thorny one. Recent discussions on this issue have resulted in proposals to use more Mode 2 knowledge production in our field. These discussions focused mainly on the process of research itself and less

  14. Bringing home sustainability and climate change research and developments via on-line virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granshaw, F. D.

    2016-12-01

    One of the key challenges of sustainability and climate education is one of accessibility. For example many of the sites where significant climate research is taking place in National Parks are largely inaccessible to the average park visitor. Likewise, taking students to visit exemplary efforts in environmentally sustainable design or habitat restoration projects may be logistically difficult or impossible for the average class. Yet despite these difficulties, finding ways to give students, park visitors, and the general public a chance to explore these areas is critical to their developing sustainability and climate literacy. To address this issue, the author has been working with National Park staff and community groups to develop desktop virtual reality environments that showcase glacier-climate research sites, developments designed with environmental sustainability in mind, and urban watersheds being rehabilitated by volunteer groups and public agencies. These environments provide the user with a chance to take a virtual walk through a site of interest, access data collected at the site, and even listen to researchers and site stewards talk about key activities taking place there. Though they are used as proxies for actual visits via independent on-line exploration, media for public talks, or the framework for student lab exercises, they these virtual environments have also been used to encourage and guide actual sites visits. A focus of this talk will be a recently launched project involving the construction of a library showcasing environmental sustainability projects in the Portland Metropolitan area. In addition to being a resource for local sustainability educators, the library will be a contribution to international sustainability education efforts as it is being developed under the umbrella of a UN affiliate (Greater Portland Sustainability Education Network).

  15. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-01-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic

  16. Generation of KCL035 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in HBB gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL035 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried a mutation in the HBB gene, which is linked to the β-thalassemia syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  17. Developing national on-line services to annotate and analyse underwater imagery in a research cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Langlois, T.; Friedman, A.; Davey, B.

    2017-12-01

    Fish image annotation data is currently collected by various research, management and academic institutions globally (+100,000's hours of deployments) with varying degrees of standardisation and limited formal collaboration or data synthesis. We present a case study of how national on-line services, developed within a domain-oriented research cloud, have been used to annotate habitat images and synthesise fish annotation data sets collected using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and baited remote underwater stereo-video (stereo-BRUV). Two developing software tools have been brought together in the marine science cloud to provide marine biologists with a powerful service for image annotation. SQUIDLE+ is an online platform designed for exploration, management and annotation of georeferenced images & video data. It provides a flexible annotation framework allowing users to work with their preferred annotation schemes. We have used SQUIDLE+ to sample the habitat composition and complexity of images of the benthos collected using stereo-BRUV. GlobalArchive is designed to be a centralised repository of aquatic ecological survey data with design principles including ease of use, secure user access, flexible data import, and the collection of any sampling and image analysis information. To easily share and synthesise data we have implemented data sharing protocols, including Open Data and synthesis Collaborations, and a spatial map to explore global datasets and filter to create a synthesis. These tools in the science cloud, together with a virtual desktop analysis suite offering python and R environments offer an unprecedented capability to deliver marine biodiversity information of value to marine managers and scientists alike.

  18. Finding the Middle Ground in Violent Video Game Research: Lessons From Ferguson (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Ferguson's comprehensive meta-analysis provides convincing data that violent video games have almost no effect on children's aggression. Although this finding is unlikely to bring unity to a divided field, Ferguson's article (2015, this issue) provides important rules that should aid all researchers. First, we need to be more accepting of results that are inconsistent with our own theories. Second, extraneous variables are often responsible for the relations previous studies have found between violent media and aggression. Third, we should avoid using unstandardized assessments of important variables whenever possible. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing laboratory research findings to severe acts of violent in the "real world." It is hoped that, by accepting these basic rules, researchers and others will adopt less extreme positions concerning the effects of violent video games. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Searching for a Common Ground--A Literature Review of Empirical Research on Scientific Inquiry Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnebeck, Silke; Bernholt, Sascha; Ropohl, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of scientific inquiry in science education, researchers and educators disagree considerably regarding what features define this instructional approach. While a large body of literature addresses theoretical considerations, numerous empirical studies investigate scientific inquiry on quite different levels of detail and also…

  20. Ground-based research on vestibular adaptation to g-level transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Eric L.; Nooij, Suzanne A E; Bos, Jelte E.

    2008-01-01

    At TNO research is ongoing on neuro-vestibular adaptation to altered G-levels. It is well-known that during the first days in weightlessness 50-80% of all astronauts suffer from the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS), which involves space motion sickness, spatial disorientation and motion illusions.

  1. Grounding of Six Sigma s Breakthrough Cookbook: How to research a methodology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H.; de Mast, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Six Sigma programme has developed into a standard for quality and efficiency improvement in business and industry. This fact makes scientific research into the validity and applicability of this methodology important. This article explores the possibilities of a scientific study of the

  2. Grounded Theory as a Method for Research in Speech and Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeat, J.; Perry, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The use of qualitative methodologies in speech and language therapy has grown over the past two decades, and there is now a body of literature, both generally describing qualitative research, and detailing its applicability to health practice(s). However, there has been only limited profession-specific discussion of qualitative…

  3. Implications and Future Directions for a New Research Agenda Grounded on NonAffirmative Education Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljens, Michael; Ylimaki, Rose M.

    2017-01-01

    This non-affirmative, bridging research program sees education as deliberation-based activity. Non-affirmative education is critical regarding policies and cultural practices, yet being mindful that education preparing for life, work and agency in democratic societies must create spaces for growth that are not only socialization or transformation…

  4. Diverse Ways to Fore-Ground Methodological Insights about Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Mazzei, Lisa A.; Ceglowski, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Texts and articles that put epistemological theories and methodologies to work in the context of qualitative research can stimulate scholarship in various ways such as through methodological innovations, transferability of theories and methods, interdisciplinarity, and transformative reflections across traditions and frameworks. Such…

  5. Researches on detection of barley varieties and lines against Ustilago nuda hordei “Jens.â€? Rostr. Schaffn.in Marmara Region

    OpenAIRE

    Gümüştekin, H.; Akın, K.

    2008-01-01

    This research has been started in 1994 to test barley varieties and lines against Ustilago nuda hordei “Jens.â€? Rostr. Schaffn. In 1994, 14 barley varieties and lines and in 1995 23 barley varieties and lines were tested. After testing 37 varieties and lines, 27 of them were found resistant (R), and 10 of them susceptible (S).

  6. Research on UAV Intelligent Obstacle Avoidance Technology During Inspection of Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chuanhu; Zhang, Fei; Yin, Chaoyuan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Liang; Li, Zongyu; Wang, Wanguo

    Autonomous obstacle avoidance of unmanned aerial vehicle (hereinafter referred to as UAV) in electric power line inspection process has important significance for operation safety and economy for UAV intelligent inspection system of transmission line as main content of UAV intelligent inspection system on transmission line. In the paper, principles of UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology of transmission line are introduced. UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology based on particle swarm global optimization algorithm is proposed after common obstacle avoidance technologies are studied. Stimulation comparison is implemented with traditional UAV inspection obstacle avoidance technology which adopts artificial potential field method. Results show that UAV inspection strategy of particle swarm optimization algorithm, adopted in the paper, is prominently better than UAV inspection strategy of artificial potential field method in the aspects of obstacle avoidance effect and the ability of returning to preset inspection track after passing through the obstacle. An effective method is provided for UAV inspection obstacle avoidance of transmission line.

  7. Breast self-examination pamphlets: a content analysis grounded in fear appeal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, K N; Mattson, M

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we used the topic of breast self-examination (BSE) to illustrate how content analysis of promotional texts (already in existence, in the process of being created, or both) can provide supplementary data to that derived from audience analysis. Specifically, we used content analysis to isolate messages in BSE pamphlets that are consistent with the variables of severity, susceptibility, response efficacy, and self-efficacy, identified by existing fear appeal research and supported by other persuasion research as critical to the construction of effective health promotion messages. We then used statistical analyses to describe the relation among these 4 message variables. Our findings suggested that BSE pamphlets contain an unbalanced proportion of threat to efficacy arguments. Additionally, the efficacy messages were substantively weak. We contrasted these messages against the relatively strong mammography arguments contained in these pamphlets. We then provided recommendations for formulating stronger persuasive arguments in BSE promotional materials.

  8. Formation of Ground Truth Databases and Related Studies and Regional Seismic Monitoring Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    experiments (1997-1999) in the former Semipalatinsk test site , Proceedings of the 22nd Annual DoDLDOE Seismic Research Symposium, Vol. I, U. S. Department of...DefenselEnergy, 55-66. Kim, Won-Young (1998), Waveform Data Information Product: Calibration Explosions at Semipalatinsk Test Site , Kazakstan...from the aftershocks of a 100 ton chemical explosion at the Degelen, Kazakh Test Site on 22 August 1998 (Omega-1). Epicentral locations, based on P

  9. A knowledge system approach to the multinational company : conceptual grounding and implications for research

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Santos, José

    2009-01-01

    The role of knowledge, organizational learning, and innovation as levers of competitive advantage is now a commonly acknowledged insight in research in international management. However, while the agglomeration of insights of described as the “knowledge-based view” is a promising theoretical lens, insights are not organized into a unifying framework and there are significant holes in the understanding of how knowledge may be turned into a source of competitive advant...

  10. Treading lightly on shifting ground: The direction and motivation of future geological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The future of the geosciences and geological research will involve complex scientific challenges, primarily concerning global and regional environmental issues, in the next 20-30 years. It is quite reasonable to suspect, based on current political and socioeconomic events, that young geoscientists will be faced with and involved in helping to resolve some well defined problems: water and energy security, the effects of anthropogenic climate change, coastal sea level rise and development, and the mitigation of geohazards. It is how we choose to approach these challenges that will define our future. Interdisciplinary applied research, improved modeling and prediction augmented with faster and more sophisticated computing, and a greater role in creating and guiding public policy, will help us achieve our goals of a cleaner and safer Earth environment in the next 30 years. In the far future, even grander possibilities for eliminating the risk of certain geohazards and finding sustainable solutions to our energy needs can be envisioned. Looking deeper into the future, the possibilities for geoscience research push the limits of the imagination.

  11. Discovery of HeLa Cell Contamination in HES Cells: Call for Cell Line Authentication in Reproductive Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniss, Douglas A; Summerfield, Taryn L

    2014-08-01

    Continuous cell lines are used frequently in reproductive biology research to study problems in early pregnancy events and parturition. It has been recognized for 50 years that many mammalian cell lines contain inter- or intraspecies contaminations with other cells. However, most investigators do not routinely test their culture systems for cross-contamination. The most frequent contributor to cross-contamination of cell lines is the HeLa cell isolated from an aggressive cervical adenocarcinoma. We report on the discovery of HeLa cell contamination of the human endometrial epithelial cell line HES isolated in our laboratory. Short tandem repeat analysis of 9 unique genetic loci demonstrated molecular identity between HES and HeLa cells. In addition, we verified that WISH cells, isolated originally from human amnion epithelium, were also contaminated with HeLa cells. Inasmuch as our laboratory did not culture HeLa cells at the time of HES cell derivations, the source of contamination was the WISH cell line. These data highlight the need for continued diligence in authenticating cell lines used in reproductive biology research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Model simulations of line-of-sight effects in airglow imaging of acoustic and fast gravity waves from ground and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Guerrero, J.; Snively, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Acoustic waves (AWs) have been predicted to be detectable by imaging systems for the OH airglow layer [Snively, GRL, 40, 2013], and have been identified in spectrometer data [Pilger et al., JASP, 104, 2013]. AWs are weak in the mesopause region, but can attain large amplitudes in the F region [Garcia et al., GRL, 40, 2013] and have local impacts on the thermosphere and ionosphere. Similarly, fast GWs, with phase speeds over 100 m/s, may propagate to the thermosphere and impart significant local body forcing [Vadas and Fritts, JASTP, 66, 2004]. Both have been clearly identified in ionospheric total electron content (TEC), such as following the 2013 Moore, OK, EF5 tornado [Nishioka et al., GRL, 40, 2013] and following the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami [e.g., Galvan et al., RS, 47, 2012, and references therein], but AWs have yet to be unambiguously imaged in MLT data and fast GWs have low amplitudes near the threshold of detection; nevertheless, recent imaging systems have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution and sensitivity to detect both AWs and fast GWs with short periods [e.g., Pautet et al., AO, 53, 2014]. The associated detectability challenges are related to the transient nature of their signatures and to systematic challenges due to line-of-sight (LOS) effects such as enhancements and cancelations due to integration along aligned or oblique wavefronts and geometric intensity enhancements. We employ a simulated airglow imager framework that incorporates 2D and 3D emission rate data and performs the necessary LOS integrations for synthetic imaging from ground- and space-based platforms to assess relative intensity and temperature perturbations. We simulate acoustic and fast gravity wave perturbations to the hydroxyl layer from a nonlinear, compressible model [e.g., Snively, 2013] for different idealized and realistic test cases. The results show clear signal enhancements when acoustic waves are imaged off-zenith or off-nadir and the temporal evolution of these

  13. Low-Level Burial Grounds dangerous waste permit application: Request for exemption from lined trench requirements and from land disposal restrictions for residual liquid at 218-E-12B Burial Ground Trench 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document has been prepared and is being submitted to the respective agencies to satisfy three objectives of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) concerning Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Facility. Figure 1-1 shows the general location of the Hanford Site. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is one of eight burial grounds included in the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG), a treatment, storage and/or disposal (TSD) unit. Decommissioned, defueled naval submarine reactor compartments (SRCs) contain radioactivity caused by exposure of structural components to neutrons during normal operation of the submarines. After all the alternatives were evaluated in the US Department of the Navy 1984 environmental impact statement (EIS) (USN 1984), land burial of the SRCs was selected as the preferred disposal option. The SRCs currently are sent to Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. In addition to radioactivity, the SRCs disposed in. The DOE-RL's three objectives in preparing and submitting this document are as follows. Request from Ecology an exemption from dangerous waste landfill liner and leachate collection and removal system (hereinafter referred to as liner/leachate system) requirements for Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Petition Ecology to exempt residual liquid in the SRCs from land disposal restrictions. Obtain EPA Region 10 review and comment on the request to Ecology for exemption from liner/leachate system requirements

  14. Space and Architecture's Current Line of Research? A Lunar Architecture Workshop With An Architectural Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, D.; van Dijk, A.

    The "2002 ESA Lunar Architecture Workshop" (June 3-16) ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL and V2_Lab, Rotterdam, NL) is the first-of-its-kind workshop for exploring the design of extra-terrestrial (infra) structures for human exploration of the Moon and Earth-like planets introducing 'architecture's current line of research', and adopting an architec- tural criteria. The workshop intends to inspire, engage and challenge 30-40 European masters students from the fields of aerospace engineering, civil engineering, archi- tecture, and art to design, validate and build models of (infra) structures for Lunar exploration. The workshop also aims to open up new physical and conceptual terrain for an architectural agenda within the field of space exploration. A sound introduc- tion to the issues, conditions, resources, technologies, and architectural strategies will initiate the workshop participants into the context of lunar architecture scenarios. In my paper and presentation about the development of the ideology behind this work- shop, I will comment on the following questions: * Can the contemporary architectural agenda offer solutions that affect the scope of space exploration? It certainly has had an impression on urbanization and colonization of previously sparsely populated parts of Earth. * Does the current line of research in architecture offer any useful strategies for com- bining scientific interests, commercial opportunity, and public space? What can be learned from 'state of the art' architecture that blends commercial and public pro- grammes within one location? * Should commercial 'colonisation' projects in space be required to provide public space in a location where all humans present are likely to be there in a commercial context? Is the wave in Koolhaas' new Prada flagship store just a gesture to public space, or does this new concept in architecture and shopping evolve the public space? * What can we learn about designing (infra-) structures on the Moon or any other

  15. Why (and how) they decide to leave: A grounded theory analysis of STEM attrition at a large public research university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutello, Michael F.

    A grounded theory investigation of STEM attrition was conducted that describes and explains why undergraduates at a large Mid-Atlantic research university decided to leave their initial STEM majors to pursue non-STEM courses of study. Participants ultimately decided to leave their initial STEM majors because they were able to locate preferable non-STEM courses of study that did not present the same kinds of obstacles they had encountered in their original STEM majors. Grounded theory data analysis revealed participants initially enrolled in STEM majors with tenuous motivation that did not withstand the various obstacles that were present in introductory STEM coursework. Obstacles that acted as demotivating influences and prompted participants to locate alternative academic pathways include the following: (1.) disengaging curricula; (2.) competitive culture; (3.) disappointing grades; (4.) demanding time commitments; and (5.) unappealing career options. Once discouraged from continuing along their initial STEM pathways, participants then employed various strategies to discover suitable non-STEM majors that would allow them to realize their intrinsic interests and extrinsic goals. Participants were largely satisfied with their decisions to leave STEM and have achieved measures of personal satisfaction and professional success.

  16. Research of Control System and Fault Diagnosis of the Sound-absorbing Board Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Xiao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Programmable Logic Controller is the core of the control system of the sound- absorbing board production line and the design of fault diagnosis is an essential modules in the sound- absorbing board production line. The article discourses the application of PLC in the control system of the production line, and designs the methods of grading treatment and prevention of troubles, which makes use of PLC’S logic functions. The method has good expansibility, and has good guidance to the fault diagnosis in other automation equipments.

  17. Research progress of on-line automatic monitoring of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Youfa; Fu, Xing; Gao, Xiaolu; Li, Lianyin

    2018-02-01

    With the increasingly stricter control of pollutant emission in China, the on-line automatic monitoring of water quality is particularly urgent. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a comprehensive index to measure the contamination caused by organic matters, and thus it is taken as one important index of energy-saving and emission reduction in China’s “Twelve-Five” program. So far, the COD on-line automatic monitoring instrument has played an important role in the field of sewage monitoring. This paper reviews the existing methods to achieve on-line automatic monitoring of COD, and on the basis, points out the future trend of the COD on-line automatic monitoring instruments.

  18. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  19. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, C.B.; Hileman, J.A.; Turner, B.E.; Martin, G.R.

    1980-09-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications. (author)

  20. Soil "ecosystem" services and natural capital: Critical appraisal of research on uncertain ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C. Baveye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, considerable attention has been devoted in the scientific literature and in the media to the concept of ecosystem services of soils. The monetary valuation of these services, demanded by many governments and international agencies, is often depicted as a necessary condition for the preservation of the natural capital that soils represent. This focus on soil services is framed in the context of a general interest in ecosystem services that allegedly started in 1997, and took off in earnest after 2005. The careful analysis of the literature proposed in this article shows that, in fact, interest in the multifunctionality of soils emerged already in the mid-60s, at a time when hundreds of researchers worldwide were trying, and largely failing, to figure out how to put price tags meaningfully on nature's services. Soil scientists, since, have tried to better understand various functions/services of soils, as well as their possible relation with key soil characteristics, like biodiversity. They have also tried to make progress on the challenging quantification of soil functions/services. However, researchers have shown very little interest in monetary valuation, undoubtedly in part because it is not clear what economic and financial markets might do with prices of soil functions/services, even if we could somehow come up with such numbers, and because there is no assurance at all, based on neoclassical economic theory, that markets would manage soil resources optimally. Instead of monetary valuation, focus in the literature has been put on decision-making methods, like Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA and Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, which do not require the systematic monetization of soil functions/services and easily accommodate deliberative approaches involving a variety of stakeholders. A prerequisite to progress in such public deliberations is that participants be very cognizant of the extreme relevance of soils

  1. Ground-breaking research into Ghanaian sex-workers suggests high awareness. Country surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The first nationwide research into prostitution in Ghana has been completed by Dr. Matilida Pappoe. She has found that there has been exponential growth in prostitution over the past three years in the country. While 10 years ago, people would not openly talk about prostitution, now that people's friends are increasingly entering the trade, people freely discuss prostitution. The research indicates that this growth is linked to the negative effects of macroeconomic policies aimed at economic growth, such as structural adjustment. For example, 39 of 121 sex workers studied claimed to have begun working as a prostitute after their trading businesses collapsed. Study findings suggest a high level of AIDS awareness among Ghanaian prostitutes. Prostitutes in Ghana are considered to be either seaters or roamers. Seaters are a loosely organized group of women who tend to work from a common compound, attracting customers by sitting in the doorway of their rooms. They typically report to an older retired sex worker who settles disputes and raises credit if one of the women must pay a police fine. Seaters are largely 30-45 years old and work in industrial centers. Roamers, however, tend to be 20-30 years old, work in coastal towns, and are usually better educated. They move from place to place and are probably at lower risk of contracting HIV due to the higher rates they charge and the correspondingly lower number of clients they entertain. Roamers seem to have higher rates of condom use and clients who are aware of the dangers. Roamers, too, are not organized as a group and may even often be highly competitive. Their work in the isolation of hotels makes them particularly vulnerable. Economic necessity has therefore increasingly drawn Ghanaian women into the sex trade, while Ghanaian men who typically support two or three women in exchange for sex, but can no longer do so due to current economic conditions, turn to occasional sex with prostitutes. This paper notes that

  2. Review: Franz Breuer with Assistance of Barbara Dieris and Antje Lettau (2009. Reflexive Grounded Theory. Eine Einführung für die Forschungspraxis [Reflexive Grounded Theory: An Introduction to Research Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Da Rin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This textbook by Franz BREUER, produced with the assistance of Barbara DIERIS and Antje LETTAU, is of interest more for the introduction it provides to reflexive research praxis than to grounded theory methodology. This means the subjectivity of the researcher is included in the research process as a decisive source of cognition. Reflexive grounded theory methodology is characterized by three elements that also structure the textbook. In the present review, I focus on two of these in detail: the approach to the research field based on ethnography, particular its epistemological prerequisites, and the inclusion of (self- reflexivity. The latter points to questions that are addressed at the end of this review. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002140

  3. Ecology Art Education On-Line: A World Community of Old Trees, A Story of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, June

    1997-01-01

    "A World Community of Old Trees," http://www.nyu.edu/projects/julian/, is the Internet research component of the doctoral dissertation, "Ecology Art Education On-Line: A World Community of Old Trees." It is the first study in the discipline of Art Education to use the World Wide Web to transmit and receive data for doctoral…

  4. On-line use of personal computers to monitor and evaluate important parameters in the research reactor DHRUVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.K.; Sengupta, S.N.; Darbhe, M.D.; Agarwal, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    The on-line use of Personal Computers in research reactors, with custom made applications for aiding the operators in analysing plant conditions under normal and abnormal situations, has become extremely popular. A system has been developed to monitor and evaluate important parameters for the research reactor DHRUVA, a 100 MW research reactor located at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay. The system was essentially designed for on-line computation of the following parameters: reactor thermal power, reactivity load due to Xenon, core reactivity balance and performance monitoring of shut-down devices. Apart from the on-line applications, the system has also been developed to cater some off-line applications with Local Area Network in the Dhruva complex. The microprocessor based system is designed to function as an independent unit, parallel dumping the acquired data to a PC for application programmes. The user interface on the personal computer is menu driven application software written in 'C' language. The main input parameters required for carrying out the options given in the above menu are: Reactor power, Moderator level, Coolant inlet temperature to the core, Secondary coolant flow rate, temperature rise of secondary coolant across the heat exchangers, heavy water level in the Dump tank and Drop time of individual shut off rods. (author)

  5. From the Bronx to Bengifunda (and Other Lines of Flight): Deterritorializing Purposes and Methods in Science Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2011-01-01

    In this essay I explore a number of questions about purposes and methods in science education research prompted by my reading of Wesley Pitts' ethnographic study of interactions among four students and their teacher in a chemistry classroom in the Bronx, New York City. I commence three "lines of flight" (small acts of Deleuzo-Guattarian…

  6. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-01-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic

  7. Scaling up high throughput field phenotyping of corn and soy research plots using ground rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshlov, Boyan; Nakarmi, Akash; Baldwin, Steven; Essner, Scott; French, Jasenka

    2017-05-01

    Crop improvement programs require large and meticulous selection processes that effectively and accurately collect and analyze data to generate quality plant products as efficiently as possible, develop superior cropping and/or crop improvement methods. Typically, data collection for such testing is performed by field teams using hand-held instruments or manually-controlled devices. Although steps are taken to reduce error, the data collected in such manner can be unreliable due to human error and fatigue, which reduces the ability to make accurate selection decisions. Monsanto engineering teams have developed a high-clearance mobile platform (Rover) as a step towards high throughput and high accuracy phenotyping at an industrial scale. The rovers are equipped with GPS navigation, multiple cameras and sensors and on-board computers to acquire data and compute plant vigor metrics per plot. The supporting IT systems enable automatic path planning, plot identification, image and point cloud data QA/QC and near real-time analysis where results are streamed to enterprise databases for additional statistical analysis and product advancement decisions. Since the rover program was launched in North America in 2013, the number of research plots we can analyze in a growing season has expanded dramatically. This work describes some of the successes and challenges in scaling up of the rover platform for automated phenotyping to enable science at scale.

  8. Cell line with endogenous EGFRvIII expression is a suitable model for research and drug development purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Wojciech J; Rosiak, Kamila; Siejka, Paulina; Peciak, Joanna; Popeda, Marta; Banaszczyk, Mateusz; Pawlowska, Roza; Treda, Cezary; Hulas-Bigoszewska, Krystyna; Piaskowski, Sylwester; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina; Rieske, Piotr

    2016-05-31

    Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant brain tumor, characterized by high cellular heterogeneity. About 50% of glioblastomas are positive for EGFR amplification, half of which express accompanying EGFR mutation, encoding truncated and constitutively active receptor termed EGFRvIII. Currently, no cell models suitable for development of EGFRvIII-targeting drugs exist, while the available ones lack the intratumoral heterogeneity or extrachromosomal nature of EGFRvIII.The reports regarding the biology of EGFRvIII expressed in the stable cell lines are often contradictory in observations and conclusions. In the present study, we use DK-MG cell line carrying endogenous non-modified EGFRvIII amplicons and derive a sub-line that is near depleted of amplicons, whilst remaining identical on the chromosomal level. By direct comparison of the two lines, we demonstrate positive effects of EGFRvIII on cell invasiveness and populational growth as a result of elevated cell survival but not proliferation rate. Investigation of the PI3K/Akt indicated no differences between the lines, whilst NFκB pathway was over-active in the line strongly expressing EGFRvIII, finding further supported by the effects of NFκB pathway specific inhibitors. Taken together, these results confirm the important role of EGFRvIII in intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of tumor behavior. Moreover, the proposed models are stable, making them suitable for research purposes as well as drug development process utilizing high throughput approach.

  9. [Concept extraction of graduate research by modified grounded theory approach and creating of rubric oriented to performance evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Sone, Tomomichi; Kohno, Takeyuki; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

      A revised core curriculum model for pharmaceutical education, developed on the basis of the principles of outcome-based education, will be introduced in 2015. Inevitably, appropriate assessments of students' academic achievements will be required. Although evaluations of the cognitive domain can be carried out by paper tests, evaluation methods for the attitude domain and problem-solving abilities need to be established. From the viewpoint of quality assurance for graduates, pharmaceutical education reforms have become vital to evaluation as well as learning strategies. To evaluate student academic achievements on problem-solving abilities, authentic assessment is required. Authentic assessment is the evaluation that mimics the context tried in work and life. Specifically, direct evaluation of performances, demonstration or the learners' own work with integrated variety knowledge and skills, is required. To clarify the process of graduate research, we obtained qualitative data through focus group interviews with six teachers and analyzed the data using the modified grounded theory approach. Based on the results, we clarify the performance students should show in graduate research and create a rubric for evaluation of performance in graduate research.

  10. Grounded meets floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive assessment of grounding-line migration rates around Antarctica, covering a third of the coast, suggests retreat in considerable portions of the continent, beyond the rates expected from adjustment following the Last Glacial Maximum.

  11. H. R. 2253 - the Ground Water Research, Development and Demonstration Act, and H. R. 791 - the National Ground Water Contamination Information Act of 1987. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U. S. House of Representatives, First Session, July 21, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Until a few years ago, many believed that ground water was naturally protected in some way from manmade sources of contamination; painfully, it has been learned that this is not the case. In 1984 alone, water in some 8000 wells across the country was reported to be unusable or degraded due to ground-water contamination. Threats to ground-water purity come from many sources: from hazardous wastes, septic tanks, road salts during the wintertime, pesticides and fertilizers, sanitary landfills, and oil and gas explorations. Unseen, these toxic chemicals have entered once safe and pure drinking-water supplies. Efforts to protect ground water have been hampered by lack of scientific information about how ground-water contaminants move in ground water, how they change, how long they last. Existing technologies for detecting, monitoring, and mitigating ground-water pollutants are limited and expensive. Little or no information, for example, is available on the potential health effects of many ground-water contaminants. In this hearing, witnesses from the Environmental Protection Agency, the US Geological Survey, and the private sector, familiar with ground-water research needs, testify to provide the subcommittee with information for effective ground-water research legislation.

  12. Simulation and experimental research of heat leakage of cryogenic transfer lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, B. C.; Xie, X. J.; Pan, W.; Jiang, R. X.; Li, J.; Yang, S. Q.; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The heat leakage of cryogenic transfer lines directly influences the performance of large-scale helium refrigerator. In this paper, a thermal model of cryogenic transfer line considering numerical simulation of support coupled with MLI was established. To validate the model, test platform of cryogenic transfer lines with the merits of disassembly outer pipe and changeable easily multi-layer insulation has been built. The experimental results of heat leakage through overall length of cryogenic transfer lines, support and multi-layer insulation were obtained. The heat leakages of multi-layer insulation, a support and the overall leakage are 1.02 W/m, 0.44 W and 1.46 W/m from experimental data, respectively. The difference of heat leakage of MLI between experiment and simulation were less than 5%. The temperature distribution of support and MLI obtained in presented model in good agreement with experimental data. It is expected to reduce the overall heat leakage of cryogenic transfer lines further by optimizing structure of support based on the above thermal model and test platform in this paper.

  13. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  14. Research on the Influence of Perceived Risk in Consumer On-line Purchasing Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhao; Yi, Li

    Perceived risk is an important factor that affects consumer's on-line shopping purchasing decision, through the perceived theories the consumer can know clearly which step owns higher risk in the whole shopping process, then learn how to prevent it, this process also strengthen the consumer confidence, thus lowering to know that the risk adjudicate to the feeling, so the essay has important and realistic meaning for further expand the electronic commerce. At first, investigate, collect, tidy up, analyze the questionnaire information, and thus get the primary data. Finally try to find out the influence of perceived risk to each stage of purchasing decision during consumer on-line shopping process with data and personal analytical. The paper is a complement to the local and existing perceived theories. The result of the study manifests that, the order of main perceived risks which felt by consumer during on-line shopping process are as follow: financial risk, the performance risk and service risk.

  15. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  16. Research and analysis on response characteristics of bracket-line coupling system under wind load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayu, Zhao; Qing, Sun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model of bracket-line coupling system is established based on ANSYS software. Using the wind velocity time series which is generated by MATLAB as a power input, by comparing and analyzing the influence of different wind speeds and different wind attack angles, it is found that when 0 degree wind acts on the structure, wires have a certain damping effect in the bracket-line coupling system and at the same wind speed, the 90 degree direction is the most unfavorable wind direction for the whole structure according to the three kinds of angle wind calculated at present. In the bracket-line coupling system, the bracket structure is more sensitive to the increase of wind speed while the conductors are more sensitive to the change of wind attack angle.

  17. Research on Energy-Saving Operation Strategy for Multiple Trains on the Urban Subway Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption for multiple trains on the urban subway line is predominantly affected by the operation strategy. This paper proposed an energy-saving operation strategy for multiple trains, which is suitable for various line conditions and complex train schedules. The model and operation modes of the strategy are illustrated in detail, aiming to take full use of regenerative braking energy in complex multi-train systems with different departure intervals and dwell times. The computing method is proposed by means of the heuristic algorithm to obtain the optimum operation curve for each train. The simulation result based on a real urban subway line is provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving operation strategy.

  18. Generation of KCL025 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in NF1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL025 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin (c.3739–3742 ΔTTTG. Mutations in this gene have been linked to neurofibromatosis type 1, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Watson syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  19. Generation of KCL018 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the DMPK gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Miere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL018 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the DMPK gene encoding the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (2200 trinucleotide repeats; 14 for the normal allele. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  20. Generation of KCL028 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the HTT gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureen Jacquet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL028 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the HTT gene encoding huntingtin (43 trinucleotide repeats; 21 for the normal allele. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays.

  1. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  2. JPSS Proving Ground Activities with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L. A.; Smith, M. R.; Fuell, K.; Stano, G. T.; LeRoy, A.; Berndt, E.

    2015-12-01

    Instruments aboard the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites will provide imagery and other data sets relevant to operational weather forecasts. To prepare current and future weather forecasters in application of these data sets, Proving Ground activities have been established that demonstrate future JPSS capabilities through use of similar sensors aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and the S-NPP mission. As part of these efforts, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama partners with near real-time providers of S-NPP products (e.g., NASA, UW/CIMSS, UAF/GINA, etc.) to demonstrate future capabilities of JPSS. This includes training materials and product distribution of multi-spectral false color composites of the visible, near-infrared, and infrared bands of MODIS and VIIRS. These are designed to highlight phenomena of interest to help forecasters digest the multispectral data provided by the VIIRS sensor. In addition, forecasters have been trained on the use of the VIIRS day-night band, which provides imagery of moonlit clouds, surface, and lights emitted by human activities. Hyperspectral information from the S-NPP/CrIS instrument provides thermodynamic profiles that aid in the detection of extremely cold air aloft, helping to map specific aviation hazards at high latitudes. Hyperspectral data also support the estimation of ozone concentration, which can highlight the presence of much drier stratospheric air, and map its interaction with mid-latitude or tropical cyclones to improve predictions of their strengthening or decay. Proving Ground activities are reviewed, including training materials and methods that have been provided to forecasters, and forecaster feedback on these products that has been acquired through formal, detailed assessment of their applicability to a given forecast threat or task. Future opportunities for collaborations around the delivery of training are proposed

  3. Profiling Academic Research on Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG 2000-2009: Horizons for Educational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Castañeda Peña

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Whilst there exists a large body of publications around Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG, there is little profiling academic research on this type of game. This study aims at unveiling what, when, where and who constitute scholarly work in research about MMORPG. A 777-register dataset was configured with primary documents taken from 16 databases and two web-portals. The dataset was drilled down using specialized text-mining software. Findings revealed four main research interests that comprise the games themselves, gaming experiences, systems architecture and educational MMORPG. It was also found that research on this topic started out in 2002 and some milestones of emerging research were charted out. The most prolific organizations and authors were also identified in which the USA, Canada and Italy occupy outstanding places. It is recommended that research profiling studies be carried out to extend more informed literature reviews and support further research questions.

  4. M6: A diploid potato inbred line for use in breeding and genetics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    M6 is a vigorous, homozygous breeding line derived by self-pollinating the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense for seven generations. While most wild Solanum species are self-incompatible, this clone is homozygous for the dominant self-incompatibility inhibitor gene Sli. It is homozygous ...

  5. Poverty, Place and Pedagogy in Education: Research Stories from Front-Line Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This article considers what it means to teach and learn in places of poverty through the narratives of front-line workers--particularly students and teachers. What is the work of teaching and learning in places of poverty in current times? How has this changed? What can be learned from both the haunting and hopeful narratives of front-line…

  6. [An assembly line lighting survey analysis and its optimal illumination range research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-ning; Xu, Yan; DU, Wei-wei; Cao, Lei; Wang, Sheng; Dong, Xue-mei; Lu, Hou-han; Chen, Song-gen; Cao, Xiao-ou; Zhang, Long-lian; He, Li-hua

    2011-06-18

    To investigate and analyze present conditions of the assembling line illumination in our country, and to set the recommended values of illuminance standard. Questionnaires and field surveys were used in this investigation. A total of 752 workers from seven factories in textile, shoes and electronics industries were selected for the questionnaire survey and site measurement, and corresponding analyses made with SPSS 13.0 statistic software. Uniformity of illumination, definition in working face, general satisfactory degrees, asthenopia were significantly correlated with each other. Assembly line illuminances for five different visual characteristics were recommended in this paper. The illuminances were 500-1 000-1 500 lx, 300-500-1 000 lx, 200-300-750 lx, 100-300-500 lx, 50-100-200 lx, respectively. Present conditions of the assembling line illumination are less than satisfactory, uniformity of illumination is on the low side, and there is no assembling line illuminance standard for general satisfactory degrees and asthenopia of workers. The related work should be further improved.

  7. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar:" ongoing research activities and mid-term results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Slob, Evert; Tosti, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    .GPRadar.eu. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." References [1] L. Pajewski, A. Benedetto, X. Dérobert, A. Giannopoulos, A. Loizos, G. Manacorda, M. Marciniak, C. Plati, G. Schettini, I. Trinks, "Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar in Civil Engineering - COST Action TU1208," Proc. 7th International Workshop on Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar (IWAGPR), 2-5 July 2013, Nantes, France, pp. 1-6 (INVITED). ISBN 978-1-4799-0937-7, doi:10.1109/ IWAGPR.2013.6601528). [2] L. Pajewski, A. Benedetto, "Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar: open issues and new research opportunities in Europe," Proc. 10th European Radar Conference (EuRad), 2013 European Microwave Week (EuMW), 6-11 October 2013, Nuremberg, Germany, pp. 1847-1850. [3] 'Proceedings of the First Action's General Meeting - Rome, Italy, July 2013' 1st edition, COST Action TU1208, Aracne, L. Pajewski and A. Benedetto, Eds., Rome, Italy, July 2013, ISBN 978-88-548-6191-6, available online at www.GPRadar.eu. [4] 'Booklet of Participants and Institutions,' 1st edition, COST Action TU1208, Aracne, L. Pajewski and A. Benedetto, Eds., Rome, Italy, July 2013, ISBN 978-88-548-6192-3, available online at www.GPRadar.eu. [5] 'Proceedings of the 2014 Working Group Progress Meeting - Nantes, France, February 2014,' COST Action TU1208, Aracne, L. Pajewski and X. Derobert, Eds., Rome, Italy, May 2014, ISBN 978-88-548-7223-3, available online at www.GPRadar.eu. [6] 'Proceedings of the Second Action's General Meeting - Vienna, Austria, April-May 2014,' COST Action TU1208, Aracne, L. Pajewski and A. Benedetto, Eds., Rome, Italy, 2014, ISBN 978-88-548-7224-0. [7] 'Short Term Scientific Missions and Training Schools - Year 1,' COST Action TU1208, Aracne, L. Pajewski and M. Marciniak, Eds., Rome, Italy, 2014, ISBN 978-88-548-7225-7. [8] 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar,' A. Benedetto and L. Pajewski Eds., Springer, July 2015, ISBN 978

  8. Identification and visualization of the intellectual structure and the main research lines in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the worldwide level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz-Écija, Teresa; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make manifest the intellectual and cognitive structure of nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST) by means of visualization techniques. To this end, we used data from the Web of Science (WoS), delimiting the data to the category NST during the period of 2000–2013, retrieving a total of 198,275 documents. Through direct author citation of these works, we identified their origins and the seminal papers, and through word co-occurrence extracted from the titles and abstracts, the main lines of research were identified. In view of both structures, we may affirm that NST is a young scientific discipline in constant expansion, needing time to establish its foundations but showing a strongly interdisciplinary character; its development is furthermore dependent upon knowledge from other disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, or material sciences. We believe that this information may be very useful for the NST scientific community, as it reflects a large-scale analysis of the research lines of NST and how research has changed over time in the diverse areas of NST. This study is moreover intended to offer a useful tool for the NST scientific community, revealing at a glance the main research lines and landmark papers. Finally, the methodology used in this study can be replicated in any other field of science to explore its intellectual and cognitive structure.

  9. Identification and visualization of the intellectual structure and the main research lines in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the worldwide level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Écija, Teresa, E-mail: teresamunyozecija@gmail.com; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín, E-mail: benjamin@ugr.es [University of Granada, Department of Information and Communication, Faculty of Communication and Documentation, SCImago Research Group (Spain); Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida, E-mail: zaida.chinchilla@csic.es [CSIC, Institute of Public Goods and Policies (IPP), SCImago Research Group (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this paper is to make manifest the intellectual and cognitive structure of nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST) by means of visualization techniques. To this end, we used data from the Web of Science (WoS), delimiting the data to the category NST during the period of 2000–2013, retrieving a total of 198,275 documents. Through direct author citation of these works, we identified their origins and the seminal papers, and through word co-occurrence extracted from the titles and abstracts, the main lines of research were identified. In view of both structures, we may affirm that NST is a young scientific discipline in constant expansion, needing time to establish its foundations but showing a strongly interdisciplinary character; its development is furthermore dependent upon knowledge from other disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, or material sciences. We believe that this information may be very useful for the NST scientific community, as it reflects a large-scale analysis of the research lines of NST and how research has changed over time in the diverse areas of NST. This study is moreover intended to offer a useful tool for the NST scientific community, revealing at a glance the main research lines and landmark papers. Finally, the methodology used in this study can be replicated in any other field of science to explore its intellectual and cognitive structure.

  10. CONVERGING LINES: TOWARDS THE INTEGRATION OF SECOND LANGUAGE RESEARCH AND TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing research in second language acquisition, a gap seems to exist between researchers' technical knowledge and teachers' practical knowledge. This is evident from a review of research studies in form-focused instruction summarized in this article. Additional review of articles in the teaching of writing also leads to a similar conclusion. The theoretical development of the writing process does not seem to provide many insights for teachers to apply the process approach to the teaching of writing. The results of the two reviews then indicate that an attempt is required to relate second language research to teaching. Theoretical-pedagogical research, action research, and participatory research are referred to as models of research that can bridge the gap. A review of sample studies recently conducted demonstrates how the integration between technical and practical knowledge can be achieved through the three types of research.

  11. Study of grounding system of large tokamak device JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Kiyotsugu; Shimada, Ryuichi; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Yabuno, Kohei; Ishigaki, Yukio.

    1982-01-01

    In the critical plasma testing facility JT-60 constructed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, high voltage, large current is required in an instant. Accordingly, for the protection of human bodies and the equipment, and for realizing the stable operation of the complex, precise control and measurement system, a large scale facility of grounding system is required. In case of the JT-60 experimental facility, the equipments with different functions in separate buildings are connected, therefore, it is an important point to avoid high potential difference between buildings. In the grounding system for the JT-60, a reticulate grounding electrode is laid for each building, and these electrodes are connected with a low impedance metallic duct called grounding trunk line. The power supply cables for various magnetic field coils, control lines and measurement lines are laid in the duct. It is a large problem to grasp quantitatively the effect of a grounding trunk line by analysis. The authors analyzed the phenomenon that large current flows into a grounding system by lightning strike or grounding. The fundamental construction of the grounding system for the JT-60, the condition for the analysis and the result of simulation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Experimental research and numerical simulation on cryogenic line chill-down process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingxue; Cho, Hyokjin; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2018-01-01

    The empirical heat transfer correlations are suggested for the fast cool down process of the cryogenic transfer line from room temperature to cryogenic temperature. The correlations include the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) correlations for single-phase gas convection and film boiling regimes, minimum heat flux (MHF) temperature, critical heat flux (CHF) temperature and CHF. The correlations are obtained from the experimental measurements. The experiments are conducted on a 12.7 mm outer diameter (OD), 1.25 mm wall thickness and 7 m long stainless steel horizontal pipe with liquid nitrogen (LN2). The effect of the lengthwise position is verified by measuring the temperature profiles in near the inlet and the outlet of the transfer line. The newly suggested heat transfer correlations are applied to the one-dimensional homogeneous transient model to simulate the cryogenic line chill-down process, and the chill-down time and the cryogen consumption are well predicted in the mass flux range from 26.0 kg/m2 s to 73.6 kg/m2 s through the correlations.

  13. On the dynamic response of pressure transmission lines in the research of helium-charged free piston Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric L.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The signal distortion inherent to pressure transmission lines in free-piston Stirling engine research is discussed. Based on results from classical analysis, guidelines are formulated to describe the dynamic response properties of a volume-terminated transmission tube for applications involving the helium-charged free-piston Stirling engines. The underdamped flow regime is described, the primary resonance frequency is derived, and the pressure phase and amplitude distortion are discussed. The scope and limitation of the dynamic response analysis are considered.

  14. Main lines of scientific and technical research at the Soviet Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII), 1933 - 1942

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchetinkov, Y. S.

    1977-01-01

    The rapid development of rocketry in the U.S.S.R. during the post-war years was due largely to pre-war activity; in particular, to investigations conducted in the Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII). The history of RNII commenced in 1933, resulting from the merger of two rocket research organizations. Previous research was continued in areas of solid-propellant rockets, jet-assisted take-off of aircraft, liquid propellant engines (generally with nitric acid as the oxidizer), liquid-propellant rockets (generally with oxgen as the oxidizer), ram jet engines, rockets with and without wings, and rocket planes. RNII research is described and summarized for the years 1933-1942.

  15. The Pierre Auger Research and Development Array (RDA in southeastern Colorado – R&D for a giant ground array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Research and Development Array (RDA was originally designed to be the precursor of the northern Auger observatory, a hybrid array of 4400 surface detector stations and 39 fluorescence telescopes deployed over 20,000 square kilometers. It is conceived as a test bed aiming at validating an improved and more cost-effective 1-PMT surface detector design and a new peer-to-peer communication system. The array of ten surface detector stations and ten communication-only stations is currently being deployed in southeastern Colorado and will be operated at least until late 2013. It is configured in such a way that it allows testing of a new peer-to-peer communication protocol, as well as a new surface detector electronics design with a larger dynamic range aiming at reducing the distance from the shower core where saturation is observed. All these developments are expected in the short term to improve the performance of the Pierre Auger Observatory and enable future enhancements. In the longer term, it is hoped that some of these new developments may contribute to the design of a next-generation giant ground array.

  16. Combined Usage of TanDEM-X and CryoSat-2 for Generating a High Resolution Digital Elevation Model of Fast Moving Ice Stream and Its Application in Grounding Line Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Definite surface topography of ice provides fundamental information for most glaciologists to study climate change. However, the topography at the marginal region of ice sheets exhibits noticeable dynamical changes from fast flow velocity and large thinning rates; thus, it is difficult to determine instantaneous topography. In this study, the surface topography of the marginal region of Thwaites Glacier in the Amundsen Sector of West Antarctica, where ice melting and thinning are prevailing, is extracted using TanDEM-X interferometry in combination with data from the near-coincident CryoSat-2 radar altimeter. The absolute height offset, which has been a persistent problem in applying the interferometry technique for generating DEMs, is determined by linear least-squares fitting between the uncorrected TanDEM-X heights and reliable reference heights from CryoSat-2. The reliable heights are rigorously selected at locations of high normalized cross-correlation and low RMS heights between segments of data points. The generated digital elevation model with the resolved absolute height offset is assessed with airborne laser altimeter data from the Operation IceBridge that were acquired five months after TanDEM-X and show high correlation with biases of 3.19 m and −4.31 m at the grounding zone and over the ice sheet surface, respectively. For practical application of the generated DEM, grounding line estimation assuming hydrostatic equilibrium was carried out, and the feasibility was seen through comparison with the previous grounding line. Finally, it is expected that the combination of interferometry and altimetery with similar datasets can be applied at regions even with a lack of ground control points.

  17. Signal integrity analysis on discontinuous microstrip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Qingyang; Dai, Yawen; Chen, Zipeng

    2013-01-01

    In high speed PCB design, microstirp lines were used to control the impedance, however, the discontinuous microstrip line can cause signal integrity problems. In this paper, we use the transmission line theory to study the characteristics of microstrip lines. Research results indicate that the discontinuity such as truncation, gap and size change result in the problems such as radiation, reflection, delay and ground bounce. We change the discontinuities to distributed parameter circuits, analysed the steady-state response and transient response and the phase delay. The transient response cause radiation and voltage jump.

  18. Research on cotton anther development of three male-sterile lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Liping; Tang Canming; Yue Jieyu; Wang Qingya

    2009-01-01

    Pollens of Sumian 22 were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at a dose of 20Gy, then fertilized to pistil and harvested seed. Three male-sterile lines were selected from M 1 plants, their anther observed by paraffin slice technique. Although there were some different characteristics during the abortion anther development, the abortion was consistent: the abortion stage from the development periods of pollen mother cells to microspore, pollen mother cells, tapetum, middle layer cells and the shape of anther were affected, the results contained micronucleus and double nucleus, cytoplasm expansion during the period of meiosis, tapetum and middle layer cells and so on were abnormal. (authors)

  19. Recruitment of multiple stakeholders to health services research: Lessons from the front lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwers Melissa C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-administered surveys are an essential methodological tool for health services and knowledge translation research, and engaging end-users of the research is critical. However, few documented accounts of the efforts invested in recruitment of multiple different stakeholders to one health services research study exist. Here, we highlight the challenges of recruiting key stakeholders (policy-makers, clinicians, guideline developers to a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR funded health services research (HSR study aimed to develop an updated and refined version of a guideline appraisal tool, the AGREE. Methods Using evidence-based methods of recruitment, our goal was to recruit 192 individuals: 80 international guideline developers, 80 Canadian clinicians and 32 Canadian policy/decision-makers. We calculated the participation rate and the recruitment efficiency. Results We mailed 873 invitation letters. Of 838 approached, our participation rate was 29%(240 and recruitment efficiency, 19%(156. One policy-maker manager did not allow policy staff to participate in the study. Conclusions Based on the results from this study, we suggest that future studies aiming to engage similar stakeholders in HSR over sample by at least 5 times to achieve their target sample size and allow for participant withdrawals. We need continued efforts to communicate the value of research between researchers and end-users of research (policy-makers, clinicians, and other researchers, integration of participatory research strategies, and promotion of the value of end-user involvement in research. Future research to understand methods of improving recruitment efficiency and engaging key stakeholders in HSR is warranted.

  20. Recruitment of multiple stakeholders to health services research: lessons from the front lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Michelle E; Rawski, Ellen; Makarski, Julie; Brouwers, Melissa C

    2010-05-13

    Self-administered surveys are an essential methodological tool for health services and knowledge translation research, and engaging end-users of the research is critical. However, few documented accounts of the efforts invested in recruitment of multiple different stakeholders to one health services research study exist. Here, we highlight the challenges of recruiting key stakeholders (policy-makers, clinicians, guideline developers) to a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) funded health services research (HSR) study aimed to develop an updated and refined version of a guideline appraisal tool, the AGREE. Using evidence-based methods of recruitment, our goal was to recruit 192 individuals: 80 international guideline developers, 80 Canadian clinicians and 32 Canadian policy/decision-makers. We calculated the participation rate and the recruitment efficiency. We mailed 873 invitation letters. Of 838 approached, our participation rate was 29%(240) and recruitment efficiency, 19%(156). One policy-maker manager did not allow policy staff to participate in the study. Based on the results from this study, we suggest that future studies aiming to engage similar stakeholders in HSR over sample by at least 5 times to achieve their target sample size and allow for participant withdrawals. We need continued efforts to communicate the value of research between researchers and end-users of research (policy-makers, clinicians, and other researchers), integration of participatory research strategies, and promotion of the value of end-user involvement in research. Future research to understand methods of improving recruitment efficiency and engaging key stakeholders in HSR is warranted.

  1. Experimental research of the yielding behavior of a graphite cylinder subjected to line loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hetong; Ma Qinwei; Ma Shaopeng; Wang Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    The graphite material cylinders are widely used in High-temperature gas-cooled reactor as connecting components. For engineering design, the deformation behavior, especially the yielding process of the graphite cylinder should be investigated in order to evaluate the carrying capacity of the cylinder. The yielding formation and propagation of a graphite cylinder subjected to line loading, which corresponds to the global behavior of the structure, was experimentally studied and evaluated by measuring the strain fields on the end of the cylinder using Digital Image Correlation. The global behavior of the structure is expressed by a relationship between the average stress (load divided by contact area) and the equivalent strain (ratio of half width of contact area to radius of the cylinder), the contact area was measured by identifying the color area of the pressure film in a new experiment which graphite component is loaded and unloaded continuously. A correspondence between the yielding state and the nonlinearity of the global behavior was constructed, as loading was increased, the cylinder was found to first yield at a specific point after which a yielding core formed and propagated. Before the yielding core propagated to the surface of the cylinder, the global behavior of the structure remained linear. After the yielding core propagated to the surface of the cylinder, the global behavior became nonlinear. The correspondence constructed in the paper will be helpful to understand the failure process and to evaluate the carrying capacity of a graphite cylinder subjected to line loading in reactors. (author)

  2. Research on the correlation between corona current spectrum and audible noise spectrum of HVDC transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingyi; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Yuanqing; Yuan, Haiwen; Ji, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Audible noise is closely related to corona current on a high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line. In this paper, we measured a large amount of audible noise and corona current waveforms simultaneously based on the largest outdoor HVDC corona cage all over the world. By analyzing the experimental data, the related statistical regularities between a corona current spectrum and an audible noise spectrum were obtained. Furthermore, the generation mechanism of audible noise was analyzed theoretically, and the related mathematical expression between the audible noise spectrum and the corona current spectrum, which is suitable for all of these measuring points in the space, has been established based on the electro-acoustic conversion theory. Finally, combined with the obtained mathematical relation, the internal reasons for these statistical regularities appearing in measured corona current and audible noise data were explained. The results of this paper not only present the statistical association regularities between the corona current spectrum and the audible noise spectrum on a HVDC transmission line, but also reveal the inherent reasons of these associated rules.

  3. The use of Ground Penetrating Radar in coastal research, archeaological investigations, lake studies, peat layer measurments and applied research in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilumaa, Kadri; Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel

    2014-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is mainly used for scientific research in coastal geology in the Institute of Ecology at Tallinn University. We currently use SIR-3000 radar with 100, 270 , 300 and 500 MHz antennae. Our main targets have been detecting the thickness of soil and sand layers and finding out the layers in coastal sediments which reflect extreme storm events. Our GPR studies in various settings have suggested that the internal structures of the ridge-dune complexes are dominated by numerous layers dipping in various directions. Such information helps us to reconstruct and understand prevailing processes during their formation (e.g. seaward dipping lamination in coastal ridge-dune complexes indicating cross-shore and wave-induced transport of the sediments). Currently, we are trying to elaborate methodology for distinguishing the differences between aeolian and wave transported sediments by using GPR. However, paludified landscapes (often covered by water), very rough surface (numerous bushes and soft surface), moderate micro topography has slowed this process significantly. Moreover, we have been able to use GPR during the winter period (applied on ice or snow) and compare the quality of our results with the measurements taken during the summer period. We have found that smooth surface (in winter) helps detecting very strong signal differences (border between different sediment types - sand, peat, silt, etc.) but reduces the quality of the signal to the level where the detection of sedimentation patterns within one material (e.g. tilted layers in sand) is difficult. We have carried out several other science-related studies using GPR. These studies include determining the thickness of peat layer in bogs (to calculate the volume of accumulated peat or to find most suitable locations for coring), measuring the thickness of mud and gyttja layer in lakes (to find most suitable locations for coring, reconstructing initial water level of the lake or calculating

  4. Researches on nuclear wastes. Knowledge gained and perspectives at the 2006 date line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. The responsibility of these researches is given to the French atomic energy commission (CEA) and to the national agency for radioactive wastes (ANDRA) who have to coordinate their works with other research organizations and industrialists. The aim of this colloquium is to make a status of the scientific knowledge gained before the implementation of the public and parliamentary debates on nuclear wastes management. This document gathers the presentations (slides) given at the colloquium and dealing with: separation/transmutation, storage and conditioning of waste packages; geologic disposal, the inter-disciplinary PACE program of the CNRS; synthesis of the researches evaluation process; general principles for a sustainable management of radioactive wastes; technical experience implemented by industrialists since 15 years; point of view of the nuclear safety authority; international context of nuclear waste management and related researches; a sociological enlightening: researches advance as seen by the public. (J.S.)

  5. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  6. Experimental research on Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Jiande; He, Juntao; Li, Zhiqiang; Ling, Junpu [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2015-10-15

    An improved Ku-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator is proposed and investigated experimentally. In the particle-in-cell simulation, the Ku-band MILO generates the microwave with a power of 1.62 GW and a frequency of 13 GHz at the input voltage of 474 kV. The device is fabricated based on the simulation results, and an experiment system is designed. In the preliminary experiments, output microwave with frequency of 13.02 GHz, power of 150 MW, and pulse width of 17 ns is generated, under the diode voltage of 450 kV. Analysis on the experiment results shows that plasma produced due to the large current hitting to the outside of the collection tank is the essential cause for the low amplitude of the microwave power and short pulse width.

  7. Development of a polarized neutron beam line at Algerian research reactors using McStas software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhloufi, M.; Salah, H.

    2017-02-01

    Unpolarized instrumentation has long been studied and designed using McStas simulation tool. But, only recently new models were developed for McStas to simulate polarized neutron scattering instruments. In the present contribution, we used McStas software to design a polarized neutron beam line, taking advantage of the available spectrometers reflectometer and diffractometer in Algeria. Both thermal and cold neutron was considered. The polarization was made by two types of supermirrors polarizers FeSi and CoCu provided by the HZB institute. For sake of performance and comparison, the polarizers were characterized and their characteristics reproduced. The simulated instruments are reported. Flipper and electromagnets for guide field are developed. Further developments including analyzers and upgrading of the existing spectrometers are underway.

  8. On the Front Lines of Rare Disease Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a project focused on finding treatments for this lipid storage disease. Additional NCATS programs and initiatives that support rare diseases research include but are not limited to the following: ...

  9. The AstroVR Collaboratory, an On-line Multi-User Environment for Research in Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buren, D.; Curtis, P.; Nichols, D. A.; Brundage, M.

    We describe our experiment with an on-line collaborative environment where users share the execution of programs and communicate via audio, video, and typed text. Collaborative environments represent the next step in computer-mediated conferencing, combining powerful compute engines, data persistence, shared applications, and teleconferencing tools. As proof of concept, we have implemented a shared image analysis tool, allowing geographically distinct users to analyze FITS images together. We anticipate that \\htmllink{AstroVR}{http://astrovr.ipac.caltech.edu:8888} and similar systems will become an important part of collaborative work in the next decade, including with applications in remote observing, spacecraft operations, on-line meetings, as well as and day-to-day research activities. The technology is generic and promises to find uses in business, medicine, government, and education.

  10. GOES-R Proving Ground Activities at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines

  11. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": ongoing research activities and third-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at disseminating the ongoing research activities and third-year results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." About 350 experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been recognised among the running Actions as "COST Success Story" ("The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020," September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of

  12. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  13. [Research on Depression in the GDR - Historical Lines of Development and Therapeutic Approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, J; Himmerich, H; Steinberg, H

    2014-02-01

    Historical research has raised the issue of whether GDR psychiatry was isolated from Western influences to such an extent that an autonomous East German psychiatry developed. Taking a chronological approach and being based on a clearly defined range of topics, the objective of this paper is to identify specific contributions made by GDR psychiatry to academic research as well as the degree of its international orientation by focusing on the treatment and research on depression. We have performed a systematic review of the East German psychiatric journal "Psychiatrie, Neurologie und medizinische Psychologie" and a screening of all psychiatric textbooks that appeared in the GDR. Although East German psychiatry was oriented towards Soviet as well as Western developments, some internationally used therapeutic or conceptual innovations reached East German clinics only with some delay. Yet, East German psychiatrists have also contributed their own, independent nosological and therapeutic concepts to research on depression. Pivotal figures included, among others, R. Lemke (Jena), D. Müller-Hegemann (Leipzig) or K. Leonhard (Berlin). With regard to research on depression one cannot truly speak of an autonomous East German psychiatry. Developments in East and West were largely running in parallel. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Development of a polarized neutron beam line at Algerian research reactors using McStas software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhloufi, M., E-mail: makhloufi_8m@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Birine (Algeria); Salah, H. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d' Alger (Algeria)

    2017-02-01

    Unpolarized instrumentation has long been studied and designed using McStas simulation tool. But, only recently new models were developed for McStas to simulate polarized neutron scattering instruments. In the present contribution, we used McStas software to design a polarized neutron beam line, taking advantage of the available spectrometers reflectometer and diffractometer in Algeria. Both thermal and cold neutron was considered. The polarization was made by two types of supermirrors polarizers FeSi and CoCu provided by the HZB institute. For sake of performance and comparison, the polarizers were characterized and their characteristics reproduced. The simulated instruments are reported. Flipper and electromagnets for guide field are developed. Further developments including analyzers and upgrading of the existing spectrometers are underway. - Highlights: • Permit to evaluate the feasibility of a polarized neutron scattering instrument prior to its implementation. • Help to understand the origin of instrumental imperfections and offer an optimized set up configuration. • Provide the possibility to use the FeSi and CoCu supermirrors, designed to polarize spin up cold neutron, to polarize thermal neutron.

  15. Development of a polarized neutron beam line at Algerian research reactors using McStas software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhloufi, M.; Salah, H.

    2017-01-01

    Unpolarized instrumentation has long been studied and designed using McStas simulation tool. But, only recently new models were developed for McStas to simulate polarized neutron scattering instruments. In the present contribution, we used McStas software to design a polarized neutron beam line, taking advantage of the available spectrometers reflectometer and diffractometer in Algeria. Both thermal and cold neutron was considered. The polarization was made by two types of supermirrors polarizers FeSi and CoCu provided by the HZB institute. For sake of performance and comparison, the polarizers were characterized and their characteristics reproduced. The simulated instruments are reported. Flipper and electromagnets for guide field are developed. Further developments including analyzers and upgrading of the existing spectrometers are underway. - Highlights: • Permit to evaluate the feasibility of a polarized neutron scattering instrument prior to its implementation. • Help to understand the origin of instrumental imperfections and offer an optimized set up configuration. • Provide the possibility to use the FeSi and CoCu supermirrors, designed to polarize spin up cold neutron, to polarize thermal neutron.

  16. Body-Map Storytelling as a Health Research Methodology: Blurred Lines Creating Clear Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gastaldo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the literature on body-mapping (BM as an approach to health research in order to systematize recent advancements and to contribute to its development. We conducted a critical narrative synthesis of the literature published until September 2016 guided by two questions: 1. How has BM been utilized in health research? 2. How does BM advance a decolonization agenda? Twenty-seven studies in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were analyzed. Most of them were published between 2011 and 2016 and were conducted in South Africa, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Chile, and USA. They narrate stories of marginalized groups and commonly focus on the social determinants of health. Data generation, analysis, and knowledge mobilization strategies differ considerably. Recent developments show that body-mapping is a visual, narrative, and participatory methodology that has several names and is used unevenly by health researchers. Despite its diversity, core methodological elements reveal that participants are considered knowledgeable, reflexive individuals who can better articulate their complex life journeys when painting and drawing their bodies and social circumstances. The decolonization of health research occurs when these unlikely protagonists tell their stories producing counter-hegemonic discourses to exclusionary capitalist, patriarchal and colonialist rationalities. We call this methodology body-map storytelling.

  17. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei Lim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines.

  18. Lines of experimental research in developing mathematical models for estimating internal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bad'in, V.I.; Ermilov, A.P.; Margulis, U.Ya.; Khrushch, V.T.

    The report presents material involved with the statistical approach to the problem of modeling internal radiation and the trend of experimental research dictated by that approach. The content of a radioactive isotope in an organ must be viewed as a random function for which the ratio of two independent incorporations, on the average by probability, corresponds to the ratio of the corresponding amounts of the isotope that have accumulated in the organism. This tenet determines the principle of similarity. Specifically, it follows from it that the distribution of the arbitrary amount in the organism with multiple repetition of the experiment will be subordinate to a log-normal law. Second, the vital condition for creating the quantitative statistical model of the metabolism is a large volume of experimental data. This requires perfection of the unified rapid methods of research

  19. The SH-SY5Y cell line in Parkinson's disease research: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Xicoy, H; Wieringa, B; Martens, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson?s disease (PD) is a devastating and highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease for which only symptomatic treatment is available. In order to develop a truly effective disease-modifying therapy, improvement of our current understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying PD pathogenesis and progression is crucial. For this purpose, standardization of research protocols and disease models is necessary. As human dopaminergic neurons, the cells mainly affected in PD, ar...

  20. Profiling Academic Research on Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG 2000-2009: Horizons for Educational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Castañeda Peña

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.38folios75.94 Whilst there exists a large body of publications around Massively Multiplayer On-line Role-Play Gaming (MMORPG, there is little profiling academic research on this type of game. This study aims at unveiling what, when, where and who constitute scholarly work in research about MMORPG. A 777-register dataset was configured with primary documents taken from 16 databases and two web-portals. The dataset was drilled down using specialized text-mining software. Findings revealed four main research interests that comprise the games themselves, gaming experiences, systems architecture and educational MMORPG. It was also found that research on this topic started out in 2002 and some milestones of emerging research were charted out. The most prolific organizations and authors were also identified in which the USA, Canada and Italy occupy outstanding places. It is recommended that research profiling studies be carried out to extendmore informed literature reviews and support further research questions.

  1. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  2. Health system's response for physician workforce shortages and the upcoming crisis in Ethiopia: a grounded theory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Tsion; Haile Mariam, Damen; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Derbew, Miliard

    2017-12-28

    A rapid transition from severe physician workforce shortage to massive production to ensure the physician workforce demand puts the Ethiopian health care system in a variety of challenges. Therefore, this study discovered how the health system response for physician workforce shortage using the so-called flooding strategy was viewed by different stakeholders. The study adopted the grounded theory research approach to explore the causes, contexts, and consequences (at the present, in the short and long term) of massive medical student admission to the medical schools on patient care, medical education workforce, and medical students. Forty-three purposively selected individuals were involved in a semi-structured interview from different settings: academics, government health care system, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Data coding, classification, and categorization were assisted using ATLAs.ti qualitative data analysis scientific software. In relation to the health system response, eight main categories were emerged: (1) reasons for rapid medical education expansion; (2) preparation for medical education expansion; (3) the consequences of rapid medical education expansion; (4) massive production/flooding as human resources for health (HRH) development strategy; (5) cooperation on HRH development; (6) HRH strategies and planning; (7) capacity of system for HRH development; and (8) institutional continuity for HRH development. The demand for physician workforce and gaining political acceptance were cited as main reasons which motivated the government to scale up the medical education rapidly. However, the rapid expansion was beyond the capacity of medical schools' human resources, patient flow, and size of teaching hospitals. As a result, there were potential adverse consequences in clinical service delivery, and teaching learning process at the present: "the number should consider the available resources such as number of classrooms, patient flows

  3. An analysis of scientific poverty line of Iranian researchers and compared with top scientists of Islamic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Soheili

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the scholarly production of Iran in the basic sciences and identify the place of the country among Islamic countries and the world, and also comparing the different disciplines in this field of knowledge, help to plan properly to provide necessary facilities for the advancement in these areas. The purpose of this study is the analysis of scientific poverty line of Iranian scientists and comparing them to the scientists of the superior Islamic countries. This is an applied research. Data were gathered and analyzed with the descriptive approach. In this study data collected from ISI during 1990 to 2011. Five disciplines of basic sciences, including mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and earth science were studied. Yi and Xi and Sx scientometrics indicators were used. Based on the findings of this research, Iran with 35542 documents, academic ability 0.509 % and the relative performance of 0.468% is in the first place among the Islamic countries. Iran also is in the first place in physics, chemistry, earth science and mathematics and in second place in biology among the Islamic countries. Despite Iran's ranking first among Muslim countries, it is below the scientific poverty line in terms of Xi and Sx indicators. So it seems necessary to pay more attention to production and distribution of basic science especially in biology. The weaknesses and barriers also should be recognized.

  4. Collision induced broadening of ν1 band and ground state spectral lines of sulfur dioxide perturbed by N2 and O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceselin, Giorgia; Tasinato, Nicola; Puzzarini, Cristina; Charmet, Andrea Pietropolli; Stoppa, Paolo; Giorgianni, Santi

    2017-09-01

    To monitor the constituents and trace pollutants of Earth atmosphere and understand its evolution, accurate spectroscopic parameters are fundamental information. SO2 is produced by both natural and anthropogenic sources and it is one of the principal causes of acid rains as well as an important component of fine aerosol particles, once oxidized to sulfate. The present work aims at determining SO2 broadening parameters using N2 and O2 as atmospherically relevant damping gases. Measurements are carried out in the infrared (IR) and mm-/sub-mm wave regions, around 8.8 μm and in the 104 GHz-1.1 THz interval, respectively. IR ro-vibrational transitions are recorded by using a tunable diode laser spectrometer, whereas the microwave spectra are recorded by using a frequency-modulated millimeter-/submillimeter-wave spectrometer. SO2-N2 and SO2-O2 collisional cross sections are retrieved for several ν1 band ro-vibrational transitions of 32S16O2, for some transitions belonging to either ν1 + ν2 - ν2 of 32S16O2 or ν1 of 34S16O2 as well as for about 20 pure rotational transitions in the vibrational ground state of the main isotopic species. From N2- and O2- broadening coefficients the broadening parameters of SO2 in air are derived. The work is completed with the study of the dependence of foreign broadening coefficients on the rotational quantum numbers.

  5. Internet-to-orbit gateway and virtual ground station: A tool for space research and scientific outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Ghulam; Nader, Ronnie; Koudelka, Otto

    2011-09-01

    Students in higher education, and scientific and technological researchers want to communicate with the International Space Station (ISS), download live satellite images, and receive telemetry, housekeeping and science/engineering data from nano-satellites and larger spacecrafts. To meet this need the Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA) has recently provided the civilian world with an internet-to-orbit gateway (Hermes-A/Minotaur) Space Flight Control Center (SFCC) available for public use. The gateway has a maximum range of tracking and detection of 22,000 km and sensitivity such that it can receive and discriminate the signals from a satellite transmitter with power˜0.1 W. The capability is enough to receive the faintest low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. This gateway virtually connects participating internet clients around the world to a remote satellite ground station (GS), providing a broad community for multinational cooperation. The goal of the GS is to lower financial and engineering barriers that hinder access to science and engineering data from orbit. The basic design of the virtual GS on a user side is based on free software suites. Using these and other software tools the GS is able to provide access to orbit for a multitude of users without each having to go through the costly setups. We present the design and implementation of the virtual GS in a higher education and scientific outreach settings. We also discuss the basic architecture of the single existing system and the benefits of a proposed distributed system. Details of the software tools and their applicability to synchronous round-the-world tracking, monitoring and processing performed by students and teams at Graz University of Technology, Austria, EXA-Ecuador, University of Michigan, USA and JAXA who have participated in various mission operations and have investigated real-time satellite data download and image acquisition and processing. Students and other remote users at these

  6. Microstructural research on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by a compact strip production line under different thermal histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hao; Chen Qixiang; Kang Yonglin; Sun Yi

    2005-01-01

    Coupons with the same composition and thickness (4.0 mm nominal gauge) obtained from hot strips of low carbon steel underwent a series of investigations to analyze the microstructural characteristics and mechanisms responsible for their differences in mechanical properties. Two different industrial technologies were adopted, although the strips used in this research were produced on the same Compact Strip Production (CSP) line. One of the strips was produced with a routine γ→α CSP thermal history, but the other with a γ→α→γ* conventional thermal history. The only difference between them was that one technology had a α→γ* thermal history. Different specimens of both types of strips were prepared for metallographic observation, tensile tests, electron back-scattered diffraction tests and positron annihilation technique tests. Experimental results showed that the differences in mechanical properties could be ascribed to dissimilarities not only in the grain size and textural components but also in dislocation density

  7. Research Program: Biological ground water survey of the Sultanate of Oman. List of sampling stations March-April 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Vermeulen, Jan J.; Mutey Al Nofli, Abdul

    1997-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is an arid country, forming the south-eastern margin of the Arabian peninsula, with coast lines on the Gulf of Oman in the north-east and the Arabian Sea in the south-east. In the interior, it is bordered on the Emirates in the north-west, Saudi-Arabia in the west, and Yemen in

  8. Location and assessment of drainage pipes beneath farm fields and golf course greens using ground penetrating radar: A research summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancing the efficiency of soil water removal, and in turn crop productivity, on farmland already containing a subsurface drainage system, typically involves installing new drain lines between the old ones. However, before this approach can be attempted, the older drainage pipes need to be located...

  9. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  10. Ground vibration test results for Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST)/Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1R) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, T. H.; Gilyard, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    The drones for aerodynamic and structural testing (DAST) project was designed to control flutter actively at high subsonic speeds. Accurate knowledge of the structural model was critical for the successful design of the control system. A ground vibration test was conducted on the DAST vehicle to determine the structural model characteristics. This report presents and discusses the vibration and test equipment, the test setup and procedures, and the antisymmetric and symmetric mode shape results. The modal characteristics were subsequently used to update the structural model employed in the control law design process.

  11. Research on advancement of method for evaluating aseismatic ability of rock discontinuity plane in ground and surrounding slopes of nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunose, Kinichiro; Cho, Akio; Takahashi, Manabu; Kamai, Toshitaka

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to carry out the technical development required for exploring with high accuracy the distribution and shapes of the discontinuity planes in rocks in the ground and surrounding cut-off slopes of nuclear power facilities, and to advance the techniques of interpreting and evaluating quantitatively the stability against earthquakes of the discontinuity planes. This research consists of two themes: the research on the method of investigating the three-dimensional distribution of the crevices in the ground and the research on the method of evaluating the aseismatic ability in the slopes. As for the first theme, one of the techniques for exploring underground structure with elastic waves, tomography, is explained, and the development of the 12 channel receiver and the program for the multi-channel analysis and processing of waveform are reported. As for the second theme, the stability analysis was carried out on three actual cases of landslide. The equation for stability analysis is shown, and the results are reported. The strength at the time of forming separation plane gives the most proper result. (K.I.)

  12. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included...

  13. A grounded theory study on the academic success of undergraduate women in science, engineering, and mathematics fields at a private, research university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroch, Amber Michelle

    2011-12-01

    This grounded theory study revealed the common factors of backgrounds, strategies, and motivators in academically successful undergraduate women in science, engineering, and mathematics (SEM) fields at a private, research university in the West. Data from interviews with 15 women with 3.25 or better grade point averages indicated that current academic achievement in their college SEM fields can be attributed to previous academic success, self awareness, time management and organizational skills, and maintaining a strong support network. Participants were motivated by an internal drive to academically succeed and attend graduate school. Recommendations are provided for professors, advisors, and student affairs professionals.

  14. Tools for adequacy of research lines of research institutes: the example of IPEN; Ferramentas para adequacao das linhas de pesquisas de institutos de pesquisa: o exemplo do IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacramento, Jose Miguel Noronha

    2011-07-01

    This work aims to assist research institutes, notably the IPEN, in order to improve their assertiveness in the process of defining their research lines. New evolutionary speeds have increased exponentially requiring greater synchronism and multiple and coordinated action from the three fundamental elements in order to assure the development of the contemporary society: Government, Productive Structure and Infrastructure in Science and Technology. This environment increasingly dynamic and mutant imposes greater proximity with the socioeconomic environment when former client-consumer has become the co-creator of knowledge and supplier of energy now contained in a new standard of social relations, called Networked Society. The difference in time for the University, the Productive Structure and Government is function of its main activities: Science, Market and the achievement of Public Opinion, respectively. The equation that will harmonize and find synergies between these three dimensions is the contemporary challenge for those who seek to innovate and advance knowledge in order to improve the standard of living of the society. In this work is shown that research institutes must believe in the words of Robert Plomin and start connecting to the several links in different chains in order to make use of a collective intelligence that continuously expands in speed and quality higher than in any other time in human history. The comparison among the results obtained from the different methodologies of analysis proposed in this work allows finding out strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities of the IPEN providing subsidies in order to find better ways to tailor its performance to the new demands. (author)

  15. Research on a Lamb Wave and Particle Filter-Based On-Line Crack Propagation Prognosis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Jian; Yang, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Prognostics and health management techniques have drawn widespread attention due to their ability to facilitate maintenance activities based on need. On-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation can offer information for optimizing operation and maintenance strategies in real-time. This paper proposes a Lamb wave-particle filter (LW-PF)-based method for on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation which takes advantages of the possibility of on-line monitoring to evaluate the actual crack...

  16. Implementation of a generalized actuator line model for wind turbine parameterization in the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjanovic, Nikola [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, MC 1710, Berkeley, California 94720-1710, USA; Atmospheric, Earth and Energy Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, L-103, Livermore, California 94551, USA; Mirocha, Jeffrey D. [Atmospheric, Earth and Energy Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, L-103, Livermore, California 94551, USA; Kosović, Branko [Research Applications Laboratory, Weather Systems and Assessment Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, PO Box 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80307, USA; Lundquist, Julie K. [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Campus Box 311, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Chow, Fotini Katopodes [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, MC 1710, Berkeley, California 94720-1710, USA

    2017-11-01

    A generalized actuator line (GAL) wind turbine parameterization is implemented within the Weather Research and Forecasting model to enable high-fidelity large-eddy simulations of wind turbine interactions with boundary layer flows under realistic atmospheric forcing conditions. Numerical simulations using the GAL parameterization are evaluated against both an already implemented generalized actuator disk (GAD) wind turbine parameterization and two field campaigns that measured the inflow and near-wake regions of a single turbine. The representation of wake wind speed, variance, and vorticity distributions is examined by comparing fine-resolution GAL and GAD simulations and GAD simulations at both fine and coarse-resolutions. The higher-resolution simulations show slightly larger and more persistent velocity deficits in the wake and substantially increased variance and vorticity when compared to the coarse-resolution GAD. The GAL generates distinct tip and root vortices that maintain coherence as helical tubes for approximately one rotor diameter downstream. Coarse-resolution simulations using the GAD produce similar aggregated wake characteristics to both fine-scale GAD and GAL simulations at a fraction of the computational cost. The GAL parameterization provides the capability to resolve near wake physics, including vorticity shedding and wake expansion.

  17. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  18. Overview of research and networking with ground based remote sensing for atmospheric profiling at the Cabauw experimental site for atmospheric research (Cesar) - the Netherlandse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apituley, A.; Russchenberg, H.; Marel, van der H.; Bosveld, F.; Boers, R.; Brink, ten H.; Leeuw, de G.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Abresser-Rastburg, B.; Röckmann, T.

    2008-01-01

    CESAR, the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research, is the Dutch focal point for collaboration on climate monitoring and atmospheric research and is situated on the KNMI meteorological research site near Cabauw in the Netherlands (Cabauw, 51.97 N, 4.93 E). CESAR addresses challenging

  19. 7th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research “Nuclear Ground and Isometric State Properties”

    CERN Document Server

    Błaszczak, Z; Marinova, K; LASER 2006

    2007-01-01

    7th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research, LASER 2004, held in Poznan, Poland, May 29-June 01, 2006 Researchers and PhD students interested in recent results in the nuclear structure investigation by laser spectroscopy, the progress of the experimental technique and the future developments in the field will find this volume indispensable. Reprinted from Hyperfine Interactions (HYPE) Volume ???

  20. Research and Application on Civil Aircraft Ground Flotation%民用飞机地面漂浮性分析研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房务官; 魏小辉; 宋晓晨; 吴卜圣

    2012-01-01

    民用飞机地面漂浮性是评估飞机-机场相容性的一个重要指标,其直接影响到飞机设计参数选择以及地面适应性的优劣.在总体概念设计阶段就必须对飞机的漂浮性能进行分析评估,从而选择恰当的飞机参数.对民用飞机在刚性道面和柔性道面上漂浮性分析方法做了简要说明,并针对国际民用航空组织所推广使用的ACN/PCN(飞机分类号/机场分类号)方法进行了详细分析研究,在此基础上,开发出了飞机地面漂浮性分析软件.通过直接输入飞机相关参数可以快速准确地计算出飞机分类号ACN值.可以有效地对飞机地面漂浮性进行评估和优化,从而解决了用手工方式评估飞机地面漂浮性时的繁琐及不准确,并降低了对从事飞机地面漂浮性计算的人员要求.%Civil aircraft ground flotation is an important evaluation indicator of aircraft- airport compatibility , which affects the aircraft design parameters selection and the pros and cons of the ground adaptability directly. In the general conceptual design stage, the analysis and evaluation of the aircraft flotation must be done to select the appropriate parameters of the aircraft. This paper briefly describes the analysis methods of civil aircraft floating in the rigid pavement and flexible pavement, and carried out a detailed analysis and research for the ACN / PCN,the aircraft and airport's class number method,that is promoted by International Civil Aviation Organization and developed a aircraft ground flotation analysis software on that base. Inputting the relevant aircraft parameters directly, it can calculate the value the class number of aircraft, ACN, quickly and accurately. The software can effectively evaluate and optimize aircraft ground flotation , thus solve the problem of the complication and inaccuracy caused by evaluating the aircraft ground flotation by hand. In addition,it also reduces the demand for the personnel engaged in it.

  1. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative: Multidisciplinary data management from the ground up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, L. M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    As more journals and funding organizations require data to be made available, more and more scientists are being exposed to the world of data science, metadata development, and data standards so they can ensure future funding and publishing success. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) is the vehicle by which the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GOMRI) is making all data collected in this program publically available. This varied group of researchers all have different levels of experience with data management standards and protocols, thus GRIIDC has evolved to embrace the cooperative nature of our work and develop a number of tools and training materials to help ensure data managers and researchers in the GoMRI program are submitting high quality data and metadata that will be useful for years to come. GRIIDC began with a group of 8 data managers many of which had only ever managed their own data, who were then expected to manage the data of a large group of geographically distant researchers. As the program continued to evolve these data managers worked with the GRIIDC team to help identify and develop much needed resources for training and communication for themselves and the scientists they represented. This essential cooperation has developed a team of highly motivated scientists, computer programmers and data scientists who are working to ensure a data and information legacy that promotes continual scientific discovery and public awareness of the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem and beyond.

  2. Ground Based Experiments in Support of Microgravity Research Results-Vapor Growth of Organic Nonlinear Optical Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugrav, M. Ittu; Carswell, William E.; Haulenbeek, Glen B.; Wessling, Francis C.

    2001-01-01

    This work is specifically focused on explaining previous results obtained for the crystal growth of an organic material in a reduced gravity environment. On STS-59, in April 1994, two experiments were conducted with N,N-dimethyl-p-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) aniline (DCVA), a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. The space experiments were set to reproduce laboratory experiments that yielded small, bulk crystals of DCVA. The results of the flight experiment, however, were surprising. Rather than producing a bulk single crystal, the result was the production of two high quality, single crystalline thin films. This result was even more intriguing when it is considered that thin films are more desirable for NLO applications than are bulk single crystals. Repeated attempts on the ground to reproduce these results were fruitless. A second set of flight experiments was conducted on STS-69 in September 1995. This time eight DCVA experiments were flown, with each of seven experiments containing a slight change from the first reference experiment. The reference experiment was programmed with growth conditions identical to those of the STS-59 mission. The slight variations in each of the other seven were an attempt to understand what particular parameter was responsible for the preference of thin film growth over bulk crystal growth in microgravity. Once again the results were surprising. In all eight cases thin films were grown again, albeit with varying quality. So now we were faced with a phenomenon that not only takes place in microgravity, but also is very robust, resisting all attempts to force the growth of bulk single crystals.

  3. Multidisciplinary Studies of the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Ground Water at the U.S. Geological Survey Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program Research Site, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Smith, R. L.; Kent, D. B.; Barber, L. B.; Harvey, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts multidisciplinary research on the physical, chemical, and microbiological processes affecting ground-water contaminants of global concern at its Cape Cod Toxic Substances Hydrology Program site in Massachusetts, USA. The work centers on a 6-kilometer-long plume of treated wastewater in a glacial sand and gravel aquifer. The plume is characterized by distinct geochemical zones caused by the biodegradation of organic materials in treated wastewater that was disposed to the aquifer by rapid infiltration during the period 1936-95. A core group of hydrogeologists, geochemists, microbiologists, and geophysicists has been involved in the research effort for more than two decades. The effort has been enhanced by stable funding, a readily accessible site, a relatively simple hydrologic setting, and logistical support from an adjacent military base. The research team uses a three-part approach to plan and conduct research at the site. First, detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of the plume since the late 1970s provides field evidence of important contaminant-transport processes and provides the basis for multidisciplinary, process-oriented studies. Second, ground-water tracer experiments are conducted in various geochemical zones in the plume to study factors that control the rate and extent of contaminant transport. Several arrays of multilevel sampling devices, including an array with more than 15,000 individual sampling points, are used to conduct these experiments. Plume-scale (kilometers) and tracer-test-scale (1- 100 meters) studies are complemented by laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling of flow and reactive transport. Third, results are applied to the treated-wastewater plume, other contaminant plumes at the military base, and other sites nationally to evaluate the applicability of the findings and to point toward further research. Examples of findings to date include that (1) macrodispersivity can be related to

  4. Research and development activity for the construction of beam lines in spring-8 (a new 8GeV SR ring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tsutomu; Ohno, Hideo; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Teikichi

    1990-01-01

    A research and development activity for a new large-scale synchrotron radiation facility started in Japan in 1987. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) have been participating this project. In particular, a joint team for this SR project was formed in 1988 to perform efficient research and development activities in cooperation. The new facility is scheduled to be in normal operation in 1998. The maximum energy of the electron or positron beams in the storage ring (SPring-8) is planned to be 8 GeV. The present report particularly describes the beam line front-end, research and development of optical components, beam lines for radioactive materials, insertion devices, activities of the atomic physics group, double focusing monochromator for macromolecular crystallography, preceding studies on magnetic and Compton scattering, EXAFS and XANES studies of biopolymers, studies on surface properties, and applications. (N.K.)

  5. ''Swords into ploughshares'': Breaking new ground with radar hardware and technique in physical research after World War II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, P.

    1995-01-01

    A survey is offered of applications to fundamental physical research, in the years immediately following World War II, of the instrumentalities developed for radar during that war. Attention is given to radar astronomy and radio astronomy, linear and cyclical accelerators, microwave spectroscopy, molecular beams, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic and ferromagnetic resonance, measurements of resistivity at high frequencies in metals and of second sound in helium II, and to the concepts of information and signal-to-noise ratio as basic to the design and analysis of experiments. In conjunction with this survey, consideration is given to the autonomy of physics as a knowledge-producing enterprise, framed as a question of continuity in research directions. As that question implies a baseline, the survey of postwar applications is preceded by a survey of those prewar directions of physical research requiring the highest available radio frequencies. Some 500 references are given

  6. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part II: new directions grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2018-02-01

    Given the complexity of factors contributing to alcohol misuse, appropriate epistemologies and methodologies are needed to understand and intervene meaningfully. We aimed to (1) provide an overview of computational modeling methodologies, with an emphasis on system dynamics modeling; (2) explain how community-based system dynamics modeling can forge new directions in alcohol prevention research; and (3) present a primer on how to build alcohol misuse simulation models using system dynamics modeling, with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement, data sources and model validation. Throughout, we use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as a heuristic example for demonstrating these methodologies. System dynamics modeling employs a top-down aggregate approach to understanding dynamically complex problems. Its three foundational properties-stocks, flows and feedbacks-capture non-linearity, time-delayed effects and other system characteristics. As a methodological choice, system dynamics modeling is amenable to participatory approaches; in particular, community-based system dynamics modeling has been used to build impactful models for addressing dynamically complex problems. The process of community-based system dynamics modeling consists of numerous stages: (1) creating model boundary charts, behavior-over-time-graphs and preliminary system dynamics models using group model-building techniques; (2) model formulation; (3) model calibration; (4) model testing and validation; and (5) model simulation using learning-laboratory techniques. Community-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions that can result ultimately in sustainable changes in research and action in alcohol misuse prevention. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Grounding Adult Education Research in Rural Areas : Reflections on the Development of a Research Program at the University of Limpopo in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelen, Jacques; Rampedi, Makgwana; van der Linden, Josje

    Mission statements of universities in developing countries usually include serving the surrounding communities. Often this service does not reach beyond lip service. This article puts into context the experience of developing an adult education research program responding to the needs of the

  8. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R

    1980-04-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

  9. AugerNext: innovative research studies for the next generation ground-based ultra-high energy cosmic ray experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haungs Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The findings so far of the Pierre Auger Observatory and also of the Telescope Array define the requirements for a possible next generation experiment: it needs to be considerably increased in size, it needs a better sensitivity to composition, and it should cover the full sky. AugerNext aims to perform innovative research studies in order to prepare a proposal fulfilling these demands. Such R&D studies are primarily focused in the following areas iconsolidation of the detection of cosmic rays using MHz radio antennas; iiproof-of-principle of cosmic-ray microwave detection; iiitest of the large-scale application of a new generation photo-sensors; ivgeneralization of data communication techniques; vdevelopment of new ways of muon detection with surface arrays. These AugerNext studies on new innovative detection methods for a next generation cosmic-ray experiment are performed at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The AugerNext consortium consists presently of fourteen partner institutions from nine European countries supported by a network of European funding agencies and it is a principal element of the ASPERA/ApPEC strategic roadmaps.

  10. Impacts of reintroduced bison on first nations people in Yukon, Canada: Finding common ground through participatory research and social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Clark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1988-1992 wood bison (Bison bison athabascae were transplanted to the southwest Yukon, inadvertently creating concerns among local First Nations about their impacts on other wildlife, habitat, and their members' traditional livelihoods. To understand these concerns we conducted a participatory impact assessment based on a multistage analysis of existing and new qualitative data. We found wood bison had since become a valued food resource, though there was a socially-determined carrying capacity for this population. Study participants desire a population large enough to sustainably harvest but avoid crossing a threshold beyond which bison may alter the regional ecosystem. An alternative problem definition emerged that focuses on how wildlife and people alike are adapting to the observed long-term changes in climate and landscape; suggesting that a wider range of acceptable policy alternatives likely exists than may have previously been thought. Collective identification of this new problem definition indicates that this specific assessment acted as a social learning process in which the participants jointly discovered new perspectives on a problem at both individual and organisational levels. Subsequent regulatory changes, based on this research, demonstrate the efficacy of participatory impact assessment for ameliorating human-wildlife conflicts.

  11. [Visualizing Research Lines in Public Health: An analysis Based on Bibliometric Maps Applied to the Revista Española de Salud Pública (2006-2015)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Identifying research lines is essential to understand the knowledge structure of a scientific domain. The aim of this study was to identify the main research topics of within the domain of public health, in the Revista Española de Saslud Pública during 2006-2015. Original articles included in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) database, available online through the Web of Science (WoS), were selected. The analysis units used were the keywords, KeyWords Plus (KW+), extracted automatically by SSCI. With KW+ obtained bibliometric, maps were created using a methodology based on the combination of co-word analysis, co-word analysis, clustering techniques and visualization techniques. We analyzed 512 documents, of which 176 KW+ were obtained with a frequency greater than or equal to 3. The results were bidimensional bibliometric maps with thematic groupings of KW+, representing the main research fronts: i) epidemiology, risk control programs disease and, in general, service organization and health policies; ii) infectious diseases, principally HIV; iii) a progressive increase in several lines interrelated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD); iv) a line multidimensional dedicated to different aspects associated to the quality of life related to health (HRQoL); and v) an emerging line linked to binge drinking. For the multidisciplinary and multidimensional nature of public health, the construction of bibliometric maps is an appropriate methodology to understand the knowledge structure of this scientific domain.

  12. Grounding for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud' homme, P. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.

    2006-07-01

    The importance of providing electrical grounds as a safety issue in the design of power transmission lines was discussed. Power transmission lines extend over several thousands of kilometers crossing various environments, including communities where electric utilities encourage the use of transmission rights-of-way passages for uses such as bicycle paths. In recent years, many new residential communities have been built at the border of power transmission rights-of-ways or substations. In view of this emerging trend, and the fact that internal statistics indicate that lightning strikes are responsible of about 50 to 60 per cent of transmission line faults, electric utilities are obligated to verify if their installations are safe. Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie's view on this subject was presented along with a review of international standards to determine if limits for touch voltage, step voltage and transferred potential close to transmission lines have been established by the international community. A variety of mitigation measures to control the increase in ground potential in the event of electrical faults were also proposed. tabs., figs.

  13. USEMS & GLASS: investigator-driven frontier research in earthquake physics. Ground-breaking research in Europe enhances outreach to the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, S.; di Toro, G.; Collettini, C.; Usems Team; Glass Team

    2011-12-01

    USEMS and GLASS are two projects financed by the European Research Council (ERC) as part of the ERC starting grants scheme within the FP7 framework. The rationale behind the funding scheme is to support some of the most promising scientific endeavours in Europe that are being led by young researchers, and to emphasize the excellence of individual ideas rather than specific research areas; in other words, to promote bottom-up frontier research. The general benefits of this rationale are evident in the two ongoing projects that deal with earthquake physics, as these projects are increasingly recognized in their scientific community. We can say that putting excellence at the heart of European Research strongly contributes to the construction of a European knowledge-based society. From a researcher point-of-view one of the most challenging aspects of these projects is to approach and convey the results of the projects to a general public, contributing to the construction of knowledge-based society. Luckily, media interest and the availability of a number of new communication tools facilitate the outreach of scientific achievements. The largest earthquakes during the last ten years (e.g. Sumatra 2004 and Japan 2011) have received widespread attention in the media world (TV, W.W.W., Newspaper and so on) for months, and successful research projects such as those above also become media protagonists, gaining their space in the media bullring. The USEMS principal investigator and his team have participated in several dissemination events in the Mass Media, such as interviews wit Italian and French TV national broadcasts (RAI Due TG2, RAI Uno Unomattina, Rai Tre Geo & Geo, FRANCE 2); interviews in scientific journals: SCIENCE (Sept. 2010), newspapers and web (Corriere della Sera, Il Gazzettino, Il Messagero, La Stampa, Libero, Il Mattino, Yahoo, ANSA, AdnKronos and AGI); radio (RadioRai Uno, RadioRai Tre Scienza); documentary "Die Eroberung der Alpen" produced by Tangram

  14. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  15. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  16. Stark broadening parameter regularities and interpolation and critical evaluation of data for CP star atmospheres research: Stark line shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Tankosic, D.

    1998-04-01

    In order to find out if regularities and systematic trends found to be apparent among experimental Stark line shifts allow the accurate interpolation of new data and critical evaluation of experimental results, the exceptions to the established regularities are analysed on the basis of critical reviews of experimental data, and reasons for such exceptions are discussed. We found that such exceptions are mostly due to the situations when: (i) the energy gap between atomic energy levels within a supermultiplet is equal or comparable to the energy gap to the nearest perturbing levels; (ii) the most important perturbing level is embedded between the energy levels of the supermultiplet; (iii) the forbidden transitions have influence on Stark line shifts.

  17. Earthquake free design of pipe lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Chizuko; Sakurai, Akio

    1974-01-01

    Long structures such as cooling sea water pipe lines of nuclear power plants have a wide range of extent along the ground surface, and are incurred by not only the inertia forces but also forces due to ground deformations or the seismic wave propagation during earthquakes. Since previous reports indicated the earthquake free design of underground pipe lines, it is discussed in this report on behaviors of pipe lines on the ground during earthquakes and is proposed the aseismic design of pipe lines considering the effects of both inertia forces and ground deformations. (author)

  18. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  19. Ground penetrating radar for fracture mapping in underground hazardous waste disposal sites: A case study from an underground research tunnel, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seung-Sep; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Um, Evan Schankee

    2017-06-01

    Secure disposal or storage of nuclear waste within stable geologic environments hinges on the effectiveness of artificial and natural radiation barriers. Fractures in the bedrock are viewed as the most likely passage for the transport of radioactive waste away from a disposal site. We utilize ground penetrating radar (GPR) to map fractures in the tunnel walls of an underground research tunnel at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). GPR experiments within the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) were carried out by using 200 MHz, 500 MHz, and 1000 MHz antennas. By using the high-frequency antennas, we were able to identify small-scale fractures, which were previously unidentified during the tunnel excavation process. Then, through 3-D visualization of the grid survey data, we reconstructed the spatial distribution and interconnectivity of the multi-scale fractures within the wall. We found that a multi-frequency GPR approach provided more details of the complex fracture network, including deep structures. Furthermore, temporal changes in reflection polarity between the GPR surveys enabled us to infer the hydraulic characteristics of the discrete fracture network developed behind the surveyed wall. We hypothesized that the fractures exhibiting polarity change may be due to a combination of air-filled and mineralogical boundaries. Simulated GPR scans for the considered case were consistent with the observed GPR data. If our assumption is correct, the groundwater flow into these near-surface fractures may form the water-filled fractures along the existing air-filled ones and hence cause the changes in reflection polarity over the given time interval (i.e., 7 days). Our results show that the GPR survey is an efficient tool to determine fractures at various scales. Time-lapse GPR data may be essential to characterize the hydraulic behavior of discrete fracture networks in underground disposal facilities.

  20. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  1. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  2. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  3. The importance of on-line monitoring systems within the environmental monitoring program of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Winter, M.; Schmitt, A.

    1980-10-01

    The two on-line monitoring systems used in KfK environmental monitoring should be taken as measures of accident precaution and they are restricted to measurement of gamma local dose rates and of the (β + γ)-radiation levels. One of the systems serves to monitor the KfK operational area, the second serves to monitor the surrounding communities up to a radius of 8 km. By use of two different types of detectors the first system covers a range of measurement of 10 μrem/h to 1000 rem/h. By the second system only increases in the radiation level can be detected. It allows to record accidents in which countermeasures must be taken very urgently. The two monitoring systems are described which have been operated and partly been developed at the KfK. The possibilities and limits of using them for environmental monitoring are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Research on on-line monitoring technology for steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-jun; Ai, Chang-sheng; Men, Xiu-hua; Zhang, Cheng-liang; Zhang, Qi

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel on-line monitoring technology to obtain forming quality in steel ball's forming process based on load signal analysis method, in order to reveal the bottom die's load characteristic in initial cold heading forging process of steel balls. A mechanical model of the cold header producing process is established and analyzed by using finite element method. The maximum cold heading force is calculated. The results prove that the monitoring on the cold heading process with upsetting force is reasonable and feasible. The forming defects are inflected on the three feature points of the bottom die signals, which are the initial point, infection point, and peak point. A novel PVDF piezoelectric force sensor which is simple on construction and convenient on installation is designed. The sensitivity of the PVDF force sensor is calculated. The characteristics of PVDF force sensor are analyzed by FEM. The PVDF piezoelectric force sensor is fabricated to acquire the actual load signals in the cold heading process, and calibrated by a special device. The measuring system of on-line monitoring is built. The characteristics of the actual signals recognized by learning and identification algorithm are in consistence with simulation results. Identification of actual signals shows that the timing difference values of all feature points for qualified products are not exceed ±6 ms, and amplitude difference values are less than ±3%. The calibration and application experiments show that PVDF force sensor has good static and dynamic performances, and is competent at dynamic measuring on upsetting force. It greatly improves automatic level and machining precision. Equipment capacity factor with damages identification method depends on grade of steel has been improved to 90%.

  5. A comparative analysis of on-line and classroom-based instructional formats for teaching social work research

    OpenAIRE

    David Westhuis; Philip M. Ouellette; Corey L. Pfahler

    2006-01-01

    Research comparing courses taught exclusively in traditional face-to-face settings versus courses taught entirely online have shown similar levels of student satisfaction. This article reports findings from a comparative study of student achievement in research skills from classes using two different instructional formats. One group used a classroom-based instructional format and the other group used an online web-based instructional format. Findings indicate that there were no statistically ...

  6. Consulting patients in setting priorities in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (M.E.) research: findings from a national on-line survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Nicola; Robinson, Lisa; Chowdhury, Sonya; Ogden, Clare; Newton, Julia L

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic encephalitis (M.E.) is a common condition, the cause of which is not known and there are no treatments available. In this study the national patient support group Action for M.E. sought the opinions of their members via an online survey as to what they felt should be future priorities for M.E. Respondents were asked what they considered first, second and third research priorities to be from a list of 13 pre-defined options. Individuals were invited to provide additional free text comments about Action for M.E.'s research priorities in general. Of the 1144 respondents: 822 had M.E.; 94 were a supporting a member of Action for M.E. ; 66 were carers for someone with M.E.; 26 were professionals with an interest in M.E.; 136 had a family member or colleague with M.E. Individuals selected more than one category as applicable. The top five research priorities identified were: disease processes to achieve a better understanding of the causes of M.E.; more effective treatments; faster and more accurate diagnosis; clinical course of M.E.; outcomes and natural history; and severely affected patients. Least popular priorities were: sleep; economic research towards identifying the cost of ME; and psychological aspects. Much of the free text comments emphasised the importance of funding biomedical research into disease processes to achieve a better understanding of the causes of M.E. Three themes were identified in relation to this topic: accurate diagnosis and awareness; risk factors and causes; drug development and curative therapies. In conclusion; individuals affected by M.E. have clear views regarding priorities for research investment. These have informed Action for M.E.'s ongoing research strategy and ultimately will inform national and international research priorities.

  7. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  8. Experimental Research and Control Strategy of Pumped Storage Units Dispatching in the Taiwan Power System Considering Transmission Line Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tse Kuo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s power system is isolated and not supported by other interconnected systems. Consequently, the system frequency immediately reflects changes in the system loads. Pumped storage units are crucial for controlling power frequency. These units provide main or auxiliary capacities, reducing the allocation of frequency-regulating reserve (FRR and further reducing generation costs in system operations. Taiwan’s Longmen Nuclear Power Plant is set to be converted for commercial operations, which will significantly alter the spinning reserves in the power system. Thus, this study proposes a safe and economic pumped storage unit dispatch strategy. This strategy is used to determine the optimal FRR capacity and 1-min recovery frequency in a generator failure occurrence at the Longmen Power Plant. In addition, this study considered transmission capacity constraints and conducted power flow analysis of the power systems in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The results indicated that, in the event of a failure at Longmen Power Plant, the proposed strategy can not only recover the system frequency to an acceptable range to prevent underfrequency load-shedding, but can also mitigate transmission line overloading.

  9. Sequencing at sea : challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Haas, Andreas F; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E; Harkins, Timothy T; Lee, Clarence C; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J A; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned

  10. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Y.W.; Cuevas, D.A.; Silva, G.G.Z.; Aguinaldo, K.; Dinsdale, E.A.; Haas, A.F.; Hatay, M.; Sanchez, S.E.; Wegley-Kelly, L.; Dutilh, B.E.; Harkins, T.T.; Lee, C.C.; Tom, W.; Sandin, S.A.; Smith, J.E.; Zgliczynski, B.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Rohwer, F.; Edwards, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned

  11. 75 FR 38082 - Solicitation of Applications for the Research and Evaluation Program: FY 2010 Triple Bottom Line...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., relevant project management experience, and a significant commitment of human resources talent to ensure... his 1994 article in the California Management Review where he articulated the concept of ``win-win-win... management, within this timeframe. A typical research project period begins with an initial meeting between...

  12. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  13. Electrical Ground System Design of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Kyeong Jun; Jeon, Gye Po; Park, Sung Sik; Min, Yi Sub; Nam, Jung Min; Cho, Jang Hyung; Kim, Jun Yeon

    2010-01-01

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. In this paper, electrical grounding and lightning protection design scheme is introduced. In electrical grounding system design of PEFP, we classified electrical facilities into 4 groups; equipment grounding (type A), instrument grounding (Type A), high frequency instrument grounding (Type C) and lightning arrestor grounding (Type D). Lightning protection system is designed in all buildings of proton accelerator research center of PEFP, including switchyard

  14. Electrical Ground System Design of PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Kyeong Jun; Jeon, Gye Po; Park, Sung Sik; Min, Yi Sub; Nam, Jung Min; Cho, Jang Hyung; Kim, Jun Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. In this paper, electrical grounding and lightning protection design scheme is introduced. In electrical grounding system design of PEFP, we classified electrical facilities into 4 groups; equipment grounding (type A), instrument grounding (Type A), high frequency instrument grounding (Type C) and lightning arrestor grounding (Type D). Lightning protection system is designed in all buildings of proton accelerator research center of PEFP, including switchyard

  15. Research on elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for activities implemented jointly; Kyodo jisshi katsudo hyoka guide line sakutei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) was researched to prevent the earth from warming. AIJ is the means to globally promote countermeasures against global warming cost-effectively by optimally combining every country`s technology, know-how and fund. AIJ was established in the 1st Conference of the Parties (COPI) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in March, 1995. The pilot phase of AIJ is first carried out by voluntary workers jointly with developing countries under the agreement of the parties. The current situation of activities is reported in COPI as materials for evaluation of AIJ. To promote AIJ, elaboration of the evaluation guidelines for AIJ Japan program is also necessary for Japan. This research arranged the contents of the evaluation guidelines and the method of classifying projects for AIJ Japan program, and carried out some case studies of promising projects to reduce greenhouse gas emission for future proposal. 3 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Background research in support of the new grant proposal: Research consortium for X-ray topography on line X-19 at NSLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilello, J. C.

    1983-11-01

    The status of the construction and installation of components of the synchrotron topography station is reported as well as progress in the development of hardware for interfacing and software for interactively controlling the 13 motors which automate the facility. Research focuses on the problem of X-ray optics and on techniques for applying topography to materials science. There is colaboration with other researchers in studying the nature of brittle fracture of refractory metals and in interpreting contact in the vicinity of crack tips.

  17. A perpetual source of DNA or something really different: ethical issues in the creation of cell lines for African genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jantina; Abayomi, Akin; Brandful, James; Littler, Katherine; Madden, Ebony; Marshall, Patricia; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Seeley, Janet

    2014-08-07

    The rise of genomic studies in Africa - not least due to projects funded under H3Africa - is associated with the development of a small number of biorepositories across Africa. For the ultimate success of these biorepositories, the creation of cell lines including those from selected H3Africa samples would be beneficial. In this paper, we map ethical challenges in the creation of cell lines. The first challenge we identified relates to the moral status of cells living in culture. There is no doubt that cells in culture are alive, and the question is how this characteristic is relevant to ethical decision-making. The second challenge relates to the fact that cells in culture are a source of cell products and mitochondrial DNA. In combination with other technologies, cells in culture could also be used to grow human tissue. Whilst on the one hand, this feature increases the potential utility of the sample and promotes science, on the other it also enables further scientific work that may not have been specifically consented to or approved. The third challenge relates to ownership over samples, particularly in cases where cell lines are created by a biobank, and in a different country than where samples were collected. Relevant questions here concern the export of samples, approval of secondary use and the acceptability of commercialisation. A fourth challenge relates to perceptions of blood and bodily integrity, which may be particularly relevant for African research participants from certain cultures or backgrounds. Finally, we discuss challenges around informed consent and ethical review. In this paper, we sought to map the myriad of ethical challenges that need to be considered prior to making cell line creation a reality in the H3Africa project. Considering the relative novelty of this practice in Africa, such challenges will need to be considered, discussed and potentially be resolved before cell line creation in Africa becomes financially feasible and

  18. Measurement of 241Am Ground State Radiative Neutron Capture Cross Section with Cold Neutron Beam. Progress Report on Research Contract HUN14318 for the CRP on Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belgya, T.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Kis, Z.; Nagy, N.M.; Konya, J.

    2012-01-01

    The ground state cross section of 242 Am has been measured with beams of cold neutrons at the Budapest Research Reactor using the X-ray emission of the decay product of 242 Pu. This methodology avoids the uncertainty caused by resonance neutrons in the pile activations. The target was characterized with gamma and X-ray spectrometry. The obtained ground state cross section is 540 ± 32 b, which is at the low end of the most recent literature values, but agrees with most of them within their uncertainty. (author)

  19. A comparative analysis of on-line and classroom-based instructional formats for teaching social work research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Westhuis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research comparing courses taught exclusively in traditional face-to-face settings versus courses taught entirely online have shown similar levels of student satisfaction. This article reports findings from a comparative study of student achievement in research skills from classes using two different instructional formats. One group used a classroom-based instructional format and the other group used an online web-based instructional format. Findings indicate that there were no statistically significant differences between the two class formats for eight out of eleven outcome student performance activities and ten out of 13 pedagogical strategies. There were large effect size differences based on class format on four of the student performance activities and for student satisfaction with six of the pedagogical methods. When statistically significant differences were found, it was determined that student performance on learning activities and satisfaction with pedagogical methods were higher for the students in the traditional class. The findings support the conclusions of several studies concerning the effectiveness of online teaching. Limitations and implications for further studies are also suggested.

  20. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017 – Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate–chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°, whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between −0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY. Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between −0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ∼ 1 % for GOME and OMI to  ∼ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a

  1. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017) - Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garane, Katerina; Lerot, Christophe; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Verhoelst, Tijl; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Zyrichidou, Irene; Balis, Dimitris S.; Danckaert, Thomas; Goutail, Florence; Granville, Jose; Hubert, Daan; Keppens, Arno; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Loyola, Diego; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Zehner, Claus

    2018-03-01

    The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting) v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate-chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC) at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°), whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between -0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B) and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY). Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between -0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ˜ 1 % for GOME and OMI to ˜ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a negligible drift per decade of the differences in the Northern Hemisphere

  2. Nuclear physics research front line by K computer. Elucidation of inter-hadron interactions by lattice QCD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Takumi

    2013-01-01

    Research of nuclear forces by lattice QCD including inter-hadron interactions is presented. Determination of nuclear forces based on the first principle of QCD means to give underpinning of nuclear physics from the elementary particle standard model. Determining the unknown interactions such as hyperon forces or three-body ones gives large impacts not only to the nuclear physics but also to the universe or astrophysics. In this paper, the most up-to-date achievements as well as the scientific visions of future by using K computer is introduced. The nuclear potential is shown to be determined by the first principle simulation based on the purely fundamental theory without using any input from experiments. When this research is completed, nuclear physics is consolidated in the frame of standard model of elementary particles. The formulation of nuclear potentials was though very problematic but solved by using HAL method. The way to use Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter wave functions to go to the QCD is explained. The results of the lattice QCD simulation are shown about the nuclear force potential of 1 S 0 channel and the scattering phase differences. About the hyperon forces, computer results from the limit of flavor SU(3) where the masses of u, d and s quarks are equal are introduced here. Further studies using different quark masses are necessary and calculation taking the SU(3) breaking into consideration is in progress. The calculation result of triple proton channel is shown as an example of three-body forth, which is another important nuclear force. To let the lattice QCD exert the predicting ability further steps are left. Calculations on real quark masses are considered especially important as the future problem. Confronting the large problem of hadron many-body systems, K computer is the biggest challenging force as well as the new formalism of HAL QCD and Unified Contraction Algorithm (UCA). (S. Funahashi)

  3. Effect of Neutral Grounding Protection Methods for Compensated Wind/PV Grid-Connected Hybrid Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Çetinkaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the wind/PV grid-connected system (GCS can be categorized as technical, environmental, and economic impacts. It has a vital impact for improving the voltage in the power systems; however, it has some negative effects such as interfacing and fault clearing. This paper discusses different grounding methods for fault protection of High-voltage (HV power systems. Influences of these grounding methods for various fault characteristics on wind/PV GCSs are discussed. Simulation models are implemented in the Alternative Transient Program (ATP version of the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP. The models allow for different fault factors and grounding methods. Results are obtained to evaluate the impact of each grounding method on the 3-phase short-circuit fault (SCF, double-line-to-ground (DLG fault, and single-line-to-ground (SLG fault features. Solid, resistance, and Petersen coil grounding are compared for different faults on wind/PV GCSs. Transient overcurrent and overvoltage waveforms are used to describe the fault case. This paper is intended as a guide to engineers in selecting adequate grounding and ground fault protection schemes for HV, for evaluating existing wind/PV GCSs to minimize the damage of the system components from faults. This research presents the contribution of wind/PV generators and their comparison with the conventional system alone.

  4. Vibration analysis of primary inlet pipe line during steady state and transient conditions of Pakistan research reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayazuddin, S.K.; Qureshi, A.A.; Hayat, T.

    1997-11-01

    The Primary Water Inlet Pipeline (PW-IPL) is of stainless steel conveying demineralized water from hold-up tank to the reactor pool of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). The section of the pipeline from heat exchangers to the valve pit is hanger supported in the pump room and the rest of the section from valve pit to the reactor pool is embedded. The PW-IPL is subjected to steady state and transient vibrations. The reactor pumps, which drive the coolant through various circuits mainly contribute the steady state vibrations, while transient vibrations arise due to instant closure of the check valve (water hammer). The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code provides data about the acceptable limits of stresses related to the primary static stress due to steady state vibrations. However, due to complexity in the pipe structure, stresses related to the transient vibrations are neglected in the code. In this report attempt has been made to analyzed both steady state and transient vibrations of PW-IPL of PARR-1. Since, both the steady state and transient vibrations affect the hanger-supported section of the PW-IPL, therefore, it was selected for vibration test measurements. In the analysis vibration data was compared with the allowable limits and estimations of maximum pressure build-up, eflection, natural frequency, tensile and shear load on hanger support, and the ratio of maximum combine stress to the allowable load were made. (author)

  5. Ground temperature estimation through an energy balance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, X. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Naterer, G.F. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A joint research project by the University of Manitoba and the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) is currently examining ground thermal responses to heat conduction within power transmission line towers. The aim of the study is to develop thermal protection alternatives for the freezing and thawing conditions that typically lead to the tilting and heaving of tower foundations. The analysis presented in this paper focused on the temperatures of areas undisturbed by tower foundations. The ground was approximated as a semi-infinite homogenous system with a sinusoidal variation of ground temperature and constant thermophysical properties. Solar radiation and air temperature data were used to develop the sinusoidal profiles. The far-field temperature was modeled using a 1-D transient heat conduction equation. Geothermal gradients were neglected. The energy balance method was used for boundary conditions at the ground surface. Energy components included heat conduction through the ground; heat convection due to wind; net radiative heat transfer; and latent heat transfer due to evaporation. Newton's law of cooling was used to model the convective heat transfer. The model was used to predict ground temperature under varying conditions. Monthly variations of temperature at 2 meters depth were calculated using different evaporation fractions. The model was also used to estimate summer ground temperature at a site in Manitoba. Air temperature, wind velocity and solar radiation data were used. It was suggested that further research is needed to consider the effects of freezing, thawing, and winter snow cover. 2 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  6. Basic research of printing silver conductive lines by droplet ej ection%微滴喷射打印银导线基础研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖渊; 蒋龙; 陈兰; 罗俊

    2016-01-01

    In view of the problems of limited wire width,and great difficulty and high cost of ink preparation ex-isting in the process of preparation of flexible conductive lines by current screen printing and inkj et printing technology,a method based on droplet ej ection technology combined with chemical deposition for forming con-ductive lines is proposed.Using built double nozzle pneumatic droplet ej ection device,on-demand j et experiment is carried out with a concentration of 1 .9 6 mol/L of silver nitrate and 1 .3 1 mol/L of ascorbic acid solution.On this basis,experiment of forming silver lines with different sedimentary sequence in A4 copy paper is conduc-ted,and square resistance measurement and microstructure research of formed silver conductive lines with dif-ferent sedimentary sequence are conducted.Results show that a complete dynamic process and morphology change of droplets forming of two materials are obtained by using high-speed cameras.Results of square resist-ance measurement show that with the increase in sedimentary sequence,the mean square resistance of silver conductive lines decreases from 2.659 to 0.045 Ω/□,the standard deviation of square resistance decreases from 2.563 to 0.022 Ω/□.SEM pictures of conductive lines with different sedimentary sequence show that with the increase in sedimentary sequence,the hole inside silver conductive lines reduces,the number of particles of sil-ver increases.%针对当前丝网印刷、喷墨打印技术制备柔性导电线路过程中导线宽度受限、墨水制备难度大、成本高等问题,提出微滴喷射与化学沉积技术相结合成形导电线路的方法.利用构建的双喷头气动式微滴喷射系统,以浓度为1.96 mol/L的硝酸银和1.31 mol/L的抗坏血酸溶液进行按需喷射实验研究;在此基础上,以 A4复印纸为基板进行不同沉积序列银导线成形试验,并对沉积成形银导线的方阻进行测量及微观形貌分析.结果表明,利

  7. Mixing a Grounded Theory Approach with a Randomized Controlled Trial Related to Intimate Partner Violence: What Challenges Arise for Mixed Methods Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M.; Ciliska, Donna; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase. PMID:23577245

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND POWER LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Ranković

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the contemporary epidemiological researches, there are some indications that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields harm human health which has been proved through numerous scientific studies published in recent years. Today, most countries use the ICNIRP guidelines and Council Recommendation as the scientific basis for their recommended levels of exposure. Magnetic fields from high voltage transmission power lines have been discussed in this paper. The field profiles and their contribution to environmental pollution are studied. The obtained results are found to be useful for discussing the comparison of the field densities on the human body at the ground level under or near the lines.

  9. Research and development on is process components for hydrogen production. (2) Corrosion resistance of glass lining in high temperature sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kubo, Shinji; Terada, Atsuhiko; Onuki, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting a research and development on hydrogen production system using High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. As a part of this effort, thermochemical water-splitting cycle featuring iodine- and sulfur-compounds (IS process) is under development considering its potential of large-scale economical hydrogen production. The IS process constitutes very severe environments on the materials of construction because of the corrosive nature of process chemicals, especially of the high temperature acidic solution of sulfuric acid and hydriodic acid dissolving iodine. Therefore, selection of the corrosion-resistant materials and development of the components has been studied as a crucial subject of the process development. This paper discusses corrosion resistance of commercially available glass-lining material in high temperature sulfuric acid. Corrosion resistance of a soda glass used for glass-lining was examined by immersion tests. The experiments were performed in 47-90wt% sulfuric acids at temperatures of up to 400degC and for the maximum immersion time of 100 hours using an autoclave designed for the concerned tests. In every condition tested, no indication of localized corrosion such as defect formation or pitting corrosion was observed. Also, the corrosion rates decreased with the progress of immersion, and were low enough (≅0.1 mm/year) after 60-90 hours of immersion probably due to formation of a silica rich surface. (author)

  10. Microwave transmission-line impedance data

    CERN Document Server

    Gunston, M A R

    1996-01-01

    A compendium of data for computing the characteristic impedance of transmission lines based on physical dimensions. Covers both conventional structures and unusual geometries, including coaxial, eccentric and elliptic coaxial, twin-wire, wire-above-ground, microstrip and derivatives, stripline, slabline and trough line. Also details numerous configurations of coupled lines.

  11. Grounded Intersectionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz

    2016-01-01

    associated with intersectional research. The findings assist in positioning the proposed methodological framework within recent intersectional debates. Findings – The review shows a rise in intersectional publications since the birth of the “intersectionality” term in 1989. Moreover, the paper points to four...... oriented but still emphasizes stable concepts. Moreover, it does not give primacy to oppression. Finally, it adopts a critical stance on the nature of the macro, meso, and micro levels as dominant analytical perspectives. As a result, this paper focusses on the importance of intersectionality...

  12. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... reveals how personalized political communication is profoundly influencing electoral outcomes and transforming American democracy. Rasmus Kleis Nielsen is research fellow at the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at the University of Oxford and assistant professor at Roskilde University...

  13. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  14. The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Mills; Ann Bonner; Karen Francis

    2006-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. T...

  15. [An analysis of the Ministry of Health of Brazil investments in research and development between 2000-2002: a base line towards future valuations beginning with the implementation of the National Health Research Priority Agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Rosângela; Vianna, Cid Manso de Mello; Sampaio, Mariana Miranda Autran; da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Rodrigues, Rodolfo Rego Deusdará

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the Ministry of Health of Brazil investments in research and development in health (R&D/H) between the years of 2000-2002, trying to contrast them with the items of the National Health Research Priority Agenda, in order to attempt a base line that makes capable future evaluations on the inductor role. The data was collected by a research carried out with the main goal of measure resources invested in R&D/H in the country on the period, considering only the Ministry of Health investments. The researches were independently categorized by 2 researchers based on 24 subdivisions which compose the Agenda. The amount of the resources invested by the Ministry of Health on the period was of R$ 199.3 millions. Most of the expense was related to researches in transmittable diseases (31.5%), followed by systems and policies in health (16.3%) and communication and information in health (8.6%). Conditions that represent a substantial disease burden (non transmittable diseases, mental health, violence, accidents and traumas, elderly person health) received relative small amount of resource. The work establishes a starting point from which managers of scientific and technological policy may assess the progressive influence of the Agenda and the reduction of the identified imbalances.

  16. Nasca Lines, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. 49 CFR 192.375 - Service lines: Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Plastic. 192.375 Section 192.375... § 192.375 Service lines: Plastic. (a) Each plastic service line outside a building must be installed... terminate above ground level and outside the building, if— (i) The above ground level part of the plastic...

  18. Measurements of the ground-state ionization energy and wavelengths for the 1snp 1P1*-1s21S0 (n=4-9) lines of Mg XI and F VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal'chikov, V.G.; Ya Faenov, A.; Yu Skobelev, I.

    2002-01-01

    The wavelengths of the 1snp 1 P 1 0 -1s 2 1 S 0 transitions in the He-like Mg XI (n = 4-9) and F VIII (n=4-8) have been measured in laser-produced plasmas. The accuracy of the present measurements (0.4-1.6 mA) is a large improvement over previous results. The Rydberg series is used to determine the ground-state ionization energy of F VIII and Mg XI: E i on (F VIII) 953.96±0.11 eV, E i on (Mg XI)=1761.88±0.15 eV. These experimental results are compared with theoretical data calculated by the 1/Z-expansion method and the HFR and MCDF approaches. Fairly good agreement between theory and experiment is observed with a precision up to 5x10 -5 . Radiative corrections to the 1s 2 1 S 0 state are analysed and compared with experiments. It is found that QED corrections to the ground-state ionization energy are significant at the present level of experimental accuracy. (author)

  19. An analytical theory of transmission line shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Per

    1993-01-01

    The classical electrogeometric model of shielding failure flashovers on transmission lines is investigated by analytical methods. Most of the basic elements that has appeared in the literature on the subject have been incorporated and put into a comprehensive model. These elements are: tower top geometry, structure height above ground, line insulation, lateral slope of ground, probability distribution of lightning currents, ratio of striking distances to ground wire and earth relative to conductor, and probability distribution of lightning leader approach angle to ground. Departing from a basic idealistic case, the sensitivity of the model to variations in these parameters is studied. Numerical examples are given. 8 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  20. Navigating the grounded theory terrain. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John

    2011-01-01

    The decision to use grounded theory is not an easy one and this article aims to illustrate and explore the methodological complexity and decision-making process. It explores the decision making of one researcher in the first two years of a grounded theory PhD study looking at the psychosocial training needs of nurses and healthcare assistants working with people with dementia in residential care. It aims to map out three different approaches to grounded theory: classic, Straussian and constructivist. In nursing research, grounded theory is often referred to but it is not always well understood. This confusion is due in part to the history of grounded theory methodology, which is one of development and divergent approaches. Common elements across grounded theory approaches are briefly outlined, along with the key differences of the divergent approaches. Methodological literature pertaining to the three chosen grounded theory approaches is considered and presented to illustrate the options and support the choice made. The process of deciding on classical grounded theory as the version best suited to this research is presented. The methodological and personal factors that directed the decision are outlined. The relative strengths of Straussian and constructivist grounded theories are reviewed. All three grounded theory approaches considered offer the researcher a structured, rigorous methodology, but researchers need to understand their choices and make those choices based on a range of methodological and personal factors. In the second article, the final methodological decision will be outlined and its research application described.

  1. Market opportunity assessment for the Eastern Shore short line rail in Maryland with a focus on potential new customers : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the market feasibility of improved short line rail service on Marylands Eastern Shore and to explore the potential of an improved short line to attract additional businesses as new customers.

  2. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  3. High temperature on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion control in water cooled power reactors. Report of a co-ordinated research project 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This report documents the results of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on High Temperature On-line Monitoring of Water Chemistry and Corrosion in Water Cooled Power Reactors (1995-1999). This report attempts to provide both an overview of the state of the art with regard to on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion in operating reactors, and technical details of the important contributions made by programme participants to the development and qualification of new monitoring techniques. The WACOL CRP is a follow-up to the WACOLIN (Investigations on Water Chemistry Control and Coolant Interaction with Fuel and Primary Circuit Materials in Water Cooled Power Reactors) CRP conducted by the IAEA from 1986 to 1991. The WACOLIN CRP, which described chemistry, corrosion and activity-transport aspects, clearly showed the influence of water chemistry on corrosion of both fuel and reactor primary-circuit components, as well as on radiation fields. It was concluded that there was a fundamental need to monitor water-chemistry parameters in real time, reliably and accurately. The objectives of the WACOL CRP were to establish recommendations for the development, qualification and plant implementation of methods and equipment for on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion. Chief investigators from 18 organizations representing 15 countries provided a variety of contributions aimed at introducing proven monitoring techniques into plants on a regular basis and filling the gaps between plant operator needs and available monitoring techniques. The CRP firmly demonstrated that in situ monitoring is able to provide additional and valuable information to plant operators, e.g. ECP, high temperature pH and conductivity. Such data can be obtained promptly, i.e. in real time and with a high degree of accuracy. Reliable techniques and sensor devices are available which enable plant operators to obtain additional information on the response of structural materials in

  4. La Teoría Fundamentada como Metodología de Investigación Cualitativa en Enfermería Grounded theory as a qualitative research methodology in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina G. Vivar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La teoría fundamentada (TF es un diseño de investigación cualitativa, reconocido a nivel internacional, que ha sido utilizado para desarrollar teorías sobre fenómenos de salud relevantes. Sin embargo, en el ámbito de la enfermería española, la TF ha tenido escasa consideración. Por ello, este artículo se centra en esta metodología cualitativa e ilustra su contribución en la investigación enfermera en España y su utilidad para la Enfermería. También, se presentan brevemente las características metodológicas distintivas de la teoría fundamentada.Grounded theory is a qualitative research design used at an international level. It has been applied as a methodology to develop theories about relevant health phenomena. However, in the Spanish nursing context, grounded theory has received very little attention. This article focuses on this qualitative methodology and illustrates its contribution to nursing research in Spain and its relevance for nursing. Moreover, the main methodological characteristics of grounded theory are briefly presented.

  5. Grounding modelling for transient overvoltage simulation in electric power transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno O, German; Valencia V, Jaime A; Villada, Fernando

    1992-01-01

    Grounding plays an important role in transmission line outages and consequently on electric energy transmission quality indexes. Fundamentals of an accurate modelling for transient behaviour analysis, particularly for the response of transmission lines to lightning, are presented. Also, a method to take into account the electromagnetic propagation guided by the grounding electrodes and finally to assess the grounding impedance in order to simulate the transmission line behaviour under lightning is presented. Analysis of impedance behaviour for diverse configurations and simulation results of over voltages on a real 220 kV line are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the method and of the computational program developed

  6. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 17-21 June 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Chem. Engrs., 32, 35 (1954). 9. Littman, H., Vukovic , D.V., Zdansk, F.K., and Grabavtit, Z.B., Can. J . Chem. Eng., 54, 33 (1976). 10. Morgan, M.H...COMMAND Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010-5423 DISTRIBUTIONSTATEMENW A, Approvod iapublic releaB6~ s11 "’ftbui U o ited’ ^ J .. Di scl aimer The...PARTICLE COMPOSITION R. G. Keesee and A. W. Castleman, Jr ........ ........................ .13 NUCLEATION AND PARTICLE GROWTH " S. G. Kim and J . R

  7. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  8. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2001 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada (fusao), do Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-07-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic.

  9. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  10. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  11. Circuit QED with hybrid metamaterial transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruloff, Stefan; Taketani, Bruno; Wilhelm, Frank [Theoretical Physics, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We're working on the theory of metamaterials providing some interesting results. The negative refraction index causes an opposite orientation of the wave vector k and the Poynting vector S of the travelling waves. Hence the metamaterial has a falling dispersion relation ∂ω(k)/∂k < 0 implying that low frequencies correspond to short wavelengths. Metamaterials are simulated by left-handed transmission lines consisting of discrete arrays of series capacitors and parallel inductors to ground. Unusual physics arises when right-and left-handed transmission lines are coupled forming a hybrid metamaterial transmission line. E.g. if a qubit is placed in front of a hybrid metamaterial transmission line terminated in an open circuit, the spontaneous emission rate is weakened or unaffected depending on the transition frequency of the qubit. Some other research interests are the general analysis of metamaterial cavities and the mode structure of hybrid metamaterial cavities for QND readout of multi-qubit operators. Especially the precise answer to the question about the definition of the mode volume of a metamaterial cavity is one of our primary goals.

  12. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  13. Research on the Error Characteristics of a 110 kV Optical Voltage Transformer under Three Conditions: In the Laboratory, Off-Line in the Field and During On-Line Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Hu, Haoliang; Xu, Yan; Lei, Min; Xiong, Qianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Optical voltage transformers (OVTs) have been applied in power systems. When performing accuracy performance tests of OVTs large differences exist between the electromagnetic environment and the temperature variation in the laboratory and on-site. Therefore, OVTs may display different error characteristics under different conditions. In this paper, OVT prototypes with typical structures were selected to be tested for the error characteristics with the same testing equipment and testing method. The basic accuracy, the additional error caused by temperature and the adjacent phase in the laboratory, the accuracy in the field off-line, and the real-time monitoring error during on-line operation were tested. The error characteristics under the three conditions—laboratory, in the field off-line and during on-site operation—were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the effect of the transportation process, electromagnetic environment and the adjacent phase on the accuracy of OVTs could be ignored for level 0.2, but the error characteristics of OVTs are dependent on the environmental temperature and are sensitive to the temperature gradient. The temperature characteristics during on-line operation were significantly superior to those observed in the laboratory. PMID:27537895

  14. Design of the Demineralized Water Make-up Line to Maintain the Normal Pool Water Level of the Reactor Pool in the Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyun Gi; Choi, Jung Woon; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Chi, Dae Young

    2012-01-01

    In many research reactors, hot water layer system (HWLS) is used to minimize the pool top radiation level. Reactor pool divided into the hot water layer at the upper part of pool and the cold part below the hot water layer with lower temperature during normal operation. Water mixing between these layers is minimized because the hot water layer is formed above cold water. Therefore the hot water layer suppresses floatation of cold water and reduces the pool top radiation level. Pool water is evaporated form the surface to the building hall because of high temperature of the hot water layer; consequently the pool level is continuously fallen. Therefore, make-up water is necessary to maintain the normal pool level. There are two way to supply demineralized water to the pool, continuous and intermittent methods. In this system design, the continuous water make-up method is adopted to minimize the disturbance of the reactor pool flow. Also, demineralized water make-up is connected to the suction line of the hot water layer system to raise the temperature of make-up water. In conclusion, make-up demineralized water with high temperature is continuously supplied to the hot water layer in the pool

  15. CLO : The cell line ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Meehan, Terrence F.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Vempati, Uma D.; Schuerer, Stephan C.; Pang, Chao; Malone, James; Parkinson, Helen; Liu, Yue; Takatsuki, Terue; Saijo, Kaoru; Masuya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Brush, Matthew H.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Zheng, Jie; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Peters, Bjoern; Mungall, Christopher J.; Carey, Thomas E.; States, David J.; Athey, Brian D.; He, Yongqun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO

  16. Shielding and grounding in large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.

    1998-09-01

    Prevention of electromagnetic interference (EMI), or ''noise pickup,'' is an important design aspect in large detectors in accelerator environments. Shielding effectiveness as a function of shield thickness and conductivity vs the type and frequency of the interference field is described. Noise induced in transmission lines by ground loop driven currents in the shield is evaluated and the importance of low shield resistance is emphasized. Some measures for prevention of ground loops and isolation of detector-readout systems are discussed

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally, anatomy has been learnt using didactic lectures and practical cadaver ... be largely labour and resource intensive, but potentially not useful.[2] ... medical schools in developed countries, as they are in line with educational theory.

  18. Goals, Objectives, and Requirements (GOR) of the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team for the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal, objectives, and requirements (GOR) presented in this document define a framework for describing research directed specifically by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The intent of this document is to provide a communication tool for the GNDD Team with NNSA management and with its stakeholder community. It describes the GNDD expectation that much of the improvement in the proficiency of nuclear explosion monitoring will come from better understanding of the science behind the generation, propagation, recording, and interpretation of seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide signals and development of 'game-changer' advances in science and technology.

  19. Goals, Objectives, and Requirements (GOR) of the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team for the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    The goal, objectives, and requirements (GOR) presented in this document define a framework for describing research directed specifically by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The intent of this document is to provide a communication tool for the GNDD Team with NNSA management and with its stakeholder community. It describes the GNDD expectation that much of the improvement in the proficiency of nuclear explosion monitoring will come from better understanding of the science behind the generation, propagation, recording, and interpretation of seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide signals and development of "game-changer" advances in science and technology.

  20. Clonal variation of DNA repair in a human glioma cell line This study was supported by the Cancer Research Campaign and the Bob Champion Cancer Trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Simon; McMillan, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    Clonal heterogeneity in response to ionizing radiation was found for a human glioma cell line, IN859. The authors have investigated the most sensitive clone, the most resistant clone and the parent line for differences in DNA repair fidelity using the method of plasmid reconstitution. Significant differences in repair fidelity were found between the two clones, and between the sensitive clone and the parent line. The resistant clone and the parent lines showed the greater repair fidelity. A comparison of two different restriction enzymes, which cleave the plasmid with blunt or cohesive-ended double-strand breaks, did not reveal differences in repair fidelity. Equal numbers of plasmids were integrated in each cell line, but the sensitive clone showed a higher frequency of misrepair of cleaved plasmid. Misrepair was characterized by partial or complete loss of sequence at the site of plasmid cleavage. It is concluded that the radiosensitive clone exhibits increased misrepair. (author). 15 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Draw the Line!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM......Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we....... The UPGEM research has previously been published in national reports from each of the partner countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland). In these individual national reports of universities as workplaces for male and female researchers we discuss scientific cultures in physics embedded...

  2. Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) Waveguide: Characteristics and Advantages Evaluated for Radiofrequency and Wireless Communication Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    Researchers in NASA Lewis Research Center s Electron Device Technology Branch are developing transmission lines for radiofrequency and wireless circuits that are more efficient, smaller, and make lower cost circuits possible. Traditionally, radiofrequency and wireless circuits have employed a microstrip or coplanar waveguide to interconnect the various electrical elements that comprise a circuit. Although a coplanar waveguide (CPW) is widely viewed as better than a microstrip for most applications, it too has problems. To solve these problems, NASA Lewis and the University of Michigan developed a new version of a coplanar waveguide with electrically narrow ground planes. Through extensive numerical modeling and experimental measurements, we have characterized the propagation constant of the FGC waveguide, the lumped and distributed circuit elements integrated in the FGC waveguide, and the coupling between parallel transmission lines. Although the attenuation per unit length is higher for the FGC waveguide because of higher conductor loss, the attenuation is comparable when the ground plane width is twice the center conductor width as shown in the following graph. An upper limit to the line width is derived from observations that when the total line width is greater than ld/2, spurious resonances due to the parallel plate waveguide mode are established. Thus, the ground plane width must be less than ld/4 where ld is the wavelength in the dielectric. Since the center conductor width S is typically less than l/10 to maintain good transverse electromagnetic mode characteristics, it follows that a ground plane width of B = 2S would also be electrically narrow. Thus, we can now treat the ground strips of the FGC waveguide the same way that the center conductor is treated.

  3. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The 22Rv1 prostate cancer cell line carries mixed genetic ancestry: Implications for prostate cancer health disparities research using pre-clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Burnham, Leanne; Basu, Anamika; Cajigas-Du Ross, Christina K; Love, Arthur; Yates, Clayton; De Leon, Marino; Roy, Sourav; Casiano, Carlos A

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how biological factors contribute to prostate cancer (PCa) health disparities requires mechanistic functional analysis of specific genes or pathways in pre-clinical cellular and animal models of this malignancy. The 22Rv1 human prostatic carcinoma cell line was originally derived from the parental CWR22R cell line. Although 22Rv1 has been well characterized and used in numerous mechanistic studies, no racial identifier has ever been disclosed for this cell line. In accordance with the need for racial diversity in cancer biospecimens and recent guidelines by the NIH on authentication of key biological resources, we sought to determine the ancestry of 22RV1 and authenticate previously reported racial identifications for four other PCa cell lines. We used 29 established Ancestry Informative Marker (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to conduct DNA ancestry analysis and assign ancestral proportions to a panel of five PCa cell lines that included 22Rv1, PC3, DU145, MDA-PCa-2b, and RC-77T/E. We found that 22Rv1 carries mixed genetic ancestry. The main ancestry proportions for this cell line were 0.41 West African (AFR) and 0.42 European (EUR). In addition, we verified the previously reported racial identifications for PC3 (0.73 EUR), DU145 (0.63 EUR), MDA-PCa-2b (0.73 AFR), and RC-77T/E (0.74 AFR) cell lines. Considering the mortality disparities associated with PCa, which disproportionately affect African American men, there remains a burden on the scientific community to diversify the availability of biospecimens, including cell lines, for mechanistic studies on potential biological mediators of these disparities. This study is beneficial by identifying another PCa cell line that carries substantial AFR ancestry. This finding may also open the door to new perspectives on previously published studies using this cell line. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, G.

    2014-08-01

    A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.

  6. Strengthening weak ties through on-line gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana Virginia; Kirchner, Kathrin

    On-line gaming became widespread in the last couple of years. The aim of the research presented in the paper is to figure out to what extent does game playing helps to strengthen weak ties and what additional factors influence this process. The approach is rather exploratory – some factors...... are grounded in theory, some are new. These factors are age, gender, place of origin, number of their Facebook connections (friends in Facebook terminology), the amount of time they are on Facebook, the amount of time they keep the Facebook site open, the amount of time they play on-line games, and the reasons...... for starting to play on-line games. Regarding the latter, we chose to focus only on escapist reasons....

  7. Electric and magnetic field reduction by alternative transmission line options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.R. (Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)); Dale, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Klein, K.W. (Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Ground level electric, and more recently magnetic, fields from overhead power transmission lines are increasingly important considerations in right of way specification, with states setting or planning to set edge of right of way limits. Research has been conducted in high phase order power transmission wherein six of twelve phases are used to transmit power in less physical space and with reduced electrical environmental effects than conventional designs. The first magnetic field testing, as reported in this paper, has verified predictive methods for determination of magnetic fields from high phase order lines. Based on these analytical methods, field profiles have been determined for lines of different phase order of comparable power capacity. Potential advantages of high phase order as a means of field mitigation are discussed. 10 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. A thermal ground cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object. - Highlights: • We present the first thermal carpet cloak. • The carpet can thermally cloak any shaped object without knowing the properties of the object to be cloaked. • Excellent agreements between simulation and experiment are observed.

  9. Navigating the grounded theory terrain. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the choice of classic grounded theory will be discussed and justified in the context of the first author's PhD research. The methodological discussion takes place within the context of PhD research entitled: Development of a stakeholder-led framework for a structured education programme that will prepare nurses and healthcare assistants to deliver a psychosocial intervention for people with dementia. There is a lack of research and limited understanding of the effect of psychosocial interventions on people with dementia. The first author thought classic grounded theory a suitable research methodology to investigate as it is held to be ideal for areas of research where there is little understanding of the social processes at work. The literature relating to the practical application of classic grounded theory is illustrated using examples relating to four key grounded theory components: Theory development: using constant comparison and memoing, Methodological rigour, Emergence of a core category, Inclusion of self and engagement with participants. Following discussion of the choice and application of classic grounded theory, this paper explores the need for researchers to visit and understand the various grounded theory options. This paper argues that researchers new to grounded theory must be familiar with and understand the various options. The researchers will then be able to apply the methodologies they choose consistently and critically. Doing so will allow them to develop theory rigorously and they will ultimately be able to better defend their final methodological destinations.

  10. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2016-07-01

    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  11. Natural isotope technique for the exploration and exploitation of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Abidin; Hudi Hastowo; Aang Hanafiah

    2007-01-01

    In line with the condition of climate and hydrology, Indonesia has a fast amount of aquifers which are sources of ground water. In several areas large number of springs occurred with small to large debits which is a sign of ground water potential. Ground water is a potential reservoir to be use at maximum for several purposes such as drinking water, industry and tourism. Large cities such as Jakarta, Bandung and others depend on ground water for their industries and hotels. The exploitation of ground water use has to be controlled and monitoring of a management system have to be done. Research carried out only on the exploitation of geophysics and hydrology showed that the amount of ground water reservoirs is not enough to be used when it comes to justification to explore it. Other parameters are still be needed which are the origins and dating of the ground water, these last two factors mentioned have to be taken into consideration in the system of conversion and balance of water. An alternative technology to determine the two factors mentioned in a short time is the natural isotope technique of 18 O, 2 H and 14 C. This technique is used to determine the origin of water, and isotope 14 C is carried out to determine the age of ground water. Isotopes 18 H and 2 H are stable isotopes in the form of water and is integrated in the hydrological cycle. Their specific concentrations in rain water at several elevations are used as fingerprints to locate the area of ground water supplement and its origin. Isotope 14 C is a natural radioactive isotope with a half-life of 5.730 years and is found in the hydrology cycle and enters the ground water system through CO 2 gas which is dissolved in water. 14 C isotope could determine the age of ground water and is also able to indicate the potential/amount of ground water. Studies of exploration and exploration monitoring of ground water should be an integrated study by geohydrology, geophysics and isotope and could be a solution of

  12. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  13. The critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students: A grounded theory research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Traci J

    2015-05-01

    As the demographics of the United States change, nursing will need to become more ethnically diverse in order to provide culturally responsive healthcare. Enrollment of English as Second Language nursing students is increasing; however, these students often encounter academic difficulties. The increase in English as Second Language nursing students in the classroom and clinical setting has posed challenges for nurse faculty. To explore the critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students. A grounded theory method based on the philosophical underpinnings of symbolic interactionism and pragmatism was used to explore the critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students. The study took place at various schools of nursing in the Southeast Florida area. Educators teaching in an associate, baccalaureate, and/or graduate nursing program at an accredited school of nursing. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group were conducted to collect data from nurse faculty. Data segments from interviews were coded, categorized, and analyzed. Theoretical sampling and a focus group interview were used to validate the concepts, themes, and categories identified during the individual interviews. A substantive level theory was developed. The core category that developed was conscientization. The three dominant categories that emerged from the data were overcoming, coming to know, and facilitating. The theoretical framework of conscientization provided an explanation of the social processes involved in teaching English as Second Language nursing students. The theoretical framework developed from this study can be used to increase the effectiveness of teaching English as Second Language nursing students, improve their chances of success, and enhance diversity in the nursing profession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadioglu, S; Kadioglu, Y K; Akyol, A A

    2008-01-01

    The ancient Miletus which were one of the most important city of ancient Iona, are today of great value from cultural standpoint of Turkey. Miletus, situated near the village of Balat in the present district of Soke was founded on a peninsula, approximately 2.5 km long. In the Byzantine period, the city boundaries were quite reduced. In 1424 Miletus was taken inside of the Ottoman Empire and was completely abandoned in the 17th century. Ancient Miletus excavation studies were first begun in 1899 by in Berlin Museum and interrupted during the World War I. At present, the extensive restoration works in Ilyas Bey Complex has applied as a project since 2006. Ilyas Bey Complex that includes Mosque, Medresah and baths situated on the archaeological area in ancient Miletus. Impressive Mosque built in 1404 by Ilyas Bey, Emir of Menteseogullari founded in 1279 and the complex was named after him, is one of the most remarkable buildings of mid-age Miletus. There are two main purposes of the study are (1) to determine archaeological remains of the study area underneath Ilyas Bey Complex and (2) to define the nature of main rock unit and their sources in the vicinity or Aegean region. After preliminary archaeometrical studies, acquired GPR profile data paralleled each other in Ilyas Bey Mosque and its around, Medresah Courtyard and inner Courtyard of the Mosque. After processing 2D parallel GPR profiles, we constructed 3D data volume by lining processed 2D profiles up to correlate remain signatures from each profile for each studied area. It was obtained transparent 3D visualisation of GPR data by assigning a new colour scale for the amplitude range and by constructing a new opacity function instead of the linear opacity function. Therefore we could successfully image the archaeological remains in an interactive transparent 3D volume and its sub-volumes, starting at different depth levels or limited profiles. The archaeometrical (geological and mineralogical, petrographical

  15. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, S [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geophysical Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Kadioglu, Y K [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geological Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akyol, A A [Ankara University, Baskent Vac. High Sch. Prog. of Restoration and Cons., Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: kadi@eng.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: akyol@ankara.edu.tr

    2008-07-01

    The ancient Miletus which were one of the most important city of ancient Iona, are today of great value from cultural standpoint of Turkey. Miletus, situated near the village of Balat in the present district of Soke was founded on a peninsula, approximately 2.5 km long. In the Byzantine period, the city boundaries were quite reduced. In 1424 Miletus was taken inside of the Ottoman Empire and was completely abandoned in the 17th century. Ancient Miletus excavation studies were first begun in 1899 by in Berlin Museum and interrupted during the World War I. At present, the extensive restoration works in Ilyas Bey Complex has applied as a project since 2006. Ilyas Bey Complex that includes Mosque, Medresah and baths situated on the archaeological area in ancient Miletus. Impressive Mosque built in 1404 by Ilyas Bey, Emir of Menteseogullari founded in 1279 and the complex was named after him, is one of the most remarkable buildings of mid-age Miletus. There are two main purposes of the study are (1) to determine archaeological remains of the study area underneath Ilyas Bey Complex and (2) to define the nature of main rock unit and their sources in the vicinity or Aegean region. After preliminary archaeometrical studies, acquired GPR profile data paralleled each other in Ilyas Bey Mosque and its around, Medresah Courtyard and inner Courtyard of the Mosque. After processing 2D parallel GPR profiles, we constructed 3D data volume by lining processed 2D profiles up to correlate remain signatures from each profile for each studied area. It was obtained transparent 3D visualisation of GPR data by assigning a new colour scale for the amplitude range and by constructing a new opacity function instead of the linear opacity function. Therefore we could successfully image the archaeological remains in an interactive transparent 3D volume and its sub-volumes, starting at different depth levels or limited profiles. The archaeometrical (geological and mineralogical, petrographical

  16. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  17. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  18. Walking at the drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaccorso, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Among exotic nuclei those at the drip line which are unstable against neutron emission are particularly interesting because they convey information on the nuclear force in the most extreme situations. Strictly speaking they are not ''nuclei'' but they exist thanks to long living resonances between a neutron and a bound ''core'' nucleus. Adding one more neutron they become bound and are called ''borromean''. Being particularly exotic they have attracted much attention in past years. One very challenging example is 13 Be whose level ordering has been discussed in a large number of papers in which it has been studied by transfer and fragmentation experiments, or it has been discussed theoretically. Although projectile fragmentation spectra show evident similarities, the interpretations of data all differ from each other. In this paper we argue that a way trough the problem could be to try to establish first, or at the same time, the quite elusive ''nature'' of the second s-state in the Beryllium isotopes with A=9-14. On the other hand there are other recent neutron removal experiments leading to nuclei unstable by one or more proton emissions, and thus somewhat mirror to borromean nuclei, performed with nuclei close to the proton drip line. It has been shown that by taking in coincidence all (charged) particles but the removed neutron, reconstructing the invariant mass and gating on the ground state peak, it is possible to obtain the longitudinal momentum distribution of the unbound ''core''. One can link it to the original wave function of the bound orbital and thus determine the initial neutron angular momentum from the shape of the distribution and the initial occupation probability from the absolute removal cross section. Then it is clear that modern experiments and theories are able to study unstable nuclei with the same degree of accuracy as stable nuclei. Such a

  19. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2003 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada - fusao. Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-07-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic.

  20. Breaking ground in cross-cultural research on the fear of being laughted at (gelotophobia): A multi-national study involving 73 countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Proyer, R.T.; Ruch, W.; Ali, N.S.; Al-Olimat, H. S.; Amemiya, T.; Adal, T.A.; Ansari, S. A.; Arhar, Š.; Asem, G.; Baudin, N.; Bawab, S.; Bergen, D.; Brdar, I.; Brites, R.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Carrell, A.; Dios, H.C.; Celik, M.; Ceschi, G.; Chang, K.; Cheryomukhin, A.; Chik, M.P.Y.; Chlopicki, W.; Cranney, J.; Dahourou, D.; Doosje, S.; Dore, M.; El-Arousy, N.; Ficková, E.; Führ, M.; Gallivan, J.; Geling, H.; Germikova, L.; Goh, A.; Gonzáles, R.D.; Ho, S.K.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jaime, B.; Hertzberg Kaare, B.; Kamble, S.; Kazarian, S.; Kerkkänen, P.; Klementová, M.; Kobozeva, I.M.; Kovjanic, S.; Kumaraswamy, N.; Lampert, M.; Liao, Ch.; Levesque, M.; Loizou, L.; Loving, R.D.; Lyttle, J.; Machline, V.C.; McGoldrick, S.; McRorie, M.; Min, L.; Mottus, R.; Munyae, M.; Navia, C.E.; Nkhalamba, M.; Pedrini, P.P.; Petkova, M.; Platt, T.; Popa, D-E.; Radomska, A.; Rashid, T.; Rawlings, D.; Rubio, V.J.; Samson, A.C.; Sarid, O.; Shams, S.; Sisokohm, S.; Smári, J.; Sneddon, I.; Snikhovska, I.; Stephanenko, E.A.; Stokenberga, L.; Stuer, B.; Tanoto, Y.S.R.; Tapia, L.; Taylor, J.; Thibault, P.; Thompson, A.; Thőrn, H.; Toyota, H.; Ujlaky, J.; Vanno, V.; van der Westhuizen, B.; Wijayathilake, D.; Wong, P.S.O.; Wycoff, E.B.; Yeun, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, 1/2 (2009), s. 253-279 ISSN 0933-1719 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : cross -cultural comparisons * gelotophobia * humor * multi-national study Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.771, year: 2009

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-20

    Aug 20, 2015 ... Ethiopia Demographic Health survey (EDHS) and 2012 country report the ... Ethiopia and Haiti revealed that the prevalence of treatment failure ... Study population. The study population was all HIV infected patients with age ≥15yrs who started first line ART in St. Luke and Tulu Bolo Hospitals since.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... Prevalent neuropathy in a cohort of HIV-infected Kenyan sex workers ... was a significant difference in first-line ART regimens with more patients on tenofovir ..... Brain. 2004;127(Pt. 7):1606-15. PubMed | Google Scholar. 39.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  4. News and Views: CSR: the devil will be in the detail; MPs invite researchers to show off success; Earthquake movies reveal ground movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The UK Government's Comprehensive Spending Review set out a distinctly tighter budget all round in October, but science funding as a whole was not as badly cut as some had feared. What this means for astronomy, planetary science and geophysics remains to be seen, as individual research council allocations have yet to be agreed. Early-career researchers with results to shout about have the opportunity to display and discuss their work at the House of Commons next year, as part of the SET for Britain event on 14 March. Seismology took a great step forward when international cooperation at the time of International Geophysical Year 1957/8 meant that earth movements resulting from quakes could be compared worldwide.

  5. Puzzling the Picture Using Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Since the first publication by Glaser and Strauss in 1967, Grounded Theory has become a highly influential research approach in the social sciences. The approach provides techniques and coding strategies for building theory inductively from the "ground up" as concepts within the data earn relevance into an evolving substantive theory.…

  6. Research, Calculation for Designing the Technological Equipment Line of Cementation with 3,000 Tonnes of Solid Waste/Year Capacity for ZOC Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van Hoa; Ngo Van Tuyen; Nguyen Ba Tien; Le Ba Thuan; Phung Quoc Khanh; Mai Duc Lanh; Vuong Huu Anh; Luu Cao Nguyen; Duong Dinh Tho; Phung Vu Phong; Nguyen An Thai; Pham Quang Minh

    2013-01-01

    Technological process and equipment line for cementation with 3,000 tons of solid wastes/year capacity for ZOC plant was studied according to the quantity, the composition and the property of solid wastes from ZOC plant. The influence of several parameters with cementation process such as cement mixing ratio, size, moisture and NaCl content in residue, which affected to mechanical and chemical strength of waste block after cementation was evaluated. The calculation and designing for cementation equipment line were thus conducted and total investment cost of construction and installation as well as operation of this equipment line was also estimated. Radiation safety and environmental protection for waste treatment facility was calculated and the design on radiation safety and environmental protection for equipment line was proposed. Technological process and design document of this production line seemed to be reasonable because it is consistent with properties of wastes as well as it has been commonly used in the world to stabilize solid residues in nuclear industry. The advantages of this propose were simple structure of the devices, locally made, easy operation, locally available and inexpensive materials resulting in low cost of investment and operation. (author)

  7. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  8. Ethylenediurea (EDU): A research tool for assessment and verification of the effects of ground level ozone on plants under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States); Paoletti, Elena, E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it [IPP CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Sandermann, Heinrich [ecotox.freiburg, Schubertstr. 1, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ernst, Dieter [ecotox.freiburg, Schubertstr. 1, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Ethylenediurea (EDU) has been widely used to prevent ozone (O{sub 3}) injury and crop losses in crop plants and growth reductions in forest trees. Successful use requires establishing a dose/response curve for EDU and the proposed plant in the absence of O{sub 3} and in the presence of O{sub 3} before initiating multiple applications to prevent O{sub 3} injury. EDU can be used to verify foliar O{sub 3} symptoms in the field, and to screen plants for sensitivity to O{sub 3} under ambient conditions. Despite considerable research, the mode of action of EDU remains elusive. Additional research on the mode of action of EDU in suppressing O{sub 3} injury in plants may also be helpful in understanding the mode of action of O{sub 3} in causing injury in plants. - EDU is a verified and effective tool for the assessment of the effects of ozone on plants.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  10. A minority research and education information service: Design, develop, pilot test, and implement on-line access for historically black colleges and universities and government agencies. Annual status report, September 28, 1992--September 27, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    The goal of the MOLIS project was to develop, design, and pilot test on-line access to current information on minority colleges and universities as well as federal minority opportunities. Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE), a diversified information services company recognized by researchers and educators as a leader in the field of information delivery services, was awarded a 5 year small business research grant to develop and implement MOLIS. Since going on-line on April 29, 1991, MOLIS has provided current information on 138 Black and Hispanic colleges and universities -- including faculty and student profiles, financial data, research centers and equipment information, precollege and education programs, emerging capabilities, enrollment data, administrative personnel data, and current events -- as well as minority opportunities from participating federal agencies. Six federal agencies are currently participating in MOLIS, including: Agency for International Development; Department of Commerce; Department of Energy; Department of Housing and Urban Development; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and National Science Foundation.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  12. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  13. Grounded theory methodology - has it become a movement?

    OpenAIRE

    Berterö, Carina

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the nature of grounded theory, and an examination of many studies claiming to follow grounded theory indicates a wide range of approaches. In 1967 Glaser and Strauss’s ‘‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory; Strategies for Qualitative Research’’ was published and represented a breakthrough in qualitative research; it offered methodological consensus and systematic strategies for qualitative research practice. The defining characteristics of grounded theory inc...

  14. Enhanced Research Opportunity to Study the Atmospheric Forcing by High-Energy Particle Precipitation at High Latitudes: Emerging New Satellite Data and the new Ground-Based Observations in Northern Scandinavia, including the EISCAT_3D Incoherent Scatter Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, E. S.; Ulich, T.; Kero, A.; Tero, R.; Verronen, P. T.; Norberg, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S. I.; Saito, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observational and model results on the particle precipitation as source of atmospheric variability challenge us to implement better and continuously monitoring observational infrastructure for middle and upper atmospheric research. An example is the effect of high-energy electron precipitation during pulsating aurora on mesospheric ozone, the concentration of which may be reduced by several tens of percent, similarily as during some solar proton events, which are known to occur more rarely than pulsating aurora. So far the Assessment Reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change did not include explicitely the particle forcing of middle and upper atmosphere in their climate model scenarios. This will appear for the first time in the upcoming climate simulations. We review recent results related to atmospheric forcing by particle precipitation via effects on chemical composition. We also show the research potential of new ground-based radio measurement techniques, such as spectral riometry and incoherent scatter by new phased-array radars, such as EISCAT_3D, which will be a volumetric, 3- dimensionally imaging radar, distributed in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. It is expected to be operational from 2020 onwards, surpassing all the current IS radars of the world in technology. It will be able to produce continuous information of ionospheric plasma parameters in a volume, including 3D-vector plasma velocities. For the first time we will be able to map the 3D electric currents in ionosphere, as well as we will have continuous vector wind measurements in mesosphere. The geographical area covered by the EISCAT_3D measurements can be expanded by suitably selected other continuous observations, such as optical and satellite tomography networks. A new 100 Hz all-sky camera network was recently installed in Northern Scandinavia in order to support the Japanese Arase satellite mission. In near future the ground-based measurement network will also include new

  15. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  16. Grounding, Shielding and Power Distribution for the LHCb Silicon Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, C; Frei, R; Straumann, U; Vázquez, P; Vollhardt, A

    2005-01-01

    This note lists the relevant items for power and grounding, it explains the sensitive detector input signal circuits and describes the grounding, power distribution and line filtering measures applied to each of the electrical units of the LHCb silicon tracking system. This note deals with both silicon sub-projects, the Inner Tracker (IT) and the Trigger Tracker (TT).

  17. Impacts of petroleum production on ground and surface waters: Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research A site, Osage County Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Kakouros, E.; Herkelrath, W.N.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary group of about 20 scientists, we are investigating the transport, fate, natural attenuation, and ecosystem impacts of inorganic salts and organic compounds present in releases of produced water and associated hydrocarbons at the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) sites, located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Geochemical data collected from nearby oil wells show that the produced water source is a Na-Ca-Cl brine (???150,000 mg/L total dissolved solids [TDS]), with relatively high concentrations of Mg, Sr, and NH4, but low SO4 and H2S. Results from the depleted OSPER A site show that the salts continue to be removed from the soil and surficial rocks, but degraded oil persists on the contaminated surface. Eventually, the bulk of inorganic salts and dissolved organics in the brine will reach the adjacent Skiatook Lake, a 4250-ha (10,501-ac) potable water reservoir. Repeated sampling of 44 wells show a plume of high-salinity water (2000-30,000 mg/L TDS) at intermediate depths that intersects Skiatook Lake and extends beyond the visibly impacted areas. No liquid petroleum was observed in this plume, but organic acid anions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), and other volatile organic carbon (VOC) are present. The chemical composition of released brine is modified by sorption, mineral precipitation and dissolution, evapotranspiration, volatilization, and bacterially mediated oxidation-reduction reactions, in addition to mixing with percolating precipitation water, lake water, and pristine groundwater. Results show that only minor amounts of salt are removed by runoff, supporting the conclusion that significant amounts of salts from produced water and petroleum releases still remain in the soils and rocks of the impacted area after more than 65 yr of natural attenuation. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  18. Atlas transmission line breakdown analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, K E; Ballard, E O; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; McCuistian, B T; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility will use 24 radially converging, vertically oriented and tapered, oil insulated, triplate transmission lines between the Marx generators and the central load region. Among the requirements of the transmission lines are low inductance and high reliability. The inter-conductor gap is nominally 2 cm and the lines taper from a height of 1.75 m at the Marx end to 0.32 m at the output end. The aluminum conductors, held together by 20 insulating spacers, are assembled and inserted as a unit into radial oil-filled steel tanks. The negative, high-voltage, center conductor is 2.54-cm thick and the outer ground conductors are 1.59-cm thick. All 24 triplate transmission lines connect to a transition section at near 1 m radius that couples the transmission lines to a disk/conical solid- dielectric-insulated power flow channel transmission line terminating at the load. Peak operating voltage on the lines can be as high as 240 kV with an effective stress time of 0.8 mu s. Testing of small sections of the ...

  19. A New Defected Ground Structure for Different Microstrip Circuit Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a microstrip transmission line combined with a new U-headed dumb-bell defected ground structure (DGS is investigated. The proposed DGS of two U-shape slots connected by a thin transverse slot is placed in the ground plane of a microstrip line. A finite cutoff frequency and attenuation pole is observed and thus, the equivalent circuit of the DGS unit can be represented by a parallel LC resonant circuit in series with the transmission line. A two-cell DGS microstrip line yields a better lowpass filtering characteristics. The simulation is carried out by the MoM based IE3D software and in the experimental measurements a vector network analyzer is used. The effects of the transverse slot width and the distance between arms of the U-slot on the filter response curve are studied. This DGS is utilized for different microstrip circuit applications. The DGS is placed in the ground of a capacitive loaded microstrip line and a very low cutoff frequency is obtained. The DGS is adopted under the coupled lines of a parallel line coupler and an improvement in coupling coefficient is noticed. The proposed DGS is also incorporated in the ground plane under the feed lines and the coupled lines of a bandpass filter to improve separately the stopband and passband performances.

  20. ARSENIC RESEARCH AT GWERD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract - The presentation will summarize the arsenic research program at the Ground Water & Ecosystems Restoration Division of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of USEPA. Topics include use of permeable reactive barriers for in situ arsenic remediation in ground...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  4. The Steksovo II burial ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martianov Vladimir N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the results of many-years’ (1990-2010 excavations on the ancient Mordovian Steksovo II burial ground site. The burial ground had functioned in the 3rd to 13th centuries AD. The investigations revealed hundreds of burials, which enabled the researchers to judge upon the wealth of material items found and the variety of burial rites of the population that had formed the burial ground. The 1st millennium AD is characterized by bi-ritualism, while inhumation is characteristic of the 11-13th-century period; horses’ burials were also discovered. The data of the burial ground make it possible to modify the concept of the stages in ancient Mordovians ethnogenesis. It is generally attributed to the Erzya Mordvins, but in early burials the combination of the Erzya and Moksha ancientries is traced. Complexes of the items of crucial importance for the chronology of the burial are discussed in the article with a representation of statistical data characterizing funeral rites and traditions.

  5. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  6. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  7. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  8. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  10. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  16. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  18. Iron forbidden lines in tokamak discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Hinnov, E.

    1979-03-01

    Several spectrum lines from forbidden transitions in the ground configurations of highly ionized atoms have been observed in the PLT tokamak discharges. Such lines allow localized observations, in the high-temperature regions of the plasma, of ion-temperatures, plasma motions, and spatial distributions of ions. Measured absolute intensities of the forbidden lines have been compared with simultaneous observations of the ion resonance lines and with model calculations in order to deduce the mechanism of level populaions by means of electron collisions and radiative transitions

  19. Iron forbidden lines in tokamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suckewer, S.; Hinnov, E.

    1979-03-01

    Several spectrum lines from forbidden transitions in the ground configurations of highly ionized atoms have been observed in the PLT tokamak discharges. Such lines allow localized observations, in the high-temperature regions of the plasma, of ion-temperatures, plasma motions, and spatial distributions of ions. Measured absolute intensities of the forbidden lines have been compared with simultaneous observations of the ion resonance lines and with model calculations in order to deduce the mechanism of level populaions by means of electron collisions and radiative transitions.

  20. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Strong Ground Motion and Ground Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coordinated by Holzer, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Professional Paper 1551 describes the effects at the land surface caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake. These effects: include the pattern and characteristics of strong ground shaking, liquefaction of both floodplain deposits along the Pajaro and Salinas Rivers in the Monterey Bay region and sandy artificial fills along the margins of San Francisco Bay, landslides in the epicentral region, and increased stream flow. Some significant findings and their impacts were: * Strong shaking that was amplified by a factor of about two by soft soils caused damage at up to 100 kilometers (60 miles) from the epicenter. * Instrumental recordings of the ground shaking have been used to improve how building codes consider site amplification effects from soft soils. * Liquefaction at 134 locations caused $99.2 million of the total earthquake loss of $5.9 billion. Liquefaction of floodplain deposits and sandy artificial fills was similar in nature to that which occurred in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and indicated that many areas remain susceptible to liquefaction damage in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. * Landslides caused $30 million in earthquake losses, damaging at least 200 residences. Many landslides showed evidence of movement in previous earthquakes. * Recognition of the similarities between liquefaction and landslides in 1906 and 1989 and research in intervening years that established methodologies to map liquefaction and landslide hazards prompted the California legislature to pass in 1990 the Seismic Hazards Mapping Act that required the California Geological Survey to delineate regulatory zones of areas potentially susceptible to these hazards. * The earthquake caused the flow of many streams in the epicentral region to increase. Effects were noted up to 88 km from the epicenter. * Post-earthquake studies of the Marina District of San Francisco provide perhaps the most comprehensive case history of earthquake effects at a specific site developed for