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Sample records for research food regime

  1. International Food Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Malov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The review article reveals the content of the concept of Food Regime, which is little-known in the Russian academic reference. The author monitored and codified the semantic dynamic of the terminological unit from its original interpretations to modern formulations based on the retrospective analysis. The rehabilitation of the academic merits of D. Puchala and R. Hopkins — authors who used the concept Food Regime for a few years before its universally recognized origin and official scientific debut, was accomplished with help of historical and comparative methods. The author implemented the method of ascension from the abstract to the concrete to demonstrating the classification of Food Regimes compiled on the basis of geopolitical interests in the sphere of international production, consumption, and distribution of foodstuffs. The characteristic features of historically formed Food Regime were described in the chronological order, as well as modern tendencies possessing reformist potential were identified. In particular, it has been established that the idea of Food Sovereignty (which is an alternative to the modern Corporate Food Regime is the subject for acute academic disputes. The discussion between P. McMichael P. and H. Bernstein devoted to the “peasant question” — mobilization frame of the Food Sovereignty strategy was analyzed using the secondary data processing method. Due to the critical analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to follow the principles of the Food Sovereignty strategy to prevent the catastrophic prospects associated with ecosystem degradation, accelerated erosion of soils, the complete disappearance of biodiversity and corporate autoc racy successfully. The author is convinced that the idea of Food Sovereignty can ward off energetic liberalization of nature, intensive privatization of life and rapid monetization of unconditioned human reflexes.

  2. Quality Regimes in Agro-Food Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine the transformative potential of changing quality regimes in agro-food industries through the analysis of whether Fair Trade wine in Argentina provides a meaningful economic alternative that goes beyond the impact it has on direct beneficiaries. The wine sector has a long...... history in valorizing a variety of quality dimensions, and has developed one of the most complex and sophisticated quality infrastructures, making it an ideal terrain of analysis. Furthermore, it is going through a major process of restructuring in which the battle-lines are drawn along the application......, challenge and re-interpretation of different quality content. Through the lenses of a sector-adjusted version of regulation theory, we show that the Fair Trade wine sector does not substantially deviate from the conventional wine economy in Argentina. Instead of empowering the most vulnerable groups, those...

  3. Food crises, food regimes and food movements: rumblings of reform or tides of transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt Giménez, Eric; Shattuck, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the potential for food movements to bring about substantive changes to the current global food system. After describing the current corporate food regime, we apply Karl Polanyi's 'double-movement' thesis on capitalism to explain the regime's trends of neoliberalism and reform. Using the global food crisis as a point of departure, we introduce a comparative analytical framework for different political and social trends within the corporate food regime and global food movements, characterizing them as 'Neoliberal', 'Reformist', 'Progressive', and 'Radical', respectively, and describe each trend based on its discourse, model, and key actors, approach to the food crisis, and key documents. After a discussion of class, political permeability, and tensions within the food movements, we suggest that the current food crisis offers opportunities for strategic alliances between Progressive and Radical trends within the food movement. We conclude that while the food crisis has brought a retrenchment of neoliberalization and weak calls for reform, the worldwide growth of food movements directly and indirectly challenge the legitimacy and hegemony of the corporate food regime. Regime change will require sustained pressure from a strong global food movement, built on durable alliances between Progressive and Radical trends.

  4. Protectionism or Legitimate Regulations: What can Trade Partners Expect from the New US Food Safety Regime?

    OpenAIRE

    Nakuja, T.; Kerr, William A.

    2013-01-01

    In January 2011, the US passed the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) which represents a major legislative initiative to revise and strengthen the regulatory regime pertaining to foodborne illness and contamination. The tightening of the regulatory regime was justified on the basis of a number of high-profile foodborne disease incidents, which are claimed to have undermined public confidence in the US food safety system. While tightening food safety regulations inevitably increase barriers ...

  5. Node and Regime: Interdisciplinary Analysis of Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Mekong Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tira Foran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding complex phenomena such as the water-energy-food nexus (resource nexus requires a more holistic, interdisciplinary inquiry. Spurred by a sense of imbalance in approaches to the nexus dominated by integrated assessment/complex systems methodologies, I re-examine the findings and recommendations of a major 'nexus' research-for-development project in the Mekong region. The concept of 'regime of provisioning', a synthesis of social science concepts related to meso-level social order, allows essential political economy and discursive elements of the resource nexus to be analysed. I show that socio-political regimes constrain societal investment in three 'nodes' of the nexus previously identified as critical to manage sustainably: energy efficiency, wild-capture fisheries, and diversified smallholder agriculture. I discuss implications for the 'nexus' as a new policy agenda and offer three propositions for ongoing inquiry and inclusive practice.

  6. Tropical food chains: Governance regimes for quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Tilburg, van A.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    International supply chains of vulnerable tropical food products face major problems in the fields of quality performance and coordination between supply chain partners. Degradation and variability of quality, segmentation of supply networks and scattered production by smallholder producers could

  7. Introduction: Contemporary Food Regulatory Regimes and the Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arcuri (Alessandra)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFood is one of the fundamental elements of human life: it guarantees survival, it can dispense death and, above all, as Marcel Proust reminds us, it is deeply connected to our own ‘essence’, having the power of blessing men with ‘exquisite pleasure’ and ‘all-powerful joy’. Given the

  8. Spinodal decomposition in a food colloid-biopolymer mixture: evidence for a linear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Suresh [Department of Physics and Fribourg Center for Nanomaterials, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Tuinier, Remco [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Schurtenberger, Peter [Department of Physics and Fribourg Center for Nanomaterials, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2006-07-05

    We investigate phase separation and structural evolution in a complex food colloid (casein micelles) and biopolymer (xanthan) mixture using small-angle light scattering. We demonstrate that phase separation is induced by a depletion mechanism, and that the resulting coexistence curve can be described by osmotic equilibrium theory for mixtures of colloids and polymer chains in a background solvent, taking into account interactions between the polymer chains in the excluded volume limit. We show that the light scattering pattern of an unstable mixture exhibits the typical behaviour of spinodal decomposition, and we are able to confirm the validity of dynamic similarity scaling. We find three distinct regimes (initial or linear, intermediate and transition stage) for the decomposition kinetics that differ in the time dependence of the peak position of the structure factor. In particular we find clear evidence for the existence of an initial linear regime, where the peak position remains constant and the amplitude grows. The existence of spinodal-like decomposition and the validity of universal scaling in the intermediate and transition stages have been found in previous studies of phase separation in attractive colloidal suspensions. However, to our knowledge the initial linear regime has never been observed in colloidal suspensions, and we attribute this at least partly to the effect of hydrodynamic interactions which are efficiently screened in our system due to the fact that the measurements were performed at high polymer concentrations, i.e. in the semi-dilute regime. (letter to the editor)

  9. Regime shift in fertilizer commodities indicates more turbulence ahead for food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Elser

    Full Text Available Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum. Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication.

  10. Obesity under affluence varies by welfare regimes: the effect of fast food, insecurity, and inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, Avner; Pechey, Rachel; Ulijaszek, Stanley

    2010-12-01

    Among affluent countries, those with market-liberal welfare regimes (which are also English-speaking) tend to have the highest prevalence of obesity. The impact of cheap, accessible high-energy food is often invoked in explanation. An alternative approach is that overeating is a response to stress, and that competition, uncertainty, and inequality make market-liberal societies more stressful. This ecological regression meta-study pools 96 body-weight surveys from 11 countries c. 1994-2004. The fast-food 'shock' impact is found to work most strongly in market-liberal countries. Economic insecurity, measured in several different ways, was almost twice as powerful, while the impact of inequality was weak, and went in the opposite direction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/AIFSC. Cultivate Africa's Future. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential ...

  12. Research on organic food purchase in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research findings based on the research conducted on a representative sample of respondents using a highly structured questionnaire. The first part of the paper focuses on the theoretical background and overview of the research results related to the research problem in the world and in Croatia. The results of the research which has been conducted indicate that respondents are not familiar with the definition of organic food. Furthermore, the paper elaborates on the Croatian consumers’ perception of organic food and conventional food. The research on organic food purchase places a special emphasis on regular buyers of organic food who were asked to evaluate the importance of individual characteristics in choosing a place of sale for organic food. Based on the hierarchical regression analysis, the frequency of organic food purchases by regular buyers was found to correlate with the perception of organic food and the importance of characteristics of a place of sale for organic food. The research also identified the main reasons for not buying organic food, and it sets out the guidelines which may be useful to organic producers, marketers and retailers in encouraging further purchases of organic food.

  13. Rethinking Research for Genetically Modified (GM) Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-Ling; Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests a rethinking of the existing research about Genetically Modified (GM) food. Since the first batch of GM food was commercialised in the UK market, GM food rapidly received and lost media attention in the UK. Disagreement on GM food policy between the US and the EU has also drawn scholarly attention to this issue. Much research has been carried out intending to understand people-s views about GM food and the shaping of these views. This paper was based o...

  14. Emerging search regimes: measuring co-evolutions among research, science, and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, G.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2012-01-01

    Scientometric data is used to investigate empirically the emergence of search regimes in biotechnology, genomics and nanotechnology. Complex regimes can emerge when three independent sources of variance interact. In our model, researchers can be considered as the nodes that carry the science system.

  15. Scenario research: The food industry in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2001-01-01

    What kind of foods will the consumers choose to buy in 2010? Will they be buying organic foods, functional foods or go for the cheapest products? Nobody can predict the future. However, by using scenario techniques qualified indications on future developments can be put together. Researchers at MAPP and the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, The Technical University of Denmark have constructed three scenarios about the Danish food industry in 2010. The aim has been to ide...

  16. Competitive Funding, Citation Regimes, and the Diminishment of Breakthrough Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    At first glance Sweden looks like a researcher's paradise with high levels of GDP investment in research and high scores on citation indexes, yet recent studies have suggested that Sweden might be losing its edge in groundbreaking research. This paper explores why that is happening by examining researchers' logics of decision-making at a large…

  17. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF). The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFS-RF) is a collaborative program of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and IDRC valued at CA $61 654 707 (CIDA: CA $50 000 000; IDRC: CA $11 654 707). The program ...

  18. Research award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... ... skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. ... food systems research and interventions in low- and middle-income countries. ... the research award recipient will contribute to the management of the ...

  19. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund(CIFSRF) is a program of Canada's International Development Research. Centre (IDRC) undertaken with the financial support of the. Government of Canada provided through Foreign ...

  20. Scenario research: The food industry in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    2001-01-01

    What kind of foods will the consumers choose to buy in 2010? Will they be buying organic foods, functional foods or go for the cheapest products? Nobody can predict the future. However, by using scenario techniques qualified indications on future developments can be put together. Researchers...... at MAPP and the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management, The Technical University of Denmark have constructed three scenarios about the Danish food industry in 2010. The aim has been to identify the demands the food industry can expect to meet in the future plus which research areas...... the public research should prioritise in order to support the development of competences within the food industry. The scenarios are isolated developments. In practise, the future is likely to be a combination of the different tendencies within the scenarios. The first scenario 'Naturalness' has focus...

  1. Land-use regime shifts: an analytical framework and agenda for future land-use research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Ramankutty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A key research frontier in global change research lies in understanding processes of land change to inform predictive models of future land states. We believe that significant advances in the field are hampered by limited attention being paid to critical points of change termed land-use regime shifts. We present an analytical framework for understanding land-use regime shifts. We survey historical events of land change and perform in-depth case studies of soy and shrimp development in Latin America to demonstrate the role of preconditions, triggers, and self-reinforcing processes in driving land-use regime shifts. Whereas the land-use literature demonstrates a good understanding of within-regime dynamics, our understanding of the drivers of land-use regime shifts is limited to ex post facto explications. Theoretical and empirical advances are needed to better understand the dynamics and implications of land-use regime shifts. We draw insights from the regime-shifts literature to propose a research agenda for studying land change.

  2. Research on regimes of limonite ore hyrdotransport for the conditions of Perdo Soto Alba plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Рауль Искьердо Пупо

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines regular flow patterns of high-concentrated limonite pulp with significant content of finest grains. Engineering procedures have been developed to calculate basic parameters of limonite ore hydrotransport in turbulent and structured regimes. Trustworthiness of scientific statements, conclusions and recommendations is justified by theoretical research, establishment of analytical dependences, results of laboratory and industrial experiments. Practical regularities of behavior have been identified for the coefficient of hydraulic resistance, depending on pulp density in the range 35-45 % in case of pulp flow in structured regime, as well as regularity of pressure losses in case of pulp flow in horizontal and inclined pipelines in turbulent regime.

  3. Physics Regimes in the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.M. Meade; S.C.Jardin; C.E. Kessel; M.A. Ulrickson; J.H. Schultz; P.H. Rutherford; J.A. Schmidt; J.C. Wesley; K.M. Young; N.A.Uckan; R.J. Thome; P. Heitzenroeder; B.E. Nelson; and C.C.Baker

    2001-01-01

    Burning plasma science is recognized widely as the next frontier in fusion research. The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) is a design study of a next-step burning plasma experiment with the goal of developing a concept for an experimental facility to explore and understand the strong nonlinear coupling among confinement, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) self-heating, stability, edge physics, and wave-particle interactions that is fundamental to fusion plasma behavior. This will require plasmas dominated by alpha heating (Q greater than or equal to 5) that are sustained for a duration comparable to characteristic plasma timescales (greater than or equal to 10) tau(subscript ''E''), approximately 4 tau(subscript ''He''), approximately 2 tau(subscript ''skin''). The work reported here has been undertaken with the objective of finding the minimum size (cost) device to achieve these physics goals

  4. The local groundwater regime at the Harwell research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.; Holmes, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    Three deep and two shallow boreholes have been drilled at the Harwell Research Site as part of a national research programme into the feasibility of disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes to geologic formations. Various hydrogeological and geochemical techniques have been employed in these boreholes, each of which samples a separate formation of interest, to determine the pattern of groundwater movement under the research site. Significant vertical hydraulic gradients have been identified which produce vertically downwards groundwater movement from the surface to a depth of 200 m (Corallian aquifer). Groundwater moves vertically upwards, from greater depths, through the Oxford Clay to the Corallian aquifer. However,the apparently very low hydraulic conductivity of the Oxford Clay results in extremely low flow velocities and long transit times. Groundwaters from the Corallian formation possess higher salinities than those of the characteristic regional groundwaters, and preliminary isotopic data suggest that some groundwater mixing with connate waters has occurred. The chemical nature of groundwaters from the Great Oolite Group, suggest that contamination due to the drilling and completion procedure has taken place. Due to the low hydraulic conductivity in this formation clearance of contaminants will require the implementation of a long-term abstraction programme. (author)

  5. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) invests in scaling up ... for farming families, and improve nutrition throughout the Global South. ... universities, civil society organizations, governments, and the private sector, ...

  6. The European Consumers' Understanding and Perceptions of the "Organic" Food Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarset, Bernt; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Bigne, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    authorities considered. Focus groups in five countries (UK, Germany, Spain, Norway and France) consisting of 196 participants showed that most consumers are confused about the meaning of the term organic and are largely unaware of the organic certification and labelling process. Many consumers were unsure......, even sceptical about the concept of organic farmed salmon and display a large amount of distrust in the regulatory process. The implications for the concept of organic food and salmon production and directions for further research are discussed....

  7. Research Award: Agriculture and Food Security

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, ... programming through a research acvity focusing on agriculture and food security, specifically on the gender and social (equity) dimensions of ...

  8. Developmental Discourses as a Regime of Truth in Research with Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Clare

    2016-01-01

    While developmental discourses have been heavily critiqued in relation to education systems, less attention has been paid to how these impact the data collection process in classroom research. This article utilises Foucault's concept of regime of truth to highlight the pervasiveness of developmental discourses when conducting research in primary…

  9. Going beyond The three worlds of welfare capitalism: regime theory and public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, C

    2007-12-01

    International research on the social determinants of health has increasingly started to integrate a welfare state regimes perspective. Although this is to be welcomed, to date there has been an over-reliance on Esping-Andersen's The three worlds of welfare capitalism typology (1990). This is despite the fact that it has been subjected to extensive criticism and that there are in fact a number of competing welfare state typologies within the comparative social policy literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide public health researchers with an up-to-date overview of the welfare state regime literature so that it can be reflected more accurately in future research. It outlines The three worlds of welfare capitalism typology, and it presents the criticisms it received and an overview of alternative welfare state typologies. It concludes by suggesting new avenues of study in public health that could be explored by drawing upon this broader welfare state regimes literature.

  10. Health claims on foods: challenge for clinical research companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi Sarkkinen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Nutrition and Health Claim Regulation 1924/2006/EC, together with EFSA guidances on the scientific requirements for different type of health claims, is setting the basis for health claim substantiation in the EU. Aim The aim of this presentation is to bring up the key challenges that the food industry and clinical research organizations are facing when meeting these requirements. Results and discussion Key issues in clinical research planning to meet the requirements set for the health claim substantiation are: (1 Selection of right outcome markers since the selection of outcome marker defines actually the formulation of the health claim to be used on food or food ingredient. (2 Selection of right target population since that determines the target consumer group for the food with a health claim. (3 Selection of dose regime and food matrices used since these largely determine the conditions set for the use of the health claim. One of the major challenges in health claim substantiation is the deviant approach to risk factors or biomarkers. From the regulation point of view, a single risk factor approach is emphasized, but from the clinical and scientific point of view the pattern of different risk markers or biomarkers could, in some cases, be a more relevant choice to reflect the final health outcome. This is especially the case in the nutrition and health area because we are often dealing with weak but multiple health effects of certain food items or ingredients. Also the lack of validated well-established biomarkers potent to be affected by diet is a challenge in health claim substantiation.The selection of right target population is often a compromise between choosing a more potential target group to obtain efficacy (i.e. risk factors elevated vs. patient groups and choosing a rationale to generalize the results to wider population (target consumer group.The selection of optimal dosing regime and matrices for a clinical study is

  11. Research award: Agriculture and Food Security | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research shows that appropriate food security interventions can improve ... sector within the context of increased productivity and reduction of post-harvest loss, rural ... The successful candidate will allocate 50% of his/her time for a research ... with a focus on agriculture;; Business administration and/or management, with a ...

  12. Research at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...

  13. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Krylova; T. V. Gustova

    2017-01-01

    In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitr...

  14. Research Award: Food, Environment, and Health | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... ... skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. ... that impact food systems and promote healthy and sustainable diets. ... communication material; participating in project development, ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  15. Dairy and functional foods research in the Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit is the only group in the Agricultural Research Service that is dedicated to solving critical problems in milk utilization and fruit and vegetable byproducts from specialty crops. The many areas of investigation include development of specialty cheese, c...

  16. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Krylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitrogen fraction in canned foods was established.An accumulation of the peptide nitrogen fraction in the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization was two times more intensive. In the sterilized canned foods, the processes of accumulation of the low molecular weight nitrogenous compounds were more intensive, which suggests a depth of destruction of the protein and peptide nitrogen fraction. It was shown that an accumulation of amino-ammonia nitrogen during canned food storage was on average 12.4% irrespective of the pH value in the used sauces and the type of thermal treatment.A shiſt in the pH value of the canned foods toward the acid side upon pasteurization was noticed. With that, a degree of the shiſt in the canned foods in tomato sauce was 2.5 times higher than the pH value of the canned foods in sour cream sauce. When sterilizing canned foods, another dynamics of the pH values was observed: a pH value declined by 0.39 units in the canned foods in tomato sauce and grew by 0.22 units in the canned foods in sour cream sauce. During storage, the tendency of more intense pH decline was revealed for the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization compared to the canned foods aſter sterilization. Another character of the pH value dynamics was found in the canned foods in sour cream sauce: an insignificant increase (by 0.7% of the pH value in the pasteurized canned foods and a significant decrease (by 8.4% in the sterilized canned foods

  17. Research issues: the food environment and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D

    2014-12-01

    "Research Issues: The Food Environment and Obesity" is an article series commissioned by the American Society for Nutrition and The Obesity Society in an attempt to consider the state of understanding on this topic and identify key knowledge gaps. Roberts and Karl focus on the role of energy density in the regulation of energy intake and body weight and offer recommendations for prioritizing research. Finkelstein et al examine food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes and conclude that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. Pereira points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. Johnson and Wardle review the effects of palatability and variety on eating behavior and weight. Livingstone and Pourshahidi examine the impact of portion size manipulations on energy intake and weight management and find that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. Kant focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulation for body weight management and finds that such manipulation has consistently yielded null results. Finally, Gordon-Larsen identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Application of thermal sterilization regimes simulation for improvement of canned foods quality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolyanov A.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of comparison of optimization methods of thermal sterilization temperature-time regimes have been described. It has been shown that due to simulation the final canned foods’ quality factors are significantly improved, sterilization process time is decreased and energy consumption is reduced without sacrificing actual final lethality value

  19. Research on food irradiation in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Maha, M.; Chosdu, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on various aspects of food irradiation have been done in Indonesia since 1968, mainly at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia. Three irradiation facilities available at the Centre are gamma cell-220, panoramic batch irradiator, and latex irradiator with the present source capacities of about 1.1, 40, and 163.8 kCi Co-60, respectively. In this paper, the present status of research and development on irradiation is presented, covering (1) spices and medicinal plants, (2) rice, wheat flour and coffee bean, (3) fish and fishery products, (4) animal feed, and (5) ongoing projects including fresh fruits, cacao beans, and cashew nut. The Sub-Committee for the Control of Irradiation of Food and Medical Products, set up in August 1984, has prepared the draft of recommendations regarding the regulation for application of food irradiation in Indonedia and the draft of Regulation for the Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food and Traditional Drug to be issued by the government. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Integrated Food studies education and research:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Weinreich; Hansen, Stine Rosenlund

    2018-01-01

    The research group Foodscapes Innovation and Networks has addressed integrated food studies issues in re-search and education since 2010. Based on experiences in the group, this paper aims at discussing the chal-lenges, learning outcomes and potentials for pushing an integrated thinking into rese......The research group Foodscapes Innovation and Networks has addressed integrated food studies issues in re-search and education since 2010. Based on experiences in the group, this paper aims at discussing the chal-lenges, learning outcomes and potentials for pushing an integrated thinking...... into research and education. It also addresses the challenges in integration when the methodological approaches and theoretical frameworks chosen are ontologically and epistemologically different. A discussion of the limitations of integration is thus also part of the paper. The conceptual framework...... of ontonorms (Mol, 2013) is suggested as a common point of departure for a further development of integration. This is suggested relevant due to the fact that it forces different traditions to reflect their own value-related basis and discuss implications of this approach in a broader sense. The common values...

  1. The Research on Metrological Characteristics of House Water Meters during Transitional Flow Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Briliūtė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find the influence of transitional flow regimes on inlet water meters. Four construction types of mechanical inlet water meters (each capacity Q = 10 m3/h were investigated. The biggest additional volume 0,12–0,26% when Q = 0,2…2 m3/h shows single-jet vane wheel meter. This additional volume is less 0,06–0,13% for the multi-jet concentric water meter. The minimum influence of transitional flow regimes was for turbine water meters till 0,1% for all flow range. The volumetric meters are not sensitive for this effect.Article in Lithuanian

  2. 1991 annual report of the Karlsruhe Federal Food Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Federal Food Research Institute does research in the field of nutrition, food and household sciences as well as in related special fields. Among its working priorities are the determination of foreign matter and radionuclides in food as well as food preservation by means of irradiation including dosimetry. The results of those priorities are represented. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Fashioning a New Regime for Agricultural Trade: New Issues and the Global Food Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Schoenbaum

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of issues such as the global food crisis, export controls on agricultural products, and food security on the agricultural trade negotiations currently underway in connection with the Doha Development Agenda convened by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. These important issues, which were not foreseen when the negotiations began, must now be squarely faced. Many international organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, t...

  4. Determinants for conducting food safety culture research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyarugwe, Shingai P.; Linnemann, Anita; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Foodborne outbreaks continue to occur regardless of existing food safety measures indicating the shortcomings of these measures to assure food safety. This has led to the recognition of food safety culture as a key contributory factor to the food safety performance of food

  5. Re-thinking the politics of migration. On the uses and challenges of regime perspectives for migration research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, Kenneth; Amelinaz, Anna; Peters, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this special issue is to critically assess the potential of regime theory for migration research. Against the background of contemporary political dynamics, regime terminology has become rather popular in migration studies. There has, however, been little debate on the foundations and

  6. Research Award: Agriculture and Food Security Program

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    diversify small‐scale agriculture, improve nutritional quality, and income by ... strategies for youth engagement in agri-food value chains for improved food ... successful examples of youth in agri-food businesses and for connecting youth.

  7. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  8. A techno-managerial approach in food quality management research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article it is discussed that food quality management issues are much more complex than often assumed and that it requires a specific research approach. It is argued that food quality management deals with dynamic and complex food systems and people systems involved in realising food quality.

  9. 78 FR 20664 - Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Regulations, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  10. Plasma regimes and research goals of JT-60SA towards ITER and DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Y.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Suzuki, T.; Matsunaga, G.; Yoshida, M.; Shinohara, K.; Urano, H.; Nakano, T.; Sakurai, S.; Kawashima, H.; Barabaschi, P.; Lackner, K.; Ishida, S.; Bolzonella, T.

    2011-01-01

    The JT-60SA device has been designed as a highly shaped large superconducting tokamak with a variety of plasma actuators (heating, current drive, momentum input, stability control coils, resonant magnetic perturbation coils, W-shaped divertor, fuelling, pumping, etc) in order to satisfy the central research needs for ITER and DEMO. In the ITER- and DEMO-relevant plasma parameter regimes and with DEMO-equivalent plasma shapes, JT-60SA quantifies the operation limits, plasma responses and operational margins in terms of MHD stability, plasma transport and confinement, high-energy particle behaviour, pedestal structures, scrape-off layer and divertor characteristics. By integrating advanced studies in these research fields, the project proceeds 'simultaneous and steady-state sustainment of the key performances required for DEMO' with integrated control scenario development applicable to the highly self-regulating burning high-β high bootstrap current fraction plasmas.

  11. Improving food security and nutrition through research | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Informing policy through agriculture and food security research. Improving the uptake of agricultural and food security research into policy and practice is a central objective of IDRC's Agriculture and Food Security program. To maximize the impact of proven solutions, the program set out to inform and engage both Canadian ...

  12. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Dobrucka; Ryszard Cierpiszewski; Andrzej Korzeniowski

    2015-01-01

    Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packa...

  13. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production.

  14. Thermometric consideration for RF and microwave research in food engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofoli, R Y

    1986-01-01

    A review of thermometric methods for the processing of food materials at RF and microwave frequencies is presented. Some areas of needed food engineering research are discussed, as well as factors of importance in the selection of temperature monitoring systems.

  15. Transforming research for food and health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    2012-10-01

    Eating causes up to a quarter of premature deaths from chronic diseases in Europe through poor diet and excess consumption. FAHRE (Food and Health Research in Europe) was funded to determine needs and gaps in research structures and programmes. Most food research links towards agriculture and the environmental sciences, whereas most health research links towards clinical diseases, biochemical pathways and biology. Research on food and health together includes food safety research addressing biological and chemical contaminants, and biotechnology research supporting clinical nutrition. Research for healthy eating must draw on social and behavioural sciences for studies of policy, regulation and interventions. The food industry, across production, retail and catering, must be part of the research programme, and civil society. Better coordination and improved levels of funding are needed in the coming European research programme 'Horizon 2020', and national programmes linked in the Joint Programming Initiative. Transforming the research agenda can give great benefits to Europe's citizens.

  16. Intellectual assets management and transfer in food science sector in Indian research and development organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vikram; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the food science sector has gained importance since the society is focusing on high-quality and safety foods. With a specific end goal to meet this societal need, the research and development organizations in India have adopted innovative technical and research processes, which gave more accentuation on intellectual assessment in food processing industry. The global Intellectual Property regime in food science sector had witnessed an increment in the number of patents filed and granted during 2006-2010. Ever since there has been a gradual increase in the number of patents applied mainly in food processing industries by research organizations related to food sciences, for example, those working under the aegis of ICAR and CSIR in India. In this study, a review has been done on the intellectual assets generated by ICAR and other national research organizations in India, in the food science sector. Emphasis has been given on the global relevance of these assets, modes of IP protection and technology transfer mechanisms followed by different public and private organizations.

  17. The growing disconnect between food prices and wages in Europe: cross-national analysis of food deprivation and welfare regimes in twenty-one EU countries, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; Stuckler, David

    2017-06-01

    Food insecurity has been rising across Europe following the Great Recession, but to varying degrees across countries and over time. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, nor are what factors might protect people's access to food. Here we test the hypothesis that an emerging gap between food prices and wages can explain increases in reported inability to afford protein-rich foods and whether welfare regimes can mitigate its impact. We collected data in twenty-one countries from 2004 to 2012 using two databases: (i) on food prices and deprivation related to food (denoted by reported inability to afford to eat meat, chicken, fish or a vegetarian equivalent every second day) from EuroStat 2015 edition; and (ii) on wages from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 edition. After adjusting for macroeconomic factors, we found that each 1 % rise in the price of food over and above wages was associated with greater self-reported food deprivation (β=0·060, 95 % CI 0·030, 0·090), particularly among impoverished groups. However, this association also varied across welfare regimes. In Eastern European welfare regimes, a 1 % rise in the price of food over wages was associated with a 0·076 percentage point rise in food deprivation (95 % CI 0·047, 0·105) while in Social Democratic welfare regimes we found no clear association (P=0·864). Rising prices of food coupled with stagnating wages are a major factor driving food deprivation, especially in deprived groups; however, our evidence indicates that more generous welfare systems can mitigate this impact.

  18. Concepts and procedures for mapping food and health research infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Kerry A.; Timotijević, Lada; Geurts, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    be achieved in the area of food and health has, to date, been unclear. Scope and approach This commentary paper presents examples of the types of food and health research facilities, resources and services available in Europe. Insights are provided on the challenge of identifying and classifying research...... infrastructure. In addition, suggestions are made for the future direction of food and health research infrastructure in Europe. These views are informed by the EuroDISH project, which mapped research infrastructure in four areas of food and health research: Determinants of dietary behaviour; Intake of foods....../nutrients; Status and functional markers of nutritional health; Health and disease risk of foods/nutrients. Key findings and conclusion There is no objective measure to identify or classify research infrastructure. It is therefore, difficult to operationalise this term. EuroDISH demonstrated specific challenges...

  19. Research Award: Food, Environment and Health

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    economic value/impact, multi-sector action, and environmental sustainability. FEH ... interventions to different actors in the food system, and the value and impact of changes in food ... (government, civil society and private sectors). While it ... exploring how public policy interventions can support healthy and sustainable diets.

  20. Scenario of research on Food Service in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Milagres CAMPOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The present study aims to investigate the scenario of research on Food Service in Brazil based on the Stricto Sensu Graduate Programs in Nutrition, research groups, and scientific production. Methods: A search of the research lines including studies related to this topic and the researchers engaged in those studies was conducted. The research groups were identified on the Directory of Research Groups in Brazil website and the profile of the scientific production was based on articles included in the Scientific Electronic Library Online database. Articles published in international journals that were related to research lines focused on food production were also searched and analyzed. Results: The search identified only two graduate programs with research lines that describe the food production as the object of study although 13 graduate programs carry out research related to Food Service, especially focused on nutritional and sanitary aspects of food. The same trend was observed in the national articles. The internationalization of these two research line results from the academic publication in 22 different journals over the past 5 years. Thirty five professors were identified and most of them hold a PhD in Food Science and Technology. The number of research groups increased from two in 2000 to twenty nine in 2010. Conclusion: The inclusion of Food Service in graduate programs is still limited. The main trend observed is towards a closer relationship with Food Science and Technology in terms of the lines of research, professional qualification, and published studies.

  1. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packaging refers to a package that can sense environmental changes, and in turn, informs the users about the changes. These packaging systems contain devices that are capable of sensing and providing information about the functions and properties of the packaged foods. Also, this paper will review intelligent packaging technologies and describe different types of indicators (time-temperature indicators, freshness indicators.

  2. An Interview with Food Policy Researcher Caitlin Boon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    From safety to nutrition, food policy researchers work to improve what we eat. They examine evidence found by experts in food science, consumer behavior, taste perception, nutrition, and many other related fields. Using this information, these scientists help the food industry, government, and public improve the quality, safety, and sustainability…

  3. The Research Comment on Organic Food Consumer Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; WANG; Pengcheng; LIU

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of organic food,to a great extent,depends on the needs of consumers,the studies on the consumer behavior of organic food would have far-reaching significance to the development of the whole organic food industry. The recent studies in this field mainly include the following four aspects: the consumers’ recognition of organic food; the consumers’ attitude towards organic food; the consumers’ purchase of organic food; the consumers’ willingness to pay. The paper would review the recent domestic and foreign studies on the four aspects mentioned above,aiming to provide references to the researches in this field.

  4. Retail food environments research in Canada: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Shuh, Alanna; Olstad, Dana L; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Black, Jennifer L; Mah, Catherine L

    2016-06-09

    The field of retail food environments research is relatively new in Canada. The objective of this scoping review is to provide an overview of retail food environments research conducted before July 2015 in Canada. Specifically, this review describes research foci and key findings, identifies knowledge gaps and suggests future directions for research. A search of published literature concerning Canadian investigations of retail food environment settings (food stores, restaurants) was conducted in July 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, PsychInfo and ERIC. Studies published in English that reported qualitative or quantitative data on any aspect of the retail food environment were included, as were conceptual papers and commentaries. Eighty-eight studies were included in this review and suggest that the field of retail food environments research is rapidly expanding in Canada. While only 1 paper was published before 2005, 66 papers were published between 2010 and 2015. Canadian food environments research typically assessed either the socio-economic patterning of food environments (n = 28) or associations between retail food environments and diet, anthropometric or health outcomes (n = 33). Other papers profiled methodological research, qualitative studies, intervention research and critical commentaries (n = 27). Key gaps in the current literature include measurement inconsistency among studies and a lack of longitudinal and intervention studies. Retail food environments are a growing topic of research, policy and program development in Canada. Consistent methods (where appropriate), longitudinal and intervention research, and close partnerships between researchers and key stakeholders would greatly advance the field of retail food environments research in Canada.

  5. Resilience in the Romanian Food Industry. Preliminary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical situations occurring in the food chain represent a cause for concern for companies, consumers and government authorities. Food product supply continuity assurance is supported by economic considerations coming from producers or food product merchants, by the increasing demand that exists on the market or by the political implications regarding food security assurance among the population. The study focuses on assessing the extent to which the food sector economic agents are prepared to face potential critical situations in the unfolding of their business activities. In Romania there haven’t been carried out any studies regarding food chain resilience regarding critical incidents and the economic impact of these incidents on the food sector. The main objective of the research was the Romanian food chain resilience assessment to critical situations, having a highly applicative character. It was based on questionnaires given to a representative sample of companies and it highlighted the food companies’ resilience to critical situations. The responding economic agents were mainly from the agro-food production, food distribution, food production and distribution, and other related domains. The research regarding food chain resilience to critical situations in Romania showed a primary character of the concept; therefore, this sector must be developed both at a strategic and operational level.

  6. ANNEX A: RESEARCH FOR FOOD SECURITY

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    rvernooy

    2013-04-05

    Apr 5, 2013 ... CIDA's aim is to i) manage Canada's support and ... Food and nutritional insecurity, climate change, new and emerging diseases, and the .... groups). All projects require the sound assessment of environmental impact and the.

  7. Electron accelerator technology research in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianqiao; Ye Mingyang; Zhang Yue; Yang Bin; Xu Tao; Kong Xiangshan

    2014-01-01

    Electronic accelerator was applied to instead of cobalt sources for food irradiation, to keep food quality and to improve the effect of the treatment. Appropriate accelerator parameters lead to optimal technique. The irradiation effect is associated with the relationship between uniformity and irradiating speed, the effect of cargo size on radiation penetration, as well as other factors that affect the irradiation effects. Industrialization of electron accelerator irradiation will be looked to the future. (authors)

  8. A lumped parameter core dynamics model for MTR type research reactors under natural convection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardaneh, Kazem; Zaferanlouei, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model is presented to simulate the reactivity insertion transient in MTR reactors. ► Transient dynamics of IAEA 10 MW MTR type research reactor are evaluated. ► Maximum unprotected reactivity insertion for safe condition is calculated. ► The model predictions are validated with corresponding results in the literature. - Abstract: On the basis of lumped parameter modeling of both the kinetic and thermal–hydraulic effects, a reasonably accurate simplified model has been developed to predict the dynamic response of MTR reactors following to an unprotected reactivity insertion under natural convection regime. By this model the reactor transient behavior at a given initial steady-state can be solved by a set of ordinary differential equations. The model predictions have an acceptable consent with corresponding results of reactivity insertion transients analyzed in the literature. The inherent safety characteristics of MTR research reactors utilizing natural convection is clearly demonstrated by the expanded model. The safety margin of reactor operating is selected ONB condition and thereby the proposed model determines that any slight increase in the value of $0.73 for inserted reactivity will cause the maximum cladding surface temperature to exceed the ONB condition

  9. The FoodCast Research Image Database (FRIDa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eForoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years we have witnessed to an increasing interest in food processing and eating behaviors. This is probably due to several reasons. The biological relevance of food choices, the complexity of the food-rich environment in which we presently live (making food-intake regulation difficult, and the increasing health care cost due to illness associated with food (food hazards, food contamination, and aberrant food-intake. Despite the importance of the issues and the relevance of this research, comprehensive and validated databases of stimuli are rather limited, outdated, or not available for noncommercial purposes to independent researchers who aim at developing their own research program. The FoodCast Research Image Database (FRIDa we present here is comprised of 877 images from eight different categories: natural-food (e.g., strawberry, transformed-food (e.g., French fries, rotten-food (e.g., moldy banana, natural-nonfood items (e.g., pinecone, artificial food-related objects (e.g., teacup, artificial objects (e.g., guitar, animals (e.g., camel, and scenes (e.g., airport. FRIDa has been validated on a sample of healthy participants (N=73 on standard variables (e.g., valence, familiarity etc. as well as on other variables specifically related to food items (e.g., perceived calorie content; it also includes data on the visual features of the stimuli (e.g., brightness, high frequency power etc.. FRIDa is a well-controlled, flexible, validated, and freely available (http://foodcast.sissa.it/neuroscience/ tool for researchers in a wide range of academic fields and industry.

  10. Latest research progress on food waste management: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shangzhen; Gao, Hetong; Duan, Lunbo

    2018-05-01

    Since a large amount of food supplying is provided as a basic line measuring increasing residents’ life standard, food waste has become progressively numeral considerable. Much attention has been drawn to this problem. This work gave an overview on latest researches about anaerobic digestion, composting, generalized management and other developments on management of food waste. Different technologies were introduced and evaluated. Further views on future research in such a field were proposed.

  11. Recent research and development of functional food in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun Hwang, Lucy

    2007-08-01

    As the living standard rises, people are more concerned with the health benefits of foods. Functional foods are, therefore, receiving increasing attention worldwide. The functional food market in Taiwan reached 1.78 billion US dollars in 2005. Only those which have been certified by the Department of Health can claim their health benefits. Until January 2007, only 88 functional foods have received the certificates. In addition to the product development in the food industry, research institutes and universities are also actively engaged in the technology development and basic research of functional foods. Many raw materials harvested in Taiwan, including edible plants, herbs, medicinal mushrooms, and sea foods, are investigated for their health benefits, bioactive components and suitable processing technologies.

  12. Sustainable Disposal of Edible Food Byproducts at University Research Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Sherill; Chung, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research at agricultural universities often generates food crops that are edible by-products of the research process. The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that affect decision-making around the disposal of these crops. Understanding decision-making suggests how universities might include food crop production into campus…

  13. Study of neoclassical transport in the 1/ν regime for a research fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyuzhnyj, V.N.; Kasilov, S.V.; Nemov, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    In frame of the concept of a steady-state operated research fusion reactor (RFR) in papers [1-4] the RFR with an increased plasma-wall detachment was proposed with the purpose to enable not only the production but also a long-term confinement of a self-sustained plasma at the existing technology level. In connection with complication of the corresponding magnetic configuration an investigation of the neoclassical transport is desirable for such systems. In the present work neoclassical transport for a magnetic configuration of l=2 torsatron type variant of RFR system with an additional opposite toroidal magnetic field is investigated numerically. A so-called 1/ν transport regime, in which the transport coefficients are increased with reduction of particle collision frequency ν is considered. For calculating of transport coefficients a technique, based on integration along magnetic field lines in a given stellarator magnetic field is used. The magnetic field of helical windings is calculated by Biot-Savart law. The obtained transport coefficients are presented in a standard form containing a factor depending on the magnetic field geometry. From analysis of the received results follows that in respect of the neoclassical transport the proposed magnetic configuration turns out to be closer to configuration of the classical stellarator (with helical winding), than to configuration of the classical torsatron/geliotron. (author)

  14. Food allergy - science and policy needs - The UK Food Standards Agency Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Joelle; Hattersley, Sue; Kimber, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is a significant health issue in the UK, affecting between 1 and 2% of adults and 5 and 8% of children. The UK Food Standards Agency seeks to ensure the safety of food allergic consumers by providing them with information and guidance on food choices. Since 1995, with the aim of addressing important policy issues and improving the quality of the support and guidance available for food allergic consumers, the Agency (and before that the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), has had a programme of research dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of food allergy and delivering benefits for UK consumers. In this paper, we outline some of the major scientific challenges that the programme has sought to address. We reflect on how the findings have been used as a basis for the development of sound, evidence-based policy and advice for UK consumers, and the current direction of research being supported by the programme.

  15. Sustaining a verification regime in a nuclear weapon-free world. VERTIC research report no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyland, S. van

    1999-01-01

    Sustaining high levels of commitment to and enthusiasm for the verification regime in a nuclear weapon-free world (NWFW) would be a considerable challenge, but the price of failure would be high. No verification system for a complete ban on a whole of weapon of mass destruction (WMD) has been in existence long enough to provide a precedent or the requisite experience. Nevertheless, lessons from the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) nuclear safeguards system are instructive. A potential problem over the long haul is the gradual erosion of the deterrent effect of verification that may result from the continual overlooking of minor instances of non-compliance. Flaws in the verification system must be identified and dealt with early lest they also corrode the system. To achieve this the verification organisation's inspectors and analytical staff will need sustained support, encouragement, resources and training. In drawing attention to weaknesses, they must be supported by management and at the political level. The leaking of sensitive information, either industrial or military, by staff of the verification regime is a potential problem. 'Managed access' techniques should be constantly examined and improved. The verification organisation and states parties will need to sustain close co-operation with the nuclear and related industries. Frequent review mechanisms must be established. States must invest time and effort to make them effective. Another potential problem is the withering of resources for sustained verification. Verification organisations tend to be pressured by states to cut or last least cap costs, even if the verification workload increases. The verification system must be effective as knowledge and experience allows. The organisation will need continuously to update its scientific methods and technology. This requires in-house resources plus external research and development (R and D). Universities, laboratories and industry need incentives to

  16. Researches in agri-food supply chain: A bibliometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisjam, Muhammad; Sutopo, Wahyudi

    2017-11-01

    Agri-food is very important for human being. Problems in managing agri-food are very complicated. There are many entities involved in managing agri-food with conflict of interest between them makes the problems become more complicated. Using supply chain approaches in agri-food will help solving the problems. The purpose of this paper is to show that the publications in agri-food supply chain research area are still promising and to show the research trend in agri-food supply chain. The study was a bibliometric study by using some queries on the website with the largest database of peer-reviewed literature. The queries were using various categories and refinements. Firstly the study was exploring all publications in this research area in some categories and then divided the duration into 2 intervals. The last query was to know how many publications are review type publications. The results show that the number of the publications with agri-food supply chain topics are still limited, and tend to increase. It means researches in this area are still promising. The results also show the most publications are from which source title, country, and affiliation. The results also show the research trend in this research area. The quantities of review type publications in agri-food supply chain are still few. It shows the need for more review type publications in this area.

  17. Research on Food Quality Security of China’s Food Import and Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengling Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article researches quality and safety of food at home and abroad on the basis of present situation, cause and effect, from the point of import and export of food quality and safety in China, by combining with economic theories and empirical analysis, from a macro perspective study of China’s import and export food safety issues impact on economic and social development, and study the experience of other developed countries advanced management experience in the quality and safety of food imports and exports. Finally, after the combination of the analysis, make recommendations to protect China’s import and export food safety measures and provide policy proposals.

  18. Modelling of void formation in the subcooled boiling regime in the ATHLET code to simulate flow instability for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.

    1996-01-01

    The ATHLET thermohydraulic code was developed at the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS, Society for Plant and Reactor Safety) to analyse leaks and transients for power reactors. In order to extend the code's range of application to the safety analysis of research reactors, a model was implemented permitting a description of the thermodynamic non-equilibrium effects in the subcooled boiling regime. The aim of the extension is, on one hand, to cover the thermohydraulic instability which is particularly characteristic of research reactors owing to their high power densities and low system pressures and, on the other hand, to provide a consideration of the influence of the steam formed in this boiling regime on the neutron balance. The model developed takes into consideration the competing evaporation and condensation effects in the subcooled boiling regime. It describes the bubble production rate at the superheated heating surfaces as well as the subsequent condensation of the bubbles in the subcooled core flow. The installed model is validated by the recalculation of two extensive series of experiments. In the first series the McMaster experiments on axial void distribution in the subcooled boiling regime are recalculated. The recalculation shows that the extended programme is capable of calculating the axial void distribution in the subcooled boiling regime with good agreement with the data. The second series deals with KFA experiments on thermohydraulic instability (flow excursion) in the subcooled boiling regime, comprising a broad parameter range of heat flow density, inlet temperature and channel width. Recalculation of this experimental series shows that the programme extension ensures simulation of thermohydraulic instability. (orig.)

  19. Promotion of organic food in Serbia: Implications from organic food consumers' profile research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Ines

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research of organic food frequency of consumption (in general, conducted in Serbia in June 2013 (n=300. Respondents were classified into low-frequent organic food consumers' segment and high-frequent organic food consumers' segment. Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents were also investigated, thus allowing comparing two segments regarding consumers' profile. The organic food high-frequent consumers' segment consisted of more women, more educated people, more married respondents and respondents living with children and having larger households, as well as of consumers with higher self-assessed household income in comparison to organic food low-frequent consumers' segment. Having in mind the results of the research and the level of domestic market development when choosing which segment to target, as well as starting from understanding promotion in the context of integrated marketing communication and the means-end approach to consumer behavior, recommendations for organic food promotion were given.

  20. Research on food security makes a difference for African women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 avr. 2014 ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and empowering women are vital to meeting the challenges of improving food and nutrition security, and enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty. A central objective of the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) is ...

  1. Research on food security makes a difference for African women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and empowering women are vital to meeting the challenges of improving food and nutrition security, and enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty. A central objective of the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) is ...

  2. Patterns of serum PCDD/Fs affected by vegetarian regime, consumption of locally produced food, and resident places of residents living near incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hsiu-Ling; Lee Chang-Ching; Su Hue-Jen; Liao Pao-Chi [Inst. of Basic Medical Science, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Previous reports have been estimated that more than 90% of serum PCDD/Fs can be accounted for by the consumption of various food groups. Nouwen et al. suggested residents living near incinerators with the elevated dioxin exposure while they ate locally produced food compared to the general population from other areas. PCDD/Fs usually abound in fatty meats and marine foods, and consumption of which is the major pathway of human expose to PCDD/Fs. However, no distinct association was shown between vegetarian regime of human and their corresponding serum PCDD/Fs concentration. In addition, the resident region is associated to their corresponding dietary consumption and ambient exposure of PCDD/Fs, especially for subjects consumed the local foods with special dioxin-like contamination. The current study, therefore, was set to examine how dietary habits, including vegetarian regime and consumption of local food original for residents living near the incinerators are associated to serum PCDD/F concentrations. In addition, the further aim is to assess the influence on the serum PCDD/Fs levels resulting from subjects living in the alternative resident regions, even all of them exposed to PCDD/Fs emission from incinerators.

  3. Status and future of food irradiation research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, Masao

    1982-01-01

    The first part of the report presented the results of wholesomeness evaluation of the irradiated potato, onion, rice and wheat by Organization of the National Research Programme on Food Irradiation which conducts food irradiation in Japan. The second part dealt with the wholesomeness evaluation of food irradiation by the joint specialist conference of FAO, IAEA and WHO. It was concluded that irradiation of a maximum mean of 10 KGy or less was unconditionally permissible for every food item, not requiring a toxicity test. However, the relationship between irradiation techniques and economic feasibility, wholesomeness of high dose irradiation, the human effect of use of irradiated food item, food chemistry and nutritional problems remain to be examined. (Chibe, N.)

  4. Research Awards: Agriculture and Food Security program Deadline ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... HEAD OFFICE / SIÈGE : 150 Kent Street / 150, rue Kent PO Box ... to pursue their research goals in a dynamic team environment in ... You should have an interest in agriculture, food security, nutrition, rural livelihoods, and.

  5. Improving food security and nutrition through research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-06

    Oct 6, 2016 ... In Canada, the 2012 federal budget highlighted CIFSRF's success, noting how the ... New animal vaccines could keep more African farmers in business ... Research on food security makes a difference for African women.

  6. World Food Day 2015 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-25

    May 25, 2016 ... World Food Day 2015 ... Canadian Lorne Babiuk, a global leader in vaccine research, Killam Prize and Gairdner Wightman Award laureate, ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  7. Food, nutrition & behaviour : research for healthy eating, healthy living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beesems, J.; Domingus, S.; Nieuwenhuizen, van de J.; Veer, van 't P.; Zondervan, C.

    2011-01-01

    This brochure illustrates this range of research activities in the domain of food and nutrition, lifestyle and health. It does so by providing examples of collaboration of Wageningen UR with partners in the public and private sector.

  8. Research Award: Food, Environment, and Health 2019 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-09-05

    Deadline: September 5, 2018 Please note that all applications must be submitted ... and mentorship allow award holders to pursue their research goals and work in ... and/or individual behaviour change;; projects solely focused on food safety.

  9. Research helps improve food security and nutrition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    agricultural productivity, improving nutrition, and raising incomes of men and women smallholder farmers. IDRC accomplishes this through joint partnerships with Global. Affairs Canada and the Australian Centre for International. Agricultural Research. Our researchers use a variety of approaches to: • Increase productivity of ...

  10. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team will test innovative mechanisms such as elec- tronic vouchers to target vulnerable groups on a large scale. E-voucher discounts delivered by mobile phone to 65,000 lactat- ing mothers will provide a temporary price incentive to help build a market for the product. The scheme will also enable researchers.

  11. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Researches and commercialization of food irradiation technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu; Ha Yiming; Chen Hao; Liu Chunquan; Chen Xiulan

    2007-01-01

    The status of food irradiation on research, standard and commercialization is described in the paper. The main research fields now include degradation of chloramphenicol residue by irradiation, promoting safety of meat products, frozen seafood and ready-to-eat products by irradiation, lower activity of allergic protein by irradiation, identification of irradiated food and irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. The existed standards need to be revised, and new standard need to be established. The commercialization stages of food irradiation and quality assurance system of irradiation company are also analyzed. (authors)

  13. Research Award: Agriculture and Food Security Program

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    social) without adverse consequences to societies and the environment. ... research will place particular attention on the interactions of public sector ... Applicants should clearly outline their qualifications for this position, and explain how this ...

  14. Food studies: an introduction to research methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Jeff; Deutsch, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    .... Designed for the classroom as well as for the independent scholar, the book details the predominant research methods in the field, provides a series of interactive questions and templates to help...

  15. Overview of the dairy and food processing research conducted at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, ERRC, and research to develop sustainable food processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DFFRU is dedicated to solving critical problems in the utilization of milk and specialty crop byproducts by developing high-quality, value-added functional foods and consumer products. The presentation will give an overview of the research projects that will benefit human health and well-being. ...

  16. The study of the kinetics of drying food raw material of plant origin in the active hydrodynamic regimes and development of dryer engineering calculation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer properties of food raw material formed during the heat treatment. New physical, flavoring and aromatic properties of the products of plant origin, formed during drying due to substantial changes in the composition of the raw materia l occurring as a result of biochemical reactions. In the production of dried and roasted products is very important to follow the parameters that contribute to the passage of biochemical processes aimed at creating a product with high nutritional qualities, strong aroma and pleasant taste. We studied the basic kinetics of the drying process of food raw material (in terms of artichoke in a dense interspersed layer, which formed the basis for the rational choice of the drying regime with due consideration of changes in the moisture content of the product are studied. The nature of the effect of the dried product movement hydrodynamic conditions on a layer height and intensity of drying is established. As a result of food raw material drying process kinetics analysis (in terms of artichoke multistep drying regimes were chosen. Analysis of the artichoke particles drying by air, air-steam mixture and superheated steam intensity showed the presence of two parts: the horizontal one and gradually diminishing one. Kinetic laws of the artichoke drying process in a dense interspersed layer were the basis of engineering calculation of dryer with a transporting body in the form of a "traveling wave". Application of the dryer with the transporting body in the form of a "traveling wave" for food raw material drying allow to achieve uniform drying of the product due to the use of soft, gentle regimes of oversleeping while preserving to the utmost particles of the product; to improve the quality of the finished product through the use of interspersed layer that reduces clumping of product to be dried.

  17. [Food industry funding and epidemiologic research in public health nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Tardón, Adonina; Romaguera, Dora; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Vioque, Jesús

    The interests of the food industry to fund nutrition and health research are not limited to promoting scientific advances. Recently, several systematic reviews conducted about the effect of sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes have shown some biased conclusions in studies that acknowledge industry sponsorship. In this context, the Nutrition Working Group of the Spanish Epidemiology Society presented a scientific session entitled Food industry and epidemiologic research at its annual meeting. In a round table, four experts in nutrition research presented their points of view about whether the food industry should fund nutrition-related research and the related potential conflicts of interest of the food industry. All the experts agreed not only on defending independence in nutritional epidemiology regarding the design, interpretation and conclusion of their studies but also on the crucial need for guaranteed scientific rigor, scientific quality of the results and measures to protect studies against potential biases related to the conflicts of interest of funding by the food industry. Drs Pérez-Farinós and Romaguera believe that the most effective way to prevent conflicts of interest would be not to allow the food industry to fund nutrition research; Drs Marcos and Martínez-González suggested the need to establish mechanisms and strategies to prevent the potential influences of the food industry in selecting researchers or institutional sponsorship and in the analysis and results of the studies, to ensure maximum independence for researchers, as well as their professional ethics. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Minimising food waste: a call for multidisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamar, Maria Del Carmen; Falagán, Natalia; Aktas, Emel; Terry, Leon A

    2018-01-01

    Food losses and waste have always been a significant global problem for mankind, and one which has become increasingly recognised as such by policy makers, food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers. It is, however, an emotive subject whereby the extent, accuracy and resolution of available data on postharvest loss and waste are questionable, such that key performance indicators on waste can be misinformed. The nature and extent of food waste differ among developed economies, economies in transition and developing countries. While most emphasis has been put on increasing future crop production, far less resource has been and is still channelled towards enabling both established and innovative food preservation technologies to reduce food waste while maintaining safety and quality. Reducing food loss and waste is a more tractable problem than increasing production in the short to medium term, as its solution is not directly limited, for instance, by available land and water resources. Here we argue the need for a paradigm shift of current funding strategies and research programmes that will encourage the development, implementation and translation of collective biological, engineering and management solutions to better preserve and utilise food. Such multidisciplinary thinking across global supply chains is an essential element in the pursuit of achieving sustainable food and nutritional security. The implementation of allied technological and management solutions is reliant on there being sufficient skilled human capital and resources. There is currently a lack of robust postharvest research networks outside of the developed world, and insufficient global funding mechanisms that can support such interdisciplinary collaborations. There is, thus, a collective need for schemes that encourage inter-supply chain research, knowledge exchange and capacity building to reduce food losses and waste. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical

  19. Nanoscience and nanotechnologies in food industries: opportunities and research trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Chakraborty, Arkadyuti Roy; Melvin Samuel, S.; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Shanker, Rishi; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-06-01

    Nanomaterials have gained importance in various fields of science, technology, medicine, colloid technologies, diagnostics, drug delivery, personal care applications and others due to their small size and unique physico-chemical characteristic. Apart from above mentioned area, it is also extensively being used in food sector specifically in preservation and packaging. The future applications in food can also be extended to improve the shelf life, food quality, safety, fortification and biosensors for contaminated or spoiled food or food packaging. Different types and shapes of nanomaterials are being employed depending upon the need and nature of the food. Characterisation of these nanomaterials is essential to understand the interaction with the food matrix and also with biological compartment. This review is focused on application of nanotechnology in food industries. It also gives insight on commercial products in market with usage of nanomaterials, current research and future aspects in these areas. Currently, they are being incorporated into commercial products at a faster rate than the development of knowledge and regulations to mitigate potential health and environmental impacts associated with their manufacturing, application and disposal. As nanomaterials are finding new application every day, care should be taken about their potential toxic effects.

  20. USDA food and nutrient databases provide the infrastructure for food and nutrition research, policy, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Holden, Joanne M; Harris, Ellen

    2013-02-01

    The USDA food and nutrient databases provide the basic infrastructure for food and nutrition research, nutrition monitoring, policy, and dietary practice. They have had a long history that goes back to 1892 and are unique, as they are the only databases available in the public domain that perform these functions. There are 4 major food and nutrient databases released by the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), part of the USDA's Agricultural Research Service. These include the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, and the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Database. The users of the databases are diverse and include federal agencies, the food industry, health professionals, restaurants, software application developers, academia and research organizations, international organizations, and foreign governments, among others. Many of these users have partnered with BHNRC to leverage funds and/or scientific expertise to work toward common goals. The use of the databases has increased tremendously in the past few years, especially the breadth of uses. These new uses of the data are bound to increase with the increased availability of technology and public health emphasis on diet-related measures such as sodium and energy reduction. Hence, continued improvement of the databases is important, so that they can better address these challenges and provide reliable and accurate data.

  1. Integrated ecological and chemical food web accumulation modeling explains PAH temporal trends during regime shifts in a shallow lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangzhen; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Liu, Wenxiu; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Xu, Fuliu; Mooij, Wolf M; Koelmans, Albert A

    2017-08-01

    Shallow lakes can switch suddenly from a turbid situation with high concentrations of phytoplankton and other suspended solids to a vegetated state with clear water, and vice versa. These alternative stable states may have a substantial impact on the fate of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). Models that are fit to simulate impacts from these complex interactions are scarce. We developed a contaminant fate model which is linked to an ecosystem model (PCLake) for shallow lakes. This integrated model was successful in simulating long-term dynamics (1953-2012) of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the main biotic and abiotic components in a large shallow lake (Chaohu in China), which has undergone regime shifts in this period. Historical records from sediment cores were used to evaluate the model. The model revealed that regime shifts in shallow lakes had a strong impact on the fate of less hydrophobic compounds due to the large storage capacity of macrophytes, which accumulated up to 55.6% of phenanthrene in the clear state. The abrupt disappearance of macrophytes after the regime shift resulted in a sudden change in phenanthrene distribution, as the sediment became the major sink. For more hydrophobic compounds such as benzo(a)pyrene, the modeled impact of the regime shift was negligible for the whole environment, yet large for biotic compartments. This study is the first to provide a full mechanistic analysis of the impact of regime shifts on the fate of PAHs in a real lake ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Egypt's policy concerning food irradiation research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypts' policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  3. Proceedings of the seventh international food convention: nutritional security through sustainable development research and education for healthy foods - souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    At present, the application of advanced technology during production, processing, storage and distribution of food with an ultimate aim of strengthening the socio-economic status of farmers, entrepreneurs and rural artisan community has paramount importance. The convention made an effort to touch upon the following areas: food and nutritional security and sustainability, food processing and engineering, food safety management systems, food health and nutrition, skill development and entrepreneurship, food science and technology research etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. MAFF sponsored research: detection tests for irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.M.; Holley, P.A.; Pryke, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    In their 1986 report on the safety and wholesomeness of irradiated food the UK Advisory Committee on Irradiated and Novel Foods (ACINF) recognised that a generally applicable test to determine if a food had been irradiated was not available. The committee considered that, although not a pre-requisite, the existence of a detection test would be a useful supplement to a control system and do much to reassure consumers; with this in mind ACINF recommended that detection methods should be kept under review. As a consequence, in 1987 the Ministry initiated a comprehensive R and D detection test programme. Over fifty papers have been published to date as a result of this programme. MAFF (Ministry Of Agriculture Fisheries and Food) has also been involved in other research associated with irradiation and food safety, some of which is described in this paper. This paper aims to give an overview of recent work funded under the food irradiation programme. Twelve projects have been supported over the last two years, ten of which involved the development of detection tests for irradiated food. A summary of these projects is presented: - Thermoluminescence; - Electron Spin Resonance; - 2-alkylcyclobutanones; -Determination Of Hydrogen; - Differential Scanning Calorimetry; - Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate; - DNA; - Pesticide Breakdown; - Neutron Irradiation; -Future Plans. (orig./vhe)

  5. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF THE HIGH-SPEED THERMAL PROCESSING REGIMES ON STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PIPE STEEL 32G2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Gordienko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on influence of high-speed heating temperature, regimes of cooling and temperature of abatement on structure and mechanical properties of pipe steel 32G2 are carried out. Recommendations on the regimes of high-speed thermal processing of steel 32G2 which can be used at manufacturing of seamless pipes are given.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF CUTTING REGIME ON THE WEAR OF DRILLS AT STEEL PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Marius CIUREZU GHERGHE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the influence of cutting regime on the wear drills at steel processing , in particular the processing of stainless steel X17CrNi16-2 SR EN 10088-4 DIN 17440. We are interested in wear of the drill at processing of this type of stainless steel , which has applicability in energy industry given the special characteristics of its. We want a maximum value of 0.2 mm for the wear of the drill, measurement and taking pictures are made using a microscope DigiMicro 2.0 and the software used is MicroCapture. Processing was done on machining center YMC YOUNG TECH 1050, and the tool used was 8 mm drill bit high speed steel.

  7. Feeding trials in organic food quality and health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velimirov, Alberta; Huber, Machteld; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Feeding experiments comparing organically and conventionally produced food are performed to assess the overall impact on the animals' health as a model for the effects experienced by the human consumers. These experiments are based on systems research and characterized by their focus on production...... research is not just about simple cause-effect chains, but rather about the pluralism of interactions in biological networks; therefore, the interpretation of the outcome of whole food experiments is difficult. Furthermore, the test diets of organic and conventional origin can be constituted in different...... methods, whole food testing and procedures in accordance with the terms of organic farming. A short review of such experiments shows that the majority of these tests revealed effects of the organically produced feed on health parameters such as reproductive performance and immune responses. Systems...

  8. Impression management and food intake. Current directions in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-03-01

    This paper reviews recent research on consumption stereotypes (judgments of others based on what they eat) and impression management (modifying one's eating behavior in order to create a particular impression). A major recent focus in the literature has been on masculinity and meat eating, with research showing that meat is strongly associated with masculinity, and that individuals who follow a meat-based diet are perceived as more masculine than are individuals who follow a vegetarian diet. Although direct evidence for impression management through food intake remains sparse, a number of methodological approaches (including priming techniques and ecological valid assessments) are described that could be used in future research to identify the motives underlying people's eating behavior. Consumption stereotypes and impression management may be important influences on people's eating behavior, but the complexities of how, when, and for whom these factors influence food intake are still not well understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends in Food Research and Development: A Survey of the Commercial Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    top priority of research and development in the food industry; however, the consumer market has chanqed dramatically since the beginning of this decade...Canned & Preserved Fruits & Vegetables 45.6 204 Grain Mill Products 32.4 205 Bakery Products 33.8 206 Sugar & Confectionery Products 32.4 207 Fats & Oils...15.6 40.6 39.1 Aseptic Packaging of Particulates 0.0 0.0 14.5 36.0 49.5 Genetic Engineering 1.5 7.6 21.2 36.4 33.3 The market share of frozen foods is

  10. European research and the Hungarian school of food irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakner, Zoltán; Soós, Sándor; Vida, Zsófia; Farkas, Csilla

    2016-12-01

    In second half of the 20th century the research of application of irradiation to food preservation become a new and prospective field of food science and technology. This activity has been supported and developed in a parallel way in both halves of the that-time world, divided by the iron-curtain. Under these conditions, fulfilling a specific "bridge-role", some highly innovative scientists, first of all Professor József Farkas has been able to achieve considerable results in this new field of science. Based on citation analysis and science mapping it can be proven, that his path-breaking research has been exercise a fertilising effect on development of a wide range of fields of science, and considerably contributed to proliferation of this science and technology in numerous countries of the world.

  11. One Health, One World—The Intersecting Legal Regimes of Trade, Climate Change, Food Security, Humanitarian Crises, and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Kelli K.; Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2012-01-01

    Today’s global health challenges require a multi-sectoral approach in which health is a fundamental value within global governance and international law. “One Health, One World” provides a unified, harmonious vision of global health governance that supports the wellbeing of humans and animals living in a clean and temperate environment. This article focuses on five legal regimes—trade law, food security law, environmental law, humanitarian law, and refugee law—that play a pivotal role in infl...

  12. One Health, One World—The Intersecting Legal Regimes of Trade, Climate Change, Food Security, Humanitarian Crises, and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli K. Garcia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s global health challenges require a multi-sectoral approach in which health is a fundamental value within global governance and international law. “One Health, One World” provides a unified, harmonious vision of global health governance that supports the wellbeing of humans and animals living in a clean and temperate environment. This article focuses on five legal regimes—trade law, food security law, environmental law, humanitarian law, and refugee law—that play a pivotal role in influencing health outcomes and are integral to achieving the One Health, One World vision. International trade, for example, opens markets not only to life-saving products such as vaccines, medicines, and medical equipment, but also to life-threatening products such as tobacco and asbestos. If strengthened and enforced, environmental law can decrease air and water pollution, major causes of death and disability. World hunger has been exacerbated by the global economic crisis and climate change, increasing the urgency for international law to enhance food security. Humanitarian law must similarly be strengthened to protect civilians adequately as the nature of warfare continues to change. Refugee law plays a pivotal role in protecting the health of deeply vulnerable people who lack food, shelter, and social stability. Higher standards and more effective compliance are necessary for international law to realize its full potential to safeguard the world's population.

  13. Demonstration-informative center based on research reactor IR-50 in heat regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupenina, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    Many problems exist in the nuclear field, but the most significant one is the public's mistrust of Nuclear Energy. Strong downfalls of the radiological culture affect public perception, the main paradox being the situation after Chernobyl. The task of creating a Demonstration-Informative Center (Minatom RF) on reactor IR-50 research is conducted by Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (ENTEK). The IR-50 is situated on the grounds of the institute. It will be a unique event when the functional reactor is situated in the center of the city. The purposes of the Demonstration-Informative Center are discussed. (authors)

  14. Projectification of Doctoral Training? How Research Fields Respond to a New Funding Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torka, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Funding is an important mechanism for exercising influence over ever more parts of academic systems. In order to do so, funding agencies attempt to export their functional and normative prerequisites for financing to new fields. One essential requirement for fundees is then to construct research processes in the form of a project beforehand, one…

  15. Nutrition research to affect food and a healthy lifespan12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, Sarah D.; Russell, Robert; Bier, Dennis; Klurfeld, David M.; Li, Zhaoping; Mein, Jonathan R.; Milner, John; Ross, A. Catharine; Stover, Patrick; Konopka, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Proper nutrition offers one of the most effective and least costly ways to decrease the burden of many diseases and their associated risk factors, including obesity. Nutrition research holds the key to increasing our understanding of the causes of obesity and its related comorbidities and thus holds promise to markedly influence global health and economies. After outreach to 75 thought leaders, the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) convened a Working Group to identify the nutrition research needs whose advancement will have the greatest projected impact on the future health and well-being of global populations. ASN’s Nutrition Research Needs focus on the following high priority areas: 1) variability in individual responses to diet and foods; 2) healthy growth, development, and reproduction; 3) health maintenance; 4) medical management; 5) nutrition-related behaviors; and 6) food supply/environment. ASN hopes the Nutrition Research Needs will prompt collaboration among scientists across all disciplines to advance this challenging research agenda given the high potential for translation and impact on public health. Furthermore, ASN hopes the findings from the Nutrition Research Needs will stimulate the development and adoption of new and innovative strategies that can be applied toward the prevention and treatment of nutrition-related diseases. The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research requires stakeholders with differing areas of expertise to collaborate on multifaceted approaches to establish the evidence-based nutrition guidance and policies that will lead to better health for the global population. In addition to the identified research needs, ASN also identified 5 tools that are critical to the advancement of the Nutrition Research Needs: 1) omics, 2) bioinformatics, 3) databases, 4) biomarkers, and 5) cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:24038264

  16. An Exploratory Research Regarding Romanian Market for Halal Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin-Cosmin SARACIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the social structure, the economic crisis, the ageing of the population had an important role in the development of Romania. As a result, Romania must identify other segments and industries in order to rejuvenate the economy of the country. This study focuses on a market niche represented by Halal food products, which are underdeveloped in Romania at this moment. It may represent a potential catalyst for the development of other latent sectors and may consolidate the bilateral relations with the Muslim countries, in conformity with the globalization and the internalization of the global market. The research method used in this study is the thorough analysis of numerous scientific articles and a literature review. It focuses both on the past and the current state of Halal food products and how the development of this market niche can lead to the expansion of other sectors, such as tourism and education.

  17. Food Insecurity in Nigeria: Way Forward | Otaha | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security is indispensable prerequisite for the survival of mankind and his economic activities including food production. Food is different from other commodities because of its inevitability for survival and existence. In Nigeria, there is high level of food insecurity for the past four decades as a result of neglect in food ...

  18. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kh'yuitt, G.

    1980-01-01

    An introduction into the problem of two-phase flows is presented. Flow regimes arizing in two-phase flows are described, and classification of these regimes is given. Structures of vertical and horizontal two-phase flows and a method of their identification using regime maps are considered. The limits of this method application are discussed. The flooding phenomena and phenomena of direction change (flow reversal) of the flow and interrelation of these phenomena as well as transitions from slug regime to churn one and from churn one to annular one in vertical flows are described. Problems of phase transitions and equilibrium are discussed. Flow regimes in tubes where evaporating liquid is running, are described [ru

  19. A two-phase flow regime map for a MAPLE-type nuclear research reactor fuel channel: Effect of hexagonal finned bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvel, G.D.; Chang, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    A two-phase flow regime map is developed experimentally and theoretically for a vertical hexagonal flow channel with and without a 36-finned rod hexagonal bundle. This type of flow channel is of interest to MAPLE-type nuclear research reactors. The flow regime maps are determined by visual observations and observation of waveforms shown by a capacitance-type void fraction meter. The experimental results show that the inclusion of the finned hexagonal bundle shifts the flow regime transition boundaries toward higher water flow rates. Existing flow regime maps based on pipe flow require slight modifications when applied to the hexagonal flow channel with and without a MAPLE-type finned hexagonal bundle. The proposed theoretical model agrees well with experimental results

  20. Evaluation of research projects Perspectives for applied research in food and agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.M.; Boesen, M.V.; Baker, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the task of evaluating research projects’ relevance and scientific quality is addressed, and a pilot study is executed for five Danish food and agricultural research programmes. Literature reviewed emphasises the importance of context, of consistency and transparency and of the cost...... of evaluation. Moreover, the purpose of research evaluation is thoroughly examined. The method developed and implemented addresses each of these concerns, particularly by employing simple measures and by complementing quantitative analysis with qualitative exercises featuring structured stakeholder interviews...

  1. Using a research framework to identify knowledge gaps in research on food marketing to children in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget; King, Lesley

    2009-06-01

    Research in the field of food marketing to children requires a better understanding of the research gaps in order to inform policy development. The purpose of this paper was to propose a framework for classifying food marketing research, using Australian research on food marketing to children to demonstrate how this framework can be used to determine knowledge gaps. A literature review of research databases and 'grey' material was conducted to identify research from the previous 10 years. Studies were classified according to their research focus, and media type, as either: exposure, including content analyses; effects of exposure, including opinions, attitudes and actions resulting from food marketing exposure; regulations, including the type and level of regulation that applies to food marketing; or breaches of regulations, including instances where marketing regulations have been violated. The majority of Australian research on food marketing to children has focused on television advertising and exposure research. Research has consistently shown that the content of food marketing directed at children is predominately for unhealthy foods. There is a lack of research on the effects of food marketing, which would be valuable to inform policy. The development of a logical framework for food marketing research allows for the identification of research gaps and enables research priorities to be identified.

  2. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Mark

    2011-09-29

    Abstract Background Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE) is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. Methods A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Results Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission\\'s research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. Discussion National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as \\'nutrio-genomics\\

  3. From food production to food security: developing interdisciplinary, regional-level research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, J.S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Food security is a condition whereby “all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO World Food Summit, 1996). Globally, food production has kept

  4. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liles, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Internal boundaries in multiphase flow greatly complicate fluid-dynamic and heat-transfer descriptions. Different flow regimes or topological configurations can have radically dissimilar interfacial and wall mass, momentum, and energy exchanges. To model the flow dynamics properly requires estimates of these rates. In this paper the common flow regimes for gas-liquid systems are defined and the techniques used to estimate the extent of a particular regime are described. Also, the current computer-code procedures are delineated and introduce a potentially better method is introduced

  5. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The fund was designed to finance initiatives to solve global food and ... food security and enhance nutrition in developing countries; -increase food ... In a context of rising food prices, millions of Africans in marginal areas rely on a range of ...

  6. Linking research and food security policies in MENA | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 حزيران (يونيو) 2013 ... Hammou Laamrani works for IDRC as a specialist in agriculture, water, and knowledge management. He believes that ... Food security challenges are also related to the low adoption of technologies to optimize food availability and storage, reduce post-harvest losses, and improve food safety. Unless food ...

  7. Microbiological research and development for the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taormina, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    .... A broad range of topics is covered including the basics of setting up a food microbiology laboratory, procedures for validating the efficacy of process and product food safety controls, practices...

  8. A food quality management research methodology integrating technological and managerial theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article it is argued how the complexity of food quality management combined with the high requirements on food quality requires a specific research methodology. It is concluded that food quality management research has to deal with two quite different paradigms, the one from technological

  9. 77 FR 7565 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Food and Agriculture Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction... public comment from persons who use or conduct research, extension, or education activities to assist...

  10. Research on Green Food Marketing Strategy of China

    OpenAIRE

    Qu Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the improvement of people's living standards, people's growing demand for green food is becoming bigger and bigger, but there are some problems in traditional marketing and at the same time, the rapid development of web marketing has impacted greatly on traditional marketing channels of the green food. The study attempts to analyze the development and the problems of green food in our country in traditional marketing, discussed the necessity and feasibility of the traditional green food ...

  11. Emotions in consumer research : An application to novel food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laros, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decades the general public has been confronted with a continuous stream of radically new food products as well as technologies that can be used to improve food production and food products. It is rather difficult, however, to convince consumers to accept these new products. For

  12. Big Food, Big Agra, and the Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Cat

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Marion Nestle, the New York University food scientist and author of "Food Politics." Marion Nestle is Paulette Goddard Professor in the Department of Nutrition, Food Studies, and Public Health at New York University. From 1986 to 1988, she was senior nutrition policy adviser in the Department of Health and…

  13. Familiarizing with Toy Food: Preliminary Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A qualitative content analysis of children and parents interacting with toy food in their homes in view of recommendations for developing healthful food preferences. Methods: YouTube videos (n = 101) of children and parents interacting in toy kitchen settings were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Toy food was categorized…

  14. Research document no. 20. The constitutionalizing of the international legal regime of the petroleum investments and the world market reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2000-09-01

    We analyse the new international legal regime for upstream petroleum investments and ''state contracts'' in general. In striking contrast to the ''New international economic order'' and ''Permanent sovereignty over natural resources'' ideologies of the 1960 and 1970, the emerging regime promotes the sanctification of contractual economic rights; the strict definition of State sovereign prerogatives, and the severe limitation of their conditions of exercise; the internationalization of the settlement of disputes through direct firm-State arbitration; the integration of national territories in a competitive, transparent, non-discriminative global market for investment. We demonstrate that it is rooted in the principles of liberal constitutionalism, hence promoting the internationalization of the Rule of Law. Such a legal regime is conducive to the expansion of the market for petroleum rights, as it restores the institutional conditions for credible commitment by the State. It will also accelerate the trend toward the ''commoditization'' of hydrocarbon resources. Bilateral investments treaties (especially the United States BIT program) as well as multilateral/regional instruments both general (draft MAI, MIGA, MERCOSUR, ALENA) and energy-specific (Energy Charter Treaty) are analysed as the main pillars and diffusion mechanisms of the new regime. A final paragraph indicates the way forward: the evaluation of the impact of this new legal regime on the world oil supply curve, especially as it eventually reaches - or not - some of the lowest-cost, biggest-resources countries. (author)

  15. Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Compelling Issues for Geophysical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, M.; Grigg, N. S.; Waskom, R.

    2014-12-01

    The joint security of water, food, and energy systems is an urgent issue everywhere, and strong drivers of development and land use change, exacerbated by climate change, require new knowledge to achieve integrated solution using a nexus-based approach to assess inter-dependencies. Effective research-based decision support tools are essential to identify the major issues and interconnections to help in implementation of the nexus approach. The major needs are models and data to clearly and unambiguously present decision scenarios to local cooperative groups of farmers, electric energy generators and water officials for joint decisions. These can be developed by integrated models to link hydrology, land use, energy use, cropping simulation, and optimization with economic objectives and socio-physical constraints. The first step in modeling is to have a good conceptual model and then to get data. As the linking of models increases uncertainties, each one should be supplied with adequate data at suitable spatial and temporal resolutions. Most models are supplied with data by geophysical scientists, such as hydrologists, geologists, atmospheric scientists, soil scientists, and climatologists, among others. Outcomes of a recently-completed project to study the water-energy-food nexus will be explained to illuminate the model and data needs to inform future management actions across the nexus. The project included a workshop of experts from government, business, academia, and the non-profit sector who met to define and explain nexus interactions and needs. An example of the findings is that data inconsistencies among sectors create barriers to integrated planning. A nexus-based systems model is needed to outline sectoral inter-dependencies and identify data demands and gaps. Geophysical scientists can help to create this model and take leadership on designing data systems to facilitate sharing and enable integrated management.

  16. Regime change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong-Sylvester, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Following the 1998 nuclear tests in South Asia and later reinforced by revelations about North Korean and Iraqi nuclear activities, there has been growing concern about increasing proliferation dangers. At the same time, the prospects of radiological/nuclear terrorism are seen to be rising - since 9/11, concern over a proliferation/terrorism nexus has never been higher. In the face of this growing danger, there are urgent calls for stronger measures to strengthen the current international nuclear nonproliferation regime, including recommendations to place civilian processing of weapon-useable material under multinational control. As well, there are calls for entirely new tools, including military options. As proliferation and terrorism concerns grow, the regime is under pressure and there is a temptation to consider fundamental changes to the regime. In this context, this paper will address the following: Do we need to change the regime centered on the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)? What improvements could ensure it will be the foundation for the proliferation resistance and physical protection needed if nuclear power grows? What will make it a viable centerpiece of future nonproliferation and counterterrorism approaches?

  17. Research on the Moderate Scale Operation of Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junying; WEI; Qing; YU

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring food security has always been an important and enduring strategic project. However,the contradiction between a large population and little land,the shortcomings of the household contract responsibility system and the current rapid development of industrialization and urbanization,make problems concerning farming increasingly prominent. To build a new agriculture business entity,the development of agricultural moderate scale operation is imperative. Based on this,this paper analyzes the insecure moderate scale of food and the impact of moderate scale operation of food,and puts forth recommendations for promoting moderate scale operation of food.

  18. Research on bimodal particle extinction coefficient during Brownian coagulation and condensation for the entire particle size regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hong; Lin Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    The extinction coefficient of atmospheric aerosol particles influences the earth’s radiation balance directly or indirectly, and it can be determined by the scattering and absorption characteristics of aerosol particles. The problem of estimating the change of extinction coefficient due to time evolution of bimodal particle size distribution is studied, and two improved methods for calculating the Brownian coagulation coefficient and the condensation growth rate are proposed, respectively. Through the improved method based on Otto kernel, the Brownian coagulation coefficient can be expressed simply in powers of particle volume for the entire particle size regime based on the fitted polynomials of the mean enhancement function. Meanwhile, the improved method based on Fuchs–Sutugin kernel is developed to obtain the condensation growth rate for the entire particle size regime. And then, the change of the overall extinction coefficient of bimodal distributions undergoing Brownian coagulation and condensation can be estimated comprehensively for the entire particle size regime. Simulation experiments indicate that the extinction coefficients obtained with the improved methods coincide fairly well with the true values, which provide a simple, reliable, and general method to estimate the change of extinction coefficient for the entire particle size regime during the bimodal particle dynamic processes.

  19. The Centre for Food Innovation -- Research Areas and Potential Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    barley, and rice  frozen red meat (beef, veal, lamb)  processed foods, particularly baby food, wine and beer  fruit juice UNCLASSIFIED 3...support gut health ( probiotics /prebiotics/bacteriocins), development of snack products (bars, FD fruit, HPP fruit, FD yoghurt etc.), novel ingredients

  20. Food metabolomics: META-PHOR. A new European research initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    There is an ever-growing demand for improved food-stuffs which better meet the needs of both industry and the consumer. With increasing emphasis being placed on health and safety-related aspects of our food, there is also a strong desire to develop new tools to monitor and improve the quality of

  1. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  2. Integrating ergonomic aspects into research and development projects as a preventive strategy in the food industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Posniak; Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    As part of a national research and development programme for food technology it was formulated as a demand to applicants to describe the potential ergonomics impact of the research and development (R&D) projects. As the primary purpose of the research programme was to strengthen the Danish food...

  3. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  4. News from EU Research: SAFE FOODS : Promoting Food Safety through a New, Integrated Risk Analysis Approach for Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnudde, F.

    2005-01-01

    The European food chain is generally considered as one of the safest in the world. Paradoxically, consumers in Europe have little confidence in the safety of their food supply and remain sceptical and distrustful of the institutions and the procedures currently in place. Consumer trust has declined

  5. Retail food environments research: Promising future with more work to be done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-06-09

    As members of the scientific committee for the Food Environments in Canada conference, we reflect on the current state of food environments research in Canada. We are very encouraged that the field is growing and there have been many collaborative efforts to link researchers in Canada, including the 2015 Food Environments in Canada Symposium and Workshop. We believe there are 5 key challenges the field will need to collectively address: theory and causality; replication and extension; consideration of rural, northern and vulnerable populations; policy analysis; and intervention research. In addressing the challenges, we look forward to working together to conduct more sophisticated, complex and community-driven food environments research in the future.

  6. [Research progress on food sources and food web structure of wetlands based on stable isotopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhan Yan; Wu, Hai Tao; Wang, Yun Biao; Lyu, Xian Guo

    2017-07-18

    The trophic dynamics of wetland organisms is the basis of assessing wetland structure and function. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen have been widely applied to identify trophic relationships in food source, food composition and food web transport in wetland ecosystem studies. This paper provided an overall review about the current methodology of isotope mixing model and trophic level in wetland ecosystems, and discussed the standards of trophic fractionation and baseline. Moreover, we characterized the typical food sources and isotopic compositions of wetland ecosystems, summarized the food sources in different trophic levels of herbivores, omnivores and carnivores based on stable isotopic analyses. We also discussed the limitations of stable isotopes in tra-cing food sources and in constructing food webs. Based on the current results, development trends and upcoming requirements, future studies should focus on sample treatment, conservation and trophic enrichment measurement in the wetland food web, as well as on combing a variety of methodologies including traditional stomach stuffing, molecular markers, and multiple isotopes.

  7. MOST SOLD CATEGORIES FOOD SUPPLEMENTS IN BULGARIAN PHARMACIES - RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Petkova1, Kalin Ivanov2, Stanislava Ivanova2*, Stanislav Gueorguiev3, Radiana Staynova3

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate which are the most sold categories food supplements in Bulgarian pharmacies. The survey covers 820 pharmacies across the country. We have found that the leading category of food supplements is “Immune and digestive health” (41.5%). The second place is for the “Bone and joint health” (12.9%). The “Urology” category (consisted mainly by plant extracts) is about 7.9%. Food supplements in the “Urology” category are not only recommended by pharmacists but of...

  8. Food package irradiator-a landmark of operational safety and food irradiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.P.; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Ghosh, Sunil K.

    2017-01-01

    Food irradiation in India has been undertaken for preservation of food for safe consumption, security of food for round the year and export of the food commodities to earn foreign exchange. Therefore, an irradiation plant known as Food Package Irradiator (FPI) was set-up in the year 1967 in BARC. This plant utilizes gamma radiation from "6"0Co source that has a maximum allowable activity of 100 kCi. It is a multipurpose facility where a wide range of products like onion for sprout inhibition to spices for microbial decontamination can be carried out. In short, the design of irradiator has been considered based on obtaining variable throughputs and variable dose rates

  9. Monitoring and analysis of technology transfer and intellectual property regimes and their use results of a study carried out on behalf of the European Commission (DG Research)

    CERN Document Server

    Van Eecke, Patrick; Bolger, P; Truyens, M

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a three-year study commissioned by the European Commission (DG Research) regarding the monitoring, analysis and use of technology transfer and intellectual property regimes in the European Union. This study was organised in the context of the 6th Framework Programme for R&D, and was jointly carried out by law firms Mason Hayes+Curran (Dublin) and DLA Piper (Brussels).

  10. The Research of Food Preservation by Irradiation and Its Industrialization in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok

    1987-01-01

    Since the late 1960s, radiation effects on the storage of potatoes, strawberry, grapes and rice have been investigated on an experimental basis in Korea, Based on the research results of batch scale storage for sprouting food (potatoes, onions, chestnuts) and white ginseng powder by the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and on the recommendation. Food irradiation is a new process that may provide an alternative to existing food processes. From the extensive research in food irradiation for more than three decades by leading international organizations and advanced countries, the efficacy of a number of applications has been established, including sprout inhibition, disinfestation of insects, sterilization, delay of ripening, and improvement of organoleptic properties in food. Owing to the recommendation on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food by the Joint FAO/IAEA/W/o Expert Committee in 1980 and the adaption of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food by the Codex Allurements Commission in 1983, as of May 1985, thirty-two countries have officially approved 227 food items in 73 food groups as safe for human consumption. Food irradiation processing is increasingly recognized as a viable technology for reducing the overall quantity of spoiled food, reducing energy used in food storage, and reducing reliance on chemicals currently used

  11. The construct of food involvement in behavioral research: scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rick; Marshall, David W

    2003-06-01

    The construct of involvement has been found to influence brand loyalty, product information search processing, responses to advertising communications, diffusion of innovations, and ultimately, product choice decisions. Traditionally, involvement has been defined as being a characteristic of either a product or of an individual. In the present research, we make an assumption that an individual's 'food involvement' is a somewhat stable characteristic and we hypothesized that involvement with foods would vary between individuals, that individuals who are more highly involved with food would be better able to discriminate between a set of food samples than would less food involved individuals, and that this discrimination would operate both in affective and perceptive relative judgments. Using standard scale construction techniques, we developed a measure of the characteristic of food involvement, based on activities relating to food acquisition, preparation, cooking, eating and disposal. After several iterations, a final 12-item measure was found to have good test-retest reliability and internal consistency within two subscales. A behavioral validation study demonstrated that measures of food involvement were associated with discrimination and hedonic ratings for a range of foods in a laboratory setting. These findings suggest that food involvement, as measured by the Food Involvement Scale, may be an important mediator to consider when undertaking research with food and food habits.

  12. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eBlechert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc. and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc. are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g, energy density (kcal, and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity are provided. The food-pics image data base is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.

  13. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A; Ohla, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.

  14. Research award: Agriculture and Food Security 2019 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The AFS program works with organizations to intensify and diversify small‐scale ... and social) without adversely impacting societies and the environment. ... loss, rural economic development, improved food and nutrition security, and the ...

  15. Research improves secure access to nutritious food | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-10-07

    Oct 7, 2014 ... ... to increase access to sufficient, safe, nutritious, and affordable food. ... made farming practices more efficient, preserved environments, and brought ... professor Nagib Nassar, whose early work was funded by IDRC.

  16. Inviting ideas: Food systems research for non-communicable

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fdieudonne

    the needs of women and girls in LMICs, encourage consumption of healthy local foods, account for culinary traditions, and ... restaurants)?. Building ... projects solely focused on education, social marketing, and/or individual behaviour change.

  17. Microbiological research and development for the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taormina, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    "This book serves as a primer and reference for industrial food microbiologists who typically gain the information provided through on-the-job experience or from a consultant instead of in the classroom...

  18. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenna Brian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. Methods A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Results Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission's research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. Discussion National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as 'nutrio-genomics', 'individualised' diets, 'functional' foods and 'nutri-pharmaceuticals' appear likely to yield less health benefit, and less return on public investment, than research on population-level interventions

  19. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark; Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Bánáti, Diána; Frewer, Lynn; Hirani, Vasant; Lobstein, Tim; McKenna, Brian; Mulla, Zenab; Rabozzi, Giulia; Sfetcu, Raluca; Newton, Rachel

    2011-09-29

    Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE) is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission's research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as 'nutrio-genomics', 'individualised' diets, 'functional' foods and 'nutri-pharmaceuticals' appear likely to yield less health benefit, and less return on public investment, than research on population-level interventions to influence dietary patterns: for example policies to reduce

  20. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE) is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. Methods A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Results Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission's research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. Discussion National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as 'nutrio-genomics', 'individualised' diets, 'functional' foods and 'nutri-pharmaceuticals' appear likely to yield less health benefit, and less return on public investment, than research on population-level interventions to influence dietary

  1. Research on the Food Security Condition and Food Supply Capacity of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1 model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80% under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.

  2. Research on the food security condition and food supply capacity of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Xiang, Youzhen; Hao, Wenhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2014-01-01

    Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1) model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80%) under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.

  3. CORE Organic country report. Preliminary report on Danish research in organic food and farming

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Information manager Claus Bo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the country report is to present an overview of Danish research in organic food and farming. The overview includes descriptions of History, Organisation , Research programmes, Financing, Research facilities, Initiation of research and stakeholder engagement, Selection criteria and evaluation procedures, Utilisation of research, Scientific education & research schools

  4. Food traceability systems in China: The current status of and future perspectives on food supply chain databases, legal support, and technological research and support for food safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Mei; Lv, Jun; Gai, Ruoyan; Mei, Lin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-02-01

    Over the past few decades, the field of food security has witnessed numerous problems and incidents that have garnered public attention. Given this serious situation, the food traceability system (FTS) has become part of the expanding food safety continuum to reduce the risk of food safety problems. This article reviews a great deal of the related literature and results from previous studies of FTS to corroborate this contention. This article describes the development and benefits of FTS in developed countries like the United States of America (USA), Japan, and some European countries. Problems with existing FTS in China are noted, including a lack of a complete database, inadequate laws and regulations, and lagging technological research into FTS. This article puts forward several suggestions for the future, including improvement of information websites, clarification of regulatory responsibilities, and promotion of technological research.

  5. Experimental research on the relation between food price changes and food-purchasing patterns: a targeted review1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Jankowiak, Noelle; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Raynor, Hollie A; French, Simone A; Finkelstein, Eric

    2012-01-01

    One way in which to modify food purchases is to change prices through tax policy, subsidy policy, or both. We reviewed the growing body of experimental research conducted in the laboratory and in the field that investigates the following: the extent to which price changes influence purchases of targeted and nontargeted foods, total energy, or macronutrients purchased; the interaction of price changes with adjunctive interventions; and moderators of sensitivity to price changes. After a brief overview of economic principles and observational research that addresses these issues, we present a targeted review of experimental research. Experimental research suggests that price changes modify purchases of targeted foods, but research on the overall nutritional quality of purchases is mixed because of substitution effects. There is mixed support for combining price changes with adjunctive interventions, and there are no replicated findings on moderators to price sensitivity in experiments. Additional focused research is needed to better inform food policy development with the aim of improving eating behavior and preventing obesity. PMID:22378726

  6. Experimental research on the relation between food price changes and food-purchasing patterns: a targeted review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Jankowiak, Noelle; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Raynor, Hollie A; French, Simone A; Finkelstein, Eric

    2012-04-01

    One way in which to modify food purchases is to change prices through tax policy, subsidy policy, or both. We reviewed the growing body of experimental research conducted in the laboratory and in the field that investigates the following: the extent to which price changes influence purchases of targeted and nontargeted foods, total energy, or macronutrients purchased; the interaction of price changes with adjunctive interventions; and moderators of sensitivity to price changes. After a brief overview of economic principles and observational research that addresses these issues, we present a targeted review of experimental research. Experimental research suggests that price changes modify purchases of targeted foods, but research on the overall nutritional quality of purchases is mixed because of substitution effects. There is mixed support for combining price changes with adjunctive interventions, and there are no replicated findings on moderators to price sensitivity in experiments. Additional focused research is needed to better inform food policy development with the aim of improving eating behavior and preventing obesity.

  7. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, E; Van Trijp, J C M; Van Den Borne, J J G C; Zondervan, C

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined.

  8. Successful Development of Satiety Enhancing Food Products: Towards a Multidisciplinary Agenda of Research Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, E.; Van Trijp, J.C.M.; Van Den Borne, J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  9. Annual report 1992 of the German Federal Food Research Institute, BFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The 1992 annual report of the BFE explains the tasks and responsibilities of the institution, its organisational structure and manpower, as well as the main research activities or scientific activities performed in cooperation with other institutions. From the wide range of research activities, food irradiation and environmental radioactivity in food are heading the list of tasks performed. (MG) [de

  10. The Evolution of Research in Family and Consumer Sciences: Food, Nutrition, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Eleanor D.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of research on food, nutrition, and health in the Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences and Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal 1985-2000 (n=172) identified four categories: (1) changes in dietary standards and nutrient requirements; (2) public policy and guidance on nutrition; (3) food behavior and nutrition intervention; and…

  11. Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: an interdisciplinary research framework perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

    2013-11-01

    Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Back by Popular Demand: A Narrative Review on the History of Food Addiction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of food addiction has gained more and more popularity. This approach acknowledges the apparent parallels between substance use disorders and overeating of highly palatable, high-caloric foods. Part of this discussion includes that “hyperpalatable” foods may have an addictive potential because of increased potency due to certain nutrients or additives. Although this idea seems to be relatively new, research on food addiction actually encompasses several decades, a fact that often remains unrecognized. Scientific use of the term addiction in reference to chocolate even dates back to the 19th century. In the 20th century, food addiction research underwent several paradigm shifts, which include changing foci on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, obesity, or binge eating disorder. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe the history and state of the art of food addiction research and to demonstrate its development and refinement of definitions and methodologies. PMID:26339213

  13. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...... for discussing the implications of combining multiple perspectives in overall sustainability assessments of the food system. We explored how values were embedded in five research perspectives: (1) food science, (2) discourse analysis, (3) phenomenology, (4) neoclassical welfare economics, and (5) actor......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values...

  14. Back by Popular Demand: A Narrative Review on the History of Food Addiction Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the concept of food addiction has gained more and more popularity. This approach acknowledges the apparent parallels between substance use disorders and overeating of highly palatable, high-caloric foods. Part of this discussion includes that "hyperpalatable" foods may have an addictive potential because of increased potency due to certain nutrients or additives. Although this idea seems to be relatively new, research on food addiction actually encompasses several decades, a fact that often remains unrecognized. Scientific use of the term addiction in reference to chocolate even dates back to the 19th century. In the 20th century, food addiction research underwent several paradigm shifts, which include changing foci on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, obesity, or binge eating disorder. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe the history and state of the art of food addiction research and to demonstrate its development and refinement of definitions and methodologies.

  15. Market research and plan for Chinese fast-food restaurant start-up

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Tianhao

    2017-01-01

    CENTRIA UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Market research and plan for Chinese fast-food restaurant start-up Instructor Due to the popularity of fast-food services in the Helsinki region, this thesis studies the possibility to find out the market opportunities for Chinese traditional fast-food business. Most of the fast-food restaurants opened are according to European flavor, so there is almost a void for Chinese fast-food to fill in, plus the Helsinki region is an area of ...

  16. Operation of the RA research nuclear reactor under forced regime; Rad istrazivackog nuklearnog reaktora RA u forsiranom rezimu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, S [Institut za nuklearne nauke Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1964-07-01

    Ra reactor was designed for operation at nominal power of 6.5 MW and under forced regime. From the start of operation in 1959 until the general refurbishment in 1963 it was not operated under forced regime. At reactor power of 10 MW the mean thermal neutron flux increases from 3 to 4.6 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, the maximum neutron flux increases from 6 to 9.3 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, and at the exit of the experimental channel it increases from 5 to 7.7 10{sup 9} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. In order to achieve safer and more suitable operating conditions, winter period of 1963 was chosen for the first increase of reactor power level, because of low temperatures in the secondary coolant loop. This paper contains the most relevant data concerned with the reactor operation at increased power.

  17. Incorporating a gender dimension in food allergy research: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J.O.B.; Frewer, L.J.; Knibb, R.C.; Oude Elberink, J.N.G.; Klinge, I.

    2006-01-01

    Sex and gender are the major determinants of health and disease in both men and women. The aim of this review paper was to examine differences in gender and sex in relation to the prevalence and effects of food allergy. There are still major gaps in our knowledge about the kinds of processes which

  18. Fish for food | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... Bolivia has the lowest per-capita consumption of fish among South American nations, but that could soon change. Members the Amazon Fish for Food project are working to encourage the sustainable use of the country's fish resources through fishing and aquaculture. This article is part of an ongoing series ...

  19. Assessing mobile food vendors (a.k.a. street food vendors)--methods, challenges, and lessons learned for future food-environment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, S C; Varona, M; Maroko, A R; Bumol, J; Torrens, L; Wylie-Rosett, J

    2013-08-01

    Mobile food vendors (also known as street food vendors) may be important sources of food, particularly in minority and low-income communities. Unfortunately, there are no good data sources on where, when, or what vendors sell. The lack of a published assessment method may contribute to the relative exclusion of mobile food vendors from existing food-environment research. A goal of this study was to develop, pilot, and refine a method to assess mobile food vendors. Cross-sectional assessment of mobile food vendors through direct observations and brief interviews. Using printed maps, investigators canvassed all streets in Bronx County, NY (excluding highways but including entrance and exit ramps) in 2010, looking for mobile food vendors. For each vendor identified, researchers recorded a unique identifier, the vendor's location, and direct observations. Investigators also recorded vendors answers to where, when, and what they sold. Of 372 identified vendors, 38% did not answer brief-interview questions (19% were 'in transit', 15% refused; others were absent from their carts/trucks/stands or with customers). About 7% of vendors who ultimately answered questions were reluctant to engage with researchers. Some vendors expressed concerns about regulatory authority; only 34% of vendors had visible permits or licenses and many vendors had improvised illegitimate-appearing set-ups. The majority of vendors (75% of those responding) felt most comfortable speaking Spanish; 5% preferred other non-English languages. Nearly a third of vendors changed selling locations (streets, neighbourhoods, boroughs) day-to-day or even within a given day. There was considerable variability in times (hours, days, months) in which vendors reported doing business; for 86% of vendors, weather was a deciding factor. Mobile food vendors have a variable and fluid presence in an urban environment. Variability in hours and locations, having most comfort with languages other than English, and reluctance

  20. Assessing mobile food vendors (a.k.a. street food vendors)—methods, challenges, and lessons learned for future food-environment research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C.; Varona, Monica; Maroko, Andrew R.; Bumol, Joel; Torrens, Luis; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Mobile food vendors (also known as street food vendors) may be important sources of food, particularly in minority and low-income communities. Unfortunately, there are no good data sources on where, when, or what vendors sell. The lack of a published assessment method may contribute to the relative exclusion of mobile food vendors from existing food-environment research. A goal of this study was to develop, pilot, and troubleshoot a method to assess mobile food vendors. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional assessment of mobile food vendors through direct observations and brief interviews. METHODS Using printed maps, investigators canvassed all streets in Bronx County, NY (excluding highways but including entrance and exit ramps) in 2010, looking for mobile food vendors. For each vendor identified, researchers recorded a unique identifier, the vendor’s location, and direct observations. Investigators also recorded vendors answers to where, when, and what they sold. RESULTS Of 372 identified vendors, 38% did not answer brief-interview questions (19% were “in transit”, 15% refused; others were absent from their carts/trucks/stands or with customers). About 7% of vendors who ultimately answered questions were reluctant to engage with researchers. Some vendors expressed concerns about regulatory authority; only 34% of vendors had visible permits or licenses and many vendors had improvised illegitimate-appearing set-ups. The majority of vendors (75% of those responding) felt most comfortable speaking Spanish; 5% preferred other non-English languages. Nearly a third of vendors changed selling locations (streets, neighborhoods, boroughs) day-to-day or even within a given day. There was considerable variability in times (hours, days, months) in which vendors reported doing business; for 86% of vendors, weather was a deciding factor. CONCLUSIONS Mobile food vendors have a variable and fluid presence in an urban environment. Variability in hours and locations, having

  1. Food Allergy Educational Needs of Pediatric Dietitians: A Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetch, Marion E.; Christie, Lynn; Vargas, Perla A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine pediatric dietitians' self-reported proficiency, educational needs, and preferences regarding food allergy (FA) management. Design and Setting: An Internet-based, anonymous survey was distributed to the Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group (PNPG) of the American Dietetic Association. Participants: Respondents (n = 311) were…

  2. The Researches on Food Traceability System of University takeout

    Science.gov (United States)

    lu, Jia xin; zhao, Ce; li, Zhuang zhuang; shao, Zi rong; pi, Kun yi

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, campus takeaway has developed rapidly, and all kinds of online ordering platforms are running. The problem of distribution in the campus can not only save the time cost of the businessmen, but also guarantee the effective management of the school, which is beneficial to the construction of the standard health system for the takeout. But distribution according to the existing mode will cause certain safety and health risks. The establishment of the University takeaway food traceability system can solve this problem. This paper first analyzes the sharing mode and distribution process of campus takeaway, and then designs the intelligent tracing system for the campus takeaway; the construction of the food distribution information platform and the problem of the recycling of the green environment of the dining box. Finally, the intelligent tracing system of the school takeout is analyzed with the braised chicken as an example.

  3. The Researches on Food Traceability System of University takeout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lu Jia xin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, campus takeaway has developed rapidly, and all kinds of online ordering platforms are running. The problem of distribution in the campus can not only save the time cost of the businessmen, but also guarantee the effective management of the school, which is beneficial to the construction of the standard health system for the takeout. But distribution according to the existing mode will cause certain safety and health risks. The establishment of the University takeaway food traceability system can solve this problem. This paper first analyzes the sharing mode and distribution process of campus takeaway, and then designs the intelligent tracing system for the campus takeaway; the construction of the food distribution information platform and the problem of the recycling of the green environment of the dining box. Finally, the intelligent tracing system of the school takeout is analyzed with the braised chicken as an example.

  4. Nutritional implications of organic conversion in large scale food service preliminary results from Core Organic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; He, Chen

    food coordinators in public schools in Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Italy. A questionnaire was adapted to fit the different languages and food cultures in the countries.. The data suggest that schools with organic supply tend to develop organisational environments that a more supportive for healthy......The discussion about nutritional advantages of organic consumption has traditionally focused on the properties of the food it self. Studies have shown however that change of consumption patterns towards organic food seems to induce changed dietary patterns. The current research was a part of the i......POPY study and was conducted to investigate if such changes can be found in school food settings. In other words does organic food schemes at school and related curricular activities help to create environments that are supportive for healthier eating among children? The research was carried out among school...

  5. Research on the Food Green Packaging Under the Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Qiang; Zhou Min

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid growth in economy and the constant development in people living standard, packaging has become an indispensable part to human activities. However, the ways and materials popular used for packaging currently have been making a great deal of recourse waste and serious pollution to the environments. From the existing problems in food packaging, the study has put forward the necessity of green packaging under the idea of sustainable development and discussed the approach of green f...

  6. Research and Development on Food Nutrition Statistical Analysis Software System

    OpenAIRE

    Du Li; Ke Yun

    2013-01-01

    Designing and developing a set of food nutrition component statistical analysis software can realize the automation of nutrition calculation, improve the nutrition processional professional’s working efficiency and achieve the informatization of the nutrition propaganda and education. In the software development process, the software engineering method and database technology are used to calculate the human daily nutritional intake and the intelligent system is used to evaluate the user’s hea...

  7. Food Quality Certificates and Research on Effect of Food Quality Certificates to Determinate Ignored Level of Buying Behavioral: A Case Study in Hitit University Feas Business Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya CAGIRAN KENDIRLI

    2014-12-01

    According to result of research, there is no relationship between demographic specialties of students and ignored of food and quality legislation. But there is relationship between sexuality and ignored of food and quality legislation.

  8. Research Investments and Market Structure in the Food Processing, Agricultural Input, and Biofuel Industries Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglie, Keith O.; Heisey, Paul W.; King, John L.; Day-Rubenstein, Kelly A.; Schimmelpfennig, David E.; Wang, Sun Ling

    2011-01-01

    Meeting growing global demand for food, fiber, and biofuel requires robust investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) from both public and private sectors. This study examines global R&D spending by private industry in seven agricultural input sectors, food manufacturing, and biofuel and describes the changing structure of these industries. In 2007 (the latest year for which comprehensive estimates are available), the private sector spent $19.7 billion on food and agricultural ...

  9. The International Food Policy Research Institute: Sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Food Policy Research Institute(IFPRI) mainly works for sustainable food security and end of world hunger. The vision of this organization is to make the world free from hunger and malnutrition and where food policy decisions are transparent with participation of consumers and producers. This organization operates in five different regions including North Africa and Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Central Asia, East Asia and Southeast A...

  10. Retail food environments in Canada: Maximizing the impact of research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M

    2016-06-09

    Retail food environments are gaining national and international attention as important determinants of population dietary intake. Communities across Canada are beginning to discuss and implement programs and policies to create supportive retail food environments. Three considerations should drive the selection of food environment assessment methods: relevance (What is the problem, and how is it related to dietary outcomes?); resources (What human, time and financial resources are required to undertake an assessment?); and response (How will policy-makers find meaning out of and act on the information gained through the food environment assessment?). Ultimately, food environment assessments should be conducted in the context of stakeholder buy-in and multi-sectoral partnerships, since food environment solutions require multi-sectoral action. Partnerships between public health actors and the food and beverage industry can be challenging, especially when mandates are not aligned. Clarifying the motivations, expectations and roles of all stakeholders takes time but is important if the impact of food environment research, policy and practice is to be maximized. The articles contained in this special supplementary issue describe ongoing food environments research across Canada and fill some of the important gaps in the current body of Canadian food environments literature.

  11. Conceptualising Food Research in Higher Education as a Matter of Social Justice: Philosophical, Methodological and Ethical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Whitehead, Yasmine

    2017-01-01

    Globally, food concerns in higher education have emerged as an issue of critical importance. Food acquisition struggles and high rates of food insecurity among students have been documented, yet food within higher education continues to be an under-researched area of study. This paper calls for advancing research that critically engages with food…

  12. Using gender research in development: food security in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Quisumbing, Agnes R.; McClafferty, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record This guide presents research from several countries in IFPRI's research program on gender and intrahousehold relations, using quantitative and qualitative methods. It examines the implications of these issues in the success of development initiatives and suggestions for integrating gender research in projects and policy. The guide is divided into the following sections: the importance of using gender and intrahousehold research to inform projects and policies; gender a...

  13. Identifying research advancements in supply chain risk management for Agri-food Industries: Literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, W.; Astuti, P.

    2017-12-01

    Agri-food supply chain has different characteristics related to the raw materials it uses. Food supply chain has a high risk of damage, thus drawing a lot of attention from researchers in supply chain management. This research aimed to investigate the development of supply chain risk management research on agri-food industries. These reviews were arranged in steps systematically, ranging from searching related to the review of SCRM paper, reviewing the general framework of SCRM and the framework of agri-food SCRM. Selection of literature review papers in the period 2005-2017, and obtained 45 papers. The results of the identification research were illustrated in a supply chain risk management framework model. This provided insight toward future research directions and needs.

  14. Research perspectives overview at DBNRRC to maintain sustainable food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research issues that the Dale Bumpers National Rice Research Center (DBNRRC) is addressing for the rice industry and research community are 1) changing rice production practices, 2) diminishing irrigation resources, 3) loss of export markets due to poor quality, 4) emerging high value specialty...

  15. A View of Oral Communication Activities in Food Science from the Perspective of a Communication Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrchota, Denise Ann

    2015-01-01

    Food science researchers have pronounced the Institute of Food Technologists Success Skills to be the most important competency mastered by graduates entering the work force. Much of the content and outcomes of the Success Skills pertains to oral communication skills of public speaking and interpersonal and group communication. This qualitative…

  16. Food-related lifestyles in Singapore: Testing a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye

    The food-realaed life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up till now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and different cultural setting, to compare results, a...

  17. Selected finelings on current research into applications of ionizing radiation in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkova, Z.

    1979-01-01

    A review is presented of research of the application of ionizing radiation in the food industry, mainly for the inhibition of potato and onion germination and for radappertization of soft fruits. Current laws governing the irradiation of food are described and the current knowledge of the practical application of the new technology is indicated. (author)

  18. A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Parry-Smith, David J; O'Connor, Laura; Khawaja, Anthony P; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-03-27

    To describe the research methods for the development of a new open source, cross-platform tool which processes data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk Food Frequency Questionnaire (EPIC-Norfolk FFQ). A further aim was to compare nutrient and food group values derived from the current tool (FETA, FFQ EPIC Tool for Analysis) with the previously validated but less accessible tool, CAFÉ (Compositional Analyses from Frequency Estimates). The effect of text matching on intake data was also investigated. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study-EPIC-Norfolk. East England population (city of Norwich and its surrounding small towns and rural areas). Complete FFQ data from 11 250 men and 13 602 women (mean age 59 years; range 40-79 years). Nutrient and food group intakes derived from FETA and CAFÉ analyses of EPIC-Norfolk FFQ data. Nutrient outputs from FETA and CAFÉ were similar; mean (SD) energy intake from FETA was 9222 kJ (2633) in men, 8113 kJ (2296) in women, compared with CAFÉ intakes of 9175 kJ (2630) in men, 8091 kJ (2298) in women. The majority of differences resulted in one or less quintile change (98.7%). Only mean daily fruit and vegetable food group intakes were higher in women than in men (278 vs 212 and 284 vs 255 g, respectively). Quintile changes were evident for all nutrients, with the exception of alcohol, when text matching was not executed; however, only the cereals food group was affected. FETA produces similar nutrient and food group values to the previously validated CAFÉ but has the advantages of being open source, cross-platform and complete with a data-entry form directly compatible with the software. The tool will facilitate research using the EPIC-Norfolk FFQ, and can be customised for different study populations.

  19. Innovation Systems Research in the Italian Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ornella Wanda Maietta

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to determine the role that R&D networking, through the collaboration of firms with universities, plays among the determinants of product and process innovation in the Italian food and drink industry and how geographical proximity to a university affects both R&D university-industry collaboration and innovation. The data are sourced from the 7th (1995-1997), 8th (1998-2000), 9th (2001-2003) and 10th (2004-2006) waves of Capitalia survey data. The approach is a tri...

  20. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  1. Research activities on supercritical fluid science in food biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush

    2010-06-01

    This article serves as an overview, introducing the currently popular area of supercritical fluids and their uses in food biotechnology. Within each application, and wherever possible, the basic principles of the technique, as well as a description of the history, instrumentation, methodology, uses, problems encountered, and advantages over the traditional, non-supercritical methods are given. Most current commercial application of the supercritical extraction involve biologically-produced materials; the technique may be particularly relevant to the extraction of biological compounds in cases where there is a requirement for low-temperature processing, high mass-transfer rates, and negligible carrying over of the solvent into the final product. Special applications to food processing include the decaffeination of green coffee beans, the production of hops extracts, the recovery of aromas and flavors from herbs and spices, the extraction and fractionation of edible oils, and the removal of contaminants, among others. New advances, in which the extraction is combined with reaction or crystallization steps, may further increase the attractiveness of supercritical fluids in the bioprocess industries. To develop and establish a novel and effective alternative to heating treatment, the lethal action of high hydrostatic pressure CO(2) on microorganisms, with none or only a minimal heating process, has recently received a great deal of attention.

  2. PLM in the Food Industry: An Explorative Empirical Research in the Italian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna , Claudia; Taisch , Marco; Terzi , Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Part 5: PLM and Innovation; International audience; The Food and Beverage (F&B) industry has a unique role in all countries’ economies because it is essential to people lives. In this paper, the focus will be on the Italian food industry, one of the main food producer. This study will present the first results of a wider research that has as main aim to understand how PLM is adopted in the food industry, its limits and its challenges. Indeed, the first results show the level of knowledge of P...

  3. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Bargh, John A

    2009-12-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence.

  4. Appropriateness of the food-pics image database for experimental eating and appetite research with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Barnett, Kimberly A; Stevens, Kimberly S

    2016-12-01

    Research examining effects of visual food cues on appetite-related brain processes and eating behavior has proliferated. Recently investigators have developed food image databases for use across experimental studies examining appetite and eating behavior. The food-pics image database represents a standardized, freely available image library originally validated in a large sample primarily comprised of adults. The suitability of the images for use with adolescents has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the appropriateness of the food-pics image library for appetite and eating research with adolescents. Three hundred and seven adolescents (ages 12-17) provided ratings of recognizability, palatability, and desire to eat, for images from the food-pics database. Moreover, participants rated the caloric content (high vs. low) and healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy) of each image. Adolescents rated approximately 75% of the food images as recognizable. Approximately 65% of recognizable images were correctly categorized as high vs. low calorie and 63% were correctly classified as healthy vs. unhealthy in 80% or more of image ratings. These results suggest that a smaller subset of the food-pics image database is appropriate for use with adolescents. With some modifications to included images, the food-pics image database appears to be appropriate for use in experimental appetite and eating-related research conducted with adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. International firms in Africa’s food retail business-emerging issues and research agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu; Kuada, John

    2016-01-01

    /methodology/approach – This paper is comprised of a comprehensive review of the literature and integrates the fragmented body of knowledge on the area of retail internationalisation and food marketing. The gaps in the literature identified here may help to understand the sector better and develop academic research agendas on both......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of the retail sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, to point out the lack of information on some critical issues and to raise some questions about relevant topics for researchers and practitioners in the retail area for the African market. Design...... the growth of the modern food retail sector and the agribusiness sector in Africa. Findings – Four major topics were identified in the urban agri-food retail business in the African continent: large global retailers in Africa’s food sector; the internationalisation of African food retailers; the procurement...

  6. Research on Demand Prediction of Fresh Food Supply Chain Based on Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    He Wang

    2015-01-01

    Demand prediction of supply chain is an important content and the first premise in supply management of different enterprises and has become one of the difficulties and hot research fields for the researchers related. The paper takes fresh food demand prediction for example and presents a new algorithm for predicting demand of fresh food supply chain. First, the working principle and the root causes of the defects of particle swarm optimization algorithm are analyzed in the study; Second, the...

  7. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  8. 21 CFR 20.105 - Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing and research conducted by or with funds... Categories of Records § 20.105 Testing and research conducted by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration. (a) Any list that may be prepared by the Food and Drug Administration of testing and research...

  9. Food and wine pairing: A new approach | Klosse | Research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in Hospitality Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Food Insecurity in Nigeria: Way Forward | Otaha | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 4 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Research to support development of organic food and farming

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Christine; Alrøe, Hugo; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture and organic agriculture in particular are developing rapidly, due not only to technological change but also to changes in agricultural policy and public expectation. Research allows new knowledge to be developed and is thus vital for the future of organic agriculture. We can ask the question, what is the purpose of research on organic farming? Is it to increase yield and productivity, to compare it with other forms of agriculture, or to quantify its environmental and social impact...

  12. The food industry and conflicts of interest in nutrition research: A Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Nestle, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Conflicts of interest arise when corporations marketing harmful products establish financial relationships with research institutions, researchers, or public health organizations. As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, such relationships threaten to jeopardize the integrity of scientific research. Latin America, a region undergoing rapid development, is particularly vulnerable to such conflicts. Here, we provide examples of how food and beverage companies are funding nutrition-focused research and institutions in Latin America, putting their credibility at risk. Public health organizations and institutions should take measures to identify, manage, and limit (or eliminate) conflicts of interest caused by partnerships with food companies making and marketing unhealthful products.

  13. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. The potential application of European market research data in dietary exposure modelling of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David Robin; Bruyninckx, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Consumer exposure assessments for food additives are incomplete without information about the proportions of foods in each authorised category that contain the additive. Such information has been difficult to obtain but the Mintel Global New Products Database (GNPD) provides information about product launches across Europe over the past 20 years. These data can be searched to identify products with specific additives listed on product labels and the numbers compared with total product launches for food and drink categories in the same database to determine the frequency of occurrence. There are uncertainties associated with the data but these can be managed by adopting a cautious and conservative approach. GNPD data can be mapped with authorised food categories and with food descriptions used in the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Surveys Database for exposure modelling. The data, when presented as percent occurrence, could be incorporated into the EFSA ANS Panel's 'brand-loyal/non-brand loyal exposure model in a quantitative way. Case studies of preservative, antioxidant, colour and sweetener additives showed that the impact of including occurrence data is greatest in the non-brand loyal scenario. Recommendations for future research include identifying occurrence data for alcoholic beverages, linking regulatory food codes, FoodEx and GNPD product descriptions, developing the use of occurrence data for carry-over foods and improving understanding of brand loyalty in consumer exposure models.

  15. 78 FR 55728 - Society of Clinical Research Associates-Food and Drug Administration: Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ...) Modernizing FDA's Clinical Trials/BIMO Programs; (3) What FDA Expects in a Pharmaceutical Clinical Trial; (4) Medical Device Aspects of Clinical Research; (5) Adverse Event Reporting--Science, Regulation, Error, and...

  16. Results of wholesomeness test on basic plan of research and development of food irradiation (7 items)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Tsuyoshi

    1989-01-01

    Twenty years have elapsed since the general research on food irradiation was begun in Japan as the new technology for food preservation, and the research on the wholesomeness of irradiated foods has been carried out in wide range together with the research on irradiation effect, irradiation techniques and economical efficiency. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods includes chronic toxicity including carcinogenic property in the continuous intake for long period, the effect to reproduction function over many generations and the possibility of giving hereditary injury to cells, the nutritional adequacy required for the sustenance of life and the increase of health, and microbiological safety. In Japan, the research on food irradiation was designated as an atomic energy specific general research, and as the objects of research, potato and onion for the prevention of germination, rice and wheat for the protection from noxious insects, fish paste products, wienerwurst and mandarin orange for sterilization were selected. For the irradiation, Co-60 gamma ray was used except the case of mandarin orange using electron beam. The research on all 7 items was finished, and the irradiation of potato was permitted. (K.I.)

  17. Shared voices, different worlds: Process and product in the Food Dignity action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Porter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of perspective makes for greater depth when painting a portrait of community life. But embracing the idea of representing true diversity in a formal research project is a whole lot easier than putting it into practice. The three dozen members of the Food Dignity action research team, now entering the fourth year of a five-year project, are intimately familiar with this challenge. In this article, four of the collaborators explore the intricacies of navigating what it means to bring together a genuine cross-section of community-based activists and academics in an effort to draw on one another’s professional and personal strengths to collect and disseminate research findings that represent the truth of a community’s experiences, and are ultimately disseminated in a way that brings tangible benefit to the heart and soul of that community. The authors include Food Dignity’s principal investigator (Porter and three community organisers (Marshall, Herrera and Woodsum in organisations that have partnered with Food Dignity. Two of the organisers (Herrera and Woodsum also serve project-wide roles. These collaborators share their personal and professional hopes, struggles, concerns, successes and failures as participants in this cutting-edge effort to equalise community and university partnerships in research. Keywords: community-based participatory research (CBPR, food justice, equitable community-campus partnerships, food sovereignty, case study, action research

  18. Combination processes for food irradiation. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing consumer demand for food that is safe, minimally processed, visually attractive, full flavoured, nutritious, and convenient to prepare and serve, that has fewer preservatives, and that is available throughout the year at an affordable cost. Consumer concern and regulatory restrictions on the use of preservatives and pesticides in food are adversely affecting international trade in many food products. As a result, minimally processed, chilled foods and ready to eat foods are increasingly being marketed to satisfy consumer demand in both developed and developing countries. However, such foods could introduce new microbiological risks to the population, especially to those who are immunocompromised or generally at risk (children, pregnant women, the elderly, etc.). In view of these factors, a 5 year Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Irradiation in Combination with Other Processes for Improving Food Quality was initiated in 1991 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency through their Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The objectives of this CRP were to evaluate: 1) Combination treatment involving irradiation in order to extend the self-life of meat, seafood, fruits and vegetables at refrigeration temperatures and under ambient conditions; 2) Combination treatment involving irradiation in order to ensure the microbiological safety of foods, both individual and composite, including prepared meals; 3) Shelf-life extension of chilled, prepared meals and the development of shelf stable food and food components through combination treatment involving irradiation; 4) Energy requirements of combination processes involving irradiation in comparison to other food processes. Scientists from 14 countries participated in the CRP by carrying out the work under Research Contracts and Agreements with the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The first Research Co

  19. Research priorities for coordinating management of food safety and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn, David M; Bianchi, Mary L

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to exclude disease organisms from farms growing irrigated lettuce and leafy vegetables on California's central coast are conflicting with traditionally accepted strategies to protect surface water quality. To begin resolving this dilemma, over 100 officials, researchers, and industry representatives gathered in April 2007 to set research priorities that could lead to effective co-management of both food safety and water quality. Following the meeting, research priorities were refined and ordered by way of a Delphi process completed by 35 meeting participants. Although water quality and food safety experts conceptualized the issues differently, there were no deep disagreements with respect to research needs. Top priority was given to investigating the fate of pathogens potentially present on farms. Intermediate priorities included characterizing the influence of specific farm management practices on food safety and improving our understanding of vector processes. A scientific subdiscipline focusing on competing risks is needed to characterize and resolve conflicts between human and environmental health.

  20. Food-related life styles in Singapore: Testing a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen; Crippen, Kaye

    The food-related life style instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up til now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare results......, and to interpret similarities and differences found. For this purpose, data have been collected in Singaporean families using the food-related life style instrument. A total of 89 questionnaires form the basis of the analysis. First, the cross-cultural validity of the instrument is tested, and secondly...

  1. Protecting Young People From Junk Food Advertising: Implications of Psychological Research for First Amendment Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Graff, Samantha K.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. PMID:22390435

  2. Protecting young people from junk food advertising: implications of psychological research for First Amendment law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2012-02-01

    In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSpeakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  4. The role of research in global food and nutrition security - Discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischler, F.; Wilkinson, D.; Benton, T.; Daniel, H.; Darcy-Vrillon, B.; Hedlund, K.; Heffernan, P.; Kok, E.J.; Saarela, M.; Jakubczyk, E.; Sorlini, C.; Swinnen, J.; Braun, von J.; Ash, K.; Rojas Briales, E.; Buckwell, A.; Frewen, M.; Karlsson, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present discussion document gives an overview of where European research can add the most value in relation to tackling food and nutrition security challenges and points to areas where we can expand our research potential. Moreover, it highlights the need to develop a governance structure that

  5. Review of scientific Research results in identification of plant raw materials in food products

    OpenAIRE

    GOLUBTSOVA YU. V.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the science-based capabilities have been generated to develop and test various identification methods of food products and reveal adulteration using advanced technique and processes. This article reviews researches and developments to identify the plant raw materials in food products based on morphological, anatomic, physical and chemical test methods and the latest DNA-technologies. Review of physical, chemical, anatomic and morphological test methods to identify raw materials bot...

  6. Fundamental constructs in food parenting practices: a content map to guide future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Amber E; Ward, Dianne S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Faith, Myles S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Kremers, Stef P J; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R; O'Connor, Teresia M; Patrick, Heather; Power, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    Although research shows that "food parenting practices" can impact children's diet and eating habits, current understanding of the impact of specific practices has been limited by inconsistencies in terminology and definitions. This article represents a critical appraisal of food parenting practices, including clear terminology and definitions, by a working group of content experts. The result of this effort was the development of a content map for future research that presents 3 overarching, higher-order food parenting constructs--coercive control, structure, and autonomy support--as well as specific practice subconstructs. Coercive control includes restriction, pressure to eat, threats and bribes, and using food to control negative emotions. Structure includes rules and limits, limited/guided choices, monitoring, meal- and snacktime routines, modeling, food availability and accessibility, food preparation, and unstructured practices. Autonomy support includes nutrition education, child involvement, encouragement, praise, reasoning, and negotiation. Literature on each construct is reviewed, and directions for future research are offered. Clear terminology and definitions should facilitate cross-study comparisons and minimize conflicting findings resulting from previous discrepancies in construct operationalization. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Paoletti, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed...... with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles...

  8. The evolution of the role of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute in the national nuclear and radiation safety regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), formerly the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) was created by law in 1958 with a dual mandate namely, to promote the peaceful applications of nuclear energy, and to regulate the safe utilization of nuclear energy. Through its almost 50 years of existence, the PNRI has assumed different roles and functions. As the premier national nuclear research institution the PNRI initiates R and D work in various applications, establishes nuclear and radiation facilities, and undertakes human resource development not only for its staff but also for the prospective users of nuclear energy. At the same time, the PNRI exercises regulatory control over radioactive materials in the country including the regulatory control over the construction of the first Philippine nuclear power plant in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Presently, the PNRI still exercises the dual mandate of promoting and regulating the peaceful and safe use of radioactive materials. In these evolving roles of the Institute, both management and the staff are committed to excellence in nuclear science and to nuclear safety. Initiatives are underway to create a separate nuclear regulatory body from the developmental agency to enable the country to conform with international safety standards and to prepare for the future re-introduction of nuclear power in the Philippine energy mix. A strong regulatory agency and an equally strong technical and scientific support organization are necessary for a successful and safe nuclear energy program. (author)

  9. Impact of Research on Development in Cameroon: convergence between supply and research needs in the food sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkoua, J.R.; Temple, L.

    2016-07-01

    The study analyse the convergence of research priorities to development issues especially from the agricultural and food sector in terms of environmental protection and improvement of the business climate, due to weak institutional interconnection devices. Two types of data are used: bibliometric data and a survey of enterprises. Altogether, 1214 and 1708 bibliographic references were generated from WoS and Scopus respectively (from a total of 9146 and 10 557 publications) in Agriculture, Food and Environment for the period 1991- 2015 subject to the condition that the author or at least one of the authors is affiliated to an institution based in Cameroon. A total of 317 agro-food companies were identified from the National Institute enterprise’s census. The overall message is a relative weak convergence between development priorities identified from perceptions over agricultural and food companies and research works expressed in the scientific literature. This reflects the weak link between research institutions (universities, research centers) and professional milieus that shape entrepreneurship (firms, policy makers) for guidance of scientific production. (Author)

  10. From chemicals to cold plasma: Non-thermal food processing technologies research at the USDA's Eastern Regional Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens cause millions of illnesses every year. At the US Department of Agriculture’s Eastern Regional Research Center, scientists and engineers have focused on developing new ways to improve food safety and shelf life while retaining quality and nutritional value. A variety of technolog...

  11. Risky rays for an improved food supply? National and transnational food irradiation research as a cold war recipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    This paper has dealt with an innovation that first emerged as a radiation-employing experimental system roughly by the 1930s. Within the context of World War II and especially in the first decade of the Cold War, protagonists of the nuclear establishment (the military, governmental officials such as representatives of US Atomic Energy Commissions and other national agencies, science managers, researchers, and others) became interested in these experimental systems and their elements - e.g., radioisotopes or ionizing rays that were used to explore processes of life - not primarily in their capacity to produce new ways of knowing, but because of their potential to yield new ways of doing. Therefore, these protagonists pushed the experimental systems into the world outside the laboratory at an early stage of their development. What at first emerged out of scientific curiosity to learn how ionizing rays would influence living matter was quickly employed to serve political purposes under the circumstances of the Cold War. This happened when, e.g., ionizing rays of such radiation employing experimental systems were applied to agriculture and food in order to prove that the atom could be put to peaceful use. Such applications of methods and techniques from experimental systems developed into powerful hybrids of science, technology and politics that decisively determined the global distribution of knowledge and control in and beyond the Cold War era. These hybrids still exist, even though the Cold War ended two decades ago. They exist as projects to introduce high-dose irradiation to ready-made food in order to serve the need of food industries and food retailers to increase turnover and profits. So far, only attentive representatives of consumers have challenged these projects via the mobilization of counter-expertise to the food-safety promises of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The fight over the safety of irradiated food, ironically

  12. Toward Food System Sustainability through School Food System Change: Think&EatGreen@School and the Making of a Community-University Research Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Harlap

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the theoretical and conceptual framework and the research and practice model of Think&EatGreen@School, a community-based action research project aiming to foster food citizenship in the City of Vancouver and to develop a model of sustainable institutional food systems in public schools. The authors argue that educational and policy interventions at the school and school board level can drive the goals of food system sustainability, food security, and food sovereignty. The complex relationship between food systems, climate change and environmental degradation require that international initiatives promoting sustainability be vigorously complemented by local multi-stakeholder efforts to preserve or restore the capacity to produce food in a durable manner. As a step towards making the City of Vancouver green, we are currently involved in attempts to transform the food system of the local schools by mobilizing the energy of a transdisciplinary research team of twelve university researchers, over 300 undergraduate and graduate students, and twenty community-based researchers and organizations working on food, public health, environmental and sustainability education.

  13. A new framework for the documentation and interpretation of oral food challenges in population-based and clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabenhenrich, L. B.; Reich, Andreas; Bellach, J.; Trendelenburg, V.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Roberts, G.; Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Sigurdardottir, S; Kowalski, M. L.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Quirce, S.; Dubakiene, R.; Niggemann, B.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; van Ree, R.; Schnadt, S.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Keil, T.; Beyer, K.

    Background: The conduct of oral food challenges as the preferred diagnostic standard for food allergy (FA) was harmonized over the last years. However, documentation and interpretation of challenge results, particularly in research settings, are not sufficiently standardized to allow valid

  14. Ethics, sustainability and logistics in agricultural and agri-food economics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pulina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the changes osberved in the agri-food system with the advent of logistical management of the flow of goods and information along the food supply chain. Agri-food functions and responsibilities towards society are also analyzed. This field of research has been widely explored in recent years following the development of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR certification in agri-business. The analysis starts by examining the coherence of the ethical basis of human choices in a homo oeconomicus framework in which social relationships are merely exploitable activities. CSR development is then studied in the light of the new stakeholder theory for firms. The main fields of economic research into sustainable development and the most important goals achieved are examined and the methodological perspectives of agricultural economics research will also be discussed.

  15. IRANIAN AND TURKISH FOOD CULTURES: A COMPARISON THROUGH THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN TERMS OF PREPARATION, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Avcıoğlu, Gamze Gizem; Avcıoğlu, Gürcan Şevket

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a comparative sociological analysis of Iranian and Turkish food cultures in terms of food preparation, distribution and consumption. Moreover, contribution is intended to be made to the field of applied food sociology. The research design carries features of a qualitative research. Of the qualitative research techniques, observation and interview form were used in the study. Research findings were obtained through observations made in Tehran, the capital c...

  16. Developing a framework of gastronomic systems research to unravel drivers of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Rosa Paula; de Guia, Annalyn; Demont, Matty

    2017-10-01

    Nutritional and dietary interventions and the introduction of novel food products and ingredients require a thorough understanding of the drivers of food choice, which are embedded in local context and culture. We developed a framework of "gastronomic systems research" (GSR) to understand culture-specific consumer food choice, and contextualise it to a target population of urban, middle- to high-income Filipino consumers to assess the domestic niche market potential of traditional rice varieties in the Philippines. The GSR framework was contextualised through expert elicitation involving chefs and nutritionists, and validated through a consumer survey conducted during a food exposition. Using the GSR framework, we determined indicative rice consumption patterns of the target population and the specific rice quality attributes they require for specific rice-based dishes and rice consumption occasions. The GSR framework also reveals possible entry points for nutritional and dietary interventions and the introduction of novel food products and ingredients. The GSR framework, therefore, has the potential to aid policymakers and food value chain stakeholders in designing culture-sensitive and context-appropriate interventions not only to help consumers improve their diets, but also to help farmers access niche markets for novel food products and ingredients and thereby improve their livelihoods and preserve cultural heritage.

  17. Thermo-fluid analysis of water cooled research reactors in natural convection; Analise termofluidodinamica de reatores nucleares de pesquisa refrigerados a agua em regime de conveccao natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora Fortini

    2004-07-01

    The STHIRP-1 computer program, which fundamentals are described in this work, uses the principles of the subchannels analysis and has the capacity to simulate, under steady state and transient conditions, the thermal and hydraulic phenomena which occur inside the core of a water-refrigerated research reactor under a natural convection regime. The models and empirical correlations necessary to describe the flow phenomena which can not be described by theoretical relations were selected according to the characteristics of the reactor operation. Although the primary objective is the calculation of research reactors, the formulation used to describe the fluid flow and the thermal conduction in the heater elements is sufficiently generalized to extend the use of the program for applications in power reactors and other thermal systems with the same features represented by the program formulations. To demonstrate the analytical capacity of STHIRP-l, there were made comparisons between the results calculated and measured in the research reactor TRIGA IPR-R1 of CDTN/CNEN. The comparisons indicate that the program reproduces the experimental data with good precision. Nevertheless, in the future there must be used more consistent experimental data to corroborate the validation of the program. (author)

  18. A Coordinated Research Project on the Implementation of Nuclear Techniques to Improve Food Traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Russell; Cannavan, Andrew; Zandric, Zora; Maestroni, Britt; Abrahim, Aiman

    2013-04-01

    Traceability systems play a key role in assuring a safe and reliable food supply. Analytical techniques harnessing the spatial patterns in distribution of stable isotope and trace element ratios can be used for the determination of the provenance of food. Such techniques offer the potential to enhance global trade by providing an independent means of verifying "paper" traceability systems and can also help to prove authenticity, to combat fraudulent practices, and to control adulteration, which are important issues for economic, religious or cultural reasons. To address some of the challenges that developing countries face in attempting to implement effective food traceability systems, the IAEA, through its Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, has initiated a 5-year coordinated research project involving institutes in 15 developing and developed countries (Austria, Botswana, Chile, China, France, India, Lebanon, Morocco, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Uganda, UK, USA). The objective is to help in member state laboratories to establish robust analytical techniques and databases, validated to international standards, to determine the provenance of food. Nuclear techniques such as stable isotope and multi-element analysis, along with complementary methods, will be applied for the verification of food traceability systems and claims related to food origin, production, and authenticity. This integrated and multidisciplinary approach to strengthening capacity in food traceability will contribute to the effective implementation of holistic systems for food safety and control. The project focuses mainly on the development of techniques to confirm product authenticity, with several research partners also considering food safety issues. Research topics encompass determination of the geographical origin of a variety of commodities, including seed oils, rice, wine, olive oil, wheat, orange juice, fish, groundnuts, tea, pork, honey and

  19. An exploratory cross-sectional analysis of socioeconomic status, food insecurity, and fast food consumption: implications for dietary research to reduce children’s oral health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L.; Dinh, Mai A.; da Fonseca, Marcio A.; Scott, JoAnna M.; Carle, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tooth decay is the most common childhood disease and disproportionately affects low-income children. The dietary risk factors associated with socioeconomic status (SES), such as food insecurity and fast food consumption, are poorly understood. Objective To better understand how upstream social factors are related to dietary behaviors by testing the hypothesis that food insecurity mediates the SES-fast food consumption relationship. Design A 36-item survey was administered to caregivers of children Food insecurity, the potential dietary mediator, was measured using the six-item U.S. Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey (food secure/food insecure without hunger/food insecure with hunger). The outcome variable was whether the household reported eating at a fast food restaurant ≥2 times a week (no/yes). We used logistic structural equation and mediation models to test our hypothesis. Results About 63% of children were low SES. Thirty-percent of caregivers reported food insecurity (with or without hunger) and 18.6% of households consumed fast food ≥2 times per week. Lower SES was significantly associated with food insecurity (OR=3.03; 95% CI=1.51, 6.04; P=0.002), but SES was not related to fast food consumption (OR=1.94; 95% CI=0.86, 4.36; P=0.11). Food insecurity was not associated with fast food consumption (OR=1.76; 95% CI=0.86, 3.62; P=0.12). The mediation analyses suggest food insecurity does not mediate the relationship between SES and fast food consumption. However, there are important potential differences in fast food consumption by SES and food insecurity status. Conclusions Future dietary research focusing on tooth decay prevention in vulnerable children may need to account for the differential effects of SES on food insecurity and dietary behaviors like fast food consumption. Studies are needed to further elucidate the mechanisms linking SES, dietary behaviors, and tooth decay in children. PMID:25840937

  20. Dietary Research to Reduce Children's Oral Health Disparities: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Analysis of Socioeconomic Status, Food Insecurity, and Fast-Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Dinh, Mai A; da Fonseca, Marcio A; Scott, JoAnna M; Carle, Adam C

    2015-10-01

    Tooth decay is the most common childhood disease and it disproportionately affects low-income children. The dietary risk factors associated with socioeconomic status (SES), such as food insecurity and fast-food consumption, are poorly understood. To better understand how upstream social factors are related to dietary behaviors by testing the hypothesis that food insecurity mediates the SES-fast-food consumption relationship. A 36-item survey was administered to caregivers of children younger than age 18 years (n=212). The predictor variable was SES, measured by whether the child was insured by Medicaid (no/yes). Food insecurity, the potential dietary mediator, was measured using the six-item US Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey (food secure/food insecure without hunger/food insecure with hunger). The outcome variable was whether the household reported eating at a fast-food restaurant ≥2 times a week (no/yes). We used logistic structural equation and mediation models to test our hypothesis. About 63% of children were classified as low SES. Thirty percent of caregivers reported food insecurity (with or without hunger) and 18.6% of households consumed fast food ≥2 times per week. Lower SES was significantly associated with food insecurity (odds ratio [OR] 3.03, 95% CI 1.51 to 6.04; P=0.002), but SES was not related to fast-food consumption (OR 1.94, 95% CI 0.86 to 4.36; P=0.11). Food insecurity was not associated with fast-food consumption (OR 1.76, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.62; P=0.12). The mediation analyses suggest food insecurity does not mediate the relationship between SES and fast-food consumption. However, there are important potential differences in fast-food consumption by SES and food insecurity status. Future dietary research focusing on tooth decay prevention in vulnerable children may need to account for the differential effects of SES on food insecurity and dietary behaviors like fast-food consumption. Studies are needed to further

  1. [A critical assessment of the relation between the food industry and health research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Mengíbar, Josep; Pastor-Valero, María; Hernández Aguado, Ildefonso

    To describe the influence of the food industry in health research, observing how funding influences health outcomes and the quality of the studies. We performed a systematic review in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Plus and Scopus using the MESH "Food Industry", "Food-Processing Industry", "Biomedical Research", "Research Support as Topic", and the keywords "Industry Sponsorship" and "Funding Source". The quality was assessed using the PRISMA guidelines. We revised 1,506 articles and 10 were included; two reviewed the relationship between funding-outcomes and quality-outcomes; six focused on the funding-outcomes relationship; and the other two focused on methodological quality. Six showed that funding from the food industry resulted in more favourable outcomes for their products. No differences in quality were found in relation to the funding source, but those which did not declare their funding had a worse quality. Studies funded by the food industry showed favourable results for their products. However, this fact did not affect the quality of the studies. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple growth regimes: Insights from unified growth theory

    OpenAIRE

    Galor, Oded

    2007-01-01

    Unified Growth Theory uncovers the forces that contributed to the existence of multiple growth regimes and the emergence of convergence clubs. It suggests that differential timing of take-offs from stagnation to growth segmented economies into three fundamental regimes: slow growing economies in a Malthusian regime, fast growing countries in a sustained growth regime, and economies in the transition between these regimes. In contrast to existing research that links regime switching thresholds...

  3. A novel approach to enhance food safety: industry-academia-government partnership for applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholm, Michael T; Ostrowsky, Julie; Farrar, Jeff A; Gravani, Robert B; Tauxe, Robert V; Buchanan, Robert L; Hedberg, Craig W

    2009-07-01

    An independent collaborative approach was developed for stimulating research on high-priority food safety issues. The Fresh Express Produce Safety Research Initiative was launched in 2007 with $2 million in unrestricted funds from industry and independent direction and oversight from a scientific advisory panel consisting of nationally recognized food safety experts from academia and government agencies. The program had two main objectives: (i) to fund rigorous, innovative, and multidisciplinary research addressing the safety of lettuce, spinach, and other leafy greens and (ii) to share research findings as widely and quickly as possible to support the development of advanced safeguards within the fresh-cut produce industry. Sixty-five proposals were submitted in response to a publicly announced request for proposals and were competitively evaluated. Nine research projects were funded to examine underlying factors involved in Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of lettuce, spinach, and other leafy greens and potential strategies for preventing the spread of foodborne pathogens. Results of the studies, published in the Journal of Food Protection, help to identify promising directions for future research into potential sources and entry points of contamination and specific factors associated with harvesting, processing, transporting, and storing produce that allow contaminants to persist and proliferate. The program provides a model for leveraging the strengths of industry, academia, and government to address high-priority issues quickly and directly through applied research. This model can be productively extended to other pathogens and other leafy and nonleafy produce.

  4. [Research progress of Terahertz wave technology in quality measurement of food and agricultural products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhan-Ke; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Ying, Yi-Bin

    2007-11-01

    The quality concern of food and agricultural products has become more and more significant. The related technologies for nondestructive measurement or quality control of food products have been the focus of many researches. Terahertz (THz) radiation, or THz wave, the least explored region of the spectrum, is the electromagnetic wave that lies between mid-infrared and microwave radiation, which has very important research and application values. THz spectroscopy and THz imaging technique are the two main applications of THz wave. During the past decade, THz waves have been used to characterize the electronic, vibrational and compositional properties of solid, liquid and gas phase materials. Recently, THz technology has gained a lot of attention of researchers in various fields from biological spectral analysis to bio-medical imaging due to its unique features compared with microwave and optical waves. In the present paper, the properties of THz wave and its uniqueness in sensing and imaging applications were discussed. The most recent researches on THz technology used in food quality control and agricultural products inspection were summarized. The prospect of this novel technology in agriculture and food industry was also discussed.

  5. On Food, Farming and Land Management: Towards a Research Agenda to Reconnect Urban and Rural Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Justin; Rickinson, Mark; Sanders, Dawn; Teamey, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Science education has a key role to play in helping people to develop their understanding of the local and global dimensions of food, farming and land management. Based on a review of the literature on what is known about young people's (3-19) views towards and learning about these topics, a research agenda is outlined for consideration by the…

  6. Blurring the Boundaries between Vocational Education, Business and Research in the Agri-Food Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wals, Arjen E. J.; Lans, Thomas; Kupper, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence and significance of new knowledge configurations within the Dutch agri-food context. Knowledge configurations can be characterised as arrangements between VET and (often regional) partners in business and research aimed at improving knowledge transfer, circulation or co-creation. Based on a literature review…

  7. User-oriented innovation in the food sector: Relevant streams of research and an agenda for future work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to give an overview of relevant streams of research that can form a basis for research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector. We define user-oriented innovation as a process towards the development of a new product or service in which an integrated analysis...... and understanding of the users' wants, needs and preference formation play a key role. We distinguish three relevant streams of research that may provide a basis for research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector: research on the formation of user preferences, research on innovation management......, and research on interactive innovation. We show that the relevance of these three streams of research for the food sector depends on which type of innovation we are dealing with, and we propose a distinction of three types of food innovations depending on which actors in the food chain are involved...

  8. Agroecology and sustainable food systems: Participatory research to improve food security among HIV-affected households in northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Hanson; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa; Bezner Kerr, Rachel; Luginaah, Isaac; Lupafya, Esther

    2016-09-01

    This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably. As well, the findings reveal that place-based politics, especially gendered power imbalances, are imperative for understanding the human impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Overall, the study adds valuable insights into the literature on the human-environment dimensions of health. It demonstrates that the onset of disease can radically transform the social relations governing access to and control over resources (e.g., land, labour, and capital), and that these altered social relations in turn affect sustainable disease management. The conclusion highlights how the promotion of sustainable agroecology could help to partly address the socio-ecological challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring the effectiveness of international environmental regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C.; Sprinz, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    While past research has emphasized the importance of international regimes for international governance, systematic assessments of regime effects are missing. This article derives a standardized measurement concept for the effectiveness of international environmental regimes by developing an operational rational choice calculus to evaluate actual policy simultaneously against a non-regime counterfactual and a collective optimum. Subsequently, the empirical feasibility of the measurement instrument is demonstrated by way of two international treaties regulating transboundary air pollution in Europe. The results demonstrate that the regimes indeed show positive effects - but fall substantially short of the collective optima. (orig.)

  10. Promoting Agricultural Research and Development to Strengthen Food Security in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the status of agricultural R&D in South Asia and contends that creating an effective agricultural research and innovation systems is a vital element to ensure food security in this region. South Asia is home to around one-fourth of mankind and houses the largest proportion of undernourished people in the world. Despite a period of marked economic growth averaging 6% a year over the past two decades, it remains the world's second poorest region contributing a mere 2.2% in global annual GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of South Asian economy employing around 60% of the total workforce and generating around 20% of total GDP. South Asia has the recognition of being the second most food-insecure region next only to sub-Saharan Africa. Though there is growing evidence that technological innovation has a key role to play in increasing agricultural production and strengthening food security, agricultural research and development (R&D sector has failed to garner sufficient attention till now. This study also depicts the current situation of food security in South Asia and illustrates how agricultural education and innovation hold the master key to solve the food security issues for the world's most densely populated region.

  11. Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-03-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.

  12. A review of the current state of research on the water, energy, and food nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Endo

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights: Through selected 37 projects, four types of nexus research were identified including water–food, water–energy–food, water–energy, and climate related. Among them, six projects (16% had a close linkage with water–food, 11 (30% with water–energy–food, 12 (32% with water–energy, and eight (22% with climate. The regions were divided into Asia, Europe, Oceania, North America, South America, Middle East and Africa. North America and Oceania had a tendency to focus on a specific nexus type, water–energy (46% and climate (43%, while Africa had less focus on water–energy (7%. Regarding keywords, out of 37 nexus projects, 16 projects listed keywords in their articles. There were 84 keywords in total, which were categorized by the author team depending on its relevance to water, food, energy, climate, and combination of water–food–energy–climate, and 40 out of 84 keywords were linked with water and only 4 were linked with climate. As for stakeholders, 77 out of 137 organizations were related to research and only two organizations had a role in media.

  13. Qualitative research in teen experiences living with food-induced anaphylaxis: A meta-aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara F; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2017-11-01

    To describe the central experiences of teens living with food-induced anaphylaxis as a first step in responding to healthcare needs in this population. As prevalence of allergy increases and commonly outgrown allergies persist longer, chronic management for teens becomes increasingly important. Synthesizing existing research helps to recognize management needs specific to teens with food allergy. Meta-aggregation for qualitative systematic review, to create synthesis for clinical improvement; guided by Joanna Briggs Institute methods and their Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Seven relevant databases were searched for original qualitative research July 2015; 10 studies (published 2007-2015) met inclusion criteria. Both authors undertook critical appraisal, with consensus by discussion. Findings from line-by-line extraction were grouped into categories and syntheses. In studies with mixed populations, we included only teens (age 12-19) with food-induced anaphylaxis. We developed three syntheses from nine categories and 64 subcategories to reflect central experiences of teens with food-induced anaphylaxis, including: (1) defining the allergic self; (2) finding a balance and (3) controlling the uncontrollable. The syntheses encompass importance of allergic identity/understanding, difficulties in coping with burdens of food allergy and reflect the complex risk interactions teens must negotiate in social contexts. There is a need to respect teens as active participants in managing food-induced anaphylaxis, while recognizing that social expectations and a lack of public awareness/safety can dangerously affect one's needs and decisions. This helps broaden how we conceptualize the needs of teens living with food-induced anaphylaxis, informing ongoing care and management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Food Safety at Farmers' Markets: A Knowledge Synthesis of Published Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Thaivalappil, Abhinand; Reimer, Danielle; Greig, Judy

    2017-12-01

    Farmers' markets are increasingly popular venues in North America for the sale of fresh produce and other foods. However, the nature of their operation can present possible food safety issues, challenges, and risks to consumers. A knowledge synthesis was conducted to identify, characterize, and summarize published research on the microbial food safety issues and implications associated with farmers' markets. A scoping review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy, relevance screening of abstracts, and characterization of relevant articles. Two subsets of data were prioritized for more detailed systematic review (data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment) and meta-analysis: (i) studies comparing the microbial safety of foods from farmers' markets versus other sources and (ii) studies evaluating the use of food safety practices at farmers' markets. Overall, 83 relevant studies were identified. The majority of studies were published as journal articles (64%), used a cross-sectional design (81%), and were conducted in the United States (78%). Most studies (39%; n = 32) investigated stakeholder, mostly consumer (n = 22), attitudes toward food safety at farmers' markets. Limited but heterogeneous evidence indicated a higher prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken meat from farmers' markets versus other retail sources, but there was no difference in the microbial contamination of fresh produce. Studies evaluating the use of food safety practices at farmers' markets identified some gaps; for example, the average prevalence of vendor hand washing was 4% (95% confidence interval: 0 to 11%; I 2 = 27%; n = 5 studies). Twelve foodborne outbreaks and case reports were identified, resulting in a total of 411 illnesses, 38 hospitalizations, and two deaths from 1994 to 2016. Only five intervention studies were identified. Key knowledge gaps and areas warranting future research, training, and education are highlighted and discussed.

  15. Marketing Communications Research On Food & Beverage Outlets Of Moevenpick Hotel Saigon

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang Minh, Tam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to conduct a marketing communications research on Food & Beverage Outlets of Moevenpick hotel Saigon. Besides, a short description of consumer rating on F&B service quality was other mission specifically assigned by the commissioned party. The research provided general information about both targeted potential customers from surrounding areas and current hotel guest and restaurant diner. Next was the analysis derived from the customer survey’s result, the ran...

  16. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers’ expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers’ preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discuss...

  17. Insects as food and feed: European perspectives on recent research and future priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, C; Doberman, D; Forkes, AD; House, J; Josephs, J; McBride, A; Mueller, A; Quilliam, R; Soares, S

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Wageningen Academic Publishers via http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/JIFF2016.0011 This paper discusses the current state and priorities of Europe-based research on insects as food and feed, based on presentations at a workshop held in December 2015, and discussions that followed. We divide research into studies that focus on farming, health and nutrition, and those that prioritise psychological, social and political concerns. Edible...

  18. Charity Starts … at Work? Conceptual Foundations for Research with Businesses that Donate to Food Redistribution Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Vlaholias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As global concern about sustainability, food waste, and poverty increases, there is an urgent need to understand what motivates businesses to adopt pro-social and pro-environmental behaviours. This paper suggests that food redistribution organisations hold both pro-social and pro-environmental aims, due to their concern with reducing food surplus and food insecurity. To achieve this, they must motivate food businesses to donate their surplus food. However, little is known about the values, attitudes, and motives of food industry donors. The purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical and conceptual overview to set out principles from which empirical data on food redistribution will be analysed or critiqued. Specifically, it explores pro-social and pro-environmental literature, as these fields have examined the motivations behind donations and reducing environmental impact. This review highlights that charitable giving of food is different to other inorganic material, such as money. Thus, future research is needed to capture the unique temporal, emotional, social, and environmental factors that motivate food donations. This information may contribute to the development of strategies that target and motivate people from the food industry to become food donors. Alternatively, it may reveal concerns about food donations, and highlight the need for other approaches to food waste and food insecurity.

  19. Scoping Review on Research on Food conducted in the Faculty of Social Sciences. Including other Institutions in the Norwich Research Park and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Wilsher, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Executive summary The scoping review was commissioned to examine what research on food has been conducted in the Faculty of Social Sciences (SSF) at the University of East Anglia (UEA) since 2005. The aim of the report is to facilitate collaborative research between SSF and the rest of the Norwich Research Park (NRP), in particular, the Institute of Food Research (IFR). However, it is important to contextualise this beyond the NRP as the Eastern Academic Research Consortium (EARC) provides fu...

  20. Government can regulate food advertising to children because cognitive research shows that it is inherently misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Samantha; Kunkel, Dale; Mermin, Seth E

    2012-02-01

    The childhood obesity crisis has prompted repeated calls for government action to curb the marketing of unhealthy food to children. Food and entertainment industry groups have asserted that the First Amendment prohibits such regulation. However, case law establishes that the First Amendment does not protect "inherently misleading" commercial speech. Cognitive research indicates that young children cannot effectively recognize the persuasive intent of advertising or apply the critical evaluation required to comprehend commercial messages. Given this combination--that government can prohibit "inherently misleading" advertising and that children cannot adequately understand commercial messages--advertising to children younger than age twelve should be considered beyond the scope of constitutional protection.

  1. Laser spectroscopy applied to environmental, ecological, food safety, and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Sune; Zhao, Guangyu; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Jing; Lian, Ming; Li, Tianqi; Zhu, Shiming; Li, Yiyun; Duan, Zheng; Lin, Huiying; Svanberg, Katarina

    2016-03-21

    Laser spectroscopy provides many possibilities for multi-disciplinary applications in environmental monitoring, in the ecological field, for food safety investigations, and in biomedicine. The paper gives several examples of the power of multi-disciplinary applications of laser spectroscopy as pursued in our research group. The studies utilize mostly similar and widely applicable spectroscopic approaches. Air pollution and vegetation monitoring by lidar techniques, as well as agricultural pest insect monitoring and classification by elastic scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy are described. Biomedical aspects include food safety applications and medical diagnostics of sinusitis and otitis, with strong connection to the abatement of antibiotics resistance development.

  2. Integrating Aspects of Working Environment into a National Research and Development Programme on Food Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Hansen, Iben Posniak

    2001-01-01

    In a Danish national research and development program on food technology, it was made a condition that funded projects consider potential working environment impacts. The present study evaluated these projects and concluded that this condition failed to have any significant effect on outcomes...... of working environment and food science and technology........ The reasons for this failure are explained by the social construction of the program and the fact that it neglected to consider the sociocultural dynamics within scientific and technological work. The program neither constructed useful boundary objects nor included actors that could link the social worlds...

  3. Development of research paper writing skills of poultry science undergraduate students studying food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Z R; Donalson, L M; Kim, W K; Li, X; Zabala Díaz, I; Landers, K L; Maciorowski, K G; Ricke, S C

    2006-02-01

    Because food and poultry industries are demanding an improvement in written communication skills among graduates, research paper writing should be an integral part of a senior undergraduate class. However, scientific writing assignments are often treated as secondary to developing the technical skills of the students. Scientific research paper writing has been emphasized in an undergraduate course on advanced food microbiology taught in the Poultry Science Department at Texas A& M University (College Station, TX). Students' opinions suggest that research paper writing as part of a senior course in Poultry Science provides students with scientific communication skills and useful training for their career, but more emphasis on reading and understanding scientific literature may be required.

  4. Research and development for botanical products in medicinals and food supplements market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, Marco; Mannucci, Carmen; Mancari, Ferdinando; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2013-01-01

    Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU) and United States (US) policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  5. Research and Development for Botanical Products in Medicinals and Food Supplements Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Miroddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical products sold in the health area are generally intended as drugs, medicinal products, food supplements or substances for therapeutic use. Use of botanicals for improving or to care human health has evolved independently in different countries worldwide. Regulatory issues regarding botanical products designed for the food supplements or medicinal market and their influence on research and development are discussed. European Union (EU and United States (US policies regulating these products are focused with comments on the legislations delivered during the last ten years and differences existing in rules between these countries are emphasized. Research and development on botanical products nowdays strongly influenced by the product destination in the market. Addressed and differentiated research for either food supplements or medicinal markets is necessary to purchase data really useful for assessment of safe and effective use for both the categories. The main objective is to catalyze interest of academic and companies' researchers on crucial aspects to be taken into account in the research for the development of botanical products.

  6. Research Gaps in the Use of Dairy Ingredients in Food Aid Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRienzo, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Nutritional interventions to help prevent stunting, particularly in the first 1000 days from conception to 2 years of a child's life, are a major focus of numerous food aid organizations worldwide. Dairy ingredients can play an important role in enhancing the nutritional value and effectiveness of food products used in food aid. This article addresses gaps in research on malnutrition from both a broad perspective and specific to dairy ingredients. Narrative review. From a broad perspective, there is a need for gaining a consensus by the research community and funders of research on best practices for protocol development, outcomes measured, and reporting of study outcomes. Identification of biomarkers and rapid screening methods and consistent application of their use would expedite future research. A better understanding of nutritional requirements for malnourished populations, including the effects of energy deficits and disease on those requirements, is needed. More specific to dairy ingredients, a key research question is: Does dairy protein or the package of nutrients provided by dairy ingredients have a unique impact on growth, and if so, how? Also, data on the optimal levels of dairy ingredients based on the effective cost of treatment are needed, particularly in the treatment and prevention of moderate acute malnutrition and during pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. A comprehensive review on food waste anaerobic digestion: Research updates and tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanyuan; Yu, Miao; Wu, Chuanfu; Wang, Qunhui; Gao, Ming; Huang, Qiqi; Liu, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been practically applied in agricultural and industrial waste treatment and recognized as an economical-effective way for food waste disposal. This paper presented an overview on the researches about anaerobic digestion of food waste. Technologies (e.g., pretreatment, co-digestion, inhibition and mitigation, anaerobic digestion systems, etc.) were introduced and evaluated on the basis of bibliometric analysis. Results indicated that ethanol and aerobic prefermentation were novel approaches to enhance substrates hydrolysis and methane yield. With the promotion of resource recovery, more attention should be paid to biorefinery technologies which can produce more useful products toward zero emissions. Furthermore, a technological route for food waste conversion based on anaerobic digestion was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Research regarding the antimicrobial activity of essential oils against food borne bacteria and toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA A. DOBRE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils against four different bacterial and five fungal strains that are involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus brasiliensis, using two methods: agar disc diffusion method and disc volatilization method. The majority of the selected essential oils presented inhibitory activity against all the microorganisms tested but essential oils of oregano, thyme and clove proved to develop the best antibacterial and antifungal activity both in direct contact and volatilization method and could be used for further investigation in active packaging of food.

  9. Research and development of low and medium dose food irradiation applications in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Y.

    1985-10-01

    The interest in food irradiation in France can best be shown by the number of facilities under construction or in the planning stage. It was made possible through an evolution of the regulations which encouraged food companies to submit petitions. The first commercial applications will deal with dried, dehydrated or frozen products for which clearances were obtained or are in progress. In cooperation with the food industry, studies were carried out on rice flour, herbal teas, caseinates and ingredients such as colors. In the low doses range, interest seems mostly to be sprouting inhibition of garlic and insect control in dried fruits. Several private companies undertook research on directly consumed commodities such as strawberries, cured meats, saurkraut and ground beef

  10. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, (1) perimenstrually and (2) prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of (1) hormonal changes, (2) nutritional deficits, (3) pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and (4) cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: (1) validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, (2) use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, (3) implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and GWG, and (4) development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG. PMID:25295023

  11. Pickles and Ice Cream! Food Cravings in Pregnancy: Hypotheses, Preliminary Evidence, and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Orloff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, 1 perimenstrually and 2 prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of 1 hormonal changes, 2 nutritional deficits, 3 pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and 4 cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: 1 validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, 2 use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, 3 implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and gestational weight gain, and 4 development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess

  12. Recent Developments in Film and Gas Research in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Meng, Xiangyong; Bhandari, Bhesh; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2016-10-02

    Due to the rise of consumer's awareness of fresh foods to health, in the past few years, the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut produces has increased sturdily. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) possesses a potential to become one of the most appropriate technologies for packaging fresh and fresh-cut produces. The MAP has advantages of extending the shelf-life, preserving or stabilizing the desired properties of fresh produces, and convenience in handing and distribution. The success of MAP-fresh foods depends on many factors including types of fresh foods, storage temperature and humidity, gas composition, and the characteristics of package materials. This paper reviews the recent developments highlighting the most critical factors of film and gas on the quality of MAP fresh foods. Although the innovations and development of food packaging technology will continue to promote the development of novel MAP, concentrated research and endeavors from scientists and engineers are still important to the development of MAP that focuses on consumers' requirements, enhancing product quality, environmental friendly design, and cost-effective application.

  13. The impact of food prices on consumption: a systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Long, Michael W; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-02-01

    In light of proposals to improve diets by shifting food prices, it is important to understand how price changes affect demand for various foods. We reviewed 160 studies on the price elasticity of demand for major food categories to assess mean elasticities by food category and variations in estimates by study design. Price elasticities for foods and nonalcoholic beverages ranged from 0.27 to 0.81 (absolute values), with food away from home, soft drinks, juice, and meats being most responsive to price changes (0.7-0.8). As an example, a 10% increase in soft drink prices should reduce consumption by 8% to 10%. Studies estimating price effects on substitutions from unhealthy to healthy food and price responsiveness among at-risk populations are particularly needed.

  14. A review of European research on consumer response to nutrition information on food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Wills, Josephine M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review research conducted in 2003-2006 in the EU-15 countries on how consumers perceive, understand, like and use nutrition information on food labels. Based on a search of databases on academic publications, Google-based search, and enquiries directed to a range...... with an earlier review by Cowburn and Stockley (Public Health Nutr 8:21-28, 2005), covering research up to 2002, but provide new insights into consumer liking and understanding of simplified front of pack signposting formats. There is an urgent need for more research studying consumer use of nutritional...

  15. An Agenda for Growth and Metabolism Research in Farm Animals: Healthy Food for a Healthy Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, R. S. A.; Manalo, D. D.; Garcia, J. N. M.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a paradigm shift from meat demand to health driven understanding of the effects of livestock production and meat consumption in human. Included are comments on animal nutrition research with the purpose of getting more relevant health information. The growth and metabolism research covers the principles from feed intake regulation, nutrient digestion, absorption and growth. Meat preservation provides enough food for the urban population, and its major ingredient includes the combination of salt, sugar and fats, suspected to cause food addiction in man. The reported effect of processed red meat causing systemic inflammation is a major consideration in food preparation, diet selection and reasonable control for meat consumption. In livestock “Pharming” the danger of heavy metal contamination of commercial feed poses threat to human health aside from drug residues. It is proposed that the 50% of global greenhouse gas is due to the lifestyle of the rich and epidemic of obesity-related diseases are the effect of livestock “Pharming” and addiction to fast food and or processed meat.

  16. Understanding and managing the food-energy-water nexus - opportunities for water resources research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing; Wallington, Kevin; Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Marston, Landon

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the food, energy, and water (FEW) nexus lay a shared foundation for researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and stakeholders to understand and manage linked production, utilization, and security of FEW systems. The FEW nexus paradigm provides the water community specific channels to move forward in interdisciplinary research where integrated water resources management (IWRM) has fallen short. Here, we help water researchers identify, articulate, utilize, and extend our disciplinary strengths within the broader FEW communities, while informing scientists in the food and energy domains about our unique skillset. This paper explores the relevance of existing and ongoing scholarship within the water community, as well as current research needs, for understanding FEW processes and systems and implementing FEW solutions through innovations in technologies, infrastructures, and policies. Following the historical efforts in IWRM, hydrologists, water resources engineers, economists, and policy analysts are provided opportunities for interdisciplinary studies among themselves and in collaboration with energy and food communities, united by a common path to achieve sustainability development goals.

  17. Research of consumers’ attitudes on the organic food consumption in the Serbian enclaves in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Goran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic production in Serbian enclaves in Kosovo has a great potential based on the extensive production mostly in hilly-mountainous areas with rich and convenient environment for the organic production of medicinal plants, fruits, vegetables, wine, honey etc., but it still keeps developing. The enclave can realise a high income, and thereby also an economic basis for the sustainable development of multifunctional agricultural holdings in Serbian enclaves, by the production and sale of organic products on local markets. In this paper, the authors study the consumers’ attitudes on purchase and consumption of organic food in Serbian enclaves in Kosovo. Empirical research was carried out on a spatial sample of 300 respondents, by a personal communication technique using the questionnaire as an instrument of research method. Areas of research are towns: Northern Kosovska Mitrovica, Leposavic, Zubin Potok and Gracanica. Goal of the research is to discover the preferences, motives, attitudes and interests of consumers for buying the organic products, based on a defined survey to recognise the basic features of supply and the demand of organic agricultural and food products. After analysing the conducted survey, we have discovered that the organic food market in Serbian enclaves in Kosovo has not been sufficiently developed; it is necessary to expand the range of organic agriculture products and a constant supply is required, better marketing, and better information and education of consumers in order to raise supply to a higher level.

  18. [Food photography atlas: its suitability for quantifying food and nutrient consumption in nutritional epidemiological research in Córdoba, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, A; Cristaldo, P E; Díaz, M P; Eynard, A R

    2000-01-01

    Food pictures are suitable visual tools for quantize food and nutrient consumption avoiding bias due to self-assessments. To determine the perception of food portion size and to establish the efficacy of food pictures for dietaries assessments. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) including 118 food items of daily consumption was applied to 30 adults representative of Córdoba, Argentina, population. Among several food models (paper maché, plastics) and pictures, those which more accurately filled the purpose were selected. 3 small, median and large standard portion size were determined. Data were evaluated with descriptive statistics tools and Chi square adherence test. The assessment of 51 percent of the food was assayed in concordance with the reference size. In general, the remainder was overestimated. The 90 percent of volunteers concluded that the pictures were the best visual resource. The photographic atlas of food is an useful material for quantize the dietary consumption, suitable for many types of dietaries assessments. In conclusion, comparison among pictures of three portions previously standardized for each food is highly recommendable.

  19. Multiple Comorbidities and Interest in Research Participation Among Clients of a Nonprofit Food Distribution Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Robin T; Craddock Lee, Simon J; Leonard, Tammy; Cuate, Erica L; Cole, Jay; Pruitt, Sandi L

    2015-10-01

    Persons accessing food from nonprofit distribution sites face numerous challenges and typically have significant unmet health needs. However, given limited and intermittent healthcare system engagement, this vulnerable population is underrepresented in clinical research. We sought to better understand the health needs of a nonclinical population to inform future research and interventions. Focus groups were conducted in English (n = 4) and Spanish (n = 4) with clients of Crossroads Community Services (CCS), the largest distributor of North Texas Food Bank. Discussions probed participants' health status, healthcare utilization, understanding and utilization of mammography, and attitudes toward participation in research. Participants included 42 CCS clients, primarily Hispanic or African American women. Participants reported multiple comorbid conditions among household members, yet utilization of health services was often limited by cost. The majority expressed interest in participating in research to communicate their health concerns and obtain emotional support. CCS clients represent a high-need, under-reached population willing to engage in health-related research that affords them opportunity to connect with peers in group settings and obtain information to improve management of daily life challenges. The Community Assistance Research (CARe) Initiative, a community-academic collaboration, establishes a much-needed opportunity for ongoing clinical research and intervention among this underserved population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne; Paoletti, Flavio; Kahl, Johannes; Bonanno, Adriana; Dostalova, Anne; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-10-01

    Although several meta-analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non-organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product-related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Research needs on food marketing to children. Report of the StanMark project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobstein, T

    2013-03-01

    A series of meetings on the topic of children's exposure to the marketing of food and beverages was held between researchers and government officials based in Europe and the Americas during 2010-2011. The meetings resulted in a number of outputs, including observations from policy-makers on the types of evidence they needed to strengthen policy-making. Their observations on the definitions of a child, the specification of foods using nutrient profiling schemes, the types of media carrying marketing messages, and the related policy implementation problems, are summarised in this Short Communication. The paper highlights the need for research which can directly support policy-making and which can evaluate its effectiveness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Forthcoming Challenges in Mycotoxins Toxicology Research for Safer Food-A Need for Multi-Omics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellafiora, Luca; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2017-01-04

    The presence of mycotoxins in food represents a severe threat for public health and welfare, and poses relevant research challenges in the food toxicology field. Nowadays, food toxicologists have to provide answers to food-related toxicological issues, but at the same time they should provide the appropriate knowledge in background to effectively support the evidence-based decision-making in food safety. Therefore, keeping in mind that regulatory actions should be based on sound scientific findings, the present opinion addresses the main challenges in providing reliable data for supporting the risk assessment of foodborne mycotoxins.

  3. Transition from weak wave turbulence regime to solitonic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Roumaissa; Mordant, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    The Weak Turbulence Theory (WTT) is a statistical theory describing the interaction of a large ensemble of random waves characterized by very different length scales. For both weak non-linearity and weak dispersion a different regime is predicted where solitons propagate while keeping their shape unchanged. The question under investigation here is which regime between weak turbulence or soliton gas does the system choose ? We report an experimental investigation of wave turbulence at the surface of finite depth water in the gravity-capillary range. We tune the wave dispersion and the level of nonlinearity by modifying the depth of water and the forcing respectively. We use space-time resolved profilometry to reconstruct the deformed surface of water. When decreasing the water depth, we observe a drastic transition between weak turbulence at the weakest forcing and a solitonic regime at stronger forcing. We characterize the transition between both states by studying their Fourier Spectra. We also study the efficiency of energy transfer in the weak turbulence regime. We report a loss of efficiency of angular transfer as the dispersion of the wave is reduced until the system bifurcates into the solitonic regime. This project has recieved funding from the European Research Council (ERC, Grant Agreement No. 647018-WATU).

  4. An art report to analyze research status for the establishment of the space food development and future food system using the advanced food technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun

    2006-12-01

    The quality of food for the astronaut accomplishing the mission in the space is one of the most important matters, and it is time to study and develop Korean space food for the Korean astronaut in the space. Therefore, in the beginning of the space exploration era, it is necessary to establish a national long-term plan and study and develop Korean space food in order to provide food with better quality for the astronaut accomplishing the space mission. Using current food processing, preservation, and packaging technology, it is necessary to develop the Korean space food, provide Korean astronaut studying at the international space station, and study the future space food systems used for the long-term space voyage and planet habitat base in the era of space exploration. Space food is analyzed through nutritional analysis, sensory evaluation, storage studies, packaging evaluations, and many other methods before its final shipment on the space shuttle. Each technology developed for the advanced food system must provide the required attribute to the food system, including safety, nutrition, and acceptability. It is anticipated that the duration of the exploration class missions can be at least 2, 3 years, and one of the biggest challenges for these missions will be to provide acceptable food with a shelf-life of 3-5 years. The development of space food process/preservation technology and its ripple effect will make a contribution to the improvement of nation's international phase, and the developed space food will potentially be used for combat ration and emergency/special food like the U. S. A. In the 21th century of space exploration era, the development of the advanced food system and life support system in the Mars space base as well as the space shuttle will strengthen the capability to precede the future space exploration era

  5. An art report to analyze research status for the establishment of the space food development and future food system using the advanced food technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The quality of food for the astronaut accomplishing the mission in the space is one of the most important matters, and it is time to study and develop Korean space food for the Korean astronaut in the space. Therefore, in the beginning of the space exploration era, it is necessary to establish a national long-term plan and study and develop Korean space food in order to provide food with better quality for the astronaut accomplishing the space mission. Using current food processing, preservation, and packaging technology, it is necessary to develop the Korean space food, provide Korean astronaut studying at the international space station, and study the future space food systems used for the long-term space voyage and planet habitat base in the era of space exploration. Space food is analyzed through nutritional analysis, sensory evaluation, storage studies, packaging evaluations, and many other methods before its final shipment on the space shuttle. Each technology developed for the advanced food system must provide the required attribute to the food system, including safety, nutrition, and acceptability. It is anticipated that the duration of the exploration class missions can be at least 2, 3 years, and one of the biggest challenges for these missions will be to provide acceptable food with a shelf-life of 3-5 years. The development of space food process/preservation technology and its ripple effect will make a contribution to the improvement of nation's international phase, and the developed space food will potentially be used for combat ration and emergency/special food like the U. S. A. In the 21th century of space exploration era, the development of the advanced food system and life support system in the Mars space base as well as the space shuttle will strengthen the capability to precede the future space exploration era

  6. Research potential of food and nutrition in the Family Health Strategy: A structured review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Aragão Lira Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the profile of research groups and publications with food and nutrition-related actions promoted by the Family Health Strategy in Brazil since 1994. METHODS: Two procedures were used: structured review and research group search. The former searched the databases Web of Science, Medline, Lilacs, SciELO and Embase, and followed the principles that guide systematic reviews in the Cochrane Collaboration. The references of the selected articles were also consulted. The research groups were searched in the Research Group Directory of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development. RESULTS: A total of 54 articles published between 2002 and 2012 in 20 different journals were identified. Ten of these were retrieved from the references section of other articles. Focusing mostly on children from the Southeast region, these studies were coordinated by dieticians, nurses, and physicians. Diabetes Mellitus, high blood pressure, and breastfeeding were the most common topics (n=23. The quantitative methodology was employed by 42 articles, most about diagnoses. Only five research groups studied the Family Health Strategy, despite the growing number of studies in the area over the years. CONCLUSION: Despite the growing scientific production, the findings of this structured review indicate that few studies focused on food and nutrition in the Family Health Strategy, probably because of the existence of few research groups in the country. More comprehensive and consistent studies on the topic are needed.

  7. Research of Household Expenditure for Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsto Kero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate household spending by income deciles. Only the most important one among the expenditure categories was considered, food and non-alcoholic beverages. Research and analysis were based on the results of the Questionnaire on Household Expenditure in the Republic of Croatia. Adequate mathematical and statistical models of expenditure for food and non-alcoholic beverages by income deciles were established. The defined models were used in further research to calculate the coefficient of elasticity. The research showed that expenditure for food and non-alcoholic beverages is non-elastic, thus confirming the first Engel’s law. The obtained results can be used in planning household expenditure also in future periods, considering the fact that the model of expenditure by income deciles referring to the period 200 – 2009 was developed. A model for measuring elasticity was constructed as well. It refers to a 10-year period and can be used to forecast future coefficients of elasticity.

  8. The virtual supermarket: an innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; Scarpa, Michael; Lentz, Daisy; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2011-07-25

    Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The application can be obtained via an URL

  9. Market-based process and product innovation in the food sector: A Danish research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Baadsgaard, Allan

    1992-01-01

    This note informs about the Danish MAPP research programme, a collection of 15 research projects aimed at making product and process innovation in the food sector more market-based. The programme, which has an interdisciplinary base, but is geared towards marketing applications, is concerned...... with the organization of the innovation process, the interaction of consumer and producer criteria in product development, the assessment of long-term developments in the market environment and the role distribution system in product innovation. Innovation in both primary production and processing are considered....

  10. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenhuis Ingrid HM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66 revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food

  11. The virtual supermarket: An innovative research tool to study consumer food purchasing behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Economic interventions in the food environment are expected to effectively promote healthier food choices. However, before introducing them on a large scale, it is important to gain insight into the effectiveness of economic interventions and peoples' genuine reactions to price changes. Nonetheless, because of complex implementation issues, studies on price interventions are virtually non-existent. This is especially true for experiments undertaken in a retail setting. We have developed a research tool to study the effects of retail price interventions in a virtual-reality setting: the Virtual Supermarket. This paper aims to inform researchers about the features and utilization of this new software application. Results The Virtual Supermarket is a Dutch-developed three-dimensional software application in which study participants can shop in a manner comparable to a real supermarket. The tool can be used to study several food pricing and labelling strategies. The application base can be used to build future extensions and could be translated into, for example, an English-language version. The Virtual Supermarket contains a front-end which is seen by the participants, and a back-end that enables researchers to easily manipulate research conditions. The application keeps track of time spent shopping, number of products purchased, shopping budget, total expenditures and answers on configurable questionnaires. All data is digitally stored and automatically sent to a web server. A pilot study among Dutch consumers (n = 66) revealed that the application accurately collected and stored all data. Results from participant feedback revealed that 83% of the respondents considered the Virtual Supermarket easy to understand and 79% found that their virtual grocery purchases resembled their regular groceries. Conclusions The Virtual Supermarket is an innovative research tool with a great potential to assist in gaining insight into food purchasing behaviour. The

  12. Radiological safety research of food irradiation with 7.5 MeV X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bin; Tang Weidong; Zhang Yue; Xu Tao; Jin Jianqiao; Ye Mingyang

    2012-01-01

    China and America both have 7.5 MeV high energy X-ray accelerator. The radiological safety of food irradiated with 7.5 MeV X-rays (bremsstrahlung) has been investigated. Samples of meat and meat ash were located in a large volume of fresh meat at the position of the highest photoneutron fluence and irradiated to an X-ray dose of 15 kGy, twice the maximum dose allowed by the US FDA for meat irradiation. An evaluation of the corresponding radiation exposure from ingestion of the irradiated product has been compared to natural background radiation. The paper concludes that the risk to individuals from intake of food irradiated with X-rays from 7.5 MeV electrons, even with a broad energy spectrum, would be trivial. The common target materials are Au, Ta and W. The U.S, requires only Au and Ta can be used as food irradiation target materials and China has not yet relevant provisions. The first 7.5 MeV accelerator for food irradiation in China is under built, and will do the explore research for the choice of target material. (authors)

  13. Data collection and preparation of authoritative reviews on space food and nutrition research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The collection and classification of information for a manually operated information retrieval system on the subject of space food and nutrition research are described. The system as it currently exists is designed for retrieval of documents, either in hard copy or on microfiche, from the technical files of the MSC Food and Nutrition Section by accession number, author, and/or subject. The system could readily be extended to include retrieval by affiliation, report and contract number, and sponsoring agency should the need arise. It can also be easily converted to computerized retrieval. At present the information retrieval system contains nearly 3000 documents which consist of technical papers, contractors' reports, and reprints obtained from the food and nutrition files at MSC, Technical Library, the library at the Texas Medical Center in Houston, the BMI Technical Libraries, Dr. E. B. Truitt at MBI, and the OSU Medical Libraries. Additional work was done to compile 18 selected bibliographies on subjects of immediate interest on the MSC Food and Nutrition Section.

  14. Teens, Food Choice, and Health: How Can a Multi-Method Research Methodology Enhance the Study of Teen Food Choice and Health Messaging?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, Kelleen

    2011-01-01

    This research report compares alternative approaches to analyzing the complex factors that influence teenagers' food choice. Specifically, a multi-method approach-which involves the integration of the qualitative and quantitative research methodoligies, data and analysis-is compared to a single methodological approach, which involves use of either a quantitative or qualitative methodology.

  15. Food Allergy Education for School Nurses: A Needs Assessment Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Suzanna K.; Vargas, Perla A.; Noone, Sally; Steele, Pam; Sicherer, Scott H.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in school-age children. School nurses are a primary health care resource for children with food allergy and must be prepared to manage allergen avoidance and respond in the event of an allergic reaction. An anonymous survey was administered to school nurses attending their association meetings to determine their…

  16. Critical review of norovirus surrogates in food safety research: rationale for considering volunteer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P

    2012-03-01

    The inability to propagate human norovirus (NoV) or to clearly differentiate infectious from noninfectious virus particles has led to the use of surrogate viruses, like feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus-1 (MNV), which are propagatable in cell culture. The use of surrogates is predicated on the assumption that they generally mimic the viruses they represent; however, studies are proving this concept invalid. In direct comparisons between FCV and MNV, their susceptibility to temperatures, environmental and food processing conditions, and disinfectants are dramatically different. Differences have also been noted between the inactivation of NoV and its surrogates, thus questioning the validity of surrogates. Considerable research funding is provided globally each year to conduct surrogate studies on NoVs; however, there is little demonstrated benefit derived from these studies in regard to the development of virus inactivation techniques or food processing strategies. Human challenge studies are needed to determine which processing techniques are effective in reducing NoVs in foods. A major obstacle to clinical trials on NoVs is the perception that such trials are too costly and risky, but in reality, there is far more cost and risk in allowing millions of unsuspecting consumers to contract NoV illness each year, when practical interventions are only a few volunteer studies away. A number of clinical trials have been conducted, providing important insights into NoV inactivation. A shift in research priorities from surrogate research to volunteer studies is essential if we are to identify realistic, practical, and scientifically valid processing approaches to improve food safety.

  17. Ethnopharmacology—A Bibliometric Analysis of a Field of Research Meandering Between Medicine and Food Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Wai Kan Yeung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The research into bioactive natural products of medicinal plants has a long tradition, but ethnopharmacology as a well-defined field of research has a relatively short history, only dating back 50 years.Aims: With the fast development of this field and its global importance especially in the fast developing economies of Asia it is timely to assess the most influential articles (as measured by citations and to identify important drivers and research trends in this field.Methods: Scopus was searched to identify relevant articles which were assessed by all three authors. The 100 most cited articles were identified and analyzed. Bibliometric software (VOSviewer was utilized to supplement the analysis and to generate a term map that visualized the citation patterns of the 100 articles containing different terms.Results: Forty-four of the 100 articles are reviews. On average, each of the 100 articles had 632 citations and since publication was cited 43 times annually. The four core journals were Journal of Ethnopharmacology (n = 17, Food Chemistry (n = 7, Life Sciences (n = 5, and Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (n = 4. Anti-oxidant effects appeared to be a recurring and highly cited topic, whereas the links into drug discovery and neuropharmacology seemed to be less strong. Numerous medicinal plants and functional foods were the foci of research, and the foci shifted when comparing pre-2000 and post-2000 publications (with the later involving a broader spectrum of plants and foods and a wider range of biological effects. Contributions largely came from Asia, and also from the Americas, Africa, and Oceania, besides Europe.Conclusion: We have identified and analyzed the 100 most-cited articles in ethnopharmacology. Within 50 years the field has gained a profile and while conventionally often linked to “traditional knowledge,” drug discovery and some areas of pharmacology, this analysis highlights its emerging importance in

  18. Ethnopharmacology-A Bibliometric Analysis of a Field of Research Meandering Between Medicine and Food Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Heinrich, Michael; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2018-01-01

    Background: The research into bioactive natural products of medicinal plants has a long tradition, but ethnopharmacology as a well-defined field of research has a relatively short history, only dating back 50 years. Aims: With the fast development of this field and its global importance especially in the fast developing economies of Asia it is timely to assess the most influential articles (as measured by citations) and to identify important drivers and research trends in this field. Methods: Scopus was searched to identify relevant articles which were assessed by all three authors. The 100 most cited articles were identified and analyzed. Bibliometric software (VOSviewer) was utilized to supplement the analysis and to generate a term map that visualized the citation patterns of the 100 articles containing different terms. Results: Forty-four of the 100 articles are reviews. On average, each of the 100 articles had 632 citations and since publication was cited 43 times annually. The four core journals were Journal of Ethnopharmacology ( n = 17), Food Chemistry ( n = 7), Life Sciences ( n = 5), and Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ( n = 4). Anti-oxidant effects appeared to be a recurring and highly cited topic, whereas the links into drug discovery and neuropharmacology seemed to be less strong. Numerous medicinal plants and functional foods were the foci of research, and the foci shifted when comparing pre-2000 and post-2000 publications (with the later involving a broader spectrum of plants and foods and a wider range of biological effects). Contributions largely came from Asia, and also from the Americas, Africa, and Oceania, besides Europe. Conclusion: We have identified and analyzed the 100 most-cited articles in ethnopharmacology. Within 50 years the field has gained a profile and while conventionally often linked to "traditional knowledge," drug discovery and some areas of pharmacology, this analysis highlights its emerging importance in the context

  19. Guide for dosimetry in radiation research on food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This guide covers the minimum requirements for dosimetry and absorbed-dose validation needed to conduct research on the irradiation of food and agricultural products. Such research includes establishment of the quantitative relationship between the absorbed dose and the relevant effects in these products. This guide also describes the overall need for dosimetry in such research, and in reporting of the results. This guide is intended for use by research scientists in the food and agricultural communities, and not just scientists conducting irradiation research. It, therefore, includes more tutorial information than most other ASTM and ISO/ASTM dosimetry standards for radiation processing. This guide is in no way intended to limit the flexibility of the experimenter in the experimental design. However, the radiation source and experimental set up should be chosen such that the results of the experiment will be beneficial and understandable to other scientists, regulatory agencies, and the food and agricultural communities. The effects produced by ionizing radiation in biological systems depend on a large number of factors which may be physical, physiological, or chemical. Although not treated in detail in this guide, quantitative data of environmental factors that may affect the absorbed-dose response of dosimeters, such as temperature and moisture content in the food or agricultural products should be reported. The overall uncertainty in the absorbed-dose measurement and the inherent absorbed-dose range within the specimen should be taken into account in the design of an experiment. The guide covers research conducted using the following types of ionizing radiation: gamma rays, bremsstrahlung X-rays, and electron beams. This guide does not include other aspects of radiation processing research, such as planning of the experimental design. Dosimetry must be considered as an integral part of the experimental design. The guide does not include dosimetry for irradiator

  20. Food security and food insecurity in Europe: An analysis of the academic discourse (1975-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Anita; Kjærnes, Unni

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we address the academic discourse on food insecurity and food security in Europe as expressed in articles published in scientific journals in the period 1975 to 2013. The analysis indicates that little knowledge has been produced on this subject, and that the limited research that has been produced tends to focus on the production of food rather than on people's access to food. The lack of knowledge about European food insecurity is particularly alarming in these times, which are characterised by increasing social inequalities and poverty, as well as shifting policy regimes. More empirical, comparative and longitudinal research is needed to survey the extent of food security problems across European countries over time. There is also a need to identify groups at risk of food insecurity as well as legal, economic, practical, social, and psychological constraints hindering access to appropriate and sufficient food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevention of childhood obesity and food policies in Latin America: from research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C K; Rabadan-Diehl, C; Rubinstein, A; Calvillo, A; Corvalán, C; Batis, C; Jacoby, E; Vorkoper, S; Kline, L; Ewart-Pierce, E; Rivera, J A

    2017-07-01

    Addressing childhood obesity in Latin America requires a package of multisectoral, evidence-based policies that enable environments conducive to healthy lifestyles. Identify and examine key elements to translating research into effective obesity policies in Latin America. We examined obesity prevention policies through case studies developed with an expert in the specific policy. Policies were selected based on their level of implementation, visibility and potential impact to reduce childhood obesity. They include: (i) excise taxes on sugar sweetened beverages and energy-dense foods; (ii) front-of-package food label legislation; (iii) trans fatty acids removal from processed foods; and (iv) Ciclovías recreativas or 'open streets'. Case studies were coded to identify components that explained successful implementation and sustainability using the Complex Adaptive Health Systems framework. The analysis identified key elements for effective and sustainable policy, including evidence justifying policy; evidence-based advocacy by civil society; political will; and legislation and skillful negotiations across government, academia, the private sector and civil society. Scientific evidence and evaluation played an important role in achieving tipping points for policies' launch and sustain effective implementation. Well-coordinated, intersectoral partnerships are needed to successfully implement evidence-based anti-obesity policies. Prospective policy research may be useful for advancing knowledge translation. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  2. Advancing food, nutrition, and health research in Europe by connecting and building research infrastructures in a DISH-RI: Results of the EuroDISH project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Harriëtte M.; Eijssen, Lars M.T.; Geurts, Marjolein

    2018-01-01

    more effectively. Approach In the EuroDISH project we mapped existing RIs in the food and health area in Europe, identified outstanding needs, and synthesised this into a conceptual design of a pan-European DISH-RI. The DISH model was used to describe and structure the research area: Determinants...... of food choice, Intake of foods and nutrients, Status and functional markers of nutritional health, and Health and disease risk. Key findings The need to develop RIs in the food and health domain clearly emerged from the EuroDISH project. It showed the necessity for a unique interdisciplinary and multi......Background Research infrastructures (RIs) are essential to advance research on the relationship between food, nutrition, and health. RIs will facilitate innovation and allow insights at the systems level which are required to design (public health) strategies that will address societal challenges...

  3. Developing an agenda for research about policies to improve access to healthy foods in rural communities: a concept mapping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Policies that improve access to healthy, affordable foods may improve population health and reduce health disparities. In the United States most food access policy research focuses on urban communities even though residents of rural communities face disproportionately higher risk for nutrition-related chronic diseases compared to residents of urban communities. The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the factors associated with access to healthy, affordable food in rural communities in the United States; and (2) prioritize a meaningful and feasible rural food policy research agenda. Methods This study was conducted by the Rural Food Access Workgroup (RFAWG), a workgroup facilitated by the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network. A national sample of academic and non-academic researchers, public health and cooperative extension practitioners, and other experts who focus on rural food access and economic development was invited to complete a concept mapping process that included brainstorming the factors that are associated with rural food access, sorting and organizing the factors into similar domains, and rating the importance of policies and research to address these factors. As a last step, RFAWG members convened to interpret the data and establish research recommendations. Results Seventy-five participants in the brainstorming exercise represented the following sectors: non-extension research (n = 27), non-extension program administration (n = 18), “other” (n = 14), policy advocacy (n = 10), and cooperative extension service (n = 6). The brainstorming exercise generated 90 distinct statements about factors associated with rural food access in the United States; these were sorted into 5 clusters. Go Zones were established for the factors that were rated highly as both a priority policy target and a priority for research. The highest ranked policy and research priorities include strategies designed to

  4. Research on the Sensory Design and Evaluation System for Food Shape and Color

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Yang

    2015-01-01

    Food sensory analysis technology is an important branch of Food Science, it is significant in new products development and innovation in food industry. In this study, food sensory analysis and evaluation technologies were studied based on the development and characters of food science. The results showed that sensory analysis could not only help in grasping characters of different food products, but also provide physicochemical and practice basis for food production management and process con...

  5. Drosophila melanogaster as a Versatile Model Organism in Food and Nutrition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Stefanie; Lüersen, Kai; Wagner, Anika E; Rimbach, Gerald

    2018-04-18

    Drosophila melanogaster has been widely used in the biological sciences as a model organism. Drosophila has a relatively short life span of 60-80 days, which makes it attractive for life span studies. Moreover, approximately 60% of the fruit fly genes are orthologs to mammals. Thus, metabolic and signal transduction pathways are highly conserved. Maintenance and reproduction of Drosophila do not require sophisticated equipment and are rather cheap. Furthermore, there are fewer ethical issues involved in experimental Drosophila research compared with studies in laboratory rodents, such as rats and mice. Drosophila is increasingly recognized as a model organism in food and nutrition research. Drosophila is often fed complex solid diets based on yeast, corn, and agar. There are also so-called holidic diets available that are defined in terms of their amino acid, fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, and trace element compositions. Feed intake, body composition, locomotor activity, intestinal barrier function, microbiota, cognition, fertility, aging, and life span can be systematically determined in Drosophila in response to dietary factors. Furthermore, diet-induced pathophysiological mechanisms including inflammation and stress responses may be evaluated in the fly under defined experimental conditions. Here, we critically evaluate Drosophila melanogaster as a versatile model organism in experimental food and nutrition research, review the corresponding data in the literature, and make suggestions for future directions of research.

  6. Meeting Expanding Needs to Collect Food Intake Specificity: The Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanHeel, Nancy; Pettit, Janet; Rice, Barbara; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    Food and nutrient databases are populated with data obtained from a variety of sources including USDA Reference Tables, scientific journals, food manufacturers and foreign food tables. The food and nutrient database maintained by the Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) at the University of Minnesota is continually updated with current nutrient data and continues to be expanded with additional nutrient fields to meet diverse research endeavors. Data are strictly evaluated for reliability and relevance before incorporation into the database; however, the values are obtained from various sources and food samples rather than from direct chemical analysis of specific foods. Precise nutrient values for specific foods are essential to the nutrition program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Specific foods to be included in the menus of astronauts are chemically analyzed at the Johnson Space Center for selected nutrients. A request from NASA for a method to enter the chemically analyzed nutrient values for these space flight food items into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) software resulted in modification of the database and interview system for use by NASA, with further modification to extend the method for related uses by more typical research studies.

  7. A methodology to promote business development from research outcomes in food science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L. Cardoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Valorization of knowledge produced in research units has been a major challenge for research universities in contemporary societies. The prevailing forces have led these institutions to develop a “third mission”, the facilitation of technology transfer and activity in an entrepreneurial paradigm. Effective management of challenges encountered in the development of academic entrepreneurship and the associated valorization of knowledge produced by universities are major factors to bridge the gap between research and innovation in Europe.The need to improve the existing institutional knowledge valorization processes, concerning entrepreneurship and business development and the processes required were discussed.A case study was designed to describe the institutional knowledge valorization process in a food science and technology research unit and a related incubator, during a five year evaluation period that ended in 2012.The knowledge valorization processes benefited from the adoption of a structured framework methodology that led to ideas and teams from a business model generation to client development, in parallel, when possible, with an agile product/service development.Although academic entrepreneurship engagement could be improved, this case study demonstrated that stronger skills development was needed to enable the researcher to be more aware of business development fundamentals and therefore contribute to research decisions and the valorisation of individual and institutional knowledge assets. It was noted that the timing for involvement of companies in the research projects or programs varied with the nature of the research.

  8. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  9. Food-related lifestyles in Singapore: Preliminary testing of a Western European research instrument in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Brunsø, Karen

    1999-01-01

    The food-related lifestyle instrument developed by the MAPP research group has, up till now, been applied mainly in the context of European cultures. The purpose of the present study is to apply the food-related life style instrument in a new and very different cultural setting, to compare result...

  10. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  11. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  12. Agroecology in Europe: Research, Education, Collective Action Networks, and Alternative Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wezel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroecology is considered with different focus and weight in different parts of the world as a social and political movement, as science, and as practice. Despite its multitude of definitions, agroecology has begun in Europe to develop in different regional, national and continental networks of researchers, practitioners, advocates and movements. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive overview about these different developments and networks. Therefore, this paper attempts to document and provide a mapping of the development of European agroecology in its diverse forms. Through a literature review, interviews, active conference participation, and an extensive internet search we have collected information about the current state and development of agroecology in Europe. Agroecological research and higher education exist more in western and northern Europe, but farm schools and farmer-to-farmer training are also present in other regions. Today a large variety of topics are studied at research institutions. There is an increasing number of bottom-up agroecological initiatives and national or continental networks and movements. Important movements are around food sovereignty, access to land and seeds. Except for France, there are very few concrete policies for agroecology in Europe. Agroecology is increasingly linked to different fields of agri-food systems. This includes Community Supported Agriculture systems, but also agroecological territories, and some examples of labelling products. To amplify agroecology in Europe in the coming years, policy development will be crucial and proponents of agroecology must join forces and work hand-in-hand with the many stakeholders engaged in initiatives to develop more sustainable agriculture and food systems.

  13. Integrating Food-Water-Energy Research through a Socio-Ecosystem Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Maass

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The nexus approach helps in recognizing the link between water, energy, and food production systems, emphasizing the need to manage them in a more integrated way. The socio-ecosystem (SES approach, however, goes beyond that, by incorporating the regulation and supporting services in the management equation. Changes in ecosystem integrity affect the delivery of ecosystem services to society, which affects local people's well-being, creating a feedback mechanism regarding management strategies. The SES approach makes explicit the “human-bio-physical” nature of our interaction with ecosystems, highlighting the need for a more integrated and interconnected social-ecological research perspective. In addition, the SES approach makes more explicit the multi-scale character of the ecological processes that structure and maintain social-ecological systems. Water dynamics have an important role in shaping ecosystem's structure and functioning, as well as determining the systems capacity for delivering provisioning services. The tropical dry-deciduous forest (TDF, is particularly useful in studying water-food-energy trade-off interactions. Recently, a category 5 hurricane landed in the study area (Mexico's Pacific coast, triggering various social and ecological problems. This event is challenging the current forest management strategies in the region. The extreme hydrometeorological event created an excellent opportunity to test and promote the SES approach for more integrated food-water-energy research. By using the SES approach within our long-term socio-ecological research project, it was easier to identify opportunities for tackling trade-offs between maintaining the transformation of the system and a more sustainable alternative: promoting the maintenance of the ecosystem's integrity and its capacity to deliver provisioning and regulating services.

  14. Determination of human pathogen profiles in food by quality assured microbial assays. Proceedings of a final Research Coordination Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-15

    This publication includes the results of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). Major food microbial contaminants were identified in some of the main foods exported in the international food market. Thousands of samples in a wide variety of foods were selected to be studied during different points of the food chain: meat (chicken, beef and pork), seafood (shellfish such as shrimp, prawns, scampi, squid, and lobsters, and different types of fish such as salmon, cuttle fish, rohu, fin herring, catfish, milkfish, and tilapia), spices (pepper, paprika), frozen vegetables (asparagus, peas and corn) and other products (coconut and dairy products). The analysis included pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. (several serotypes), Escherichia coli, E. coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio choleare, Vibrio parahaemolitycus and Yersinia enterolítica. This publication includes data that may be used to conduct better risk assessments on food by importing as well as exporting countries.

  15. RA research nuclear reactor operation in forced regime, Annex 5; Prilog 5 - Rad istrazivackog nuklearnog reaktora RA u forsiranom rezimu, Prvo saopstenje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Reaktor RA, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-12-15

    In order to increase the flux and experimental potentials of the RA reactor, properties of the reactor operating in the forced regime have been inspected four times, twice with the spent fuel (core C), and twice with partly fresh fuel (cores E and F). Forced regime means power higher than nominal 6.5 MW. From the analyses of technology parameters during operation in the forced regime at power levels of 7 and 11 MW, state and behaviour of the components, efficiency of the biological protection and other parameters it was concluded that the reactor operation is possible at power levels of 10 MW during a whole year, and under certain conditions even longer operation at power levels up to 15 MW. This paper examines the reactor operation conditions in the forced regime and gives conclusions related to real increase of the experimental possibilities, isotope production and economic factors. Radi povecanja fluksa i eksperimentalnih mogucnosti reaktora RA, cetiri puta su proverene osobine reaktora u forsiranom rezimu, tj. na snagama vecim od nominalne (6,5 MW) i to dva puta sa istrosenim gorivom (jezgro C) i dva puta sa delimicno svezim (jezgra E i F). Iz analize tehnoloskih parametara u toku eksperimentalno rada reaktora u forsiranom rezimu na snagama od 7 do 11 MW, stanja i ponasanja opreme, efikasnosti bioloske zastite i ostalih parametara, zakljucuje se da je moguc permanentan rad reaktora tokom cele godine na snagama do 10 MW, a pod izvesnim uslovima i duzi rad na snagama do 15 MW. U radu su diskutovani uslovi rada reaktora u forsiranom rezimu i donose se zakljucci o realnom povecanju eksperimentalnih mogucnosti, proizvodnje radioizotopa i o ekonomskim faktorima (author)

  16. Research regarding biodegradable properties of food polymeric products under microorganism activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opran, Constantin; Lazar, Veronica; Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Ditu, Lia Mara

    2018-02-01

    Aim of this research is the structural analysis by comparison of the biodegradable properties of two polymeric products made by non-biodegradable polymeric material (polypropylene TIPPLEN H949 A) and biodegradable polymeric material (ECOVIO IS 1335), under microorganism activity in order to give the best solution for the manufacture of food packaging biodegradable products. It presents the results of experimental determinations on comparative analysis of tensile strength for the two types of polymers. The sample weight variations after fungal biodegradation activity revealed that, after 3 months, there are no significant changes in polymeric substratum for non-biodegradable polymeric. The microscopically analysis showed that the fungal filaments did not strongly adhered on the non-biodegradable polymeric material, instead, both filamentous fungi strains adhered and covered the surface of the biodegradable sample with germinated filamentous conidia. The spectral analysis of polymer composition revealed that non-biodegradable polymer polypropylene spectra are identical for control and for samples that were exposed to fungal activity, suggesting that this type of sample was not degraded by the fungi strains. Instead, for biodegradable polymer sample, it was observed significant structural changes across multiple absorption bands, suggesting enzyme activity manifested mainly by Aspergillus niger strain. Structural analysis of interdisciplinary research results, lead, to achieving optimal injection molded technology emphasizing technological parameters, in order to obtain food packaging biodegradable products.

  17. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  18. A systematic review of sub-national food insecurity research in South Africa: Missed opportunities for policy insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity is an intractable problem in South Africa. The country has a tradition of evidence-based decision making, grounded in the findings of national surveys. However, the rich insights from sub-national surveys remain a largely untapped resource for understandings of the contextual experience of food insecurity. A web-based search identified 169 sub-national food insecurity studies conducted in the post-apartheid period between 1994 and 2014. The systematic review found that the studies used 27 different measures of food insecurity, confounding the comparative analysis of food insecurity at this level. While social grants have brought a measure of poverty relief at household level, unaffordable diets were the root cause of food insecurity. The increasing consumption of cheaper, more available and preferred ‘globalised’ foods with high energy content and low nutritional value lead to overweight and obesity alongside child stunting. Unless a comparable set of indicators is used in such surveys, they are not able to provide comparable information on the scope and scale of the problem. Policy makers should be engaging with researchers to learn from these studies, while researchers need to share this wealth of sub-national study findings with government to strengthen food security planning, monitoring, and evaluation at all levels. PMID:28829787

  19. A systematic review of sub-national food insecurity research in South Africa: Missed opportunities for policy insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Misselhorn

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is an intractable problem in South Africa. The country has a tradition of evidence-based decision making, grounded in the findings of national surveys. However, the rich insights from sub-national surveys remain a largely untapped resource for understandings of the contextual experience of food insecurity. A web-based search identified 169 sub-national food insecurity studies conducted in the post-apartheid period between 1994 and 2014. The systematic review found that the studies used 27 different measures of food insecurity, confounding the comparative analysis of food insecurity at this level. While social grants have brought a measure of poverty relief at household level, unaffordable diets were the root cause of food insecurity. The increasing consumption of cheaper, more available and preferred 'globalised' foods with high energy content and low nutritional value lead to overweight and obesity alongside child stunting. Unless a comparable set of indicators is used in such surveys, they are not able to provide comparable information on the scope and scale of the problem. Policy makers should be engaging with researchers to learn from these studies, while researchers need to share this wealth of sub-national study findings with government to strengthen food security planning, monitoring, and evaluation at all levels.

  20. Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus; Applebaum, Rhona; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard; Dwyer, Johanna; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne; Miller, Sanford; Tancredi, Doris; Weaver, Connie; Woteki, Catherine; Wedral, Elaine

    2009-05-01

    There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. While biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion, to date, has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this paper, set out proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines, regarding industry funding, for protecting the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, specifying ground rules for industry-sponsored research. The paper, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. The Guiding Principles are as follows. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall: 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively; according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) prior to the commencement of studies, ensure that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time-frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations

  1. Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Clydesdale, Fergus M; Applebaum, Rhona S; Atkinson, Stephanie; Black, Richard M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Hentges, Eric; Higley, Nancy A; Lefevre, Michael; Lupton, Joanne R; Miller, Sanford A; Tancredi, Doris L; Weaver, Connie M; Woteki, Catherine E; Wedral, Elaine

    2009-05-01

    There has been significant public debate about the susceptibility of research to biases of various kinds. The dialogue has extended to the peer-reviewed literature, scientific conferences, the mass media, government advisory bodies, and beyond. Whereas biases can come from myriad sources, the overwhelming focus of the discussion to date has been on industry-funded science. Given the critical role that industry has played and will continue to play in the research process, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America Working Group on Guiding Principles has, in this article, proposed conflict-of-interest guidelines regarding industry funding to protect the integrity and credibility of the scientific record, particularly with respect to health, nutrition, and food-safety science. Eight principles are enumerated, which specify the ground rules for industry-sponsored research. This article, which issues a challenge to the broader scientific community to address all bias issues, is only a first step; the document is intended to be dynamic, prompting ongoing discussion and refinement. In the conduct of public/private research relationships, all relevant parties shall 1) conduct or sponsor research that is factual, transparent, and designed objectively, and, according to accepted principles of scientific inquiry, the research design will generate an appropriately phrased hypothesis and the research will answer the appropriate questions, rather than favor a particular outcome; 2) require control of both study design and research itself to remain with scientific investigators; 3) not offer or accept remuneration geared to the outcome of a research project; 4) ensure, before the commencement of studies, that there is a written agreement that the investigative team has the freedom and obligation to attempt to publish the findings within some specified time frame; 5) require, in publications and conference presentations, full signed disclosure of all financial

  2. A social-ecological systems framework for food systems research: accommodating transformation systems and their products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R. Marshall

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems (SES framework was developed to support communication across the multiple disciplines concerned with sustainable provision and/or appropriation of common-pool resources (CPRs. Transformation activities (e.g. processing, distribution, retailing in which value is added to resource units appropriated from CPRs were assumed in developing the framework to be exogenous to the SES of focal concern. However, provision and appropriation of CPRs are nowadays often closely integrated with the market economy, so significant interdependence exists between many CPR provision/appropriation activities and the activities in which appropriated resource units are transformed into the products ultimately marketed. This paper presents a modified version of the SES framework designed to better account for transformation activities in order to be more suitable for diagnosing those sustainability problems where it is inappropriate to define all such activities as exogenous to the SES of focal concern. The need for such modification was identified in a research project examining the challenges faced by Cambodian cattle-owning smallholders in accessing value chains for premium-priced beef. Hence the immediate focus was on strengthening the SES framework’s value for facilitating a multi-disciplinary diagnostic approach to food system research projects of this kind. The modified SES framework’s potential in this respect was illustrated by a preliminary application that drew on literature reviewed for the Cambodian project. Significant further potential exists in using the modified framework as a foundation from which to develop a version that is suitable for application to SESs in which transformation systems are appropriately represented as endogenous. Maintaining consistency with the standard SES framework will enable communication to occur more effectively between food system researchers and CPR scholars more generally.

  3. What Are the Main Drivers of Young Consumers Purchasing Traditional Food Products? European Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrgiakos, Leonidas

    2018-01-01

    In this research, the attitude of European young adults (age 18 to 30 years) regarding their consumption of local and traditional products was examined. The survey was conducted on a sample of 836 consumers from seven European countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France). Data collection was made by distributing a developed questionnaire through social media and university mail services. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify consumer perception comparing the overall sample with two subsets (consumers from Eastern and Western European countries). Six major factors were revealed: consumer behavior, uncertainty about health issues, cost, influence of media and friends and availability in store. Young adults had a positive attitude to local and traditional food products, but they expressed insecurity about health issues. Cost factor had less of an influence on interviewees from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly). Influence of close environment was a different factor in Eastern countries compared to Western ones, for which it was common to see an influence from media. Females and older people (25–30 years old) have fewer doubts about Traditional Food Products, while media have a high influence on consumers’ decisions. The aim of this survey was to identify the consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries. PMID:29439536

  4. What Are the Main Drivers of Young Consumers Purchasing Traditional Food Products? European Field Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vlontzos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the attitude of European young adults (age 18 to 30 years regarding their consumption of local and traditional products was examined. The survey was conducted on a sample of 836 consumers from seven European countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France. Data collection was made by distributing a developed questionnaire through social media and university mail services. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to identify consumer perception comparing the overall sample with two subsets (consumers from Eastern and Western European countries. Six major factors were revealed: consumer behavior, uncertainty about health issues, cost, influence of media and friends and availability in store. Young adults had a positive attitude to local and traditional food products, but they expressed insecurity about health issues. Cost factor had less of an influence on interviewees from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly. Influence of close environment was a different factor in Eastern countries compared to Western ones, for which it was common to see an influence from media. Females and older people (25–30 years old have fewer doubts about Traditional Food Products, while media have a high influence on consumers’ decisions. The aim of this survey was to identify the consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries.

  5. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry in forensic science and food adulteration research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B.

    2009-01-01

    Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (SIRMS) is an established technique for the determination of origin of geological, biological, chemical and physio-chemical samples/materials. With the development of highly precise mass spectrometers, the stable isotope ratio determination of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have gained considerable interest in the fields of forensic science and food authentication. Natural variations in the isotopic composition of lighter elements occur due to fractionation effects, resulting in the finger printing of specific isotope ratio values that are characteristic of the origin, purity, and manufacturing processes of the products and their constituents. Forensic science uses scientific and technical methods to investigate traceable evidence of criminal acts. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has been applied to numerous aspects of the forensic science. The analysis of explosives such as ammonium nitrate, gun powder and tri-nitro-toluene (TNT), cases of murder, armed robbery, drug smuggling, terrorism, arson and hit and run traffic accidents are a few of them. The main types of geological evidences in such cases are mud, soil, rocks, sand, gravel, dust particles, biological materials, organic particles and anthropogenic components. Stable isotopes are used as tools to corroborate and confirm the evidential leads in the investigation of such crimes. The variation in natural abundances of carbon and nitrogen and their isotopic ratios δ 13 C and δ 15 N can identify links between items found at crime scene with those of suspect. The paper discusses the applications of SIRMS in the field of forensic science and food adulteration research

  6. 'CANDLE' burnup regime after LWR regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nagata, Akito

    2008-01-01

    CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) burnup strategy can derive many merits. From safety point of view, the change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and the core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. About 40% of natural or depleted uranium undergoes fission without the conventional reprocessing and enrichment. If the LWR produced energy of X Joules, the CANDLE reactor can produce about 50X Joules from the depleted uranium left at the enrichment facility for the LWR fuel. If we can say LWRs have produced energy sufficient for full 20 years, we can produce the energy for 1000 years by using the CANDLE reactors with depleted uranium. We need not mine any uranium ore, and do not need reprocessing facility. The burnup of spent fuel becomes 10 times. Therefore, the spent fuel amount per produced energy is also reduced to one-tenth. The details of the scenario of CANDLE burnup regime after LWR regime will be presented at the symposium. (author)

  7. Cloud regimes as phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechmann, Samuel; Hottovy, Scott

    2017-11-01

    Clouds are repeatedly identified as a leading source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. Of particular importance are stratocumulus clouds, which can appear as either (i) closed cells that reflect solar radiation back to space or (ii) open cells that allow solar radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Here we show that these clouds regimes - open versus closed cells - fit the paradigm of a phase transition. In addition, this paradigm characterizes pockets of open cells (POCs) as the interface between the open- and closed-cell regimes, and it identifies shallow cumulus clouds as a regime of higher variability. This behavior can be understood using an idealized model for the dynamics of atmospheric water as a stochastic diffusion process. Similar viewpoints of deep convection and self-organized criticality will also be discussed. With these new conceptual viewpoints, ideas from statistical mechanics could potentially be used for understanding uncertainties related to clouds in the climate system and climate predictions. The research of S.N.S. is partially supported by a Sloan Research Fellowship, ONR Young Investigator Award N00014-12-1-0744, and ONR MURI Grant N00014-12-1-0912.

  8. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Young

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11, moderate (11, and low (9. Overarching analytical themes included: 1 safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2 most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3 consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed.

  10. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers’ perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11), moderate (11), and low (9). Overarching analytical themes included: 1) safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2) most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3) consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed. PMID:27907161

  11. Planning adaptation for food and farming: lessons from 40 year's research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Hannah; Chambwera, Muyeye; Murray, Laurel

    2012-05-15

    Local farmers and pastoralists in poor countries have long coped with droughts, floods and variable rainfall patterns. This first-hand experience is invaluable for those working on climate change adaptation policies, but how do we access it? The International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) has 40 years' experience working alongside vulnerable communities to help inform regional, national and global policies. Our research has shown that measures to increase climate change resilience must view food, energy, water and waste management systems as interconnected and mutually dependent. This holistic approach must also be applied to economic analysis on adaptation planning. Similarly, it is vital to use traditional knowledge and management skills, which can further support adaptation planning. Taking these lessons into account, we can then address the emerging policy challenges that we face.

  12. Principles, application areas and an example of risk assessment conducted at the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Matthias; Paisley, Larry; Nørgaard, Julie Hostrup

    2004-01-01

    The Department for Epidemiology and Risk Analysis at the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research (DFVF) is concerned with risk analyses in the areas of food safety, zoo noses, antimicrobial resistance and OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) list A and B diseases. The DFVF...... is responsible for the risk assessment component of the risk analysis process and provides advice and support for the risk management and risk communication component, which is generally under the auspices of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA). The paper presents guidelines for the conduct...

  13. Research and analysis of modernization processes in food industry enterprises of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzhimska K.O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The modernization of domestic enterprises is a prerequisite for the integration of Ukraine into the European Union, first of all it concerns food industry enterprises, because they have the greatest potential for access to European markets with their own products. Accelerated modernization will provide an opportunity to improve the quality and safety of domestic food products and bring them closer to world standards. The methods and methodology of economic and statistical analysis remain the focus of the scholars. The analysis of trends, directions of development, and results of activities creates a basis for the adoption of quality management decisions, both at the strategic and operational levels. The study of the modernization process is impossible without the use of methods of economic and statistical analysis for a general evaluation of its state and efficiency. The paper proposes the relative indicators of asset value dynamics, residual value of fixed assets, volumes of sales, financial results before taxation, net profit for a generalizing assessment of the modernization process. It is substantiated that the modernization process is effective if the growth rate of asset value is greater than one unit, the growth rate of the residual value of fixed assets increases the growth rate of assets, the growth rate of sales of products is greater than the growth rate of residual value of fixed assets, the rate of growth of financial results before taxation is higher than the pace, the growth of sales volume, the growth rate of net profit is higher than the growth rate of the financial result before taxation. Using the Spirmeno coefficient, the authors obtained following results: the modernization process was most effective in 2011–2012, the modernization processes in food industry sharply slowed down during 2013–2015, but due to the already formed potential, they continue confirming the integral indices of the state and efficiency of

  14. Research status and prospects of the radiation food science and biotechnology in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il; Song, Byum Suk; Byun, Myung Woo

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation Food has been approved in 52 countries worldwide. In Korea, 26 food items have been approved since 1987. Recently, the irradiation technology with high dose was applied for the development of Korean space foods. Besides the sanitary purpose, the irradiation technology was used for elimination of undesired products such as food allergens, nitrite, biogenic amines, and so on. In this paper, the status of irradiation in the field of food and other biotechnology in Korea will be presented. Food irradiation is known to be the best method for controlling pathogenic microorganisms and one of the best alternatives to the chemical fumigants or preservatives usually used for a sanitation treatment for international trade. Also, there are larger industrial groups dedicated to radiation processing other than food irradiation industry. In this paper, the status of irradiation food science and biotechnology in Korea will be presented

  15. Arctic circulation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. THE INFLUENCED FLOW REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril PANDI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The influenced flow regimes. The presence and activities ofhumanity influences the uniform environmental system, and in this context, therivers water resources. In concordance with this, the natural runoff regime suffersbigger and deeper changes. The nature of these changes depending on the type anddegree of water uses. The multitude of the use cause different types of influence,whit different quantitative aspects. In the same time, the influences havequalitative connotations, too, regarding to the modifications of the yearly watervolume runoff. So the natural runoff regime is modified. After analyzing thedistribution laws of the monthly runoff, there have been differenced four types ofinfluenced runoff regimes. In the excess type the influenced runoff is bigger thanthe natural, continuously in the whole year. The deficient type is characterized byinverse rapports like the first type, in the whole year. In the sinusoidal type, theinfluenced runoff is smaller than the natural in the period when the water isretained in the lake reservoirs, and in the depletion period the situation inverts. Atthe irregular type the ratio between influenced and natural runoff is changeable ina random meaner monthly. The recognition of the influenced regime and the gradeof influence are necessary in the evaluation and analysis of the usable hydrologicalriver resources, in the flood defence activities, in the complex scheme of thehydrographic basins, in the environment design and so on.

  17. Research on the Development Route of Internationalization Brand of Sports Nutrition Food

    OpenAIRE

    Haifang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it takes the interpretation of internationalization brand of sports nutrition food as the cutting point, by means of explaining the difficulties that Chinese sports nutrition food brand encountered at the present stage to explore the route of realizing the internationalization brand of sports nutrition food. With the rapid development of Chinese economic growth, the brand of Chinese sports nutrition food is also facing the fierce global market competition.

  18. New research gives further insights on O2-ingress in food packaging.

    OpenAIRE

    RAGAERT, Peter; VERMEULEN, An; BUNTINX, Mieke; PEETERS, Roos

    2014-01-01

    Diversity in food packaging has become increasingly important in the last decades due to different trends such as globalization and convenience. This has resulted amongst others in an increased need for certain barrier properties in order to guarantee the desired shelf-life of the packaged food product. In case of gas barrier properties, many food products need to be protected from O2 making on the one hand this parameter very important in evaluating new materials (e.g. bioplastics) for food ...

  19. Knowing What You Eat: Researchers Are Looking for Ways to Help People Cope with Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies and sensitivities have always been a public health problem but are becoming more prevalent worldwide. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reports that millions of Americans have allergic reactions to food each year. More than 17 million Europeans have a food allergy, and hospital admissions for severe reactions in children have risen sevenfold over the past decade, according to the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

  20. Food and meals in caring institutions - a small dive into research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kai Victor

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - With the growing older population, the increasing interest in the elderly's eating habits and the meal situation go hand in hand and are challenges in many countries, including Norway. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, part of an ongoing project in Norway, address four categories of elderly people: healthy elderly (HE), old people with home care, elderly living in institutions, and critical ill elderly. Design/methodology/approach - The aim of this study was to investigate related articles concerning food and the elderly in the four identified categories, defining six different meal experience categories to disclose possible gaps in the research in terms of core product, room, personal service, company, atmosphere, and management control systems (MCS). Database searches, conducted through JSTOR and Web of Science, started with words in combination with "elderly and meal experiences" and were narrowed down to the most relevant papers with words from the six meal experience categories. Ultimately, 21 of 51 downloaded papers from international journals were reviewed. Findings - A comparison of the four elderly groups was made across the six different meal experience categories, which disclosed several gaps. Among the 21 papers, five focused on HE, 12 on older people living with home care, 16 on elderly living in institutions, and one on critical ill elderly. The specific under-researched gaps include room, company, atmosphere, and MCS. Research limitations/implications - Future research will need to investigate these groups more thoroughly, and the research should concentrate on the HE and critical ill in connection with the six meal experience aspects. Originality/value - The combination of meal experience aspects towards different elderly categories is an original perspective on the aim of the literature review.

  1. Contributions of USDA-ARS Livestock Entomology Research to Meet Food Security Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world population is over 7 billion and food insecurity threatens at least 1 billion people globally. Food demand is expected to increase two- to threefold by 2050. Of the world’s additional food needs, 70% can be produced with new and existing agricultural technologies. The U.S. industry produci...

  2. Can Old Regimes Handle New Wars?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Troels

    Research on New Wars argues that since the 1980s states and regimes have become more vulnerable to violence from non-state actors. Two developments in the Sahel region support the New Wars thesis: an increase in Islamist radicalization and new access to the global black market, both of which......, the paper finds that regimes in the Sahel region are still able to cope with the rise in non-state threats. The paper first shortly compares the longevity of the present regimes in the Sahel region to all previous ones, second examines in-depth how Chad and Mali fight the insurgents. Findings are that since...

  3. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  4. The role of research in the future of the agro-food sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agro-food industry,in line with the European Commission’s White Paper on Food Safety,it is now firmly acknowledged that quality must be planned and developed through- out the food production chain, irrespective of whether the food is of plant or animal origin. Food safety depends on all operators in the food sector, specifically with regard to foods of animal origin,where safety begins with animal nutrition and,even before that,in the “field”. The objective of food safety must be viewed in the context of a dynamic situation which is the result of advances in knowledge,the development of investigative tools and the results sought in terms of guarantees to be provided to consumers. With respect to food of animal origin, present-day consumers are concerned about a series of problems which,apart from intrinsic food safety issues,ultimately involve a whole set of aspects typical of the productive system.These include worker protection,environmen- tal safeguards and,today,even animal welfare,though the possibility of identifying which foods are obtained with “animal-friendly”methods is still hardly present in many countries, given current labelling practices.

  5. Detecting spatial regimes in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Eason, Tarsha; Nelson, R. John; Angeler, David G.; Barichievy, Chris; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Graham, Nicholas A.J.; Granholm, Dean; Gunderson, Lance; Knutson, Melinda; Nash, Kirsty L.; Spanbauer, Trisha; Stow, Craig A.; Allen, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Research on early warning indicators has generally focused on assessing temporal transitions with limited application of these methods to detecting spatial regimes. Traditional spatial boundary detection procedures that result in ecoregion maps are typically based on ecological potential (i.e. potential vegetation), and often fail to account for ongoing changes due to stressors such as land use change and climate change and their effects on plant and animal communities. We use Fisher information, an information theory-based method, on both terrestrial and aquatic animal data (U.S. Breeding Bird Survey and marine zooplankton) to identify ecological boundaries, and compare our results to traditional early warning indicators, conventional ecoregion maps and multivariate analyses such as nMDS and cluster analysis. We successfully detected spatial regimes and transitions in both terrestrial and aquatic systems using Fisher information. Furthermore, Fisher information provided explicit spatial information about community change that is absent from other multivariate approaches. Our results suggest that defining spatial regimes based on animal communities may better reflect ecological reality than do traditional ecoregion maps, especially in our current era of rapid and unpredictable ecological change.

  6. Food chemistry. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, W.

    1989-01-01

    This second edition of the textbook deals with all essential aspects of food chemistry. The revision improved in particular the chapters on food preservation, including irradiation of food, food additives, and pollutants and residues, including radionuclides. The chapter on the German legal regime for foodstuffs has been updated to cover the recent amendments of the law, and the information on processes applied in food technology has been largely enhanced. (VHE) With 153 figs., 78 tabs [de

  7. Contributions of the life course perspective to research on food decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethington, Elaine; Johnson-Askew, Wendy L

    2009-12-01

    The life course perspective (LCP) has emerged as a powerful organizing framework for the study of health, illness, and mortality. LCP represents a "whole life" analysis perspective which originated in the field of sociology. Its concepts are increasingly applied to understanding the development of chronic disease over long periods of time in the human life span. A missing link, however, in the adaptation of the LCP to health research, is the insight the LCP may offer into understanding the societal, social network, and family contexts that frame stability and change in dietary behavior. This paper reviews key concepts that comprise the LCP but primarily focuses on applications that have relevance to food decision making in social context. A case study of chronic work-family stress and perceived time scarcity as barriers to dietary improvement is included. Illustrative findings are presented on dietary behavior in a diverse sample of lower-income working parents. This paper also offers ideas on increasing the contributions of the LCP to nutritional research.

  8. Contributions of the Life Course Perspective to Research on Food Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Askew, Wendy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The life course perspective (LCP) has emerged as a powerful organizing framework for the study of health, illness, and mortality. LCP represents a “whole life” analysis perspective which originated in the field of sociology. Methods Its concepts are increasingly applied to understanding the development of chronic disease over long periods of time in the human life span. A missing link, however, in the adaptation of the LCP to health research, is the insight the LCP may offer into understanding the societal, social network, and family contexts that frame stability and change in dietary behavior. Results This paper reviews key concepts that comprise the LCP but primarily focuses on applications that have relevance to food decision making in social context. A case study of chronic work–family stress and perceived time scarcity as barriers to dietary improvement is included. Conclusion Illustrative findings are presented on dietary behavior in a diverse sample of lower-income working parents. This paper also offers ideas on increasing the contributions of the LCP to nutritional research. PMID:19890684

  9. Food Insecurity and Healthcare Costs: Research Strategies Using Local, State, and National Data Sources for Older Adults12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sun

    2013-01-01

    Food insecurity in older adults is a clinically relevant problem with important implications for healthcare costs; however, few studies have examined the relationship between food insecurity and the healthcare cost burden in older adults. It may be due in part to lack of appropriate data and methods to examine these issues in the existing datasets. It is critical to identify and obtain the data necessary for estimating healthcare costs associated with food insecurity and to explore specific mechanisms by which food insecurity is related to adverse health outcomes and associated healthcare costs. This paper discusses how to best utilize and link available, nationally representative datasets and develop infrastructure and procedures to establish state and local datasets. As an example, an innovative approach tested in Georgia to establish a state-level dataset in a sample of low-income, older adults in need of food assistance is discussed. In this approach, data from the state aging services client database and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data were linked. Such efforts are essential to estimate the healthcare cost burden of food-insecure older adults who have a particularly higher burden of chronic diseases and direct future research, program, and policy decisions to improve the food and healthcare security of low-income, older adults. PMID:23319122

  10. Cargo liability regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    There are at present at least three international regimes of maritime cargo liability in force in different countries of the world - the original Hague rules (1924), the updated version known as the Hague-Visby rules (1968, further amended 1979), and...

  11. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  12. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  13. Towards Food Security and Livelihoods of Low-income Women in central Uganda: Policy Implications based on action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom; Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2015-01-01

    Uganda is burdened with rising poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity. While most Ugandans depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, it is important to recognize that access to and control over resources by women and climate factors are central to the question of food security in Uganda....... However, a review of the literature demonstrates that policy options have poorly understood these interlinkages or tended to undermine them, especially the extent that these policies and programs put the necessary attention on the role of women farmers in food security. This paper presents part of a work...... in progress of a research project that seeks to investigate the interrelated effects of agricultural practices, access to and control over resources, as well as climate change on women’s food security in the urban and peri-urban areas of central Uganda. The paper not only considers how to turn...

  14. Ethnic/Racial Comparisons in Strategies Parents Use to Cope with Food Insecurity: A Systematic Review of Published Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Nipa; Rozmus, Cathy L; Grimes, Deanna E; Meininger, Janet C

    2018-03-16

    Food insecurity in US affects African Americans, Hispanic, and American Indians disproportionately compared to Caucasians. Ethnicity/race may influence the strategies parents use to reduce the effects of food insecurity. The purpose of this review is to compare coping strategies for food insecurity used by parents of different ethnicities/race as reported in published literature. A systematic search on PubMed and Embase yielded 983 studies, of which 13 studies met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. All groups used public and private assistance, social networks, nutrition related, and financial-related strategies. The limited evidence suggests that there are differences in how parents of different ethnicities/race apply these coping strategies. Current evidence is insufficient to confidently determine the extent of these differences. This review is a starting point for exploration of cultural differences in how parents of various ethnicities/race cope with food insecurity and identifies specific areas for further research.

  15. De Facto Regimes in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonte van Essen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous position of de facto regimes in international law has long been the subject of scholarly debate and a source of political conflict. An assessment of the current standing of these regimes in international law and the consequences of actions by international actors on this status has, however, been long overdue. The manner in which de facto regimes are regarded internationally has serious consequences for the individuals under the influence of this legal grey area. Therefore, the study into this problem and possible solutions is of great significance. The 2011 developments in Northern Africa underline the need of contemporary research into this area. This essay aims to clarify the position of de facto regimes in international law and the influence on their status by actions of international actors. The author first argues that de facto regimes have rights and obligations under international law, which provide them with (some form of international legal personality. He then pleads for a reconsideration of the contemporary legal treatment of these regimes. The author argues against the current system of government recognition and proposes a system that better addresses the needs of both de facto regimes and the international community. 

  16. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  17. Wholesomeness studies on irradiated foods. Past and future research within the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaytsev, A.N.; Shillinger, Yu.I.; Kamaldinova, Z.M.

    1975-11-01

    The concept of wholesomeness is based on the absence of induced radioactivity, conservation of the nutritive value of food, and absence of toxicological or mutagenic effects. The possible occurrence of Clostridium botulinum toxin in irradiated fish products is discussed. Evaluation of the nutritive value of irradiated food is discussed with regard to proteins and vitamins. Toxicity and mutagenicity studies are described. Feeding studies on the wholesomeness of irradiated food were conducted in the Soviet Union using potatoes, grain, dried fruits, meat, poultry, and fish. The need for further investigations on the biological value of irradiated foods is pointed out. (HLW)

  18. Research for the innovation of the agri-food system in international cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bocchi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, characterized by intense environmental, landscape and socio-economic-financial changes, unexpected issues concerning the primary sector are arising and asks to researchers an urgent and deep reformulation both of the conceptual and technological tools used in the applied research. The concept of innovation is now radically changed, starting from a prevailing formula of linear top-down technology transfer, which has characterized the green revolution of the 1960s, to nowadays approach characterized by the innovation of a complex system, aimed at creating sustainable and shared opportunities through economic and institutional development. Those who now work in public or private bodies oriented to research for innovation are struggling to maintain their specific study area, but within integrated schemes where technical and scientific aspects are in interaction with organizational, institutional and political issues. Innovation can tackle several issues: new products, new technologies, new markets, new procedures (institutions and new policies. The series of scientific and conceptual tools framed into the Agro-ecology domain seems appropriate to plan development initiatives of which the primary objective is ensuring a sustainable management of all the resources involved in agricultural production processes, while promoting food security and sovereignty, as well as protecting the rural landscape. By studying a target agro-ecosystem it is possible to identify and characterize the relationships between both the internal components and the system structures and functions at different levels of complexity of plot, farm and country, without neglecting the interactions among scientific, technological and socio-economic factors, and ultimately tending towards a science aimed at conflict resolution. Given the challenges that agricultural development is going to face in the next decades, it is indeed essential to support the planning

  19. Ecosystem regime shifts disrupt trophic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempson, Tessa N; Graham, Nicholas A J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Hoey, Andrew S; Wilson, Shaun K

    2018-01-01

    Regime shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states are becoming commonplace due to the combined effects of local stressors and global climate change. Alternative states are characterized as substantially different in form and function from pre-disturbance states, disrupting the delivery of ecosystem services and functions. On coral reefs, regime shifts are typically characterized by a change in the benthic composition from coral to macroalgal dominance. Such fundamental shifts in the benthos are anticipated to impact associated fish communities that are reliant on the reef for food and shelter, yet there is limited understanding of how regime shifts propagate through the fish community over time, relative to initial or recovery conditions. This study addresses this knowledge gap using long-term data of coral reef regime shifts and recovery on Seychelles reefs following the 1998 mass bleaching event. It shows how trophic structure of the reef fish community becomes increasingly dissimilar between alternative reef ecosystem states (regime-shifted vs. recovering) with time since disturbance. Regime-shifted reefs developed a concave trophic structure, with increased biomass in base trophic levels as herbivorous species benefitted from increased algal resources. Mid trophic level species, including specialists such as corallivores, declined with loss of coral habitat, while biomass was retained in upper trophic levels by large-bodied, generalist invertivores. Recovering reefs also experienced an initial decline in mid trophic level biomass, but moved toward a bottom-heavy pyramid shape, with a wide range of feeding groups (e.g., planktivores, corallivores, omnivores) represented at mid trophic levels. Given the importance of coral reef fishes in maintaining the ecological function of coral reef ecosystems and their associated fisheries, understanding the effects of regime shifts on these communities is essential to inform decisions that enhance ecological

  20. Territorial Governance. A Comparative Research of Local Agro-Food Systems in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Torres-Salcido

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to provide a theoretical discussion on territorial governance by presenting both the neo-institutionalist position and the De Sousa Santos’ alternative models, with a view of highlighting the dimensions that can be relevant to understanding the territorial dynamics of Local Agro-food Systems (LAFS. The paper aims to build up a system of indicators, structured in four dimensions, concerning the territorial governance of LAFS: (i multi-level coordination; (ii democratic participation and accountability; (iii cooperation among producers and other stakeholders and (iv relationships with the environment. We verify, as a hypothesis, that the typology of markets to which the identity-based products are directed plays a decisive role in the way that processes of territorial governance of LAFS are constructed. The results of an empirical research, developed in four LAFS in Mexico, are presented: prickly pear cactus in Morelos, blackberry in Michoacán, cuitlacoche (corn smut in Tlaxcala and coffee in Veracruz. Two types of territorial governance of LAFS may be distinguished: those that can be strengthened by the geographical and organisational proximity of the markets and the action of local stakeholders and governments—prickly pear cactus and cuitlacoche—versus those which are devoted to export and are conducted by large companies in which marketing networks involve certification mechanisms and a large number of institutions—coffee and blackberry.

  1. [The health food product Noni--does marketing harmonize with the current status of research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Rolf

    2008-03-13

    Norwegian cancer patients frequently use Noni. The objective of this study was to find out whether the way noni is marketed in Norway and the health claims made about the product harmonize with current scientific knowledge of its benefits/adverse effects. An overview of medical research on noni was obtained from three databases. Web sites for private persons and for companies that sell noni in Norway were examined. Books, pamphlets etc. from a company specializing in selling information material about noni, were also examined. 48 scientific articles were included in the study, but none of these were clinical studies of humans. Several pharmacological effects of noni have been shown in vitro and in animal models (e.g., increased survival for animals with cancer). Information material describes noni as a health-promoting product that patients with most diseases will benefit from. Noni is to a great extent sold by multi-level marketing, but is also commonly sold by health food stores. There is no scientific basis for claiming that patients will benefit from using noni for any diseases. The way this product is sold has several worrying aspects.

  2. Customer love: Research on the ranking of food and beverage locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Türk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intense competition in today’s markets has meant that customer loyalty is no longer as strong as it used to be. In this context, many researchers have aimed to add new values to the concept of loyalty, particularly focusing on the concept of “love”. This study explores customers’ feelings towards location in order to identify their preferred - or “most loved” - food and beverage locations. A questionnaire was administered to 395 adult customers living in the city centre of Erzurum, Turkey. The fuzzy Shannon’s entropy method is used to identify the weights of each criterion of love, while the fuzzy VIKOR method is used to rank alternative locations. As a result of the analyses, the most prominent expression was found as “I love this location!”, and customers’ most loved places were identified as those serving regional dishes in Erzurum Province, Turkey. The study uses fuzzy numbers to rank alternatives according to the criteria of love. In addition, the ranking is based on degrees of fuzziness by changing the α-cut levels of the fuzzy numbers. The study examines how customers’ preferences between alternatives alter via this change

  3. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food related disciplines. By structuring this approach

  4. Food insecurity and emotional health in the USA: a systematic narrative review of longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; Dinour, Lauren M; Chavez, Jose B Rosales

    2017-12-01

    To examine the causal directionality in the relationship between food insecurity and emotional well-being among US-based populations. Systematic literature review from January 2006 to July 2016 using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsychInfo, Web of Science and CINHAL. Inclusion criteria were: written in English; examined a longitudinal association between food insecurity and emotional well-being. The USA. Children and adults. Twelve out of 4161 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria. Three articles examined the effect of emotional well-being on food insecurity, five studies examined the effect of food insecurity on emotional well-being, and four studies examined a bidirectional relationship. Most studies (83 %) reported a positive relationship between negative emotional well-being and food insecurity over time. Findings suggest a bidirectional association whereby food insecurity increases the risk of poor emotional health, and poor emotional health increases the risk of food insecurity. Better-constructed studies are needed to follow cohorts at risk for both food insecurity and poor emotional health to further understand the mediators and moderators of the relationships. Intervention studies designed to mitigate or reverse risks are also needed to determine best evidence for practice and policy.

  5. Quantifying the agri-food supply chain: Overview and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Frontis workshop ‘Quantifying the agri-food supply chain’ aimed at discussing the possibilities and limitations of quantifying performance, risks and investments in the agri-food chain and at bringing people from international institutes together. Their contributions are organized around five

  6. Research brief : Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a

  7. INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): summary and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, S

    2013-10-01

    This supplement presents the foundational elements for INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support). As explained in the overview article by Swinburn and colleagues, INFORMAS has a compelling rationale and has set forth clear objectives, outcomes, principles and frameworks for monitoring and benchmarking key aspects of food environments and the policies and actions that influence the healthiness of food environments. This summary highlights the proposed monitoring approaches for the 10 interrelated INFORMAS modules: public and private sector policies and actions; key aspects of food environments (food composition, labelling, promotion, provision, retail, prices, and trade and investment) and population outcomes (diet quality). This ambitious effort should be feasible when approached in a step-wise manner, taking into account existing monitoring efforts, data sources, country contexts and capacity, and when adequately resourced. After protocol development and pilot testing of the modules, INFORMAS aims to be a sustainable, low-cost monitoring framework. Future directions relate to institutionalization, implementation and, ultimately, to leveraging INFORMAS data in ways that will bring key drivers of food environments into alignment with public health goals. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Campus Community Involvement in an Experimental Food Research Project Increases Students' Motivation and Improves Perceived Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, K.; Bianco-Simeral, S.

    2009-01-01

    Although the effects of pedagogical strategies using collaborative learning on students' perceived learning outcomes have been studied, little has been examined about possible benefits and challenges in collaborating with the campus community in a food science research project conducted by nutrition majors. We examined the effects of involving…

  9. [Dietary modernity and food consumption: socio-anthropological contributions to research in nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Alexandre Brasil; de Souza, Thaís Salema Nogueira; Frozi, Daniela Sanches; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2011-09-01

    The scope of this work was to illustrate what dietary modernity represents for sociology and anthropology, which is a subject based on a bibliographic review that is discussed in this article. Initially, the presence of the theme of food and nutrition was assessed in studies in the social sciences, by focusing on the approaches related to dietary modernity, especially as found in the works of Claude Fischler. The main subjects of discussion were related to food and nutrition and changes in the work environment, the expansion of commerce, the feminization of society and the question of identity. By understanding the food phenomenon and consumption thereof using a more qualitative approach, it is possible to make progress in configuring the nutritional sciences, adopting a comprehensive approach to food and nutrition in this day and age. Future studies should be dedicated to investigating food consumption as a social phenomenon in order to aggregate new analytical components with a biomedical emphasis to the body of results.

  10. Wholesomeness studies on irradiated foods - past and future research within the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytsev, A.N.; Shillinger, Y.; Shillinger, I.; Kamaldinova, Z.M.

    1975-01-01

    The important question to what extent ionizing radiation can be used for the storage and keeping of food without having to reckon for the corresponding radiation damage within such food chains is investigated in a review article. The study is based on manifold investigations which were carried out in the USSR. Many investigations of germ and growth modifications after irradiation, sterilization and metabolic behaviour of the essential components like vitamins, proteins and carbohydrates of the irradiated food were performed, and the question of the still permissible radiation dose was discussed. The results show that the application of ionizing radiation for food storage is superior to the conservative methods. This, of course, is only valid for certain radiation doses whose application does not give rise to any toxic side-effects or negative influences of the irradiated food components regarding tolerance to human health. (GSE/LH) [de

  11. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  12. Research on Cooperation Strategy of Enterprises’ Quality and Safety in Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent and control risk factors which harm the quality and safety of the food supply chain effectively and reduce the probability of food safety incidents, this paper investigated on some problems of the upstream and downstream enterprises of the food supply chain under the three different forms of cooperation based on the neoclassic economics and game theory method. These problems include the effectiveness of the quality and safety efforts, the profits, the effect of the losses that the food safety incidents caused on the quality efforts’ efficacy, and the social welfare comparison. Meanwhile, we constructed evolutionary game model to analyze the macro and micro factors that influenced the cooperation strategy and demonstrated the effect of diversity of decision-making parameters on evolution results based on numerical simulation. By the theoretical and simulation analysis, we found that (1 the quality efforts’ efficacy, the profits, the sensitivity coefficient of the quality efforts efficiency to the losses, and the social welfare without thinking about the externality all met their maximum under the full cooperation situation; (2 strengthening supervision over the source of the food supply chain can reduce the probability of food safety incidents; (3 macro and micro environment will be the important basis for companies’ decision-making on cooperation strategy in the food supply chain.

  13. Critical Research Needed to Examine the Environmental Impacts of Expanded Refrigeration on the Food System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Brent R; Miller, Shelie A

    2016-11-15

    The unbroken global refrigerated supply chain, or cold chain, is rapidly expanding in developing countries. In addition to increasing the energy intensity of the food system, the expanded cold chain may facilitate changes in the global diet, food waste patterns, food production and distribution, and shopping habits. The sustainability impacts of many of these changes chain are unknown, given the complexity of interacting social, economic, and technical factors. The current literature surrounding the environmental impacts of refrigeration in the food system focuses on the direct impacts of energy use and coolant emissions, and lacks a critical evaluation of the accompanying systemic societal changes that potentially carry greater environmental impacts. This review examines the cold chain as a transformative technology, identifying key intrinsic, indirect, and external factors that will favorably, unfavorably, or ambiguously impact the environmental profile of the food system. The review identifies key interactions and feedbacks between the cold chain, food production and consumption decisions, infrastructure development, and the global environment which are largely unexamined and in need of empirical data. Viewing cold chain expansion from this broader perspective is essential to understanding the changing impacts of the food system in developing countries and may inform future sustainability planning.

  14. CASCADE - Chemicals as contaminants in the food chain. A network of excellence for research, risk assessment, and education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeberg, M.; Haakansson, H. [Karolinska Institutet, Insitute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pongratz, I.; Gustavsson, J.Aa. [Karolinska Institutet, Dept. of Biosciences, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Harmful effects of chemical contaminants in food are of major health concern in Europe today. Lack of integration between basic research, risk assessment, and education severely hampers the efforts to reach European excellence in this area. The research activities that are carried out are small in scale and are not well integrated into a coherent structure. To tackle the fragmentation problems and to achieve synergistic effects and full European research potential, the European Commission has initiated a Network of Excellence called CASCADE or ''Chemicals as contaminants in the food chain: a network of excellence for research, risk assessment, and education'' The contract is running for five years and is worth over 14 million with partners from eighteen research centres. The network has the potential and goal to be a world force in knowledge on health issues related to chemical contaminants in food. Focus is on chemical residues that act via and/or interfere with cell regulation at the level of nuclear receptors. The risk assessment integration parts of the network aim to increase the awareness among scientists and others of the need to bring multiple aspects of scientific information into use in risk assessment.

  15. Adopting a farming systems research approach to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural systems are complex, because managers need to cope with interlinked and dynamic ecological, social, political and economic aspects. Understanding and analysing such systems requires researchers to adopt a holistic approach to grasp the links between those aspects. Holistic approaches...... within agricultural research - known as Farming Systems Research (FSR) support researchers in sharing knowledge and different perspectives concerning the research process and problems. Sharing knowledge and perspectives enables to holistically understand and conceptualise complex systems, as well...... as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic...

  16. Communication practices in engineering, manufacturing, and research for food and water safety

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates some of the ways in which communication and developing technologies can improve global food and water safety by providing a historical background on outbreaks and public resistance, as well as generating interest in youth and potential professionals in the field : History of muckraking in the food industry ; Case study on groundwater regulation ; Interviews with members of the beef industry and livestock market owners.

  17. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk;...

  18. Research on food healthiness : Supporting decisions on public health, package design, and everyday consumption situations

    OpenAIRE

    Yarar, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Food marketing can be used as a means to combat the current obesity epidemic by increasing the healthiness of a consumer’s diet. The negative and positive influence of marketing practices on food intake has been investigated for advertisement via traditional (media) and modern (online, in-store, events, etc.) channels, branding campaigns, or product placement. Another increasingly applied, yet underresearched marketing tool to communicate with consumers is product packaging. Therefore, this c...

  19. Research on Food Safety Traceability Technology Based on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Meng; Yongfeng Cui; Hansen Wang; Shijun Li

    2015-01-01

    Relying on the Internet of things platform, building a traceability system ranging from the source to dinner table is the crucial issue of meat products to be solved at the moment. On the basis of knowing the current situation of domestic and international food traceability quo, the passage will put forward the feasibility of mobile query used in food traceability queries, mainly targeting elaborating the core technology like image preprocessing and decoding. It illustrates the feasibility of...

  20. Evaluating North Carolina Food Pantry Food Safety-Related Operating Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaifetz, Ashley; Chapman, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Almost one in seven American households were food insecure in 2012, experiencing difficulty in providing enough food for all family members due to a lack of resources. Food pantries assist a food-insecure population through emergency food provision, but there is a paucity of information on the food safety-related operating procedures used in the pantries. Food pantries operate in a variable regulatory landscape; in some jurisdictions, they are treated equivalent to restaurants, while in others, they operate outside of inspection regimes. By using a mixed methods approach to catalog the standard operating procedures related to food in 105 food pantries from 12 North Carolina counties, we evaluated their potential impact on food safety. Data collected through interviews with pantry managers were supplemented with observed food safety practices scored against a modified version of the North Carolina Food Establishment Inspection Report. Pantries partnered with organized food bank networks were compared with those that operated independently. In this exploratory research, additional comparisons were examined for pantries in metropolitan areas versus nonmetropolitan areas and pantries with managers who had received food safety training versus managers who had not. The results provide a snapshot of how North Carolina food pantries operate and document risk mitigation strategies for foodborne illness for the vulnerable populations they serve. Data analysis reveals gaps in food safety knowledge and practice, indicating that pantries would benefit from more effective food safety training, especially focusing on formalizing risk management strategies. In addition, new tools, procedures, or policy interventions might improve information actualization by food pantry personnel.

  1. A Research Plan for Assessing the Power and Energy Capability of a River Network Under an Integrated Wind/Hydro-Electric Dispatchable Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banka, John Czeslaw

    The world strives for more clean and renewable energy, but the amount of dispatchable energy in river networks is not accurately known and difficult to assess. When wind is integrated with water, the dispatchable yield can be greatly increased, but the uncertainty of the wind further degrades predictability. This thesis demonstrates how simulating the flows is a river network integrated with wind over a long time domain yields a solution. Time-shifting the freshet and pumped storage will ameliorate the seasonal summer drought; the risk of ice jams and uncontrolled flooding is reduced. An artificial market eliminates the issue of surplus energy from wind at night. Furthermore, this thesis shows how the necessary infrastructure can be built to accomplish the goals of the intended research. While specific to Northern Ontario and sensitive to the lives of the Native peoples living there, it indicates where the research might be applicable elsewhere in the world.

  2. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  3. Research developments in methods to reduce the carbon footprint of the food system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongyue; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan; Pu, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Global warming is a worldwide issue with its evident impact across a wide range of systems and sectors. It is caused by a number of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, in which food system has made up of a large part. Recently, reduction of GHG emissions has become an urgent issue to be resolved in the food system. Many governments and organizations are making great endeavors to alleviate the adverse effect of this phenomenon. In this review, methods to reduce the carbon footprint within the life cycle of a food system are presented from the technical, consumption behavior and environmental policies perspectives. The whole food system including raw material acquisition, processing, packaging, preservation, transportation, consumption, and disposal are covered. Improving management techniques, and adopting advanced technology and equipment are critical for every stage of a food system. Rational site selection is important to alleviate the influence of land use change. In addition, environmental choices of packaging stage, reduction in refrigeration dependence, and correct waste treatment are essential to reduce the total carbon footprint of the production. However, only technical methods cannot radically reverse the trend of climate change, as consumption behaviors present a great deal of influence over climate change. Appropriate purchase patterns and substitution within food product categories by low carbon products can reduce GHG emissions. Development of methods to calculate the carbon footprint of every kind of food and its processing technology enable people to make environmental choice. Policy can shape and cultivate the new code of consumption and influence the direction of emerging technology and science. From political perspectives, government intervention and carbon offset are common tools, especially for carbon tax and a real or implicit price of carbon. Finally, by mitigating the methodologies described above, the rate and magnitude of climate changes

  4. Research and Technology Development to Advance Environmental Monitoring, Food Systems, and Habitat Design for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Perchonek, M. H.; Ott, C. M.; Kaiser, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration missions will carry crews far beyond the relatively safe environs of cis-lunar space. Such trips will have little or no opportunity for resupply or rapid aborts and will be of a duration that far exceeds our experience to date. The challenges this imposes on the requirements of systems that monitor the life support and provide food and shelter for the crew are the focus of much research within the Human Research Program. Making all of these technologies robust and reliable enough for multi-year missions with little or no ability to run for home calls for a thorough understanding of the risks and impacts of failure. The way we currently monitor for microbial contamination of water, air, and surfaces, by sampling and growing cultures on nutrient media, must be reconsidered for exploration missions which have limited capacity for consumables. Likewise, the shelf life of food must be increased so that the nutrients required to keep the crewmembers healthy do not degrade over the life of the mission. Improved formulations, preservation, packaging, and storage technologies are all being investigated for ways slow this process or replace stowed food with key food items grown fresh in situ. Ensuring that the mass and volume of a spacecraft are used to maximum efficiency calls for infusing human factors into the design from its inception to increase efficiency, improve performance, and retain robustness toward operational realities. Integrating the human system with the spacecraft systems is the focus of many lines of investigation.

  5. The importance of stories in understanding people's relationship to food: narrative inquiry methodology has much to offer the public health nutrition researcher and practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Gabrielle; Pamphilon, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Despite the usefulness of quantitative research, qualitative research methodologies are equally needed to allow researchers to better understand the important social and environmental factors affecting food choice and eating habits. The present paper contributes insights from narrative inquiry, a well-established qualitative methodology, to a food-related doctoral research study. The connections between food shoppers and the producer, family, friends and others in the food system, between eaters and the earth, and how these connections affect people's meaning-making of food and pathways to food citizenship, were explored in the research. The research used narrative inquiry methodology and focus groups for data collection. Five different food-ways in the Canberra region of Australia were selected for the present research; that is, community gardens, community-supported agriculture, farmers' markets, fresh food markets and supermarkets. Fifty-two people voluntarily attended eight focus groups with four to nine participants in each. From a practical perspective, the present paper offers a guide to the way in which narrative inquiry has been applied to one research project. The paper describes the application of narrative inquiry methodology, revealing the important place of narratives in generating new knowledge. The paper further outlines how phased narrative analysis can lead to a defensible and rigorous interpretive framework grounded in the data generated from people's stories and meaning-making. We argue that individual, social and system change will not be possible without further rigorous qualitative studies to inform and complement the empirical basis of public health nutrition practice.

  6. Basophil activation test: food challenge in a test tube or specialist research tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold-standard to diagnose food allergy; however, it is a labour and resource-intensive procedure with the risk of causing an acute allergic reaction, which is potentially severe. Therefore, OFC are reserved for cases where the clinical history and the results of skin prick test and/or specific IgE do not confirm or exclude the diagnosis of food allergy. This is a significant proportion of patients seen in Allergy clinics and results in a high demand for OFC. The basophil activation test (BAT) has emerged as a new diagnostic test for food allergy. With high diagnostic accuracy, it can be particularly helpful in the cases where skin prick test and specific IgE are equivocal and may allow reducing the need for OFC. BAT has high specificity, which confers a high degree of certainty in confirming the diagnosis of food allergy and allows deferring the performance of OFC in patients with a positive BAT. The diagnostic utility of BAT is allergen-specific and needs to be validated for different allergens and in specific patient populations. Standardisation of the laboratory methodology and of the data analyses would help to enable a wider clinical application of BAT.

  7. Radiation processing for safe, shelf-stable and ready-to-eat food. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The increasingly busy lifestyles of populations in many countries have driven the demand for safe, convenient and ready-to-eat food. Traditional food processes such as drying, canning or refrigeration offer a partial solution to this demand as the sensory quality of such food may be significantly affected or the products may be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria during preparation. For developing countries, safe shelf-stable food without the need for refrigeration would offer advantages. In addition, the increasing number of immuno-compromised populations in many countries requires a new approach to food safety to meet their needs. Irradiation offers a potential to enhance microbiological safety and quality of food through shelf-life extension. The benefits of irradiation as a sanitary treatment of many types of food are well known, some of which are applied commercially in several countries. Little data were available, however, on the effect of irradiation on minimally processed food and composite food including prepared meals. A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Development of Safe, Shelf-Stable and Ready-to-Eat Food through Radiation Processing therefore was implemented by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in 1996 to evaluate the role of irradiation for such food. The results were encouraging as irradiation offers promise as a sanitary treatment to ensure microbiological safety and shelf-life extension of several types of food products including pre-cut vegetables and some sous-vide meals, chilled ready-prepared meals, chilled ready-to-eat meat products, food for immuno-compromised patients/populations, sterile meals, ready-to-eat-food of intermediate moisture content. This publication presents the research results reported at the final Research Co-ordination meeting on this CRP held in Saint Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada, 10-14 July 2000

  8. Radiation processing for safe, shelf-stable and ready-to-eat food. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    The increasingly busy lifestyles of populations in many countries have driven the demand for safe, convenient and ready-to-eat food. Traditional food processes such as drying, canning or refrigeration offer a partial solution to this demand as the sensory quality of such food may be significantly affected or the products may be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria during preparation. For developing countries, safe shelf-stable food without the need for refrigeration would offer advantages. In addition, the increasing number of immuno-compromised populations in many countries requires a new approach to food safety to meet their needs. Irradiation offers a potential to enhance microbiological safety and quality of food through shelf-life extension. The benefits of irradiation as a sanitary treatment of many types of food are well known, some of which are applied commercially in several countries. Little data were available, however, on the effect of irradiation on minimally processed food and composite food including prepared meals. A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Development of Safe, Shelf-Stable and Ready-to-Eat Food through Radiation Processing therefore was implemented by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in 1996 to evaluate the role of irradiation for such food. The results were encouraging as irradiation offers promise as a sanitary treatment to ensure microbiological safety and shelf-life extension of several types of food products including pre-cut vegetables and some sous-vide meals, chilled ready-prepared meals, chilled ready-to-eat meat products, food for immuno-compromised patients/populations, sterile meals, ready-to-eat-food of intermediate moisture content. This publication presents the research results reported at the final Research Co-ordination meeting on this CRP held in Saint Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada, 10-14 July 2000.

  9. Applications of PTR-MS in food flavour research: recent progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeretzian, C.; Pollien, P.; Jordan, A.; Graus, M.; Lindinger, W.

    2002-01-01

    Food products all along the food chain from raw material to final products continuously emit volatile organic compounds (VOs), which are related to important properties of the product itself such as flavor, age, or safety among others. Several analytical techniques for sampling and analysing the head space (HS) of food has been developed, however the proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has the particularity to be able to work on real time-basis. By applying PTR-MS two qualitatively distinct types of information were obtained: HS profiles can be averaged over a given time window to yield concentration vs. mass spectra (static data). Such spectra can be used to asses authenticity, monitor deviation in production from a reference or classify product. Alternatively, temporal changes can be analysed via time-intensity plots (dynamic data). As example soluble coffee data is given. (nevyjel)

  10. Status quo and future research challenges on organic food quality determination with focus on laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Bodroza-Solarov, Marija; Busscher, Nicolaas; Hajslova, Jana; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; van Ruth, Saskia; Schulzova, Vera; Stolz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Organic food quality determination needs multi-dimensional evaluation tools. The main focus is on the authentication as an analytical verification of the certification process. New fingerprinting approaches such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as crystallization with and without the presence of additives seem to be promising methods in terms of time of analysis and detecting organic system-related parameters. For further methodological development, a system approach is recommended, which also takes into account food structure aspects. Furthermore, the authentication of processed organic samples needs more consciousness, hence most of organic food is complex and processed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Research and identification of pathogenic bacteria 'Salmonella and Listeria' in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harizi Khalil

    2009-01-01

    The sums propose to evaluate the bacterial contamination of certain food taken randomly by two pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella and Listeria) considering the evolution of the diseases of food oignon. For that 78 food samples of different origins were analysed. 2 stocks of the Listeria kind and 3 stocks of the salmonella kind were insulated and identified by biochemical and molecular tests. The pathogenic isolates were identified by coloration gram, test catalase, insulation on specific culture media and Api (20 E for Salmonella and Api listeria. At the end, the PCR were realized to amplify the gene iap which codes for the protein p60 at listeria as well as a sequence clonee randomly specific of Salmonella.

  12. Food value chain analysis: A review of selected studies for Pakistan and guidelines for further research

    OpenAIRE

    ul Haq, Zahoor

    2012-01-01

    The study of value chains comprises of two key concepts: value and chain. The term value is synonym to “value added†in the Value Chain Analysis (VCA) as it characterizes the incremental value of a resultant product produced from processing of a product. For agricultural products, value addition can also take place through differentiation of a product based on food safety and food functionality. Price of the resultant product shows its incremental value. The term chain refers to a supply c...

  13. The Research on the High-Protein Low-Calorie Food Recipe for Teenager Gymnastics Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cong

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent teenager gymnastics athletes getting fat deposition, weight gain, they should supply a rational food. This paper considers the normal growth and development of athletes, body fat deposition proteins and hunger feel, configured high-protein low-calorie food recipe. Then analysis the composition and the essential amino acids of the recipe. In the final choiced 18 adolescent gymnastics athletes as subjects, to verify the validity of the formula. And analysis the experimental results. The experimental results analysis shows that this recipe basically meets the design requirements.

  14. Food Safety Concerns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYONG

    2004-01-01

    In China, there is an old saying:food is the first necessity of humans. The main concern of the Chinese used to be the security of the food supply rather than the safety of the food itself. However,after a long time fighting food shortages,China became self-sufficient in food in 1995. At this time, the country began for the first time to regulate food safety. Yet China has still not established a legal systern efficient in ensuring this safety. Many problems are rooted in the administration regime and China's priority of economic development.

  15. A regulação do uso de animais no Brasil do século XX e o processo de formação do atual regime aplicado à pesquisa biomédica Regulation of the use of animals in Brazil in the twentieth century and the process of forming the current regime applied to biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Saldanha Machado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a política pública e regulatória do Brasil sobre o uso de animais no ensino e na pesquisa biomédica. Aborda o arcabouço institucional-legal e a situação jurídica da proteção dos animais no país, além do debate legislativo que resultou na promulgação da lei 11.794/2008, que estabelece procedimentos para o uso científico de animais. Ressalta algumas características do atual regime regulatório e tece considerações de ordem teórico-metodológica, voltadas para a ampliação do entendimento do fenômeno investigado.The article analyzes Brazilian public policy and legislation concerning the use of animals in teaching and biomedical research. It examines the institutional and judicial framework and legal status of animal protection in Brazil, including the legislative debate that preceded enactment of Law 11.794/2008, which defined procedures to be employed in the scientific use of animals. It underscores certain features of current regulatory practice and also explores considerations of a theoretical and methodological nature, with a view to broadening our understanding of the question.

  16. Characteristics of regulatory regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noralv Veggeland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this paper is institutional analysis of basic characteristics of regulatory regimes. The concepts of path dependence and administrative traditions are used throughout. Self-reinforcing or positive feedback processes in political systems represent a basic framework. The empirical point of departure is the EU public procurement directive linked to OECD data concerning use of outsourcing among member states. The question is asked: What has caused the Nordic countries, traditionally not belonging to the Anglo-Saxon market-centred administrative tradition, to be placed so high on the ranking as users of the Market-Type Mechanism (MTM of outsourcing in the public sector vs. in-house provision of services? A thesis is that the reason may be complex, but might be found in an innovative Scandinavian regulatory approach rooted in the Nordic model.

  17. Emerging techniques for assisting and accelerating food freezing processes: A review of recent research progresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lina; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zi

    2017-03-04

    Freezing plays an important role in food preservation and the emergence of rapid freezing technologies can be highly beneficial to the food industry. This paper reviews some novel food freezing technologies, including high-pressure freezing (HPF), ultrasound-assisted freezing (UAF), electrically disturbed freezing (EF) and magnetically disturbed freezing (MF), microwave-assisted freezing (MWF), and osmo-dehydro-freezing (ODF). HPF and UAF can initiate ice nucleation rapidly, leading to uniform distribution of ice crystals and the control of their size and shape. Specifically, the former is focused on increasing the degree of supercooling, whereas the latter aims to decrease it. Direct current electric freezing (DC-EF) and alternating current electric freezing (AC-EF) exhibit different effects on ice nucleation. DC-EF can promote ice nucleation and AC-EF has the opposite effect. Furthermore, ODF has been successfully used for freezing various vegetables and fruit. MWF cannot control the nucleation temperature, but can decrease supercooling degree, thus decreasing the size of ice crystals. The heat and mass transfer processes during ODF have been investigated experimentally and modeled mathematically. More studies should be carried out to understand the effects of these technologies on food freezing process.

  18. 77 FR 4984 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... priorities in United States agriculture in the following areas: (A) Plant health and production and plant products; (B) Animal health and production and animal products; (C) Food safety, nutrition, and health; (D... Comment Procedures Persons wishing to present oral comments at the Wednesday, February 22, 2012 meeting...

  19. 75 FR 25199 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ...: (A) Plant health and production and plant products; (B) Animal health and production and animal products; (C) Food safety, nutrition, and health; (D) Renewable energy, natural resources, and environment... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additional Meeting and Comment Procedures Persons wishing to present oral comments at...

  20. Food supply chain network robustness : a literature review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Today’s business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness. However, lean supply chain networks (SCNs) become more vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. Food SCNs have to become robust, i.e. they

  1. The Irish organic food market: shortfalls, opportunities and the need for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Rachel; Larkin, Tracey; Moane, Siobhan

    2011-09-01

    In 2009 the Irish organic food market was forecasted to grow from €120 m to €239 m by 2013; however, recent figures set its value at just €90 m. An estimated 70% of this market is imported. Surveys of Irish consumers reveal that 66% of consumers prefer to buy local produce and most organic consumers are buying organic at supermarkets. This evidence reveals that Irish producers must trade at supermarkets, and promote 'local produce' to ensure their produce reach the majority of buyers. Seventy-eight % of organic rejecters state price and 21% state unawareness of the benefits as reasons for not buying organic. Many Irish consumers are buying organic food on the perceived belief that it is healthier, safer and tastes better; however, a review of studies on organic versus conventional foods in terms of health benefits, safety and sensory quality has shown that existing data is limited in scope and fails to show a clear trend. The review concludes with the need for a comprehensive study of a range of organic and conventional foods available to the Irish consumer in order to determine if differences in organic cultivation result in statistically significant differences in health linked compounds and sensory quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. ?Choice Set? for health behavior in choice-constrained settings to frame research and inform policy: examples of food consumption, obesity and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Dover, Robert V. H.; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Using the nexus between food consumption, food security and obesity, this paper addresses the complexity of health behavior decision-making moments that reflect relational social dynamics in context-specific dialogues, often in choice-constrained conditions. Methods A pragmatic review of literature regarding social determinants of health in relation to food consumption, food security and obesity was used to advance this theoretical model. Results and discussion We suggest that heal...

  3. Cultivating Geographical Thinking: A Framework for Student-Led Research on Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Caitlin; Gregory, Meredith; Ludtke, Clara; Meoli, Christian; Ryan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the wide-ranging benefits of student-led research, from increased student engagement to higher retention and graduation rates. Despite these calls to increase research opportunities for students, however, the availability of practical, easy-to-implement research frameworks in disciplinary-specific settings…

  4. Assessment of socio-economic status in the context of food insecurity: Implications for field research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Burnham, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Measures of socio-economic status (SES) were compared with a measure of physical well-being, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), in the food insecure regions of Ethiopia. Income, housing conditions and education had the greatest correlation to MUAC, and significant differences in these measures were observed between malnourished and adequately nourished individuals. Findings indicate that in rural Ethiopia, income, education and housing quality may be better indicators of SES than wealth and measures encompassing home and landownership.

  5. Territorial Governance. A Comparative Research of Local Agro-Food Systems in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Salcido, Gerardo; Sanz-Cañada, Javier

    2018-01-01

    The article attempts to provide a theoretical discussion on territorial governance by presenting both the neo-institutionalist position and the De Sousa Santos’ alternative models, with a view of highlighting the dimensions that can be relevant to understanding the territorial dynamics of Local Agro-food Systems (LAFS). The paper aims to build up a system of indicators, structured in four dimensions, concerning the territorial governance of LAFS: (i) multi-level coordination; (ii) democratic ...

  6. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N. [and others

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  7. An evaluation of microorganisms for unconventional food regeneration schemes in CELSS - Research recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, B. O.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits and deficiencies of various candidates for a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) for manned spacecraft missions of at least 3-14 yr are discussed. Conventional plants are considered unacceptable due to their inefficient production of foodstuffs and overproduction of stems and leafy matter. The alternate concepts are algae and/or bacteria or chemical synthesis of food. Microorganisms are considered the most promising because of their direct use of CO2 and possible utilization of waste streams. Yeasts are cited as the most viable candidates, since a large data base and experience already exists in the commercial food industry. The addition of hydrogen bactria and solar-grown algae is recommended, together with genetic manipulation experiments to tailor the microorganisms to production of foodstuffs closer to the 70 percent carbohydrate, 20 percent protein, and 10 percent lipid optimal food currently accepted. The yeast strain, Hansenula polymorpha, has been successfully grown in methanol and encouraged to produce a 55 percent carbohydrate content.

  8. Integrating Research on Food and the Environment: an Exit Strategy from the Rational Fool Syndrome in Agricultural Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A. Ashby

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of this paper is that the "rational fool" syndrome can be applied to mainstream public sector agricultural research that is conducted in a way that is rational in the short term, but acts against its own long-term viability. Historically, a main concern of such research has been to maximize high levels of food production together with low prices to consumers. As a result, mainstream agricultural science has ignored negative impacts or externalities, which has contributed to a crisis of credibility with the general public and politically sensitive decision makers. A long-term strategic research agenda for the public sector is being defined that is new and relevant to present efforts to integrate natural resource management and sustainable agricultural production. Such an agenda must be understood as a way of managing natural resources for the production of food and environmental services essential to human well-being. If agricultural systems are viewed and managed as parts of whole ecosystems, the key properties of complex systems that need to be taken into account will force researchers to consider long-term effects and environmental externalities. Research products will then be increasingly strategic in nature, and the research process will be "democratized" as it involves and gains the support of a broad set of stakeholders. Private sector research cannot be expected to meet this need because strategic studies of resource management are required that cannot be made exclusive or proprietary and are, in other words, public goods. Several innovative research initiatives are under way that signal opportunities for change. This paper first elaborates on this argument and then illustrates key elements of the integrated natural resource management approach, with examples of approaches that show promise as alternatives to mainstream agricultural science. Although numerous and diverse, integrated approaches manifest several properties that

  9. Consumers' willingness to buy food via the Internet: A review of the litterature and a model for future research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Kim Bjarne; Grunert, Klaus G.

    In the first part of the paper, existing studies on consumer propensity to buy via the Internet are reviewed in an attempt to shed light on factors explaining consumer willingness to buy food via the Internet. Following a model by Sindhav and Balazs (1999), determinants relating to medium, product......, consumer, firm and environment are distinguished. In order to draw the various results together and provide a coherent framework for future research, we then propose a model which combines the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the lifestyle construct. The model can be used to analyse how beliefs affecting...... consumers intention to buy food via the Internet are formed and changed due to experience with such shopping....

  10. Korean research project on the integrated exposure assessment of hazardous substances for food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and mercury (Hg. Methods: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. Results: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value in the seaweed (94.2 μg/kg for Pb; 594 μg/kg for Cd, and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 μg/kg. The dietary exposure level (median value of Pb was 0.14 μg/kg body weight (bw/d, 0.18 μg/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 μg/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 μg/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 μg/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 μg/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency was 81.0 % of all the subjects. Conclusions: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union.

  11. Content of a novel online collection of traditional east African food habits (1930s-1960s): data collected by the Max-Planck-Nutrition Research Unit, Bumbuli, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Verena; Oltersdorf, Ulrich; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Cheema, Birinder Sb; Kouris-Blazos, Antigone

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of traditional African foods and food habits has been, and continues to be, systematically extirpated. With the primary intent of collating data for our online collection documenting traditional African foods and food habits (available at: www.healthyeatingclub.com/Africa/), we reviewed the Oltersdorf Collection, 75 observational investigations conducted throughout East Africa (i.e. Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda) between the 1930s and 1960s as compiled by the Max Planck Nutrition Research Unit, formerly located in Bumbuli, Tanzania. Data were categorized as follows: (1) food availability, (2) chemical composition, (3) staple foods (i.e. native crops, cereals, legumes, roots and tubers, vegetables, fruits, spices, oils and fats, beverages, and animal foods), (4) food preparation and culture, and (5) nutrient intake and health status indicators. Many of the traditional foods identified, including millet, sorghum, various legumes, root and tubers, green leafy vegetables, plant oils and wild meats have known health benefits. Food preparatory practices during this period, including boiling and occasional roasting are superior to current practices which favor frying and deep-frying. Overall, our review and data extraction provide reason to believe that a diversified diet was possible for the people of East Africa during this period (1930s-1960s). There is a wealth of knowledge pertaining to traditional East African foods and food habits within the Oltersdorf Collection. These data are currently available via our online collection. Future efforts should contribute to collating and honing knowledge of traditional foods and food habits within this region, and indeed throughout the rest of Africa. Preserving and disseminating this knowledge may be crucial for abating projected trends for non-communicable diseases and malnutrition in Africa and abroad.

  12. "Slow food" post-qualitative research in psychology: old craft skills in new disguise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-06-01

    The present paper addresses several aspects discussed in the special issue on the future of qualitative research in psychology. Particularly, it asks whether in light of the overhomogenization of the term "qualitative methods" researchers actually can still assume that they talk about the same thing when using this terminology. In addressing the topic of what constitutes the object of psychological research and what accordingly could be a genuinely psychological qualitative research it acknowledges the need to return to the study of persons' unique experience. In light of the risk of "McDonaldization" in present qualitative research, it argues that we need to return to learning research methods as craft skills. It will then give an outlook on how recent developments in discursive and narrative psychology offer a fruitful avenue for studying unique psychological experience as people manage to 'move on' in a material world and in irreversible time.

  13. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  14. Final report on the project research 'assessment of radiation exposure of the public to radioactivities related to the environment and food chain'. April 1988 - March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This publication is the collection of the reports on the project research 'Assessment of Radiation Exposure of the Public to Radioactivities Related to the Environment and Food Chain'. The 16 of the reports are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. "Choice Set" for health behavior in choice-constrained settings to frame research and inform policy: examples of food consumption, obesity and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, Robert V H; Lambert, Estelle V

    2016-03-16

    Using the nexus between food consumption, food security and obesity, this paper addresses the complexity of health behavior decision-making moments that reflect relational social dynamics in context-specific dialogues, often in choice-constrained conditions. A pragmatic review of literature regarding social determinants of health in relation to food consumption, food security and obesity was used to advance this theoretical model. We suggest that health choice, such as food consumption, is based on more than the capacity and volition of individuals to make "healthy" choices, but is dialogic and adaptive. In terms of food consumption, there will always be choice-constrained conditions, along a continuum representing factors over which the individual has little or no control, to those for which they have greater agency. These range from food store geographies and inventories and food availability, logistical considerations such as transportation, food distribution, the structure of equity in food systems, state and non-government food and nutrition programs, to factors where the individual exercises a greater degree of autonomy, such as sociocultural foodways, family and neighborhood shopping strategies, and personal and family food preferences. At any given food decision-making moment, many factors of the continuum are present consciously or unconsciously when the individual makes a decision. These health behavior decision-making moments are mutable, whether from an individual perspective, or within a broader social or policy context. We review the construct of "choice set", the confluence of factors that are temporally weighted by the differentiated and relationally-contextualized importance of certain factors over others in that moment. The choice transition represents an essential shift of the choice set based on the conscious and unconscious weighting of accumulated evidence, such that people can project certain outcomes. Policies and interventions should avoid

  16. Eating up Experiments: Teaching Research Methods with Classroom Simulation and "Food Detectives"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of research methods is often unknown, foreboding, and unappealing to undergraduate communication majors. Thus, in the research methods course, two ways to overcome such issues and achieve learning are by: (1) making the unfamiliar more familiar and accessible; and (2) placing abstract knowledge in its useful real-world context. Making…

  17. A quantitative research of consumer’s attitude towards food products advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu Mirela-Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the consumers' attitude towards television/radio/press advertising is especially important, a fact which is highlighted by national and international speciality literature. The attitude of the consumer towards a television commercial influences the attitude towards the promoted product or brand. Thus, a positive attitude towards the commercial for a brand determines a positive attitude towards the respective brand and, eventually, may result in the formulation of the purchase intent. It is hard to say which aspects of advertising have the greatest influence on the formation of consumer attitudes and purchase intent formulation, but not impossible to find out. In this context, through this study, we aim at contributing to the determination of the consumers' attitude towards televised advertising aimed at promoting food products.

  18. Structuring Tensions and Key Relations of Montreal Seasonal Food Markets in the Sustainability Transition of the Agri-Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Audet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In cities across the world, local food networks aim to make food systems more sustainable and secure for all. As part of that effort, some of these networks also seek to introduce social innovation in the mode of selling food, namely as a way to initiate a broader transition of the sector. Based on two years of action research conducted together with promoters of Montreal’s seasonal markets, this article offers an account of the co-constructed narrative of a transition of the agri-food sector. On the one hand, transition theory anticipates that the transition to sustainability of the agri-food sector would depend on the protection and empowerment of innovative ‘niches’ that are facing the locked-in structure of the agri-food ‘sociotechnical regime’. Yet, on the other hand, the seasonal markets do not fit well in this portrait: they are shown to evolve at the intersection of the sociotechnical regime and innovative niches. For this reason, they are subject to regime rules and become difficult to protect as an entity. As such, seasonal markets face ‘structuring tensions’ that generate both practical dilemmas and innovative solutions in their modes of organization. These solutions, however, rely on webs of resources and supports that constitute ‘key relations’ for unlocking the agri-food regime rules. It is through managing these tensions and relations that the seasonal markets end up reconfiguring social and material relations and providing solutions for food security and a more sustainable food system. Therefore, we argue that the structuring tension and key relation concepts are useful for understanding the dynamics of social innovation in the transition to sustainability in food systems.

  19. Culinary Education in Food and Cooking Research Societies Organized by Professional Cooks and Cookery Lovers in the Mid-Meiji Era, Report 1

    OpenAIRE

    今井, 美樹; Miki, IMAI; 昭和女子大学初等教育学科

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the magazine Hocho-Ambai(Wielding Your Kitchen Knives, all 37 issues published from 1886 to 1891)to explore the activities of societies of culinary education for food and cooking in the mid-Meiji era. The author, from the viewpoint of gender, reviewed, selected and analyzed articles describing the activities of the Society of Art of Cooking Research and the Society of Food Research organized by professional cooks and cookery lovers in the period. The following results were...

  20. A new framework for the documentation and interpretation of oral food challenges in population-based and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhenrich, L B; Reich, A; Bellach, J; Trendelenburg, V; Sprikkelman, A B; Roberts, G; Grimshaw, K E C; Sigurdardottir, S; Kowalski, M L; Papadopoulos, N G; Quirce, S; Dubakiene, R; Niggemann, B; Fernández-Rivas, M; Ballmer-Weber, B; van Ree, R; Schnadt, S; Mills, E N C; Keil, T; Beyer, K

    2017-03-01

    The conduct of oral food challenges as the preferred diagnostic standard for food allergy (FA) was harmonized over the last years. However, documentation and interpretation of challenge results, particularly in research settings, are not sufficiently standardized to allow valid comparisons between studies. Our aim was to develop a diagnostic toolbox to capture and report clinical observations in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC). A group of experienced allergists, paediatricians, dieticians, epidemiologists and data managers developed generic case report forms and standard operating procedures for DBPCFCs and piloted them in three clinical centres. The follow-up of the EuroPrevall/iFAAM birth cohort and other iFAAM work packages applied these methods. A set of newly developed questionnaire or interview items capture the history of FA. Together with sensitization status, this forms the basis for the decision to perform a DBPCFC, following a standardized decision algorithm. A generic form including details about severity and timing captures signs and symptoms observed during or after the procedures. In contrast to the commonly used dichotomous outcome FA vs no FA, the allergy status is interpreted in multiple categories to reflect the complexity of clinical decision-making. The proposed toolbox sets a standard for improved documentation and harmonized interpretation of DBPCFCs. By a detailed documentation and common terminology for communicating outcomes, these tools hope to reduce the influence of subjective judgment of supervising physicians. All forms are publicly available for further evolution and free use in clinical and research settings. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Consumer acceptance and market development of irradiated food in Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This publication covers the activities and accomplishments of eight countries that participated in a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Public Acceptance and Market Development of Irradiated Food in Asia and the Pacific, as presented at a final Research Coordination Meeting held in Bangkok, 20-25 September 1998. The CRP was implemented through research agreements with Bangladesh, China (one each for Shanghai and Beijing), the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam, from 1994 to 1998. The technical work undertaken to bring food irradiation technology to the marketplace to address food security, public health and trade needs, is described. This covered the establishment of quality assurance procedures, the determination of irradiation doses for nontraditional as well as traditional foods, the conduct of techno-economic feasibility, and the identification of industry and consumer needs. In the majority of cases, R and D activities were undertaken in partnership with industry. Developments in the establishment and harmonization of regulations on food irradiation were also monitored. The participants made commendable progress in the marketing of irradiated food and in the understanding and promotion of consumer acceptance of the technology. This was demonstrated in the marketing of close to 179,000 tons of different food and related products through normal trading channels. While the volume of food irradiated varied with the capacity of irradiation plants in participating countries, the work showed that consumers would accept irradiated foods and that trade benefits would ensue from the application of the technology. Information dissemination was found to be a critical factor in public acceptance. The discussions at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting, which are also summarized in this publication, focused on key issues and recommendations to bring about the wider commercialization of food irradiation for the

  2. Consumer acceptance and market development of irradiated food in Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This publication covers the activities and accomplishments of eight countries that participated in a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Public Acceptance and Market Development of Irradiated Food in Asia and the Pacific, as presented at a final Research Coordination Meeting held in Bangkok, 20-25 September 1998. The CRP was implemented through research agreements with Bangladesh, China (one each for Shanghai and Beijing), the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam, from 1994 to 1998. The technical work undertaken to bring food irradiation technology to the marketplace to address food security, public health and trade needs, is described. This covered the establishment of quality assurance procedures, the determination of irradiation doses for nontraditional as well as traditional foods, the conduct of techno-economic feasibility, and the identification of industry and consumer needs. In the majority of cases, R and D activities were undertaken in partnership with industry. Developments in the establishment and harmonization of regulations on food irradiation were also monitored. The participants made commendable progress in the marketing of irradiated food and in the understanding and promotion of consumer acceptance of the technology. This was demonstrated in the marketing of close to 179,000 tons of different food and related products through normal trading channels. While the volume of food irradiated varied with the capacity of irradiation plants in participating countries, the work showed that consumers would accept irradiated foods and that trade benefits would ensue from the application of the technology. Information dissemination was found to be a critical factor in public acceptance. The discussions at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting, which are also summarized in this publication, focused on key issues and recommendations to bring about the wider commercialization of food irradiation for the

  3. "Do non-R&D intensive industries benefit of spillovers from public research? The case of the Agro-food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Mangematin; Nadine Mandran

    2001-01-01

    The agro-food industry is a sector in which the percentage of firms which have done innovation in the past three years is high, whereas they have a low research capacity. According to an innovation survey (1986-90) in France, 70% of agro-food firms which responded in the Community Innovation Survey (CIS), reported innovations while less than 5% of them had internal research capacities. Our paper models estimates of determinants of innovation in the agro-food industry. Based on the comparison ...

  4. Food, growth and time: Elsie Widdowson's and Robert McCance's research into prenatal and early postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2014-09-01

    Cambridge scientists Robert McCance and Elsie Widdowson are best known for their work on the British food tables and wartime food rations, but it is their research on prenatal and early postnatal growth that is today seen as a foundation of the fields studying the impact of environment upon prenatal development and, consequently, adult disease. In this essay I situate McCance's and Widdowson's 1940s human and 1950s experimental studies in the context of pre-war concerns with fetal growth and development, especially within biochemistry, physiology and agriculture; and the Second World War and post-war focus on the effects of undernutrition during pregnancy upon the fetus. I relate Widdowson's and McCance's research on the long-term effects of early undernutrition to the concern with recovery from early trauma so pertinent in post-war Europe and with sensitive (critical) periods, a concept of high importance across different fields. Finally I discuss how, following a hiatus in which fetal physiology engaged with different questions and stressed fetal autonomy, interest in the impact of environment upon prenatal growth and development revived towards the end of the twentieth century. The new field of "developmental origins of health and disease", I suggest, has provided a context in which Widdowson's and McCance's work has regained importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Clinical Nutrition Research Agenda in Indonesia and beyond: ecological strategy for food in health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukito, Widjaja; Wibowo, Lindawati; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2017-06-01

    Despite progress with the food-associated health agenda in the public health and clinical domains, much remains to be done in Indonesia. There are reasons to be optimistic which include economic development, increasing literacy, progress towards universal health coverage and community organizational arrangements across the archipelago which focus on health through some 10,000 puskesmas. These community health centres are variably staffed with voluntary cadres from the community, bidans (nurses) and general medical practitioners. For more effective prevention and management of nutritionally-related health problems, innovative community and clinical nutrition research and expertise is required. With rapid urbanisation, the growth of the digital economy, increasing socio-economic inequity and climate change, there are imperatives for ecologically sustainable, nonemployment dependent livelihoods which provide energy, food, water, education and health care security. A relevant health care workforce will include those who research and practice clinical nutrition. Here we gather together an account of an extensive body of published and emerging literature which makes a case collectively for a more ecological approach to nutrition and health and how it might revitalise the Indonesian and other health care systems.

  6. 78 FR 15953 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Regulatory Research Related to Food and Drug Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... enacted in 1992, has provided FDA with the resources and process enhancements to enable a transformation... performance goals and procedures outlined within PDUFA V will require a high degree of leadership, research...

  7. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment of food and agricultural commodities. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    World trade in fresh horticultural produce, durables and ornamentals continues to grow. Accompanying increased trade in agricultural products is the increased risk for inadvertently transporting quarantine pests to countries or regions where they do not occur. Quarantined pests, including insects such as fruit flies, beetles, moths, scales, mealybugs, thrips, and mites, can seriously disrupt marketing of fresh agricultural products not only between countries, but also between geographical areas within countries (e.g. Florida to California; Hawaii to mainland USA; Queensland to Victoria, Australia; Okinawa to Japan) unless accepted postharvest quarantine treatments are available. Quarantine or phytosanitary treatments (such as fumigation, heat, cold or irradiation) disinfest host commodities of insect pests before they are moved through market channels to areas where the pests do not occur. Among the phytosanitary treatments, irradiation is recognized as a versatile treatment with broadspectrum activity against arthropod pests at dose levels that have minimal adverse effects on the quality of most commodities. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, initiated in 1998 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment of Food and Agricultural Commodities. This CRP included 16 participants from Australia, Brazil, Chile, China (2), India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Turkey and the USA (2). Research coordination meetings were held in Bangkok, Thailand, 29 March - 2 April 1999; Fresno, California, 13-16 November 2001; and Vienna, 2-4 November 2002. This CRP built on the achievements of two previous CRPs on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, (1986-1990), and Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Flies(1992-1997). This publication presents the research results

  8. Research document no. 20. The constitutionalizing of the international legal regime of the petroleum investments and the world market reconstruction; Cahier de recherche no. 20. La constitutionalisation du regime juridique international des investissements petroliers et la (re)construction du marche mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2000-09-01

    We analyse the new international legal regime for upstream petroleum investments and ''state contracts'' in general. In striking contrast to the ''New international economic order'' and ''Permanent sovereignty over natural resources'' ideologies of the 1960 and 1970, the emerging regime promotes the sanctification of contractual economic rights; the strict definition of State sovereign prerogatives, and the severe limitation of their conditions of exercise; the internationalization of the settlement of disputes through direct firm-State arbitration; the integration of national territories in a competitive, transparent, non-discriminative global market for investment. We demonstrate that it is rooted in the principles of liberal constitutionalism, hence promoting the internationalization of the Rule of Law. Such a legal regime is conducive to the expansion of the market for petroleum rights, as it restores the institutional conditions for credible commitment by the State. It will also accelerate the trend toward the ''commoditization'' of hydrocarbon resources. Bilateral investments treaties (especially the United States BIT program) as well as multilateral/regional instruments both general (draft MAI, MIGA, MERCOSUR, ALENA) and energy-specific (Energy Charter Treaty) are analysed as the main pillars and diffusion mechanisms of the new regime. A final paragraph indicates the way forward: the evaluation of the impact of this new legal regime on the world oil supply curve, especially as it eventually reaches - or not - some of the lowest-cost, biggest-resources countries. (author)

  9. Food online

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van der Lomme C.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law

  10. Improvement of basic food crops in Africa through plant breeding, including the use of induced mutations. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Improvement of Basic Food Crops in Africa Through Plant Breeding, Including the Use of Induced Mutations, funded by the Italian Government, was initiated in 1989 in the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The primary objective of this CRP was to breed improved varieties of stable food crops of Africa with the main emphasis on the indigenous species and their local cultivars. The fourth and final Research Co-ordination meeting under the CRP was held in Naples, Italy from 30 October - 3 November 1995. This publication includes the reports, conclusions and recommendations made by the participants. We hope that it will be of value to researchers, students and policy makers alike in their endeavour to promote plant breeding and increase food productions in Africa. Refs, figs, tabs.

  11. Improvement of basic food crops in Africa through plant breeding, including the use of induced mutations. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Improvement of Basic Food Crops in Africa Through Plant Breeding, Including the Use of Induced Mutations, funded by the Italian Government, was initiated in 1989 in the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The primary objective of this CRP was to breed improved varieties of stable food crops of Africa with the main emphasis on the indigenous species and their local cultivars. The fourth and final Research Co-ordination meeting under the CRP was held in Naples, Italy from 30 October - 3 November 1995. This publication includes the reports, conclusions and recommendations made by the participants. We hope that it will be of value to researchers, students and policy makers alike in their endeavour to promote plant breeding and increase food productions in Africa. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Study of the impact of food irradiation on preventing losses: Experience in Africa. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    There have been positive developments on food irradiation in different regions of the world, especially in the United States of America and several Asian and Latin American countries. In some countries in Africa, this technology has been studied in the past few decades with encouraging results. To assist these countries in conducting pilot scale research and development on irradiation of specific commodities of interest to them including market testing and feasibility to establish commercial irradiators for multi-purpose application, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Impact of Irradiation to Prevent Food Losses in Africa was carried out between 1995 and 1999. This CRP demonstrated that food irradiation has a potential to reduce losses of basic staple food crops including yams, dried and smoked fish, potatoes and onions through pilot scale experiments carried out in some African countries. Small scale market testing of such irradiated food such as spices, potatoes and onions showed encouraging results. In some countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Senegal and South Africa), it is feasible to establish commercial irradiation facilities for treating food. In Morocco, irradiation shows a potential to meet quarantine requirements in international food trade. It should be noted that commercial scale application of irradiation of some food products has been carried out in South Africa since the 1980s

  13. Study of the impact of food irradiation on preventing losses: Experience in Africa. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    There have been positive developments on food irradiation in different regions of the world, especially in the United States of America and several Asian and Latin American countries. In some countries in Africa, this technology has been studied in the past few decades with encouraging results. To assist these countries in conducting pilot scale research and development on irradiation of specific commodities of interest to them including market testing and feasibility to establish commercial irradiators for multi-purpose application, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Impact of Irradiation to Prevent Food Losses in Africa was carried out between 1995 and 1999. This CRP demonstrated that food irradiation has a potential to reduce losses of basic staple food crops including yams, dried and smoked fish, potatoes and onions through pilot scale experiments carried out in some African countries. Small scale market testing of such irradiated food such as spices, potatoes and onions showed encouraging results. In some countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Senegal and South Africa), it is feasible to establish commercial irradiation facilities for treating food. In Morocco, irradiation shows a potential to meet quarantine requirements in international food trade. It should be noted that commercial scale application of irradiation of some food products has been carried out in South Africa since the 1980s.

  14. Technologies for enhancement of bioactive components and potential health benefits of cereal and cereal-based foods: Research advances and application challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed S M; Wang, Peng; Wang, Na; Yang, Shu; Xiao, Zhigang

    2017-08-28

    Cereal grains are a major source of human food and their production has steadily been increased during the last several decades to meet the demand of our increasing world population. The modernized society and the expansion of the cereal food industry created a need for highly efficient processing technologies, especially flour production. Earlier scientific research efforts have led to the invention of the modern steel roller mill, and the refined flour of wheat has become a basic component in most of cereal-based foods such as breads and pastries because of the unique functionality of wheat protein. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have found that consumption of whole cereal grains was health beneficial. The health benefit of whole cereal grain is attributed to the combined effects of micronutrients, phytochemicals, and dietary fibre, which are mainly located in the outer bran layer and the germ. However, the removal of bran and germ from cereal grains during polishing and milling results in refined flour and food products with lower bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents than those from whole grain. Also, the level of bioactive compounds in cereal food is influenced by other food preparation procedures such as baking, cooking, extrusion, and puffing. Therefore, food scientists and nutritionists are searching for strategies and processing technologies to enhance the content and bioavailability of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibre of cereal foods. The objective of this article was to review the research advances on technologies for the enhancement of bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents of cereal and cereal-based foods. Bioactivities or biological effects of enhanced cereal and cereal-based foods are presented. Challenges facing the application of the proposed technologies in the food industry are also discussed.

  15. Current US nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act Adopted by US Congress in 1957 as the world's first national nuclear liability regime. It is a comprehensive, complicated and unique system and stems from special features of US legal regime and federal system of government. It differs from other systems by providing for 'economic', not legal; channeling of liability to facility operator and not recommended as model for other states, but most features adopted by other states and international conventions

  16. Totalitäre Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    "The development of the term and the analytical concept of totalitarianism have gone through several stages since the 1920s. However, even in its most sophisticated form, the version seen in Friedrich/ Brzezinski, the concept exhibits substantial systematic classification problems and analytical weaknesses. This article attempts to frame the type of totalitarian regime within a general typology of political regimes. Special attention is dedicated to the problem of distinguishing autocra...

  17. Endogenous Monetary Policy Regime Change

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Davig; Eric M. Leeper

    2006-01-01

    This paper makes changes in monetary policy rules (or regimes) endogenous. Changes are triggered when certain endogenous variables cross specified thresholds. Rational expectations equilibria are examined in three models of threshold switching to illustrate that (i) expectations formation effects generated by the possibility of regime change can be quantitatively important; (ii) symmetric shocks can have asymmetric effects; (iii) endogenous switching is a natural way to formally model preempt...

  18. Supporting collaboration in interdisciplinary research of water–energy–food nexus by means of ontology engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terukazu Kumazawa

    2017-06-01

    The introduction of ontology engineering approach will enable us to share a common language and a common theoretical basis. But the development of the new method based on ontology engineering is necessary. For example, knowledge structuring according to each perspective of researchers and simple figure accompanied with a reasoned argument in the background are the directions of tool development.

  19. Cognitive load theory, educational research, and instructional design; some food for thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive load is a theoretical notion with an increasingly central role in the educational research literature. The basic idea of cognitive load theory is that cognitive capacity in working memory is limited, so that if a learning task requires too much capacity, learning will be hampered. The

  20. Cognitive Load Theory, Educational Research, and Instructional Design: Some Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Ton

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive load is a theoretical notion with an increasingly central role in the educational research literature. The basic idea of cognitive load theory is that cognitive capacity in working memory is limited, so that if a learning task requires too much capacity, learning will be hampered. The recommended remedy is to design instructional systems…

  1. Understanding Infants' and Children's Social Learning about Foods: Previous Research and New Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the…

  2. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Steve [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Knapp, David [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a biomass-fired boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using carbon neutral fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO2 emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO2 emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO2. The boiler does require auxiliary functions, however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO2 emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO2 per year.

  3. The New Aphrodite school on Disasters Food and Poverty organized by CIMA Research Foundation and University of Genova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, G.

    2009-04-01

    CIMA is a Research Foundation which aim is to advance science and engineering in environmentally related fields, focusing on public health and safety, civil protection and the preservation of terrestrial and water-related ecosystems. This aim is accomplished through scientific research, technology transfer and high level training services. Here we present the "New Aphrodite school on Disasters Food and Poverty" jointly managed by CIMA Foundation, and the University of Genova. The school is organized to provide to international students, professionals and government officials, mainly from poor or developing countries, formation for the management, prediction and prevention of natural and man made disasters. The expertise of the teachers, mainly CIMA's researchers, comes from a long term support of CIMA Foundation to the Italian Civil Protection in developing the advanced national system for risk prediction, prevention and management. The school is organized in two levels. The first level includes an international master of science degree in "Environmental Engineering: Sustainable Development and Risk Management", which classes are given in English, and a master for professional and government officials in "Disasters, food and poverty". The second level includes an international Ph.D. programme in "Information sciences and technologies for system monitoring and environmental risk management". Short training courses for international government official are periodically organized. At present the school is organizing short courses for officials of Civil Protections of Venezuela, Barbados and Mozambique. The philosophy underlying the teaching activities is to promote a multi-disciplinary approach to disaster mitigation, prevention and prediction. Special focus is on the potential of high-tech low-cost technologies for rapid communication and disaster monitoring, such as satellite based technologies. Such technologies are seen as the best way to support the development

  4. Policy Ideas, Knowledge Regimes and Comparative Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite much attention to how ideas affect policy making, where these ideas come from is a blind spot in comparative political economy. We show that an important source of policy ideas are knowledge regimes—fields of policy research organizations. We show as well that the organization of knowledge...... to restore it by transforming their knowledge regimes, albeit in ways that are still shaped by the surrounding political and economic institutions. The effectiveness of their efforts is not guaranteed. The argument is based on an analysis of the evolution of knowledge regimes since the 1970s in the USA...... regimes is heavily influenced by the organization of their surrounding political economies such that knowledge regimes have particular national characters. Furthermore, when people perceive that the utility of their knowledge regime for the rest of the political economy breaks down, they often try...

  5. The Medical Anthropologist as the Patient: Developing Research Questions on Hospital Food in Japan through Auto-Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Runestad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I was an inpatient at a small maternity clinic in Japan in 2012–13 and found it impossible to separate the way I experienced medical care and my training as a medical anthropologist. As I was encouraged to eat and monitor my weight so that I would “grow” a healthy baby, I recalled how interviewees from my HIV/AIDS project described nourishing their bodies so they could fight disease. Because of my experience in the healthcare system in Japan, I ended up reframing my data to add questions about the role of hospital food in patient care. Meanwhile, I developed the social networks necessary to execute a new project, which I would later undertake. In this essay I argue that medical anthropologists working from a phenomenological perspective may regard their own bodies as assets rather than hindrances in research, and that because bodies are gendered, focusing on this facet of habitus can be particularly informative. I also illustrate how systematic reflection on personal experience in the field (autoethnography aids in the development of research questions and reframing data. Finally, I discuss how highlighting these steps in research methods courses can demystify the research process for students.

  6. From famine to food crisis: what history can teach us about local and global subsistence crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaute, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The number of famine prone regions in the world has been shrinking for centuries. It is currently mainly limited to sub-Saharan Africa. Yet the impact of endemic hunger has not declined and the early twenty-first century seems to be faced with a new threat: global subsistence crises. In this essay I question the concepts of famine and food crisis from different analytical angles: historical and contemporary famine research, food regime theory, and peasant studies. I will argue that only a more integrated historical framework of analysis can surpass dualistic interpretations grounded in Eurocentric modernization paradigms. This article successively debates historical and contemporary famine research, the contemporary food regime and the new global food crisis, the lessons from Europe's 'grand escape' from hunger, and the peasantry and 'depeasantization' as central analytical concepts. Dualistic histories of food and famine have been dominating developmentalist stories for too long. This essay shows how a blending of historical and contemporary famine research, food regime theory and new peasant studies can foster a more integrated perspective.

  7. Food Peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Minkiewicz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the definition of food peptidomics and highlight the role of this approach in food and nutrition sciences. Similar to living organisms, food peptidome may be defined as the whole peptide pool present in a food product or raw material. This definition also covers peptides obtained during technological processes and/or storage. The area of interest of food peptidomics covers research concerning the origin of peptidome, its dynamic changes during processing and/or storage, the influence of its presence, the composition and changes in the pool of peptides on the properties of food products or raw materials as well as the methods applied in research into this group of compounds. The area of interests of food peptidomics would include biological activity, functional properties, allergenicity, sensory properties and information on the product or resource authenticity and origin as well as its history and relationships. Research methods applied in food peptidomics, with special emphasis on computational methods, are also summarized.

  8. Private actor accountability on international regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Purnomo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs have emerged along with the growing role of corporations in global development. One of the largest forms of PPP today is the UN Global Compact. The UN Global Compact involves of companies, NGOs, IGOs and state governments. All of them are trying to realize globalization with a more humanist face with attention to the protection of human rights, environment, labor standards and anti-corruption. Engaging private actors in global governance, The UN Global Compact raises many issues such as power, authority, and legitimacy. The effort to tackle it all is to increase PPP accountability. This research seeks to describe what efforts can be made to enhance private accountability within the international regime. The research undertaken is a descriptive study, focuses on public-private partnerships in the UN Global Compact regime. The study found that there were two attempts that could be done. First, by involving the stakeholders in the development of procedures, mechanisms, reporting and monitoring associated with trying to improve the company’s reputation. Second, by looking at corporate relations as agent and UN Global Compact as principal in principal-agent relation in the international regime.

  9. Ergonomics in a national research and development programme for food technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Hansen, Iben Posniak

    1997-01-01

    The research question for the study presented in this paper was: What are the opportunities and barriers for integrating ergonomics aspects into joint projects sponsored by the FOETEK programme? The objectives were (i) to evaluate the outcome of this clause of accounting for ergonomics impacts......, and (ii) to put forward recommendations for improving the integration of ergonomics into joint projects sponsored by the FOETEK programme. A survey based on a questionnaire was conducted among 57 joint projects. A total of 217 project managers or contact persons received the questionnaire. The response...

  10. Nigerian Food Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Food Journal (NIFOJ) is a journal of international standard ... of special attributes and advantages of food products and materials, technical ... the various disciplines among members who are employed in food research, the food ...

  11. Future internet and the agri-food sector: State-of-the-art in literature and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, R.J.; Reiche, R.; Schiefer, G.

    2012-01-01

    The food sector is one of the most important sectors of the economy, encompassing agriculture, the food industry, retail, and eventually, all members of society as consumers. With its responsibility of serving consumers with food that is safe, readily available, affordable and of the quality and

  12. Improvement of basic food crops in Africa through plant breeding, including the use of induced mutations. Report of the third research co-ordination meeting of FAO/IAEA/ITALY co-ordinated research programme. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme, on ``Improvement of basic food corps in Africa through plant breeding including the use of induced mutations``, funded by the Italian Governmnet, was initiated in the Joint Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. The primary objective of this CRP was to breed improved varieties of staple food crops of Africa with main emphasis on the indigenous species and local cultivars. The Third Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) under the FAO/IAEA/ITALY Co-ordinated Research Programme was held in Nairobi, Kenya, 20-24 September 1993 in which 24 persons participated and 18 scientific reports were presented. These included reports from 10 Research Contract holders from Africa, 3 Technical Contract holders from Italy and the update on the backstopping of research carried out at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf. The reports, and conclusions and recommendations made by the participants are presented in this publication. Refs, figs, tabs.

  13. Improvement of basic food crops in Africa through plant breeding, including the use of induced mutations. Report of the third research co-ordination meeting of FAO/IAEA/ITALY co-ordinated research programme. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme, on ''Improvement of basic food corps in Africa through plant breeding including the use of induced mutations'', funded by the Italian Governmnet, was initiated in the Joint Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. The primary objective of this CRP was to breed improved varieties of staple food crops of Africa with main emphasis on the indigenous species and local cultivars. The Third Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) under the FAO/IAEA/ITALY Co-ordinated Research Programme was held in Nairobi, Kenya, 20-24 September 1993 in which 24 persons participated and 18 scientific reports were presented. These included reports from 10 Research Contract holders from Africa, 3 Technical Contract holders from Italy and the update on the backstopping of research carried out at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf. The reports, and conclusions and recommendations made by the participants are presented in this publication. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  15. Research of alternative medicine formulary for joint pain treatment according to Food Act 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Ikmal Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Joint is a type of tissue that connects two bones together. The main function of the joint tissues is to reduce the effect of friction that happens between bones resulting from the movement of the body. In a long term effect, the joint became dried and unable to absorb such vibration again. Thus, it will cause inflammation. A survey showed that patients with joints problems prefer the alternative prescription medicine rather than the modern medicines that are recommended by doctors. This is because it does not cost as much and it also can be easily obtained. However, the safety of consuming these products is doubtful and the side effect is unknown. This research is conducted by obtaining alternative prescription medicine for joint medication samples from Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur area namely Jamu Jarum Emas, Maajun Kuat, Pil Tupai Jantan Asli, Kapsul Ajaib, Sendi Pil, Herba Ikan Haruan Asli, F.O.B., Tunglin Antirheumatic, and Sendi-Plus and the experiment is being tested using X-ray Fluorescence technique and referred to Akta Makanan 1983 to see whether the the medicines is safe to be consumed or not. Six heavy metal elements is stated in the act which are toxic to humans like arsenic, lead, tin, mercury, cadmium, and antimony. The amounts permitted by the act are 1, 2, 40, 0.05, 1 and 1 mg/ kg respectively. From the research, only three heavy metals have the amounts below the maximum amounts permitted by the law that is lead, cadmium, and antimony with the amount of 0.23, 0.23, and 0.04 mg/ kg while the amount of arsenic, lead, and mercury are way exceeds the law with the concentrations of 4.33 ± 0.460, 18.0 ± 1.11, and 0.120 ± 0.007 mg/ kg respectively. All samples manufacturer do not obey the law completely, thus the safety for consuming this products can cause severe effect on human health. (author)

  16. Food irradiation studies at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan, Rep. of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.-K.; Tsai, C.-M.; Wu, W.-S.; Chang, M.-S.; Chang, Y.-N.; Shu, S.-L.

    1981-01-01

    The use of radiation to inhibit sprouting of potatoes, onions, gingers and garlic was studied at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. The sprout inhibition doses were found to be, 10, 5, 2.5, 7.5 Krads, respectively. Changes in the content of moisture, ash, reducing sugars, total sugars, lipids, proteins, fiber etc. were monitored in various agricultural foodstuffs both with and without γ-irradiation at various doses. Fungicides did not prevent potatoes from decaying at 10 or 25 0 C with or without gamma radiation. Onions treated with any fungicides have significantly more healthy tissues than controls at 10 0 C but not 25 0 C after 30 and 60 days storage, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma radiation. Insect pests have been causing great damage to stored rice in Taiwan. The four most harmful insects are: Sitophilus Zeamais Mostschulsky, Rhyzopertha dominica, Tribolitum custaneum Herbst and Sitotroga cerealella Oliver. Adults, eggs or larvae of these insect pests were irradiated by 60 Co gamma rays. The results show that 40 Krads of gamma-irradiation could completely control these four species of pests in stored rice. (author)

  17. Tidal regimes and salt marshes - the River Hamble analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, A.J.; Moy, I.L.; Warman, E.A.; Dawson, F.H.; Henville, P.

    1993-01-01

    Construction of estuarine tidal-energy barrages has a potentially major effect on the tidal regime of the estuary, particularly upstream of a barrage. Because tidal regime largely controls the distribution and species composition of intertidal plant and animal communities, it is important to understand how barrages may affect such communities. The main objectives of the research described in this report were to relate recent changes in tidal regime within an embanked area of salt marsh and mudflat to changes in the distribution of plant species. This was to test predictions about tidal control of species' range and to assess the site's suitability as an analogue of post-barrage conditions. (author)

  18. On the regimes of premixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, S.; Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for Risk Studies and Safety

    1998-01-01

    The conditions of the MAGICO-2000 experiment are extended to more broadly investigate the regimes of premixing, and the corresponding internal structures of mixing zones. With the help of the data and numerical simulations using the computer code PM-ALPHA, we can distinguish extremes of behavior dominated by inertia and thermal effects - we name these the inertia and thermal regimes, respectively. This is an important distinction that should guide future experiments aimed at code verification in this area. Interesting intermediate behaviors are also delineated and discussed. (author)

  19. Morphological adaptations in filtering screens of Daphnia galeata to food quantity and food quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repka, S.; Veen, A.; Vijverberg, J.

    1999-01-01

    We reared clones of the waterflea Daphnia galeata, a common grazer in many types of lakes, under several food regimes to study adaptations to feeding conditions in filter screen morphology and life history. As food regimes, we used low and high concentrations of the green alga Scenedesmus, a high

  20. Detecting spatial regimes in ecosystems | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on early warning indicators has generally focused on assessing temporal transitions with limited application of these methods to detecting spatial regimes. Traditional spatial boundary detection procedures that result in ecoregion maps are typically based on ecological potential (i.e. potential vegetation), and often fail to account for ongoing changes due to stressors such as land use change and climate change and their effects on plant and animal communities. We use Fisher information, an information theory based method, on both terrestrial and aquatic animal data (US Breeding Bird Survey and marine zooplankton) to identify ecological boundaries, and compare our results to traditional early warning indicators, conventional ecoregion maps, and multivariate analysis such as nMDS (non-metric Multidimensional Scaling) and cluster analysis. We successfully detect spatial regimes and transitions in both terrestrial and aquatic systems using Fisher information. Furthermore, Fisher information provided explicit spatial information about community change that is absent from other multivariate approaches. Our results suggest that defining spatial regimes based on animal communities may better reflect ecological reality than do traditional ecoregion maps, especially in our current era of rapid and unpredictable ecological change. Use an information theory based method to identify ecological boundaries and compare our results to traditional early warning

  1. Nigerian Food Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Food Journal publishes original research articles in all aspects of ... Manuscripts: Manuscripts of original research on all aspects of Food Science ... is not under consideration in part or in full for publication in any other Journal.

  2. The impact of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act on the recruitment of children for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharav, Vera Hassner

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that contrary to the claims made by research stakeholders in industry, academia and government, the shift in public policy since the enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) of 1997 and its financial incentives to industry to test drugs on children, has had a deleterious impact on children's dignity, health and welfare. Those lucrative incentives offered an opportunity to accelerate the pace of FDA approval for pediatric drug marketing. FDAMA resulted in a radical shift in federal policy to accommodate an expansion of pediatric trials. Children who are precluded from exercising a human adult's right to informed consent to research are increasingly sought as test subjects even when the trials offer no potential benefit for them. Prior to FDAMA children were protected under federal regulations that prohibited their recruitment for experiments that were not in their best interest. This article discusses eight cases and controversies demonstrating that children have been subjected to experiments that exposed them to pain, discomfort, and serious risks of harm. Babies have died testing a lethal heartburn drug; children have been subjected to "forced dose titration" in antidepressant drug trials that resulted in several suicide attempts. Toddlers are currently being subjected to methylphenidate dose tolerance tests without evidence of any pathological condition. Healthy teenagers are being exposed to antipsychotic drugs known to induce severe pathological side effects in speculative "schizophrenia prevention" experiments.

  3. Desenvolvimento "in vitro" de larvas e juvenis de Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Hippidae sob diferentes condições de temperatura, salinidade e regime alimentar "In vitro" development of larvae and juveniles of the sand crab Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Hippidae under different conditions of temperature, salinity and food diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara P. Otegui

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Larvas eclodidas em laboratório e juvenis coletados em campo do tatuí Emeritabrasiliensis (Hippidae foram cultivados em diferentes temperaturas e regime alimentar com a finalidade de avaliar as melhores condições para a manutenção da espécie em laboratório. O efeito da freqüência da substituição da água de cultivo sobre o desenvolvimento larvar também foi estudado avaliando-se a sobrevivência, o crescimento e a duração dos estádios larvares. A duração das fases larvares e o crescimento das três últimas fases de zoea correlacionaramse positivamente com a temperatura. As temperaturas testadas, entre 18 e 26ºC não influenciaram a sobrevivência das larvas. Não houve influencia da alimentação e nem da troca de água no desenvolvimento, crescimento e sobrevivência das larvas, bem como das dietas de microalgas na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento dos juvenis.Hatched larvae and field sampled juveniles of the sand crab Emeritabrasiliensis were reared at different temperatures and food diet in order to evaluate the best conditions for laboratory maintenance. The effects of frequency of changing the aquarium seawater on larval development was also studied evaluating the survival, growth and duration of larval stages. The duration of larval stage and growth of the last three zoes phases correlate positively with temperature. Temperatures between 18 and 26ºC did not influence the larval survival. The kind of food and frequency of water exchange did not influence the development, growth, and survival of larvae, as well as the development, and survival of juveniles.

  4. Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la communaute europeenne en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive: Methodologie. Resultats des enquetes familiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresta, M; Lacourly, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport sont rassembles les premiers resultats des enquetes alimentaires effectuees pendant la periode 1963-1965, aupres de 9000 familles, dans onze regions reparties dans les six pays de la Communaute Europeenne. L'exploitation partielle des donnees obtenues porte sur un echantillon reduit a 3725 familles et permet d'etablir la composition du regime alimentaire moyen individuel, mensuel et annuel de chacune des onze regions. L'organisation des enquetes, la methode de traitement des donnees et l'expression des resultats sont exposees dans la premiere partie du rapport. La seconde reunit, sous forme de tableaux numeriques, les consommations des differents aliments et principes alimentaires par region d'enquetes. Des tableaux recapitulatifs permettent, en outre, une comparaison des consommations moyennes, individuelles des differentes regions etudiees. (auteur)

  5. Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la communaute europeenne en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive: Methodologie. Resultats des enquetes familiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresta, M.; Lacourly, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport sont rassembles les premiers resultats des enquetes alimentaires effectuees pendant la periode 1963-1965, aupres de 9000 familles, dans onze regions reparties dans les six pays de la Communaute Europeenne. L'exploitation partielle des donnees obtenues porte sur un echantillon reduit a 3725 familles et permet d'etablir la composition du regime alimentaire moyen individuel, mensuel et annuel de chacune des onze regions. L'organisation des enquetes, la methode de traitement des donnees et l'expression des resultats sont exposees dans la premiere partie du rapport. La seconde reunit, sous forme de tableaux numeriques, les consommations des differents aliments et principes alimentaires par region d'enquetes. Des tableaux recapitulatifs permettent, en outre, une comparaison des consommations moyennes, individuelles des differentes regions etudiees. (auteur)

  6. The FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on ''Evaluation of Methods of Analysis for Determining Mycotoxin Contamination of Food and Feed''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doko, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The present Co-ordinated Research Programme is to complement the FAO/IAEA Training and Reference Centre (TRC) for Food and Pesticide Control under the Centre's mission ''to assist Member States and their institutions to fulfill requirements to support the implementation of international safeguards/agreements relevant to food safety and control, the safe use of pesticides and sanitary and phytosanitary measures, by providing training, quality assurance services and technology transfer''. Based on the Global Environment Monitoring System - Food Contamination Monitoring and Assessment Programme (GEMS/Food) data and other national data on mycotoxin contamination, mycotoxins are a widespread problem of the food supplies in most countries. As a result, many countries have enacted regulations to control the level of mycotoxins in the national food supply as well as in food moving in international trade. At the international level, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, through its Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants and relevant commodity committees is considering the establishment of international guideline levels for various mycotoxins based on risk assessments performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Codex activities are of particular importance in view of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement specifically refers to Codex standards, guidelines and recommendations as representing the international consensus on health and safety requirements for food based on sound scientific risk assessment. This will require national authorities to give greater attention to the development of consistent and standardised approaches to regulations and their enforcement, including sampling and methods of analysis. Consequently, it is essential that the analytical capabilities of laboratories in developing countries are strengthened in order to enable them to effectively monitor the mycotoxin content of food in

  7. Land degradation and property regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  8. Regime identification in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, L; Sips, A C C; Kardaun, O; Spreitler, F; Suttrop, W

    2004-01-01

    The ability to recognize the transition from the L-mode to the H-mode or from the H-mode to the improved H-mode reliably from a conveniently small number of measurements in real time is of increasing importance for machine control. Discriminant analysis has been applied to regime identification of plasma discharges in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. An observation consists of a set of plasma parameters averaged over a time slice in a discharge. The data set consists of all observations over different discharges and time slices. Discriminant analysis yields coefficients allowing the classification of a new observation. The results of a frequentist and a formal Bayesian approach to discriminant analysis are compared. With five plasma variables, a failure rate of 1.3% for predicting the L-mode and the H-mode confinement regime was achieved. With five plasma variables, a failure rate of 5.3% for predicting the H-mode and the improved H-mode confinement regime was achieved. The coefficients derived by discriminant analysis have been applied subsequently to discharges to illustrate the operation of regime identification in a real time control system

  9. Monetary regimes in open economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpos, A.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-country open economy framework for the analysis of strategic interactions among monetary authorities and wage bargaining institutions. From this perspective, the thesis investigates the economic consequences of replacing flexible and fixed exchange rate regimes with a

  10. Asset allocation and regime switching on Croatian financial market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Škrinjarić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for quite some time now that financial markets exhibit changes in regimes over time. A majority of the literature tends to support that financial markets undergo regimes of bull and bear markets. This characteristic should be modeled in a proper way as investors are always interested in beating the market: either by achieving better returns than others, or by minimizing their portfolio risks. There exist many mathematical and statistical models that are used as tools to achieve the mentioned goals. Introducing the regime switching methodology in existing models has proven to be facilitate achieving such goals. Therefore, the objective of this study is to utilize the regime switching methodology on the Croatian financial market to ascertain its usefulness for Croatian investors. Multivariate regime switching and non-switching models were estimated using daily data from the period 2 January 2007 to 31 December 2015. The assumption is that the investor is interested in stock and bond markets. The results from the MGARCH and regime switching MGARCH models are then compared in order to give answers as to whether the respective methodology applied to the Croatian market is useful and how it may benefit investors. Most of the results support the presumption of incorporating this particular methodology in financial modeling for the Croatia markets. This is the first research that applies the regime switching MGARCH methodology in Croatia (including the Balkan region, hence we expect that this will be a significant contribution to existing methodologies in literature.

  11. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  13. Report on second FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting on radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants - Neuherberg, Germany, F.R., 4-8 May 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division established the coordinated research programme on 'Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants'. The first FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting of the programme was held in Panama City, Panama in October 1985. It established a framework for experiments by the participating researchers to investigate metabolism and terminal residues of ethylenebisdithiocarbamates in food plants using 14 C-labelled materials with associated and other techniques. In this second report, progress made since the first report is presented and the further research needed to fulfill the objectives of the programme is outlined. The objectives of the meeting were as follows: To review progress within the coordinated research programme; To discuss problems pertinent to methodologies and labelled substrates; To prepare a report and recommendations with particular reference to future needs and priorities. The 12 papers presented at the meeting are given in summary form. (orig./MG)

  14. Research on early warning of food security using a system dynamics model: evidence from Jiangsu province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the early warning of food security, this paper sets the self-sufficiency rate as the principal indicator in a standpoint of supplement. It is common to use the quantitative methods to forecast and warning the insecurity. However, this paper considers more about the probable outcome when the government intervenes. By constructing the causal feedbacks among grain supplement, demand, productive input, and the policy factors to simulate the future food security in Jiangsu province, conclusions can be drawn as the following: (1) The situation of food security is insecure if the self-sufficiency rate is under 68.3% according to the development of system inertia. (2) it is difficult to guarantee the food security in Jiangsu just depending on the increase of grain sown area. (3) The valid solution to ensure the food security in Jiangsu is to improve the productivity. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Influence of food companies' brand mascots and entertainment companies' cartoon media characters on children's diet and health: a systematic review and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, V I; Story, M

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the extent and persuasive power of marketing unhealthy foods to children worldwide are important obesity prevention goals. Research is limited to understand how brand mascots and cartoon media characters influence children's diet. We conducted a systematic review of five electronic databases (2000–2014) to identify experimental studies that measured how food companies' mascots and entertainment companies' media characters influence up to 12 diet-related cognitive, behavioural and health outcomes for children under 12 years. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies used 21 unique popular media characters, but no brand mascots. Results suggest that cartoon media character branding can positively increase children's fruit or vegetable intake compared with no character branding. However, familiar media character branding is a more powerful influence on children's food preferences, choices and intake, especially for energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods (e.g. cookies, candy or chocolate) compared with fruits or vegetables. Future research should use a theoretically grounded conceptual model and larger and more diverse samples across settings to produce stronger findings for mediating and moderating factors. Future research can be used to inform the deliberations of policymakers, practitioners and advocates regarding how media character marketing should be used to support healthy food environments for children. PMID:25516352

  16. Influence of food companies' brand mascots and entertainment companies' cartoon media characters on children's diet and health: a systematic review and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, V I; Story, M

    2015-02-01

    Reducing the extent and persuasive power of marketing unhealthy foods to children worldwide are important obesity prevention goals. Research is limited to understand how brand mascots and cartoon media characters influence children's diet. We conducted a systematic review of five electronic databases (2000-2014) to identify experimental studies that measured how food companies' mascots and entertainment companies' media characters influence up to 12 diet-related cognitive, behavioural and health outcomes for children under 12 years. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies used 21 unique popular media characters, but no brand mascots. Results suggest that cartoon media character branding can positively increase children's fruit or vegetable intake compared with no character branding. However, familiar media character branding is a more powerful influence on children's food preferences, choices and intake, especially for energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods (e.g. cookies, candy or chocolate) compared with fruits or vegetables. Future research should use a theoretically grounded conceptual model and larger and more diverse samples across settings to produce stronger findings for mediating and moderating factors. Future research can be used to inform the deliberations of policymakers, practitioners and advocates regarding how media character marketing should be used to support healthy food environments for children. © 2014 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  17. Research on the Impacts of Expensive Food and Luxury Goods Import Tariff Adjustment on Chinese Economy and Related Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Qishen Zhou; Mingxing Yang

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of expensive food and luxury goods import tariff adjustment on Chinese economy and related measures. Nowadays, Asia especially China has been the world’s biggest expensive food and luxury goods market. However, due to relatively higher luxury import tariff in China, most consumers have chosen to purchase expensive food and luxury goods abroad which leads to a large of domestic consumption cash outflow. Therefore, whether to cut the luxury import tari...

  18. "Quiet Food Sovereignty” as Food Sovereignty without Movements? Understanding Food Sovereignty in Post-Socialist Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Visser (Oane); N.V. Mamonova (Natalia); M.N. Spoor (Max); A. Nikulin (Alexander)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWhat does food sovereignty look like in settings where rural social movements are weak or non-existent, such as in countries with post-socialist, semi-authoritarian regimes? Focusing on Russia, we present a divergent form of food sovereignty. Building on the concept of ‘quiet

  19. From Risks to Shared Value? Corporate Strategies in Building a Global Water Accounting and Disclosure Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current debate on water accounting and accountability among transnational actors such as corporations and NGOs is likely to contribute to the emergence of a global water governance regime. Corporations within the food and beverage sector (F-B are especially vulnerable to water risks; therefore, in this article we analyse motivations and strategies of the major F-B corporations participating in the debate and developing different water accounting, disclosure and risk-assessment tools. Neo-institutionalism and neo-Gramscian regime theory provide the basis for our framework to analyse the discursive, material and organisational corporate water strategies. Findings based on an analysis of the chosen F-B corporations’ sustainability reports and interviews with key informants suggest that the corporations share similar goals and values with regard to the emerging regime. They seek a standardisation that is practical and supportive in improving their water efficiency and communication with stakeholders. This indicates that some harmonisation has taken place over time and new actors have been pursuing the path of the pioneering companies, but the lead corporations are also differentiating their strategies, thus engaging in hegemonic positioning. However, so far the plethora of NGO-driven accountability initiatives and tools has fragmented the field more than 'war of position' amongst the corporations. Furthermore, several companies claim to have proceeded from internal water-risk management to reducing risks throughout their value chains and watersheds. As a result they are 'creating shared value' with stakeholders, and potentially manifesting an emergent paradigm that goes beyond a private regime framework. Nevertheless, in the absence of verification schemes, questions of sustainability and legitimacy of such actions on the ground prevail and remain a topic for further research.

  20. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define...... influence food manufacturers' decision making with regards to production of functional foods. Internal factors such as organisational characteristics, innovation characteristics, and external factors such as functional food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts, collaboration between suppliers and food...

  1. Prima facie reasons to question enclosed intellectual property regimes and favor open-source regimes for germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Madeleine-Thérèse; Chappell, M Jahi

    2017-01-01

    In principle, intellectual property protections (IPPs) promote and protect important but costly investment in research and development. However, the empirical reality of IPPs has often gone without critical evaluation, and the potential of alternative approaches to lend equal or greater support for useful innovation is rarely considered. In this paper, we review the mounting evidence that the global intellectual property regime (IPR) for germplasm has been neither necessary nor sufficient to generate socially beneficial improvements in crop plants and maintain agrobiodiversity. Instead, based on our analysis, the dominant global IPR appears to have contributed to consolidation in the seed industry while failing to genuinely engage with the potential of alternatives to support social goods such as food security, adaptability, and resilience. The dominant IPR also constrains collaborative and cumulative plant breeding processes that are built upon the work of countless farmers past and present. Given the likely limits of current IPR, we propose that social goods in agriculture may be better supported by alternative approaches, warranting a rapid move away from the dominant single-dimensional focus on encouraging innovation through ensuring monopoly profits to IPP holders.

  2. Calorie labeling in a rural middle school influences food selection: findings from community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Monica; McGinnis, Paul; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; O'Malley, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Calorie labeling at the point-of-purchase in chain restaurants has been shown to reduce energy intake. To investigate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information at one rural middle school. With a community-based participatory research framework a mixed method approach was used to evaluate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information. Students in grades 6-8, dining at the school cafeteria January and February 2010, participated for 17 school days each month; in January a menu was offered in the usual manner without calorie labels; the same menu was prepared in February with the addition of calorie labels at point-of-purchase. Gross calories served per student were measured each day allowing for matched comparison by menu. In March/April of 2010, 32 students who ate in the cafeteria 3 or more times per week were interviewed regarding their views on menu labeling. Calorie consumption decreased by an average of 47 calories/day; fat intake reduced by 2.1 grams/day. Five main themes were consistent throughout the interviews. Point-of-purchase calorie labels can play a role in reducing the number of calories consumed by middle school age children at the lunch. The majority of students interviewed found the calorie labels helped them choose healthier food.

  3. Do family policy regimes matter for children's well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Daniel; Stensöta, Helena Olofsdotter

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the impact of different welfare state regimes, and particularly family policy regimes, on gender equality. Very little research has been conducted, however, on the association between different family policy regimes and children's well-being. This article explores how the different family policy regimes of twenty OECD countries relate to children's well-being in the areas of child poverty, child mortality, and educational attainment and achievement. We focus specifically on three family policies: family cash and tax benefits, paid parenting leaves, and public child care support. Using panel data for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005, we test the association between these policies and child well-being while holding constant for a number of structural and policy variables. Our analysis shows that the dual-earner regimes, combining high levels of support for paid parenting leaves and public child care, are strongly associated with low levels of child poverty and child mortality. We find little long-term effect of family policies on educational achievement, but a significant positive correlation between high family policy support and higher educational attainment. We conclude that family policies have a significant impact on improving children's well-being, and that dual-earner regimes represent the best practice for promoting children's health and development.

  4. Monitoring radioactivity in food and actions of the Ministry in charge of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grastilleur, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    French ministry of food, agriculture and fisheries (general directorate for food) is involved in all aspects of food safety and food controls As such, MAAP guarantees both the quality and safety of food products radioactivity controls in food participate to this global aim. Since 1987 and following the accident on Tchernobyl nuclear plant, regulations and monitoring-control programmes have been implemented by MAPP, mainly based on Cs 134 and 137 and Sr 90 researches in raw products such as game, milk and dairy products and honey A new monitoring and control programme has been implemented as from 2009, with the help of IRSN and thanks to the work on management during post-accidental phases initiated in 2005 by ASN. Mainly the activity of Cs is determined but also other parameters are measured such as Ca, K and l 131 activities in the samples analysed by IRSN. In 2009, 812 samples were programmed and all of them have proven to be conform. During the year 2010, 725 samples will be collected, Global exposure to radioactivity in France is estimated at 4000 μSv per year, food and water contributing to 6% (that is about 250 μSv) mainly due to K and Ca (natural radioactive components of the regime). (author)

  5. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  6. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

  7. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  8. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in epidemiologic research among the elderly: Validation by comparison with dietary history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootenhuis, P.A.; Westenbrink, S.; Sie, C.M.T.L.; Neeling, J.N.D. de; Kok, F.J.; Bouter, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    A self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire including 75 food items and providing information on the habitual intake of 31 nutritional parameters, based on the intake of protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber and 11 vitamins and minerals, was developed for use in epidemiologic

  9. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in epidemiologic research among the elderly : Validation by comparison with dietary history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootenhuis, Peter A.; Westenbrink, Susanne; Sie, Claudia M.T.L.; De Neeling, J. Nico D.; Kok, Frans J.; Bouter, Lex M.

    1995-01-01

    A self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire including 75 food items and providing information on the habitual intake of 31 nutritional parameters, based on the intake of protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber and 11 vitamins and minerals, was developed for use in epidemiologic

  10. Food Waste Generation at Household Level: Results of a Survey among Employees of Two European Research Centers in Italy and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Jörissen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a broad consensus in literature that private households are significant contributors to the total amount of food waste in the EU. Thus, any strategy to meaningfully combat food wastage must put the end consumer in the center of prevention activities. This requires deeper insights into people’s motivations to discard still edible food and knowledge about potential barriers to reduce wasting. This paper reports on results of an online survey among two European research centers in Italy (JRC/Ispra and Germany (KIT/Karlsruhe. The focus of the survey was on households’ behaviors (shopping, eating, and food preparation habits and its influence on the generation of food waste. Furthermore, reasons for the disposal of food as well as measures and technologies most needed to prevent wastage were discussed. The results of the survey are analyzed, especially with regard to two questions: (1 Are there considerable differences between Ispra and Karlsruhe? (2 Are there considerable similarities or inconsistencies with the results of previous studies?

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoerr, M.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Delincee, H.

    1999-01-01

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Determination of diets for the populations of eleven regions of the European community to be used for obtaining radioactive contamination levels. First results concerning the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la Communaute Europenne et vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive. Premiere serie de resultats concernant la consommation alimentaire des individus groupes en neuf classes d'ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledermann, S; Lacourly, G; Garnier, A; Cresta, M; Lombardo, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The present document continues the report CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. The processing of the data given by the family food enquiry carried out in eleven regions of the European Community, has permitted to determine the food consumption of individuals classified in nine age-groups, in order to study the radioactive contamination levels in the food-chain. The used statistical method is described, and the obtained results are presented in form of double-entry tables giving for each region and for each age-group the mean weekly food-consumption and the contribution of each diet in nutrition principles, in minerals, vitamins, trace elements and calories. (authors) [French] Ce rapport fait suite au rapport CEA-R--2979 - EUR--2768-f. Le traitement de l'information apportee par les enquetes alimentaires familiales realisees dans onze regions de la Communaute Europeenne a permis de determiner les consommations alimentaires des individus groupes en neuf classes d'age, en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive dans les chaines alimentaires. La methode statistique employee est decrite et les resultats obtenus sont presentes sous forme de tableaux a double entree donnant pour chacune des regions etudiees et pour chacune des neuf classes d'age, les consommations moyennes hebdomadaires, ainsi que les apports en principes nutritifs, mineraux, vitamines et oligo-elements, et calories de chaque regime. (auteurs)

  13. Food perception and food liking with age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.

    2006-01-01

    The elderly population is rapidly growing worldwide. In sensory and nutrition research, age-associated losses in sensory function are believed to change the perception of food, to decrease food liking and consequently to decrease food intake of the elderly, although data in support of this line of

  14. ESNA: European Society for New Methods in Agricultural Research. 23. annual meeting and 3. German meeting on food irradiation. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The book comprises 181 abstracts of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Society for New Methods in Agricultural Research and the 3rd German Meeting on Food Irradiation. The following subjects were discussed in six workshops: Radiation Technology and 3rd German Meeting on Food Irradiation (44); Advanced Methods in Animal Sciences (17); Soil-Plant Relationships (36); Plant Genetics, Breeding and Physiology (48); Environmental Aspects and Energy Use (16); Pest Management (20). The abstracts are supplemented by an alphabetic index of authors. (UHE) [de

  15. Securing Land Tenure, Improving Food Security and Reducing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Securing Land Tenure, Improving Food Security and Reducing Poverty in Rural ... land tenure regimes as obstacles to food security, economic integration and ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  16. Comparative research of effectiveness of cellulose and fiberglass porous membrane carriers for bio sampling in veterinary and food industry monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Alexander; Vasyukova, Inna; Zakharova, Olga; Altabaeva, Yuliya; Saushkin, Nikolai; Samsonova, Jeanne; Kondakov, Sergey; Osipov, Alexander; Snegin, Eduard

    2017-11-01

    The aim of proposed research is to study the applicability of fiberglass porous membrane materials in a new strip format for dried blood storage in food industry monitoring. A comparative analysis of cellulosic and fiberglass porous membrane materials was carried out to obtain dried samples of serum or blood and the possibility of further species-specific analysis. Blood samples of Sus scrofa were used to study the comparative effectiveness of cellulose and fiberglass porous membrane carriers for long-term biomaterial storage allowing for further DNA detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Scanning electron microscopy of various membranes - native and with blood samples - indicate a fundamental difference in the form of dried samples. Membranes based on cellulosic materials sorb the components of the biological fluid on the surface of the fibers of their structure, partially penetrating the cellulose fibers, while in the case of glass fiber membranes the components of the biological fluid dry out as films in the pores of the membrane between the structural filaments. This fundamental difference in the retention mechanisms affects the rate of dissolution of the components of dry samples and contributes to an increase in the efficiency of the desorption process of the sample before subsequent analysis. Detecting of pig DNA in every analyzed sample under the performed Real-time PCR as well as good state of the biomaterial preservation on the glass fiber membranes was clearly demonstrated. Good biomaterials preservation has been revealed on the test cards for 4 days as well as for 1 hour.

  17. Development of Risk Assessment Methodology for State's Nuclear Security Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Seo, Hyung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Kwak, Sung Woo

    2011-01-01

    Threats of nuclear terrorism are increasing after 9/11 terrorist attack. Treats include nuclear explosive device (NED) made by terrorist groups, radiological damage caused by a sabotage aiming nuclear facilities, and radiological dispersion device (RDD), which is also called 'dirty bomb'. In 9/11, Al Qaeda planed to cause radiological consequences by the crash of a nuclear power plant and the captured airplane. The evidence of a dirty bomb experiment was found in Afganistan by the UK intelligence agency. Thus, the international communities including the IAEA work substantial efforts. The leaders of 47 nations attended the 2010 nuclear security summit hosted by President Obama, while the next global nuclear summit will be held in Seoul, 2012. Most states established and are maintaining state's nuclear security regime because of the increasing threat and the international obligations. However, each state's nuclear security regime is different and depends on the state's environment. The methodology for the assessment of state's nuclear security regime is necessary to design and implement an efficient nuclear security regime, and to figure out weak points. The IAEA's INPRO project suggests a checklist method for State's nuclear security regime. The IAEA is now researching more quantitative methods cooperatively with several countries including Korea. In this abstract, methodologies to evaluate state's nuclear security regime by risk assessment are addressed

  18. Food irradiation with emphasis on process control and acceptance in Asia. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The third phase of the Asian Regional Cooperative Project on Food Irradiation RPFI (Phase III) emphasized process control of pilot- and commercial scale irradiation of food according to the principle of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods, and on gaining the acceptance of the process by governments, food industry and consumers. Phase III of the RPFI was funded by UNDP and was in operation from 1989-1993. Fifteen institutions in Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam participated. Proper process control of irradiation with emphasis on dosimetry techniques was emphasized. A number of market testing, transportation trials and consumer acceptance studies was carried out during this period. Refs, figs, tabs.

  19. Traps and pitfalls in research on healthy food choices: On selective accessibility, assimilation and contrast, and the look-in-the-fridge heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    as a motivating factor. Situational factors dominated consumers' food choice considerations, often in patterns developing coherence over time. It is concluded that consumers hold elaborate health belief systems, but that a lack of situational accessibility generally prevents them from gaining influence on actual......Consumer research on healthy food choices often suffers from context effects and low predictive validity. Adopting a social cognition perspective, the paper proposes that consumers hold elaborate belief systems about food and health issues, but that these are only selectively accessed in different...... situations. Three studies are reported. In Study 1, 525 consumers answered a belief questionnaire. Structural equation modelling results demonstrate that health beliefs, when made accessible, form an interconnected system that can motivate successful self-regulation of healthy eating behaviour. Through...

  20. Improving food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Gronert, Alicja; Bikova, Borislava; Salce, Luca; Nogués, Marc; Batistelli, Patryk; Farid, Yomna

    2014-01-01

    The theme and issue of ‘Improving food preservation to reduce food waste’ is associated with all group members participating in this research project. This topic covers multiple processes including purchasing, preserving, preparing and storing food. The industry of fresh fruits and vegetables is an enormous market, which will not disappear any time soon. Food waste is mostly disregarded as fresh fruits and vegetables are mostly inexpensive. All group members believe that this mindset needs to...