WorldWideScience

Sample records for research focuses primarily

  1. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  2. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  3. Focus on nuclear fusion research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenek, Petr; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2011), s. 62-63 ISSN 0375-8842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * COMPASS * fusion energy * tokamak * EURATOM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.ipp.cas.cz/Tokamak/clanky/energetika_COMPASS.pdf

  4. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, Birgit; Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004-2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students.

  5. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D.; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M.; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004–2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students. PMID:29698502

  6. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  7. Virtual Focus Groups: New Frontiers in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Turney

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies in the form of learning management systems provide unique and inventive opportunities for qualitative researchers. Their intrinsic ability to record discursive data in text format accurately and to provide safe, secure, and anonymous environments for participants makes them amenable for use as advanced research tools. In this article, the authors report on a collaborative project that tested the potential of online discussion boards for use in virtual focus groups. What the researchers found was that not only was the method theoretically sound, it actually enhanced their ability to connect with difficult-to-access populations that were disparately spread.

  8. BIOENERGIA - Focus on wood in bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [Jyvaeskylae Science Park, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most important area of research on wood fuel production is the development of various methods, machines and systems connected to this area, in order to produce economically competitive fuels. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research area because they seem to be most promising. The growing amount of small-sized trees ant the need of their first thinnings have created a demand for new harvesting methods. At the moment the economical aspects restrict the harvesting of the first thinning trees either for industrial use or energy production. Research on peat production focuses on the complete use of a bog and on the development of peat production methods and machines. Development work in this area aims at decreasing production costs and also at reducing the drainage water and other elements in environmental load around the peat production sites. The use of bioenergy research will be focused on the small-scale (<20 MW{sub th},) applications. In the long term, the increase of bioenergy in heating of small houses and farms and buildings, as well as in the production of heat and power has been estimated. Research into the conversion of biomass is concentrated on the production of biomass-based liquid fuels

  9. The Research Focus of Nations: Economic vs. Altruistic Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W

    2017-01-01

    What motivates the research strategies of nations and institutions? We suggest that research primarily serves two masters-altruism and economic growth. Some nations focus more research in altruistic (or non-economic) fields while others focus more research in fields associated with economic growth. What causes this difference? Are there characteristics that would suggest why a nation is more aligned with altruism or economic growth? To answer this question, we have identified nine major fields of research by analyzing the publication activity of 4429 institutions using Scopus data. Two fields of research are clearly altruistic (there is relatively little involvement by industry) and two fields are clearly aligned with economic growth. The altruistic vs. economic nature of nations based on their publication profiles across these fields is correlated with national indicators on wealth, education, capitalism, individualism, power, religion, and language. While previous research has suggested that national research strategy is aligned with national wealth, our analysis shows that national wealth is not highly correlated with the tradeoff between altruistic and economic motives. Instead, the tradeoff is largely captured by a culture of individualism. Accordingly, implications for national research strategies are discussed.

  10. Auditing as Institutional Research: A Qualitative Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Internal institutional auditing can improve effectiveness and efficiency and protect an institution's assets. Many of the concepts and techniques used to analyze higher education institutions are qualitative in nature and suited to institutional research, including fiscal, operational, data-processing, investigative, management consulting,…

  11. Focus on uranium research in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoute, M.

    2014-01-01

    Two periods stand out in the history of mining exploration for uranium in Senegal: • 1957 - 1965 in the context of a general inventory of the uranium potential of Africa, which is also the time that the large deposits of Niger and Gabon were discovered; • 1973 to the present, is characterized by surveys more focused on specific topics such as Birrimian Superior Precambrian Sedimentary, Secondary and Tertiary Phosphates. The collapse of uranium price that began since 1980 calls into question the validity of these surveys on areas away from the coast that lack infrastructure and forces the elimination of targets where there is little hope of finding high enough concentrations of uranium for possible mining.

  12. Broadening the focus of bat conservation and research in the USA for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Weller; Paul Cryan; O’Shea Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Appropriately, bat conservation in the USA during the 20th century focused on species that tend to aggregate in large numbers and locations (e.g. maternity roosts, hibernacula) where populations are most vulnerable. Extensive research into habitat needs (primarily for roosting) of reproductive females during the previous 2 decades has produced a wealth of information...

  13. 21 CFR 312.86 - Focused FDA regulatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Focused FDA regulatory research. 312.86 Section 312.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.86 Focused FDA regulatory research. At the discretion of the agency...

  14. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research & Practice. Volume 7, Issue D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Focus on Basics" is the quarterly publication of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy. It presents best practices, current research on adult learning and literacy, and how research is used by adult basic education teachers, counselors, program administrators, and policymakers. "Focus on Basics" is…

  15. Focus Group in Community Mental Health Research: Need for Adaption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Vesna; Pahor, Majda; Kogovšek, Tina

    2018-04-27

    The article presents an analysis of the use of focus groups in researching community mental health users, starting with the reasons for using them, their implementation in mental health service users' research, and the adaptations of focus group use when researching the experiences of users. Based on personal research experience and a review of scientific publications in the Google Scholar, Web of Science, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, and Scopus databases, 20 articles published between 2010 and 2016 were selected for targeted content analysis. A checklist for reporting on the use of focus groups with community mental health service users, aiming to improve the comparability, verifiability and validity was developed. Adaptations of the implementation of focus groups in relation to participants' characteristics were suggested. Focus groups are not only useful as a scientific research technique, but also for ensuring service users' participation in decision-making in community mental health and evaluating the quality of the mental health system and services .

  16. Reengineering Clinical Research Science: A Focus on Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Courtney B.

    2009-01-01

    The burden of disease in the United States is high. Mental illness is currently the leading cause of disease burden among 15- to 44-year-olds. This phenomenon is occurring despite the many advances that have been made in clinical research. Several efficacious interventions are available to treat many of these disorders; however, they are greatly…

  17. The use of focused ethnography in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Edward Venzon; Higginbottom, Gina

    2013-03-01

    To provide an overview of the relevance and strengths of focused ethnography in nursing research. The paper provides descriptions of focused ethnography and discusses using exemplars to show how focused ethnographies can enhance and understand nursing practice. Orthodox ethnographic approaches may not always be suitable or desirable for research in diverse nursing contexts. Focused ethnography has emerged as a promising method for applying ethnography to a distinct issue or shared experience in cultures or sub-cultures and in specific settings, rather than throughout entire communities. Unfortunately, there is limited guidance on using focused ethnography, particularly as applied to nursing research. Research studies performed by nurses using focused ethnography are summarised to show how they fulfilled three main purposes of the genre in nursing research. Additional citations are provided to help demonstrate the versatility of focused ethnography in exploring distinct problems in a specific context in different populations and groups of people. The unique role that nurses play in health care, coupled with their skills in enquiry, can contribute to the further development of the discipline. Focused ethnography offers an opportunity to gain a better understanding and appreciation of nursing as a profession, and the role it plays in society. Focused ethnography has emerged as a relevant research methodology that can be used by nurse researchers to understand specific societal issues that affect different facets of nursing practice. As nurse researchers endeavour to understand experiences in light of their health and life situations, focused ethnography enables them to understand the interrelationship between people and their environments in the society in which they live.

  18. Research Timeline: Form-Focused Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timeline of research on form-focused instruction (FFI). Over the past 40 years, research on the role of instruction has undergone many changes. Much of the early research concentrated on determining whether formal instruction makes any difference in the development of learner language. This question was motivated in part by…

  19. Research and Its Relationship to Nurse Education: Focus and Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Examination of two British mental health journals and a government document on the future of nursing found a lack of focus on clinical research and little reference to the role of research and development in practice. The increasing importance of evidence-based practice demands a strategy for developing nurses' capacity to understand, undertake,…

  20. Clinical Perspective Qualitative adolescent health researchfocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces nine steps that are recommended in conducting focus group discussions in rural communities and gives an example of how they can appropriately and fruitfully be employed in adolescent health behavioural research. The paper also reviewed issues related to methods of data collection, data analysis, ...

  1. Focusing Information Systems Post-Graduate Research Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Ridley

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of mechanisms that assist Information Systems post-graduate research students to focus their projects. An evaluation is presented of the experiences of Information Systems research students in focussing their research projects based on a survey conducted of students who participated in two of the first three Information Systems doctoral consortia to be held in Australia. The survey sought to determine whether a doctoral consortium or 'systematic expert review' is the most valuable mechanism for focussing a research proposal. Systematic expert review was considered by the students to be more effective than the doctoral consortium process for the purpose of focussing their research project proposals.

  2. Focus Group Interview in Family Practice Research: Implementing a qualitative research method

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Marjorie L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus group interviews, described as a qualitative research method with good potential in family medicine, are traced from their origins in market research to their growing role in sociology and medicine. Features of this method are described, including design, conduct, and analysis. Both proven and potential areas for primary care research using focus groups are outlined.

  3. The Focus on Youth Prevention and Education Research Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Deveaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing or transitional countries affected by the HIV epidemic, The Bahamas has been deeply committed to HIV and sexually transmitted infection reduction and continues to make great strides in controlling the epidemic within its boundaries. Encouraged by the impact of the Focus on Youth Caribbean (FOYC, a school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programme and its parenting component on Grade 6 and Grade 10 students and their parents, a team of researchers from The Bahamas and the United States sought to implement a similar programme at a national level, while simultaneously evaluating factors that impact the sustainability of sexual risk-reduction programmes like FOYC. This paper describes five research projects conducted in The Bahamas between 1998 and 2016 and includes a list of over 40 published research articles

  4. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  5. Revisiting the use of focus group in social research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Freidin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The methodological reflections on focus groups presented in this article draw from a research project on middle-class people living in Metropolitan Buenos Aires. The study addresses health discourses and practices in the contemporary scenario characterized by the diversification of specialists, the growing media coverage of recommendations of healthy living and wellbeing, the implementation of public policies on health promotion, and the expansion of the industry of related products and services.  The objective of the article is to reflect, based on our fieldwork experience, on two aspects that have received special attention in the recent methodological literature: the criteria to compose the groups and their consequences on the conversational dynamic, and the strategies to account for the group interaction in data analysis. Included in the latter, we explore the potential of GF research to observe health identity work. We frame our study and the decisions about design issues into the current debates on the variety of uses of the research group methodology.

  6. Translational toxicology: a developmental focus for integrated research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claude; Waters, Michael; Allen, David; Obasanjo, Iyabo

    2013-09-30

    Given that toxicology studies the potential adverse effects of environmental exposures on various forms of life and that clinical toxicology typically focuses on human health effects, what can and should the relatively new term of "translational toxicology" be taken to mean? Our assertion is that the core concept of translational toxicology must incorporate existing principles of toxicology and epidemiology, but be driven by the aim of developing safe and effective interventions beyond simple reduction or avoidance of exposure to prevent, mitigate or reverse adverse human health effects of exposures.The field of toxicology has now reached a point where advances in multiple areas of biomedical research and information technologies empower us to make fundamental transitions in directly impacting human health. Translational toxicology must encompass four action elements as follows: 1) Assessing human exposures in critical windows across the lifespan; 2) Defining modes of action and relevance of data from animal models; 3) Use of mathematical models to develop plausible predictions as the basis for: 4) Protective and restorative human health interventions. The discussion focuses on the critical window of in-utero development. Exposure assessment, basic toxicology and development of certain categories of mathematical models are not new areas of research; however overtly integrating these in order to conceive, assess and validate effective interventions to mitigate or reverse adverse effects of environmental exposures is our novel opportunity. This is what we should do in translational toxicology so that we have a portfolio of interventional options to improve human health that include both minimizing exposures and specific preventative/restorative/mitigative therapeutics.

  7. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  8. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects

  9. LIS Practitioner-focused Research Trends Toward Open Access Journals, Academic-focused Research Toward Traditional Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hayman

    2018-03-01

    with academic-student collaborations (21.5%, practitioner librarian collaborations (15.5%, and librarian-academic collaborations (13.2%. Conclusion – LIS practitioner-focused research tends to appear more often in open access journals, while academic-focused researcher tends to appear more often in non-OA journals. These trends also appear in research collaborations, with co-authored works involving librarians appearing more often in OA journals, and collaborations that include academics more likely to appear in non-OA journals.

  10. How to conduct focus groups: researching group priorities through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Focus groups serve to uncover priorities and beliefs of a target group, but health project designers do not always take the time to seek this information beforehand. Focus groups also allow various local subgroups to communicate their concerns before the project starts. Focus groups can also breed ideas and dialogue that individual interviews cannot and they provide baseline information so managers can determine if attitudes or priorities have resulted from the project. Diverse people have different beliefs, e.g., women who have young children view oral rehydration therapy differently from women with no children. Project designers can use these basic differences to arrive at some conclusions about general attitudes. Focus group facilitators should have a discussion outline to help keep the group on the topic of concern. They should limit sessions to 60-90 minutes. Each focus groups should include 8-10 people. It is important to have members of various community subgroups in each group. Yet group designers should be careful not to include within the same group, those who may intimidate other people in the group, e.g., in situations where farmers depend on middlemen, farmers may not be open if middlemen are also in the focus group. Facilitators should launch each session with an attempt to encourage the members to be open and to feel comfortable. For example, in Malawi, a facilitator leads her focus group discussions with songs. Stories are another icebreaker. It is important that all focus groups centering around a certain project discuss the same topics. Facilitators need to stress to the group that all discussions are to be kept confidential. The designers should also carefully word the questions so that facilitators will not impart their bias. Facilitators should not direct the group to certain conclusions, but instead keep the discussions focused.

  11. EPA Toxicologists Focus Innovative Research on PFAS Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers have partnered with researchers at the National Toxicology Program to develop a tiered testing approach to quickly generate toxicity and kinetic information for approximately 75 PFAS compounds.

  12. Canada's International Education Strategy: Focus on Scholarships. CBIE Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Based on a survey of approximately 40 professionals involved in various disciplines associated with international education across Canada, this study examines Canada's (federal, provincial, and territorial government) offering of scholarships to international students. Focused at the university level, the study elaborates on relevant international…

  13. Report Focuses on Integrity and Accessibility of Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    Rapid advances in digital technologies and enormous increases in the amount of data generated by research projects and a variety of instruments and sensors are providing new research opportunities. These advances, however, also can present challenges for ensuring that digital technologies are not used inappropriately and for managing an increasing amount of data, according to a new report issued by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine on 22 July. The new report, entitled “Ensuring the integrity, accessibility, and stewardship of research data in the digital age,” provides general principles and recommendations about the handling of research data. The report notes that the development of policies, standards, and infrastructure “is a critically important task” that will require a sustained effort from stakeholders including researchers, research institutions and sponsors, and professional societies and journals.

  14. Advances in research methods for information systems research data mining, data envelopment analysis, value focused thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Osei-Bryson, Kweku-Muata

    2013-01-01

    Advances in social science research methodologies and data analytic methods are changing the way research in information systems is conducted. New developments in statistical software technologies for data mining (DM) such as regression splines or decision tree induction can be used to assist researchers in systematic post-positivist theory testing and development. Established management science techniques like data envelopment analysis (DEA), and value focused thinking (VFT) can be used in combination with traditional statistical analysis and data mining techniques to more effectively explore

  15. Airbreathing Hypersonic Systems Focus at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James L.; Rausch, Vincent L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vehicle design matrix, reflects on the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix and to focus/advance systems technology maturation. Priority is given to the design of the vision operational vehicles followed by flow-down requirements to flight demonstrator vehicles and their design for eventual consideration in the Future-X Program.

  16. Interview series focuses on IDRC-funded research on climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Conversation is a series of interviews and videos of research partners working on climate change adaptation projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, funded through IDRC's Climate Change and Water program.

  17. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A healthy population is seen as an important precondition for economic growth and competitiveness. Research into environmental health is therefore concerned with understanding the exposure and magnitude of impact on humans from environmental hazards...

  18. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  19. A Research Focused on Improving Vocalisation Level on Violin Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasiz, Gökalp

    2018-01-01

    The research aimed to improve vocalisation levels of music teacher's candidates on performance works for violin education moving from difficulties faced by prospective teachers. At the same time, it was aimed to provide new perspectives to violin educators. Study group was composed of six 3rd grade students studying violin education in a State…

  20. Focus Article: Replication in Second Language Writing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Graeme; Richards, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the meaning and range of replication in L2 research from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. In the first half of the paper, it will be argued that key quantitative studies need to be replicated to have their robustness and generalizability tested and that this is a requirement of scientific inquiry. Such research…

  1. Faculty at Work: Focus on Research, Scholarship, and Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Robert T.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study compared selected personal and environmental motivational variables in college faculty with allocation of work effort to research, scholarship, and service. Faculty were from eight liberal arts and sciences departments in a range of institution types. For all institutional types, self-valuation motivators significantly accounted for the…

  2. Refocusing International Astronomy Education Research Using a Cognitive Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    For over 40 years, the international astronomy education community has given its attention to cataloging the substantial body of "misconceptions" in individual's thinking about astronomy, and to addressing the consequences of those misconceptions in the science classroom. Despite the tremendous amount of effort given to researching and disseminating information related to misconceptions, and the development of a theory of conceptual change to mitigate misconceptions, progress continues to be less than satisfying. An analysis of the literature and our own research has motivated the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to advance a new model that allowing us to operate on students' astronomical learning difficulties in a more fruitful manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast this model suggests that "misconceptions" are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (e.g., phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g., spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties. Each of these types of barriers should be addressed with an appropriately designed instructional strategy. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in astronomy and the space sciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in astronomy beyond the level of "misconceptions" may allow our community to craft tailored and more effective learning experiences for our students and the general public.

  3. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  4. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  5. Focus group interview: an underutilized research technique for improving theory and practice in health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, C E

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to increase awareness about and stimulate interest in using focus group interviews, a qualitative research technique, to advance the state-of-the-art of education and learning about health. After a brief discussion of small group process in health education, features of focus group interviews are presented, and a theoretical framework for planning a focus group study is summarized. Then, literature describing traditional and health-related applications of focus group interviews is reviewed and a synthesis of methodological limitations and advantages of this technique is presented. Implications are discussed regarding: need for more inductive qualitative research in health education; utility of focus group interviews for research and for formative and summative evaluation of health education programs; applicability of marketing research to understanding and influencing consumer behavior, despite notable distinctions between educational initiatives and marketing; and need for professional preparation faculty to consider increasing emphasis on qualitative research methods.

  6. Nuclear Waste Separation and Transmutation Research with Special Focus on Russian Transmutation Projects Sponsored by ISTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Henri; Blomgren, Jan; Olsson, Nils

    2003-03-01

    High-level nuclear reactor waste is made up of relatively few long-lived radioactive species, among them plutonium, that contribute to difficulties with its storage and disposal. Separation of these species from larger waste volumes mainly constituting of uranium (about 95 %) coupled with nuclear incineration to fission products of plutonium and the so called minor actinides (Neptunium, Americium, and Curium) and transmutation of some of the long lived fission products to short lived or stable isotopes represents a viable nuclear waste management strategy to drastically reduce the time and space requirements for a bed-rock repository of the remaining waste. A remarkable increase in the international research and development on partitioning and transmutation has occurred during the recent years. The road-map report published in April 2001 by The European Technical Working Group on ADS for the development of a European demonstration facility for nuclear waste transmutation has high-lighted the ongoing European research and pointed out the need for further research. The road-map has given the different research activities a position in the ultimate goal of producing an ADS demonstrator and is guiding research planning on the national as well as on the EU level. The Advanced Accelerator Application (3A) program in the US, with the long term goals to enhance long term public safety, provide benefits for the repository, reduce proliferation risks and improve prospects for nuclear power has focused the research on nuclear waste transmutation. The reports on the 3A program indicates a change of the US former abandonment position towards reprocessing and fast reactors due to a strong incentive to eliminate the reactor plutonium and to lower the amount of high level reactor waste for the Yucca Mountain repository. The SKB's proposed research and development program for the next 3 years (FUD01) was presented by SKB in September 2001. It is proposed that the research program

  7. Design Research with a Focus on Learning Processes: An Overview on Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Susanne; Gravemeijer, Koeno; Confrey, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Design research continues to gain prominence as a significant methodology in the mathematics education research community. This overview summarizes the origins and the current state of design research practices focusing on methodological requirements and processes of theorizing. While recognizing the rich variations in the foci and scale of design…

  8. Action research in rehabilitation with chronic stroke recovery: A case report with a focus on neural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Malene; Bundgaard, Tina H; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R; Sørensen, Peter M B; Berro, Hamza M; Larsson, Bodil W

    2016-06-27

    Chronic stroke patients are primarily referred to general rehabilitation, rather than to specific neurorehabilitation. Currently, there are no Danish clinical guidelines for chronic stroke, but recent research in neuroplasticity has contributed to possible rehabilitation interventions for these patients. The purpose of this project is to describe the use of a specialized neuroplastic approach in combination with an already existing training program. The project is designed as an action research project concerning four participants with chronic stroke. Through ten intervention, a neuroplastic focus has been added to their group training program including daily home training. Participants were tested before and after the intervention with MAS, DGI, 6MWT, SSQLS. All four participants improved their functional levels and their quality of life following the intervention. This report indicates that a specific neuroplastic focus in combination with action research has an impact on the participants with chronic stroke. However, there is still no clarity regarding what type of rehabilitation methods can be considered the most efficacious in promoting neuroplasticity. This case report serves as a pilot project for further studies of how to implement neuroplasticity in physical therapy.

  9. Puzzle-solving in psychology : The neo-Galtonian vs. nomothetic research focuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vautier, Stephane; Lacot, Emilie; Veldhuis, Michiel

    We compare the neo-Galtonian and nomothetic approaches of psychological research. While the former focuses on summarized statistics that depict average subjects, the latter focuses on general facts of form 'if conditions then restricted outcomes'. The nomothetic approach does not require

  10. Establishing a research agenda for scientific and technical information (STI) - Focus on the user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  11. Establishing a research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI): Focus on the user

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  12. Planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers: Factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: water and human health research in CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water and Human Health team researches water related science to address the CSIR’s mandate, national priorities and to improve quality of life for all. The overall aim of the research is to achieve a sustainable balance between the use of water...

  14. [Bioethical Approach for Nursing Research -Focused on the Use of Research Ethics Committees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ihn Sook

    2015-06-01

    This paper was written to introduce methods of using the research ethics committee (RES) from requesting the initial review to reporting the close-out for nursing researchers. General ethical principles were described by reviewing the 'Bioethics and Safety Act' and other related guidelines, and constructing some questions and answers. The results were composed of three parts; definition of RES, steps in using RES, and archiving. The 7 steps for using RES were; identifying whether the study needed to be reviewed, by the RES identifying whether the study could be exempted, requesting the initial review after preparing documents, requesting the re-review, requesting an amendment review, requesting a continuing review and reporting the close-out. Nursing researchers need to receive RES approval before starting nursing research involving human subjects. Nursing researchers are urged to use the steps reported in this paper to receive RES approval easily and quickly.

  15. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  16. Implications for Focusing Research in Career and Technical Education and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Jeanea M.; Joerger, Richard M.; Elliot, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Education and educational research is shaped by philosophy, psychology, practice, and ever changing educational policies. Previous studies have expressed a need for a relevant and focused research agenda for career and technical education (CTE), workforce development education and career and technical education. A need for a relevant and timely…

  17. Linking Teacher Evaluation to Professional Development: Focusing on Improving Teaching and Learning. Research & Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Laura; Biggers, Kietha; Croft, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recently, teacher evaluation has become a major focus in educational policy debates and research efforts. This increased attention to teacher evaluation has raised questions about the relationship between evaluation and student outcomes. Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain (2005) and others have demonstrated with value-added research that there are…

  18. Process research on Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples: linking theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Paul S; Johnson, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this article is on the link among theory, process, and outcome in the practice of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples. We describe the EFT model of change and the EFT perspective on adult love as the reflection of underlying attachment processes. We outline the manner in which theory and research inform EFT interventions. This leads into a detailed review of the literature on the processes of change in EFT. We highlight the client responses and therapist operations that have emerged from process research and their relation to treatment outcomes. We discuss the implications of this body of research for clinical practice and training. © FPI, Inc.

  19. Effects of Focus of Accounting Research on the Quality of Accounting Education in Malaysian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Kabiru Isa Dandago; Nor Azlina Binti Shaari

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the impact of focus of research in accounting on the quality of accounting education in Malaysian Universities. Research in accounting is very important in Malaysian Universities, in particular, and the Malaysian tertiary educational institutions, in general, and it is expected that academic research in accounting would improve the quality of accounting education in the country. The study is mainly a literature review type, with some informal interviews conducted for confir...

  20. Patients’ and caregivers’ needs, experiences, preferences and research priorities in spiritual care: A focus group study across nine countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Lucy Ellen; Brighton, Lisa Jane; Sinclair, Shane; Karvinen, Ikali; Egan, Richard; Speck, Peter; Powell, Richard A; Deskur-Smielecka, Ewa; Glajchen, Myra; Adler, Shelly; Puchalski, Christina; Hunter, Joy; Gikaara, Nancy; Hope, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spiritual distress is prevalent in advanced disease, but often neglected, resulting in unnecessary suffering. Evidence to inform spiritual care practices in palliative care is limited. Aim: To explore spiritual care needs, experiences, preferences and research priorities in an international sample of patients with life-limiting disease and family caregivers. Design: Focus group study. Setting/participants: Separate patient and caregiver focus groups were conducted at 11 sites in South Africa, Kenya, South Korea, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Finland and Poland. Discussions were transcribed, translated into English and analysed thematically. Results: A total of 74 patients participated: median age 62 years; 53 had cancer; 48 were women. In total, 71 caregivers participated: median age 61 years; 56 were women. Two-thirds of participants were Christian. Five themes are described: patients’ and caregivers’ spiritual concerns, understanding of spirituality and its role in illness, views and experiences of spiritual care, preferences regarding spiritual care, and research priorities. Participants reported wide-ranging spiritual concerns spanning existential, psychological, religious and social domains. Spirituality supported coping, but could also result in framing illness as punishment. Participants emphasised the need for staff competence in spiritual care. Spiritual care was reportedly lacking, primarily due to staff members’ de-prioritisation and lack of time. Patients’ research priorities included understanding the qualities of human connectedness and fostering these skills in staff. Caregivers’ priorities included staff training, assessment, studying impact, and caregiver’s spiritual care needs. Conclusion: To meet patient and caregiver preferences, healthcare providers should be able to address their spiritual concerns. Findings should inform patient- and caregiver-centred spiritual care provision, education and

  1. Lin Receives 2010 Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Ning Lin has been awarded the Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to a recent Ph.D. recipient for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Lin's thesis is entitled “Multi-hazard risk analysis related to hurricanes.” She is scheduled to present an invited talk in the Extreme Natural Events: Modeling, Prediction, and Mitigation session (NH20) during the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13-17 December in San Francisco, Calif. Lin will be formally presented with the award at the Natural Hazards focus group reception on 14 December 2010.

  2. Focusing on Cause or Cure?: Priorities and Stakeholder Presence in Childhood Psychiatry Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Lauren C; Cho, Mildred K

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders outside the research community and

  3. A Review of the Research in Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Stephanie A; Johnson, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples (EFT) is a brief evidence-based couple therapy based in attachment theory. Since the development of EFT, efficacy and effectiveness research has accumulated to address a range of couple concerns. EFT meets or exceeds the guidelines for classification as an evidence-based couple therapy outlined for couple and family research. Furthermore, EFT researchers have examined the process of change and predictors of outcome in EFT. Future research in EFT will continue to examine the process of change in EFT and test the efficacy and effectiveness of EFT in new applications and for couples of diverse backgrounds and concerns. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  4. Methodological Reflections on the Use of Asynchronous Online Focus Groups in Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams PhD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is increasingly used as a tool in qualitative research. In particular, asynchronous online focus groups are used when factors such as cost, time, or access to participants can make conducting face-to-face research difficult. In this article we consider key methodological issues involved in using asynchronous online focus groups to explore experiences of health and illness. The written nature of Internet communication, the lack of physical presence, and the asynchronous, longitudinal aspects enable participants who might not normally contribute to research studies to reflect on their personal stories before disclosing them to the researcher. Implications for study design, recruitment strategies, and ethics should be considered when deciding whether to use this method.

  5. Ten Reasons to Still Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing. Research Brief, Publication #2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.…

  6. A Program to Improve Student Engagement at Research-Focused Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Ashley V.; Hope, Sally E.; Wylie, Lauren J.; Zhao, Bob; Souza, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Promoting undergraduate engagement is an important and challenging obstacle at large research-focused universities. Thus, the current study evaluated whether a peer-led program of student-geared events could improve engagement among a diverse group of psychology students early on in their degrees. We randomly assigned interested second-year…

  7. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: Integrated waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Research into integrated waste management is undertaken in view of the impact of increasing populations and a strong national focus on industrial, agricultural and urban growth that is likely to result in the increase of human induced pressures...

  8. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  9. Risk of vicarious trauma in nursing research: a focused mapping review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Jones, Christine; Herber, Oliver Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    To provide a snapshot of how vicarious trauma is considered within the published nursing research literature. Vicarious trauma (secondary traumatic stress) has been the focus of attention in nursing practice for many years. The most pertinent areas to invoke vicarious trauma in research have been suggested as abuse/violence and death/dying. What is not known is how researchers account for the risks of vicarious trauma in research. Focused mapping review and synthesis. Empirical studies meeting criteria for abuse/violence or death/dying in relevant Scopus ranked top nursing journals (n = 6) January 2009 to December 2014. Relevant papers were scrutinised for the extent to which researchers discussed the risk of vicarious trauma. Aspects of the studies were mapped systematically to a pre-defined template, allowing patterns and gaps in authors' reporting to be determined. These were synthesised into a coherent profile of current reporting practices and from this, a new conceptualisation seeking to anticipate and address the risk of vicarious trauma was developed. Two thousand five hundred and three papers were published during the review period, of which 104 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were distributed evenly by method (52 qualitative; 51 quantitative; one mixed methods) and by focus (54 abuse/violence; 50 death/dying). The majority of studies (98) were carried out in adult populations. Only two papers reported on vicarious trauma. The conceptualisation of vicarious trauma takes account of both sensitivity of the substantive data collected, and closeness of those involved with the research. This might assist researchers in designing ethical and protective research and foreground the importance of managing risks of vicarious trauma. Vicarious trauma is not well considered in research into clinically important topics. Our proposed framework allows for consideration of these so that precautionary measures can be put in place to minimise harm to staff. © 2016

  10. The Impact of Natural Disasters on Youth: A Focus on Emerging Research beyond Internalizing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Lai, Betty; Patterson, Alexandria; Glasheen, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews youth outcomes following exposure to natural disaster, with a focus on three relatively understudied outcomes: externalizing behavior problems, physical health, and posttraumatic growth. Recent, high-impact studies focusing on each outcome are summarized. Studies highlighted in this review utilize innovative and comprehensive approaches to improve our current understanding of youth broad-based physical and mental health outcomes beyond PTSD. The review concludes with recommendations to advance the field of youth disaster research by exploring how disasters may impact children across multiple domains, as well as using cutting edge ecobiological approaches and advanced modeling strategies to better understand how youth adjust and thrive following natural disaster.

  11. Patient informed governance of distributed research networks: results and discussion from six patient focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.

  12. Online Facebook Focus Group Research of Hard-to-Reach Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Aldelina Lijadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting discovery-oriented qualitative research about the life experiences of hard-to-reach individuals posed several challenges for recruiting participants and collecting rich textual data. In a study pertaining the experiences of Third Culture Kids (TCKs, we explored the benefits of the social media, such as Facebook as a platform to collect data. TCKs are individuals who define their sense of belonging to the third culture trailing their parents moving across borders during their developmental years. Adult TCKs live in many different countries, and accessing and interviewing respondents could be a difficult and costly endeavor. In this article, the authors share their experience conducting online, asynchronous focus groups using a Facebook platform. We reflect upon the process of setting up a secret Facebook focus group for research purposes, recruiting participants, rapport building between facilitator and participants, monitoring and keeping track of participants’ responses, and the dynamics emerging within an online focus group. We also discuss the novelty, limitations, and benefits of the Facebook focus group as an emerging mode for collecting qualitative data from hard-to-reach participants.

  13. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  14. The use of Facebook for virtual asynchronous focus groups in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Narelle

    2018-02-01

    The Internet and the development of more user-engaging applications have opened a whole new world for researchers as a means of recruitment and data collection source. This paper describes the methodological approach of a research study that explored the experiences of Australian military spouses who packed up their family and home to accompany their spouse on an overseas posting. The study used Facebook as a recruitment tool and then as a data source through the conduct of an asynchronous virtual focus group. This paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of this unique data source as a means of capturing the voices of a hard-to-reach population.

  15. What should autism research focus upon? Community views and priorities from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom’s pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people’s day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. PMID:24789871

  16. Distributed and grid computing projects with research focus in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomidous, Marianna; Zikos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Distributed systems and grid computing systems are used to connect several computers to obtain a higher level of performance, in order to solve a problem. During the last decade, projects use the World Wide Web to aggregate individuals' CPU power for research purposes. This paper presents the existing active large scale distributed and grid computing projects with research focus in human health. There have been found and presented 11 active projects with more than 2000 Processing Units (PUs) each. The research focus for most of them is molecular biology and, specifically on understanding or predicting protein structure through simulation, comparing proteins, genomic analysis for disease provoking genes and drug design. Though not in all cases explicitly stated, common target diseases include research to find cure against HIV, dengue, Duchene dystrophy, Parkinson's disease, various types of cancer and influenza. Other diseases include malaria, anthrax, Alzheimer's disease. The need for national initiatives and European Collaboration for larger scale projects is stressed, to raise the awareness of citizens to participate in order to create a culture of internet volunteering altruism.

  17. Linking research and education: an undergraduate research apprenticeship focusing on geologic and ecological impacts of the Elwha River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A. S.; Eidam, E.; Webster, K. L.; Hale, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    Experiential learning is becoming well-rooted in undergraduate curriculum as a means of stimulating interest in STEM fields, and of preparing students for future careers in scientific research and communication. To further these goals in coastal sciences, an intensive, research-focused course was developed at the UW Friday Harbor Labs. The course revolved around an active NSF-funded research project concerning the highly publicized Elwha River Restoration project. Between 2008 and 2014, four groups of research "apprentices" spent their academic quarter in residence at a small, coastal marine lab in a learning environment that integrated interdisciplinary lectures, workshops on data analysis and laboratory methods, and the research process from proposal to oceanographic research cruise to publication. This environment helped students gain important skills in fieldwork planning and execution, laboratory and digital data analyses, and manuscript preparation from start to finish—all while elevating their knowledge of integrated earth science topics related to a coastal restoration project. Students developed their own research proposals and pursued their individual interests within the overall research topic, thereby expanding the overall breadth of the NSF-funded research program. The topics of student interest were often beyond the researcher's expertise, which ultimately led to more interdisciplinary findings beyond the quarter-long class. This also provided opportunities for student creativity and leadership, and for collaboration with fellow course participants and with students from many other disciplines in residence at the marine lab. Tracking the outcomes of the diverse student group undertaking this program indicates that these undergraduate (and post-bac) students are generally attending graduate school at a high rate, and launching careers in education, coastal management, and other STEM fields.

  18. A Study on Environmental Research Trends Using Text-Mining Method - Focus on Spatial information and ICT -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. J.; Oh, K. Y.; Joung-ho, L.

    2016-12-01

    Recently there are many research about analysing the interaction between entities by text-mining analysis in various fields. In this paper, we aimed to quantitatively analyse research-trends in the area of environmental research relating either spatial information or ICT (Information and Communications Technology) by Text-mining analysis. To do this, we applied low-dimensional embedding method, clustering analysis, and association rule to find meaningful associative patterns of key words frequently appeared in the articles. As the authors suppose that KCI (Korea Citation Index) articles reflect academic demands, total 1228 KCI articles that have been published from 1996 to 2015 were reviewed and analysed by Text-mining method. First, we derived KCI articles from NDSL(National Discovery for Science Leaders) site. And then we pre-processed their key-words elected from abstract and then classified those in separable sectors. We investigated the appearance rates and association rule of key-words for articles in the two fields: spatial-information and ICT. In order to detect historic trends, analysis was conducted separately for the four periods: 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015. These analysis were conducted with the usage of R-software. As a result, we conformed that environmental research relating spatial information mainly focused upon such fields as `GIS(35%)', `Remote-Sensing(25%)', `environmental theme map(15.7%)'. Next, `ICT technology(23.6%)', `ICT service(5.4%)', `mobile(24%)', `big data(10%)', `AI(7%)' are primarily emerging from environmental research relating ICT. Thus, from the analysis results, this paper asserts that research trends and academic progresses are well-structured to review recent spatial information and ICT technology and the outcomes of the analysis can be an adequate guidelines to establish environment policies and strategies. KEY WORDS: Big data, Test-mining, Environmental research, Spatial-information, ICT Acknowledgements: The

  19. Indicators of national focus of the research published by Public Health journals edited in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Abel Laerte

    2015-07-01

    This report presents a set of bibliometric indicators and statistics which explain the high level of production of articles on research in public and collective health in Brazil which are published in the main nationally edited journals in the field. The predominance of publications in the Portuguese language by Brazilian authors results in a lower impact in terms of citations received as measured by the bibliometric indexes Scimago/Scopus and JCR/WoS. These bibliometric indexes are used to measure the production and performance of research and journals. Nevertheless, the performance of these same journals stands out in SciELO, and is competitive internationally in the broader context of Google Scholar Metrics. The challenge faced by journals in Brazil is developing and applying editorial policies for the valuation of research with a national focus, and its internationalization.

  20. Shifting the focus from quantitative to qualitative exercise characteristics in exercise and cognition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Caterina

    2012-12-01

    In exercise and cognition research, few studies have investigated whether and how the qualitative aspects of physical exercise may impact cognitive performance in the short or long term. This commentary, after recalling the evidence on the "dose-response" relationship, shifts the focus to intersections between different research areas that are proposed to shed light on how qualitative exercise characteristics can be used to obtain cognitive benefits. As concerns the acute exercise area, this commentary highlights the applied relevance of developmental and aging studies investigating the effects of exercise bouts differing in movement task complexity and cognitive demands. As regards the chronic exercise area, potential links to research on cognitive expertise in sport, functional ability in aging, and life skills training during development are discussed. "Gross-motor cognitive training" is proposed as a key concept with relevant implications for intervention strategies in childhood and older adulthood.

  1. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2014-01-01

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in

  2. Integrating utilization-focused evaluation with business process modeling for clinical research improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jonathan M; Rosas, Scott; Trochim, William M K

    2010-10-01

    New discoveries in basic science are creating extraordinary opportunities to design novel biomedical preventions and therapeutics for human disease. But the clinical evaluation of these new interventions is, in many instances, being hindered by a variety of legal, regulatory, policy and operational factors, few of which enhance research quality, the safety of study participants or research ethics. With the goal of helping increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research, we have examined how the integration of utilization-focused evaluation with elements of business process modeling can reveal opportunities for systematic improvements in clinical research. Using data from the NIH global HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks, we analyzed the absolute and relative times required to traverse defined phases associated with specific activities within the clinical protocol lifecycle. Using simple median duration and Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis, we show how such time-based analyses can provide a rationale for the prioritization of research process analysis and re-engineering, as well as a means for statistically assessing the impact of policy modifications, resource utilization, re-engineered processes and best practices. Successfully applied, this approach can help researchers be more efficient in capitalizing on new science to speed the development of improved interventions for human disease.

  3. Using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laboratory for Safety Focused Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey .C; Boring, Ronald L.

    2016-07-01

    Under the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) to conduct critical safety focused Human Factors research and development (R&D) for the nuclear industry. The LWRS program has the overall objective to develop the scientific basis to extend existing nuclear power plant (NPP) operating life beyond the current 60-year licensing period and to ensure their long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. One focus area for LWRS is the NPP main control room (MCR), because many of the instrumentation and control (I&C) system technologies installed in the MCR, while highly reliable and safe, are now difficult to replace and are therefore limiting the operating life of the NPP. This paper describes how INL researchers use the HSSL to conduct Human Factors R&D on modernizing or upgrading these I&C systems in a step-wise manner, and how the HSSL has addressed a significant gap in how to upgrade systems and technologies that are built to last, and therefore require careful integration of analog and new advanced digital technologies.

  4. Research on health equity in the SDG era: the urgent need for greater focus on implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanathan, Kumanan; Diaz, Theresa

    2016-12-09

    The tremendous increase in knowledge on inequities in health and their drivers in recent decades has not been matched by improvements in health inequities themselves, or by systematic evidence of what works to reduce health inequities. Within health equity research there is a skew towards diagnostic studies in comparison to intervention studies showing evidence of how interventions can reduce disparities. The lack of sufficient specific evidence on how to implement specific policies and interventions in specific contexts to reduce health inequities creates policy confusion and partly explains the lack of progress on health inequities. In the field of research on equity in health, the time has come to stop focusing so much energy on prevalence and pathways, and instead shift to proposing and testing solutions. Four promising approaches to do so are implementation research, natural experimental policy studies, research on buy-in by policy-makers to action on health inequities, and geospatial analysis. The case for action on social determinants and health inequities has well and truly been made. The community of researchers on health equity now need to turn their attention to supporting implementation efforts towards achievements of the Sustainable Development Goals and substantive reductions in health inequities.

  5. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  6. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player’s payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value. PMID:28187166

  7. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Marczyk

    Full Text Available Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  8. Healthy lifestyle: Perceptions and attitudes of students (the results of a focus group research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research conducted in December 2013 at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia with the method of focus groups. The study aimed at identification not only the differences in understanding healthy lifestyles among students and their attitudes to a healthy lifestyle, but also its components, obstacles for the realization and opportunities to overcome them. The focus group research was just another stage of the project aimed at studying health and healthy lifestyles as values and the characteristics of the formation and manifestation of a health-preserving behavior. Despite many opportunities to motivate a health-preserving behavior among students, we still see obstacles for its formation due to both social and cultural characteristics. The study revealed that the value of health at this stage of life is rather declarative: only a small percentage of respondents are fully aware of the necessity of a health-preserving behavior and do really adopt a healthy lifestyle. The basic factors influencing the formation of the healthy lifestyle among the youth are the family, social environment and mass media. The respondents, in particular, confirm the significant impact of their social circle on the commitment to the bad habits as well as to healthy hobbies. The main factors hindering the healthy lifestyles among students include lack of free time, welfare, Internet addiction, lack of sufficient motivation and self-organization.

  9. Family-Focused Therapy for Bipolar Disorder: Reflections on 30 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J; Chung, Bowen

    2016-09-01

    Family-focused therapy (FFT) is an evidence-based intervention for adults and children with bipolar disorder (BD) and their caregivers, usually given in conjunction with pharmacotherapy after an illness episode. The treatment consists of conjoint sessions of psychoeducation regarding bipolar illness, communication enhancement training, and problem-solving skills training. This paper summarizes over 30 years of research on FFT and family processes in BD. Across eight randomized controlled trials with adults and adolescents with BD, FFT and mood-stabilizing medications have been found to hasten recovery from mood episodes, reduce recurrences, and reduce levels of symptom severity compared to briefer forms of psychoeducation and medications over 1-2 years. Several studies indicate that the effects of FFT on symptom improvement are greater among patients with high-expressed emotion relatives. New research focuses on FFT as an early intervention for youth at risk for BD, neuroimaging as a means of evaluating treatment mechanisms, and progress in implementing FFT in community mental health settings. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  10. The social process of escalation: a promising focus for crisis management research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Johan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identifies a promising, new focus for the crisis management research in the health care domain. After reviewing the literature on health care crisis management, there seems to be a knowledge-gap regarding organisational change and adaption, especially when health care situations goes from normal, to non-normal, to pathological and further into a state of emergency or crisis. Discussion Based on studies of escalating situations in obstetric care it is suggested that two theoretical perspectives (contingency theory and the idea of failure as a result of incomplete interaction tend to simplify the issue of escalation rather than attend to its complexities (including the various power relations among the stakeholders involved. However studying the process of escalation as inherently complex and social allows us to see the definition of a situation as normal or non-normal as an exercise of power in itself, rather than representing a putatively correct response to a particular emergency. Implications The concept of escalation, when treated this way, can help us further the analysis of clinical and institutional acts and competence. It can also turn our attention to some important elements in a class of social phenomenon, crises and emergencies, that so far have not received the attention they deserve. Focusing on organisational choreography, that interplay of potential factors such as power, professional identity, organisational accountability, and experience, is not only a promising focus for future naturalistic research but also for developing more pragmatic strategies that can enhance organisational coordination and response in complex events.

  11. Towards a new understanding of cohabitation: Insights from focus group research across Europe and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Across the industrialized world, more couples are living together without marrying. Although researchers have compared cohabitation cross-nationally using quantitative data, few have compared union formation using qualitative data. Objective: We use focus group research to compare social norms of cohabitation and marriage in Australia and nine countries in Europe. We explore questions such as: what is the meaning of cohabitation? To what extent is cohabitation indistinguishable from marriage, a prelude to marriage, or an alternative to being single? Are the meanings of cohabitation similar across countries? Methods: Collaborators conducted seven to eight focus groups in each country using a standardized guideline. They analyzed the discussions with bottom-up coding in each thematic area. They then collated the data in a standardized report. The first and second authors systematically analyzed the reports, with direct input from collaborators. Results: The results describe a specific picture of union formation in each country. However, three themes emerge in all focus groups: commitment, testing, and freedom. The pervasiveness of these concepts suggests that marriage and cohabitation have distinct meanings, with marriage representing a stronger level of commitment. Cohabitation is a way to test the relationship, and represents freedom. Nonetheless, other discourses emerged, suggesting that cohabitation has multiple meanings. Conclusions: This study illuminates how context shapes partnership formation, but also presents underlying reasons for the development of cohabitation. We find that the increase in cohabitation has not devalued the concept of marriage, but has become a way to preserve marriage as an ideal for long-term commitment.

  12. Outlining and dictating scientific manuscripts is a useful method for health researchers: A focus group interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Young researchers may experience difficulties when writing scientific articles for publication in biomedical journals. Various methods may facilitate the writing process including outlining the paper before the actual writing and using dictation instead of writing the first draft. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences and difficulties for young, experienced researchers when writing articles using a detailed outline and dictation of the first draft. We used qualitative focus group interviews and the study was reported according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research guideline. Participants were sampled from a group of researchers participating in a writing retreat/course. The interviews were recorded on a digital recorder and transcribed. The text was analyzed according to content analysis and coded and condensed into themes and subthemes. Groups of participants were added until data saturation was reached. A total of 14 researchers participated (9 women and 5 men). Their clinical experience was median (range) of 6 (1-11) years since graduation from medical school. Two themes arose during the analyses of the data: "Process guidance with the outline as the map" and "arrival at dictation." The outline was used in the preparation phase leading up to the day of dictation and was used in collaboration with co-authors and supervisors. The participants found it to be a useful tool for preparing the manuscript and dictating their initial first full draft. Experienced young researchers found beneficial effects of using a structured outline to prepare for dictation of scientific articles. The outline was a tool that would develop in close collaboration with co-authors and mentors. With dictation, a full first draft of a manuscript can be produced in a few hours. Participants positively evaluated this structured and reproducible way of producing scientific articles.

  13. The possible worlds of global health research: An ethics-focused discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Ben; Plamondon, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Representations of the world enable global health research (GHR), discursively constructing sites in which studies can legitimately take place. Depoliticized portrayals of the global South frequently obscure messy legacies of colonialism and motivate technical responses to health problems with political and economic root causes. Such problematic representations of the world have not yet been rigorously examined in relation to global health ethics, a major site of scholarly effort towards GHR that promotes justice and fairness. We carried out a discourse analysis of four guidance documents relevant to the ethical practice of GHR, purposively selecting texts covering different genres (UN documents and journal articles) and prominent GHR foci (HIV and clinical trials). In light of increasing acknowledgement of the lessons Indigenous health scholarship holds for global health ethics, the four analyzed texts also included a set of principles developed to support Indigenous nation-building. Three of four documents featured global disparities as reasons for ethical caution. These inequalities appeared without explanation or causes, with generation of new scientific knowledge following as a logical response to such disparities. The fourth - Indigenous health-focused - document clearly identified 'colonialism' as a reason for both inequities in society, and related harmful research practices. Solutions to disparities in this text did not necessarily involve cutting-edge research, but focused instead on empowerment and responsiveness to community priorities and needs. These contrasting representations of the world were accomplished in ways that depended on texts' 'participants', or the people they represented; specific vocabularies or language usages; intertextual relationships to prior texts; and overall objectives or intentions of the author(s). Our results illustrate how ethics and other guidance documents serve as an important terrain for constructing, naturalizing or

  14. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  15. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-focused primary healthcare social and emotional wellbeing research: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnbach, Sara; Eades, Anne-Marie; Hackett, Maree Lisa

    2015-12-30

    Research with a focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian's (hereafter referred to as Indigenous(1)) needs is crucial to ensure culturally appropriate evidence-based strategies are developed to improve health. However, concerns surrounding this research exist, arising from some previous research lacking community consultation, resulting in little community benefit or infringing on important cultural values. Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research (hereafter referred to as Values and Ethics), developed by The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia in 2003, is the ethical standard for Indigenous-focused health research. Researchers must address its Values in research design and conduct. However, its impact on research processes is unclear. Local Protocols should also be considered. This review aims to systematically examine practices related to Values and Ethics, Local Protocols and the processes of conducting Indigenous-focused primary healthcare research in collaboration with external researchers. The following electronic databases and grey literature will be searched (2003 to current): MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit and HealthInfoNet--an Indigenous-specific research and program website. Indigenous-focused research will be included. Research must be conducted in one or more primary healthcare services, in collaboration with external researchers and with a focus on social and emotional well being. One reviewer will review titles and abstracts to remove obviously irrelevant research articles. Full-text research articles will be retrieved and independently examined by two reviewers. Data and quality assessment will be completed by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. Quality will be assessed using modified versions of established quality assessment tools. This review will provide information on research processes and the impact of Values and Ethics on

  16. Mapping patterns of change in emotion-focused psychotherapy: Implications for theory, research, practice, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2018-05-01

    An important objective in humanistic-experiential psychotherapies and particularly emotion-focused psychotherapy (EFT) is to map patterns of change. Effective mapping of the processes and pathways of change requires that in-session processes be linked to in-session resolutions, immediate post-session changes, intermediate outcome, final therapy outcome, and longer-term change. This is a challenging and long-term endeavour. Fine-grained descriptions of in-session processes that lead to resolution of specific interpersonal and intrapersonal issues linked with longer-term outcomes are the foundation of EFT, the process-experiential approach. In this paper, evidence in support of EFT as a treatment approach will be reviewed along with research on two mechanisms of change, viewed as central to EFT, clients' emotional processing and the therapeutic relationship conditions. The implications for psychotherapy research are discussed. Given the methodological constraints, there is a need for more innovative methodologies and strategies to investigate specific psychotherapy processes within and across different approaches to map patterns and mechanisms of change to enhance theory, research, practice, and training.

  17. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki (Vivian Iliadou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  18. Health Services Research and Health Economy - Quality Care Training in Gynaecology, with Focus On Gynaecological Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, M P; Fasching, P A; Loehberg, C R; Jud, S M; Schrauder, M G; Bani, M R; Thiel, F C; Hack, C C; Hildebrandt, T; Beckmann, M W

    2011-12-01

    In the era of cost increases and reduced resources in the German healthcare system, the value of health services research and health economics is increasing more and more. Health services research attempts to develop concepts for the most effective ways to organise, manage, finance and deliver high-quality care and evaluates the implementation of these concepts with regard to daily routine conditions. Goals are the assessment of benefits and the economic advantages and disadvantages of new and established diagnostic methods, drugs and vaccines. Regarding these goals, it is clear that health services research goes hand in hand with health economics, which evaluates the benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in relation to the costs. Both scientific fields have focus principally on gynaecology and particularly on gynaecological oncology in Germany, as can be seen by numerous publications. These present several advantages compared with clinical trials - they uncover gaps in health care, question the material, staffing and consequently the financial resources required and they allow the estimation of value and the comparison of different innovations to identify the best options for our patients.

  19. Securing Canada’s Information-Technology Infrastructure: Context, Principles, and Focus Areas of Cybersecurity Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the challenges of cybersecurity and ultimately the provision of a stable and resilient information-technology infrastructure for Canada and, more broadly, the world. We describe the context of current cybersecurity challenges by synthesizing key source material whose importance was informed by our own real-world experiences. Furthermore, we present a checklist of guiding principles to a unified response, complete with a set of action-oriented research topics that are linked to known operational limitations. The focus areas are used to drive the formulation of a unified and relevant research and experimental development program, thereby moving us towards a stable and resilient cyberinfrastructure. When cybersecurity is viewed as an inherently interdisciplinary problem of societal concern, we expect that fundamentally new research perspectives will emerge in direct response to domain-specific protection requirements for information-technology infrastructure. Purely technical responses to cybersecurity challenges will be inadequate because human factors are an inherent aspect of the problem. This article will interest managers and entrepreneurs. Senior management teams can assess new technical developments and product releases to fortify their current security solutions, while entrepreneurs can harness new opportunities to commercialize novel technology to solve a high-impact cybersecurity problem..

  20. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Hua [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kennedy, Christopher W [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Armour, Elwood [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); McNutt, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jiang Licai [OSMIC Inc., 1900 Taylor Rd., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-05-21

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min{sup -1} at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of {+-}5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD.

  1. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Kennedy, Christopher W; Armour, Elwood; Tryggestad, Erik; Ford, Eric; McNutt, Todd; Jiang, Licai; Wong, John

    2007-05-21

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min(-1) at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of +/-5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD.

  2. Work-life balance of nursing faculty in research- and practice-focused doctoral programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Heverly, Mary Ann; Jenkinson, Amanda; Nthenge, Serah

    2015-01-01

    The growing shortage of nursing faculty and the need for faculty to teach doctoral students to address the shortage call for examination of factors that may contribute to the shortage, including those that are potentially modifiable, including work-life balance.This descriptive study examined work-life balance of a national sample of nursing faculty teaching in research-focused and practice-focused doctoral programs. Data were collected through an online survey of 554 doctoral program faculty members to identify their perceptions of work-life balance and predictors of work-life balance. Work-life balance scores indicated better work-life balance than expected. Factors associated with good work-life balance included higher academic rank, having tenure, older age, years in education, current faculty position, and no involvement in clinical practice. Current faculty position was the best predictor of work-life balance. Although work-life balance was viewed positively by study participants, efforts are needed to strengthen factors related to positive work/life in view of the increasing workload of doctoral faculty as the numbers of doctoral students increase and the number of seasoned faculty decrease with anticipated waves of retirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua; Kennedy, Christopher W; Armour, Elwood; Tryggestad, Erik; Ford, Eric; McNutt, Todd; Jiang Licai; Wong, John

    2007-01-01

    A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy range 40-80 keV. Here, we report on the dosimetric characteristics of the focused beam from the x-ray lens subsystem for high-resolution dose delivery. Using the metric of the average dose within a 1.5 mm diameter area, the dose rates at a source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 34 cm are 259 and 172 cGy min -1 at 6 mm and 2 cm depths, respectively, with an estimated uncertainty of ±5%. The per cent depth dose is approximately 56% at 2 cm depth for a beam at 34 cm SSD

  4. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  5. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  6. A Study of Factors Related to Dissertation Progress among Doctoral Candidates: Focus on Students' Research Self-Efficacy as a Result of Their Research Training and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Forooz; Rakow, Ernest A.; Ethington, Corinna

    This study examined relationships among doctoral candidates' background characteristics, research preparation, research environment, research involvement, student-advisor relationship, research self-efficacy, and dissertation progress. The study focused on differences in research self-efficacy and dissertation progress among students from the…

  7. [Advances in research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: focus on social cognitive function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2012-09-01

    Research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy has thus far focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. Recently, however, the concept of social cognitive function has been proposed in the field of neuropsychology. Social cognitive function refers collectively to the higher cognitive functions that are essential in our social lives, and its representative aspects are facial expression recognition and decision-making. Emotional processing centered around the amygdala is thought to play a key role in the neural mechanism of this function. We conducted a study on the social cognitive function (decision-making) of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and found that this function is reduced in these patients, and that the right amygdalo-hippocampal complexes play an important role. In order to ensure the best possible treatment for epilepsy patients, it is necessary not only to make an accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment, but also to provide support for enabling a smoother social life from the perspective of social cognitive function. Future research developments in this field are expected to contribute to total management in medical care for epilepsy patients.

  8. Innovation in Researching the Effects of Frame – Focused Instruction on Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOKOLOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization the research of innovative teaching methods and techniques becomes relevant. The traditional teaching approach where the training of practice material is preceded by rule-presentation (explanation + mechanical formoriented practice doesn’t meet the requirements of constantly developing rational language processing. Contemporary studies are considering the ways how to allow second language learners to be rational in the sense that their mental models of language functioning are the most optimal. This paper outlines current cognitive perspectives on second language acquisition. Language learning involves the acquisition of frame instructions or input-processing instructions (explanation + structured-input activities. Competence and performance both emerge from the dynamic system of frequently used memorized constructions. Frames are dynamic contextualized activation of stereotyped situations. This system proves to be rational since it aims at optimal reflection of prior first language usage and induces learners to think consciously about some sort of rule in order to work out the meaning. The frame–based instruction consists of activities which present learners with a stimulus and require them to respond choosing the appropriate language form for communication. The targeted feature of such communicative tasks has two aims: 1. to stimulate communicative language use and 2. to target the use of a particular predetermined linguistic feature. The empirical research shows that frame-focused tasks direct learners attention to the meaning realized by the target form. Methodological basis includes some theoretical propositions from recent Relevance theory and cognitive linguistics.

  9. Advances in Proteomic Techniques for Cytokine Analysis: Focus on Melanoma Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kupcova Skalnikova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a skin cancer with permanently increasing incidence and resistance to therapies in advanced stages. Reports of spontaneous regression and tumour infiltration with T-lymphocytes makes melanoma candidate for immunotherapies. Cytokines are key factors regulating immune response and intercellular communication in tumour microenvironment. Cytokines may be used in therapy of melanoma to modulate immune response. Cytokines also possess diagnostic and prognostic potential and cytokine production may reflect effects of immunotherapies. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of recent advances in proteomic techniques for the detection and quantification of cytokines in melanoma research. Approaches covered span from mass spectrometry to immunoassays for single molecule detection (ELISA, western blot, multiplex assays (chemiluminescent, bead-based (Luminex and planar antibody arrays, ultrasensitive techniques (Singulex, Simoa, immuno-PCR, proximity ligation/extension assay, immunomagnetic reduction assay, to analyses of single cells producing cytokines (ELISpot, flow cytometry, mass cytometry and emerging techniques for single cell secretomics. Although this review is focused mainly on cancer and particularly melanoma, the discussed techniques are in general applicable to broad research field of biology and medicine, including stem cells, development, aging, immunology and intercellular communication.

  10. Engaging families in physical activity research: a family-based focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Schiff, Annie; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-11-25

    Family-based interventions present a much-needed opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, little is known about how best to engage parents and their children in physical activity research. This study aimed to engage with the whole family to understand how best to recruit for, and retain participation in, physical activity research. Families (including a 'target' child aged between 8 and 11 years, their parents, siblings, and others) were recruited through schools and community groups. Focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured approach (informed by a pilot session). Families were asked to order cards listing the possible benefits of, and the barriers to, being involved in physical activity research and other health promotion activities, highlighting the items they consider most relevant, and suggesting additional items. Duplicate content analysis was used to identify transcript themes and develop a coding frame. Eighty-two participants from 17 families participated, including 17 'target' children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% female), 32 other children and 33 adults (including parents, grandparents, and older siblings). Social, health and educational benefits were cited as being key incentives for involvement in physical activity research, with emphasis on children experiencing new things, developing character, and increasing social contact (particularly for shy children). Children's enjoyment was also given priority. The provision of child care or financial reward was not considered sufficiently appealing. Increased time commitment or scheduling difficulties were quoted as the most pertinent barriers to involvement (especially for families with several children), but parents commented these could be overcome if the potential value for children was clear. Lessons learned from this work may contribute to the development of effective recruitment and retention strategies for children and their families. Making the wide

  11. Focus group positioning and analysis: a commentary on adjuncts for enhancing the design of health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B C

    1990-01-01

    As health care competition increases, and as the penalties for making poor decisions become potentially more devastating, market research continues to play an increasingly important role in the decision-making process for hospitals. Concern over the appropriate use of market research and the costs related to it remains high. As such, efficiency in research design and clarity in research outcome are clearly the goals. This paper examines the focus group process and its adjunctive role in enhancing the overall design of health care market research. Specifically, the function and placement of focus groups within the research plan as well as several methods of creative focus group analysis are considered within the context of an effective research design.

  12. The Alsep Data Recovery Focus Group of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Kiefer, W. S.; Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 deployed instruments on the Moon for 14 geophysical experiments (passive & active seismic, heat flow, magnetics, etc.) from 1969 to 1972. These instruments were called Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs). ALSEPs kept transmitting data to the Earth until September 1977. When the observation program ended in 1977, a large portion of these data were not delivered to the National Space Science Data Center for permanent archive. In 2010, for the purpose of searching, recovering, preserving, and analyzing the data that were not previously archived, NASA's then Lunar Science Institute formed the ALSEP Data Recovery Focus Group. The group consists of current lunar researchers and those involved in the ALSEP design and data analysis in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the data not previously archived were the 5000+ 7-track open-reel tapes that recorded raw data from all the ALSEP instruments from April 1973 to February 1976 ('ARCSAV tapes'). These tapes went missing in the decades after Apollo. One of the major achievements of the group so far is that we have found 450 ARCSAV tapes from April to June 1975 and that we are extracting data from them. There are 3 other major achievements by the group. First, we have established a web portal at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, where ~700 ALSEP-related documents, totaling ~40,000 pages, have been digitally scanned and cataloged. Researchers can search and download these documents at www.lpi.usra.edu/ lunar/ALSEP/. Second, we have been retrieving notes and reports left behind by the now deceased/retired ALSEP investigators at their home institutions. Third, we have been re-analyzing the ALSEP data using the information from the recently recovered metadata (instrument calibration data, operation logs, etc.). Efforts are ongoing to get these data permanently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  13. Participatory design in Parkinson's research with focus on the symptomatic domains to be measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, J Artur; Larsen, Frank; Isaacs, Tom; Matthews, Helen; Duffen, Joy; Riggare, Sara; Capitanio, Fulvio; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Domingos, Josefa; Maetzler, Walter; Graessner, Holm

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the objective assessment of health related outcomes using technology providing quality measurements to be applied not only in daily clinical practice, but also in scientific research. Differences in the understandings of the condition and the terminology used between people with Parkinson's (PwPs), clinicians and technical developers may influence the progress of a participatory design process. This paper reports on a participatory design process to achieve a consensus among PwPs, clinicians and technologists over the selection of a set of symptomatic domains to be continuously assessed, in order to provide results relevant to both PwPs and clinicians. The methods used were a Web based user survey, end-user focus groups, ranking by combined methods, a Delphi process performed among clinicians and scientists, and prioritization of the results in a concertation workshop for PwPs, clinicians and technologists. The following symptomatic domains were commonly agreed by PwPs and clinicians to be of central importance in a system of continuous assessment: hypokinesia/bradykinesia, tremor, sway, gait, sleep and cognition. This list satisfied both the needs of the PwPs and the concerns of the clinicians regarding the means of advancing new strategies in assessment and interventions in PD. A participatory design strategy allowed the definition of a consensual list of symptomatic domains. Both the strategy and the achieved results may be of relevance for similar interdisciplinary approaches in the field of PD using a participatory design involving patients, clinicians and technologists.

  14. Development of X-ray and ion diagnostic methods for plasma focus research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1986-12-01

    A review of experimental methods used for investigation of X-rays and ion-beams emmited from plasma focus facilities is presented. The research program has been realized at the Institute for Nuclear Studies in Swierk and at the Institut fuer Plasmaforschung in Stuttgart, within the frames of an international co-operation. The studies on ion emission from different PF facilities are reviewed. The application of CN-films with Al-filters and of different ion-pinhole cameras is described. The use of a Thomson mass-spectrometer adopted for plasma studies is presented. The time-resolved measurements combined with a simultaneous mass- and energy-analysis of the ion beams are also described. The most important results of these studies are summarized. Particular attention is also paid to the studies of the X-ray emission. The use of stereoscopic sets of vacuum pinhole cameras with thin Be-filters is described. The application of X-ray pinhole cameras equipped with miniature scintillators for time-resolved measurements is also presented. The most important results of the X-ray emission studies are summarized. 35 refs., 12 figs. (author)

  15. Lunar e-Library: A Research Tool Focused on the Lunar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Tracy A.; Shea, Charlotte A.; Finckenor, Miria; Ferguson, Dale

    2007-01-01

    As NASA plans and implements the Vision for Space Exploration, managers, engineers, and scientists need lunar environment information that is readily available and easily accessed. For this effort, lunar environment data was compiled from a variety of missions from Apollo to more recent remote sensing missions, such as Clementine. This valuable information comes not only in the form of measurements and images but also from the observations of astronauts who have visited the Moon and people who have designed spacecraft for lunar missions. To provide a research tool that makes the voluminous lunar data more accessible, the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program, managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL, organized the data into a DVD knowledgebase: the Lunar e-Library. This searchable collection of 1100 electronic (.PDF) documents and abstracts makes it easy to find critical technical data and lessons learned from past lunar missions and exploration studies. The SEE Program began distributing the Lunar e-Library DVD in 2006. This paper describes the Lunar e-Library development process (including a description of the databases and resources used to acquire the documents) and the contents of the DVD product, demonstrates its usefulness with focused searches, and provides information on how to obtain this free resource.

  16. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  17. Utilizing Dietary Micronutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research May be More Informative than Focusing on Single Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen J. Kelly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass. Some nutrient ratios exist and remain controversial such as the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and the sodium/potassium ratio. Therefore, examining ratios of micronutrients may convey more information about how diet and health outcomes are related. Summarized micronutrient intake data, from food only, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to generate initial ratios. Overall, in this preliminary analysis dietary ratios of micronutrients showed some differences between intakes and recommendations. Principles outlined here could be used in nutritional epidemiology and in basic nutritional research, rather than focusing on individual nutrient intakes. This paper presents the concept of micronutrient ratios to encourage change in the way nutrients are regarded.

  18. Building a science of partnership-focused research: forging and sustaining partnerships to support child mental health prevention and services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynes, Katherine Taylor

    2012-07-01

    Building on growing interest in translational research, this paper provides an overview of a special issue of Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Service Research, which is focused on the process of forging and sustaining partnerships to support child mental health prevention and services research. We propose that partnership-focused research is a subdiscipline of translational research which requires additional research to better refine the theoretical framework and the core principles that will guide future research and training efforts. We summarize some of the major themes across the eight original articles and three commentaries included in the special issue. By advancing the science of partnership-focused research we will be able to bridge the gap between child mental health prevention and services research and practice.

  19. Family Literacy and Second Language Literacy Research: Focus on Language Minority Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Yıldırım

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Countries like the U. S. A. or Canada have citizens from various ethnic backgrounds. Although English is the dominant language in many parts of these countries, immigrants generally prefer speaking their native language when they are in their homes. Whatever the reason for using native language at home is, when we consider the children in these families, we can say that being exposed to different languages at home and at school may be a problem for their language development.Purpose of Study: There are many studies conducted in order to better understand the problems of language minority children. A great deal of literature on language minority students focuses on the ties between these children‟s literacy development and their literacy practices at home. In other words, these studies aim to see how the literacy events these children are exposed to at home affect their literacy learning in the second language.Methods: This paper is an attempt to put together and discuss various theoretical and empirical studies conducted on the literacy development of language minority children in English speaking countries.Findings: Literacy education of language minority students is not an easy task. It is very complicated and difficult to achieve as it requires a complete collaboration among all the responsible parties (teachers, families, researchers, education policy makers, school administrators. Conclusion and Recommendations: Successful collaboration among all the involved parties would bring successful outcomes in terms of children‟s healthy literacy development. The collaboration between teachers and families is the most vital one because these two parties are the ones that have one-to-one interaction with children.

  20. Focus Groups in Qualitative Research: Culturally Sensitive Methodology for the Arabian Gulf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article explores whether focus groups can constitute a culturally sensitive method of data gathering for educational leadership, management and related areas in a Gulf-Arab cultural context. Reviewing the literature on focus groups and cross-cultural psychology for the Arab region, it identifies key notions related to societal values such as…

  1. The need for mental health services research focusing on poor young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jeanne; Green, Bonnie L.

    1999-06-01

    to be learned about the mental health status and needs of poor women, along with the impact of loss of public support on their physical and mental health. Access to mental health care within a managed care setting also needs to be addressed, and care taken to understand the particular needs of poor populations that will actually make these services accessible to them. Insufficient attention has thus far been paid to the cost implications of providing these services to the poor. While providing treatment is associated with significant costs, the costs of not providing care, especially the effects of depression on offspring, should not be overlooked. CHALLENGES TO EXAMINING MENTAL HEALTH IN POOR WOMEN: A number of suggestions were made for addressing practical and methodological challenges to providing mental health services. These include placing services for these individuals within their familiar medical settings, which requires close working relationships between psychiatric and medical personnel within these settings. Outreach is a necessary part of getting poor women into treatment, and should be a routine part of helping women become engaged with caregivers. Providing culturally sensitive treatments is an important focus too, through developing knowledge about the culturally based customs and expectations of target groups. Measurement issues need to be attended to, as most research instruments have been developed on middle class populations, and have not been examined for their psychometric properties and norms in less advantaged groups. Careful translation techniques are also required. Finally, working with institutions sponsoring research to educate them about special problems and challenges with these groups will help improve the quality and efficiency of the work accomplished.

  2. Focus on sex differences in grant applications submitted to the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, Debby G.; Haafkens, Joke A.; Klazinga, Niek S.

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Several measures have been implemented at international level to ensure that there is a greater focus on sex differences in health research. This study evaluates the effect of various formal incentives that were introduced by a Dutch financer of health research to encourage

  3. Case Study Observational Research: A Framework for Conducting Case Study Research Where Observation Data Are the Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sonya J; Pullon, Susan R H; Macdonald, Lindsay M; McKinlay, Eileen M; Gray, Ben V

    2017-06-01

    Case study research is a comprehensive method that incorporates multiple sources of data to provide detailed accounts of complex research phenomena in real-life contexts. However, current models of case study research do not particularly distinguish the unique contribution observation data can make. Observation methods have the potential to reach beyond other methods that rely largely or solely on self-report. This article describes the distinctive characteristics of case study observational research, a modified form of Yin's 2014 model of case study research the authors used in a study exploring interprofessional collaboration in primary care. In this approach, observation data are positioned as the central component of the research design. Case study observational research offers a promising approach for researchers in a wide range of health care settings seeking more complete understandings of complex topics, where contextual influences are of primary concern. Future research is needed to refine and evaluate the approach.

  4. Health effects research and regulation of diesel exhaust: an historical overview focused on lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Long, Christopher M; Bunn, William B; Lapin, Charles A; McClellan, Roger O; Valberg, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies. The changed particulate matter (PM) emissions in "New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE)" from today's modern low-emission, advanced-technology on-road heavy-duty diesel engines now resemble the PM emissions in contemporary gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) and compressed natural gas engine exhaust more than those in the "traditional diesel exhaust" (TDE) characteristic of older diesel engines. Even with the continued publication of epidemiologic analyses of TDE-exposed populations, this database remains characterized by findings of small increased lung cancer risks and inconsistent evidence of exposure-response trends, both within occupational cohorts and across occupational groups considered to have markedly different exposures (e.g. truckers versus railroad shopworkers versus underground miners). The recently published National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-National Cancer Institute (NCI) epidemiologic studies of miners provide some of the strongest findings to date regarding a DE-lung cancer association, but some inconsistent exposure-response findings and possible effects of bias and exposure misclassification raise questions regarding their interpretation. Laboratory animal studies are negative for lung tumors in all species, except for rats under lifetime TDE-exposure conditions with durations and concentrations that lead to "lung overload." The species specificity of the

  5. Health effects research and regulation of diesel exhaust: an historical overview focused on lung cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Long, Christopher M.; Bunn, William B.; Lapin, Charles A.; McClellan, Roger O.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies. The changed particulate matter (PM) emissions in “New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE)” from today's modern low-emission, advanced-technology on-road heavy-duty diesel engines now resemble the PM emissions in contemporary gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) and compressed natural gas engine exhaust more than those in the “traditional diesel exhaust” (TDE) characteristic of older diesel engines. Even with the continued publication of epidemiologic analyses of TDE-exposed populations, this database remains characterized by findings of small increased lung cancer risks and inconsistent evidence of exposure-response trends, both within occupational cohorts and across occupational groups considered to have markedly different exposures (e.g. truckers versus railroad shopworkers versus underground miners). The recently published National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-National Cancer Institute (NCI) epidemiologic studies of miners provide some of the strongest findings to date regarding a DE-lung cancer association, but some inconsistent exposure-response findings and possible effects of bias and exposure misclassification raise questions regarding their interpretation. Laboratory animal studies are negative for lung tumors in all species, except for rats under lifetime TDE-exposure conditions with durations and concentrations that lead to'lung overload."The species specificity

  6. Perceptions of Mindfulness in a Low-income, Primarily African American Treatment-Seeking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Bamatter, Wendy P; Barrueco, Sandra; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Perskaudas, Rokas

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample. Eight focus groups were conducted with 32 adults (16 men and 16 women) currently receiving services at a community mental health center. Most participants (91%) were African American. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 10. A team of coders reviewed the transcripts to identify salient themes. Relevant themes included beliefs that mindfulness practice might improve mental health (e.g., managing stress and anger more effectively) and physical health (e.g., improving sleep and chronic pain, promoting healthier behaviors). Participants also discussed ways in which mindfulness might be consistent with, and even enhance, their religious and spiritual practices. Results could be helpful in tailoring mindfulness-based treatments to optimize feasibility and effectiveness for low-SES adults receiving mental health services.

  7. Still Human: A Call for Increased Focus on Ethical Standards in Cadaver Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Michelle C

    2016-12-01

    Research on human cadavers is an important mechanism of scientific progress and comprises a large industry in the United States. However, despite its importance and influence, there is little ethical or regulatory oversight of cadaver-based research. This lack of transparency raises important ethical questions. Thus, this paper serves as a call for ethicists and regulators to pay increased attention to cadaver research. I argue that cadaver research ought to be considered a subset of human subjects research and held accountable to higher ethical standards. After describing current practices, I argue that oversight of cadaver research as a form of human subjects research is appropriate because cadaver research is similar to other types of human research, participants in cadaver research incur risks of harm, and a current lack of oversight has allowed the cadaver industry to entice research participation through ethically questionable practices. This paper urges greater dialogue among human subjects research ethicists and regulators about what constitutes appropriate protections for participants in cadaver research.

  8. [Priorities for health policy and systems research focused on human resources in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Flórez, Carlos E Pinzón; Torres, Rubén

    2013-11-01

    Identify priorities for health policy and systems research related to human resources in Latin America and Caribbean countries. An online survey was designed based on a search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and LILACS that contributed previously prioritized research questions. Respondents, mainly researchers and decision-makers, were identified through various sources. The first round, directed at researchers, aimed at refining and adding research questions and prioritizing questions that researchers regarded as relevant or very relevant. The second round was directed at researchers and decision-makers. A question was considered a priority when 50% (or more) of respondents described it as "relevant" or "very relevant." The first round included 20 questions on human resources and 33/66 researchers responded. Questions suggested by the researchers were added, resulting in 26 questions for the second round, which were sent to 121 researchers and decision-makers. Respondent representation by country was uniform in both rounds. In the second round, 14/26 (54%) questions were described as very relevant. Priority issues related to regulation of the market, integration of education and health care needs, and distribution of human resources. The response rate was 50% in the first round (33/66), and 34% in the second round (41/121). The results of this exercise provide a starting point for mobilization of resources for health policy and systems research. Identification of health systems research priorities is an effective and efficient strategy for reorienting political, financial, management, and social organization efforts for attaining universal health coverage.

  9. Research highlights from the 2017 ERS International Congress: airway diseases in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Andersson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For another year, high-quality research studies from around the world transformed the annual ERS International Congress into a vivid platform to discuss trending research topics, to produce new research questions and to further push the boundaries of respiratory medicine and science. This article reviews only some of the high-quality research studies on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, bronchiectasis and chronic cough that were presented during the congress through the Airway Diseases Assembly (ERS Assembly 5 and places them into the context of current knowledge and research challenges.

  10. Research as an event: a novel approach to promote patient-focused drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai JH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Hua Tsai, Ellen Janssen, John FP Bridges Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Patient groups are increasingly engaging in research to understand patients’ preferences and incorporate their perspectives into drug development and regulation. Several models of patient engagement have emerged, but there is little guidance on how to partner with patient groups to engage the disease community. Our group has been using an approach to engage patient groups that we call research as an event. Research as an event is a method for researchers to use a community-centered event to engage patients in their own environment at modest incremental cost. It is a pragmatic solution to address the challenges of engaging patients in research to minimize patients’ frustration, decrease the time burden, and limit the overall cost. The community, the event, and the research are the three components that constitute the research as an event framework. The community represents a disease-specific community. The event is a meeting of common interest for patients and other stakeholders, such as a patient advocacy conference. The research describes activities in engaging the community for the purpose of research. Research as an event follows a six-step approach. A case study is used to demonstrate the six steps followed by recommendations for future implementation. Keywords: patients’ perspectives, decision making, drug approval, patient engagement, patient organization, patients’ preference

  11. Focus Group Research on the Implications of Adopting the Unified English Braille Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Robin; Knowlton, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Five focus groups explored concerns about adopting the Unified English Braille Code. The consensus was that while the proposed changes to the literary braille code would be minor, those to the mathematics braille code would be much more extensive. The participants emphasized that "any code that reduces the number of individuals who can access…

  12. Guidance on Performing Focused Ethnographies with an Emphasis on Healthcare Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Gina M. A.; Pillay, Jennifer J.; Boadu, Nana Y.

    2013-01-01

    Focused ethnographies can have meaningful and useful application in primary care, community, or hospital healthcare practice, and are often used to determine ways to improve care and care processes. They can be pragmatic and efficient ways to capture data on a specific topic of importance to individual clinicians or clinical specialties. While…

  13. Challenges to socio-economic research in a changing society - with a special focus on Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppel, Birger; Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole; Winther, Gorm

    2005-01-01

    The process of changes in Arctic societies has been from a cultural order to an economic order, and from a closed society based on barter and subsistence to a society based on economic exchange through monetary means. Consequently, understanding the currents of change requires a definite focus...

  14. A New Method for Research on the Center-Focus Problem of Differential Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhengxin

    2014-01-01

    We will introduce Mironenko’s method to discuss the Poincaré center-focus problem, and compare the methods of Lyapunov and Mironenko. We apply the Mironenko method to discuss the qualitative behavior of solutions of some planar polynomial differential systems and derive the sufficient conditions for a critical point to be a center.

  15. Focus on Basics: Connecting Research and Practice: Workplace Education, Volume 7, Issue B

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This issue focuses on workplace education and includes the following articles: "After the Grant Is Over" (Connie Nelson); "Around to Stay" (Shirley Penn and Mary Zorn); "A Conversation with FOB: What Benefits Does Workplace Ed Offer the Provider?"; "Reading Work" (Tracy Defoe and Sue Folinsbee); "Much More than ABE" (Don Block and Lori…

  16. COURSE : a new industry led consortium to focus and accelerate energy resources research at Alberta University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, R.J. [Imperial Oil Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bailey, R. [Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kirk, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Luhning, R.W. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kratochvil, R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    This paper described a new initiative entitled COURSE (Coordination of University Research for Synergy and Effectiveness) which has been created through the collaboration of the energy industry, universities and the Alberta government to promote research in the field of energy resources. Calls for research proposals went out in June 1999 and January 2000. The selected projects will be funded by the Alberta Ministry of Innovation and Science through the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA). The major objectives of COURSE are to increase and align fundamental breakthrough university research with the industry needs, and to provide results that exceed what would be achieved by one university alone. An agreement has been reached whereby the universities own the technology and are the exclusive license agents of the research.

  17. Perspectives on Research Participation and Facilitation Among Dialysis Patients, Clinic Personnel, and Medical Providers: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flythe, Jennifer E; Narendra, Julia H; Dorough, Adeline; Oberlander, Jonathan; Ordish, Antoinette; Wilkie, Caroline; Dember, Laura M

    2017-12-19

    Most prospective studies involving individuals receiving maintenance dialysis have been small, and many have had poor clinical translatability. Research relevance can be enhanced through stakeholder engagement. However, little is known about dialysis clinic stakeholders' perceptions of research participation and facilitation. The objective of this study was to characterize the perspectives of dialysis clinic stakeholders (patients, clinic personnel, and medical providers) on: (1) research participation by patients and (2) research facilitation by clinic personnel and medical providers. We also sought to elucidate stakeholder preferences for research communication. Qualitative study. 7 focus groups (59 participants: 8 clinic managers, 14 nurses/patient care technicians, 8 social workers/dietitians, 11 nephrologists/advanced practice providers, and 18 patients/care partners) from 7 North Carolina dialysis clinics. Clinics and participants were purposively sampled. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis. We identified 11 themes that captured barriers to and facilitators of research participation by patients and research facilitation by clinic personnel and medical providers. We collapsed these themes into 4 categories to create an organizational framework for considering stakeholder (narrow research understanding, competing personal priorities, and low patient literacy and education levels), relationship (trust, buy-in, and altruistic motivations), research design (convenience, follow-up, and patient incentives), and dialysis clinic (professional demands, teamwork, and communication) aspects that may affect stakeholder interest in participating in or facilitating research. These themes appear to shape the degree of research readiness of a dialysis clinic environment. Participants preferred short research communications delivered in multiple formats. Potential selection bias and inclusion of English-speaking participants only. Our findings

  18. Overview on neutron beam industry-focused strategic research in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Razali Kassim; Abdul Jalil Abdul Hamid; Azali Muhammad; Muhammad Rawi Mohd Zain; Azhar Azmi

    2002-01-01

    The TRIGA MARK II research reactor (RTP) at the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) was commissioned in July 1982. RTP is a 1 MW steady state reactor which being used for reactor training and research related to neutron. Since then various works have been performed to utilise the neutrons produced from this steady state reactor. Projects undertaken are the development and utilization of the neutron radiography (myNR) and small angle neutron scattering (mySANS) facilities. This poster highlights the recent status the above neutron beam facilities and their application in materials science and technology research and education. (Author)

  19. Peer Mentoring for Undergraduates in a Research-Focused Diversity Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Thomas E.; Logan, Kay; Lindwall, Jennifer; Beals, Caitlyn

    2017-01-01

    To provide multi-dimensional support for undergraduates from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds who aspire to careers in research, the BUILD EXITO project, part of a major NIH-funded diversity initiative, matches each scholar with three mentors: peer mentor (advanced student), career mentor (faculty adviser), and research mentor (research…

  20. The Focus of Current HCI Research in Usability Evaluation and Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a systematic literature study of the research on usability evaluation and feedback. The literature study covers the papers published from five key human-computer interaction journals for a period of four years, and depicts the most current research within...... the field with regard to usability evaluation and feedback....

  1. Geography should not be destiny: focusing HIV/AIDS implementation research and programs on microepidemics in US neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Yolken, Annajane; Cutler, Blayne; Trooskin, Stacey; Wilson, Phill; Little, Susan; Mayer, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    African Americans and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Within the most heavily affected cities, a few neighborhoods account for a large share of new HIV infections. Addressing racial and economic disparities in HIV infection requires an implementation program and research agenda that assess the impact of HIV prevention interventions focused on increasing HIV testing, treatment, and retention in care in the most heavily affected neighborhoods in urban areas of the United States. Neighborhood-based implementation research should evaluate programs that focus on community mobilization, media campaigns, routine testing, linkage to and retention in care, and block-by-block outreach strategies.

  2. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  3. Researches focused on structure of aluminium alloys processed by rapid solidification, used in automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfat, C.; Vasile, T.; Vasilescu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper present some new results focused on an aluminium high temperature alloy, obtained by 'melt spinning method'. alloy composition, processing conditions, resulted structures and the influence between them are presented. There are studied the two zone structures of the alloy and the relation between processing conditions and the characteristics of the zones, with implications on mechanical behavior in real conditions. The final conclusion show that is possible to control the structure in order to improve material behavior. (author)

  4. Contextualize that sort focus in the work and research training of the pedagogical career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ruiz-Ducasse

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper have purpose of perfecting continuous for learning and teaching process in the pedagogy careers, in this case, from a sort focus perspective. From development didactic of the labor investigative practice, he suggests idea about of the woman role. This work will let a change in the way proceeding of the professors’ future, to using the possibility that offer of the subject, for to guarantee a tally behaved and educate formation, which will let a first educate labor.

  5. FOCUS-GROUP AND ITS IMPACT IN THE QUESTIONNAIRE OF MARKETING RESEARCH ON THE ROMANIAN CAR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANEA Constantin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing a questionnaire is the most profound activity which makes an impact on a research in marketing. The investigation instrument finally determines the quality of this type of research. Never will a market research be able to exceed its questionnaire in point of quality. The present contribution succinctly itemizes a research project for the Romanian car market, emphasizing the importance of focus group, and appends, at the end, the concrete result, applied to the Romanian car market. The first part describes the hypotheses and sets out the objectives of the research, focusing on the market leader, i.e. Automobile Dacia Renault. The second section describes the practical process of designing the questionnaire, with a special stress laid on the impact of focus-group in the final version. The synthesis of focus group is materialized through a number of final remarks on the manner of concretely writing the questionnaire, which was put to practical use on the Romanian car market.

  6. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

  7. Eastern forested watersheds: the OHER/ERD research focus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the environmental research programs conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the auspices of the DOE Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is presented. The research is focussed on the pathways of movement of chemicals from the atmosphere, through terrestrial environments, to receiving water bodies and the effects of these chemicals and other anthropogenic activities on biological systems and biogeochemical processes exposed during transport. Three fundamental levels of the environmental hierarchy are encompassed: process, system, and landscape. 5 refs

  8. Topical and Geographical Focus of Chinese Oceanographic Research - A Study of Trends in Publication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Li, Rongfeng

    2008-01-01

    .... Funds increase rapidly for education and scientific research. From 1993 to 2006, enrollment of full time students in universities and colleges grew from 924,000 to 5,400,000, total number of students (including part-time...

  9. Building Capacity in Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships Through a Focus on Process and Multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Bryant, Angela R; Walker, Deborah J; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Courtney, Dana; Adimora, Ada

    2015-01-01

    In health research, investigators and funders are emphasizing the importance of collaboration between communities and academic institutions to achieve health equity. Although the principles underlying community-academic partnered research have been well-articulated, the processes by which partnerships integrate these principles when working across cultural differences are not as well described. We present how Project GRACE (Growing, Reaching, Advocating for Change and Empowerment) integrated participatory research principles with the process of building individual and partnership capacity. We worked with Vigorous Interventions In Ongoing Natural Settings (VISIONS) Inc., a process consultant and training organization, to develop a capacity building model. We present the conceptual framework and multicultural process of change (MPOC) that was used to build individual and partnership capacity to address health disparities. The process and capacity building model provides a common language, approach, and toolset to understand differences and the dynamics of inequity. These tools can be used by other partnerships in the conduct of research to achieve health equity.

  10. Postinfectious Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Focus on Epidemiology and Research Agendas

    OpenAIRE

    Deising, Adam; Gutierrez, Ramiro L.; Porter, Chad K.; Riddle, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic research is fundamental and complementary to our understanding of disease and development of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. To put the current evidence into context and identify gaps and research priorities in the areas of disease attribution, burden of disease, clinical characterization, and management of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGDs), we took a multidisciplinary approach from the domains of infectious disease, gastroenterology,...

  11. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Water resource governance systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rascher, J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available series of high level research programmes for ecosystem governance. These are illustrated in the fi gure below. The size of the individual circles indicates the priority attributed to the specifi c research theme by the symposium participants... Governance Socio-econ Define Economy of scale Context application Generic strategies/methods Link to democracy 3 Science Communication, learning & knowledge sharing 4 Integration of formal & traditional systems Hydrological boundaries Value...

  12. Focused Ethnography as Research Method: A Case Study of Techno Music Producers in Home-Recording Studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michael Kühn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translator's Introduction: Jan-Michael Kühn's essay introduces the reader to Hubert Knoblauch's focused ethnography [fokussierte Ethnographie] as an ethnographic fieldwork method. More than a decade after Knoblauch's first publications on this method, there are precious few guides to focused ethnography in the English language, save one (Knoblauch 2005. At any rate, there are certainly no introductions to this methodology that also use EDM scenes as a case study. Kühn's article was originally published in German in Soziologie Magazin, a student-run journal published from Martin Luther University in Halle (Saale but operated by an editorial network that spans Germany. As a result, Kühn orients his writing towards an audience of junior researchers, post-docs and graduate students, highlighting the ways in which focused ethnography suits the circumstances of early research careers, where one may have difficulty securing long-term research stays for fieldwork of broader scope. In particular, he notes that Knoblauch's methods require a very narrow scope for the project (i.e., a "field sector" rather than the whole field, a reliance on the researcher's previous knowledge of the field, and short bursts of intense ethnographic activity in order to create work that is tightly focused but still rigorous and generative of fresh knowledge and new concepts.KEYWORDS: qualitative methods; cultural production; music production; home-recording; technoculture

  13. Risk of Bias in Reports of In Vivo Research: A Focus for Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R Macleod

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of experimental findings depends on the rigour of experimental design. Here we show limited reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias in a random sample of life sciences publications, significantly lower reporting of randomisation in work published in journals of high impact, and very limited reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias in publications from leading United Kingdom institutions. Ascertainment of differences between institutions might serve both as a measure of research quality and as a tool for institutional efforts to improve research quality.

  14. Organisation and management of research and development facilities - from cost to profit focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens-van Drongelen, I.C.; Pearson, Alan; Nixon, Bill

    2003-01-01

    In this publication, we present the main findings of a research project into differences in organisation, management and activities between R&D cost centres, semi-profit centres, profit centres, and independent R&D businesses. First, a theoretical framework is presented and then the empirical

  15. A Framework for Teaching Practice-Based Research with a Focus on Service Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Michael J.; Isokuortti, Nanne

    2016-01-01

    The integration of research and practice in social work education and agency practice is both complex and challenging. The analysis presented here builds upon the classic social work generalist framework (engagement, assessment, service planning and implementation, service evaluation, and termination) by developing a three-part framework to…

  16. Integrating Program Assessment and a Career Focus into a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Mary Scheuer

    2017-01-01

    Sociology research methods students in 2013 and 2016 implemented a series of "real world" data gathering activities that enhanced their learning while assisting the department with ongoing program assessment and program review. In addition to the explicit collection of program assessment data on both students' development of sociological…

  17. Plant invasions research in Latin America. Fast track to a more focused agenda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gardener, M. R.; Bustamante, R.O.; Herrera, I.; Durigan, G.; Pivello, V.R.; Moro, M. F.; Stoll, A.; Langdon, B.; Baruch, Z.; Rico, Adriana; Arredondo-Nuńez, A.; Flores, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2012), s. 225-232 ISSN 1755-0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : control * eradication * globalisation * inventories * novel ecosystem s * plant invasions * quarantine * Weed Risk Assessment Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2012

  18. "Just Imagine That…": A Solution Focused Approach to Doctoral Research Supervision in Health and Social Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth; Doherty, Kathleen; Andersen, Loretta; Bingham, Sharon; Crookes, Patrick; Ford, Karen; McSherry, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Effective supervision in doctoral research is critical to successful and timely completion. However, supervision is a complex undertaking with structural as well as relational challenges for both students and supervisors. This instructional paper describes an internationally applicable approach to supervision that we have developed in the health…

  19. NNSA Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program 2008 Symposium--Focus on Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotta, P R; Sketchley, J A

    2008-08-20

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program was authorized by Congress in 1991 to fund leading-edge research and development central to the national laboratories core missions. LDRD anticipates and engages in projects on the forefront of science and engineering at the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, and has a long history of addressing pressing national security needs at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories. LDRD has been a scientific success story, where projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published and cited in peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media coverage, and patents granted. The LDRD Program is also a powerful means to attract and retain top researchers from around the world, to foster collaborations with other prominent scientific and technological institutions, and to leverage some of the world's most technologically advanced assets. This enables the LDRD Program to invest in high-risk and potentially high-payoff research that creates innovative technical solutions for some of our nation's most difficult challenges. Worldwide energy demand is growing at an alarming rate, as developing nations continue to expand their industrial and economic base on the back of limited global resources. The resulting international conflicts and environmental consequences pose serious challenges not only to this nation, but to the international community as well. The NNSA and its national security laboratories have been increasingly called upon to devote their scientific and technological capabilities to help address issues that are not limited solely to the historic nuclear weapons core mission, but are more expansive and encompass a spectrum of national security missions, including energy security. This year's symposium highlights some of the exciting areas of research in alternative fuels and technology, nuclear power, carbon

  20. Recent problems in research on transition to adulthood: Country focus Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Suzana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores theoretical and methodological aspects of transition to adulthood. The concept is discussed within the framework of life course paradigm. The concept of transition to adulthood is operationalized as four dimensions: family transition, professional (career transition, financial status transition and housing transition. We discuss in detail the process of becoming an adult in Serbian society. The thesis of specific type of transition to adulthood, named prolonged adolescence, has been fully examined. The analysis is based on data collected in a survey (2003 of young people aged 17-35. In the paper we focus on the sub sample of respondents aged 34-35 being a post-transitional cohort. The 34-35 cohort trajectory to adulthood is explored as an indicator of general trend in transition to adulthood in a period of radical social turmoil. .

  1. Status quo and future research challenges on organic food quality determination with focus on laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Bodroza-Solarov, Marija; Busscher, Nicolaas; Hajslova, Jana; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; van Ruth, Saskia; Schulzova, Vera; Stolz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Organic food quality determination needs multi-dimensional evaluation tools. The main focus is on the authentication as an analytical verification of the certification process. New fingerprinting approaches such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as crystallization with and without the presence of additives seem to be promising methods in terms of time of analysis and detecting organic system-related parameters. For further methodological development, a system approach is recommended, which also takes into account food structure aspects. Furthermore, the authentication of processed organic samples needs more consciousness, hence most of organic food is complex and processed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The Future of Research on Evidence-based Developmental Violence Prevention in Europe – Introduction to the Focus Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Eisner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Across Europe, there is an increasing demand for good evidence that can inform policies aimed at reducing violence against and among children and adolescents. However, there is still a paucity of high-quality research on effective prevention of bullying and violence, and researchers from different parts of Europe rarely discuss their findings. The focus section of this issue of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence brings together work by prominent preventionscholars from across Europe, who show that significant progress is being made. The introduction presents nine recommendations about how prevention research could be further strengthened in Europe.

  3. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    IIiadou, Vasiliki; Ptok, Martin; Grech, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Current notions of "hearing impairment," as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other...... of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional......, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order...

  4. Research on long-lived radioactive waste management: focus on environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre Jehan, R.

    1994-01-01

    Studies are in progress on deep geologic media to examine their potential for retrievable or non retrievable nuclear waste disposal. The primary objective of site investigations and experiments for the coming years will be the development of underground laboratories (observation of host rocks and fluids). Geologic research programs are designed to investigate the potential for deep construction and the ability of the underground media to isolate radioelements from the biosphere. Researches covered the following topics: understanding the media likely to be found in underground laboratories using 3-D geologic modelling; predicting the materials behaviour under various mechanical, thermal and radiation loadings; describing fluid transfers through the geosphere and assessing radioactive materials transport and/or blockage by understanding the multiple geochemical mechanisms involved. The geologic and climatic long term behaviours are also taken into account. (author). 13 figs

  5. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliff, Monique; Just, Eric; Podlusky, Sofia; Varga, John; Chang, Rowland W; Kibbe, Warren A

    2012-09-13

    Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of 'machine generated' sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. There was a near perfect (99.5%) agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor) to parse, abstract and assemble structured data from text data contained in the electronic health

  6. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinchcliff Monique

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of ‘machine generated’ sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Methods Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. Results There was a near perfect (99.5% agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Conclusions Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor to parse, abstract and assemble

  7. Advances in Proteomic Techniques for Cytokine Analysis: Focus on Melanoma Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kupcová Skalníková, Helena; Čížková, Jana; Červenka, Jakub; Vodička, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 2697. E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-05534S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cytokine * cancer * melanoma * secretome * proteomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  8. Easily configured real-time CPOE Pick Off Tool supporting focused clinical research and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Silkin, Nikolay; Miller, Randolph A

    2014-01-01

    Real-time alerting systems typically warn providers about abnormal laboratory results or medication interactions. For more complex tasks, institutions create site-wide 'data warehouses' to support quality audits and longitudinal research. Sophisticated systems like i2b2 or Stanford's STRIDE utilize data warehouses to identify cohorts for research and quality monitoring. However, substantial resources are required to install and maintain such systems. For more modest goals, an organization desiring merely to identify patients with 'isolation' orders, or to determine patients' eligibility for clinical trials, may adopt a simpler, limited approach based on processing the output of one clinical system, and not a data warehouse. We describe a limited, order-entry-based, real-time 'pick off' tool, utilizing public domain software (PHP, MySQL). Through a web interface the tool assists users in constructing complex order-related queries and auto-generates corresponding database queries that can be executed at recurring intervals. We describe successful application of the tool for research and quality monitoring.

  9. The quality of Australian Indigenous primary health care research focusing on social and emotional wellbeing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnbach, Sara; Eades, Anne-Maree; Fernando, Jamie K; Gwynn, Josephine D; Glozier, Nick; Hackett, Maree L

    2017-10-11

    Objectives and importance of the study: Primary health care research focused on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) people is needed to ensure that key frontline services provide evidence based and culturally appropriate care. We systematically reviewed the published primary health care literature to identify research designs, processes and outcomes, and assess the scientific quality of research focused on social and emotional wellbeing. This will inform future research to improve evidence based, culturally appropriate primary health care. Systematic review in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Four databases and one Indigenous-specific project website were searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method published research. Studies that were conducted in primary health care services and focused on the social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous people were included. Scientific quality was assessed using risk-of-bias assessment tools that were modified to meet our aims. We assessed community acceptance by identifying the involvement of community governance structures and representation during research development, conduct and reporting. Data were extracted using standard forms developed for this review. We included 32 articles, which reported on 25 studies. Qualitative and mixed methods were used in 18 studies. Twelve articles were judged as high or unclear risk of bias, four as moderate and five as low risk of bias. Another four studies were not able to be assessed as they did not align with the risk-of-bias tools. Of the five articles judged as low risk of bias, two also had high community acceptance and both of these were qualitative. One used a phenomenological approach and the other combined participatory action research with a social-ecological perspective and incorporated 'two-way learning' principles. Of the 16 studies where a primary outcome was identified, eight aimed to identify perceptions or experiences. The

  10. The quality of Australian Indigenous primary health care research focusing on social and emotional wellbeing: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Farnbach

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives and importance of the study: Primary health care research focused on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous people is needed to ensure that key frontline services provide evidence based and culturally appropriate care. We systematically reviewed the published primary health care literature to identify research designs, processes and outcomes, and assess the scientific quality of research focused on social and emotional wellbeing. This will inform future research to improve evidence based, culturally appropriate primary health care. Study type: Systematic review in accordance with PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Methods: Four databases and one Indigenous-specific project website were searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method published research. Studies that were conducted in primary health care services and focused on the social and emotional wellbeing of Indigenous people were included. Scientific quality was assessed using risk-of-bias assessment tools that were modified to meet our aims. We assessed community acceptance by identifying the involvement of community governance structures and representation during research development, conduct and reporting. Data were extracted using standard forms developed for this review. Results: We included 32 articles, which reported on 25 studies. Qualitative and mixed methods were used in 18 studies. Twelve articles were judged as high or unclear risk of bias, four as moderate and five as low risk of bias. Another four studies were not able to be assessed as they did not align with the risk-of-bias tools. Of the five articles judged as low risk of bias, two also had high community acceptance and both of these were qualitative. One used a phenomenological approach and the other combined participatory action research with a social–ecological perspective and incorporated ‘two-way learning’ principles. Of the 16 studies where a primary outcome was identified, eight aimed

  11. A Family-Focused Delirium Educational Initiative With Practice and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Christina May; Monroe, Todd; McDougall, Graham J; Fick, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Delirium is burdensome and psychologically distressing for formal and informal caregivers, yet family caregivers often have very little understanding or knowledge about delirium. As part of a large multisite intervention study, the Early Nurse Detection of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (END-DSD), the authors identified a need for family educational materials. This educational initiative's purpose was to develop a delirium admission brochure for family members to aid in the prevention and earlier identification of delirium during hospitalization. A brochure was developed using an iterative approach with an expert panel. Following three iterations, a final brochure was approved. The authors found that an iterative expert consensus approach can be used to develop a brochure for families. Major content areas were helping families understand the difference between delirium and dementia, signs and symptoms of delirium, causes of delirium, and strategies family members can use to prevent delirium. A caregiver-focused educational brochure is one intervention to use in targeting older adults hospitalized with delirium.

  12. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard; Araya, Ricardo; Banos Rivera, Rosa M; Barkham, Michael; Bech, Per; Beckers, Tom; Berger, Thomas; Berking, Matthias; Berrocal, Carmen; Botella, Christina; Carlbring, Per; Chouinard, Guy; Colom, Francesc; Csillag, Claudio; Cujipers, Pim; David, Daniel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Essau, Cecilia A; Fava, Giovanni A; Goschke, Thomas; Hermans, Dirk; Hofmann, Stefan G; Lutz, Wolfgang; Muris, Peter; Ollendick, Thomas H; Raes, Filip; Rief, Winfried; Riper, Heleen; Tossani, Eliana; van der Oord, Saskia; Vervliet, Bram; Haro, Josep M; Schumann, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions of psychological functions and processes as well as neurobiological and genetic processes that interact with the environment. The paper presents and discusses an integrative translational model, linking basic and experimental research with clinical research as well as population-based prospective-longitudinal studies. This model provides a conceptual framework to identify how individual vulnerabilities interact with environment over time, and promote critical behaviours that might act as proximal risk factors for ill-health and mental disorders. Within the models framework, such improved knowledge is also expected to better delineate targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions that prevent further escalation in early stages before the full disorder and further complications thereof develop. In contrast to conventional "personalized medicine" that typically targets individual (genetic) variation of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well as mental disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Strategies to control costs and quality: a focus on outcomes research for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Victor

    2004-04-01

    Rapid adoption of disease management has outpaced systematic evaluation of its net value in improving health outcomes and mitigating healthcare cost. This article identifies areas in which outcomes research in disease management is needed to demonstrate its value or to enhance its performance. Patient identification for disease management relies on administrative database queries but the trade-offs in sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of alternative queries are not well known. Large-scale deployment, rapid patient engagement, and repeated interactions between patients and nurses could be important attributes for attaining measurable improvements in quality and cost reduction over short periods of time, but these hypothesis need to be tested. There is a trend toward integration of multiple chronic disease management programs onto a single platform. To support this trend, there is a need for a corresponding set of integrated clinical guidelines or "meta-guidelines" that combine the contents of individual practice guidelines. The relative contribution of various disease management interventions in improving clinical results, lowering costs, and their respective ease of implementation is not known. Research leading to a better understanding of tradeoffs could lead to more rational resource allocation and better overall outcomes. Coordination between disease management programs and physician practices is lacking. Research aimed at defining operational and technical interfaces and cultural and behavioral professional adjustments necessary to achieve integration and coordination is needed. The lack of a consistent analytical framework for evaluating clinical and financial outcomes has made comparisons of reported results impossible and has rendered many reports unreliable. Theoretical work on a standard methodology that integrates clinical and financial outcomes and empiric validation is needed.

  14. Mexican medicinal plants with anxiolytic or antidepressant activity: Focus on preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rubalcava, Carolina; Estrada-Camarena, Erika

    2016-06-20

    Anxiety and depression are considered the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide. In Mexico, the use of medicinal plants to alleviate the symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is increasing. However, there is little scientific evidence that validates the efficacy of these plants. This evidence needs to be critically revised, and further studied to provided scientific support for their use. To identify the plants that are used in Mexico for the treatment of disorders related to anxiety and depression, and to review the current preclinical and when available, clinical information of these plants. We searched in scientific databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus and other web sources such as "Biblioteca digital de la medicina tradicional Mexicana" ) for Mexican plants used for the treatment of anxiety and depression that have been analyzed in preclinical studies. Additional information was obtained from published books. For this review, we also consider those plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of "nervios," "susto" or "espanto;" common terms that describe symptoms related to anxiety and depression disorders. The bibliographic search identified 49 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of disorders related to anxiety and depression. From all these plants, 59% were analyzed in preclinical research, and only 8% were tested in clinical studies; only a few of these studies tried to elucidate their mechanism of action. In general, it is proposed that the plant extracts interact with the GABAergic system. However, only part of these studies attempted to analyze other neurotransmitter systems. Finally, in some cases, drug-herbal interactions were reported. There is a large number of Mexican medicinal plants used as a treatment for anxiety and depression disorders. Although some of these plants have been studied in preclinical research, in most cases these studies are preliminary, and the understanding

  15. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  16. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment. : Dutch focus group research on views on cohabitation and marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Keizer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. Objective: We examine Dutch adults' perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. Methods: We analyze seven focus group interviews with 40 Dutch participants, collected in 2012 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Results: Many participants discussed differences and similarities between cohabitation and marriage in a context of high divorce rates, and frequently viewed cohabitation as a risk-reduction strategy. At the same time, marriage was often seen as ―the real deal‖, in terms of legal arrangements, but also as a symbol of utmost commitment. Less educated participants viewed more financial advantages in cohabitation compared to marriage, and felt more strongly about the symbolic value of marriage than their highly educated counterparts. There was strong consensus that there is not, and should not be, a social norm to marry. Conclusions: In a context of high relationship instability, cohabitation has become a risk-reduction strategy. When norms to marry are weak, people may marry in order to emphasize the uniqueness of their relationship. However, the individualistic nature of Dutch society is mirrored in respondents' reluctance to set standards or proscribe norms on why and when to marry and their emphasis that cohabitation can also imply high levels of commitment.

  17. Teaching research ethics better: focus on excellent science, not bad scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Mark; Hunter, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    A recent report of the United States' Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues highlights how important it is for the research community to enjoy the "earned confidence" of the public and how creating a "culture of responsibility" can contribute to that confidence. It identifies a major role for "creative, flexible, and innovative" ethics education in creating such a culture. Other recent governmental reports from various nations similarly call for a renewed emphasis on ethics education in the sciences. We discuss why some common approaches to ethics education in the graduate sciences fail to meet the goals envisioned in the reports and we describe an approach, animated by primary attention on excellent science as opposed to bad scientists, that we have employed in our ethics teaching that we think is better suited for inspiring and sustaining responsible, trustworthy science. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    of patients who already have developed a disease to improve medical treatment, the proposed framework model, linked to a concerted funding programme of the "Science of Behaviour Change", carries the promise of improved diagnosis, treatment and prevention of health-risk behaviour constellations as well......Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may...... help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions...

  19. Using Focus Groups to Research Sensitive Issues: Insights from Group Interviews on Nursing in the Northern Ireland “Troubles”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Jordan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors discuss the usefulness of focus groups for researching sensitive issues using evidence from a study examining the experiences of nurses providing care in the context of the Northern Ireland Troubles. They conducted three group interviews with nurses during which they asked about the issues the nurses face(d in providing nursing care amid enduring social division. Through a discursive analysis of within-group interaction, they demonstrate how participants employ a range of interpretive resources, the effect of which is to prioritize particular knowledge concerning the nature of nursing care. The identification of such patterned activity highlights the ethnographic value of focus groups to reveal social conventions guiding the production of accounts but also suggests that accounts cannot be divorced from the circumstances of their production. Consequently, the authors argue that focus groups should be considered most useful for illuminating locally sanctioned ways of talking about sensitive issues.

  20. English Water Meadows: historic relics or focus for environmental management and inter-disciplinary research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Hadrian

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated water meadows are found across Europe, from southern Scandinavia to Spain and in the Alpine regions and Italy. While the practice of engineering 'floated' meadow land for deliberate irrigation on hillsides and floodplains is widespread and ancient, since about 1600 AD the practice was widely adopted on floodplains in southern England where they improved the timing and productivity of grazing land and produced hay crops. They also became a part of English consciousness through art and literature. To some, water meadows are a relic of an agrarian past, to others they are the object of a range of foci for conservation, education, sustainable grass production, community engagement and recent research suggests water returned from meadow irrigation is beneficial to river water quality. Historically floodplain 'bedwork' water meadows grew from, and were integral in, the farming system of 'Wessex' involving sheep which produced dung for arable land and later supporting dairy and beef production, as well as hay. Where systems remain, this is largely due to the whim of individuals, the outcome of agri-environmental schemes. Water meadows may be managed by public, voluntary or private sector bodies. What is needed is a fresh look at how land owners, or communities, might micro-target them for heritage, habitat and grassland management. There are therefore interesting questions concerning their future: Who might invest in their restoration and maintenance? How might they be integrated into commercial farming? Are they of sufficient interest to restore en masse to become (once more) a major feature of the English chalk stream valleys? Do they provide a way into academic and public perception, combining environmental science, history, cultural heritage and environmental management? How might restoration and management become vehicles for public engagement? While each of these questions represents a major topic for discussion, this paper is an attempt to consolidate

  1. THE EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ON THE WEB – A TWO-EDGED TOOL IN FOCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Lima

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Although  the  use  of  the  internet  is  expanding  rapidly  on  college  campuses,  little  is  known  about  student internet  use,  how  students  perceive  the  reality of  internet  information and  how successful they  are  in  searching  the internet.  The  aim  of  this  project  is  to  analyze  the  biochemical  issues  available  in  web  pages,  evaluating  contents quality,  trustworthiness  and  effectiveness.  Fourteen  sites  were  analyzed  regarding  to  contents,  presence  of bibliographical  references,  authorship,  titles  responsibility  and  adequacy  to  target  public.  The  great  majority  did  not mention  bibliographic  references  and  target  public.  Less  than  half  of  the  researched  sites  divulged  names  and/or graduation  status  of  information providers.  Some  sites  contained  critical  conceptual  errors,  such  as:  participation  of H2O  in  the  photosynthesis  dark  phase,  carnivore  animals  feeding  only  on  herbivores,  the  overall  equation  of photosynthesis with errors, NADH2 instead NAD+, etc. Half of them presented identical texts and figures. None of the analyzed  sites  was  thus  considered  excellent.  Our  data  strengthen  the  need  for  rigorous  evaluation  concerning  to educational research of biochemical themes on the web.

  2. Focus on the research utility of intravascular ultrasound - comparison with other invasive modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoye Angela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS is an invasive modality which provides cross-sectional images of a coronary artery. In these images both the lumen and outer vessel wall can be identified and accurate estimations of their dimensions and of the plaque burden can be obtained. In addition, further processing of the IVUS backscatter signal helps in the characterization of the type of the plaque and thus it has been used to study the natural history of the atherosclerotic evolution. On the other hand its indigenous limitations do not allow IVUS to assess accurately stent struts coverage, existence of thrombus or exact site of plaque rupture and to identify some of the features associated with increased plaque vulnerability. In order this information to be obtained, other modalities such as optical coherence tomography, angioscopy, near infrared spectroscopy and intravascular magnetic resonance imaging have either been utilized or are under evaluation. The aim of this review article is to present the current utilities of IVUS in research and to discuss its advantages and disadvantages over the other imaging techniques.

  3. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nisbet

    Full Text Available As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  4. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  5. Understanding Public Opinion in Debates over Biomedical Research: Looking beyond Political Partisanship to Focus on Beliefs about Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M.

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed. PMID:24558393

  6. Medical research and audit skills training for undergraduates: an international analysis and student-focused needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Interpreting, performing and applying research is a key part of evidence-based medical practice, however, incorporating these within curricula is challenging. This study aimed to explore current provision of research skills training within medical school curricula, provide a student-focused needs assessment and prioritise research competencies. A international, cross-sectional survey of final year UK and Irish medical students was disseminated at each participating university. The questionnaire investigated research experience, and confidence in the Medical Education in Europe (MEDINE) 2 consensus survey research competencies. Fully completed responses were received from 521 final year medical students from 32 medical schools (43.4% male, mean age 24.3 years). Of these, 55.3% had an additional academic qualification (49.5% Bachelor's degree), and 38.8% had been a named author on an academic publication. Considering audit and research opportunities and teaching experience, 47.2% reported no formal audit training compared with 27.1% who reported no formal research training. As part of their medical school course, 53.4% had not performed an audit, compared with 29.9% who had not participated in any clinical or basic science research. Nearly a quarter of those who had participated in research reported doing so outside of their medical degree course. Low confidence areas included selecting and performing the appropriate statistical test, selecting the appropriate research method, and critical appraisal. Following adjustment, several factors were associated with increased confidence including previous clinical research experience (OR 4.21, 2.66 to 6.81, Paudit skills training in the curriculum (OR 1.52, 1.03 to 2.26, P= 0.036) and research methods taught in a student selected component (OR 1.75, 1.21 to 2.54, P=0.003). Nearly one-third of students lacked formal training on undertaking research, and half of students lacked formal audit training and opportunities to

  7. Analysis of the intellectual structure of human space exploration research using a bibliometric approach: Focus on human related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai Sik; Lee, Yoon-Sun; Lee, Jaeho; Chang, Byung Chul

    2018-02-01

    Human space exploration (HSE) is an interdisciplinary field composed of a range of subjects that have developed dramatically over the last few decades. This paper investigates the intellectual structure of HSE research with a focus on human related factors. A bibliometric approach with quantitative analytical techniques is applied to study the development and growth of the research. This study retrieves 1921 papers on HSE related to human factors from the year 1990 to the year 2016 from Web of Science and constructs a critical citation network composed of 336 papers. Edge-betweenness-based clustering is used to classify the citation network into twelve distinct research clusters based on four research themes: "biological risks from space radiation," "health and performance during long-duration spaceflight," "program and in-situ resources for HSE missions," and "habitat and life support systems in the space environment." These research themes are also similar to the classification results of a co-occurrence analysis on keywords for a total of 1921 papers. Papers with high centrality scores are identified as important papers in terms of knowledge flow. Moreover, the intermediary role of papers in exchanging knowledge between HSE sub-areas is identified using brokerage analysis. The key-route main path highlights the theoretical development trajectories. Due to the recent dramatic increase in investment by international governments and the private sector, the theoretical development trajectories of key research themes have been expanding from furthering scientific and technical knowledge to include various social and economic issues, thus encouraging massive public participation. This study contributes to an understanding of research trends and popular issues in the field of HSE by introducing a powerful way of determining major research themes and development trajectories. This study will help researchers seek the underlying knowledge diffusion flow from multifaceted

  8. Overview of recent endeavors on personal aerial vehicles: A focus on the US and Europe led research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolong; Kreimeier, Michael; Stumpf, Eike; Zhou, Yaoming; Liu, Hu

    2017-05-01

    Personal aerial vehicles, an innovative transport mode to bridge the niche between scheduled airliners and ground transport, are seen by aviation researchers and engineers as a solution to provide fast urban on-demand mobility. This paper reviews recent research efforts on the personal aerial vehicle (PAV), with a focus on the US and Europe led research activities. As an extension of the programmatic level overview, several enabling technologies, such as vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL), automation, distributed electric propulsion, which might promote the deployment of PAVs, are introduced and discussed. Despite the dramatic innovation in PAV concept development and related technologies, some challenging issues remain, especially safety, infrastructure and public acceptance. As such, further efforts by many stakeholders are required to enable the real implementation and application of PAVs.

  9. Research on pinches driven by Speed-2 generator: Hard X-ray and neutron emission in plasma focus configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, L.; Moreno, J.; Silva, P.; Sylvester, G.; Zambra, M.; Pavez, C. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Pavez, C. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Castillo, F. [Insitituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM (Mexico); Kies, W. [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Speed-2 is a generator based on Marx technology and was designed in the University of Dusseldorf. Speed-2 consists on 40 +/- Marx modules connected in parallel (4.1 {mu}F equivalent Marx generator capacity, 300 kV, 4 MA in short circuit, 187 kJ, 400 ns rise time, dI/dt {approx} 10{sup 13} A/s). Currently Speed-2 is operating at CCHEN (Chilean nuclear energy commission), being the most powerful and energetic device for dense transient plasma in the Southern Hemisphere. Most of the previous works developed in Speed-2 at Dusseldorf were done in a plasma focus configuration for soft X-ray emission and the neutron emission from Speed-2 was not completely studied. The research program at CCHEN considers experiments in different pinch configurations (plasma focus, gas puffed plasma focus, gas embedded Z-pinch, wire arrays) at current of hundred of kilo- to mega-amperes, using the Speed-2 generator. The Chilean operation has begun implementing and developing diagnostics in a conventional plasma focus configuration operating in deuterium in order to characterize the neutron emission and the hard X-ray production. Silver activation counters, plastics CR39 and scintillator-photomultiplier detectors are used to characterize the neutron emission. Images of metallic plates with different thickness are obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize an effective energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge. (authors)

  10. Cascadia GeoSciences: Community-Based Earth Science Research Focused on Geologic Hazard Assessment and Environmental Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. B.; Patton, J. R.; Leroy, T. H.

    2007-12-01

    Cascadia GeoSciences (CG) is a new non-profit membership governed corporation whose main objectives are to conduct and promote interdisciplinary community based earth science research. The primary focus of CG is on geologic hazard assessment and environmental restoration in the Western U.S. The primary geographic region of interest is Humboldt Bay, NW California, within the southern Cascadia subduction zone (SCSZ). This region is the on-land portion of the accretionary prism to the SCSZ, a unique and exciting setting with numerous hazards in an active, dynamic geologic environment. Humboldt Bay is also a region rich in history. Timber harvesting has been occurring in California's coastal forestlands for approximately 150 years. Timber products transported with ships and railroads from Mendocino and Humboldt Counties helped rebuild San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake. Historic land-use of this type now commonly requires the services of geologists, engineers, and biologists to restore road networks as well as provide safe fish passage. While Humboldt Bay is a focus of some of our individual research goals, we welcome regional scientists to utilize CG to support its mission while achieving their goals. An important function of CG is to provide student opportunities in field research. One of the primary charitable contributions of the organization is a student grant competition. Funds for the student grant will come from member fees and contributions, as well as a percent of all grants awarded to CG. A panel will review and select the student research proposal annually. In addition to supporting student research financially, professional members of CG will donate their time as mentors to the student researchers, promoting a student mentor program. The Humboldt Bay region is well suited to support annual student research. Thorough research like this will help unravel some of the mysteries of regional earthquake-induced land-level changes, as well as possible fault

  11. A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students’ Ability to Read Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacum, Edwin B. Van; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach—based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory—means that we teach students to read research articles by teaching them which rhetorical moves occur in research articles and how they can identify these. Because research articles are persuasive by their very nature, we focused on the rhetorical moves that play an important role in authors’ arguments. We designed a teaching strategy using cognitive apprenticeship as the pedagogical approach. It was implemented in a first-year compulsory course in the life sciences undergraduate program. Comparison of the results of a pretest with those of the posttest showed that students’ ability to identify these moves had improved. Moreover, students themselves had also perceived that their ability to read and understand a research article had increased. The students’ evaluations demonstrated that they appreciated the pedagogical approach used and experienced the assignments as useful. On the basis of our results, we concluded that students had taken a first step toward becoming expert readers. PMID:26086657

  12. Grupo focal em pesquisa qualitativa sobre leitura com jovens Focus groups in qualitative research about reading with youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cabral da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma experiência em pesquisa qualitativa sobre leitura com jovens na área da Educação, utilizando-se como método de coleta de dados o grupo focal. O método foi descrito e analisado à luz da abordagem sócio-histórica da linguagem. Além disso, o texto discute os desafios e as reflexões éticas em relação à utilização do método.This paper describes a qualitative research about reading with youths in the educational fields using focus groups methodology. The concept of focus groups was described and analyzed in the light of the social historical perspective of language. Furthermore, this text discusses the challenges and the ethical concerns regarding this methodology.

  13. How to Research People's First Impressions of Websites? Eye-Tracking as a Usability Inspection Method and Online Focus Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herendy, Csilla

    The visual surface of the Hungarian governmental portal - magyarorszag.hu - was inspected in 2007 with two different inspection methods: Eye tacking research and Online focus group research. Both methods help to understand and to chart not only the usability of different websites but also the affective imp ressions associated with the websites. In this study, an Experimental and a Control-group were tested to assess the usability of the site and the emotional re actions to it. The results reveal that the Hungarian government website is too complicated, dull and difficult to apprehend at a glance.

  14. Perceptions of Faculty toward Integrating Technology in Undergraduate Higher Education Traditional Classrooms at Research-Focused Regional Universities in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Cheri Deann

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of faculty members who use technology in undergraduate higher education traditional classrooms in research-focused regional universities in South Texas. Faculty members at research-focused regional universities are expected to divide time judiciously into three major areas: research, service, and…

  15. Economic terms and beyond how researchers in specialised varieties of English can benefit from focusing on terms

    CERN Document Server

    Resche, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This book, which is aimed at researchers in specialised varieties of English, provides an illustration of how linguists can use terms, i.e. the expression of concepts in specialised fields, as entry points to explore any specialised domain, whether academic or professional, and to get acquainted with its history, its culture, and the evolution of the ideas that have nurtured it. Choosing the field of economics as an example, the author approaches terms from a diachronic, descriptive and contextual perspective, focusing on neonyms, metaphorical, ambiguous or indeterminate terms, as well as inte

  16. PROVISION OF RESEARCH SUPPORT SERVICES TO ODL LEARNERS BY TUTORS: A Focus on the Zimbabwe Open University’s Bachelor of Education (Educational Management Research Students’ Supervision Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichaona MAPOLISA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ODL learners’ perceptions of the quality of provision of research support services to the ODL learners by tutors. It focused on the Zimbabwe Open University’s (ZOU Bachelor of Education (Educational Management research students’ experiences. It was a qualitative multiple case study of four of the 10 Regional Centres of the ZOU. It purposively sampled 40 out of 160 research participants because they possessed desirable research characteristics for this study. The study was deemed significant in influencing tutors and policy makers to consider their research students’ supervision experiences as a basis for improving the quality of services for future research supervision practices and research projects. The study was guided by a two fold theory namely, thee Facilitation Theory (Nyawaranda, 2005 and the Nurturing Theory (Anderson, Pay and Mac Laughlin, 2006. Both theories advocate for the need of the supervisors to give their students a big heart. In terms of research supervision services offered by tutors the study indicated the time students were offered to meet research supervisors, prompt returns of marked work, and tutor student motivation and counselling as key services. In connection with the joys about research supervision, the students highly regarded: the manner in which tutors motivated them, tutors guidance in choosing research topic, tutor mentorship during research supervision and provision of workshops to polish up their research skills. In line with the challenges to the provision of research support services, three categories of challenges emerged. First, student-related challenges included lack of time, lack of money, lack of library facilities, lack of motivation and commitment to do research, lack of adequate theory in the area being researched on and family problems. Second, supervisor-related challenges included: too little direction, too little practical help given, too few meeting with students

  17. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  18. A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students' Ability to Read Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lacum, Edwin B; Ossevoort, Miriam A; Goedhart, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach-based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory-means that we teach students to read research articles by teaching them which rhetorical moves occur in research articles and how they can identify these. Because research articles are persuasive by their very nature, we focused on the rhetorical moves that play an important role in authors' arguments. We designed a teaching strategy using cognitive apprenticeship as the pedagogical approach. It was implemented in a first-year compulsory course in the life sciences undergraduate program. Comparison of the results of a pretest with those of the posttest showed that students' ability to identify these moves had improved. Moreover, students themselves had also perceived that their ability to read and understand a research article had increased. The students' evaluations demonstrated that they appreciated the pedagogical approach used and experienced the assignments as useful. On the basis of our results, we concluded that students had taken a first step toward becoming expert readers. © 2014 E. B. Van Lacum et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Using a creativity-focused science program to foster general creativity in young children: A teacher action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Joan Julieanne Mariani

    The importance of thinking and problem-solving skills, and the ability to integrate and analyze information has been recognized and yet may be lacking in schools. Creativity is inherently linked to problem finding, problem solving, and divergent thinking (Arieti, 1976; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Milgram, 1990). The importance of early childhood education and its role in the formation of young minds has been recognized (Caine & Caine, 1991; Montessori, 1967a, 1967b; Piaget, 1970). Early childhood education also impacts creativity (Gardner, 1999). The features of brain-based learning (Caine & Caine, 1991; Jensen, 1998; Sousa, 2001; Wolfe, 2001) have a clear connection to nurturing the creative potential in students. Intrinsic motivation and emotions affect student learning and creativity as well (Hennessey & Amabile, 1987). The purpose of this study was to discern if a creativity-focused science curriculum for the kindergarteners at a Montessori early learning center could increase creativity in students. This action research study included observations of the students in two classrooms, one using the creativity-focused science curriculum, and the other using the existing curriculum. The data collected for this interpretive study included interviews with the students, surveys and interviews with their parents and teachers, teacher observations, and the administration of Torrance's (1981) Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM) test. The interpretation of the data indicated that the enhanced science curriculum played a role in enhancing the creativity of the children in the creativity-focused group. The results of the TCAM (Torrance, 1981) showed a significant increase in scores for the children in the creativity-focused group. The qualitative data revealed a heightened interest in science and the observation of creative traits, processes, and products in the creativity-focused group children. The implications of this study included the need for meaningful

  1. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdink, J K; Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-02-17

    To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Qualitative focus group interview study. Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Inclusion as a focus of employment-related research in intellectual disability from 2000 to 2010: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Rosemary; Cobigo, Virginie; Hamilton, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a scoping review of the research literature on community-based employment for individuals with intellectual disabilities from 2000 to 2010. The review examined the variables studied in each paper, and considered the degree to which elements of social inclusion were addressed. The search strategy identified a total of 245 articles, the total pool of which was reduced to 42 following abstract and text review. Two researchers reviewed the final set of articles and extracted information relevant to the study goals. Independent and dependent measures used in the studies were categorized relative to a conceptual model of social inclusion. The frequency with which each aspect of inclusion was addressed in the studies was totalled, and the resulting pattern analyzed qualitatively. The analysis revealed that the majority of papers identified the work role achieved (i.e. employment and pay rates, job titles) as the primary construct of interest, while fewer than 5 articles focused on central aspects of inclusion, such as sense of belonging, reciprocity, and need fulfillment. This study profiles the evidence base relative to inclusive employment for people with intellectual disabilities. The lack of evidence on the degree to which social inclusion is being achieved through community-based employment highlights a critical area requiring attention.

  3. In vitro psoriasis models with focus on reconstructed skin models as promising tools in psoriasis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Eline; Ramadhas, Anesh; Lambert, Jo; Van Gele, Mireille

    2017-06-01

    skin or the disease pathology. This work provides a complete overview of the different available in vitro psoriasis models and suggests improvements for future models. Moreover, a focus was given to psoriatic skin equivalent models, as they offer several advantages over the other models, including commercial availability and validity. The potential and reported applicability of these models in psoriasis pre-clinical research is extensively discussed. As such, this work offers a guide to researchers in their choice of pre-clinical psoriasis model depending on their type of research question.

  4. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  5. Focus on focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  6. Research data management support for large-scale, long-term, interdisciplinary collaborative research centers with a focus on environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curdt, C.; Hoffmeister, D.; Bareth, G.; Lang, U.

    2017-12-01

    Science conducted in collaborative, cross-institutional research projects, requires active sharing of research ideas, data, documents and further information in a well-managed, controlled and structured manner. Thus, it is important to establish corresponding infrastructures and services for the scientists. Regular project meetings and joint field campaigns support the exchange of research ideas. Technical infrastructures facilitate storage, documentation, exchange and re-use of data as results of scientific output. Additionally, also publications, conference contributions, reports, pictures etc. should be managed. Both, knowledge and data sharing is essential to create synergies. Within the coordinated programme `Collaborative Research Center' (CRC), the German Research Foundation offers funding to establish research data management (RDM) infrastructures and services. CRCs are large-scale, interdisciplinary, multi-institutional, long-term (up to 12 years), university-based research institutions (up to 25 sub-projects). These CRCs address complex and scientifically challenging research questions. This poster presents the RDM services and infrastructures that have been established for two CRCs, both focusing on environmental sciences. Since 2007, a RDM support infrastructure and associated services have been set up for the CRC/Transregio 32 (CRC/TR32) `Patterns in Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Systems: Monitoring, Modelling and Data Assimilation' (www.tr32.de). The experiences gained have been used to arrange RDM services for the CRC1211 `Earth - Evolution at the Dry Limit' (www.crc1211.de), funded since 2016. In both projects scientists from various disciplines collect heterogeneous data at field campaigns or by modelling approaches. To manage the scientific output, the TR32DB data repository (www.tr32db.de) has been designed and implemented for the CRC/TR32. This system was transferred and adapted to the CRC1211 needs (www.crc1211db.uni-koeln.de) in 2016. Both

  7. Research focus and trends in nuclear science and technology in Ghana: a bibliometric study based on the INIS database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyeman, E. A.; Bilson, A.

    2015-01-01

    The peaceful application of atomic energy was introduced into Ghana about fifty years ago. This is the first bibliometric study of nuclear science and technology research publications originating from Ghana and listed in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The purpose was to use the simple document counting method to determine the geographical distribution, annual growth and the subject areas of the publications as well as communication channels, key journals and authorship trends. The main findings of the study were that, a greater number of the nuclear science and technology records listed in the Database were published in Ghana (598 or 56.57% against 459 or 43.43% published outside Ghana). There has been a steady growth in the number of publications over the years with the most productive year being 2012. The main focus of research has been in the area of applied life sciences, comprising plant cultivation & breeding, pest & disease control, food protection and preservation, human nutrition and animal husbandry; followed by chemistry; environmental sciences; radiation protection; nuclear reactors; physics; energy; and radiology and nuclear medicine. The area with the least number of publications was safeguards and physical protection. The main channel of communicating research results was peer reviewed journals and a greater number of the journal articles were published in Ghana followed by the United Kingdom, Hungary and the Netherlands. The core journals identified in this study were Journal of Applied Science and Technology; Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry; Journal of the Ghana Science Association; Radiation Protection Dosimetry; Journal of the Kumasi University of Science and Technology; West African Journal of Applied Ecology; Ghana Journal of Science; Applied Radiation and Isotopes; Annals of Nuclear Energy, IOP Conference Series (Earth and Environmental Science) and Radiation Physics and Chemistry. Eighty percent

  8. Theoretical Foundations of Research Focused on HIV Prevention Among Substance-Involved Women: A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith D; Smith, Laramie R

    2015-06-01

    Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date, relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use and risks associated with sexual activity in which power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other factors. As such, HIV risk for SIW resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political—in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk, and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemic approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW.

  9. Study of human factors and its basic aspects, focusing the operators of IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2008-01-01

    Human factors and situational variables, which ca, when modified, interfere in the actions of operators of nuclear installations is studied. This work is focused in the operators of the IEA-R1 research reactor, which is located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil. The accidents in Nuclear Plants have shown that the most serious have occurred due to human failure. This work also considers the item 5.5.3 of CNEN-NN-3.01 standard - 'Actions must be taken to reduce, as much as possible, the human failures that can lead to accidents or even other events which can originate inadvertent or unintentional expositions in any individual'. The model named 'Behavioral Analysis' is adopted. Relevant factors and aspects of the operators' routine are also considered. It is worth to remind that the performance depends on a series of variables, not only on the individual, but also situational, including in these categories; physical variables, work environment, organizational and the social ones. The subjective factors are also considered, such as: attitude, ability, motivation etc., aiming at a global perspective of the situation, which counts on a set of principles for the behaviour analysis and comprehension. After defining the applicability scenario, mechanisms and corrective actions to contribute with the reduction of failures will be proposed. (author)

  10. Diagnostic systems for the nuclear fusion and plasma research in the PF-24 plasma focus laboratory at the IFJ PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of diagnostics dedicated to PF-24 - new medium size - plasma focus (PF device built and operated at the Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN. The PF-24 can operate at energy level up to 93 kJ and charging voltage up to 40 kV. Each condenser is connected with a specially designed spark gap with a very small jitter, which ensures a high effi ciency and a low current rise time. The working parameters of PF-24 generator make it a suitable tool for testing new detection systems to be used in fusion research. Four types of such detection systems are presented in this article: three diagnostic systems used to measure electric quantities (Rogowski coil, magnetic probe, capacitance probe, neutron counter based on beryllium activation, fast neutron pinhole camera based on small-area BCF-12 plastic scintillation detectors and high-speed four-frame soft X-ray camera with microchannel plate.

  11. Study of human factors and its basic aspects, focusing the operators of IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is the study of human factors and situational variables, which, when modified, can interfere in the work actions of the operators of nuclear installations. This work is focused on the operators of the IEA-R1 research reactor, which is located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN - CNEN/SP. The accidents in Nuclear Plants have shown that the most serious have occurred due to human failure. This work also considers the item 5.5.3 of CNEN-NN-3.01 standard - 'Actions must be taken to reduce, as much as possible, the human failures that may lead to accidents or even other events which may originate inadvertent or unintentional expositions in any individual'. The model named - Behavioral Analysis - is adopted. Relevant factors and aspects of the operators' routine are also considered. It is worth to remind that the performance depends on a series of variables, not only on the individual, but also the situational ones, which include physical, work, environment, organizational and social variables. Subjective factors are also considered, such as: attitude, ability, motivation etc., aiming at a global perspective of the situation, which counts on a set of principles for the behavior analysis and comprehension. After defining the applicability scenario, mechanisms and corrective actions to contribute with the reduction of failures will be proposed. (author)

  12. Parasites Affect Food Web Structure Primarily through Increased Diversity and Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunne, J.A.; Lafferty, K.D.; Dobson, A.P.; Hechinger, R.F.; Kuris, A.M.; Martinez, N.D.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Mouritsen, K.N.; Poulin, R.; Reise, K.; Stouffer, D.B.; Thieltges, D.W.; Williams, R.J.; Zander, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters

  13. An open dialogue on the draft focus and themes for the next ITS strategic research plan : engaging stakeholders in their discussion and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The : purpose : of : this : document : is : to : identify : the : focus : and : themes : for : the : next : installment : of : the : ITS : Strategic : Research : Plan : and : to : invite : stakeholders : to : participate : in : their : discussion. : ...

  14. Surtsey research progress report. VII. Primarily 1971 and 1972 field seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The volcanic island, Surtsey, approximately 20 miles off the south coast of Iceland is unique as the most recent addition to Iceland. It is even more unique for the fact that it has from its birth been strictly protected as a nature reserve. Extensive scientific studies started as soon as the island was formed. The report covers work done on Surtsey since the publication of the last report in April 1972. Individual abstracts were entered for the 9 sections of the report.

  15. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  16. Translational Researchers' Perceptions of Data Management Practices and Data Curation Needs: Findings from a Focus Group in an Academic Health Sciences Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardyn, Tania P.; Resnick, Taryn; Camina, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    How translational researchers use data is becoming an important support function for libraries to understand. Libraries' roles in this increasingly complex area of Web librarianship are often unclearly defined. The authors conducted two focus groups with physicians and researchers at an academic medical center, the UCLA David Geffen School of…

  17. A focus on the state of the art of food waste/losses issue and suggestions for future researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2017-10-01

    Today, the role of the supply chain (SC) strategies in Food-Waste/Losses (F-W/L) generation is neglected, because F-W/L are generally considered an unavoidable consequence of accidental events. Therefore, only operating plans are today put into practice, which aim at reducing the impact of product losses along the SC. This involves that structured analyses and strategic SC approaches are not available for the prevention/minimization of F-W/L. The paper aims at changing the perspective, and promoting the hypothesis that generation of F-W/L mainly depends on the SC strategies put into practice that are usually optimized on the basis of the market demand. The paper considers the F-W/L an intrinsic characteristic of the SC, which must be put in relation with the market demand and the shelf life of products, for given boundary conditions (legal constraints, politic decisions, climatic and micro macro-economic factors). Thus, the paper aims at reviewing the state of the art of the F-W/L issue, and proposing new research topics in the field of the prevention and minimization of F-W/L, by focusing on: (i) the forecasting of F-W/L, the implementation of adaptive-holistic approaches that model the non-stationary and holistic behaviour of the phenomenon; (ii) the determination of analytical conditions that entail the generation of F-W/L, in relation to the implementation of specific SC strategies; (iii) the study of mathematical models for the assessment of the shelf life, and the evaluation of innovative technologies, which enable the shelf life monitoring; (iv) the study of new shelf life-dependent demand models based on the consumer-utility theory; (v) the redesign of the logistic SC management models, by proposing new SC coordination models, planning and replenishment strategies, and pricing models, for the prevention/minimization of the predictable component of F-W/L; (vi) the design of new risk assessment plans for the management of the accidental component of F

  18. Trends in Research on the Security of Medical Information in Korea: Focused on Information Privacy Security in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Woon; Cho, Namin; Jang, Hye-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Information technology involves a risk of privacy violation in providing easy access to confidential information,such as personal information and medical information through the Internet. In this study, we investigated medical information security to gain a better understanding of trends in research related to medical information security. We researched papers published on '의료정보' and 'medical information' in various Korean journals during a 10-year period from 2005 to 2015. We also analyzed these journal papers for each fiscal year; these papers were categorized into the areas of literature research and empirical research, and were further subdivided according to themes and subjects. It was confirmed that 48 papers were submitted to 35 academic journals. There were 33 (68.8%) literature review articles, and analysis of secondary data was not carried out at all. In terms of empirical research, 8 (16.7%) surveys and 7 (14.6%) program developments were studied. As a result of analyzing these papers according to the research theme by research method, 17 (35.4%) papers on laws, systems, and policies were the most numerous. It was found that among the literature research papers on medical personnel were the most common, and among the empirical research papers, research on experts in information protection and medical personnel were the most common. We suggest that further research should be done in terms of social perception, human resource development, and technology development to improve risk management in medical information systems.

  19. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  20. Student teaching and research laboratory focusing on brain-computer interface paradigms--A creative environment for computer science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Tomasz M

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an applied concept of a brain-computer interface (BCI) student research laboratory (BCI-LAB) at the Life Science Center of TARA, University of Tsukuba, Japan. Several successful case studies of the student projects are reviewed together with the BCI Research Award 2014 winner case. The BCI-LAB design and project-based teaching philosophy is also explained. Future teaching and research directions summarize the review.

  1. Felt Stigma in Injection Drug Users and Sex Workers: Focus Group Research with HIV-Risk Populations in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Julio; Puig, Marieva; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Castro, Eida; Morales, Marangelie; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    Though many studies have conclusively linked felt stigma and HIV, few have focused on the experiences of rejection felt by members of such socially marginalized groups as intravenous drug users (IDU) and sex workers (SW). Using focus groups, our study explored these experiences in 34 individuals (17 male UDUs and 17 female SWs) at risk of becoming infected with HIV, the objective being to discover why they engaged in maladaptive behaviors as a way of coping with felt stigma. We used deductive and inductive analysis to codify the resulting data. Concepts associated with the word stigma, emotional reactions to felt stigma, and the impact of felt stigma on self-schema helped elucidate how the internalization of felt stigma can lead to negative affective states and self-destructive behaviors (e.g., drug use and syringe exchange). Results underline the importance of developing intervention models that reduce stigma as a means of HIV prevention in vulnerable populations.

  2. The Body as a Substrate of Differentiation. Shifting the Focus from Race Science to Life Scientists' Research on Human Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipphardt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article suggests to focus on the history of human variation instead of focussing on the history of race science. It views the latter as a subset of the former, hence views race science as embedded into the larger field of life scientists' investigations into human variation. This paper explores why human variation is such an attractive and productive object particularly for the life sciences. It proposes that knowledge about human variation is incomplete in a promising way, and ...

  3. A guide to writing a scientific paper: a focus on high school through graduate level student research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbach, Renee A; Petering, David H; Berg, Craig A; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Weber, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a detailed guide for high school through graduate level instructors that leads students to write effective and well-organized scientific papers. Interesting research emerges from the ability to ask questions, define problems, design experiments, analyze and interpret data, and make critical connections. This process is incomplete, unless new results are communicated to others because science fundamentally requires peer review and criticism to validate or discard proposed new knowledge. Thus, a concise and clearly written research paper is a critical step in the scientific process and is important for young researchers as they are mastering how to express scientific concepts and understanding. Moreover, learning to write a research paper provides a tool to improve science literacy as indicated in the National Research Council's National Science Education Standards (1996), and A Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011), the underlying foundation for the Next Generation Science Standards currently being developed. Background information explains the importance of peer review and communicating results, along with details of each critical component, the Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Specific steps essential to helping students write clear and coherent research papers that follow a logical format, use effective communication, and develop scientific inquiry are described.

  4. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus evolution in the context of contemporary research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent resurgence of interest in applications of dense plasma focus and doubts about the conventional view of dense plasma focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow have re-opened questions concerning device optimization. In this context, this paper re-appraises and extends the analytical snowplow model of plasma focus sheath evolution developed by F. Gratton and J. M. Vargas [Energy Storage, Compression and Switching, edited by V. Nardi, H. Sahlin, and W. H. Bostick (Plenum, New York, 1983), Vol. 2, p. 353)] and shows its relevance to contemporary research. The Gratton-Vargas (GV) model enables construction of a special orthogonal coordinate system in which the plasma flow problem can be simplified and a model of sheath structure can be formulated. The Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (LPP) plasma focus facility, which reports neutron yield better than global scaling law, is shown to be operating closer to an optimum operating point of the GV model as compared with PF-1000

  5. Medical records confidentiality and public health research: two values at stake? An italian survey focus on individual preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilia Toccaceli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In a time when Europe is preparing to introduce new regulations on privacy protection, we conducted a survey among 1700 twins enrolled in the Italian Twin Register about the access and use of their medical records for public health research without explicit informed consent. A great majority of respondents would refuse or are doubtful about the access and use of hospital discharge records or clinical data without their explicit consent. Young and female individuals represent the modal profile of these careful people. As information retrieved from medical records is crucial for progressing knowledge, it is important to promote a better understanding of the value of public health research activities among the general population. Furthermore, public opinions are relevant to policy making, and concerns and preferences about privacy and confidentiality in research can contribute to the design of procedures to exploit medical records effectively and customize the protection of individuals’ medical data.

  6. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Modelling complex biophysical processes associated with diseases. Case study: the ecology of vibriocholerae in the Mozambican channel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available will be undertaken. Non-linear dynamics and chaos theory will be applied to enhance our understanding of the link between the microbial ecology, remote sensing and meteorological data. Focus on CSIR Research in Water Resources Contact details: CSIR Natural...

  7. A critical reflection on the use of focus groups as a research method: lessons from trying to hear the voices of NGO beneficiaries in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, G.; Awumbila, M.; O'Dwyer, B.

    2009-01-01

    The focus group method has been used extensively in social science research in order to gain a deep understanding of participant perceptions of specific topics of interest. However, the method has rarely been used in the social accounting and accountability literature. This paper reviews and

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Distributed Leadership from 2002 to 2013: Theory Development, Empirical Evidence and Future Research Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Meng; Risku, Mika; Collin, Kaija

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a meta-analysis of research conducted on distributed leadership from 2002 to 2013. It continues the review of distributed leadership commissioned by the English National College for School Leadership (NCSL) ("Distributed Leadership: A Desk Study," Bennett et al., 2003), which identified two gaps in the research…

  9. The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research…

  10. Research Productivity in Rehabilitation, Disability, and Allied Health Programs: A Focus Group Perspective on Minority-Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref, Fariborz; Manyibe, Edward O.; Washington, Andre L.; Johnson, Jean; Davis, Dytisha; Eugene-Cross, Kenyotta; Moore, Cayla A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The article outlines select individual and institutional factors that could contribute to rehabilitation, disability, and health research productivity among minority-serving institutions (MSIs; i.e., historically Black colleges/universities, Hispanic-serving institutions, and American Indian tribal colleges/universities). Method: We…

  11. Qualitative to Quantitative and Spectrum to Report: An Instrument-Focused Research Methods Course for First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alyssa C.; Boucher, Michelle A.; Pulliam, Curtis R.

    2015-01-01

    Our Introduction to Research Methods course is a first-year majors course built around the idea of helping students learn to work like chemists, write like chemists, and think like chemists. We have developed this course as a hybrid hands-on/ lecture experience built around instrumentation use and report preparation. We take the product from one…

  12. Left Brain/Right Brain: Research and Learning. Focused Access to Selected Topics (FAST) Bibliography No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppele, Ruth

    This 27-item bibliography represents the variety of articles added to the ERIC database from 1983 through 1988 on left-brain/right-brain research, theory, and application as it relates to classroom incorporation. Included are conflicting opinions as to the usefulness of left-brain/right-brain studies and their application in the learning…

  13. The Contribution of Mixed Methods Research to the Field of Childhood Trauma: A Narrative Review focused on Data Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.R.; Slagt, M.I.; van Wesel, F.

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving

  14. The contribution of mixed methods research to the field of childhood trauma: a narrative review focused on data integration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.; Slagt, M.; Wesel, F. van

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or “yield”). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving

  15. The Contribution of Mixed Methods Research to the Field of Childhood Trauma: A Narrative Review Focused on Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeije, Hennie; Slagt, Meike; van Wesel, Floryt

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving mixed methods studies in this field. A…

  16. Privilege and status in an unequal society: shifting the focus of health promotion research to include the maintenance of advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine

    2010-10-01

    There has been a great deal of social policy and health promotion practice directed toward the inclusion of underprivileged groups with the aim of improving their health. This focus on disadvantaged people and poor communities, to help them empower themselves and improve their lot, often fails because it ignores the role of the broader society. We neglect to note the crucial part that the advantaged play in perpetuating inequalities. Theory and empirical work from sociology and anthropology points to the everyday ways in which privileged people are able to maintain their advantage and even hi-jack the benefits of public health programmes designed to improve the health of the poor. Some examples from these other disciplines suggest ways in which a social psychological perspective can contribute to an understanding of how inequalities and poverty are perpetuated in everyday life. These understandings will inform the effectiveness of social programmes to reduce inequalities.

  17. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, K., E-mail: karol.malinowski@ncbj.gov.pl; Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in “sandwiches” of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The “sandwiches” were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  18. Basic research on lattice structures focused on the reliance of the cross sectional area and additional coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific survey is about periodic lattice structures which are made by Selective Laser Melting (SLM. Selective laser melting is based on Additive Manufacturing. The increased use and increasing demand of lattice structures in different fields of applications forms the necessity of a closer look on complex structures. Lattice structures can be found in different fields of applications for example in lightweight applications, filters and heat exchangers. Because of the expanding of application areas and thus arising requirements, the quality improvement is indispensable. Additive manufacturing and especially the SLM process enable the manufacturing of highly complex shapes and structures. Further it allows the integration of lightweight structures within to be manufactured applications. These high performance structures and applications need specific boundary and process conditions [1-3]. The main aim of this survey is an extraction of important parameters concerning the shape of lattices. A first focus will be on mechanical properties and the therefore necessary tensile tests.

  19. Creating Learning Experiences that Promote Informal Science Education: Designing Conservation-Focused Interactive Zoo Exhibits through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Peter

    Research on exhibit design over the past twenty years has started to identify many different methods to increase the learning that occurs in informal education environments. This study utilized relevant research on exhibit design to create and study the effectiveness of a mobile interactive exhibit at the Seneca Park Zoo that promotes socialization, engagement in science, and conservation-related practices among guests. This study will serve as one component of a major redesign project at the Seneca Park Zoo for their Rocky Coasts exhibit. This action research study targeted the following question, "How can interactive exhibits be designed to promote socialization, engagement in science, and real-world conservation-related practices (RCPs) among zoo guests?" Specific research questions included: 1. In what ways did guests engage with the exhibit? 2. In what ways were guests impacted by the exhibit? a) What evidence exists, if any, of guests learning science content from the exhibit? b) What evidence exists, if any, of guests being emotionally affected by the exhibit? c) What evidence exists, if any, of guests changing their RCPs after visiting the exhibit? Data were collected through zoo guest surveys completed by zoo guests comparing multiple exhibits, interviews with guests before and after they used the prototype exhibit, observations and audio recordings of guests using the prototype exhibit, and follow-up phone interviews with guests who volunteered to participate. Data were analyzed collaboratively with members of the zoo's exhibit Redesign Team using grounded theory qualitative data analysis techniques to find patterns and trends among data. Initial findings from data analysis were used to develop shifts in the exhibit in order to increase visitor engagement and learning. This process continued for two full action research spirals, which resulted in three iterations of the prototype exhibit. The overall findings of this study highlight the ways in which

  20. A decade of research on health content in the media: the focus on health challenges and sociocultural context and attendant informational and ideological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly N

    2006-01-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the health and illness content of popular media in the domains of advertising, journalism, and entertainment. This article reviews the past 10 years of this research, describing the relationship between the health topics addressed in the research, the shifting focus of concerns about the media, and, ultimately, the variation in problems for health promotion. I suggest that research attending to topics related to bodily health challenges focused on whether popular media accurately or appropriately represented health challenges. The implication was that there is some consensus about more right or wrong, complete or incomplete ways of representing an issue; the problem was that the media are generally wrong. Alternatively, research addressing topics related to sociocultural context issues focused on how certain interests are privileged in the media. The implication was that competing groups are making claims on the system, but the problem was that popular media marginalizes certain interests. In short, popular media is not likely to facilitate understandings helpful to individuals coping with health challenges and is likely to perpetuate social and political power differentials with regard to health-related issues. I conclude by offering some possibilities for future health media content research.

  1. Toward an integrative understanding of narrative and emotion processes in Emotion-focused therapy of depression: implications for theory, research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the fundamental contributions of client narrative disclosure in psychotherapy and its importance for the elaboration of new emotional meanings and self understanding in the context of Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) of depression. An overview of the multi-methodological steps undertaken to empirically investigate the contributions of client story telling, emotional differentiation and meaning-making processes (Narrative Processes Coding System; Angus et al., 1999) in EFT treatments of depression is provided, followed by a summary of key research findings that informed the development of a narrative-informed approach to Emotion-focused therapy of depression (Angus & Greenberg, 2011). Finally, the clinical practice and training implications of adopting a research-informed approach to working with narrative and emotion processes in EFT are described, and future research directions discussed.

  2. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2012-10-15

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with {>=} 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  3. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, C.; Tromsoe Univ.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with ≥ 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  4. Doing Institutional Research: A Focus on Professional Development. Papers from the Annual Meeting of the North East Association for Institutional Research (9th, Durham, New Hampshire, October 17-19, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Diana M., Ed.

    Institutional research that focuses on professional development is addressed in 35 papers from the 1982 meeting of the North East Association for Institutional Research. Titles and authors include the following: "Modeling College Student Adjustment and Retention for the Individual Institution" (Norman D. Aitken); "The Development Saga of an…

  5. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: Molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells--focus on leptin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Y P; Maymó, J L; Pérez Pérez, A; Calvo, J C; Sánchez-Margalet, V; Varone, C L

    2012-02-01

    The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol is an estrogen that influences multiple aspects of placental function and fetal development in humans. During early pregnancy it plays a role in the regulation of blastocyst implantation, trophoblast differentiation and invasiveness, remodeling of uterine arteries, immunology and trophoblast production of hormones such as leptin. Estradiol exerts some effects through the action of classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors and regulate gene expression. In addition, estradiol can elicit rapid responses from membrane-associated receptors, like activation of protein-kinase pathways. Thus, the cellular effects of estradiol will depend on the specific receptors expressed and the integration of their signaling events. Leptin, the 16,000MW protein product of the obese gene, was originally considered an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy. The leptin gene is expressed in placenta, where leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. Expression of leptin in placenta is highly regulated by key pregnancy molecules as hCG and estradiol. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells; focusing on mechanisms involved in estradiol regulation of placental leptin expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Theoretical Research on Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Focusing on the Adjustment of Stress Reduction Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daining Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal shock resistance of ceramics depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the external constraint and thermal condition. So, in order to study the actual situation in its service process, a temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance model for ultra-high temperature ceramics considering the effects of the thermal environment and external constraint was established based on the existing theory. The present work mainly focused on the adjustment of the stress reduction factor according to different thermal shock situations. The influences of external constraint on both critical rupture temperature difference and the second thermal shock resistance parameter in either case of rapid heating or cooling conditions had been studied based on this model. The results show the necessity of adjustment of the stress reduction factor in different thermal shock situations and the limitations of the applicable range of the second thermal shock resistance parameter. Furthermore, the model was validated by the finite element method.

  7. Using customer-focused research and design to build a self-service online store: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi MB

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael B Ahmadi,1 William Trefzger,2 Rich Morey,1 Ileana Quintas31Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, 2Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Baltimore, 3IQ Solutions, Inc, Rockville, MD, USAAbstract: American government information centers need to be responsive to an increasingly customer driven information environment while ensuring the sustainability of operations. Enhanced self-service options offer one avenue for addressing both of these needs. This article presents a case study of how the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration used extensive stakeholder research and a customer-centric design to reframe its service model by building a self-service online store that integrates access to more than 1300 behavioral health publications previously housed in two separate clearinghouses. The redesigned Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Store offers users a modern e-commerce website that not only helps customers find, order, download, and share products, but also encourages serendipitous content exploration, which has led to increased orders containing both substance abuse and mental health publications.Keywords: customer research, taxonomy, usability testing, web analytics, web design

  8. Fund my treatment!: A call for ethics-focused social science research into the use of crowdfunding for medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Mathers, Annalise; Crooks, Valorie A

    2016-11-01

    Crowdfunding involves raising money from large groups of individuals, often through the use of websites dedicated to this purpose. Crowdfunding campaigns aimed at raising money to pay for expenses related to receiving medical treatment are receiving increased media attention and there is evidence that medical crowdfunding websites are heavily used. Nonetheless, virtually no scholarly attention has been paid to these medical crowdfunding campaigns and there is no systematic evidence about how widely they are used and for what reasons, and what effects they have on the provision of medical care and individuals' relationships to their health systems. Ethical concerns have been raised in relation to these campaigns, focusing on issues for campaigners and donors such as exposure to fraudulent campaigns, loss of privacy, and fairness in how medical crowdfunding funds are distributed. Medical crowdfunding websites themselves have not been systematically studied, despite their significant influence on how these campaigns are developed and promoted. In this paper, we identify three very broad and pressing ethical questions regarding medical crowdfunding for social scientists to address and offer some preliminary insights into key issues informing future answers to each: Who benefits the most from medical crowdfunding and how does medical crowdfunding affect access to medical care; How does medical crowdfunding affect our understanding of the causes of inadequate access to medical care; and How are campaigner and donor privacy affected by website design? Our observations indicate the need for increased scholarly attention to the ethical and practical effects of medical crowdfunding for campaigners, recipients, donors, and the health system as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A survey of the state-of-the-art and focused research in range systems, task 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, J. K.

    1986-07-01

    This final report presents the latest research activity in voice compression. We have designed a non-real time simulation system that is implemented around the IBM-PC where the IBM-PC is used as a speech work station for data acquisition and analysis of voice samples. A real-time implementation is also proposed. This real-time Voice Compression Board (VCB) is built around the Texas Instruments TMS-3220. The voice compression algorithm investigated here was described in an earlier report titled, Low Cost Voice Compression for Mobile Digital Radios, by the author. We will assume the reader is familiar with the voice compression algorithm discussed in this report. The VCB compresses speech waveforms at data rates ranging from 4.8 K bps to 16 K bps. This board interfaces to the IBM-PC 8-bit bus, and plugs into a single expansion slot on the mother board.

  10. Editorial: Illuminating the dark matter of developmental neuropsychiatric genetics - strategic focus for future research in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Research on genetic factors influencing cognitive and behavioural traits or which are central to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric diseases has been complicated by a furtive discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. This 'missing heritability' has been either euphemised as the 'dark matter' of gene-trait association or aggravated as the 'looming crisis in behavioural genetics'. Nevertheless, in recognising the importance of this topic for our understanding of child psychiatric conditions and highlighting its commitment to the field, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (JCPP) has for the first time appointed an editor with special responsibility for molecular (epi)genetics. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Assessment of Soft Power Strategies: Towards an Aggregative Analytical Model for Country-Focused Case Study Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patalakh Artem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper advances a realist analytical model for case studies of national soft power policies. First, it argues that for the purposes of realist analysis, a soft power policy must be considered as a rational strategy pursued under the conditions of competition. Furthermore, it emphasises the importance of taking into account the specificities of the recipient state as well as the fact that a soft power strategy is targeted at both its elite and its public. In addition, the article substantiates the necessity to draw a clear-cut distinction between soft power sources and instruments and shows possible shortcomings that research can have should this distinction fail to be made. Finally, the paper discusses the impact of a competitor’s presence on a soft power strategy and specifies the terms under which disregarding this impact may engender a wrong conclusion.

  12. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  14. Acquisition of a Multi-Domain Advanced Real-Time Simulator to Support DoD-focused Interdisciplinary Research at CSUB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-17

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6...0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UU UU UU UU 17-10-2017 25-Jul-2016 24-Jul-2017 Final...Report: Acquisition of a Multi-Domain Advanced Real- Time Simulator to Support DoD-focused Interdisciplinary Research at CSUB The views, opinions and

  15. A Design-Based Research Project on Information Literacy Focusing on Process, Reflections and Self-Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majbritt Ursula Johansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many curriculums assume that the new generation of students are digital natives and information literate. However, studies show that this is not often the case. From these studies and our own experiences working with multidisciplinary students in the Health Sciences we found that students were not as information literate as required in the curriculum. Using Design Based Research as a method (following the four phases below, we developed a new information search process and a web-based tool with feedback opportunities from teachers and librarians in order to qualify the students competencies. Problem identification: Despite earlier initiatives from library and department, the students didn’t achieve higher levels of information literacy. Prototyping: Requirements and educational material were merged and tested while gathering feedback. Iterations: The prototype and feedback were evaluated and developed into a new information search process, which was tested and evaluated. Reflection and generalization: Initiative was taken to develope a web-based application visualizing the steps with the learning points: self-feedback, peer-feedback and counselor feedback. The result of the project is a new information search process model and a web-based learning environment called B!NKO 2.0. The evaluations have shown positive feedback on both the process and the web tool. The project has opened up new possibilities that go beyond the Health multidisciplinary students. A new project concerning the Humanities and Social Sciences is incipient. In this project new functionalities are also expected. B!NKO 2.0 has to a great extent shown its worth to help Health multidisciplinary students to get a deeper understanding of information literacy, and how to develop and change searches to get better results. B!NKO 2.0 has also given a positive "side effect” on the librarians work. Time spend on the "Book a Librarian” service have decreased for the librarians using

  16. The relevance of preclinical research models for the development of antimigraine drugs: Focus on 5-HT1B/1D and CGRP receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, S.; Villalon, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    to the relief of migraineurs. Pathophysiological factors culminating into migraine headaches have not yet been completely deciphered and, thus, pose an additional challenge for preclinical research in the absence of any direct experimental marker. Migraine provocation experiments in humans use a head......-score to evaluate migraine, as articulated by the volunteer, which cannot be applied to laboratory animals. Therefore, basic research focuses on different symptoms and putative mechanisms, one at a time or in combination, to validate the hypotheses. Studies in several species, utilizing different preclinical...... incorporating the newer ideas/techniques in order to get better insights into migraine pathophysiology. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved...

  17. Gender- and sex-specific sports-related injury research in emergency medicine: a consensus on future research direction and focused application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raukar, Neha P; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Kane, Kathleen; Davenport, Moira; Espinoza, Tamara R; Weiland, Jessica; Franco, Vanessa; Vaca, Federico E

    2014-12-01

    Title IX, the commercialization of sports, the social change in sports participation, and the response to the obesity epidemic have contributed to the rapid proliferation of participation in both competitive organized sports and nontraditional athletic events. As a consequence, emergency physicians are regularly involved in the acute diagnosis, management, disposition, and counseling of a broad range of sports-related pathology. Three important and highly publicized mechanisms of injury in sports relevant to emergency medicine (EM) include concussion, heat illness, and sudden cardiac death. In conjunction with the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a consensus group consisting of experts in EM, emergency neurology, sports medicine, and public health convened to deliberate and develop research questions that could ultimately advance the field of sports medicine and allow for meaningful application in the emergency department (ED) clinical setting. Sex differences in injury risk, diagnosis, ED treatment, and counseling are identified in each of these themes. This article presents the consensus-based priority research agenda. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. A bibliometric review of drug and alcohol research focused on Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Anton; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States experience a disproportionately high burden of harms from substance misuse. Research is therefore required to improve our understanding of substance use in Indigenous populations and provide evidence on strategies effective for reducing harmful use. A search of 13 electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1993 and 2014 focusing on substance use and Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. Relevant abstracts were classified as data or non-data based research. Data-based studies were further classified as measurement, descriptive or intervention and their trends examined by country and drug type. Intervention studies were classified by type and their evaluation designs classified using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) data collection checklist. There was a statistically significant increase from 1993 to 2014 in the percentage of total publications that were data-based (P Indigenous drug and alcohol field are required. The dominance of descriptive research in the Indigenous drug and alcohol field is less than optimal for generating evidence to inform Indigenous drug and alcohol policy and programs. [Clifford A, Shakeshaft A. A bibliometric review of drug and alcohol research focused on Indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:509-522]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Authentic Leadership, Research Integrity, and Institutions of Higher Learning: Why Focusing on Departmental Leadership is Critical for Preserving the Sanctity of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Katherine I.

    One of the most overlooked and complex problems that universities and colleges face nation-wide is how to reduce and eliminate research misconduct. Because of the confidential nature of allegations of research misconduct and the high rate of underreporting, administrators at scholarly institutions struggle with understanding the cause of such behavior. Without a clear picture of the prevalence of misconduct or the barriers to reporting, leaders at institutions of higher learning find themselves at a disadvantage when dealing with these problems. This uncertainty coupled with a growing regulatory emphasis from federal funding agencies, results in a reactionary approach while questionable practices go unchecked. In the early 2000s, federal funding agencies began requiring colleges and universities to provide training in the responsible conduct of research prior to receiving funding. The Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training covers research misconduct (falsification of data, fabricating data, and plagiarism) as well as other topics related to research misbehaviors (mentoring, peer review, data management, authorship, etc). This emphasis on training, while well intended, has not had a significant impact on faculty and student knowledge about misconduct. Authentic Leadership Theory is based on Aristotle's concept of authenticity and has gained attention over the last decade. It is comprised of four main components: Balanced processing, internalized moral perspective, relational transparency, and self-awareness. These types of leaders focus on moral standards and values and that is what guides his or her leadership. This study evaluates the impact authentic leaders have on shaping the ethical attitudes of faculty when they are placed in direct departmental supervisory positions. A survey of faculty from 15 Mississippi colleges and universities was conducted. Results indicate that the self-awareness and relational transparency constructs of authentic leadership

  20. Il campo dello sviluppo e le migrazioni contemporanee: analisi di un’esperienza di ricerca - The development field and contemporary migrations: focusing on a research experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selenia Marabello

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between migration and development, mainly connotated in favourable terms, proposes with urgency migrants as development agents. They are defined as the new diasporas. Exploring a co-development project financed by the MIDA Ghana-Senegal Programme involving Ghanaian migrants in Modena (Italy, a retrospective analysis focuses on the research setting conditions and opportunities. As an anthropologist, the researcher was first involved as a consultant for the evaluation project implementation and subsequently continued the analysis within academic institutions. With the aim to illustrate the potentialities for applied anthropology, the author will look at the discrepancies and the circular nature of the ethnographic data production and elaboration within the two fieldwork experiences.

  1. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice, and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on…

  2. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  3. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  4. Focus on International Cooperation in D and D Cost Estimations for Research Reactors and the Role of the IAEA in It

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniska, V.; Laraia, M.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating decommissioning costs and collecting funds are the prerequisites for safe, timely and cost effective decommissioning. These issues were addressed by main international organizations involved in decommissioning - IAEA, OECD/NEA and European Commission. While the activities of OECD/NEA and European Commission are focused mainly on nuclear power plants, the activities of IAEA involve the whole spectrum of nuclear facilities worldwide and the aspects of decommissioning of research reactors, due to their spread in member states, have the special position in IAEA activities. The experience in decommissioning of research reactors was accumulated in developed countries and international activities are needed to support the planning and implementation of decommissioning of research reactors in other IAEA Member States. Decommissioning costing plays the key role among these issues. One of the main results of the common effort of the above listed organisations in costing is the standardised structure of decommissioning cost items which was jointly published as the common platform for harmonisation in decommissioning costing and is recommended for general use. Main subject of the paper is the preliminary presentation of a new IAEA project planned for the period 2009-2011 with the objectives to develop the robust standardised cost estimation methodology, which implements the standardised cost structure. The aim of the proposed methodology is to support the Member States to prepare their own specific cost estimates for research reactors. The planned target is the parametric cost estimating model applicable for various types of research reactors and for various national decommissioning backgrounds. The model is supported by facility inventory database and database of unit factors and data specific for facility to be decommissioned. The paper reviews main types of research reactors; the currant practice for decommissioning costing which will be implemented in the

  5. The Pitt Innovation Challenge (PInCh): Driving Innovation in Translational Research Through an Incentive-Based, Problem-Focused Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Nicole Edgar; Maier, John; Yasko, Laurel; Mathias, David; Qua, Kacy; Wagner, Erika; Miller, Elizabeth; Reis, Steven E

    2017-05-01

    Translational research aims to move scientific discoveries across the biomedical spectrum from the laboratory to humans, and to ultimately transform clinical practice and public health policies. Despite efforts to accelerate translational research through national initiatives, several major hurdles remain. The authors created the Pitt Innovation Challenge (PInCh) as an incentive-based, problem-focused approach to solving identified clinical or public health problems at the University of Pittsburgh Clinical and Translational Science Institute in spring 2014. With input from a broad range of stakeholders, PInCh leadership arrived at the challenge question: How do we empower individuals to take control of their own health outcomes? The authors developed the PInCh's three-round proposal submission and review process as well as an online contest management tool to support the process. Ninety-two teams submitted video proposals in round one. Proposals included mobile applications (29; 32%), other information technology (19; 21%), and community program (22; 24%) solutions. Ten teams advanced to the final round, where three were awarded $100,000 to implement their solution over 12 months. In a 6-month follow-up survey, 6/11 (55%) team leaders stated the PInCh helped to facilitate connections outside their normal sphere of collaborators. Additional educational training sessions related to problem-focused research will be developed. The PInCh will be expanded to engage investment and industry communities to facilitate the translation of solutions to clinical practice via commercialization pathways. External organizations and other universities will be engaged to use the PInCh as a mechanism to fuel innovation in their spaces.

  6. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  7. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators - introducing inter-plant life cycle management. ZES research focus 'condition-based maintenance in power engineering'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeber, U.

    2003-07-01

    The optimisation of maintenance activities observed in recent years can be attributed above all to the use and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, to the increased level of system and component automation and to more efficient work organisation. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. The risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analysed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realised. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the introduction of structured life cycle management are essential prerequisites. Within the framework of its ''Condition-Based Maintenance in Power Engineering'' research focus, the Energy Research Centre (ZES) has set up a specialist network in which experts from various institutes belonging to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Informatic, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology can develop interdisciplinary solutions for advanced maintenance strategies. The ZES offers the industry a platform for cooperating on current issues relating to the supply of energy and supports the movement towards sustainable improvements to competitiveness through research and consulting activities. It applies professional project and quality management procedures to ensure that contracts covering interdisciplinary topics and projects are handled in a coherent manner. (orig.)

  8. Learning from research on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals: a review of the literature 2004-2008 with a focus on emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Ina

    2009-09-01

    A review, focusing on emotion, was conducted of reported studies on the information behaviour of healthcare professionals (2004-2008). Findings were intended to offer guidelines on information services and information literacy training, to note gaps in research and to raise research interest. Databases were searched for literature published from January 2004 to December 2008 and indexed on eric, Library and Information Science Abstracts, medline, PsycINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts; Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection; Social Work Abstracts; SocINDEX with Full Text; SPORTDiscus; cinhal; and the ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Key journals were manually scanned and citations followed. Literature was included if reporting on issues concerning emotion. Emotion in information behaviour in healthcare contexts is scantily addressed. This review, however, offers some insight into the difficulty in identifying and expressing information needs; sense making and the need to fill knowledge gaps; uncertainty; personality and coping skills; motivation to seeking information; emotional experiences during information seeking; self-confidence and attitude; emotional factors in the selection of information channels; and seeking information for psychological or emotional reasons. Suggestions following findings, address information literacy programs, information services and research gaps.

  9. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators - introducing inter-plant life cycle management. ZES research focus 'condition-based maintenance in power engineering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, U.

    2003-01-01

    The optimisation of maintenance activities observed in recent years can be attributed above all to the use and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, to the increased level of system and component automation and to more efficient work organisation. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. The risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analysed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realised. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the introduction of structured life cycle management are essential prerequisites. Within the framework of its ''Condition-Based Maintenance in Power Engineering'' research focus, the Energy Research Centre (ZES) has set up a specialist network in which experts from various institutes belonging to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Informatic, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology can develop interdisciplinary solutions for advanced maintenance strategies. The ZES offers the industry a platform for cooperating on current issues relating to the supply of energy and supports the movement towards sustainable improvements to competitiveness through research and consulting activities. It applies professional project and quality management procedures to ensure that contracts covering interdisciplinary topics and projects are handled in a coherent manner. (orig.)

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  11. Should Research on the Nutritional Potential and Health Benefits of Fermented Cereals Focus More on the General Health Status of Populations in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent-Babot, Caroline; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-25

    Cereal foods fermented by lactic acid bacteria are staples in many countries around the world particularly in developing countries, but some aspects of the nutritional and health benefits of traditional fermented foods in developing countries have not been sufficiently investigated compared to fermented foods in high-income countries. Today, malnutrition worldwide is characterized by a double burden, excess leading to non-communicable diseases like obesity or diabetes alongside micronutrient deficiencies. In addition, populations in developing countries suffer from infectious and parasitic diseases that can jeopardize the health benefits provided by their traditional fermented foods. Using examples, we argue that research on traditional fermented cereals in developing countries should focus more on their effect on inflammation and oxidative stress under conditions including infectious or non-infectious gut inflammation.

  12. Should Research on the Nutritional Potential and Health Benefits of Fermented Cereals Focus More on the General Health Status of Populations in Developing Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Laurent-Babot

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cereal foods fermented by lactic acid bacteria are staples in many countries around the world particularly in developing countries, but some aspects of the nutritional and health benefits of traditional fermented foods in developing countries have not been sufficiently investigated compared to fermented foods in high-income countries. Today, malnutrition worldwide is characterized by a double burden, excess leading to non-communicable diseases like obesity or diabetes alongside micronutrient deficiencies. In addition, populations in developing countries suffer from infectious and parasitic diseases that can jeopardize the health benefits provided by their traditional fermented foods. Using examples, we argue that research on traditional fermented cereals in developing countries should focus more on their effect on inflammation and oxidative stress under conditions including infectious or non-infectious gut inflammation.

  13. 氪气工质霍尔推力器束聚焦特性研究%Research on Beam Focusing Characteristics of Krypton Hall Thruster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏国俊; 宁中喜; 欧阳磊; 王亚楠; 黎润; 于达仁

    2017-01-01

    以研究氪气替代氙气作为霍尔推力器工质时,等离子体束发散程度大等束聚焦特性问题为目的,通过以霍尔推力器磁场参数、放电电压和阳极工质流量分别作为单一变量进行实验研究,考察其对推力器等离子体束聚焦影响情况.使用HET-P70霍尔推力器进行相关实验,通过改变磁场参数来研究磁场位形对氪气工质推力器性能的影响,最终发现合适磁场位形形成的磁聚焦状态,即实验一中的工况3,可以使羽流发散角达到11.5°,此时推力器放电电压在400V,阳极工质流量3mg/s.另外,通过实验二和实验三,考察阳极工质流量和放电电压对氪等离子体束聚焦的影响机理,发现两个放电参数的变化主要改变了中性气体主电离区位置,进而影响等离子体束聚焦状态.电离位置在设定工况下外移9%,会使得羽流发散半角增大约12°.所以,磁场位形和中性气体的电离位置是影响氪等离子体束聚焦的重要因素,在对氪气霍尔推力器进行设计优化时应予重点考虑.%For the purpose to study the problems of plasma beam focusing,like bad spreading state of plas-ma beam,when krypton is used to replace xenon as the propellant of the electric propulsion,regarding magnet-ic field parameters,discharge voltage and propellant flow of anode as a single variable respectively,three exper-imental researches have been carried out to investigate their effects on beam focusing of the thruster. Experiments was made by the HET-P70 hall thruster to study the effects of magnetic field configuration on krypton thruster performance by changing the parameters of magnetic field,finally finding that the appropriate field configuration can form magnetic focusing state,as case 3 of the first experiment,it can make the plume divergence angle to be 11.5°. And the discharge voltage is 400V,while the propellant flow of anode is 3mg/s at the moment. In addi-tion,the influencing mechanism of

  14. Hydrogen peroxide production is not primarily increased in human myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, A D; Gaster, M

    2011-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. To date, it is unknown whether increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is primarily increased or a secondary adaptation to environmental, lifestyle, and hormonal factors. This study investigates whether ROS production is primarily increased in isolated diabetic myotubes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide, and mitochondrial mass were determined in human myotubes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, the corresponding ATP synthesis was measured in isolated mitochondria. Muscle biopsies were taken from 10 lean subjects, 10 obese subjects, and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes; satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Mitochondrial mass, membrane potential/mitochondrial mass, and superoxide-production/mitochondrial mass were not different between groups. In contrast, H(2)O(2) production/mitochondrial mass and ATP production were significantly reduced in diabetic myotubes compared to lean controls (P production is not primarily increased in diabetic myotubes but rather is reduced. Moreover, the comparable ATP/H(2)O(2) ratios indicate that the reduced ROS production in diabetic myotubes parallels the reduced ATP production because ROS production in diabetic myotubes must be considered to be in a proportion comparable to lean. Thus, the increased ROS production seen in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is an adaptation to the in vivo conditions.

  15. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  16. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Dunne

    Full Text Available Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity, particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey. However, we clarify prior claims that parasites "dominate" food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites' roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites' feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic

  17. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Triacylglycerol Accumulation is not primarily affected in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake, and glycogen synthesis (GS) in human myotubes from healthy, lean, and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposed to increasing palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA...... uptake (P0.05). These results indicate that (1) TAG accumulation is not primarily affected in skeletal muscle tissue of obese and T2D; (2) induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is followed by TAG accumulation...... in skeletal muscle of obese and T2D subjects is adaptive....

  19. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  20. Undergraduate Research: Three Institutions' Success Stories. Research Corporation Annual Report, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Corp., Tucson, AZ.

    This annual report describes the 1999 activities of Research Corporation, a foundation that supports research programs at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. It focuses on three primarily undergraduate institutions, two private and one public, that are active producers of published research and students going into the…

  1. Disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with purity-based moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Fieke M A; Brandt, Mark J; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally. Across 5 studies (total N = 1,104), we find consistent evidence for the notion that disgust sensitivity relates more strongly to moral condemnation of purity-based transgressions (meta-analytic r = .40) than to moral condemnation of transgressions of any of the other domains (range meta-analytic rs: .07-.27). Our findings are in line with predictions from Moral Foundations Theory, which predicts that personality characteristics like disgust sensitivity make people more sensitive to a certain set of moral issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Lamin A/C mutation affecting primarily the right side of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ollila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LMNA mutations are amongst the most important causes of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. The most important cause of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC is desmosomal pathology. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of LMNA mutations among Finnish cardiomyopathy patients. We screened 135 unrelated cardiomyopathy patients for LMNA mutations. Because of unusual phenotype, two patients were screened for the known Finnish ARVC-related mutations of desmosomal genes, and their Plakophilin-2b gene was sequenced. Myocardial samples from two patients were examined by immunohistochemical plakoglobin staining and in one case by electron microscopy. We found a new LMNA mutation Phe237Ser in a family of five affected members with a cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart. The phenotype resembles ARVC but does not fulfill the Task Force Criteria. The main clinical manifestations of the mutation were severe tricuspid insufficiency, right ventricular enlargement and failure. Three of the affected patients died of the heart disease, and the two living patients received heart transplants at ages 44 and 47. Electron microscopy showed nuclear blebbing compatible with laminopathy. Immunohisto - chemical analysis did not suggest desmosomal pathology. No desmosomal mutations were found. The Phe237Ser LMNA mutation causes a phenotype different from traditional cardiolaminopathy. Our findings suggest that cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart is not always caused by desmosomal pathology. Our observations highlight the challenges in classifying cardiomyopathies, as there often is significant overlap between the traditional categories.

  3. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  4. Gulf of Mexico dissolved oxygen model (GoMDOM) research and quality assurance project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated high resolution mathematical modeling framework is being developed that will link hydrodynamic, atmospheric, and water quality models for the northern Gulf of Mexico. This Research and Quality Assurance Project Plan primarily focuses on the deterministic Gulf of Me...

  5. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S A; Stockman, L J; Hicks, L A; Garrison, L E; Zhou, F J; Beach, M J

    2012-11-01

    Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires' disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission.

  6. Temporal integration of loudness in listeners with hearing losses of primarily cochlear origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    To investigate how hearing loss of primarily cochlear origin affects the loudness of brief tones, loudness matches between 5- and 200-ms tones were obtained as a function of level for 15 listeners with cochlear impairments and for seven age-matched controls. Three frequencies, usually 0.5, 1, and 4...... of temporal integration—defined as the level difference between equally loud short and long tones—varied nonmonotonically with level and was largest at moderate levels. No consistent effect of frequency was apparent. The impaired listeners varied widely, but most showed a clear effect of level on the amount...... of temporal integration. Overall, their results appear consistent with expectations based on knowledge of the general properties of their loudness-growth functions and the equal-loudness-ratio hypothesis, which states that the loudness ratio between equal-SPL long and brief tones is the same at all SPLs...

  7. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  8. [Focused ultrasound therapy: current status and potential applications in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervishi, E; Aubry, J-F; Delattre, J-Y; Boch, A-L

    2013-12-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is an innovative approach for tissue ablation, based on high intensity focused ultrasound beams. At the focus, HIFU induces a temperature elevation and the tissue can be thermally destroyed. In fact, this approach has been tested in a number of clinical studies for the treatment of several tumors, primarily the prostate, uterine, breast, bone, liver, kidney and pancreas. For transcranial brain therapy, the skull bone is a major limitation, however, new adaptive techniques of phase correction for focusing ultrasound through the skull have recently been implemented by research systems, paving the way for HIFU therapy to become an interesting alternative to brain surgery and radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The Serotonin Transporter Undergoes Constitutive Internalization and Is Primarily Sorted to Late Endosomes and Lysosomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of the surface resident SERT, two functional epitope-tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope was generated by introducing an HA (hemagglutinin) tag in the extracellular loop 2 of SERT (HA-SERT). By using TacSERT and HA-SERT in antibody-based internalization assays, we show that SERT undergoes constitutive internalization in a dynamin-dependent manner. Confocal images of constitutively internalized SERT demonstrated that SERT primarily co-localized with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker Rab7, whereas little co-localization was observed with the Rab11, a marker of the “long loop” recycling pathway. This sorting pattern was distinct from that of a prototypical recycling membrane protein, the β2-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC1-64 and by reversible and pulse-chase biotinylation assays showing evidence for lysosomal degradation of the internalized transporter. Finally, we found that SERT internalized in response to stimulation with 12-myristate 13-acetate co-localized primarily with Rab7- and LysoTracker-positive compartments. We conclude that SERT is constitutively internalized and that the internalized transporter is sorted mainly to degradation. PMID:24973209

  10. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  11. Nitric oxide circulates in mammalian plasma primarily as an S-nitroso adduct of serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, J S; Jaraki, O; Osborne, J; Simon, D I; Keaney, J; Vita, J; Singel, D; Valeri, C R; Loscalzo, J

    1992-01-01

    We have recently shown that nitric oxide or authentic endothelium-derived relaxing factor generated in a biologic system reacts in the presence of specific protein thiols to form S-nitrosoprotein derivatives that have endothelium-derived relaxing factor-like properties. The single free cysteine of serum albumin, Cys-34, is particularly reactive toward nitrogen oxides (most likely nitrosonium ion) under physiologic conditions, primarily because of its anomalously low pK; given its abundance in plasma, where it accounts for approximately 0.5 mM thiol, we hypothesized that this plasma protein serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide produced by the endothelial cell. To test this hypothesis, we developed a methodology, which involves UV photolytic cleavage of the S--NO bond before reaction with ozone for chemiluminescence detection, with which to measure free nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, and S-nitrosoproteins in biologic systems. We found that human plasma contains approximately 7 microM S-nitrosothiols, of which 96% are S-nitrosoproteins, 82% of which is accounted for by S-nitroso-serum albumin. By contrast, plasma levels of free nitric oxide are only in the 3-nM range. In rabbits, plasma S-nitrosothiols are present at approximately 1 microM; 60 min after administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine at 50 mg/ml, a selective and potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetases, S-nitrosothiols decreased by approximately 40% (greater than 95% of which were accounted for by S-nitrosoproteins, and approximately 80% of which was S-nitroso-serum albumin); this decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in mean arterial blood pressure of 22%. These data suggest that naturally produced nitric oxide circulates in plasma primarily complexed in S-nitrosothiol species, principal among which is S-nitroso-serum albumin. This abundant, relatively long-lived adduct likely serves as a reservoir with which plasma levels of highly reactive, short-lived free nitric oxide can be

  12. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  13. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  14. Healthy younger and older adults control foot placement to avoid small obstacles during gait primarily by modulating step width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Brian W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a significant problem in the older population. Most falls occur during gait, which is primarily regulated by foot placement. Variability of foot placement has been associated with falls, but these associations are inconsistent and generally for smooth, level flooring. This study investigates the control of foot placement and the associated gait variability in younger and older men and women (N=7/group, total N=28 while walking at three different speeds (slow, preferred, and fast across a control surface with no obstacles and surfaces with multiple (64 small (10cm long ×13mm high visible and hidden obstacles. Results Minimum obstacle distance between the shoe and nearest obstacle during each footfall was greater on the visible obstacles surface for older subjects because some of them chose to actively avoid obstacles. This obstacle avoidance strategy was implemented primarily by modulating step width and to a lesser extent step length as indicated by linear regressions of step width and length variability on minimum obstacle distance. Mean gait speed, step length, step width, and step time did not significantly differ by subject group, flooring surface, or obstacle avoidance strategy. Conclusions Some healthy older subjects choose to actively avoid small obstacles that do not substantially perturb their gait by modulating step width and, to a lesser extent, step length. It is not clear if this obstacle avoidance strategy is appropriate and beneficial or overcautious and maladaptive, as it results in fewer obstacles encountered at a consequence of a less efficient gait pattern that has been shown to indicate increased fall risk. Further research is needed on the appropriateness of strategy selection when the environmental demands and/or task requirements have multiple possible completion strategies with conflicting objectives (i.e. perceived safety vs. efficiency.

  15. Efficient transfection of DNA into primarily cultured rat sertoli cells by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuping; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Okada, Keisuke; Matsushita, Kei; Enatsu, Noritoshi; Chiba, Koji; Yue, Huanxun; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-03-01

    The expression of exogenous DNA in Sertoli cells is essential for studying its functional genomics, pathway analysis, and medical applications. Electroporation is a valuable tool for nucleic acid delivery, even in primarily cultured cells, which are considered difficult to transfect. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for electroporation-based transfection of Sertoli cells and compared its efficiency with conventional lipofection. Sertoli cells were transfected with pCMV-GFP plasmid by square-wave electroporation under different conditions. After transfection of plasmid into Sertoli cells, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression could be easily detected by fluorescent microscopy, and cell survival was evaluated by dye exclusion assay using Trypan blue. In terms of both cell survival and the percentage expressing EGFP, 250 V was determined to produce the greatest number of transiently transfected cells. Keeping the voltage constant (250 V), relatively high cell survival (76.5% ± 3.4%) and transfection efficiency (30.6% ± 5.6%) were observed with a pulse length of 20 μm. The number of pulses significantly affected cell survival and EGFP expression (P transfection methods, the transfection efficiency of electroporation (21.5% ± 5.7%) was significantly higher than those of Lipofectamine 2000 (2.9% ± 1.0%) and Effectene (1.9% ± 0.8%) in this experiment (P transfection of Sertoli cells.

  16. Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Breus, Oksana; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T.

    2006-01-01

    CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy β and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy α. The transcript specific for CoASy β was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy β. In contrast to CoASy α, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy β is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation

  17. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  18. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  19. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air Pollutants 2011 web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  20. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  1. A critical review of anaesthetised animal models and alternatives for military research, testing and training, with a focus on blast damage, haemorrhage and resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D

    2013-11-01

    Military research, testing, and surgical and resuscitation training, are aimed at mitigating the consequences of warfare and terrorism to armed forces and civilians. Traumatisation and tissue damage due to explosions, and acute loss of blood due to haemorrhage, remain crucial, potentially preventable, causes of battlefield casualties and mortalities. There is also the additional threat from inhalation of chemical and aerosolised biological weapons. The use of anaesthetised animal models, and their respective replacement alternatives, for military purposes -- particularly for blast injury, haemorrhaging and resuscitation training -- is critically reviewed. Scientific problems with the animal models include the use of crude, uncontrolled and non-standardised methods for traumatisation, an inability to model all key trauma mechanisms, and complex modulating effects of general anaesthesia on target organ physiology. Such effects depend on the anaesthetic and influence the cardiovascular system, respiration, breathing, cerebral haemodynamics, neuroprotection, and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Some anaesthetics also bind to the NMDA brain receptor with possible differential consequences in control and anaesthetised animals. There is also some evidence for gender-specific effects. Despite the fact that these issues are widely known, there is little published information on their potential, at best, to complicate data interpretation and, at worst, to invalidate animal models. There is also a paucity of detail on the anaesthesiology used in studies, and this can hinder correct data evaluation. Welfare issues relate mainly to the possibility of acute pain as a side-effect of traumatisation in recovered animals. Moreover, there is the increased potential for animals to suffer when anaesthesia is temporary, and the procedures invasive. These dilemmas can be addressed, however, as a diverse range of replacement approaches exist, including computer and mathematical

  2. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  3. Urban adolescent high-risk sexual behavior: corroboration of focus group discussions through pile-sorting. The AIDS Youth Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B F; Aronson, R; Borgatti, S; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S

    1993-01-01

    Risk activities for acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain prevalent among urban adolescents. While interdisciplinary approaches to examine the variables contributing to risk/protective behaviors have been promoted, strategies for such explorations require further formulation. Recently we employed focus group discussions to explore factors placing urban adolescents at risk for engaging in HIV risk behaviors. The focus group format enables substantial interaction on a topic in a limited time period, but does not always provide expression of the full range of behavioral options. In this study we investigated the use of pile-sorts for confirmation of impressions from focus group discussions among 57 urban youths aged 10-14. The pile-sorts revealed some support for most of the views expressed in the group discussions. However, the sorts revealed more variability in views than was expressed in the group discussions. Substantial gender and age-based differences in perceptions were revealed with potentially important intervention implications.

  4. Homogenous stretching or detachment faulting? Which process is primarily extending the Aegean crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumerics, C.; Ring, U.

    2003-04-01

    In extending orogens like the Aegean Sea of Greece and the Basin-and-Range province of the western United States, knowledge of rates of tectonic processes are important for understanding which process is primarily extending the crust. Platt et al. (1998) proposed that homogeneous stretching of the lithosphere (i.e. vertical ductile thinning associated with a subhorizontal foliation) at rates of 4-5 km Myr-1 is the dominant process that formed the Alboran Sea in the western Mediterranean. The Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean is well-known for its low-angle normal faults (detachments) (Lister et al., 1984; Lister &Forster, 1996) suggesting that detachment faulting may have been the primary agent achieving ~>250 km (McKenzie, 1978) of extension since the Miocene. Ring et al. (2003) provided evidence for a very fast-slipping detachment on the islands of Syros and Tinos in the western Cyclades, which suggests that normal faulting was the dominant tectonic process that formed the Aegean Sea. However, most extensional detachments in the Aegean do not allow to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension and therefore a full evaluation of the significance of vertical ductile thinning is not possible. On the Island of Ikaria in the eastern Aegean Sea, a subhorizontal extensional ductile shear zone is well exposed. We studied this shear zone in detail to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension. Numerous studies have shown that natural shear zones usually deviate significantly from progressive simple shear and are characterized by pronounced shortening perpendicular to the shear zone. Numerous deformed pegmatitic veins in this shear zone on Ikaria allow the reconstruction of deformation and flow parameters (Passchier, 1990), which are necessary for quantifying the amount of vertical ductile thinning in the shear zone. Furthermore, a flow-path and finite-strain study in a syn-tectonic granite, which

  5. Improving University Research Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley O’Reilly

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the current data management practices of university researchers at an Intermountain West land-grant research university in the United States. Key findings suggest that researchers are primarily focused on the collection and housing of research data. However, additional research value exists within the other life cycle stages for research data—specifically in the stages of delivery and maintenance. These stages are where most new demands and requirements exist for data management plans and policies that are conditional for external grant funding; therefore, these findings expose a “gap” in current research practice. These findings should be of interest to academics and practitioners alike as findings highlight key management gaps in the life cycle of research data. This study also suggests a course of action for academic institutions to coalesce campus-wide assets to assist researchers in improving research value.

  6. What Matters for Staying On-Track and Graduating in Chicago Public Schools: A Focus on English Language Learners. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Julia; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Allensworth, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    One out of every seven students in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) is designated as an English language learner (ELL), and 30 percent of students in the entire district have been designated as ELLs at some point while enrolled in CPS. Many of the policies, programs, and resources targeting the needs of ELL students focus on students in elementary…

  7. Predictors of moderated drinking in a primarily alcohol dependent sample of men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon; Hail, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Understanding for whom moderated drinking is a viable, achievable, and sustainable goal among those with a range of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an important public health question. Despite common acceptance as severe risk factors, there is little empirical evidence to conclude whether co-occurring mental health disorders or drug dependence contribute to an individual’s inability to successfully moderate his drinking. Utilizing secondary data analysis, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of moderation among both treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking, primarily alcohol dependent, problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM), with an emphasis on the high risk factors psychiatric comorbidity and drug dependence. Problem drinkers (N=187) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, given the option to receive brief AUD treatment or change their drinking on their own, and then followed for 15 months. Findings revealed that neither psychiatric comorbidity or drug dependence predicted ability to achieve moderation when controlling for alcohol dependence severity. Those who were younger, more highly educated, and had more mild alcohol dependence were more likely to achieve moderated drinking. Impact of treatment on predictors is explored. Limitations of this study and arenas for future research are discussed. PMID:22201219

  8. Eningiomas: outcome, and analysis of prognostic factors of primarily resected tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, S.L.; Perry, A.; Suman, V.; Meyer, B.; Scheithauer, B.W.; Shaw, E.G.; Earle, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: 582 consecutive cases of primary intracranial meningioma undergoing resection at the Mayo Clinic, (Rochester, MN) were reviewed to determine overall survival (OS), progression free survival(PFS), prognostic factors predicting recurrence, and to determine the importance of radiation therapy in the management of this tumor. Materials and Methods: Between 1978-1988, 582 cases of primarily resected meningiomas were identified based on the tumor and operative registries where diagnosis was between 1978-1988 inclusive. PFS was identified by radiographic progression. Follow-up was accomplished by chart review, and a detailed questionnaire sent to patients and referring physicians. Estimation of OS and PFS distributions were done by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to assess which factors were associated with PFS. Proportional hazard modeling was performed to obtain a subset of independent predictors of PFS. Results: the median age was 57(5-93). 67% were female. CT identified the tumor in 91% of cases. There was associated edema in 21% and 2% were radiographically en plaque. There were 17 patients with multiple tumors, four of whom had a known diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. Gross total resection (GTR) was accomplished in 80%, radical subtotal or subtotal resection(STR) in 20%, and biopsy in 53) cellularity, and four or more mitoses per 10 HPF. Multivariate analysis indicated young age, male sex, en plaque at surgery, were significant for decreased PFS when only patient characteristics were considered. When treatment and pathologic factors were also considered, then young age, male sex, less than GTR, and tumor sheeting were predictors for decreased PFS. 10 patients had RT after initial resection, two of whom recurred. There were 107 first recurrences. 50 were observed(no intervention within 3 months), 35 treated by surgery alone, 11 had S+RT, and 11 were treated with RT alone. Considering those patients treated at recurrence (n=57), PFS was at

  9. Analysis of survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily related to renal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jitao; Suk-Ouichai, Chalairat; Dong, Wen; Antonio, Elvis Caraballo; Derweesh, Ithaar H; Lane, Brian R; Demirjian, Sevag; Li, Jianbo; Campbell, Steven C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate predictors of long-term survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily due to surgery (CKD-S). Patients with CKD-S have generally good survival that approximates patients who do not have CKD even after renal cancer surgery (RCS), yet there may be heterogeneity within this cohort. From 1997 to 2008, 4 246 patients underwent RCS at our centre. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up was 9.4 (7.3-11.0) years. New baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was defined as highest GFR between nadir and 6 weeks after RCS. We retrospectively evaluated three cohorts: no-CKD (new baseline GFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ); CKD-S (new baseline GFR of cancer-related survival (NRCRS) for the CKD-S cohort. Kaplan-Meier analysis assessed the longitudinal impact of new baseline GFR (45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 vs <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and Cox regression evaluated relative impact of preoperative GFR, new baseline GFR, and relevant demographics/comorbidities. Of the 4 246 patients who underwent RCS, 931 had CKD-S and 1 113 had CKD-M/S, whilst 2 202 had no-CKD even after RCS. Partial/radical nephrectomy (PN/RN) was performed in 54%/46% of the patients, respectively. For CKD-S, 641 patients had a new baseline GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 290 had a new baseline GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly reduced NRCRS for patients with CKD-S with a GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 compared to those with no-CKD or CKD-S with a GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (both P ≤ 0.004), and competing risk analysis confirmed this (P < 0.001). Age, gender, heart disease, and new baseline GFR were all associated independently with NRCRS for patients with CKD-S (all P ≤ 0.02). Our data suggest that CKD-S is heterogeneous, and patients with a reduced new baseline GFR have compromised survival, particularly if <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Our findings may have implications regarding choice of PN/RN in patients at risk of developing

  10. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  11. Authentic Leadership, Research Integrity, and Institutions of Higher Learning: Why Focusing on Departmental Leadership Is Critical for Preserving the Sanctity of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Katherine I.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most overlooked and complex problems that universities and colleges face nation-wide is how to reduce and eliminate research misconduct. Because of the confidential nature of allegations of research misconduct and the high rate of underreporting, administrators at scholarly institutions struggle with understanding the cause of such…

  12. Is cruising along European rivers primarily intended for seniors and workers from Eastern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdeji Irma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is river cruising along the rivers of Europe in Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, France, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania and Italy. The research needed to determine the trends in terms of consumers and labour force, particularly considering great political and economic changes in Europe (and the world in the last ten years. The aims of the research were set in relation to the following: to determine the profile of a tourist as well as the crew members. This paper is based on empirical and theoretical research. It combines quantitative primary and secondary as well as qualitative data collection (interview. Primary data was collected from the 'Uniworld' company by analysing crew manifests in order to define the demographical profile of the employees. Secondary data collection was used to define the profile of the tourist, where latest relevant publications were consulted. Qualitative method was used to gain more insight in the latest trends of River Cruising by interweaving the managers of the 'Uniworld' company. It was determined that 'baby boomers' are no longer prevalent on the cruise ships, but the 'millennials' cohort are on the rise. Such changes will require a new approach among the cruising companies - in terms of the concept of service delivery and marketing. However, among employees there is no significant change, suggesting that this type of job market is tightly regulated by EU regulations. This research offers valuable data in the field of tourism destination management, as well as the needs of some stakeholders, especially in terms of human resources management and management of strategic development issues. This is important both for the countries which already have positioned themselves on the cruising market as well as for emerging destinations.

  13. FAIRNESS 2016 [4. workshop for young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany), 14-19 Feb 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    FAIRNESS 2016 was the fourth edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on February 14-19 2016 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI facility close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. young non-tenured scientists, postdocs and advanced PhD students to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Atomic and plasma physics, biophysics, material sciences and applications • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • Experimental programs APPA, CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, as well as BES, NICA and the RHIC beam energy scan For these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2016 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that is dedicated to the

  14. Work-life balance – the impact of national policies. A comparative study between Germany and Greece with a special focus on early career researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Lola, Magda; Meyer, Dagmar M.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have been conducted regarding the link between good work-life balance and the representation of women in senior professional positions. However, many of these studies are not entirely applicable to the case of researchers, or they miss out on a number of aspects that are rather specific to researchers. In this paper we discuss some of the issues that have a bearing on the topic of work-life balance for researchers from the perspective of two different counties, Germany...

  15. Respiratory Polysomnographic Findings in Patients Treated Primarily for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Davi Sandes; Faller, Gustavo Juliane; Collares, Marcus Vinícius Martins

    2018-02-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common congenital craniofacial abnormality. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent but underdiagnosed disease and is frequently associated with craniofacial anomalies. There are few studies describing the sleep breathing pattern of children with CLP. This study sought to characterize the respiratory profile of 23 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate, aged 7-12 years, who had undergone cleft lip and nasal repair at age 3-4 months and palatoplasty at 12-15 months, with a particular focus on evaluating the presence of OSAS in children with CLP. Polysomnography was performed and findings were analyzed descriptively. We found a mean and median for apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of 1.11/h (SD = 0.78) and 0.9/h, respectively. The mean obstructive apnea index (OAI) was 0.27/h (SD = 0.38) and the median, 0.1/h. Nearly 30% of patients had an AHI above 1.4 events/h. There was no significant oxyhemoglobin desaturation in the study group. In this group, the prevalence of OSAS was higher than in noncleft populations when compared to the normality values adopted. This sample of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate exhibited an increased prevalence of OSAS during the mixed dentition stage. Although the results showed that OSAS was mild, we advise closer observation of these patients. Polysomnography is recommended for the assessment of children with airway abnormalities, to individualize the extent of treatment.

  16. Two DNA glycosylases in Esherichia coli which release primarily 3-methyladenine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, L.; Yang, C.; Goldthwait, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two enzymes have been partially purified from Escherichia coli and designated 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylases I and II. The apparent molecular weight of glycosylase I is 20,000, and that of II is 27,000. Glycosylase I releases 3-methyladenine (3-MeA) while II releases 3-MeA, 3-methylguanine (3-MeG), 7-methylguanine (7-MeG), and 7-methyladenine (7-MeA). The rate of release of 3-MeA by glycosylase II is 30 times that of 7-MeG. Glycosylase I is missing in mutants tag 1 and tag 2. In crude extracts, the 3-MeA activity of II is approximately 10% of the total 3-MeA activity. A 50% inactivation at 48 0 C required 5 min for I and 65 min for II. The 3-MeA and 7-MeG activities of the glycosylase II preparation could not be separated by isoelectric focusing, by chromatography of DEAE, Sephadex G-100, phosphocellulose, DNA-cellulose, or carboxymethylcellulose, or by heating at 50 0 C

  17. CO2 leakage-induced vegetation decline is primarily driven by decreased soil O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Zhao, Zhi; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-04-15

    To assess the potential risks of carbon capture and storage (CCS), studies have focused on vegetation decline caused by leaking CO2. Excess soil CO2 caused by leakage can affect soil O2 concentrations and soil pH, but how these two factors affect plant development remains poorly understood. This hinders the selection of appropriate species to mitigate potential negative consequences of CCS. Through pot experiments, we simulated CO2 leakage to examine its effects on soil pH and soil O2 concentrations. We subsequently assessed how maize growth responded to these changes in soil pH and O2. Decreased soil O2 concentrations significantly reduced maize biomass, and explained 69% of the biomass variation under CO2 leakage conditions. In contrast, although leaked CO2 changed soil pH significantly (from 7.32 to 6.75), it remained within the optimum soil pH range for maize growth. This suggests that soil O2 concentration, not soil pH, influences plant growth in these conditions. Therefore, in case of potential CO2 leakage risks, hypoxia-tolerant species should be chosen to improve plant survival, growth, and yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: antimicrobial properties of copper and its effects on micro-organisms in drinking water distribution systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available understanding of the mechanisms involved in copper toxicity in bacteria to better understand the potential applications of copper in treating drinking water. Further research is needed to determine why the growth continues after initial inactivation and whether...

  19. Using Focus Groups in the Consumer Research Phase of a Social Marketing Program to Promote Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity and Walking Trail Use in Sumter County, South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer researc...

  20. A situated practice of ethics for participatory visual and digital methods in public health research and practice: a focus on digital storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrium, Aline C; Hill, Amy L; Flicker, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    This article explores ethical considerations related to participatory visual and digital methods for public health research and practice, through the lens of an approach known as "digital storytelling." We begin by briefly describing the digital storytelling process and its applications to public health research and practice. Next, we explore 6 common challenges: fuzzy boundaries, recruitment and consent to participate, power of shaping, representation and harm, confidentiality, and release of materials. We discuss their complexities and offer some considerations for ethical practice. We hope this article serves as a catalyst for expanded dialogue about the need for high standards of integrity and a situated practice of ethics wherein researchers and practitioners reflexively consider ethical decision-making as part of the ongoing work of public health.

  1. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  2. Inhibitions and implications associated with celebrity participation in health-related social marketing: an exploratory research focused on HIV prevention in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Beatriz; Proença, João F

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses motivations and inhibitions among celebrities to participate in health-related social marketing. The research identifies the implications that this involvement may have upon their lives. Results from in-depth interviews with 27 Portuguese celebrities show that they expect a fee for endorsements of commercial and government social marketing, despite the positive image they may gain from endorsing public health. The results demonstrate an absence of celebrity prejudice against HIV because of its serious nature and the social stigma attached to AIDS. This research suggests there is a positive bias and presents helpful information for negotiations between institutions and celebrities.

  3. The power of habits: unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Aukje A C; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Evers, Catharine; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2012-11-01

    Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour in a large representative community sample (N= 1,103). To test our hypothesis that habits are crucial when explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour, their role was compared to the 'Power of Food', a related construct that addresses sensitivity to food cues in the environment. Moreover, the relation between Power of Food and unhealthy snacking habits was assessed. A prospective design was used to determine the impact of habits in relation to intention, Power of Food and a number of demographic variables. One month after filling out the questionnaire, including measures of habit strength and Power of Food, participants reported their unhealthy snacking behaviour by means of a 7-day snack diary. Results showed that habit strength was the most important predictor, outperforming all other variables in explaining unhealthy snack intake. The findings demonstrate that snacking habits provide a unique contribution in explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour, stressing the importance of addressing habit strength in further research and interventions concerning unhealthy snacking behaviour. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Human Heredity and Health (H3) in Africa Kidney Disease Research Network: A Focus on Methods in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo, Charlotte; Raji, Yemi Raheem; Burke, David; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tiffin, Nicki; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Rasooly, Rebekah S; Kimmel, Paul L; Ojo, Akinlolu; Adu, Dwomoa; Parekh, Rulan S

    2015-12-07

    CKD affects an estimated 14% of adults in sub-Saharan Africa, but very little research has been done on the cause, progression, and prevention of CKD there. As part of the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Consortium, the H3Africa Kidney Disease Research Network was established to study prevalent forms of kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa and increase the capacity for genetics and genomics research. The study is performing comprehensive phenotypic characterization and analyzing environmental and genetic factors from nine clinical centers in four African countries (Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Kenya) over a 5-year period. Approximately 4000 participants with specified kidney disease diagnoses and 4000 control participants will be enrolled in the four African countries. In addition, approximately 50 families with hereditary glomerular disease will be enrolled. The study includes both pediatric and adult participants age research infrastructure can be successfully established in Africa. This study will provide clinical, biochemical, and genotypic data that will greatly increase the understanding of CKD in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. CONFIRMING THE PRIMARILY SMOOTH STRUCTURE OF THE VEGA DEBRIS DISK AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Plambeck, Richard; Chiang, Eugene [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Wilner, David J.; Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mason, Brian [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Carpenter, John M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, MC 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chiang, Hsin-Fang [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hales, Antonio [Joint ALMA Observatory, Av. El Golf 40, Piso 18, Santiago (Chile); Su, Kate [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dicker, Simon; Korngut, Phil; Devlin, Mark, E-mail: mhughes@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Clumpy structure in the debris disk around Vega has been previously reported at millimeter wavelengths and attributed to concentrations of dust grains trapped in resonances with an unseen planet. However, recent imaging at similar wavelengths with higher sensitivity has disputed the observed structure. We present three new millimeter-wavelength observations that help to resolve the puzzling and contradictory observations. We have observed the Vega system with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at a wavelength of 880 {mu}m and an angular resolution of 5''; with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at a wavelength of 1.3 mm and an angular resolution of 5''; and with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at a wavelength of 3.3 mm and angular resolution of 10''. Despite high sensitivity and short baselines, we do not detect the Vega debris disk in either of the interferometric data sets (SMA and CARMA), which should be sensitive at high significance to clumpy structure based on previously reported observations. We obtain a marginal (3{sigma}) detection of disk emission in the GBT data; the spatial distribution of the emission is not well constrained. We analyze the observations in the context of several different models, demonstrating that the observations are consistent with a smooth, broad, axisymmetric disk with inner radius 20-100 AU and width {approx}> 50 AU. The interferometric data require that at least half of the 860 {mu}m emission detected by previous single-dish observations with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope be distributed axisymmetrically, ruling out strong contributions from flux concentrations on spatial scales of {approx}<100 AU. These observations support recent results from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer indicating that previous detections of clumpy structure in the Vega debris disk were spurious.

  6. CONFIRMING THE PRIMARILY SMOOTH STRUCTURE OF THE VEGA DEBRIS DISK AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, A. Meredith; Plambeck, Richard; Chiang, Eugene; Wilner, David J.; Andrews, Sean M.; Mason, Brian; Carpenter, John M.; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Williams, Jonathan P.; Hales, Antonio; Su, Kate; Dicker, Simon; Korngut, Phil; Devlin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Clumpy structure in the debris disk around Vega has been previously reported at millimeter wavelengths and attributed to concentrations of dust grains trapped in resonances with an unseen planet. However, recent imaging at similar wavelengths with higher sensitivity has disputed the observed structure. We present three new millimeter-wavelength observations that help to resolve the puzzling and contradictory observations. We have observed the Vega system with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at a wavelength of 880 μm and an angular resolution of 5''; with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at a wavelength of 1.3 mm and an angular resolution of 5''; and with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) at a wavelength of 3.3 mm and angular resolution of 10''. Despite high sensitivity and short baselines, we do not detect the Vega debris disk in either of the interferometric data sets (SMA and CARMA), which should be sensitive at high significance to clumpy structure based on previously reported observations. We obtain a marginal (3σ) detection of disk emission in the GBT data; the spatial distribution of the emission is not well constrained. We analyze the observations in the context of several different models, demonstrating that the observations are consistent with a smooth, broad, axisymmetric disk with inner radius 20-100 AU and width ∼> 50 AU. The interferometric data require that at least half of the 860 μm emission detected by previous single-dish observations with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope be distributed axisymmetrically, ruling out strong contributions from flux concentrations on spatial scales of ∼<100 AU. These observations support recent results from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer indicating that previous detections of clumpy structure in the Vega debris disk were spurious.

  7. Doing Disability Research in a Southern Context: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Nidhi

    2010-01-01

    Research on disability issues in countries of the South is primarily dominated by a focus on generating large scale quantitative data sets. This paper discusses the many challenges, opportunities and dilemmas faced in designing and undertaking a qualitative research study in one district in India. The Disability, Education and Poverty Project…

  8. Detailed Geoecological Research of Terroir with the Focus on Georelief and Soil – A Case Study of Krátke Kesy Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falťan Vladimír

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to present the application of the detailed geoecological research for use by the identification of natural elements of terroir, based on the example of cadastral area Krátke Kesy. The characteristics of georelief (influencing the microclimate of vineyards and soil characteristics (affecting the vineyard nutrition are the most important elements of a terroir on a local scale. We present maps of 10 types of geoecological complexes in topic dimension, whose borders were allocated on the base of georelief as a leading factor of regionalization. Foot slopes, transport slopes and terraces prevail in the vineyard. Cultivated Haplic and Luvi-Haplic Chernozem of the Danube Lowland have excellent conditions for precision agriculture. The impact of soil factors on vineyards was evaluated with the use of accredited laboratory analysis. Using statistical methods, we confirmed the hypothesis that the relationship between observed relevant soil elements in the study area and sugar content of grape is direct, and between the soil elements and acids in must is indirect. The biggest dependence was seen for magnesium, zinc and copper. Research results were presented in the form of maps and tables that can find use in vineyard and landscape-ecological practice.

  9. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  10. The Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Importance of metzincin proteases in trophoblast biology and placental development: a focus on ADAM12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Mahroo; Beristain, Alexander G

    2015-04-01

    Placental development is a highly regulated process requiring signals from both fetal and maternal uterine compartments. Within this complex system, trophoblasts, placental cells of epithelial lineage, form the maternal-fetal interface controlling nutrient, gas and waste exchange. The commitment of progenitor villous cytotrophoblasts to differentiate into diverse trophoblast subsets is a fundamental process in placental development. Differentiation of trophoblasts into invasive stromal- and vascular-remodeling subtypes is essential for uterine arterial remodeling and placental function. Inadequate placentation, characterized by defects in trophoblast differentiation, may underlie the earliest cellular events driving pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Molecularly, invasive trophoblasts acquire characteristics defined by profound alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization and production of proteolytic factors. To date, most studies have investigated the importance of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their ability to efficiently remodel components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it is now becoming clear that besides MMPs, other related proteases regulate trophoblast invasion via mechanisms other than ECM turnover. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of trophoblast invasion by members of the metzincin family of metalloproteinases. Specifically, we will discuss the emerging roles that A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) play in placental development, with a particular focus on the ADAM subtype, ADAM12. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Current clinical research environment: focus on psychiatry Cenário atual da pesquisa clínica: foco em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Mansoldo Dainesi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of international guidelines on Good Clinical Practices (GCP in 1996, immediately followed by the publication of Resolution CNS 196/96 in Brazil, created a great opportunity for Brazilian research centers to participate in international trials. Such studies must be strictly monitored in order to assure compliance with the regulations, as well as with the standards of patient safety. Clear agreement among the investigator, the sponsor and the institution carrying out the study must be previously defined in order to avoid any conflicts of interest during or after the study. Operational aspects, such as the time needed to gain regulatory approval of the study design, strategies for patient recruitment/retention and appropriate logistics, are also important. In 2005, the Brazilian National Clinical Research Network was established, bringing together a number of research centers in teaching hospitals. The objective was to subsidize public clinical research with state-of-the-art practices and appropriate technical/scientific training programs. The development of research protocols that prioritize public health care needs in Brazil is other fundamental goal of this network. This article addresses general aspects of clinical research, as well as some specific issues in psychiatry. Improving the health and quality of life of the global population is certainly the major objective of all of the work done in this area.A introdução de diretrizes internacionais de Boas Práticas Clínicas, em 1996, imediatamente seguida pela publicação da Resolução do Conselho Nacional de Saúde 196/96, abriu uma grande oportunidade para a participação de centros de pesquisa brasileiros em estudos internacionais. Tais estudos devem ser estritamente monitorados, a fim de assegurar a adesão às legislações, assim como garantir a segurança dos pacientes envolvidos. A fim de evitar possíveis conflitos de interesse durante e após o estudo, todos os

  12. A systematic review of biochar research, with a focus on its stability in situ and its promise as a climate mitigation strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel P Gurwick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Claims about the environmental benefits of charring biomass and applying the resulting "biochar" to soil are impressive. If true, they could influence land management worldwide. Alleged benefits include increased crop yields, soil fertility, and water-holding capacity; the most widely discussed idea is that applying biochar to soil will mitigate climate change. This claim rests on the assumption that biochar persists for hundreds or thousands of years, thus storing carbon that would otherwise decompose. We conducted a systematic review to quantify research effort directed toward ten aspects of biochar and closely evaluated the literature concerning biochar's stability. FINDINGS: We identified 311 peer-reviewed research articles published through 2011. We found very few field studies that addressed biochar's influence on several ecosystem processes: one on soil nutrient loss, one on soil contaminants, six concerning non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG fluxes (some of which fail to support claims that biochar decreases non-CO2 GHG fluxes, and 16-19 on plants and soil properties. Of 74 studies related to biochar stability, transport or fate in soil, only seven estimated biochar decomposition rates in situ, with mean residence times ranging from 8 to almost 4,000 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our review shows there are not enough data to draw conclusions about how biochar production and application affect whole-system GHG budgets. Wide-ranging estimates of a key variable, biochar stability in situ, likely result from diverse environmental conditions, feedstocks, and study designs. There are even fewer data about the extent to which biochar stimulates decomposition of soil organic matter or affects non-CO2 GHG emissions. Identifying conditions where biochar amendments yield favorable GHG budgets requires a systematic field research program. Finally, evaluating biochar's suitability as a climate mitigation strategy requires comparing its effects with

  13. Exploring Children’s Peer Relationships through Verbal and Non-verbal Communication: A Qualitative Action Research Focused on Waldorf Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Milena Montenegro Mantilla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationships that children around seven and eight years old establish in a classroom. It shows that peer relationships have a positive dimension with features such as the development of children’s creativity to communicate and modify norms. These features were found through an analysis of children’s verbal and non-verbal communication and an interdisciplinary view of children’s learning process from Rudolf Steiner, founder of Waldorf Pedagogy, and Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, specialists in children’s cognitive and social dimensions. This research is an invitation to recognize children’s capacity to construct their own rules in peer relationships.

  14. Alliance for NanoHealth (ANH) Training Program for the development of future generations of interdisciplinary scientists and collaborative research focused upon the advancement of nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorenstein, David [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this program are to promote the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) Program by recruiting students to science and engineering disciplines with the intent of mentoring and supporting the next generation of scientists; to foster interdisciplinary and collaborative research under the sponsorship of ANH for the discovery and design of nano-based materials and devices with novel structures, functions, and properties; and to prepare a diverse work force of scientists, engineers, and clinicians by utilizing the unique intellectual and physical resources to develop novel nanotechnology paradigms for clinical application.

  15. Meeting Report of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Surgical Research: Summary of Presentations, Labs, and Workshops, Focusing on Experimental Surgery, Las Vegas, NV, October 4-6, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melanie L; Ziegelhofer, Tracy; Ehrmann, Jon

    2018-04-11

    The 33rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Surgical Research was held from October 4 to 6, 2017 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The meeting welcomed >160 participants from 27 different states and five countries representing the organization's diverse membership of technicians, veterinarians, medical doctors, and biomedical researchers. The Academy's annual meeting is focused on promoting the advancement of professional and academic standards, education, and research related to the art and science of experimental surgery. Presentations included four invited keynote speakers and 30 selected lectures and posters. A primary strength of the meeting was that lectures were complimented with practical sessions that included four wet lab and two dry lab half-day courses. Likewise, participants were brought together in workshops emphasizing research workflow from starting experimental design to readying results for publication. In this report, we present the highlights from this meeting and some selected abstracts that illustrate the diverse scientific expertise of the Academy and progress in surgical research.

  16. Young Black Gay/Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Review and Content Analysis of Health-Focused Research Between 1988 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ryan M; Harper, Gary W

    2017-09-01

    Black young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YGBMSM) are at high risk for negative health outcomes, though this population is underrepresented in the health literature. An extensive literature review and content analysis of health-related peer-reviewed articles (1988-2013) was conducted that targeted Black YGBMSM, examining five content areas: sexual health, health care, substance use, psychosocial functioning, and sociostructural factors. A coding sheet was created to collect information on all content areas and related subtopics and computed descriptive statistics. Out of 54 articles, most were published after 2004 ( N = 49; 90.7%) and addressed some aspect of sexual health ( N = 50; 92.6%). Few articles included content on psychosocial functioning, including bullying/harassment, suicide, and racial/ethnic identity. Data on health care delivery/receipt and health insurance were underrepresented; tobacco use and substance abuse were seldom addressed. Important sociostructural factors, including sexual networks and race-based discrimination, were poorly represented. Last, there was a noteworthy deficit of qualitative studies and research exploring intersectional identity and health. This review concludes that studies on Black YGBMSM health places sex at the forefront to the neglect of other critical health domains. More research is needed on the diverse health issues of a vulnerable and underexamined population.

  17. Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

  18. The Role of Physiotherapy Extended Scope Practitioners in Musculoskeletal care with Focus on Decision Making and Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Quantitative and Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jonathan; Yoward, Samantha; Dawson, Pamela

    2017-06-01

    Physiotherapy extended scope practitioner (ESP) roles are widely utilized in the management of musculoskeletal conditions. The present article reviews the current literature, with particular emphasis on the decision-making process, patient/clinician interaction and clinical outcomes. A systematic review of musculoskeletal extended scope practice was carried out. The review focused on the outcome of interventions, and the interactions and decision-making processes between ESPs and their patients. A wide search strategy was employed, through multiple databases, grey literature and experts in the field. Qualitative and quantitative studies alike were included and a mixed-methods synthesis approach was undertaken in analysing the findings of included studies. A total of 476 articles were identified for inclusion, 25 of which (22 quantitative and three qualitative) meeting the criteria for full quality appraisal and synthesis. It was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis owing to data heterogeneity. The results showed high patient satisfaction with the ESP role, support for ESP staff listing patients for orthopaedic surgery, a high positive correlation of decision making between ESPs and orthopaedic surgeons and evidence of a positive impact on patient outcomes. Qualitative themes reflected the importance of ESP clinical decision making and interpersonal skills and their role in patient education. There is broad support for the physiotherapy ESP role and evidence of favourable outcomes from ESP intervention. Clinical decisions made by ESPs correlate well with those of medical colleagues, although there is a lack of detail explaining the ESP decision-making process itself and the influences and mechanisms by which this occurs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  20. Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, H M; Fritzsche, J; Tkatsch, H; Waag, F; Karch, K; Henze, K; Delbeck, S; Budde, J

    2013-01-01

    Mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy is introduced as a versatile analytical method for characterizing liquid and solid chemicals as obtained from petrochemistry and biotechnology processes. Besides normal transmission measurements, special equipment with silver halide fiber-optic probes allowing efficient analysis based on mid-infrared attenuated total reflection, and an accessory for near-infrared diffuse reflection measurements, are presented. The latter technique can be used advantageously for powdered samples such as microalgae biomass and polysaccharides, as well as for different tissues such as meat samples. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods, which can be used for industrial process monitoring and chemical quality control applications, are discussed, and have been used in several research projects of BSc students within their degree course of bio- and nano-technologies of our University of Applied Sciences. (paper)

  1. Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, H. M.; Fritzsche, J.; Tkatsch, H.; Waag, F.; Karch, K.; Henze, K.; Delbeck, S.; Budde, J.

    2013-11-01

    Mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy is introduced as a versatile analytical method for characterizing liquid and solid chemicals as obtained from petrochemistry and biotechnology processes. Besides normal transmission measurements, special equipment with silver halide fiber-optic probes allowing efficient analysis based on mid-infrared attenuated total reflection, and an accessory for near-infrared diffuse reflection measurements, are presented. The latter technique can be used advantageously for powdered samples such as microalgae biomass and polysaccharides, as well as for different tissues such as meat samples. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods, which can be used for industrial process monitoring and chemical quality control applications, are discussed, and have been used in several research projects of BSc students within their degree course of bio- and nano-technologies of our University of Applied Sciences.

  2. Risk factors and study designs used in research of youths' suicide behaviour-an epidemiological discussion with focus on level of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Agerbo, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to level of evidence (LoE). Methods: We searched PubMed and psycINFO in order to identify relevant individual studies. Results: We included 36 studies of children and youth on suicidal behaviour and ideation-many rank low on LoE. For suicide, cohort design was often used, and mental illness (depression......Introduction: Many different epidemiology study designs have been used to analyse risk factors for suicide behaviour. The purpose of this study was to obtain an insight into the current study design used in research on youths' risk factors for suicide behaviour and to rank the studies according......, substance abuse and severity of mental illness) was the most common risk factor. Cohort studies are ranked 2b, which is high according to LoE. For suicide attempts, survey was often used, and psychopathology, substance abuse and being exposed to suicidal behaviour were the most common risk factors...

  3. Can National Research Assessment Exercises Be Used Locally to Inform Research Strategy Development? The Description of a Methodological Approach to the UK RAE 2008 Results with a Focus on One Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidpath, Daniel D.; Allotey, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    National mechanisms for comparing the research profiles of higher education institutions (HEIs) have become increasingly common. Probably the best known of these is the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) conducted in the United Kingdom, and used as the basis for the allocation of research funding. Such exercises are expensive. They would have…

  4. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  5. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  6. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  7. Examining Change in K-3 Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs: The Case of Primarily Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutaka, T. S.; Ren, L.; Smith, W. M.; Beattie, H. L.; Edwards, C. P.; Green, J. L.; Chernyavskiy, P.; Stroup, W.; Heaton, R. M.; Lewis, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the Primarily Math Elementary Mathematics Specialist program on K-3 teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching, attitudes toward learning mathematics, and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning. Three cohorts of teachers participating in the program were compared to a similar group of…

  8. Patterns of symptom control and palliative care-focused original research articles in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology *Biology* Physics and the Radiotherapy and Oncology Journal, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Diana D; DiGiovanni, Julia; Skamene, Sonia; Noveroske Philbrick, Sarah; Wang, Yanbing; Barnes, Elizabeth A; Chow, Edward; Sullivan, Adam; Balboni, Tracy A

    2018-04-01

    A significant portion of radiation treatment (30-40%) is delivered with palliative intent. Given the frequency of palliative care (PC) in radiation oncology, we determined the patterns of research focusing on symptom control and palliative care (SCPC) in two prominent radiation oncology journals from 2005-2014. Original research manuscripts published from 2005-2014 in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology *Biology* Physics (Red Journal) and the Radiotherapy and Oncology Journal (Green Journal) were reviewed to categorize articles as PC and/or SCPC. Articles were categorized as PC if it pertained to any aspect of treatment of metastatic cancer, and as SCPC if symptom control in the metastatic cancer setting was the goal of the research inquiry and/or any domain of palliative clinical practice guidelines was the goal of research inquiry. From 2005-2014, 4.9% (312/6,386) of original research articles published in the Red Journal and 3.5% (84/2,406) published in the Green Journal pertained to metastatic cancer, and were categorized as PC. In the Red Journal, 1.3% (84/6,386) of original research articles were categorized as SCPC; 1.3% (32/2,406) of articles in the Green Journal were categorized as SCPC. There was no trend observed in the proportion of SCPC articles published over time in the Red Journal (P=0.76), the Green Journal (P=0.48), or both journals in aggregate (P=0.38). Despite the fact that palliative radiotherapy is a critical part of radiation oncology practice, PC and SCPC-focused original research is poorly represented in the Red Journal and the Green Journal.

  9. Using focus groups in the consumer research phase of a social marketing program to promote moderate-intensity physical activity and walking trail use in Sumter County, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina

    2006-01-01

    The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer research to develop a social marketing program to promote walking and other moderate-intensity physical activities. Two phases of focus groups were conducted. Phase 1 groups, which included both men and women, were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a social marketing program based on social marketing concepts. Phase 1 also determined the intervention's target audience, which was irregularly active women aged 35 to 54. Phase 2 groups, composed of members of the target audience, were asked to further define the product and discuss specific promotion strategies. Phase 1 participants determined that the program product, or target behavior, should be walking. In addition, they identified price, place, and promotion strategies. Phase 2 participants determined that moderate-intensity physical activity is best promoted using the term exercise and offered suggestions for marketing walking, or exercise, to the target audience. There have been few published studies of social marketing campaigns to promote physical activity. In this study, focus groups were key to understanding the target audience in a way that would not have been accomplished with quantitative data alone. The group discussions generated important insights into values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt a product or behavior. The focus group results guided the development of a social marketing program to promote physical activity in the target audience in Sumter County, South Carolina.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  11. X-ray and CT signs of connective tissue dysplasia in patients with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, L.A.; Sharmazanova, O.P.

    2009-01-01

    The x-ray signs of connective tissue systemic dysplasia (CTSD) in patients with primarily diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated. Fifty-four patients (28 med and 26 women aged 18-70) with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis underwent x-ray study. In patients with infiltration pulmonary tuberculosis CTSD in the lungs manifests by their diminishing, deformity of the lung pattern, high position of the diaphragm cupola, mediastinum shift to the side of the pathology, which is better seen on CT. The degree of CTSD x-ray signs in the lungs depends on the number of phenotypical signs that is the degree of the disease manifestation. CT allows more accurate determining of the signs of connective tissue dysplasia in which tuberculosis develops

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... 1School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Aga Khan .... “Focus on Opportunity, Ability and Motivation” (FOAM) framework ... children (-28%), before eating (-4%), and after attending to a child.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-08-08

    Aug 8, 2013 ... Preconception genetic screening and counselling should be the main focus of .... important variable that influences the acceptability, practice and success of ... attention. Study done among health care workers and medical.

  14. Assessment of Vegetation Variation on Primarily Creation Zones of the Dust Storms Around the Euphrates Using Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Amanollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, period frequency and effect domain of the dust storms that enter Iran from Iraq have increased. In this study, in addition to detecting the creation zones of the dust storms, the effect of vegetation cover variation on their creation was investigated using remote sensing. Moderate resolution image Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5 have been utilized to identify the primarily creation zones of the dust storms and to assess the vegetation cover variation, respectively. Vegetation cover variation was studied using Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI obtained from band 3 and band 4 of the Landsate satellite. The results showed that the surrounding area of the Euphrates in Syria, the desert in the vicinity of this river in Iraq, including the deserts of Alanbar Province, and the north deserts of Saudi Arabia are the primarily creation zones of the dust storms entering west and south west of Iran. The results of NDVI showed that excluding the deserts in the border of Syria and Iraq, the area with very weak vegetation cover have increased between 2.44% and 20.65% from 1991 to 2009. In the meanwhile, the retention pound surface areas in the south deserts of Syria as well as the deserts in its border with Iraq have decreased 6320 and 4397 hectares, respectively. As it can be concluded from the findings, one of the main environmental parameters initiating these dust storms is the decrease in the vegetation cover in their primarily creation zones.

  15. Turnover in Principalship Focus of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Data available from a handful of states suggest that only about half of beginning principals remain in the same job five years later, and that many leave the principalship altogether when they go. Whether this apparent churn in the principal's office signals a problem, progress, or business as usual seems to be a matter for debate, though. Among…

  16. Four Dimensions of Brand-Focused Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischick, Caity McLaughlin

    2017-01-01

    Not long ago, "brand" was an unmentionable word in the higher education landscape--one that came with suspicious connotations of consumer packaged goods and retail. Today, however, there is increasingly broad acceptance that a higher education institution's (HEI's) brand is critical to attracting and retaining the best students and…

  17. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  19. Report of the consultants' meeting on the identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries' was held at IAEA, Vienna, April 12- 14, 2000. Four consultants, with expertise in nutrient dynamics drawn from National Agricultural Research Organisations and Universities, attended the meeting together with staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Divisions. The consultants presented reviews of the situation regarding studies of nutrient dynamics in crop/pasture/ livestock systems in developing and developed agricultural systems. These were complemented by a paper on the development of 15 N techniques to study the contribution of N from crop residues and human, animal and industrial waste products developed at the Seibersdorf Laboratory. The consultants were of the opinion that in view of of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's comparative advantage in operating (both technically and administratively) Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) the proposal to initiate an FAO/IAEA CRP on quantification of nutrient budget and flows in integrated crop/livestock systems is appropriate. They identified a well focused area of the CRP and also provided recommendations on its formulation and implementation

  20. Report of the consultants' meeting on the identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues in developing countries' was held at IAEA, Vienna, April 12- 14, 2000. Four consultants, with expertise in nutrient dynamics drawn from National Agricultural Research Organisations and Universities, attended the meeting together with staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Divisions. The consultants presented reviews of the situation regarding studies of nutrient dynamics in crop/pasture/ livestock systems in developing and developed agricultural systems. These were complemented by a paper on the development of {sup 15}N techniques to study the contribution of N from crop residues and human, animal and industrial waste products developed at the Seibersdorf Laboratory. The consultants were of the opinion that in view of of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's comparative advantage in operating (both technically and administratively) Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) the proposal to initiate an FAO/IAEA CRP on quantification of nutrient budget and flows in integrated crop/livestock systems is appropriate. They identified a well focused area of the CRP and also provided recommendations on its formulation and implementation.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  2. If We Build It, Will They Come? Perceptions of HIV Cure-Related Research by People Living with HIV in Four U.S. Cities: A Qualitative Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Laurie; Evans, David; Taylor, Jeff; Gilbertson, Adam; Palm, David; Auerbach, Judith D; Dubé, Karine

    2018-01-01

    Global interest and investment in the search for an HIV cure has increased. Research has focused on what experts refer to as a sterilizing or eradicating cure, where HIV is eliminated from the body, and on what is often called a functional cure, where HIV remains, kept durably suppressed in the absence of antiretroviral treatment and therapy (ART). Many believe that a functional cure is likely to be found first. HIV cure studies will require active participation by people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Their desires and perceptions will be important to effectively recruit study participants and for the uptake of any future strategy that demonstrates safety and efficacy. The perspectives of PLWHIV are essential to advancing HIV cure research, and they should be taken into consideration as biomedical research advances. We conducted 10 focus groups in four U.S. cities, eliciting perspectives of PLWHIV on HIV cure and cure research. Most participants conceived of a cure as eradicating, and felt favorably toward it. In addition to the physical benefits of a potential cure, participants valued the possible de-stigmatization related to no longer living with HIV, liberation from concerns about transmitting HIV, and freedom from the burden of daily medication. Many participants did not regard a functional cure as an improvement over controlling HIV through ART, were distrustful about viral rebound potential, and noted concerns about medical complications and accompanying psychological distress. Some felt that the risks of HIV cure research were not worth taking. Many were skeptical about science's ability to eliminate HIV from the body.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rest of the course. The FMHS also has also focused on community-based ... to increase the student numbers to address the dearth of human resources for health in Africa. .... tutorial podcasts in: emergency medicine, family medicine ..... Internet-based dissemination of educational video presentations: a primer in video ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... Methods: Focus group discussions with adolescents, parents of infants and adolescents, and .... Both individual interviews and FGDs revealed similar views; therefore .... emotional solidarity in case of adverse events, mosquito nets, food, .... and of their parents/caretakers and therefore may not reflect the.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-11

    Sep 11, 2015 ... were as required by the human resource building block. While, the insurance providers have a responsibility of motivating doctors to improve their services or provide appropriate services by ensuring health services are affordable and accessible. This study was focusing on the service delivery pillar of the ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-25

    Feb 25, 2013 ... Refractive error is an optical defect intrinsic to the eye which prevents the light from being brought to a single focus on the retina thus reducing normal vision [1]. Refractive error is a major contributor to visual impairment which is a significant cause of morbidity in children worldwide [2]. Since children do not ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-31

    Aug 31, 2015 ... 2. Introduction. Recent estimates show that the overall ante-natal care (ANC) ... important milestones required to achieve optimum maternal and child health. ... 15-49 years. The survey was conducted by the National Population .... means univariate analyses to determine the odds of utilization of focused ...

  8. A randomized trial of a DWI intervention program for first offenders: intervention outcomes and interactions with antisocial personality disorder among a primarily American-Indian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W Gill; Delaney, Harold D; Kunitz, Stephen J; Westerberg, Verner S; Zhao, Hongwei

    2007-06-01

    Randomized trial evidence on the effectiveness of incarceration and treatment of first-time driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders who are primarily American Indian has yet to be reported in the literature on DWI prevention. Further, research has confirmed the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with problems with alcohol including DWI. A randomized clinical trial was conducted, in conjunction with 28 days of incarceration, of a treatment program incorporating motivational interviewing principles for first-time DWI offenders. The sample of 305 offenders including 52 diagnosed as ASPD by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were assessed before assignment to conditions and at 6, 12, and 24 months after discharge. Self-reported frequency of drinking and driving as well as various measures of drinking over the preceding 90 days were available at all assessments for 244 participants. Further, DWI rearrest data for 274 participants were available for analysis. Participants randomized to receive the first offender incarceration and treatment program reported greater reductions in alcohol consumption from baseline levels when compared with participants who were only incarcerated. Antisocial personality disorder participants reported heavier and more frequent drinking but showed significantly greater declines in drinking from intake to posttreatment assessments. Further, the treatment resulted in larger effects relative to the control on ASPD than non-ASPD participants. Nonconfrontational treatment may significantly enhance outcomes for DWI offenders with ASPD when delivered in an incarcerated setting, and in the present study, such effects were found in a primarily American-Indian sample.

  9. Focusing on Cause or Cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. Methods A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. Results The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Conclusions Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders

  10. The Gatekeepers of Business Education Research: An Institutional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, Frank R.

    2011-01-01

    The author ranked the academic standing of universities based on faculty representation to the editorial boards of business education journals. Previous studies that ranked institutions for editorial board representation focused on journals that primarily favor publication of basic and applied research contributions. As a result, prior research…

  11. FADD Expression as a Prognosticator in Early-Stage Glottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Treated Primarily With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrijvers, Michiel L.; Pattje, Wouter J.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Gibcus, Johan H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wal, Jacqueline E. van der; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. vn der; Schuuring, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We recently reported on the identification of the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) as a possible driver of the chromosome 11q13 amplicon and the association between increased FADD expression and disease-specific survival in advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine whether expression of FADD and its Ser194-phosphorylated isoform (pFADD) predicts local control in patients with early-stage glottic carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining for FADD and pFADD was performed on pretreatment biopsy specimens of 92 patients with T1–T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy between 1996 and 2005. Cox regression analysis was used to correlate expression levels with local control. Results: High levels of pFADD were associated with significantly better local control (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–5.55; p = 0.040). FADD overexpression showed a trend toward better local control (hazard ratio, 3.656; 95% confidence interval, 0.853–15.663; p = 0.081). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high pFADD expression was the best predictor of local control after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of phosphorylated FADD is a new prognostic biomarker for better local control after radiotherapy in patients with early-stage glottic carcinomas.

  12. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  13. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Systematic Reviews of Research in Educational Leadership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for scholars carrying out reviews of research that meet international standards for publication. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a conceptual paper focusing on the methodology of conducting systematic reviews of research. However, the paper draws on a database of reviews…

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  3. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  4. CSIR and Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University research collaboration report 2011 - 2013

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available /2010 supported the establishment of a joint research programme in enterprise engineering and process modelling. The programme focused primarily on the health information systems as application domain. Through this programme, several research projects were... as foundational material to assist new students doing research in user experience in the eHealth space. The first grant in 2009/2010 supported the establishment of a joint research programme in enterprise engineering and process modelling. RESEARCH...

  5. Accumulation of a poly(hydroxyalkanoate) copolymer containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate from simple carbohydrate substrates by Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, G W; Anderson, A J; Williams, D R; Dawes, E A; Ewing, D F

    1991-04-01

    A number of taxonomically-related bacteria have been identified which accumulate poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) copolymers containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer units from a range of unrelated single carbon sources. One of these, Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126, was further investigated and shown to produce a copolymer containing 75 mol% 3HV and 25 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) from glucose as sole carbon source. Polyesters containing both 3HV and 3HB monomer units, together with 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB), 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV) or 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), were also produced by this organism from certain accumulation substrates. With valeric acid as substrate, almost pure (99 mol% 3HV) poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) was produced. N.m.r. analysis confirmed the composition of these polyesters. The thermal properties and molecular weight of the copolymer produced from glucose were comparable to those of PHB produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus.

  6. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  7. Multi-Province Listeriosis Outbreak Linked to Contaminated Deli Meat Consumed Primarily in Institutional Settings, Canada, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Andrea; Farber, Jeffrey M; Nadon, Céline; Sharma, Davendra; Whitfield, Yvonne; Gaulin, Colette; Galanis, Eleni; Bekal, Sadjia; Flint, James; Tschetter, Lorelee; Pagotto, Franco; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Fred; Badiani, Tina; MacDonald, Diane; Ellis, Andrea; May-Hadford, Jennifer; McCormick, Rachel; Savelli, Carmen; Middleton, Dean; Allen, Vanessa; Tremblay, Francois-William; MacDougall, Laura; Hoang, Linda; Shyng, Sion; Everett, Doug; Chui, Linda; Louie, Marie; Bangura, Helen; Levett, Paul N; Wilkinson, Krista; Wylie, John; Reid, Janet; Major, Brian; Engel, Dave; Douey, Donna; Huszczynski, George; Di Lecci, Joe; Strazds, Judy; Rousseau, Josée; Ma, Kenneth; Isaac, Leah; Sierpinska, Urszula

    2015-08-01

    A multi-province outbreak of listeriosis occurred in Canada from June to November 2008. Fifty-seven persons were infected with 1 of 3 similar outbreak strains defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 24 (42%) individuals died. Forty-one (72%) of 57 individuals were residents of long-term care facilities or hospital inpatients during their exposure period. Descriptive epidemiology, product traceback, and detection of the outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples and the plant environment confirmed delicatessen meat manufactured by one establishment and purchased primarily by institutions was the source of the outbreak. The food safety investigation identified a plant environment conducive to the introduction and proliferation of L. monocytogenes and persistently contaminated with Listeria spp. This outbreak demonstrated the need for improved listeriosis surveillance, strict control of L. monocytogenes in establishments producing ready-to-eat foods, and advice to vulnerable populations and institutions serving these populations regarding which high-risk foods to avoid.

  8. Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Frost Risk model based primarily on freely distributed Earth Observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louka, Panagiota; Petropoulos, George; Papanikolaou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme climatic conditions, such as frost, is a significant tool in successful agricultural management and decision making. Nowadays, with the development of Earth Observation (EO) technology, it is possible to obtain accurately, timely and in a cost-effective way information on the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions, particularly over large and otherwise inaccessible areas. The present study aimed at developing and evaluating a frost risk prediction model, exploiting primarily EO data from MODIS and ASTER sensors and ancillary ground observation data. For the evaluation of our model, a region in north-western Greece was selected as test site and a detailed sensitivity analysis was implemented. The agreement between the model predictions and the observed (remotely sensed) frost frequency obtained by MODIS sensor was evaluated thoroughly. Also, detailed comparisons of the model predictions were performed against reference frost ground observations acquired from the Greek Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA) over a period of 10-years (2000-2010). Overall, results evidenced the ability of the model to produce reasonably well the frost conditions, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. Implementation of our proposed frost risk model is based primarily on satellite imagery analysis provided nowadays globally at no cost. It is also straightforward and computationally inexpensive, requiring much less effort in comparison for example to field surveying. Finally, the method is adjustable to be potentially integrated with other high resolution data available from both commercial and non-commercial vendors. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, frost risk mapping, GIS, remote sensing, MODIS, Greece

  9. FOCUS ON GRAPHENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, N M R; Ribeiro, Ricardo M

    2009-01-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fuerst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P Lopez-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J Gonzalez and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  3. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  4. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  5. Environmental pollution research in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This article provides and account of published research in environmental pollution carried out in South American institutions within the past 10 years. Because of the broadness of the topic, the continental dimensions of the assignment, and limitations of space and time, the article focuses on environmental research related to air, water, food, and soil. Thus, it is not a complete record, but rather a sample of published pollution research activities. The information here was obtained primarily from Dialog's electronic search of the Pollution Abstracts Database. The article also identifies other environmental problems that need the attention of South American researchers

  6. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group's organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals

  7. Behavioral Research Data Analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuelin

    2012-01-01

    This book is written for behavioral scientists who want to consider adding R to their existing set of statistical tools, or want to switch to R as their main computation tool. The authors aim primarily to help practitioners of behavioral research make the transition to R. The focus is to provide practical advice on some of the widely-used statistical methods in behavioral research, using a set of notes and annotated examples. This book will also help beginners learn more about statistics and behavioral research. These are statistical techniques used by psychologists who do research on human su

  8. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Rothman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72, and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51% had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15, and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth is common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  9. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  10. Diet Quality and Nutrient Intake of Urban Overweight and Obese Primarily African American Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Vergis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA. Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010, this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9 were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient intake and diet quality were calculated from the FFQ. Results indicated that diet quality needs improvement (HEI-2010: 66.3 (SD 10.5. Age, body mass index, employment (multivariable model only, and OA severity (bivariate model only were significant predictors of HEI-2010 total score in linear models. Mean intakes for fiber, calcium, and vitamin D were below recommendations, while percentage of calories as total fat exceeded recommendations. These findings can inform future dietary intervention trials and public health messaging for a sub-population at a high risk for obesity-related OA.

  11. Political communication research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts...... of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology......, certain strands of political science, and the effects-tradition of mass communication research. This dominant paradigm has contributed much to our understanding of some aspects of political communication. But it is struggling to make sense of many others, including questions concerning people’s experience...

  12. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ‘Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more mature...... from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems....

  13. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  14. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  15. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  16. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  17. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  18. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  19. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Antrim, L.A.; Sack, G.

    1986-01-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue

  20. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lihui; Yu, Lei; Wang, Yanli; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Qianlong; Lu, Ping; Yu, Xiufeng; Zhong, Weiwei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Cui, Ningren; Jiang, Chun; Zhu, Daling

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir) play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  1. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Qu

    Full Text Available Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII. In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  2. Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Zoë H.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Hurles, Matthew E.; Adojaan, Maarja; Alavantic, Dragan; Amorim, António; Amos, William; Armenteros, Manuel; Arroyo, Eduardo; Barbujani, Guido; Beckman, Gunhild; Beckman, Lars; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bosch, Elena; Bradley, Daniel G.; Brede, Gaute; Cooper, Gillian; Côrte-Real, Helena B. S. M.; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Evgrafov, Oleg; Gilissen, Anja; Glisic, Sanja; Gölge, Mukaddes; Hill, Emmeline W.; Jeziorowska, Anna; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Kayser, Manfred; Kivisild, Toomas; Kravchenko, Sergey A.; Krumina, Astrida; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Lavinha, João; Livshits, Ludmila A.; Malaspina, Patrizia; Maria, Syrrou; McElreavey, Ken; Meitinger, Thomas A.; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Mitchell, R. John; Nafa, Khedoudja; Nicholson, Jayne; Nørby, Søren; Pandya, Arpita; Parik, Jüri; Patsalis, Philippos C.; Pereira, Luísa; Peterlin, Borut; Pielberg, Gerli; Prata, Maria João; Previderé, Carlo; Roewer, Lutz; Rootsi, Siiri; Rubinsztein, D. C.; Saillard, Juliette; Santos, Fabrício R.; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Sykes, Bryan C.; Tolun, Aslihan; Villems, Richard; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations. Patterns of geographic differentiation are highly nonrandom, and, when they are assessed using spatial autocorrelation analysis, they show significant clines for five of six haplogroups analyzed. Clines for two haplogroups, representing 45% of the chromosomes, are continentwide and consistent with the demic diffusion hypothesis. Clines for three other haplogroups each have different foci and are more regionally restricted and are likely to reflect distinct population movements, including one from north of the Black Sea. Principal-components analysis suggests that populations are related primarily on the basis of geography, rather than on the basis of linguistic affinity. This is confirmed in Mantel tests, which show a strong and highly significant partial correlation between genetics and geography but a low, nonsignificant partial correlation between genetics and language. Genetic-barrier analysis also indicates the primacy of geography in the shaping of patterns of variation. These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift. PMID:11078479

  3. Social Media Use and its Association with Sexual Risk and Parental Monitoring among a Primarily Hispanic Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Dina L; Garnett, Chelsea; Younger, Alayna P; Stockwell, Melissa S; Soren, Karen; Catallozzi, Marina; Neu, Natalie

    2017-08-01

    In this study we assessed the association between social media (SM) use with sexual risk, and with parental monitoring among Hispanic adolescents. Self-administered anonymous survey. Urban primary care clinics. Primarily Hispanic adolescents ages 13-21 years old. Chi-square and regression analyses controlling for age and gender were used to assess associations between SM use or sexting and sexual behaviors (kissing, touching genitals, vaginal oral, and anal sex), sexual risk (≥4 lifetime partners, >1 recent partner, inconsistent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis) and contraceptive use. Similar analyses were used to assess relationships between adolescent-reported parental monitoring and SM use, and sexting. Participants with frequent SM use (social networking sites or apps) had greater odds of all sexual activity. Ever sexters had greater odds of penetrative sex only (oral, vaginal, and anal sex) as well as use of hormonal contraception (except long-acting reversible contraception). Approximately half of the participants reported parental access to profiles on SM. Female participants had higher odds of parental access to online profiles and having a parental discussion of privacy settings. Those having privacy discussions had greater odds of "private" profiles on SM and lower odds of ever sexting. Frequent SM use and sexting was associated with an increase in all types of sexual behaviors; sexting alone was associated with more lifetime and recent sexual partners. Parental discussion of privacy settings was found to be protective. Providers and parents should be aware of the effect of SM use on sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered to...

  5. Creative Approaches to Teaching Graduate Research Methods Workshops

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Reilly

    2017-01-01

    Engagement and deeper learning were enhanced by developing several innovative teaching strategies delivered in Research Methods workshops to Graduate Business Students.  Focusing primarily on students adopting a creative approach to formulating a valid research question for undertaking a dissertation successfully. These techniques are applicable to most subject domains to ensure student engagement.  Addressing the various multiple intelligences and learning styles existing within groups while...

  6. Little-known truths, quirky anecdotes, seething scandals, and even some science in the history of (primarily achievement) motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    This article presents a history of the study of motivation from approximately 1900-1975, focusing on achievement strivings and containing little-known and often surprising facts about the main contributors to this field. Four theorists are highlighted: David McClelland, Kurt Lewin, John Atkinson, and Fritz Heider, each associated with a different theoretical approach (respectively and in order of historical emergence: trait, Gestalt, expectancy/value, and attribution theory). A fifth conception, drive theory, is also represented. In addition, a number of individuals who influenced these theorists and others who followed them are discussed. The article emphasizes the interrelations between the theorists and the interaction between personal and scientific life.

  7. TRPA1 is functionally expressed primarily by IB4-binding, non-peptidergic mouse and rat sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E Barabas

    functionally expressed primarily in the IB4-positive, CGRP-negative subpopulation of small lumbar DRG neurons from rodents. Thus, IB4 binding is a better indicator than neuropeptides for TRPA1 expression.

  8. TRPA1 Is Functionally Expressed Primarily by IB4-Binding, Non-Peptidergic Mouse and Rat Sensory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    primarily in the IB4-positive, CGRP-negative subpopulation of small lumbar DRG neurons from rodents. Thus, IB4 binding is a better indicator than neuropeptides for TRPA1 expression. PMID:23133534

  9. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  10. Beam loss caused by edge focusing of injection bump magnets and its mitigation in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, transverse injection painting is utilized not only to suppress space-charge induced beam loss in the low energy region but also to mitigate foil scattering beam loss during charge-exchange injection. The space-charge induced beam loss is well minimized by the combination of modest transverse painting and full longitudinal painting. But, for sufficiently mitigating the foil scattering part of beam loss, the transverse painting area has to be further expanded. However, such a wide-ranging transverse painting had not been realized until recently due to beta function beating caused by edge focusing of pulsed injection bump magnets during injection. This beta function beating additionally excites random betatron resonances through a distortion of the lattice superperiodicity, and its resultant deterioration of the betatron motion stability causes significant extra beam loss when expanding the transverse painting area. To solve this issue, we newly installed pulse-type quadrupole correctors to compensate the beta function beating. This paper presents recent experimental results on this correction scheme for suppressing the extra beam loss, while discussing the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms with the corresponding numerical simulations.

  11. Biological half-life of bromide in the rat depends primarily on the magnitude of sodium intake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav; Babický, Arnošt; Vobecký, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2005), s. 639-644 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : biological half-life * bromide * sodium Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  12. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  13. Plasma focus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.L.

    1975-12-01

    The primary objective of this project is to provide a relatively simple pulsed power source for high density pulsed fusion studies with a variety of DT and other fusion microexplosion targets. The plasma focus operated on DT at 1 MJ should produce greater than or equal to 10 15 DT neutrons per pulse corresponding to 2800 J of nuclear energy release and for low pressure operation and appropriately configured high Z anode center should yield an x-ray burst of about 1000 J with a substantial fraction of this x-ray energy concentrated in the 5-100 kV range. Because of its x-ray and neutron production potential, the operation of the focus as an x-ray source is also under study and an initial design study for a repetitively pulsed 1 MJ plasma focus as a pulsed neutron materials testing source has been completed. The plasma focus seems particularly appropriate for application as a materials testing source for pulsed fusion reactors, for example, based on laser driven fusion microexplosions. The construction status of the device is described

  14. FOREWORD: Focus on Advanced Ceramics Focus on Advanced Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Much research has been devoted recently to developing technologies for renewable energy and improving the efficiency of the processes and devices used in industry and everyday life. Efficient solutions have been found using novel materials such as platinum and palladium-based catalysts for car exhaust systems, samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets for electrical motors, and so on. However, their realization has resulted in an increasing demand for rare elements and in their deficit, the development of new materials based on more abundant elements and new functionalities of traditional materials. Moreover, increasing environmental and health concerns demand substitution of toxic or hazardous substances with nature-friendly alternatives. In this context, this focus issue on advanced ceramics aims to review current trends in ceramics science and technology. It is related to the International Conference on Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics (STAC) held annually to discuss the emerging issues in the field of ceramics. An important direction of ceramic science is the collaboration between experimental and theoretical sciences. Recent developments in density functional theory and computer technology have enabled the prediction of physical and chemical properties of ceramics, thereby assisting the design of new materials. Therefore, this focus issue includes articles devoted to theory and advanced characterization techniques. As mentioned above, the potential shortage of rare elements is becoming critical to the industry and has resulted in a Japanese government initiative called the 'Ubiquitous Element Strategy'. This focus issue also includes articles related to this strategy and to the associated topics of energy conversion, such as phosphors for high-efficiency lighting and photocatalysts for solar-energy harvesting. We hope that this focus issue will provide a timely overview of current trends and problems in ceramics science and

  15. Instabilities in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1975-03-01

    The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairley SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stacie J Fairley, Shree R Singh, Abebayehu N Yilma, Alain B Waffo, Praseetha Subbarayan, Saurabh Dixit, Murtada A Taha, Chino D Cambridge, Vida A Dennis Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA Abstract: We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide potentiates T helper 1 (Th1 immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP, characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm, zeta potential (−14.30 mV, apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1 and interleukin (IL-12p40 (Th1/Th17 than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (IgG and IgG2a (Th1 than IgG1 (Th2 rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund's adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C

  17. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  18. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  19. An adiabatic focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Oide, K.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical analysis is made of an intense relativistic electron beam, such as would be available from a linear collider, moving through a plasma of increasing density, but density always less than that of the beam (underdense). In this situation, the plasma electrons are expelled from the beam channel and the electrons are subject to an ever-increasing focusing force provided by the channel ions. Analysis is made on the beam radiation energy loss in the classical, the transition, and the quantum regimes. It is shown that the focuser is insensitive to the beam energy spread behaviors in the nonclassical regimes, the radiation limit on lenses (the Oide limit) can be exceeded. The sensitivity of the system to the topic mismatch and the nonlinearity is also analyzed. Examples are given with SLC-type and TLC-type parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab

  20. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  1. Focus on Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    Background: Compared to other Nordic countries, Denmark has a high incidence of anal sphincter injury. Recent studies indicate that a strict focus on prevention of severe perineal trauma has decreased the incidence (1). This has resulted in changed clinical procedures in several Danish labour wards...... (2). It is, however, not clarified which of the multifaceted aspects of preventing perineal injury that might explain the decrease (3). Aims: We hypothesized that the use of structured reflection on a clinical practice by midwives and midwifery students would increase both parts’ knowledge on how...... attended the delivery, facilitated the midwife’s and the student’s structured reflection. Further, the project midwife held daily simulation workshops with midwives and students. Two focus group interviews with students and midwives were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusion...

  2. Focus Group Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    home for the arrival of school- aged children. TIP: Do not conduct focus groups in a command conference room in the command group area. Doing so...organizational effectiveness and equal opportunity/equal employment opportunity/fair treatment and sexual assault and response factors (which are listed on the... Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G

  3. Dialogicality in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The phenomenon which dialogism addresses is human interaction. It enables us to conceptualise human interaction as intersubjective, symbolic, cultural, transformative and conflictual, in short, as complex. The complexity of human interaction is evident in all domains of human life, for example, i......, because rather than applying dialogism to this or that domain, the present volume focuses on dialogicality itself to interrogate the concepts and methods which are taken for granted in the burgeoning literature. (Imprint: Nova Press)...

  4. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  5. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  6. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  7. [A research program in neutrino physics, cosmic rays and elementary particles: Tasks A, B, C, D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobel, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    A Summary of the DOE Supported High Energy Physics Research at The University of California, Irvine. Physics interests of the group are focused primarily on tests of conservation laws and studies of fundamental interactions between particles. There is also a significant interest in astrophysics and cosmic rays. The DOE support has been divided into four tasks briefly describes in this paper

  8. Constructing Men Who Teach: Research into Care and Gender as Productive of the Male Primary Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsford, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that in order to begin loosening the ties that bind care and gender in primary education, we need to re-examine the knowledge sought and found by educational research about teachers. The focus is primarily on how we understand men who teach. Through an examination of two scholarly texts -- Ashley, M., and J. Lee [2003.…

  9. Beyond Decision Making for Outdoor Leaders: Expanding the Safety Behavior Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeff S.

    2016-01-01

    The study of safety behaviour of designated outdoor leaders primarily revolves around their decision making and judgement. The last ten years, however, have seen relatively little peer-reviewed research regarding guide or instructor safety cognition and behaviour. The narrow decision making focus of modern work makes for a field of study…

  10. A Focus of Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf Peter

    2008-01-01

    In 1887, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) was originally founded as the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt (PTR) in Berlin in order to promote basic research in physics. It subsequently developed into the largest research center worldwide as a place where scientists could concentrate exclusively on their research subject, and served as a model for similar institutes established in other countries.Within a very short time, the PTR produced extremely important scientific results that cemented its international position at the top, such as Max Planck's radiation law and energy q

  11. Understand, Identify, and Respond: The New Focus of Access Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; Meyer, Kristin; Merry, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Library public services staff have primarily focused on providing services through interactions with their users. Although service quality and customer satisfaction are important in the delivery of these services, the emphasis and nature of the work have often been influenced by a library-centric philosophy rather than a user-centric philosophy.…

  12. A physical theory of focus development in plant disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zawolek, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Chapter 1. The 'diffusion theory' of focus development in plant disease is introduced. Foci develop in space and time. The theory applies primarily to air-borne fungal diseases of the foliage.

    Chapter 2. The contents of the present volume are outlined.

    Chapter 3. The

  13. Problematizing War: Reviving the Historical Focus of Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, William

    2017-01-01

    In the last forty years, peace education has broadened its focus from primarily international peace and the prevention of war to an approach that encompasses social justice, environmental education, critical theory, and multicultural education. While this is a positive evolution in many respects, there is a danger in de-emphasizing the actual…

  14. Missing data imputation: focusing on single imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-01-01

    Complete case analysis is widely used for handling missing data, and it is the default method in many statistical packages. However, this method may introduce bias and some useful information will be omitted from analysis. Therefore, many imputation methods are developed to make gap end. The present article focuses on single imputation. Imputations with mean, median and mode are simple but, like complete case analysis, can introduce bias on mean and deviation. Furthermore, they ignore relationship with other variables. Regression imputation can preserve relationship between missing values and other variables. There are many sophisticated methods exist to handle missing values in longitudinal data. This article focuses primarily on how to implement R code to perform single imputation, while avoiding complex mathematical calculations.

  15. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  16. A focused bibliography on robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, H. W.

    1983-08-01

    The present bibliography focuses on eight robotics-related topics believed by the author to be of special interest to researchers in the field of industrial electronics: robots, sensors, kinematics, dynamics, control systems, actuators, vision, economics, and robot applications. This literature search was conducted through the 1970-present COMPENDEX data base, which provides world-wide coverage of nearly 3500 journals, conference proceedings and reports, and the 1969-1981 INSPEC data base, which is the largest for the English language in the fields of physics, electrotechnology, computers, and control.

  17. Focus on topological quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachos, Jiannis K; Simon, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Topological quantum computation started as a niche area of research aimed at employing particles with exotic statistics, called anyons, for performing quantum computation. Soon it evolved to include a wide variety of disciplines. Advances in the understanding of anyon properties inspired new quantum algorithms and helped in the characterization of topological phases of matter and their experimental realization. The conceptual appeal of topological systems as well as their promise for building fault-tolerant quantum technologies fuelled the fascination in this field. This ‘focus on’ collection brings together several of the latest developments in the field and facilitates the synergy between different approaches. (editorial)

  18. Accessing health services through the back door: a qualitative interview study investigating reasons why people participate in health research in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Anne; Cox, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there is extensive information about why people participate in clinical trials, studies are largely based on quantitative evidence and typically focus on single conditions. Over the last decade investigations into why people volunteer for health research have become increasingly prominent across diverse research settings, offering variable based explanations of participation patterns driven primarily by recruitment concerns. Therapeutic misconception and altruism have emer...

  19. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  20. Needs of Non-Energy Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liakus, C. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non-energy focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  1. On the incidence and prevalence of child maltreatment: a research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Jud, Andreas; Fegert, J?rg M.; Finkelhor, David

    2016-01-01

    Research on child maltreatment epidemiology has primarily been focused on population surveys with adult respondents. Far less attention has been paid to analyzing reported incidents of alleged child maltreatment and corresponding agency responses. This type of research is however indispensable to know how well a child protection system works and if the most vulnerable are identified and served. Notable findings of child maltreatment epidemiological research are summarized and directions for f...

  2. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  3. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  4. Focused detection logging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining a characteristic of the media surrounding a borehole by emitting gamma radiation in at least one tightly collimated beam toward an earth formation adjacent a borehole, by detecting from a plurality of tightly collimated paths that are focused at a zone of intersection with and aligned to intersect with each emitted beam the gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media at the zones of intersection, by misaligning the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths to prevent their intersection, by detecting gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media with the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths misaligned and by determining from the detected gamma radiation a media characteristic. In one embodiment, the detection collimater used is formed of a material that is essentially opaque to gamma radiation at the energies of interest and includes a plurality of passageways that are spherically focused at a zone of intersection with one of the emitted beams of gamma radiation and that are arranged in a number of surfaces that are curved to be azimuthally symmetrical about the axis of the intersected beam. 14 figures

  5. Focus on integrated quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Patton, Brian; Sasaki, Masahide; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of research into quantum information processing is the development of technologies that are scaleable in complexity while allowing the mass manufacture of devices that promise transformative effects on information science. The demonstration that integrated photonics circuits could be made to perform operations that exploit the quantum nature of the photon has turned them into leading candidates for practical quantum information processing technologies. To fully achieve their promise, however, requires research from diverse fields. This focus issue provides a snapshot of some of the areas in which key advances have been made. We are grateful for the contributions from leading teams based around the globe and hope that the degree of progress being made in a challenging and exciting field is apparent from the papers published here. (editorial)

  6. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  7. Leadership in applied psychology: Three waves of theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Robert G; Day, David V; Zaccaro, Stephen J; Avolio, Bruce J; Eagly, Alice H

    2017-03-01

    Although in the early years of the Journal leadership research was rare and focused primarily on traits differentiating leaders from nonleaders, subsequent to World War II the research area developed in 3 major waves of conceptual, empirical, and methodological advances: (a) behavioral and attitude research; (b) behavioral, social-cognitive, and contingency research; and (c) transformational, social exchange, team, and gender-related research. Our review of this work shows dramatic increases in sophistication from early research focusing on personnel issues associated with World War I to contemporary multilevel models and meta-analyses on teams, shared leadership, leader-member exchange, gender, ethical, abusive, charismatic, and transformational leadership. Yet, many of the themes that characterize contemporary leadership research were also present in earlier research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. PTSD, food addiction, and disordered eating in a sample of primarily older veterans: The mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen S; Wolf, Erika J

    2016-09-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with eating disorders (EDs) and addictive behaviors, including the relatively new construct food addiction. However, few studies have investigated mechanisms that account for these associations, and men are underrepresented in studies of EDs and food addiction. We examined whether lifetime PTSD symptoms were associated with current food addiction and ED symptoms, and whether emotion regulation (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal), which has been associated with both PTSD and EDs, mediated these relations, in a sample of trauma-exposed, male (n=642) and female (n=55) veterans. Participants were recruited from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel and completed an online questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that PTSD was directly associated with ED symptoms, food addiction, expressive suppression, and cognitive reappraisal in the full sample and with all constructs except cognitive reappraisal in the male subsample. Expressive suppression was significantly associated with ED symptoms and mediated the PTSD-ED relation. These results highlight the importance of investigating PTSD as a risk factor for food addiction and ED symptoms and the potential mediating role of emotion regulation in the development of PTSD and EDs in order to identify targets for treatments. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Watson

    Full Text Available Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  10. Focus on the Rashba effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  11. Focus on Succes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Slimák

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physical persons, and the priority is loyalty of external customers. The address is targeted to would-be authors and readers of our Journal interested in engineering and management of quality of mutually correlate entities.

  12. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J

    2004-01-01

    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  13. The FOCUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a distinct feature among people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and pose a barrier to functional recovery. Insufficient evidence exists on how to ameliorate these cognitive deficits in patients at UHR for psychosis and hence improve daily living and quality...... of life. The aim of the trial is to investigate whether cognitive remediation can improve cognitive and psychosocial function in patients at UHR for psychosis. METHODS: The FOCUS trial (Function and Overall Cognition in Ultra-high risk States) is a randomised, parallel group, observer-blinded clinical...... trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...

  14. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  15. Moving forward research agendas on international NGOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw; Lewis, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper sates out an argument for moving forwrd research on non-governmental organisations (NGOs)within development studies. The body of research on NGOs that emerged from the late 1980s onwards focused primarily on NGO roles as development actors and their organisational attributes, but pais ...... less attention to theory and context. While such research had many positive strenghts, it was also criticised for its normative focus, and for its vulnerability to changing development fashions and donor preoccupations. Today, attitudes to NGOs have grown more complex and ambiguous......, and the institutional landscape in which NGOs are embedded is undergoing rapid change. A new wave of NGO-related reserach is underway which gives particular emphasis to theory, agency, method and context. Such approaches have the potential to consolidate the field of NGO research within development studies as a more...

  16. DESY: focuses on HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-12-15

    On 1 October, a special 'FestKolloquium' at DESY marked the official start of the research programme at the new HERA electron-proton collider, which began operations earlier this year. The timing could not have been better, as HERA performance had improved by a factor of ten during the two weeks beforehand. More than 600 guests assembled in one of the big halls previously used for assembly of major components for HERA experiments.

  17. DESY: focuses on HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    On 1 October, a special 'FestKolloquium' at DESY marked the official start of the research programme at the new HERA electron-proton collider, which began operations earlier this year. The timing could not have been better, as HERA performance had improved by a factor of ten during the two weeks beforehand. More than 600 guests assembled in one of the big halls previously used for assembly of major components for HERA experiments

  18. Travel industry as a focus on regional development: Case study of the Mediterranean France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a regionalization of the Mediterranean France with regard to tourism, as well as basic economic sectors present in the region. The study included three administrative regions of this part of France: Provence - Alpes - Cote d'Azur, Languedoc - Roussillon and the Island of Corsica, where the travel industry is defined as dominant. The subject of this research is to study the area of the Mediterranean France, primarily from the aspect of tourism. Special attention is focused on the identification of economic and socioeconomic importance that tourism has on the overall economic development of the region, in order to enable the implementation of tourism regionalization. In order to tourism regionalization of this area carried out, it is necessary to include research components, such as geographic environment, tourist motives and attractions that are located in this area, as well as other elements relevant to the separation of the region from the neighboring regions of France.

  19. Focus on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanner, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    An assessment is made of what was learned from Halley and recommendations are made for future directions for infrared studies of comets and supporting lab investigations. The following issues are addressed: (1) What steps can be taken to achieve consistent interpretation of Halley infrared data; (2) How successful has the Halley Watch been for infrared studies; (3) What supporting lab research is needed; (4) What are the key infrared observations needed for future comets; and (5) How do current and future NASA programs relate to comet studies

  20. Focus On: Neurotransmitter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Puglia, Michael P.; Zucca, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Neurotransmitter systems have been long recognized as important targets of the developmental actions of alcohol (i.e., ethanol). Short- and long-term effects of ethanol on amino acid (e.g., γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate) and biogenic amine (e.g., serotonin and dopamine) neurotransmitters have been demonstrated in animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Researchers have detected ethanol effects after exposure during developmental periods equivalent to the first, second, and third trimesters of human pregnancy. Results support the recommendation that pregnant women should abstain from drinking—even small quantities—as effects of ethanol on neurotransmitter systems have been detected at low levels of exposure. Recent studies have elucidated new mechanisms and/or consequences of the actions of ethanol on amino acid and biogenic amine neurotransmitter systems. Alterations in these neurotransmitter systems could, in part, be responsible for many of the conditions associated with FASD, including (1) learning, memory, and attention deficits; (2) motor coordination impairments; (3) abnormal responsiveness to stress; and (4) increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as substance abuse and depression, and also neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. However, future research is needed to conclusively establish a causal relationship between these conditions and developmental dysfunctions in neurotransmitter systems. PMID:23580048

  1. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Vanttola, T.

    1991-10-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1991. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  2. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  3. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  4. Trends of Mobile Learning in Computing Education from 2006 to 2014: A Systematic Review of Research Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anohah, Ebenezer; Oyelere, Solomon Sunday; Suhonen, Jarkko

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the existing research regarding mobile learning in computing education has primarily focused on studying the effectiveness of, and in some cases reporting about, implemented mobile learning solutions. However, it is equally important to explore development and application perspectives on the integration of mobile learning into…

  5. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  6. Energy in focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, G.; Stegelmann, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    Part one of the publication abstracted contains some introductory information about different aspects of energy supply. The publication summarizes a number of papers held in connection with a project dealing with the 'social compatibility of energy systems'. The papers were presented to different groups interested in the subject by technico-scientific experts from university or research institutes. In a popular way the papers discuss the properties of different energy sources and deal with different conversion techniques applied on the electric power and heat market. They point out environmental effects, health and safety risks of energy systems and economic aspects of different energy systems. Part two deals with competing long-term energy systems in the Federal Republic of Germany, that is with the four 'energy paths' of the Enquete Commission. The paths are covering a large variety of feasible developments and trends and therefore reflect all aspects of the energy debate to their full extent. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Focus on psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The concept of psychosis has been shaped by traditions in the concepts of mental disorders during the last 170 years. The term “psychosis” still lacks a unified definition, but denotes a clinical construct composed of several symptoms. Delusions, hallucinations, and thought disorders are the core clinical features. The search for a common denominator of psychotic symptoms points toward combinations of neuropsychological mechanisms resulting in reality distortion. To advance the elucidation of the causes and the pathophysiology of the symptoms of psychosis, a deconstruction of the term into its component symptoms is therefore warranted. Current research is dealing with the delineation from “normality”, the genetic underpinnings, and the causes and pathophysiology of the symptoms of psychosis. PMID:25987859

  8. Software Startups - A Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Unterkalmsteiner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Software startup companies develop innovative, software-intensive products within limited time frames and with few resources, searching for sustainable and scalable business models. Software startups are quite distinct from traditional mature software companies, but also from micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises, introducing new challenges relevant for software engineering research. This paper's research agenda focuses on software engineering in startups, identifying, in particular, 70+ research questions in the areas of supporting startup engineering activities, startup evolution models and patterns, ecosystems and innovation hubs, human aspects in software startups, applying startup concepts in non-startup environments, and methodologies and theories for startup research. We connect and motivate this research agenda with past studies in software startup research, while pointing out possible future directions. While all authors of this research agenda have their main background in Software Engineering or Computer Science, their interest in software startups broadens the perspective to the challenges, but also to the opportunities that emerge from multi-disciplinary research. Our audience is therefore primarily software engineering researchers, even though we aim at stimulating collaborations and research that crosses disciplinary boundaries. We believe that with this research agenda we cover a wide spectrum of the software startup industry current needs.

  9. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Tweddell

    2017-01-01

    , and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on the latter, this paper presents five studies on upper secondary and higher education teachers’ professional development and on teaching and learning through video conferencing. Through analysis and discussion of these studies’ findings, we argue......This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice...... that workshops provide a platform that can aid researchers in identifying and exploring relevant factors in a given domain by providing means for understanding complex work and knowledge processes that are supported by technology (for example, e-learning). The approach supports identifying factors...

  10. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  11. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  12. Alcohol Use and Mental Health Conditions Among Black College Males: Do Those Attending Postsecondary Minority Institutions Fare Better Than Those at Primarily White Institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Jackson, Zachary; Watkins, Daphne C; Goodwill, Janelle R; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2017-07-01

    While there is a sizeable body of research examining the association between alcohol use and mental health conditions among college students, there are sparse investigations specifically focusing on these associations among Black college students. This is concerning given Black college students face different stressors compared with their non-Black peers. Black males appear especially at risk, exhibiting increased susceptibility to mental health issues and drinking in greater quantities and more frequently than Black females. This investigation examined the association between alcohol consumption and mental health conditions among Black men attending institutions of higher education in the United States and sought to determine differences between Black men attending predominantly White institutions (PWIs) compared with those attending postsecondary minority institutions. Final sample included 416 Black men, 323 of which attended a PWI. Data were from the National College Health Assessment. Black men attending a PWI reported significantly greater levels of alcohol consumption and significantly more mental health conditions. Attendance at a minority-serving institution was associated with fewer mental health conditions among Black men. Future studies should seek to replicate these findings and conduct culturally sensitive and gender-specific research examining why Black men at PWIs report greater alcohol consumption and more mental health conditions than their peers attending postsecondary minority institutions.

  13. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  14. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G

    2014-01-01

    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  15. Nonverbal communication in the focus-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Simona TECĂU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of analysing the information obtained through focus group qualitative marketing research, a very important source of data is represented by non-verbal communication. Although the literature reveals an abundance of published material that describes how data obtained through focus group should be analysed, one of the least addressed issue is the interpretation of signals from participants: gestures, posture, dynamic and rhythm of speech or even the silence. This Article addresses precisely aspects of non-verbal communication in the focus group's and although not intended to examine in detail the results of a focus group, it shows how some of signals transmitted by participants of such research have been analysed and interpreted.

  16. Focus on Form in task-based language teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Guchte, M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents research on the way in which learners focus on grammar in task-based language teaching (TBLT). Such a focus on grammar during meaningful task performance is called a Focus on Form (FonF). For this PhD research project we conducted three experimental studies which

  17. Focus Groups as Transformative Spiritual Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Moloney PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.

  18. Research Quality Plus (RQ+)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sclarke

    The Research Quality Plus (RQ+) Assessment Instrument. Executive ... Primarily using mixed methods. Addresses .... to define the program portfolio by identifying project clusters according to the types and levels of ... qualitative narratives.

  19. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.; Mattila, L.

    1990-08-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1990. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Utilities and industry also contribute to some projects

  20. A dimensão da ética na pesquisa em saúde com ênfase na abordagem qualitativa Ethic dimension in health research focusing on the qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto de Castro e Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da dimensão ética na pesquisa em saúde, relacionando-a mais especificamente à abordagem qualitativa, a partir das contribuições das ciências sociais e em particular da etnografia, que pressupõe a construção de uma relação de confiança e respeito entre pesquisador e pesquisado que se configura paulatinamente. Os aspectos éticos permeiam a pesquisa qualitativa desde a escolha do objeto de estudo, as delimitações metodológicas, as análises dos resultados até o compromisso de uma devolutiva das informações obtidas; pressupondo a valorização de uma rela��ão interpessoal em que os diferentes interesses, valores e visões de mundo colocam-se como possibilidade ou não de uma construção conjunta do conhecimento. A escolha de um tema ou objeto de estudo está relacionada a uma trajetória de vida singular, em que a todo o momento o pesquisador deve se perguntar como compatibilizar a constituição da postura ética em relação aos pesquisados com seus desejos, sonhos, curiosidades e expectativas. O artigo tem o intuito de refletir sobre esses impasses vivenciados pelo pesquisador, ressaltando a importância da ética para o seu desenvolvimento pessoal, profissional e sociopolítico, valorizando o desejo pela autonomia do conhecimento, a solidariedade com os grupos sociais e com as pessoas envolvidas na pesquisa. A partir do relato de um processo de pesquisa, pretende-se contribuir para a compreensão de como os aspectos éticos são indissociáveis da pesquisa e do próprio pesquisador, trazendo elementos para a realização de pesquisas qualitativas especialmente no campo da saúde coletiva.This article addresses the ethical dimension in health research, relating it more specifically to the qualitative approach, based on contributions of the social sciences and ethnography in particular, as it presupposes building a relationship of trust and respect between researchers and researched subjects that is