WorldWideScience

Sample records for research exploring exposure-response

  1. Exposure-response relationships for environmental use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the following exposure-response relationships that can be used for assessing the impact of environmental noise: • Lden - annoyance relationships from the EU Position Paper on exposure-response relationships for transportation noise annoyance (EC-WG/2 2002; Env.

  2. Exploring methods in information literacy research

    CERN Document Server

    Lipu, Suzanne; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an overview of approaches to assist researchers and practitioners to explore ways of undertaking research in the information literacy field. The first chapter provides an introductory overview of research by Dr Kirsty Williamson (author of Research Methods for Students, Academics and Professionals: Information Management and Systems) and this sets the scene for the rest of the chapters where each author explores the key aspects of a specific method and explains how it may be applied in practice. The methods covered include those representing qualitative, quantitative and mix

  3. Research on geochemical exploration in geotherm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirowatari, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Yukio; Koga, Akito; Iwanaga, Tatsuto.

    1987-01-01

    The decisive factor of geotherm development is to improve the exploration techniques. By effectively carrying out the selection of promising development spots and the decision of well drilling positions, the geotherm development exceeding existing energy sources becomes feasible. There have been many problems in conventional geotherm exploration such as the high cost and long work period, therefore, it was decided to advance the research on geochemical exploration techniques which are relatively simple and can be carried out with low cost. When the techniques of geochemistry are used, for example, in the case that there are hot springs or fumaroles, the temperature, origin, properties and so on of underground hot water reservoirs can be estimated from their chemical composition. The method of examining the mercury concentration in soil and soil air has been in practical use in the geothermal districts where the ground surface symptom lacks. This time, the method of investigation using radon, thoron and gamma ray as the exploration indices was newly studied. The index compositions for geochemical exploration, new exploration index compositions, the method of measurement, the basic investigation and on-the-spot investigation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. NOAA Office of Exploration and Research > Exploration > Systematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel (E/V) Nautilus in real-time on Internet 2 and the Internet. A legacy of high quality imagery, high . Contact Information for OER Okeanos Explorer Program: Craig Russell NOAA/OAR/OER 7600 Sand Point Way NE | Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | FOIA | Web Accessibility Statement | Information Quality Copyright NOAA 2013

  5. Research studies with the International Ultraviolet Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The IUE research studies comprises 118 separate research programs involving observations, data analysis, and research conducted of the IUE satellite and the NASA Astrophysics Data Program. Herein are presented 92 programs. For each program there is a title, program ID, name of the investigator, statement of work, summary of results, and list of publications.

  6. Researching Africa : Explorations of everyday African encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Merolla, D.

    2010-01-01

    The studies in this volume are the result of research carried out by students of the Research Masters in African Studies (RMAS) at Leiden University who graduated in 2008. The studies cover such areas as conflict, democracy, migration, urban and rural studies, language, communication and youth. An

  7. Giving bad news: a qualitative research exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-06-01

    The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers' experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended.

  8. NASA Radiation Protection Research for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Heinbockel, John H.; Tweed, John; Mertens, Christopher J.; Walker, Steve A.; Blattnig, Steven R.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2006-01-01

    The HZETRN code was used in recent trade studies for renewed lunar exploration and currently used in engineering development of the next generation of space vehicles, habitats, and EVA equipment. A new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating high charge and energy (HZE) ions, light-ions and neutrons with either laboratory or space boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light-ion propagation is under development. Atomic and nuclear model requirements to support that development will be discussed. Such engineering design codes require establishing validation processes using laboratory ion beams and space flight measurements in realistic geometries. We discuss limitations of code validation due to the currently available data and recommend priorities for new data sets.

  9. Managerial Discretion: Exploring the black box of demographic research

    OpenAIRE

    Galavan, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The strategic leadership research stream is dominated by the predominantly instrumental approach of the upper echelons research stream. In recent years this research stream has been criticised for failing to develop from an exploration of whether relationships exist between managers’ background characteristics, their strategic choices and firm performances to an exploration of how managers’ characteristics influence outcomes. In this paper we build on the existing work in the s...

  10. Managerial Discretion: Exploring the Black Box of Demographic Research

    OpenAIRE

    Galavan, Robert; Kakabadse, Andrew; Kakabadse , Nada

    2009-01-01

    The strategic leadership research stream is dominated by the predominantly instrumental approach of the upper echelons research stream. In recent years this research stream has been criticized for failing to develop from an exploration of whether relationships exist between managers’ background characteristics, their strategic choices and firm performances to an exploration of how managers’ characteristics influence outcomes. In this paper we build on the existing work in the stream by sugges...

  11. Researcher-Portraitists: An Exploration of Aesthetics and Research Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccio, Leah Schoenberg; Reybold, L. Earle; Kidd, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we critique the use of portraiture as a qualitative research method, emphasizing the relationship between the fundamental aspects of portraiture and the recurring themes of research quality associated with alternative qualitative inquiry. To accomplish this goal, we conducted a study of culturally responsive practices of three…

  12. Space Exploration: Challenges in Medicine, Research, and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the challenges that space exploration faces in terms of medicine, research and ethics. The topics include: 1) Effects of Microgravity on Human Physiology; 2) Radiation; 3) Bone; 4) Behavior and Performance; 5) Muscle; 6) Cardiovascular; 7) Neurovestibular; 8) Food and Nutrition; 9) Immunology and Hematology; 10) Environment; 11) Exploration; 12) Building Block Approach; 13) Exploration Issues; 14) Life Sciences Contributions; 15) Health Care; and 17) Habitability.

  13. Searching and Archiving : Exploring Online Search Behaviors of Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; de Groot, S.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Dainoff, Marvin J.

    2007-01-01

    Searching for relevant peer-reviewed material is an integral part of corporate and academic researchers. Researchers collect huge amount of information over the years and sometimes struggle organizing it. Based on a study with 30 academic researchers, we explore, in combination, different searching

  14. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  15. Exploring research priorities in landscape architecture: An international Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, J.V.; Tobi, H.; Brink, van den A.; Morris, F.A.; Bruns, D.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the world's major challenges require responses that are embedded in landscape planning, design, and management. To date, however, it is unclear which research domains should form the core of a future landscape architecture research agenda. This study explored which domains landscape

  16. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Science and Technology for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Greg; Bailey, Brad; Gibbs, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and development and support of the international community. As part of its mission, SSERVI acts as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. The nine domestic SSERVI teams that comprise the U.S. complement of the Institute engage with the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships. SSERVI represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration enabling a deeper, integrated understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies as human exploration moves beyond low Earth orbit. SSERVI centers on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, with additional aspects of related technology development, including a major focus on human exploration-enabling efforts such as resolving Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs). The Institute focuses on interdisciplinary, exploration-related science focused on airless bodies targeted as potential human destinations. Areas of study represent the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences encompassing investigations of the surface, interior, exosphere, and near-space environments as well as science uniquely enabled from these bodies. This research profile integrates investigations of plasma physics, geology/geochemistry, technology integration, solar system origins/evolution, regolith geotechnical properties, analogues, volatiles, ISRU and exploration potential of the target bodies. New opportunities for both domestic and international partnerships are continually generated through these research and

  17. Overview of the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigut, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Human Research Program at NASA began developing a new confinement analog specifically for conducting research to investigate the effects of confinement on the human system. The HERA (Human Exploration Research Analog) habitat has been used for both 7 and 14 day missions to date to examine and mitigate exploration risks to enable safe, reliable and productive human space exploration. This presentation will describe how the Flight Analogs Project developed the HERA facility and the infrastructure to suit investigator requirements for confinement research and in the process developed a new approach to analog utilization and a new state of the art analog facility. Details regarding HERA operations will be discussed including specifics on the mission simulation utilized for the current 14-day campaign, the specifics of the facility (total volume, overall size, hardware), and the capabilities available to researchers. The overall operational philosophy, mission fidelity including timeline, schedule pressures and cadence, and development and implementation of mission stressors will be presented. Research conducted to date in the HERA has addressed risks associated with behavioral health and performance, human physiology, as well as human factors. This presentation will conclude with a discussion of future research plans for the HERA, including infrastructure improvements and additional research capabilities planned for the upcoming 30-day missions in 2016.

  18. The research on magnetic exploring abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Luoguo; Li Jingyue; Wang Zezhong

    2007-01-01

    During Word war II, a lot of chemical weapons were left by Japanese on our land. It is very difficult to explore because its complicated states underground. There is no document about the details of this. Few of the research work have been done. In order to destroy completely abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese, the paper has given a serious study on the means to explore the chemical weapons for the purpose to protect our environment and benefit our people. After plenty of research and test, we get good results. (authors)

  19. Exploring indicators of interdisciplinary research and education success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gemma; Blanch, Anicet; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Brouwer, Roy; Bucher, Christian; Farnleitner, Andreas; Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, Alexia; Loucks, Daniel Pete; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Parajka, Juraj; Pfeifer, Norbert; Rechberger, Helmut; Wagner, Wolfgang; Zessner, Matthias; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Interdisciplinary research and education programmes aim to produce groundbreaking research, often on socially relevant topics, and to produce experts with the skills to work across disciplines. However, there are many outstanding questions on the effectiveness of interdisciplinary programmes. Such as whether they produce novel and groundbreaking research, whether interdisciplinary graduates are leading to a more interdisciplinary culture of research and practice in academia and beyond, and whether an interdisciplinary approach can more effectively address issues of societal relevance than a mono-disciplinary approach. The Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems at Vienna University of Technology is currently in its eighth year and offers a valuable case study to contribute to understanding interdisciplinary research and education. Ten different research fields are covered by the Programme and because collaborative research takes place both between researchers from different research fields (cross-disciplinary research) and from researchers from the same research field (mono-disciplinary research) we are able to compare the impacts of each research type. We specifically explored three questions: i) whether cross-disciplinary research leads to more innovative scientific findings than mono-disciplinary research, ii) whether cross-disciplinary researchers develop professional skills that benefit their future careers, and iii) whether cross-disciplinary research produces findings of greater societal relevance than mono-disciplinary research. To conduct the evaluation we identified a variety of indicators. Journal impact factors (IF) and citation rates of ISI indexed publications were used to compare scientific innovativeness. Based on these indicators, our findings suggest that cross-disciplinary work is more innovative. The cross-disciplinary work is published in journals with a slightly higher impact factor (mean IF is 2.36) and receives slightly more

  20. An Antarctic research outpost as a model for planetary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D T; McKay, C P; Wharton, R A; Rummel, J D

    1990-01-01

    During the next 50 years, human civilization may well begin expanding into the solar system. This colonization of extraterrestrial bodies will most likely begin with the establishment of small research outposts on the Moon and/or Mars. In all probability these facilities, designed primarily for conducting exploration and basic science, will have international participation in their crews, logistical support and funding. High fidelity Earth-based simulations of planetary exploration could help prepare for these expensive and complex operations. Antarctica provides one possible venue for such a simulation. The hostile and remote dry valleys of southern Victoria Land offer a valid analog to the Martian environment but are sufficiently accessible to allow routine logistical support and to assure the relative safety of their inhabitants. An Antarctic research outpost designed as a planetary exploration simulation facility would have great potential as a testbed and training site for the operation of future Mars bases and represents a near-term, relatively low-cost alternative to other precursor activities. Antarctica already enjoys an international dimension, an aspect that is more than symbolically appropriate to an international endeavor of unprecedented scientific and social significance--planetary exploration by humans. Potential uses of such a facility include: 1) studying human factors in an isolated environment (including long-term interactions among an international crew); 2) testing emerging technologies (e.g., advanced life support facilities such as a partial bioregenerative life support system, advanced analytical and sample acquisition instrumentation and equipment, etc.); and 3) conducting basic scientific research similar to the research that will be conducted on Mars, while contributing to the planning for human exploration. (Research of this type is already ongoing in Antarctica).

  1. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Merging Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Schmidt, G. K.; Bailey, B. E.; Minafra, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) represents a close collaboration between science, technology and exploration, and was created to enable a deeper understanding of the Moon and other airless bodies. SSERVI is supported jointly by NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The institute currently focuses on the scientific aspects of exploration as they pertain to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars, but the institute goals may expand, depending on NASA's needs, in the future. The 9 initial teams, selected in late 2013 and funded from 2014-2019, have expertise across the broad spectrum of lunar, NEA, and Martian moon sciences. Their research includes various aspects of the surface, interior, exosphere, near-space environments, and dynamics of these bodies. NASA anticipates a small number of additional teams to be selected within the next two years, with a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) likely to be released in 2016. Calls for proposals are issued every 2-3 years to allow overlap between generations of institute teams, but the intent for each team is to provide a stable base of funding for a five year period. SSERVI's mission includes acting as a bridge between several groups, joining together researchers from: 1) scientific and exploration communities, 2) multiple disciplines across a wide range of planetary sciences, and 3) domestic and international communities and partnerships. The SSERVI central office is located at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. The administrative staff at the central office forms the organizational hub for the domestic and international teams and enables the virtual collaborative environment. Interactions with geographically dispersed teams across the U.S., and global partners, occur easily and frequently in a collaborative virtual environment. This poster will provide an overview of the 9 current US teams and

  2. Research as a Respectful Practice: An Exploration of the Practice of Respect in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the practice of respect within qualitative research methods. As interpersonal respect plays a significant role in the esteem felt within a relationship, it can also serve to cultivate trust between researchers and their participants in a research study. This article details the findings of a research study examining respect…

  3. Exploring the value of qualitative research films in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Fran; Jenkins, Sue; Seers, Kate; Barker, Karen

    2015-11-27

    Many healthcare professionals use both quantitative and qualitative research to inform their practice. The usual way to access research findings is through peer-reviewed publications. This study aimed to understand the impact on healthcare professionals of watching and discussing a short research based film. The film, 'Struggling to be me' portrays findings from a qualitative synthesis exploring people's experiences of chronic pain, and was delivered as part of an inter-professional postgraduate e-learning module. The innovation of our study is to be the first to explore the impact of qualitative research portrayed through the medium of film in clinical education. All nineteen healthcare professionals enrolled on the course in December 2013 took part in on-line interviews or focus groups. We recorded and transcribed the interviews verbatim and used the methods of Grounded Theory to analyse the interview transcripts. Watching and discussing the film became a stimulus for learning : (a) A glimpse beneath the surface explored a pro-active way of seeing the person behind the pain (b) Pitfalls of the Medical Model recognised the challenge, for both patient and clinician, of 'sitting with' rather than 'fixing' an ill person; (c) Feeling bombarded by despair acknowledged the intense emotions that the clinicians brings to the clinical encounter; (d) Reconstructing the clinical encounter as a shared journey reconstructed the time-constrained clinical encounter as a single step on a shared journey towards healing, rather than fixing. Films portraying qualitative research findings can stimulate a pro-active and dialectic form of knowing. Research-based qualitative films can make qualitative findings accessible and can be a useful resource in clinical training. Our research presents, for the first time, specific learning themes for clinical education.

  4. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Merging Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.

    2016-10-01

    Established in 2013, through joint funding from the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on science at the intersection of these two enterprises. Addressing questions of value to the human exploration program that also represent important research relevant to planetary science, SSERVI creates a bridge between HEOMD and SMD. The virtual institute model reduces travel costs, but its primary virtue is the ability to join together colleagues who bring the right expertise, techniques and tools, regardless of their physical location, to address multi-faceted problems, at a deeper level than could be achieved through the typical period of smaller research grants. In addition, collaboration across team lines and international borders fosters the creation of new knowledge, especially at the intersections of disciplines that might not otherwise overlap.SSERVI teams investigate the Moon, Near-Earth Asteroids, and the moons of Mars, addressing questions fundamental to these target bodies and their near space environments. The institute is currently composed of nine U.S. teams of 30-50 members each, distributed geographically across the United States, ten international partners, and a Central Office located at NASA Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, CA. U.S. teams are competitively selected through peer-reviewed proposals submitted to NASA every 2-3 years, in response to a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN). The current teams were selected under CAN-1, with funding for five years (2014-2019). A smaller, overlapping set of teams are expected to be added in 2017 in response to CAN-2, thereby providing continuity and a firm foundation for any directional changes NASA requires as the CAN-1 teams end their term. This poster describes the research areas and composition of the institute to introduce SSERVI to the broader planetary

  5. Research and Exploration for Operational Research Education in Industry and Engineering Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-hua; Wang, Feng-ming; Du, Gang

    2007-01-01

    On the basic of exploring the relationship of industry engineering and operational research technique, the thesis analyzes the location and utility of the operational research education in the whole industry engineering subject education. It brings forward the system design about operational research and relative class among industry engineering…

  6. Modelling of individual subject ozone exposure response kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, Edward S; Adams, William C; Walby, William F; Marion, M Susan

    2012-06-01

    A better understanding of individual subject ozone (O(3)) exposure response kinetics will provide insight into how to improve models used in the risk assessment of ambient ozone exposure. To develop a simple two compartment exposure-response model that describes individual subject decrements in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) induced by the acute inhalation of O(3) lasting up to 8 h. FEV(1) measurements of 220 subjects who participated in 14 previously completed studies were fit to the model using both particle swarm and nonlinear least squares optimization techniques to identify three subject-specific coefficients producing minimum "global" and local errors, respectively. Observed and predicted decrements in FEV(1) of the 220 subjects were used for validation of the model. Further validation was provided by comparing the observed O(3)-induced FEV(1) decrements in an additional eight studies with predicted values obtained using model coefficients estimated from the 220 subjects used in cross validation. Overall the individual subject measured and modeled FEV(1) decrements were highly correlated (mean R(2) of 0.69 ± 0.24). In addition, it was shown that a matrix of individual subject model coefficients can be used to predict the mean and variance of group decrements in FEV(1). This modeling approach provides insight into individual subject O(3) exposure response kinetics and provides a potential starting point for improving the risk assessment of environmental O(3) exposure.

  7. Doctoral research on architecture in Nigeria: Exploring domains, extending boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetokunbo Oluwole Ilesanmi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored through a literature review, the domains of research in Architecture and the nature of doctoral research, with a view to contributing to the evolving research agenda in the Nigerian context. The research method involved a descriptive and thematic analysis of the titles and abstracts of completed doctoral theses in Architecture in Nigeria, in the last 26 years (1990–2015, complemented by semi-structured interviews with six key informants. The study revealed an emphasis on Housing-related topics (34% relative to other research modules, such as׳ History and Theory׳ (20% and ׳Design and Production׳ (18%. It also reflected the limited coverage and scope of current research, relative to the global terrain, as evidenced in the article titles and contents of 45 Architecture-related Journals. The results of the interviews indicated the strong influence of supervisors׳ areas of interest in the choices of thesis titles. It highlighted reasons for the perceived focus on Housing, which reflect its unique place and multi-disciplinary nature. It concluded that extending the boundaries of architectural research at the doctoral level could be beneficial to the discipline and profession in Nigeria in order to align with global trends, while keeping cognizance of the local contexts.

  8. International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research

    OpenAIRE

    Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors’ and investigators’ experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. Research design A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 inte...

  9. PFERD Mission: Pluto Flyby Exploration/Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Gary; Zayed, Husni; Herring, Jason; Fuehne, Doug; Sutton, Kevin; Sharkey, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Pluto Flyby Exploration/Research Design (PFERD) mission will consist of a flyby spacecraft to Pluto and its satellite, Charon. The mission lifetime is expected to be 18 years. The Titan 4 with a Centaur upper stage will be utilized to launch the craft into the transfer orbit. The proposal was divided into six main subsystems: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) command, communications, and control: (3) altitude and articulation control; (4) power and propulsion; (5) structures and thermal control; and (6) mission management and costing. Tradeoff studies were performed to optimize all factors of design, including survivability, performance, cost, and weight. Problems encountered in the design are also presented.

  10. Exploring the SCOAP3 Research Contributions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) is a successful global partnership of libraries, funding agencies and research centers. This presentation will inform the audience about SCOAP3 and also delve into descriptive statistics of the United States' intellectual contribution to particle physics via these open access journals. Exploration of the SCOAP3 particle physics literature using a variety of metrics tools such as Web of Science™, InCites™, Scopus® and SciVal will be shared. ORA or Sci2 will be used to visualize author collaboration networks.

  11. Introducing NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Yvonne

    The Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and the moons of Mars. Comprised of competitively selected teams across the U.S., a growing number of international partnerships around the world, and a small central office located at NASA Ames Research Center, the institute advances collaborative research to bridge science and exploration goals. As a virtual institute, SSERVI brings unique skills and collaborative technologies for enhancing collaborative research between geographically disparate teams. SSERVI is jointly funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate and the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. Current U.S. teams include: Dr. Jennifer L. Heldmann, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA; Dr. William Farrell, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; Prof. Carlé Pieters, Brown University, Providence, RI; Prof. Daniel Britt, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL; Prof. Timothy Glotch, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY; Dr. Mihaly Horanyi, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Dr. Ben Bussey, Johns Hopkins Univ. Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD; Dr. David A. Kring, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX; and Dr. William Bottke, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO. Interested in becoming part of SSERVI? SSERVI Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) awards are staggered every 2.5-3yrs, with award periods of five-years per team. SSERVI encourages those who wish to join the institute in the future to engage current teams and international partners regarding potential collaboration, and to participate in focus groups or current team activities now. Joining hand in hand with international partners is a winning strategy for raising the tide of Solar System science around the world. Non-U.S. science organizations can propose to become either Associate or Affiliate members on a no-exchange-of-funds basis. Current international partners

  12. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankivsky, Olena; Reid, Colleen; Cormier, Renee; Varcoe, Colleen; Clark, Natalie; Benoit, Cecilia; Brotman, Shari

    2010-02-11

    Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning and significance of social

  13. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Natalie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning

  14. Rich client data exploration and research prototyping for NOAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Michael; Gladkova, Irina; Guch, Ingrid; Alabi, Paul; Shahriar, Fazlul; Bonev, George; Aizenman, Hannah

    2009-08-01

    Data from satellites and model simulations is increasing exponentially as observations and model computing power improve rapidly. Not only is technology producing more data, but it often comes from sources all over the world. Researchers and scientists who must collaborate are also located globally. This work presents a software design and technologies which will make it possible for groups of researchers to explore large data sets visually together without the need to download these data sets locally. The design will also make it possible to exploit high performance computing remotely and transparently to analyze and explore large data sets. Computer power, high quality sensing, and data storage capacity have improved at a rate that outstrips our ability to develop software applications that exploit these resources. It is impractical for NOAA scientists to download all of the satellite and model data that may be relevant to a given problem and the computing environments available to a given researcher range from supercomputers to only a web browser. The size and volume of satellite and model data are increasing exponentially. There are at least 50 multisensor satellite platforms collecting Earth science data. On the ground and in the sea there are sensor networks, as well as networks of ground based radar stations, producing a rich real-time stream of data. This new wealth of data would have limited use were it not for the arrival of large-scale high-performance computation provided by parallel computers, clusters, grids, and clouds. With these computational resources and vast archives available, it is now possible to analyze subtle relationships which are global, multi-modal and cut across many data sources. Researchers, educators, and even the general public, need tools to access, discover, and use vast data center archives and high performance computing through a simple yet flexible interface.

  15. Big Data: an exploration of research, technologies and application cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilcy J. Hernández-Leal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Big Data has become a worldwide trend and although still lacks a scientific or academic consensual concept, every day it portends greater market growth that surrounds and the associated research areas. This paper reports a systematic review of the literature on Big Data considering a state of the art about techniques and technologies associated with Big Data, which include capture, processing, analysis and data visualization. The characteristics, strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for some applications and Big Data models that include support mainly for modeling, analysis, and data mining are explored. Likewise, some of the future trends for the development of Big Data are introduced by basic aspects, scope, and importance of each one. The methodology used for exploration involves the application of two strategies, the first corresponds to a scientometric analysis and the second corresponds to a categorization of documents through a web tool to support the process of literature review. As results, a summary and conclusions about the subject are generated and possible scenarios arise for research work in the field.

  16. A LARGE HUMAN CENTRIFUGE FOR EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack J.W.A. van Loon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses concepts regarding the development of an Altered Gravity Platform (AGP that will serve as a research platform for human space exploration. Space flight causes a multitude of physiological problems, many of which are due to gravity level transitions. Going from Earth's gravity to microgravity generates fluid shifts, space motion sickness, cardiovascular deconditioning among other changes, and returning to a gravity environment again puts the astronauts under similar stressors. A prolonged stay in microgravity provokes additional deleterious changes such as bone loss, muscle atrophy and loss of coordination or specific psychological stresses. To prepare for future manned space exploration missions, a ground-based research test bed for validating countermeasures against the deleterious effects of g-level transitions is needed. The proposed AGP is a large rotating facility (diameter > 150 m, where gravity levels ranging from 1.1 to 1.5g are generated, covering short episodes or during prolonged stays of weeks or even months. On this platform, facilities are built where a crew of 6 to 8 humans can live autonomously. Adaptation from 1 g to higher g levels can be studied extensively and monitored continuously. Similarly, re-adaptation back to 1 g, after a prolonged period of altered g can also be investigated. Study of the physiological and psychological adaptation to changing g-levels will provide instrumental and predictive knowledge to better define the ultimate countermeasures that are needed for future successful manned space exploration missions to the Moon, Mars and elsewhere. The AGP initiative will allow scientific top experts in Europe and worldwide to investigate the necessary scientific, operational, and engineering inputs required for such space missions. Because so many different physiological systems are involved in adaptation to gravity levels, a multidisciplinary approach is crucial. One of the final and crucial

  17. Exposure-response relationship of neighbourhood sanitation and children's diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngmee Tiffany; Lou, Wendy; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2017-07-01

    To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrhoeal morbidity and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was two-week incidence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age (N = 269014). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity. A significant association between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity (OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.62-0.76]) was found. Exposure-relationship analyses results showed improved sanitation coverage threshold at 0.6. We found marginal degree of association (OR [95% CI] = 0.82 [0.77-0.87]) below the threshold, which, beyond the threshold, sharply increased to OR of 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67) at sanitation coverage of 1 (i.e. neighbourhood-wide use of improved household sanitation). Similar exposure-response trends were identified for urban and rural subgroups. Our findings suggest that neighbourhood sanitation plays a key role in reducing diarrhoeal diseases and that increase in sanitation coverage may only have minimal impact on diarrhoeal illness, unless sufficiently high coverage is achieved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. MAJOR SOURCE OF NEW RADAR DATA FOR EXPLORATION RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Allan N.; Jones, John Edwin; Southworth, C. Scott

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a program to acquire high-quality, side-looking, airborne-radar (SLAR) imagery of selected areas of the United States. The program goals were to demonstrate the usefulness of SLAR imagery for geologic exploration and geoscience applications and to make radar data readily available to the public for additional research and economic applications. Considerable SLAR imagery has been acquired already since 1980 under a mandate from the U. S. Congress. The U. S. Geological Survey is actively engaged in demonstrating the usefulness of radar imagery, and since 1980 has started more than 50 studies addressing geologic, cartographic, and hydrologic applications. All of the radar-imagery products acquired by the USGS during 1980 and 1982 have been archived and are available for public sale.

  19. Multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity: Fundamental research and strategic research for exploration of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is preparing to undertake science-driven exploration missions. The NASA Exploration Team's vision is a cascade of stepping stones. The stepping-stone will build the technical capabilities needed for each step with multi-use technologies and capabilities. An Agency-wide technology investment and development program is necessary to implement the vision. The NASA Exploration Team has identified a number of areas where significant advances are needed to overcome all engineering and medical barriers to the expansion of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Closed-loop life support systems and advanced propulsion and power technologies are among the areas requiring significant advances from the current state-of-the-art. Studies conducted by the National Academy of Science's National Research Council and Workshops organized by NASA have shown that multiphase flow and phase change play a crucial role in many of these advanced technology concepts. Lack of understanding of multiphase flow, phase change, and interfacial phenomena in the microgravity environment has been a major hurdle. An understanding of multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity is, therefore, critical to advancing many technologies needed. Recognizing this, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) has initiated a strategic research thrust to augment the ongoing fundamental research in fluid physics and transport phenomena discipline with research especially aimed at understanding key multiphase flow related issues in propulsion, power, thermal control, and closed-loop advanced life support systems. A plan for integrated theoretical and experimental research that has the highest probability of providing data, predictive tools, and models needed by the systems developers to incorporate highly promising multiphase-based technologies is currently in preparation. This plan is being developed with inputs from scientific community, NASA mission planners and industry personnel

  20. 78 FR 20696 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... topics: --Overview of Research in Space Life and Physical Sciences --Space Station and Future Exploration... Exploration and Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... of the Research Subcommittee of the Human Exploration and Operations Committee (HEOC) of the NASA...

  1. Exploring interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care: case study based observational research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Eileen M.; Morgan, Sonya J.; Gray, Ben V.; Macdonald, Lindsay M.; Pullon, Susan R.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The increase in multimorbidity or co-occurring chronic illnesses is a leading healthcare concern. Patients with multimorbidity require ongoing care from many different professionals and agencies, and often report a lack of integrated care. Objective To explore the daily help-seeking behaviours of patients with multimorbidity, including which health professionals they seek help from, how professionals work together, and perceptions and characteristics of effective interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care. Design Using a case study observational research design, multiple data sources were assembled for four patients with multimorbidity, identified by two general practitioners in New Zealand. In this paper, two case studies are presented, including the recorded instances of contact and communication between patients and professionals, and between professionals. Professional interactions were categorized as consultation, coordination, or collaboration. Results The two case studies illustrated two female patients with likely similar educational levels, but with different profiles of multimorbidity, social circumstances, and personal capabilities, involving various professionals and agencies. Engagement between professionals showed varying levels of interaction and a lack of clarity about leadership or care coordination. The majority of interactions were one-to-one consultations and rarely involved coordination and collaboration. Patients were rarely included in communications between professionals. Conclusion Cases constructed from multiple data sources illustrate the complexity of day-to-day, interprofessional, interagency multimorbidity care. While consultation is the most frequent mode of professional interaction, targeted coordinated and collaborative interactions (including the patient) are highly effective activities. Greater attention should be given to developing and facilitating these interactions and determining who should lead them. PMID

  2. Using Blogs in Qualitative Educational Research: An Exploration of Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harricharan, Michelle; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2014-01-01

    When compared with wider social research, qualitative educational research has been relatively slow to take up online research methods (ORMs). There is some very notable research in the area but, in general, ORMs have not achieved wide applicability in qualitative educational contexts apart from research that is inherently linked to the Internet,…

  3. An exposure-response database for detailed toxicity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodall, George M.

    2008-01-01

    Risk assessment for human health effects often depends on evaluation of toxicological literature from a variety of sources. Risk assessors have limited resources for obtaining raw data, performing follow-on analyses or initiating new studies. These constraints must be balanced against a need to improve scientific credibility through improved statistical and analytical methods that optimize the use of available information. Computerized databases are used in toxicological risk assessment both for storing data and performing predictive analyses. Many systems provide primarily either bibliographic information or summary factual data from toxicological studies; few provide adequate information to allow application of dose-response models. The Exposure-Response database (ERDB) described here fills this gap by allowing entry of sufficiently detailed information on experimental design and results for each study, while limiting data entry to the most relevant. ERDB was designed to contain information from the open literature to support dose-response assessment and allow a high level of automation in performance of various types of dose-response analyses. Specifically, ERDB supports emerging analytical approaches for dose-response assessment, while accommodating the diverse nature of published literature. Exposure and response data are accessible in a relational multi-table design, with closely controlled standard fields for recording values and free-text fields to describe unique aspects of the study. Additional comparative analyses are made possible through summary tables and graphic representations of the data contained within ERDB

  4. Expanding Library Support of Faculty Research: Exploring Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeanne M.; Tucker, Cory

    2013-01-01

    The changing research and information environment requires a reexamination of library support for research. This study considers research-related attitudes and practices to identify elements indicating readiness or resistance to expanding the library's role in research support. A survey of faculty conducted at the University of Nevada Las Vegas…

  5. Exploring the Eastern United States Continental Shelf with the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Pomponi, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology (CIOERT) serves NOAA priorities in three theme areas: exploring the eastern U.S. continental shelf, improving the understanding of coral and sponge ecosystems, and developing advanced underwater technologies. CIOERT focuses on the exploration and research of ecosystems and habitats along frontier regions of the eastern U.S. continental shelf that are of economic, scientific, or cultural importance or of natural hazards concern. One particular focus is supporting ocean exploration and research through the use of advanced underwater technologies and techniques in order to improve the understanding of vulnerable deep and shallow coral and sponge ecosystems. CIOERT expands the scope and efficiency of exploration and research by developing, testing, and applying new and/or innovative uses of existing technologies to ocean exploration and research activities. In addition, CIOERT is dedicated to expanding ocean literacy and building NOAA's technical and scientific workforce through hands-on, at-sea experiences. A recent CIOERT cruise characterized Gulf of Mexico mesophotic and deepwater reef ecosystems off the west Florida shelf, targeting northern Pulley Ridge. This project created and ground-truthed new sonar maps made with an autonomous underwater vehicle; conducted video and photographic transects of benthic habitat and fish using a remotely operated vehicle; and examined the connectivity of fauna from shallow to deep reef ecosystems. CIOERT was established in 2009 by FAU-Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, with University of North Carolina, Wilmington, SRI International, and the University of Miami. The primary NOAA partner is the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  6. International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Tracey; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Miiro, George; Hantrakum, Viriya; Nanvubya, Annet; Ayuo, Elizabeth; Kivaya, Esther; Kidola, Jeremiah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Parker, Michael; Njuguna, Patricia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Lang, Trudie

    2014-02-17

    To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors' and investigators' experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 interviews, five focus groups and observations of monitoring practice were conducted. Fieldwork occurred in the places where the monitoring models are coordinated and applied in Thailand, Cambodia, Uganda and Kenya. Participants included those coordinating the monitoring schemes, monitors, senior investigators and research staff. Transcribed textual data from field notes, interviews and focus groups was imported into a qualitative data software program (NVIVO V. 10) and analysed inductively and thematically by a qualitative researcher. The initial coding framework was reviewed internally and two main categories emerged from the subsequent interrogation of the data. The categories that were identified related to the conceptual framing and nature of monitoring, and the practice of monitoring, including relational factors. Particular emphasis was given to the value of a scientific and cooperative style of monitoring as a means of enhancing data quality, trust and transparency. In terms of practice the primary purpose of monitoring was defined as improving the conduct of health research and increasing the capacity of researchers and trial sites. The models studied utilise internal and network wide expertise to improve the ethics and quality of clinical research. They demonstrate how monitoring can be a scientific and constructive exercise rather than a threatening process. The value of cooperative relations needs to be given more emphasis in monitoring activities, which seek to ensure that research protects

  7. Exploring Practice-Research Networks for Critical Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Yvon; Hillier, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution that practice-research networks can make to support critical professional development in the Learning and Skills sector in England. By practice-research networks we mean groups or networks which maintain a connection between research and professional practice. These networks stem from the philosophy of…

  8. Exploring health information technology education: an analysis of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgona, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the Health Information Technology Education published research. The purpose of this study was to examine selected literature using variables such as journal frequency, keyword analysis, universities associated with the research and geographic diversity. The analysis presented in this paper has identified intellectually significant studies that have contributed to the development and accumulation of intellectual wealth of Health Information Technology. The keyword analysis suggests that Health Information Technology research has evolved from establishing concepts and domains of health information systems, technology and management to contemporary issues such as education, outsourcing, web services and security. The research findings have implications for educators, researchers, journal.

  9. An ethical exploration of barriers to research on controlled drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDREAE, Michael H; RHODES, Evelyn; BOURGOISE, Tylor; CARTER, George; WHITE, Robert S.; INDYK, Debbie; SACKS, Henry; RHODES, Rosamond

    2016-01-01

    We examine the ethical, social and regulatory barriers that may hamper research on therapeutic potential of certain controversial controlled substances like marijuana, heroin or ketamine. Hazards for individuals and society, and their potential adverse effects on communities may be good reasons for limiting access and justify careful monitoring of certain substances. Overly strict regulations, fear of legal consequences, stigma associated with abuse and populations using illicit drugs, and lack of funding may hinder research on their considerable therapeutic potential. We review the surprisingly sparse literature and address the particular ethical concerns of undue inducement, informed consent, risk to participants, researchers and institutions, justice and liberty germane to the research with illicit and addictive substances. We debate the disparate research stakeholder perspectives and why they are likely to be infected with bias. We propose an empirical research agenda to provide a more evidentiary basis for ethical reasoning. PMID:26982922

  10. Exploration and thinking of dynamic scientific and technical intelligence research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xupu; Xia Yun

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the concept and types of dynamic scientific and technical intelligence, describes the characteristics and role of dynamic scientific and technical intelligence, and analyzes methods and procedures of dynamic scientific and technical intelligence research. Combined with the status quo of dynamic scientific and technical intelligence research in library of China Institute of Atomic Energy, this article makes some suggestions for strengthening dynamic scientific and technical intelligence research. (authors)

  11. Environment exploration and SLAM experiment research based on ROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhize; Zheng, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Robots need to get the information of surrounding environment by means of map learning. SLAM or navigation based on mobile robots is developing rapidly. ROS (Robot Operating System) is widely used in the field of robots because of the convenient code reuse and open source. Numerous excellent algorithms of SLAM or navigation are ported to ROS package. hector_slam is one of them that can set up occupancy grid maps on-line fast with low computation resources requiring. Its characters above make the embedded handheld mapping system possible. Similarly, hector_navigation also does well in the navigation field. It can finish path planning and environment exploration by itself using only an environmental sensor. Combining hector_navigation with hector_slam can realize low cost environment exploration, path planning and slam at the same time

  12. Research on Coal Exploration Technology Based on Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the main source of energy. In China and Vietnam, coal resources are very rich, but the exploration level is relatively low. This is mainly caused by the complicated geological structure, the low efficiency, the related damage, and other bad situations. To this end, we need to make use of some advanced technologies to guarantee the resource exploration is implemented smoothly and orderly. Numerous studies show that remote sensing technology is an effective way in coal exploration and measurement. In this paper, we try to measure the distribution and reserves of open-air coal area through satellite imagery. The satellite picture of open-air coal mining region in Quang Ninh Province of Vietnam was collected as the experimental data. Firstly, the ENVI software is used to eliminate satellite imagery spectral interference. Then, the image classification model is established by the improved ELM algorithm. Finally, the effectiveness of the improved ELM algorithm is verified by using MATLAB simulations. The results show that the accuracies of the testing set reach 96.5%. And it reaches 83% of the image discernment precision compared with the same image from Google.

  13. Exploring the New Paradigm for Researching with Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Dianne; Ellis, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Understanding children's experience is increasingly a key purpose of much educational research. In contrast to traditional approaches to the study of children that emphasized the socialization of children through various stages of development, researchers within the social constructionism perspective begin with an insistence that childhood is a…

  14. Research Methodologies Explored for a Paradigm Shift in University Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, I. M.; Blignaut, R. J.; Stoltz, D.

    2001-01-01

    Innovative teaching methods such as collaborative learning, teamwork, and mind maps were introduced to teach computer science and statistics courses at a South African university. Soft systems methodology was adapted and used to manage the research process of evaluating the effectiveness of the teaching methods. This research method provided proof…

  15. Exploring "Whakaaro": A Way of Responsive Thinking in Maori Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Carl; Southey, Kim

    2018-01-01

    The experience of researching as a Maori student within academia will often raise questions about how and whether the student's research privileges Maori world views and articulates culturally specific epistemologies. This study offers some theorising, from the perspectives of a Maori doctoral student and her Maori supervisor (the authors of this…

  16. Reflexively exploring knowledge and power in collaborative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Phillips, Louise Jane; Pedersen, Christina Hee

    will be designed in order to stimulate dialogue across different analytical perspectives and empirical research. The analytical perspectives on which facilitation will be based are rooted in social constructionist approaches to dialogic communication theory and action research. The challenges of collaborative...... knowledge forms, knowledge interests and wishes as to the research outcome. In official policy discourse and research practices, a positive picture is often painted of dialogue as a site for mutual learning on the basis of the different knowledge forms that the different participants bring with them...... of mutual learning. There are also tensions between processes of opening up for a plurality of knowledges and processes of closure in order to achieve strategic ends in the form of some kind of outcome. The basic premise underpinning this workshop is that we as researchers can best deal...

  17. Caught up in power: Exploring discursive frictions in community research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Hanson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the debate around the emancipatory claims of community-based research (CBR and identifies discursive frictions as a pivotal point upon which much of CBR practice revolves. Using a Foucauldian theoretical lens, we suggest that CBR is neither inherently emancipatory nor repressive, but that research outcomes are more often a product of power asymmetries in CBR relationships. To illustrate how power asymmetries in research relationships produce discursive frictions, several studies from our work and the literature are presented. The article provides examples of CBR relationships between the researcher and community members and relationships within the community to illustrate how power asymmetries and discursive frictions in these relationships dynamically influence research outcomes and thus alert researchers to the need to address power asymmetries not just before initiating CBR projects, but during CBR projects as well. We interrogate how power asymmetries and discursive frictions operate and are constructed in CBR in an attempt to highlight how research might be conducted more effectively and ethically. Finally, we indicate that some of the tensions and challenges associated with CBR might be ameliorated by the use of participatory facilitation methodologies, such as photo-voice and story circle discussion groups, that draw attention to power asymmetries and purposefully use more creative participatory tools to restructure power relationships and ultimately address the inequities that exist in the research process. Because CBR is continually caught up in power dynamics, we hope that highlighting some examples might offer an opportunity for increased dialogue and critical reflection on its claims of empowerment and emancipation. Keywords: discursive friction, Foucault, participatory methodologies, power asymmetries, research relationships, emancipatory research

  18. Explorative Materiality and Knowledge. The Role of Creative Exploration and Artefacts in Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Niedderer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Juxtaposing the nature of design and the foundations of research in the traditional science and humanities disciplines puts their differences into sharp relief. The comparison highlights the key characteristics of design – its creative and experiential nature – which any design research must take into account, as well as the theoretical foundations of research. The aim of this article is to develop an understanding of the ontological, epistemological and methodological issues of design research, and to offer a framework that can embrace equally the notions of creativity and experiential knowledge, and of academic rigour. Furthermore,the potential roles of the design process and artefact within research are examined within this theoretical framework, which suggests that design processes and artefacts can – if appropriately framed – play an important partin the research process, facilitating an approach commensurate with the aims ofdesign enquiry. A case study of the Niedderer’s own work serves to illustratethe balance and integration of theory and (creative practice within the research process, and how this integration can enable a multi-layered contribution to the theoretical and practical advancement of the field.

  19. Exploration of geomagnetic field anomaly with balloon for geophysical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wen-Kui

    The use of a balloon to explore the geomagnetic field anomaly in the area east of Beijing is demonstrated. The present results are compared with those of aerial surveys. Descriptions are given of the fluxgate magnetometer, the sensor's attitude control and measurement, and data transmission and processing. At an altitude of about 30 km, a positive anomaly of the vertical component of about 100 nanoteslas was measured. The results suggest that, for this particular area, the shallow layer of a small-scale geological structure differs from the deep layer of a large-scale geological structure.

  20. Exploring a pedagogical approach to integrating research, practice and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jennifer M; McKenna, Lisa G; Gilmour, Carole; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Application of evidence is accepted as an important component of clinical practice. Teaching research to undergraduate students has been reported internationally as a challenge, particularly for nurse educators. In this paper, reported is a strategy designed to enhance research learning for undergraduate midwifery students at one university, which formed part of a larger, international investigation into women's responses to caesarean birth. Following theory classes and briefings, students worked with their clinical educators in practice to interview women using existing tools, and were engaged in qualitative data analysis. A number of challenges were encountered throughout the process, both for the educators and students. However, the teaching approach provided benefits for students in learning about midwifery research. Recommended as essential is for continued development of pedagogical approaches that make research tangible for students. Furthermore, provision of support for clinical staff working with students is important for success of such approaches.

  1. Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johansson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

  2. NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Building Collaboration Through International Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, K. E.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on re-search at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. As part of the SSERVI mission, we act as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. This talk will describe the international partner re-search efforts and how we are engaging the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships.

  3. Exploring a Common Past: Researching and Interpreting the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Although the Underground Railroad has been an integral part of U.S. history and folklore for well over 150 years, the recent past has seen an increased public interest in the identification of historic sites associated with the experiences of fugitive slaves. This booklet is part of a National Park Service initiative to design research methods…

  4. What Research Says about MOOCs--An Explorative Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Bozkurt, Aras; Alturki, Uthman; Aldraiweesh, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Since the first offering of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) in 2008, the body of literature on this new phenomenon of open learning has grown tremendously. In this regard, this article intends to identify and map patterns in research on MOOCs by reviewing 362 empirical articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 2008 to 2015. For the…

  5. Research explores links between social protection and poverty ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Their research is contributing to the debate on the role of social protection and ... It stresses the relevance of cash-transfer programs on inequality and poverty ... is the focus of a recent article in The Economist that builds on Gasparini's work.

  6. Exploring Action Research as an Approach to Interactive (Participatory) Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudary, Imran Anjum; Imran, Shahida

    2012-01-01

    This investigation seeks to understand "action research" as an approach to "interactive form of evaluation". The first half of the investigation illuminates the approach with the help of the selective body of literature and the second half draws attention to its application in the field with the help of an authentic evaluation…

  7. Exploring the intricacies of contemporary Phd research process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process leading to a PhD degree award has evolved over a period of many years to become what it is today. There are important considerations and emphasis continually being placed by the degree awarding authorities on the PhD research process leading to this award. The authors of this communication wish to ...

  8. Exploring Aging Attitudes through a Puppet Making Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteland, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational programs often reduce ageism and stereotypical thinking. This author uses a mixed methods case study to investigate how attitudes may change when older adults and children participate in an intergenerational art project. The research question, "Is there a positive correlation in children's attitudes toward older adults and…

  9. Exploring the assessment of geological observation with design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, John Y.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the assessment of geological observation through the development and field testing of performance tasks. The study addressed a central challenge in geoscience education: for students to observe the world around them and make real-world connections. Yet, there existed no cohesive research approach for the study of observation in geoscience education. The research goal was to understand the assessment of geological observation. The design research of geological observation encountered the situation where few performance assessments existed and few domain-specific learning theories were available. Design research is suited to inquiries in which a domain of learning is unexplored and the phenomena needs to be supported in the classroom in order to study it. This dissertation addressed one general research question and four subquestions: (RQ) How should geological observation be assessed? (S1) What role did perception play in assessing students' geological observations? (S2) What role did explanation play in assessing students' geological observations? (S3) What role did gestures play in assessing students' geological observations? (S4) Were there performance differences between the first and second trial of the GO Inquire prototype with fourth graders? Students were supported in making geological observations with three performance tasks: GO Inquire stamp task, Cutting task, and Fieldguide task. The data set for this study consisted of student response data, videorecordings, and participant observations from seven field tests across one fourth and one fifth grade class. Three data-analytic methods, qualitative coding, item-difficulty analysis, and non-parametric comparisons, were utilized based on four mixed-method data analysis strategies: typology development, data transformation, extreme case analysis, and data consolidation. Analysis revealed that assessment should take into account the separation of visual from verbal

  10. CLIC/ILC Researchers Explore New Avenues for Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Researchers from CLIC and ILC met for their first common International Workshop on Linear Colliders, which was held in Geneva from 18 to 22 October. Although the talks were mostly scientific and technical, the political message behind them was a breakthrough, as the workshop showed the progress made in unifying the two communities.   The International Workshop on Linear Colliders (IWLC), which was organised by the European Committee for Future Accelerators, hosted by CERN, and held at CERN and the International Conference Centre in Geneva, attracted a large audience of about 500 experts. Although there have been other joint conferences between the CLIC and ILC communities before, they have all been focused on specific technical and/or managerial issues. The IWLC was part of an ongoing effort by CLIC and ILC to provide an environment in which researchers can exchange ideas, inform their peers about their most recent achievements and work together on common issues. Given the possible technical ov...

  11. Samples and data accessibility in research biobanks: an explorative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Capocasa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biobanks, which contain human biological samples and/or data, provide a crucial contribution to the progress of biomedical research. However, the effective and efficient use of biobank resources depends on their accessibility. In fact, making bio-resources promptly accessible to everybody may increase the benefits for society. Furthermore, optimizing their use and ensuring their quality will promote scientific creativity and, in general, contribute to the progress of bio-medical research. Although this has become a rather common belief, several laboratories are still secretive and continue to withhold samples and data. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey in order to investigate sample and data accessibility in research biobanks operating all over the world. The survey involved a total of 46 biobanks. Most of them gave permission to access their samples (95.7% and data (85.4%, but free and unconditioned accessibility seemed not to be common practice. The analysis of the guidelines regarding the accessibility to resources of the biobanks that responded to the survey highlights three issues: (i the request for applicants to explain what they would like to do with the resources requested; (ii the role of funding, public or private, in the establishment of fruitful collaborations between biobanks and research labs; (iii the request of co-authorship in order to give access to their data. These results suggest that economic and academic aspects are involved in determining the extent of sample and data sharing stored in biobanks. As a second step of this study, we investigated the reasons behind the high diversity of requirements to access biobank resources. The analysis of informative answers suggested that the different modalities of resource accessibility seem to be largely influenced by both social context and legislation of the countries where the biobanks operate.

  12. FINESSE Spaceward Bound - Teacher Engagement in NASA Science and Exploration Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. J. P.; Heldmann, J. L.; Sheely, T.; Karlin, J.; Johnson, S.; Rosemore, A.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Lim, D. S. S.; Garry, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, and the moons of Mars. The FINESSE science program is infused with leading edge exploration concepts since "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." The FINESSE education and public outreach program leverages the team's field investigations and educational partnerships to share the excitement of lunar, Near Earth Asteroid, and martian moon science and exploration locally, nationally, and internationally. The FINESSE education plan is in line with all of NASA's Science Mission Directorate science education objectives, particularly to enable STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education and leverage efforts through partnerships.

  13. Research and exploration on nuclear safety culture construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lifang; Zhao Hongtao; Wang Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    This thesis mainly researched the definition, characteristics, development stage and setup procedure concerning nuclear safety culture, based on practice and experiences in Technical Physics Institute of Heilongjian. Academy of Science. The author discussed the importance of nuclear safety culture construction for an enterprise of nuclear technology utilization, and emphasized all the enterprise and individual who engaged in nuclear and radiation safety should acquire good nuclear safety culture quality, and ensure the application and development of the nuclear safety cult.ure construction in the enterprises of nu- clear technological utilization. (authors)

  14. Exploring Astrobiology: Future and In-Service Teacher Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Snell, T.; Gaucher, E.; Harris, B.; Usselman, M. C.; Millman, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational Astrobiology program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to provide educators with the materials, exposure, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. A one-week, non-residential summer enrichment program for high school students was conducted and tested by two high school educators, an undergraduate student, and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired in-service teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with an undergraduate student interested in becoming a teacher through the Tech to Teaching program. The GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles which have adapted to life under extreme environmental conditions. As a result, extremophiles became the focus of a week-long, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology” curriculum aligned with the Georgia Performance Standards in Biology. Twenty-five high school students explored the adaptation and survival rates for various types of extremophiles exposed to UV radiation and desiccation; students were also introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact on everyone invested and involved in the Astrobiology program including the GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

  15. Paradigms in migration research: exploring "moorings" as a schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, B

    1995-12-01

    "When considering where migration research interests may proceed, this article suggests much could be gained by considering theories of human motivation which, in the field of social psychology, represents a theoretical progression from the behavioural and cognitive approaches. The article suggests that combining theories of human motivation with the developing understanding of cultural influences may provide linkages between, on the one hand, the personal realm of migration and, on the other, the regional institutional framework of politicoeconomic structure within which people make their decisions.... The focus is on the migrant who remains within the same broad cultural context (such as within the same nation or ethnic group), but travels away from the confines of the general area in which he or she previously resided. Thus a person undertaking intraurban relocation is not regarded here as a 'migrant', and the schema proposed will probably not apply to international migration." excerpt

  16. Commercial Research and Development: Power to Explore, Opportunities from Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Nall, Mark; Powers, C. Blake; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The technical and economic goals of commercial use of space are laudable, and are addressed as a high priority by almost every national space program and most major aerospace companies the world over. Yet, the focus of most organizational agendas and discussions tends to focus on one or two very narrow enabling aspects of this potentially large technological and economic opportunity. While government sponsored commercial launch activities and private space platforms are an integral part of efforts to leverage the commercial use of space, these activities are possibly one of the smallest parts of creating, a viable and sustainable market for the commercial use of space. Most of the current programs usually do not appropriately address some of the critical issues of the current, already interested, potential space user communities. Current programs place the focus of the majority of the user requirements on the vehicle payload weight and mass performance considerations as the primary payload economical factor in providing a commercial market with a stimulating price for gaining access to the space environment. The larger user challenges of transformation from Earth-based research and development approaches to space environment approaches are not addressed early enough in programs to impact the new business considerations of potential users. Currently, space-based research and development user activities require a large user investment in time, in development of new areas of support expertise, in development of new systems, in risk of schedule to completion, and in long term capital positioning. The larger opportunities for stimulating a strong market driven interest in commercial use of space that could result from the development of vehicle payload "leap ahead technologies" for users are being missed, and there is a real risk of limiting the potentially broader market base to support a more technologically advanced and economically lucrative outcome. A major driving

  17. Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrenz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration is a unique kind of business. Businesses providing a vast and ever-changing panoply of products to markets are a focus of several disciplines' energetic study and analysis. The product inventory problem is robust, pertinent, and meaningful, and it merits the voluminous and protracted attention received from keen business practitioners. Prototypical business practitioners, be they trained by years of business hurly-burly, or sophisticated MBAs with arrays of mathematical algorithms and computers, are not normally prepared, however, to recognize the unique nature of exploration's inventories. Put together such a business practitioner with an explorationist and misunderstandings, hidden and open, are inevitable and predictably rife. The first purpose of this paper is to articulate the inherited inventory handling paradigms of business practitioners in relation to exploration's inventories. To do so, standard pedagogy in business administration is used and a case study of an exploration venture is presented. A second purpose is to show the burdens that the misunderstandings create. The result is not just business plans that go awry, but public policies that have effects opposite from those intended

  18. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research required to facilitate assessment within qualitative evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Ingrid; Booth, Andrew; Berg, Rigmor C; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Noyes, Jane; Schroter, Sara; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2017-08-01

    To conceptualise and discuss dissemination bias in qualitative research. It is likely that the mechanisms leading to dissemination bias in quantitative research, including time lag, language, gray literature, and truncation bias also contribute to dissemination bias in qualitative research. These conceptual considerations have informed the development of a research agenda. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research is needed, including the extent of non-dissemination and related dissemination bias, and how to assess dissemination bias within qualitative evidence syntheses. We also need to consider the mechanisms through which dissemination bias in qualitative research could occur to explore approaches for reducing it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of exposure-response functions for rocket-emission toxicants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subcommittee on Rocket-Emission Toxicants, National Research Council

    ... aborted launch that results in a rocket being destroyed near the ground. Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emmission Toxicants evaluates the model and the data used for three rocket emission toxicants...

  20. Respiratory symptoms, sensitization, and exposure-response relationships in spray painters exposed to isocyanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Preller, L.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Jonkers, I.C.L.; Lammers, J.-W.; Wouters, I.M.; Doekes, G.; Wisnewski, A.V.; Heederik, D.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Associations between oligomeric isocyanate exposure, sensitization, and respiratory disease have received little attention, despite the extensive use of isocyanate oligomers. Objectives: To investigate exposure-response relationships of respiratory symptoms and sensitization in a large

  1. Performing Research at University Centers for Academic Development--An Explorative Case Study in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigmar, Martin; Edgren, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    The aim is to explore the absence or presence of, and motives for, research at centers for academic development and to problematize the research situation among academic developers. Boyer's and Healey's theories are used as lenses for the analysis based on the questionnaires that were used for data collection. The conclusion is that research is a…

  2. Addiction Studies: Exploring Students' Attitudes toward Research in a Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Raven; Simons, Lori

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to compare addiction studies and community counseling students' attitudes toward research. A survey of 66 addiction studies and 17 community counseling students in graduate programs was used to explore interest and self-efficacy in research and the research training environment. A pre/post test design was used to…

  3. Research-Based Teacher Education? Exploring the Meaning Potentials of Swedish Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvunger, Daniel; Wahlström, Ninni

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we explore the meaning potentials of teacher education in terms of the significance of a research-based approach and the different pedagogic identities that such an approach implies. The study's aim is to examine the important factors for education to be considered research-based and to identify and analyse the research base of…

  4. Exploring the alchemy of qualitative management research: Seeking trustworthiness, credibility and rigor through crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Heather; Gapp, Rod; Harwood, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we explore crystallization in terms of its contribution to qualitative management research. This exploration of crystallization is based on a postmodern view where we utilize triangulation as a point of departure. Currently, the use of crystallization is under developed in the management discipline. Qualitative literature and metaphors are utilized to develop a focus on moving qualitative management research away from positivist terms. To do this we crystalize crystallization wi...

  5. Exploring perceptions and experiences of Bolivian health researchers with research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sarah; Aalborg, Annette; Basagoitia, Armando; Cortes, Jacqueline; Lanza, Oscar; Schwind, Jessica S

    2015-04-01

    In Bolivia, there is increasing interest in incorporating research ethics into study procedures, but there have been inconsistent application of research ethics practices. Minimal data exist regarding the experiences of researchers concerning the ethical conduct of research. A cross-sectional study was administered to Bolivian health leaders with research experience (n = 82) to document their knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of research ethics committees and infrastructure support for research ethics. Results showed that 16% of respondents reported not using ethical guidelines to conduct their research and 66% indicated their institutions did not consistently require ethics approval for research. Barriers and facilitators to incorporate research ethics into practice were outlined. These findings will help inform a comprehensive rights-based research ethics education program in Bolivia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Exploring health researchers' perceptions of policymaking in Argentina: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corluka, Adrijana; Hyder, Adnan A; Winch, Peter J; Segura, Elsa

    2014-09-01

    Much of the published research on evidence-informed health policymaking in low- and middle-income countries has focused on policymakers, overlooking the role of health researchers in the research-to-policy process. Through 20 semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with researchers in Argentina's rural northwest and the capital of Buenos Aires, we explore the perspectives, experiences and attitudes of Argentine health researchers regarding the use and impact of health research in policymaking in Argentina. We find that the researcher, and the researcher's function of generating evidence, is nested within a broader complex system that influences the researcher's interaction with policymaking. This system comprises communities of practice, government departments/civil society organizations, bureaucratic processes and political governance and executive leadership. At the individual level, researcher capacity and determinants of research availability also play a role in contributing to evidence-informed policymaking. In addition, we find a recurrent theme around 'lack of trust' and explore the role of trust within a research system, finding that researchers' distrust towards policymakers and even other researchers are linked inextricably to the sociopolitical history of Argentina, which contributes to shaping researchers' identities in opposition to policymakers. For policymakers, national research councils and funders of national health research systems, this article provides a deeper understanding of researchers' perceptions which can help inform and improve programme design when developing interventions to enhance research utilization and develop equitable and rational health policies. For donors and development agencies interested in health research capacity building and achieving development goals, this research demonstrates a need for investment in building research capacity and training health researchers to interact with the public policy

  7. Exploring teacher's perceptions of concept mapping as a teaching strategy in science: An action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks Krpan, Catherine Anne

    In order to promote science literacy in the classroom, students need opportunities in which they can personalize their understanding of the concepts they are learning. Current literature supports the use of concept maps in enabling students to make personal connections in their learning of science. Because they involve creating explicit connections between concepts, concept maps can assist students in developing metacognitive strategies and assist educators in identifying misconceptions in students' thinking. The literature also notes that concept maps can improve student achievement and recall. Much of the current literature focuses primarily on concept mapping at the secondary and university levels, with limited focus on the elementary panel. The research rarely considers teachers' thoughts and ideas about the concept mapping process. In order to effectively explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary teachers, I felt that an action research approach would be appropriate. Action research enabled educators to debate issues about concept mapping and test out ideas in their classrooms. It also afforded the participants opportunities to explore their own thinking, reflect on their personal journeys as educators and play an active role in their professional development. In an effort to explore concept mapping from the perspective of elementary educators, an action research group of 5 educators and myself was established and met regularly from September 1999 until June 2000. All of the educators taught in the Toronto area. These teachers were interested in exploring how concept mapping could be used as a learning tool in their science classrooms. In summary, this study explores the journey of five educators and myself as we engaged in collaborative action research. This study sets out to: (1) Explore how educators believe concept mapping can facilitate teaching and student learning in the science classroom. (2) Explore how educators implement concept

  8. Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections From a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Tiainen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting, the group evolved its own breed of research practice based on multiple forms of triangulation. This implied the use of multiple data sources, methods, theories, and researchers, in different combinations. One of the outcomes of the work is a model for collaborative research. It highlights, among others, the importance of creating a climate for collaboration within the research group and following a process of individual and collaborative writing to achieve the potential benefits of such research. The article also identifies a set of remaining challenges relevant to collaborative research.

  9. Exploring the Challenges of Conducting Respectful Research: Seen and Unforeseen Factors within Urban School Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaroo, Julia; Dahya, Negin; Alidina, Shahnaaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of conducting respectful research within urban schools, using the example of one large-scale university-school board partnership in northwestern Toronto. The authors, three research assistants on the project, use their experiences within three of the participating schools to interrogate the research approach…

  10. Connecting the Space between Design and Research: Explorations in Participatory Research Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Glenda Amayo; Osborne, Lindy; Mewburn, Inger; Nottingham, Anitra

    2016-01-01

    In this article we offer a single case study using an action research method for gathering and analysing data offering insights valuable to both design and research supervision practice. We do not attempt to generalise from this single case, but offer it as an instance that can improve our understanding of research supervision practice. We…

  11. United States Geological Survey uranium and thorium resource assessment and exploration research program, fiscal year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offield, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Research is being conducted by the USGS for the NURE program in six fields: geochemistry and mineralogy, sedimentary environments, igneous and metamorphic environments, geophysical exploration techniques, U resource assessment, and Th resource assessment. Some FY 1979 research results are reported and discussed

  12. Current Research in Resistivity Inversion Techniques by the Lab. Of Exploration Geophysics in Thessaloniki, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsokas, G.N.; Tsourlos, P.

    2007-01-01

    The current research in various topics of ERT methods is described. The main directions of this research have been imposed by exploration problems met in practice. Therefore, it is aimed towards the construction of reliable, accurate and easy to apply procedures and algorithms

  13. Early Environmental Field Research Career Exploration: An Analysis of Impacts on Precollege Apprentices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Susan K.; Beyer, Katherine M.; Pérez, Maria; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Research apprenticeships offer opportunities for deep understanding of scientific practice, transparency about research careers, and possible transformational effects on precollege youth. We examined two consecutive field-based environmental biology apprenticeship programs designed to deliver realistic career exploration and connections to…

  14. Workshop on Research for Space Exploration: Physical Sciences and Process Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division of NASA to define contributions the microgravity research community can provide to advance the human exploration of space. Invited speakers and attendees participated in an exchange of ideas to identify issues of interest in physical sciences and process technologies. This workshop was part of a continuing effort to broaden the contribution of the microgravity research community toward achieving the goals of the space agency in human exploration, as identified in the NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) strategic plan. The Microgravity program is one of NASA'a major links to academic and industrial basic research in the physical and engineering sciences. At present, it supports close to 400 principal investigators, who represent many of the nation's leading researchers in the physical and engineering sciences and biotechnology. The intent of the workshop provided a dialogue between NASA and this large, influential research community, mission planners and industry technical experts with the goal of defining enabling research for the Human Exploration and Development of Space activities to which the microgravity research community can contribute.

  15. Nurturing the Young Shoots of Talent: Using Action Research for Exploration and Theory Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Valsa; Pascal, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the outcomes of a set of action research projects carried out by teacher researchers in 14 local education authorities in England, working collaboratively with university tutors, over a period of three years. The common aim of all the projects was to explore practical ways of nurturing the gifts and talents of children aged…

  16. Narrative health research: Exploring big and small stories as analytical tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sools, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    In qualitative health research many researchers use a narrative approach to study lay health concepts and experiences. In this article, I explore the theoretical linkages between the concepts narrative and health, which are used in a variety of ways. The article builds on previous work that

  17. Research on the Field of Education Policy: Exploring Different Levels of Approach and Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardes, Jefferson; Tello, César

    2016-01-01

    This paper, of theoretical nature, explores the levels of approach and abstraction of research in the field of education policy: description, analysis and understanding. Such categories were developed based on concepts of Bourdieu's theory and on the grounds of epistemological studies focused on education policy and meta-research. This paper…

  18. Idea Generation and Exploration: Benefits and Limitations of the Policy Delphi Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Kathy K.; Hart, Jan K.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers use the policy Delphi method to explore a complex topic with little historical context that requires expert opinion to fully understand underlying issues. The benefit of this research technique is the use of experts who have more timely information than can be gleamed from extant literature. Additionally, those experts place…

  19. New Tools for New Literacies Research: An Exploration of Usability Testing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Marlene; Moayeri, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Competency in the new literacies of the Internet is essential for participating in contemporary society. Researchers studying these new literacies are recognizing the limitations of traditional methodological tools and adapting new technologies and new media for use in research. This paper reports our exploration of usability testing software to…

  20. Exploring the visual landscape : advances in physiognomic landscape research in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhuis, S.; Lammeren, van, R.J.A.; Hoeven, van der, F.

    2011-01-01

    The book is the second volume in the Research in Urbanism Series of IOS Press and is about the combination of landscape research and planning, visual perception and Geographic Information Science. It offers clues for visual landscape assessment of spaces in cities, parks and rural areas. In that respect, it extends the long tradition in the Netherlands on physiognomic landscape research and shows the state of the art at this moment. ‘Exploring the Visual Landscape’ offers important clues for ...

  1. Exploring the Relevance of Qualitative Research Synthesis to Higher Education Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Claire; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the importance of qualitative research synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitative research synthesis…

  2. Research on the exploration and use of geothermal energy in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The current status of geothermal exploration and utilization in Austria is reviewed. Geological characteristics of geothermal fields are discussed in general, as are exploration techniques including geological surveys, geophysical surveys, remote sensing, geochemical surveys, and test drilling. The geology of Austria is described in detail, and the economic and legal problems peculiar to Austria are discussed. Certain regions may be suitable for geothermal exploitation including the Vienna basin. Research and economic recommendations are made. Three figures one table, and thirty references are provided.

  3. Exploring the use of research evidence in health-enhancing physical activity policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R.; van de Goor, Ien

    2015-01-01

    informed by research evidence compared to others. The aims of the present article are to explore the use of research evidence in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies, identify when research evidence was used, and find what other types of evidence were employed in HEPA policymaking. Methods......Background The gaps observed between the use of research evidence and policy have been reported to be based on the different methods of using research evidence in policymaking by researchers and actual policymakers. Some policies and policymaking processes may therefore be particularly well...... Multidisciplinary teams from six EU member states analysed the use of research evidence and other kinds of evidence in 21 HEPA policies and interviewed 86 key policymakers involved in the policies. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on both policy documents and interview data. Results Research evidence...

  4. Exploring evidence-policy linkages in health research plans: A case study from six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex evidence-policy interface in low and middle income country settings is receiving increasing attention. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity, is a research consortium conducting health systems explorations in six Asian and African countries: Bangladesh, India, China, Afghanistan, Uganda, and Nigeria. The cross-country research consortium provides a unique opportunity to explore the research-policy interface. Three key activities were undertaken during the initial phase of this five-year project. First, key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages in health system research were developed by FHS researchers through workshops and electronic communications. Four key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages are postulated: development context; research characteristics; decision-making processes; and stakeholder engagement. Second, these four considerations were applied to research proposals in each of the six countries to highlight features in the research plans that potentially strengthen the research-policy interface and opportunities for improvement. Finally, the utility of the approach for setting research priorities in health policy and systems research was reflected upon. These three activities yielded interesting findings. First, developmental consideration with four dimensions – poverty, vulnerabilities, capabilities, and health shocks – provides an entry point in examining research-policy interfaces in the six settings. Second, research plans focused upon on the ground realities in specific countries strengthens the interface. Third, focusing on research prioritized by decision-makers, within a politicized health arena, enhances chances of research influencing action. Lastly, early and continued engagement of multiple stakeholders, from local to national levels, is conducive to enhanced communication at the interface. The approach described has four main utilities: first

  5. Exploring Reticence in Research Methods: The Experience of Studying Psychological Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Barbara E.; Robertson, Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental element of any psychology degree, the teaching and learning of research methods is repeatedly brought into sharp focus, and it is often regarded as a real challenge by undergraduate students. The reasons for this are complex, but frequently attributed to an aversion of maths. To gain a more detailed understanding of students'…

  6. Engaging Students, Teachers, and the Public with NASA Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Foxworth, S.; Kascak, A.; Luckey, M. K.; Mcinturff, B.; Runco, S.; Willis, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Engaging students, teachers, and the public with NASA Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) assets, including Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) experts and NASA curation astromaterial samples, provides an extraordinary opportunity to connect citizens with authentic aspects unique to our nation's space program. Effective engagement can occur through both virtual connections such as webcasts and in-person connections at educator workshops and public outreach events. Access to NASA ARES assets combined with adaptable resources and techniques that engage and promote scientific thinking helps translate the science and research being facilitated through NASA exploration, elicits a curiosity that aims to carry over even after a given engagement, and prepares our next generation of scientific explorers.

  7. Towards human exploration of space: the THESEUS review series on neurophysiology research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Olivier; Clément, Gilles; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier; Pavy-LeTraon, Anne; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Blanc, Stéphane; Wuyts, Floris L; Paloski, William H

    2016-01-01

    The THESEUS project (Towards Human Exploration of Space: a European Strategy), initiated within the seventh Framework Programme by the European Commission, aimed at providing a cross-cutting, life-science-based roadmap for Europe's strategy towards human exploration of long space missions, and its relevance to applications on Earth. This topic was investigated by experts in the field, in the framework of the THESEUS project whose aim was to develop an integrated life sciences research roadmap regarding human space exploration. In particular, decades of research have shown that altered gravity impairs neurological responses at large, such as perception, sleep, motor control, and cognitive factors. International experts established a list of key issues that should be addressed in that context and provided several recommendations such as a maximal exploitation of currently available resources on Earth and in space.

  8. Qualitative Shadowing as a Research Methodology for Exploring Early Childhood Leadership in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, Marit; Hognestad, Karin; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2017-01-01

    This article explores qualitative shadowing as an interpretivist methodology, and explains how two researchers participating simultaneously in data collection using a video recorder, contextual interviews and video-stimulated recall interviews, conducted a qualitative shadowing study at six early childhood centres in Norway. This paper emerged…

  9. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Exploration 1976-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    This report, the first in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in exploration and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  10. The Influence of Education and Socialization on Radicalization: An Exploration of Theoretical Presumptions and Empirical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, T.V.M.; de Ruyter, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: Research into radicalization does not pay much attention to education. This is remarkable and possibly misses an important influence on the process of radicalization. Therefore this article sets out to explore the relation between education on the one hand and the onset or

  11. Towards the Ethical or the Unethical Side?: An Explorative Research of Greek Business Students' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karassavidou, Eleonora; Glaveli, Niki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate the ethical orientations of undergraduate business students in Greece by exploring the relations among students' internalized code of ethics, anomia and students' judgment related to ethical problem situations within classroom as well as business context. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  12. Changing Perspectives: Exploring a Pedagogy to Examine Other Perspectives about Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Bev; Mora, Helen A.; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how teachers developed and critically evaluated a range of teaching strategies that could support the discussion of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) that had the potential to be controversial. The issue was stem cell research and six New Zealand teachers of senior biology students (grades 12/13) took part in an action research…

  13. Qualitative Research in Career Development: Exploring the Center and Margins of Discourse About Careers and Working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Kenna, Alexandra C.; Murphy, Kerri A.; DeVoy, Julia E.; DeWine, David B.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the contributions of qualitative research to the study of career development and the psychology of working. Epistemological perspectives (logical positivism, postpositivism, and social constructionism) are discussed as they relate to historical context, career theories, and the various methods used within qualitative…

  14. Exploration of Textual Interactions in CALL Learning Communities: Emerging Research and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has greatly enhanced the realm of online social interaction and behavior. In language classrooms, it allows the opportunity for students to enhance their learning experiences. "Exploration of Textual Interactions in CALL Learning Communities: Emerging Research and Opportunities" is an ideal…

  15. United States Geological Survey: uranium and thorium resource assessment and exploration research program, fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offield, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Objectives and current plans are given for the following projects: uranium geochemistry and mineralogy; uranium in sedimentary environments; uranium in igneous and metamorphic environments; geophysical techniques in uranium and thorium exploration; and thorium investigations and resource assessment. Selected noteworthy results of FY 1978 research are given

  16. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on immunology research priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jean-Pol, Frippiat; Crucian, Brian E; de Quervain, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    to maintain immune homeostasis under such challenges. In the framework of the THESEUS project whose aim was to develop an integrated life sciences research roadmap regarding human space exploration, experts working in the field of space immunology, and related disciplines, established a questionnaire sent...

  17. The Influence of Education and Socialization on Radicalization: An Exploration of Theoretical Presumptions and Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pels, Trees; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: Research into radicalization does not pay much attention to education. This is remarkable and possibly misses an important influence on the process of radicalization. Therefore this article sets out to explore the relation between education on the one hand and the onset or prevention of radicalization on the other hand.…

  18. Exploring the Educative Power of an Experienced Mathematics Teacher Educator-Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Lin; Hsu, Hui-Yu; Lin, Fou-Lai; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Cheng, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the educative power of an experienced mathematics teacher educator-researcher (MTE-R) who displayed his insights and strategies in teacher professional development (TPD) programs. To this end, we propose a framework by first conceptualizing educative power based on three constructs--communication, reasoning, and…

  19. Community-engaged approaches to explore research priorities in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peay, Holly Landrum

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a series of translational research studies to explore topics of importance to a patient stakeholder community--Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy. The overarching objective was to inform a patient/family foundation's interventions and policy and advocacy approaches. Results

  20. USER FRUSTRATION IN HIT INTERFACES: EXPLORING PAST HCI RESEARCH FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF CLINICIANS' EXPERIENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Boateng, Gloria A

    2015-01-01

    User frustration research has been one way of looking into clinicians' experience with health information technology use and interaction. In order to understand how clinician frustration with Health Information Technology (HIT) use occurs, there is the need to explore Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) literature that addresses both frustration and HIT use. In the past three decades, HCI frustration research has increased and expanded. Researchers have done a lot of work to understand emotions, end-user frustration and affect. This paper uses a historical literature review approach to review the origins of emotion and frustration research and explore the research question; Does HCI research on frustration provide insights on clinicians' frustration with HIT interfaces? From the literature review HCI research on emotion and frustration provides additional insights that can indeed help explain user frustration in HIT. Different approaches and HCI perspectives also help frame HIT user frustration research as well as inform HIT system design. The paper concludes with a suggested directions on how future design and research may take.

  1. Cell biology and biotechnology research for exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, N.; North, R.

    Health risks generated by human long exposure to radiation, microgravity, and unknown factors in the planetary environment are the major unresolved issues for human space exploration. A complete characterization of human and other biological systems adaptation processes to long-duration space missions is necessary for the development of countermeasures. The utilization of cell and engineered tissue cultures in space research and exploration complements research in human, animal, and plant subjects. We can bring a small number of humans, animals, or plants to the ISS, Moon, and Mars. However, we can investigate millions of their cells during these missions. Furthermore, many experiments can not be performed on humans, e.g. radiation exposure, cardiac muscle. Cells from critical tissues and tissue constructs per se are excellent subjects for experiments that address underlying mechanisms important to countermeasures. The development of cell tissue engineered for replacement, implantation of biomaterial to induce tissue regeneration (e.g. absorbable collagen matrix for guiding tissue regeneration in periodontal surgery), and immunoisolation (e.g. biopolymer coating on transplanted tissues to ward off immunological rejection) are good examples of cell research and biotechnology applications. NASA Cell Biology and Biotechnology research include Bone/Muscle and Cardiovascular cell culture and tissue engineering; Environmental Health and Life Support Systems; Immune System; Radiation; Gravity Thresholds ; and Advanced Biotechnology Development to increase the understanding of animal and plant cell adaptive behavior when exposed to space, and to advance technologies that facilitates exploration. Cell systems can be used to investigate processes related to food, microbial proliferation, waste management, biofilms and biomaterials. The NASA Cell Science Program has the advantage of conducting research in microgravity based on significantly small resources, and the ability to

  2. The Determinants of National Funding in Trans-national Joint Research: Exploring the Proximity Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reale, E.; Spinello, A.; Zinilli, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates -using an explorative approach, why policy makers at national level engage in transnational joint research activities and mobilize dedicated financial resources. The research question is: why policy makers (either Governments or Research Funding Organisations-RFOs) in EU28 countries invest in transnational joint research activities beyond the European Framework Programmes, and what are the determinants of different levels of funding engagement? The question is relevant to understand the reasons that generate the existing imbalances within European countries as to the participation in transnational research, which are likely to create peripheries within the ERA, thus undermining the process of European integration. We assume that proximity linked to cognitive, institutional and organizational dimensions can affect the policy decisions about the level of funding (real engagement) joint European research programmes, because the closeness or distance in these dimensions generate similarities that are likely to influence the possibility of decision makers to collaborate in the implementation of research programmes. The paper also explores the existence of any effect of geographical proximity, although it is not supposed to play a role in policy decisions about investment in transnational research programmes. (Author)

  3. Exploring the research domain of consultant practice: Perceptions and opinions of consultant radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.; Paterson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This paper reports on one part of a larger study. The aim was to explore what the core domain of research means to consultant radiographers in clinical practice and to identify the key factors that facilitate or hinder research activity by this staff group. Design and method: Grounded theory research methodology was employed. This first part of the study involved electronic questionnaires being sent to all those known in consultant radiographer posts in the United Kingdom. Results: Results indicate there are variations across clinical specialties as to the amount and level of research undertaken by consultant radiographers, and not all agreed that research should be a core domain of consultant practice. Main facilitators to research were noted as: time; skills and knowledge of the researcher; a well defined research question. Main barriers to research were noted as: lack of allocated time; lack of skills/experience; clinical workload. Conclusion: Research is one of the four core domains of consultant allied health professional and nursing roles but, as yet, it is not fully embedded into those of all consultant radiographers. Many consultant radiographers appear to spend more of their time on the ‘clinical expert’ element of their role at the expense of the research domain. This study concludes that there is an urgent need for consultant radiographers to understand that research is one of the four core domains and to recognise the need to embed research into their clinical practice. - Highlights: • Consultant radiographers undertake research but have concerns about their research skills. • Research aims to improve practice and patients' experiences. • Relatively few consultant radiographers publish their work routinely. • Consultant radiographers allocate little protected time for research due to clinical demands. • Almost half of the consultant radiographers feel research should not be a core part of their roles.

  4. Field experiments on solar geoengineering: report of a workshop exploring a representative research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, David W; Duren, Riley; MacMartin, Douglas G

    2014-12-28

    We summarize a portfolio of possible field experiments on solar radiation management (SRM) and related technologies. The portfolio is intended to support analysis of potential field research related to SRM including discussions about the overall merit and risk of such research as well as mechanisms for governing such research and assessments of observational needs. The proposals were generated with contributions from leading researchers at a workshop held in March 2014 at which the proposals were critically reviewed. The proposed research dealt with three major classes of SRM proposals: marine cloud brightening, stratospheric aerosols and cirrus cloud manipulation. The proposals are summarized here along with an analysis exploring variables such as space and time scale, risk and radiative forcing. Possible gaps, biases and cross-cutting considerations are discussed. Finally, suggestions for plausible next steps in the development of a systematic research programme are presented.

  5. A framework to explore the knowledge structure of multidisciplinary research fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Shahadat; Khan, Arif; Baur, Louise A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emerging areas of a multidisciplinary research field is crucial for researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders. For them a knowledge structure based on longitudinal bibliographic data can be an effective instrument. But with the vast amount of available online information it is often hard to understand the knowledge structure for data. In this paper, we present a novel approach for retrieving online bibliographic data and propose a framework for exploring knowledge structure. We also present several longitudinal analyses to interpret and visualize the last 20 years of published obesity research data.

  6. Research for Safe and Pin-point Lunar Landing and Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 甲太郎; MATSUMOTO, Kohtaro; 佐々, 修一; SASA, Shuichi; 若林, 幸子; WAKABAYASHI, Sachiko; 片山, 保宏; KATAYAMA, Yasuhiro; 二宮, 哲次郎; NINOMIYA, Tetsujiro; 濱田, 吉郎; HAMADA, Yoshiro; 藤原, 健; FUJIWARA, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The moon is widely regarded as the next step into space for us. NASA, ESA and other agencies have recently begun new missions in the next thrust towards lunar exploration. NAL has started fundamental studies of the technologies needed for the long-term utilization of the moon as a technological and scientific base. NAL is currently taking part in the research phase of the Selenological and Engineering Explorer - B (SELENE-B) project, which was separated from SELENE in 2000, and in 2001 was de...

  7. Exploring multiple intelligences theory in the context of science education: An action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, Karen Catherine

    2000-10-01

    Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a

  8. Exploring the Concept of Learner Autonomy in Cross-Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Nga Thanh Nguyen; Donna Tangen; Denise Beutel

    2014-01-01

    This research explores how the concept of learner autonomy is understood and used in Vietnamese higher educational settings. Data were collected through interviews in Vietnamese with four university lecturers in Hanoi, Vietnam and then reported in an English language thesis. The problems confronted by the lecturers were in understanding the concept of learner autonomy, the complexities of translation equivalence for the concept from one language to another, and the impact of culture in interp...

  9. Exposure-response functions for health effects of air pollutants based on epidemiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this report is to provide exposure-response functions for health effects and air pollution, which can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses of abatement measures. When cost-effective abatement strategies for air pollution are analyzed, and when air quality standards are set, it is important to have quantitative knowledge about health damage. In spite of their shortcomings, epidemiological studies provide a sound basis for exposure-response functions because they involve a random cross section of the population. In this report the exposure-response functions apply to the relation between air pollutant concentrations and relative effect frequencies, and involve the following health effect end-points: acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in children and adults, asthma episodes in children and adults, eye irritations, headache, lung damage in children, excess mortality, lung cancer incidence. The effects are attributed to one indicator component, which in many cases is particles, but for some effects NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, or CO. A calculation procedure is suggested which makes it possible to estimate excess annual symptom-days for short-term effects using the annual average concentration. 103 refs., 1 table

  10. Predicting exposure-response associations of ambient particulate matter with mortality in 73 Chinese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Guo, Yuming; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the burden of mortality associated with particulates requires knowledge of exposure-response associations. However, the evidence on exposure-response associations is limited in many cities, especially in developing countries. In this study, we predicted associations of particulates smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM_1_0) with mortality in 73 Chinese cities. The meta-regression model was used to test and quantify which city-specific characteristics contributed significantly to the heterogeneity of PM_1_0-mortality associations for 16 Chinese cities. Then, those city-specific characteristics with statistically significant regression coefficients were treated as independent variables to build multivariate meta-regression models. The model with the best fitness was used to predict PM_1_0-mortality associations in 73 Chinese cities in 2010. Mean temperature, PM_1_0 concentration and green space per capita could best explain the heterogeneity in PM_1_0-mortality associations. Based on city-specific characteristics, we were able to develop multivariate meta-regression models to predict associations between air pollutants and health outcomes reasonably well. - Highlights: • The heterogeneity was examined in PM_1_0-mortality associations among Chinese cities. • Temperature, PM_1_0 and green space could best explain the heterogeneity. • PM_1_0-mortality associations were predicted for 73 Chinese cities. - This study provides a practical way to assess exposure-response associations and evaluate the burden of mortality in areas with insufficient data.

  11. Exploring the research domain of consultant practice: Experiences of consultant radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.; Paterson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This paper reports on one part of a larger study. The aim of the overall study was to explore what the core domain of research means to consultant radiographers in clinical practice and to identify the key factors that facilitate or hinder research activity by this staff group. Design and method: Grounded theory research methodology was employed. This second part of the study involved telephone interviews with twenty five consultant radiographers. Results: Results indicate there are variations across clinical specialties as to the amount and level of research undertaken by consultant radiographers. The principal barriers revealed were: lack of time; excessive clinical workload; lack of skills and confidence to undertake research; poor research culture; and lack of support. The main facilitators noted were: dedicated time, research training and up-skilling; mutually beneficial collaborations; managerial understanding of the research domain of the role; and research focussed on clinical demand. Conclusion: Fulfilling the clinical role is imperative and integral to the profession at consultant level; however, if it is undertaken to the detriment of the other domains then these practitioners may not be operating at ‘consultant’ level. Overall improvements must be made to ensure that the consultant radiographer role is delivering on current expectations and is safeguarded for the future of the next generation of radiographers. - Highlights: • Consultant radiographers undertake research but have concerns about their research skills. • Research aims to improve practice and patients' experiences. • Relatively few consultant radiographers publish their work regularly. • Consultant radiographers allocate little protected time for research due to clinical demands.

  12. Exploring Researchers in Dialogue: Linguistic and Educational Perspectives on Observational Data from a Sixth Grade Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helg Fottland

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on a collaborative process between two researchers from different backgrounds conducting a joint-venture classroom observation project focusing on language, communication and special education. Focusing on the connection between explorative learning situations and dialogue in relation to children's learning and identity development, the researchers cooperate on all levels in the research process. The article compares findings when approaching data from two different professional traditions, linguistics and education. The main focus is how each of the researchers approaches the data analysis. The combining of approaches in interpreting and writing is also discussed. Narratives and spoken dialogues are vital in this work; transcripts of video material from a primary school classroom are used as illustrations.

  13. A preliminary exploration of Advanced Molecular Bio-Sciences Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yutaka; Yanai, Takanori; Onodera, Jun'ichi; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Sakata, Hiroshi; Sota, Masahiro; Takemura, Tatsuo; Koyama, Kenji; Sato, Fumiaki

    2000-01-01

    Low-dose and low-dose-rate radiation effects on life-span, pathological changes, hemopoiesis and cytokine production in experimental animals have been investigated in our laboratory. In the intermediate period of the investigation, an expert committee on radiation biology, which was composed of two task groups, was organized. The purposes of the committee were to assess of previous studies and plan future research for Advanced Molecular Bio-Sciences Research Center (AMBIC). In its report, the committee emphasized the necessity of molecular research in radiation biology and ecology, and proposed six subjects for the research: 1) Molecular carcinogenesis of low-dose radiation; 2) Radiation effects on the immune system and hemopoietic system; 3) Molecular mechanisms of hereditary effect; 4) Non cancer effect of low-dose radiation; 5) Gene targeting for ion transport system in plants; 6) Bioremediation with transgenic plant and bacteria. Exploration of the AMBIC project will continue under the committee's direction. (author)

  14. Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Year Three Annual Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Yvonne; Schmidt, Greg; Kring, David; Horanyi, Mihaly; Heldmann, Jennifer; Glotch, Timothy; Rivkin, Andy; Farrell, William; Pieters, Carle; Bottke, William; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is pleased to present the 2016 Annual Report. Each year brings new scientific discoveries, technological breakthroughs, and collaborations. The integration of basic research and development, industry and academic partnerships, plus the leveraging of existing technologies, has further opened a scientific window into human exploration. SSERVI sponsorship by the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) continues to enable the exchange of insights between the human exploration and space science communities, paving a clearer path for future space exploration. SSERVI provides a unique environment for scientists and engineers to interact within multidisciplinary research teams. As a virtual institute, the best teaming arrangements can be made irrespective of the geographical location of individuals or laboratory facilities. The interdisciplinary science that ensues from virtual and in-person interactions, both within the teams and across team lines, provides answers to questions that many times cannot be foreseen. Much of this research would not be accomplished except for the catalyzing, collaborative environment enabled by SSERVI. The SSERVI Central Office, located at NASA Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, California, provides the leadership, guidance and technical support that steers the virtual institute. At the start of 2016, our institute had nine U.S. teams, each mid-way through their five-year funding cycle, plus nine international partnerships. However, by the end of the year we were well into the selection of four new domestic teams, selected through NASA's Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) process, and a new international partnership. Understanding that human and robotic exploration is most successful as an international endeavor, international partnerships collaborate with SSERVI domestic teams on a no-exchange of funds basis

  15. RESEARCH ON THE DIGITAL SIMULATION FOR THE WHOLE PROCESS OF MARS EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lyu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available China has paid considerable attention to space exploration and made great strides in the field. The first Chinese Mars Exploration Mission will be carried out in 2020. Digital simulation has been proved to be an effective and efficient means for planning and deduction in many fields. Thus, it was introduced for the Mars exploration in this paper and key technologies was researched above three aspects. First of all, complicated time-space benchmark was combed to support the interplanetary simulation. Secondly, the multi-resolution pyramid model and indexing strategy were adopted to preprocess the geographical environment data, which ensured the efficiency of data loading, browsing, and querying. Then, the activity objects were abstracted and modelled based on four aspects, including property, ephemeris, geometry, and behavior. Therefore, a digital simulation system, called Sino-Mars, was developed. The architecture of Sino- Mars consists of five layers, including data collection, data processing, scenario modelling, visualization and application layer. Using the Chinese Mars Exploration Mission slated for 2020 as an example, we demonstrated the capabilities of Sino-Mars for data integration, visualization, process deduction, and auxiliary analysis.

  16. Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

  17. A research view of supply chain management: Developments and topics for exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JR Stock

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been advances in the understanding of supply chain management (SCM since its inception in the early-1980s. However, there are still some basic issues of SCM that remain unresolved. Much of the research that has been conducted takes one or more of the following three perspectives: (1 development of methods and techniques to study SCM and its components/processes; (2 developing solutions or answers to specific supply chain-related problems or challenges; and/or (3 measuring the results or outcomes of supply chain strategies and tactics. Each of these three perspectives is briefly examined, with selected examples from the literature cited to illustrate the type of research that has been conducted. Some potential areas of research exploration are presented. The areas examined include: theory development, and SCM processes and functions.

  18. Research with School Students: Four Innovative Methods Used to Explore Effective Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Faye Heal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines four research methods we’ve employed to enhance how students from low-income backgrounds engage in research exploring effective teaching. It firstly outlines the need to be innovative, drawing Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and then moves on to explain two methods that scaffold a semi-structured interview, one child-led classroom tour and finally a creative ‘draw and tell’ approach. It argues that these methods are successful because they disrupt the researcher-participant power imbalance using the following techniques: Familiarity to the student, empowering the student to be an expert, and giving the student choice.

  19. Exploring the challenges of implementing Participatory Action Research in the context of HIV and poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Rosenthal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is having a devastating impact on South Africa and particularly on poor communities. Empowerment of communities has been identified as an important step towards mitigating the consequences and helping communities to overcome the challenges presented. Participatory Action Research (PAR has been identified as a useful methodology for the purpose of facilitating empowerment. This study explores the challenges involved in implementing PAR in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty. In this article, the author describes a PAR project that took place in 2003/ 2004 with a group of five Xhosa speaking people living with HIV/AIDS in Masiphumelele, Cape Town. The aims of the study were to: 1. Create an opportunity for the participants to engage in a participatory process aimed at self-awareness and empowerment. 2. To record and analyse this process with the intention of producing insight into the use of PAR in the context of poverty and HIV/AIDS and to identify the challenges involved. The findings of this study highlight some important insights into the process of engaging people in the PAR process and the experiences of HIV positive people living in the context of poverty. The study explores the challenges involved in the process of empowerment and examines the process of “transferring” power and control from the researcher to the participants. Challenges were uncovered both from the point of view of the researcher who had to “let go of control” and participants who had to take on control. Participants struggled with issues of low self-efficacy and learned helplessness. Fluctuations in health also contributed towards alternating periods of hope and despair and these problems had an impact on their motivation to participate in the study. Lack of motivation to participate is a challenge highlighted in the literature and explored in this study. Participation is necessary for a study of this nature to be of benefit to the community, but

  20. Exposure-response relationship of regorafenib efficacy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solms, Alexander; Reinecke, Isabel; Fiala-Buskies, Sabine; Keunecke, Anne; Drenth, Henk-Jan; Bruix, Jordi; Meinhardt, Gerold; Cleton, Adriaan; Ploeger, Bart

    2017-11-15

    To explore the relationship between regorafenib exposure and efficacy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had disease progression during sorafenib treatment (RESORCE). Exposure-response (ER) analyses for regorafenib were performed using data from a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RESORCE). Patients received 160mg regorafenib or placebo once daily (3weeks on/1week off in a 4-week cycle) with best supportive care until disease progression, death, or unacceptable toxicity. Kaplan-Meier analyses for overall survival (OS) and time-to-progression (TTP) were performed in which regorafenib-treated patients were grouped into four categories according to their estimated average exposure over 4weeks in cycle 1. While this analysis primarily focused on efficacy, a potential correlation between exposure and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was also evaluated. If any differences were observed between Kaplan-Meier plots, the ER analysis continued with a multivariate Cox regression analysis to evaluate the correlation between exposure quartile categories and the efficacy and safety parameters while taking into consideration the effect of the predefined clinically relevant demographic and baseline covariates. The functional form of the ER relationship within the regorafenib treatment group was subsequently evaluated. Based on visual assessment of the Kaplan-Meier plots, no meaningful relationship between the exposure categories and TEAEs were observed, although median OS and TTP tended to be longer in the higher exposure categories. Further ER analyses, which considered the effects of predefined covariates and the different shapes of the ER relationship, focused on efficacy. The baseline risk factors Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≥1, alpha-fetoprotein levels ≥400ng/ml, and aspartate transaminase or alanine transaminase levels >3×upper limit of normal were significantly associated with OS (Pregorafenib

  1. The power of research exploration within education: lessons from an international field hydrology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Najm, M. R.; Stewart, R. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Selker, J. S.; Lane, J. W.; Casanova, F.; Arumí, J.; Rivera, D.

    2011-12-01

    Educating the next generation of scientists requires new educational methods and unconventional approaches to facilitate the interdisciplinary scholarship required to cope with fast-paced developments in the geosciences. We believe incorporation of field training with active research missions is an effective educational model. By participating in active research and open science dialogue, students are exposed to real-world examples of the principles and processes of complex systems in a manner that allows them to develop a deeper understanding of the subject. We find students are highly motivated by the knowledge that data they collect will advance the research mission; such an environment stokes their passions and imaginations and allows the students to explore the roots of their interest in geoscience. In this context, a two-week educational field course on hydrologic processes and measurements was integrated with ongoing research in Chile to understand the effect of soil shrinkage and swelling properties on watershed hydrologic response. Students witnessed the iterative process of field-experiment design and became part of science in the making. They experienced the complexity of field work and developed problem-solving skills through the myriad of challenges presented in the acquisition of field data in a remote area. All of these factors contributed to an atmosphere of creativity that led to an outstanding research and educational experience. We find the coupling of field training with active research to be extremely rewarding, and time- and cost-effective education in this fast-paced and cost-cautious age.

  2. An Exploration of Attitudes Among Black Americans Towards Psychiatric Genetic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eleanor; Thompson, Azure

    2011-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on understanding genetic contribution to disease, inclusion of all racial and ethnic groups in molecular genetic research is necessary to ensure parity in distribution of research benefits. Blacks are underrepresented in large-scale genetic studies of psychiatric disorders. In an effort to understand the reasons for the underrepresentation, this study explored black participants’ attitudes towards genetic research of psychiatric disorders. Twenty-six adults, the majority of whom were black (n = 18) were recruited from a New York City community to participate in six 90-minute focus groups. This paper reports findings about respondents’ understanding of genetics and genetic research, and opinions about psychiatric genetic research. Primary themes revealed participants’ perceived lack of knowledge about genetics, concerns about potentially harmful study procedures, and confidentiality surrounding mental illness in families. Participation incentives included provision of treatment or related service, monetary compensation, and reporting of results to participants. These findings suggest that recruitment of subjects into genetic studies should directly address procedures, privacy, benefits and follow-up with results. Further, there is critical need to engage communities with education about genetics and mental illness, and provide opportunities for continued discussion about concerns related to genetic research. PMID:19614555

  3. "NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute" - Expanded Goals and More Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, D.; Schmidt, G.; Pendleton, Y.; Bailey, B.; Morrison, D.

    2015-10-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) has been pursuing international partnerships since its inceptionas the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), in order to both leverage the science being done by its domestic member institutions as well as to help lunar science and exploration become a greater global endeavor. The international partners of the I nstitute have pursued a broad program of lunar science stimulated by scientific partnerships enabled by the SSERVI community. Furthermore, regional partnerships have been formed such as the new pan- European lunar science consortium, which promises both new scientific approaches and mission concepts.International partner membership requires longterm commitment from both the partner and SSERVI, together with tangible and specific plans for scientific interaction that will produce results of mutual benefit to both the institute's U.S. Teams and the international partner.International partners are invited to participate in all aspects of the Institute's activities and programs, on a basis of no exchange of funds. Through these activities, SSERVI researchers and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists.This talk will present an overview of the Institute and the international nodes. We will also discuss the various processes to become a SSERVI partner as well as the opportunities available for collaborations with the SSERVI national teams.

  4. "NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute"; - Expanded Goals and New Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, D.; Schmidt, G. K.; Pendleton, Y.; Bailey, B. E.

    2014-04-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) has been pursuing international partnerships since its inception as the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), in order to both leverage the science being done by its domestic member institutions as well as to help lunar science and exploration become a greater global endeavor. The international partners of the Institute have pursued a broad program of lunar science stimulated by scientific partnerships enabled by the SSERVI community. Furthermore, regional partnerships have been formed such as the new pan-European lunar science consortium, which promises both new scientific approaches and mission concepts. International partner membership requires long-term commitment from both the partner and SSERVI, together with tangible and specific plans for scientific interaction that will produce results of mutual benefit to both the institute's U.S. Teams and the international partner. International partners are invited to participate in all aspects of the Institute's activities and programs, on a basis of no exchange of funds. Through these activities, SSERVI researchers and international partners participate in sharing ideas, information, and data arising from their respective research efforts, and contribute to the training of young scientists. This talk will present an overview of the Institute and the international nodes. We will also discuss the various processes to become a SSERVI partner as well as the opportunities available for collaborations with the SSERVI national teams.

  5. Exploring the Potential for a Consolidated Standard for Reporting Guidelines for Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hannes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consolidating a standard for reporting qualitative research remains a challenging endeavor, given the variety of different paradigms that steer qualitative research as well as the broad range of designs, and techniques for data collection and analysis that one could opt for when conducting qualitative research. Method: A total of 18 experts in qualitative research participated in an argument Delphi approach to explore the arguments that would plead for or against the development and use of reporting guidelines (RGs for qualitative research and to generate opinions on what may need to be considered in the further development or further refinement of RGs for qualitative research. Findings: The potential to increase quality and accountability of qualitative research was identified as one of the core benefits of RGs for different target groups, including students. Experts in our pilot study seem to resist a fixed, extensive list of criteria. They emphasize the importance of flexibility in developing and applying such criteria. Clear-cut RGs may restrict the publication of reports on unusual, innovative, or emerging research approaches. Conclusions: RGs should not be used as a substitute for proper training in qualitative research methods and should not be applied rigidly. Experts feel more comfortable with RGs that allow for an adaptation of criteria, to create a better fit for purpose. The variety in viewpoints between experts for the majority of the topics will most likely complicate future consolidation processes. Design specific RGs should be considered to allow developers to stay true to their own epistemological principles and those of their potential users.

  6. Exploring the use of storytelling in quantitative research fields using a multiple case study method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lori N. Hamlet

    The purpose of this study was to explore the emerging use of storytelling in quantitative research fields. The focus was not on examining storytelling in research, but rather how stories are used in various ways within the social context of quantitative research environments. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven professionals who had experience using storytelling in their work and my personal experience with the subject matter was also used as a source of data according to the notion of researcher-as-instrument. This study is qualitative in nature and is guided by two supporting theoretical frameworks, the sociological perspective and narrative inquiry. A multiple case study methodology was used to gain insight about why participants decided to use stories or storytelling in a quantitative research environment that may not be traditionally open to such methods. This study also attempted to identify how storytelling can strengthen or supplement existing research, as well as what value stories can provide to the practice of research in general. Five thematic findings emerged from the data and were grouped under two headings, "Experiencing Research" and "Story Work." The themes were found to be consistent with four main theoretical functions of storytelling identified in existing scholarly literature: (a) sense-making; (b) meaning-making; (c) culture; and (d) communal function. The five thematic themes that emerged from this study and were consistent with the existing literature include: (a) social context; (b) quantitative versus qualitative; (c) we think and learn in terms of stories; (d) stories tie experiences together; and (e) making sense and meaning. Recommendations are offered in the form of implications for various social contexts and topics for further research are presented as well.

  7. Exploring the Concept of Learner Autonomy in Cross-Cultural Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Thanh Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research explores how the concept of learner autonomy is understood and used in Vietnamese higher educational settings. Data were collected through interviews in Vietnamese with four university lecturers in Hanoi, Vietnam and then reported in an English language thesis. The problems confronted by the lecturers were in understanding the concept of learner autonomy, the complexities of translation equivalence for the concept from one language to another, and the impact of culture in interpreting the concept of learner autonomy. The paper concludes with recommendations for educators to be sensitive to cultural and linguistic considerations when transferring concepts from one culture to another.

  8. Exploring Best Practices for Research Data Management in Earth Science through Collaborating with University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Branch, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Science research data, its data management, informatics processing and its data curation are valuable in allowing earth scientists to make new discoveries. But how to actively manage these research assets to ensure them safe and secure, accessible and reusable for long term is a big challenge. Nowadays, the data deluge makes this challenge become even more difficult. To address the growing demand for managing earth science data, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) partners with the Library and Technology Services (LTS) of Lehigh University and Purdue University Libraries (PUL) on hosting postdoctoral fellows in data curation activity. This inter-disciplinary fellowship program funded by the SLOAN Foundation innovatively connects university libraries and earth science departments and provides earth science Ph.D.'s opportunities to use their research experiences in earth science and data curation trainings received during their fellowship to explore best practices for research data management in earth science. In the process of exploring best practices for data curation in earth science, the CLIR Data Curation Fellows have accumulated rich experiences and insights on the data management behaviors and needs of earth scientists. Specifically, Ting Wang, the postdoctoral fellow at Lehigh University has worked together with the LTS support team for the College of Arts and Sciences, Web Specialists and the High Performance Computing Team, to assess and meet the data management needs of researchers at the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES). By interviewing the faculty members and graduate students at EES, the fellow has identified a variety of data-related challenges at different research fields of earth science, such as climate, ecology, geochemistry, geomorphology, etc. The investigation findings of the fellow also support the LTS for developing campus infrastructure for long-term data management in the sciences. Likewise

  9. Research and innovation in the `exploring our world´ project (6-12. The example of `exploring current and historical societies´ in initial teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Estepa Giménez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present how they research and innovate in Initial Teacher Education programmes throught the `Exploring our world´ project (6-12. Along the article aspects related to the why, what for and how to teach of the curricular project are analysed by means of the example of `Exploring current and historical societies´. Trainees´ productions on this Field of Research are presented, in which they deal with the three afore-mentioned elements throught the design of didactic units that form part, like a portfolio, of the group reseach file.

  10. Cancer mortality in Chinese chrysotile asbestos miners: exposure-response relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the relationship of mortality from lung cancer and other selected causes to asbestos exposure levels. METHODS: A cohort of 1539 male workers from a chrysotile mine in China was followed for 26 years. Data on vital status, occupation and smoking were collected from the mine records and individual contacts. Causes and dates of death were further verified from the local death registry. Individual cumulative fibre exposures (f-yr/ml were estimated based on converted dust measurements and working years at specific workshops. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for lung cancer, gastrointestinal (GI cancer, all cancers and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (NMRD stratified by employment years, estimated cumulative fibre exposures, and smoking, were calculated. Poisson models were fitted to determine exposure-response relationships between estimated fibre exposures and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for age and smoking. RESULTS: SMRs for lung cancer increased with employment years at entry to the study, by 3.5-fold in ≥ 10 years and 5.3-fold in ≥ 20 years compared with <10 years. A similar trend was seen for NMRD. Smokers had greater mortality from all causes than nonsmokers, but the latter also had slightly increased SMR for lung cancer. No excess lung cancer mortality was observed in cumulative exposures of <20 f-yrs/ml. However, significantly increased mortality was observed in smokers at the levels of ≥ 20 f-yrs/ml and above, and in nonsmokers at ≥ 100 f-yrs/ml and above. A similarly clear gradient was also displayed for NMRD. The exposure-response relationships with lung cancer and NMRD persisted in multivariate analysis. Moreover, a clear gradient was shown in GI cancer mortality when age and smoking were adjusted for. CONCLUSION: There were clear exposure-response relationships in this cohort, which imply a causal link between chrysotile asbestos exposure and lung cancer and nonmalignant

  11. ["Grounded theory" develops medicine. Popular research method for exploring human behavior can discover new connections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulesius, Hans; Barfod, Toke; Ekström, Helene; Håkansson, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Grounded theory (GT) is a popular research method for exploring human behavior. GT was developed by the medical sociologists Glaser and Strauss while they studied dying in hospitals in the 1960s resulting in the book "Awareness of dying". The goal of a GT is to generate conceptual theories by using all types of data but without applying existing theories and hypotheses. GT procedures are mostly inductive as opposed to deductive research where hypotheses are tested. A good GT has a core variable that is a central concept connected to many other concepts explaining the main action in the studied area. A core variable answers the question "What's going on?". Examples of core variables are: "Cutting back after a heart attack"--how people adapt to life after a serious illness; and "Balancing in palliative cancer care"--a process of weighing, shifting, compensating and compromising when treating people with a progressive and incurable illness trajectory.

  12. Performative Research in Art Education: Scenes from the Seminar "Exploring Performative Rituals in City Space"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Stutz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In my contribution, I lay the foundations for a performative approach to art education research and then apply it to three examples from a performance seminar conducted with university students. In the process, I subject video documentaries produced during performative exploration of everyday rituals in public space, to a fresh performative analysis using media techniques. My research interest targets the reactions of passers-by as an expanded audience, i.e., it targets the qualitative changes of social space brought about by these actions of site specific art. The contribution is presented as a multimedia document with videos and animations. The parallel presentation of different media formats produces differentiating and activating readings. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802514

  13. Exploring the Gendering of Space by Using Memory Work as a Reflexive Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bryant

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available How can memory work be used as a pathway to reflect on the situatedness of the researcher and field of inquiry? The key aim of this article is to contribute to knowledge about the gendering of space developed by feminist geographers by using memory work as a reflexive research method. The authors present a brief review of feminist literature that covers the local and global symbolic meanings of spaces and the power relations within which space is experienced. From the literature they interpret themes of the interconnections between space, place, and time; sexualization of public space; and the bodily praxis of using space. Memories of gendered bodies and landscapes, movement and restricted space, and the disrupting of space allow the exploration of conceptualizations within the literature as active, situated, fragmented, and contextualized.

  14. Toolbox for Research and Exploration (TREX): Investigations of Fine-Grained Materials on Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, D. L.; Allain, J.-P.; Banks, M.; Christoffersen, R.; Cintala, M.; Clark, R.; Cloutis, E.; Graps, A.; Hendrix, A. R.; Hsieh, H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The Toolbox for Research and Exploration (TREX) is a NASA SSERVI (Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute) node. TREX (trex.psi.edu) aims to decrease risk to future missions, specifically to the Moon, the Martian moons, and near- Earth asteroids, by improving mission success and assuring the safety of astronauts, their instruments, and spacecraft. TREX studies will focus on characteristics of the fine grains that cover the surfaces of these target bodies - their spectral characteristics and the potential resources (such as H2O) they may harbor. TREX studies are organized into four Themes (Laboratory- Studies, Moon-Studies, Small-Bodies Studies, and Field-Work). In this presentation, we focus on the work targeted by the Small-Bodies Theme. The Small-Bodies' Theme delves into several topics, many which overlap or are synergistic with the other TREX Themes. The main topics include photometry, spectral modeling, laboratory simulations of space weathering processes relevant to asteroids, the assembly of an asteroid regolith database, the dichotomy between nuclear and reflectance spectroscopy, and the dynamical evolution of asteroids and the implications for the retention of volatiles.

  15. Exploring stakeholders' views of medical education research priorities: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ashley A; Cleland, Jennifer A; Johnston, Peter; Ker, Jean S; Lough, Murray; Rees, Charlotte E

    2014-11-01

    Setting research priorities is important when exploring complex issues with limited resources. Only two countries (Canada and New Zealand) have previously conducted priority-setting exercises for medical education research (MER). This study aimed to identify the views of multiple stakeholders on MER priorities in Scotland. This study utilised a two-stage design to explore the views of stakeholders across the medical education continuum using online questionnaires. In Stage 1, key informants outlined their top three MER priorities and justified their choices. In Stage 2, participants rated 21 topics generated in Stage 1 according to importance and identified or justified their top priorities. A combination of qualitative (i.e. framework analysis) and quantitative (e.g. exploratory factor analysis) data analyses were employed. Views were gathered from over 1300 stakeholders. A total of 21 subthemes (or priority areas) identified in Stage 1 were explored further in Stage 2. The 21 items loaded onto five factors: the culture of learning together in the workplace; enhancing and valuing the role of educators; curriculum integration and innovation; bridging the gap between assessment and feedback, and building a resilient workforce. Within Stage 2, the top priority subthemes were: balancing conflicts between service and training; providing useful feedback; promoting resiliency and well-being; creating an effective workplace learning culture; selecting and recruiting doctors to reflect need, and ensuring that curricula prepare trainees for practice. Participant characteristics were related to the perceived importance of the factors. Finally, five themes explaining why participants prioritised items were identified: patient safety; quality of care; investing for the future; policy and political agendas, and evidence-based education. This study indicates that, across the spectrum of stakeholders and geography, certain MER priorities are consistently identified. These

  16. An exploration for research-oriented teaching model in biology teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wanjin; Mo, Morigen; Su, Huimin

    2014-07-01

    Training innovative talents, as one of the major aims for Chinese universities, needs to reform the traditional teaching methods. The research-oriented teaching method has been introduced and its connotation and significance for Chinese university teaching have been discussed for years. However, few practical teaching methods for routine class teaching were proposed. In this paper, a comprehensive and concrete research-oriented teaching model with contents of reference value and evaluation method for class teaching was proposed based on the current teacher-guiding teaching model in China. We proposed that the research-oriented teaching model should include at least seven aspects on: (1) telling the scientific history for the skills to find out scientific questions; (2) replaying the experiments for the skills to solve scientific problems; (3) analyzing experimental data for learning how to draw a conclusion; (4) designing virtual experiments for learning how to construct a proposal; (5) teaching the lesson as the detectives solve the crime for learning the logic in scientific exploration; (6) guiding students how to read and consult the relative references; (7) teaching students differently according to their aptitude and learning ability. In addition, we also discussed how to evaluate the effects of the research-oriented teaching model in examination.

  17. The Influence of Education and Socialization on Radicalization: An Exploration of Theoretical Presumptions and Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pels, Trees; de Ruyter, Doret J

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Research into radicalization does not pay much attention to education. This is remarkable and possibly misses an important influence on the process of radicalization. Therefore this article sets out to explore the relation between education on the one hand and the onset or prevention of radicalization on the other hand. METHOD: This article is a theoretical literature review. It has analyzed empirical studies-mainly from European countries-about the educational aims, content and style of Muslim parents and parents with (extreme) right-wing sympathies. RESULTS: Research examining similarity in right-wing sympathies between parents and children yields mixed results, but studies among adolescents point to a significant concordance. Research also showed that authoritarian parenting may play a significant role. Similar research among Muslim families was not found. While raising children with distrust and an authoritarian style are prevalent, the impact on adolescents has not been investigated. The empirical literature we reviewed does not give sufficient evidence to conclude that democratic ideal in and an authoritative style of education are conducive to the development of a democratic attitude. CONCLUSION: There is a knowledge gap with regard to the influence of education on the onset or the prevention of radicalization. Schools and families are underappreciated sources of informal social control and social capital and therefore the gap should be closed. If there is a better understanding of the effect of education, policy as well as interventions can be developed to assist parents and teachers in preventing radicalization.

  18. Analysis of those national analytic epidemiological studies that by obtention the exposure-response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, E.; Meneses, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Impact Pathway methodology, developed in the frame of Extern E project for estimating of the external costs or externalities of the energy use, has as one of their main steps the health impact evaluation. This evaluation is carried out through exposure-response functions. In previous estimates of the external costs of power generation in Cuba, functions obtained in international studies were used. The main objective of this work was to carry out a summarized critical analysis of those national analytic epidemiological studies that, according the exposed methodology, consider the main aspects specialized with views to the possible preliminary proposal of functions exposure-response (FER) based own in epidemiologic evidences. In agreement with the analysis, the results show that the great majority of the studies are not useful for the FER establishment, at least in their present form. A minority studies exists that contributes limited evidence and their reanalysis could increase their contribution to the propose purpose. Finally the main problems found in the studies are enumerated revision object

  19. Predicting exposure-response associations of ambient particulate matter with mortality in 73 Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Guo, Yuming; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the burden of mortality associated with particulates requires knowledge of exposure-response associations. However, the evidence on exposure-response associations is limited in many cities, especially in developing countries. In this study, we predicted associations of particulates smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) with mortality in 73 Chinese cities. The meta-regression model was used to test and quantify which city-specific characteristics contributed significantly to the heterogeneity of PM10-mortality associations for 16 Chinese cities. Then, those city-specific characteristics with statistically significant regression coefficients were treated as independent variables to build multivariate meta-regression models. The model with the best fitness was used to predict PM10-mortality associations in 73 Chinese cities in 2010. Mean temperature, PM10 concentration and green space per capita could best explain the heterogeneity in PM10-mortality associations. Based on city-specific characteristics, we were able to develop multivariate meta-regression models to predict associations between air pollutants and health outcomes reasonably well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using the Folstein Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) to explore methodological issues in cognitive aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Todd; Carter, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Cognitive scales are used frequently in geriatric research and practice. These instruments are constructed with underlying assumptions that are a part of their validation process. A common measurement scale used in older adults is the Folstein Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE). The MMSE was designed to screen for cognitive impairment and is used often in geriatric research. This paper has three aims. Aim one was to explore four potential threats to validity in the use of the MMSE: (1) administering the exam without meeting the underlying assumptions, (2) not reporting that the underlying assumptions were assessed prior to test administration, (3) use of variable and inconsistent cut-off scores for the determination of presence of cognitive impairment, and (4) failure to adjust the scores based on the demographic characteristics of the tested subject. Aim two was to conduct a literature search to determine if the assumptions of (1) education level assessment, (2) sensory assessment, and (3) language fluency were being met and clearly reported in published research using the MMSE. Aim three was to provide recommendations to minimalize threats to validity in research studies that use cognitive scales, such as the MMSE. We found inconsistencies in published work in reporting whether or not subjects meet the assumptions that underlie a reliable and valid MMSE score. These inconsistencies can pose threats to the reliability of exam results. Fourteen of the 50 studies reviewed reported inclusion of all three of these assumptions. Inconsistencies in reporting the inclusion of the underlying assumptions for a reliable score could mean that subjects were not appropriate to be tested by use of the MMSE or that an appropriate test administration of the MMSE was not clearly reported. Thus, the research literature could have threats to both validity and reliability based on misuse of or improper reported use of the MMSE. Six recommendations are provided to minimalize these threats

  1. The Mela Study: exploring barriers to diabetes research in black and minority ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Gillian A; Chowdhury, Tahseen A; Griffiths, Christopher J; Hood, Rosie K E; Mathews, Christopher; Hitman, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups are particularly susceptible to diabetes and its vascular complications in the United Kingdom and most western societies. To understand potential predisposition and tailor treatments accordingly, there is a real need to engage these groups in diabetes research. Despite this, BME participation in research studies continues to remain low in most countries and this may be a contributory factor to reduced health outcomes and poorer quality of life in these groups. This study explores the barriers BME groups may have towards participation in diabetes research in one area of East London, and includes local recommendations on how to improve this for the future. A questionnaire designed from previously reported exploratory work and piloted in several BME localities was distributed at the East London Bangladeshi Mela and similar cultural and religious events in London, UK. People were asked opportunistically to complete the survey themselves if they understood English, or discuss their responses with an advocate. The purpose of the questionnaire was to understand current local awareness with regards to diabetes, identify specific BME barriers and attitudes towards diabetes research by ethnicity, gender and age, and gain insight into how these barriers may be addressed. Of 1682 people surveyed (16-90 years; median age 40 years), 36.4% were South Asian, 25.9% White, and 11.1% Black and other ethnicities; 26.6% withheld their ethnicity. Over half cited language problems generally (54%) and lack of research awareness (56%) as main barriers to engaging in research. South Asian groups were more likely to cite research as too time consuming (42%) whereas Black groups were more concerned with potential drug side effects in research (39%). Participants expressed a general mistrust of research, and the need for researchers to be honest in their approach. Recommendations for increased participation in South Asian groups centred round both helping

  2. An exploration for a feasible fusion energy research strategy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyu; Park, Jong Kyun; Yang, Maeng Ho

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the fierce competition between European Union (EU) and Japan to host the International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has aroused in Korea renewed interests in fusion research and its pros-pect for commercial fusion power generation. Korea has committed itself in 2003 to the construction and operation of ITER which spans three decades. This 30-years-long commitment to ITER surely is longer than any other scientific and/or technological venture that has ever been taken up after its birth in 1948. ITER poses both as a great opportunity for Korea, allegedly but not convincingly enough, and as a potential 'black hole' sucking in all resources for future energy researches, to the domestic technical communities and industries. However, ITER and fusion research is not just a technico-industrial issue but may as well be a politico-security issue, like many other apparent technology issues such as recent participation in the Galileo project. In this article, the authors will explore this situation with an emphasis on domestic and foreign constraints and propose a realistic and verifiable strategy to address these issues and to develop fusion energy in Korea

  3. Exploring the Use of Computer Simulations in Unraveling Research and Development Governance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Mariusz A.; Hester, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding Research and Development (R&D) enterprise relationships and processes at a governance level is not a simple task, but valuable decision-making insight and evaluation capabilities can be gained from their exploration through computer simulations. This paper discusses current Modeling and Simulation (M&S) methods, addressing their applicability to R&D enterprise governance. Specifically, the authors analyze advantages and disadvantages of the four methodologies used most often by M&S practitioners: System Dynamics (SO), Discrete Event Simulation (DES), Agent Based Modeling (ABM), and formal Analytic Methods (AM) for modeling systems at the governance level. Moreover, the paper describes nesting models using a multi-method approach. Guidance is provided to those seeking to employ modeling techniques in an R&D enterprise for the purposes of understanding enterprise governance. Further, an example is modeled and explored for potential insight. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding opportunities for concentration of future work in modeling and simulating R&D governance relationships and processes.

  4. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on immunology research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Crucian, Brian E; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Grimm, Daniela; Montano, Nicola; Praun, Siegfried; Roozendaal, Benno; Schelling, Gustav; Thiel, Manfred; Ullrich, Oliver; Choukèr, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system occurs during spaceflight and may represent a crew health risk during exploration missions because astronauts are challenged by many stressors. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the biology of immune modulation under spaceflight conditions in order to be able to maintain immune homeostasis under such challenges. In the framework of the THESEUS project whose aim was to develop an integrated life sciences research roadmap regarding human space exploration, experts working in the field of space immunology, and related disciplines, established a questionnaire sent to scientists around the world. From the review of collected answers, they deduced a list of key issues and provided several recommendations such as a maximal exploitation of currently available resources on Earth and in space, and to increase increments duration for some ISS crew members to 12 months or longer. These recommendations should contribute to improve our knowledge about spaceflight effects on the immune system and the development of countermeasures that, beyond astronauts, could have a societal impact.

  5. A tool for exploring space-time patterns : an animation user research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogao Patrick J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever since Dr. John Snow (1813–1854 used a case map to identify water well as the source of a cholera outbreak in London in the 1800s, the use of spatio-temporal maps have become vital tools in a wide range of disease mapping and control initiatives. The increasing use of spatio-temporal maps in these life-threatening sectors warrants that they are accurate, and easy to interpret to enable prompt decision making by health experts. Similar spatio-temporal maps are observed in urban growth and census mapping – all critical aspects a of a country's socio-economic development. In this paper, a user test research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of spatio-temporal maps (animation in exploring geospatial structures encompassing disease, urban and census mapping. Results Three types of animation were used, namely; passive, interactive and inference-based animation, with the key differences between them being on the level of interactivity and complementary domain knowledge that each offers to the user. Passive animation maintains the view only status. The user has no control over its contents and dynamic variables. Interactive animation provides users with the basic media player controls, navigation and orientation tools. Inference-based animation incorporates these interactive capabilities together with a complementary automated intelligent view that alerts users to interesting patterns, trends or anomalies that may be inherent in the data sets. The test focussed on the role of animation passive and interactive capabilities in exploring space-time patterns by engaging test-subjects in thinking aloud evaluation protocol. The test subjects were selected from a geoinformatics (map reading, interpretation and analysis abilities background. Every test-subject used each of the three types of animation and their performances for each session assessed. The results show that interactivity in animation is a preferred

  6. A tool for exploring space-time patterns: an animation user research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogao, Patrick J

    2006-08-29

    Ever since Dr. John Snow (1813-1854) used a case map to identify water well as the source of a cholera outbreak in London in the 1800s, the use of spatio-temporal maps have become vital tools in a wide range of disease mapping and control initiatives. The increasing use of spatio-temporal maps in these life-threatening sectors warrants that they are accurate, and easy to interpret to enable prompt decision making by health experts. Similar spatio-temporal maps are observed in urban growth and census mapping--all critical aspects a of a country's socio-economic development. In this paper, a user test research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of spatio-temporal maps (animation) in exploring geospatial structures encompassing disease, urban and census mapping. Three types of animation were used, namely; passive, interactive and inference-based animation, with the key differences between them being on the level of interactivity and complementary domain knowledge that each offers to the user. Passive animation maintains the view only status. The user has no control over its contents and dynamic variables. Interactive animation provides users with the basic media player controls, navigation and orientation tools. Inference-based animation incorporates these interactive capabilities together with a complementary automated intelligent view that alerts users to interesting patterns, trends or anomalies that may be inherent in the data sets. The test focussed on the role of animation passive and interactive capabilities in exploring space-time patterns by engaging test-subjects in thinking aloud evaluation protocol. The test subjects were selected from a geoinformatics (map reading, interpretation and analysis abilities) background. Every test-subject used each of the three types of animation and their performances for each session assessed. The results show that interactivity in animation is a preferred exploratory tool in identifying, interpreting and

  7. Exploring the Philosophical Underpinnings of Research: Relating Ontology and Epistemology to the Methodology and Methods of the Scientific, Interpretive, and Critical Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the philosophical underpinnings of three major educational research paradigms: scientific, interpretive, and critical. The aim was to outline and explore the interrelationships between each paradigm's ontology, epistemology, methodology and methods. This paper reveals and then discusses some of the underlying assumptions of…

  8. Analysing the past and exploring the future of sustainable biomass. Participatory stakeholder dialogue and technological innovation systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukers, S.; Hisschemöller, M.; Cuppen, E.; Suurs, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of combining technological innovation systems research with a participatory stakeholder dialogue, using empirical material from a dialogue on the options of sustainable biomass in the Netherlands and several historical studies into the emerging Dutch biomass

  9. 75 FR 15686 - NOAA'S Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) Strategic Plan FY 2011-FY 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ...-01] NOAA'S Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) Strategic Plan FY 2011-FY 2015 AGENCY... and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment. [[Page 15687

  10. Mapping publication status and exploring hotspots in a research field: chronic disease self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Li, Zheng; Arthur, David

    2014-08-01

    To provide insight into the characteristics of chronic disease self-management by mapping publication status and exploring hotspots. Chronic disease is becoming a major public health issue worldwide, highlighting the importance of self-management in this area. Despite the volume and variety of publications, little is known about how 'chronic disease self-management' has developed, since the first publication 40 years ago. Such is the number of publications in the area, that there is a need for a systematic bibliographic examination to enable clinicians and researchers to navigate this literature. A bibliometric analysis of publications was used. Publication status was achieved using BICOMB software, whereas hotspots were identified with Ucinet software. A search of PubMed was conducted for papers published between 1971-2012. By 2011, the number of publications reached 696, a fourfold increase from the previous 10 years, of which 75% came from the USA and UK. There were 1284 journals, which published chronic disease self-management research, involving various disciplines. The research hotspots highlighted various self-management strategies for the following: diabetes; cardiac vascular and pulmonary chronic disease; pain relief for neoplasms; and obesity. Psychological adjustment was a permeating theme in self-management processes as was using internet-based interventions. Self-management in chronic disease publication has been most evident in developed countries. The bibliographic mapping and identification of publication hotspots provides scholars and practitioners with key target journals, as well as a rigorous overview of the field for use in further research, evidence-based practice and health policy development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The NASA research and technology program on space power: A key element of the Space Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Atkins, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    In July 1989, President Bush announced his space exploration initiative of going back to the Moon to stay and then going to Mars. Building upon its ongoing research and technology base, NASA has established an exploration technology program to develop the technologies needed for piloted missions to the Moon and Mars. A key element for the flights and for the planned bases is power. The NASA research and technology program on space power encompasses power sources, energy storage, and power management.

  12. Exploring �nostalgia� and �imagination� for ubuntu-research: A postfoundational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian M�ller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an effort to put some of the paradoxical and confusing concepts of ubuntu on the table. Both the terms �nostalgia� and �imagination� provide us with language that can help us to talk about this complex of ideas and perspectives. On the one hand, the clouds of nostalgia surrounding ubuntu will be acknowledged and used. On the other hand, the difficulties and challenges brought about by nostalgic language have to be explored with imagination. Options for the conducting of empirical research in order to create a thicker understanding, including nostalgic language, will then be discussed. I will firstly reflect on the role of nostalgia as the atmosphere within which concepts of ubuntu find breathing space. Then the two types of nostalgia, namely restorative and reflective nostalgia will be discussed. The choice for reflective nostalgia will be argued and explained and this will hopefully provide an imaginative basis for the development of the research project on such an evasive concept as ubuntu. In conclusion some methodological guidelines, based on the postfoundational approach, will be drawn.

  13. Web-Based Scientific Exploration and Analysis of 3D Scanned Cuneiform Datasets for Collaborative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Fisseler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional cuneiform script is one of the oldest known writing systems and a central object of research in Ancient Near Eastern Studies and Hittitology. An important step towards the understanding of the cuneiform script is the provision of opportunities and tools for joint analysis. This paper presents an approach that contributes to this challenge: a collaborative compatible web-based scientific exploration and analysis of 3D scanned cuneiform fragments. The WebGL -based concept incorporates methods for compressed web-based content delivery of large 3D datasets and high quality visualization. To maximize accessibility and to promote acceptance of 3D techniques in the field of Hittitology, the introduced concept is integrated into the Hethitologie-Portal Mainz, an established leading online research resource in the field of Hittitology, which until now exclusively included 2D content. The paper shows that increasing the availability of 3D scanned archaeological data through a web-based interface can provide significant scientific value while at the same time finding a trade-off between copyright induced restrictions and scientific usability.

  14. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on nutrition and metabolism research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Stein, T Peter; Habold, Caroline; Coxam, Veronique; O' Gorman, Donal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition has multiple roles during space flight from providing sufficient nutrients to meet the metabolic needs of the body and to maintain good health, to the beneficial psychosocial aspects related to the meals. Nutrition is central to the functioning of the body; poor nutrition compromises all the physiological systems. Nutrition is therefore likely to have a key role in counteracting the negative effects of space flight (e.g., radiation, immune deficits, oxidative stress, and bone and muscle loss). As missions increase in duration, any dietary/nutritional deficiencies will become progressively more detrimental. Moreover, it has been recognized that the human diet contains, in addition to essential macronutrients, a complex array of naturally occurring bioactive micronutrients that may confer significant long-term health benefits. It is therefore critical that astronauts be adequately nourished during missions. Problems of nutritional origin are often treatable by simply providing the appropriate nutrients and adequate recommendations. This review highlights six key issues that have been identified as space research priorities in nutrition field: in-flight energy balance; altered feeding behavior; development of metabolic stress; micronutrient deficiency; alteration of gut microflora; and altered fluid and electrolytes balance. For each of these topics, relevance for space exploration, knowledge gaps and proposed investigations are described. Finally, the nutritional questions related to bioastronautics research are very relevant to multiple ground-based-related health issues. The potential spin-offs are both interesting scientifically and potentially of great clinical importance.

  15. Coordination of International Risk-Reduction Investigations by the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bogomolov, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of the unique capabilities of the International Space Station (ISS) for risk reduction on future deep space missions involves preliminary work in analog environments to identify and evaluate the most promising techniques, interventions and treatments. This entails a consolidated multinational approach to biomedical research both on ISS and in ground analogs. The Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) was chartered by the five ISS partners to recommend the best combination of partner investigations on ISS for risk reduction in the relatively short time available for ISS utilization. MHRPE will also make recommendations to funding agencies for appropriate preparatory analog work. In 2011, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Science, acting for MHRPE, developed a joint US-Russian biomedical program for the 2015 one-year ISS mission (1YM) of American and Russian crewmembers. This was to evaluate the possibilities for multilateral research on ISS. An overlapping list of 16 HRP, 9 IBMP, 3 Japanese, 3 European and 1 Canadian investigations were selected to address risk-reduction goals in 7 categories: Functional Performance, Behavioral Health, Visual Impairment, Metabolism, Physical Capacity, Microbial and Human Factors. MHRPE intends to build on this bilateral foundation to recommend more fully-integrated multilateral investigations on future ISS missions commencing after the 1YM. MHRPE has also endorsed an on-going program of coordinated research on 6-month, one-year and 6-week missions ISS expeditions that is now under consideration by ISS managers. Preparatory work for these missions will require coordinated and collaborative campaigns especially in the psychological and psychosocial areas using analog isolation facilities in Houston, Köln and Moscow, and possibly elsewhere. The multilateral Human Analogs research working group (HANA) is the focal point of those

  16. Is it design or is it inquiry? Exploring technology research in a Filipino school setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazon, Jessamyn Marie Olivares

    My case study explored Filipino secondary students' and teachers' experiences with technology research, project-based pedagogy. The study was conducted to examine the nature of a Technology Research (TR) Curriculum, and how it mediates non-Western students' learning, and interest in technology-based careers. The context for my study is Philippine Science High School's (PSHS) TR program wherein students outline a proposal, design an experiment or a device, and implement their design to address a real world problem. My data sources included semi-structured interviews of 27 students and 2 teachers; participant observations of classroom and group activities, teacher-student consultations, and Science-Technology Fair presentations; TR curriculum documents; and researcher journal logs. My examination of curriculum documents revealed that since the 1960s, the Philippine government has implemented specialized educational programs, such as the PSHS Science/Technology Streaming and TR programs, to support Filipino youth interested in science and technology courses and careers. Data analyses showed that the TR program provided a rich, practical learning environment where 'doing technology design' blended with 'doing science inquiry'. The TR activities enhanced student understanding of science and technology; helped them integrate and apply knowledge and skills learned from other school subjects; encouraged them to be creative, problem-solvers; and helped develop their lifelong learning skills. Students recognized that TR teachers adopted alternative instructional strategies that prompted students to adopt more active roles in their learning. Research findings revealed that student interest in pursuing technology-related careers was supported by their participation in the streaming and the TR programs. Data also showed that Filipino cultural practices mediated student learning, and career decision-making. My research findings suggest that present notions of scientific inquiry

  17. Exposure-response analyses of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, J P H; Overgaard, R V; Jacobsen, L V; Jensen, C B; le Roux, C W

    2016-05-01

    Liraglutide 3.0 mg, an acylated GLP-1 analogue approved for weight management, lowers body weight through decreased energy intake. We conducted exposure-response analyses to provide important information on individual responses to given drug doses, reflecting inter-individual variations in drug metabolism, absorption and excretion. We report efficacy and safety responses across a wide range of exposure levels, using data from one phase II (liraglutide doses 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 and 3.0 mg), and two phase IIIa [SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes (3.0 mg); SCALE Diabetes (1.8; 3.0 mg)] randomized, placebo-controlled trials (n = 4372). There was a clear exposure-weight loss response. Weight loss increased with greater exposure and appeared to level off at the highest exposures associated with liraglutide 3.0 mg in most individuals, but did not fully plateau in men. In individuals with overweight/obesity and comorbid type 2 diabetes, there was a clear exposure-glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) relationship. HbA1c reduction increased with higher plasma liraglutide concentration (plateauing at ∼21 nM); however, for individuals with baseline HbA1c >8.5%, HbA1c reduction did not fully plateau. No exposure-response relationship was identified for any safety outcome, with the exception of gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs). Individuals with gallbladder AEs, acute pancreatitis or malignant/breast/benign colorectal neoplasms did not have higher liraglutide exposure compared with the overall population. These analyses support the use of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management in all subgroups investigated; weight loss increased with higher drug exposure, with no concomitant deterioration in safety/tolerability besides previously known gastrointestinal side effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Exploring Knowledge Processes Based on Teacher Research in a School-University Research Network of a Master's Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Frank; van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    School-university research networks aim at closer integration of research and practice by means of teacher research. Such practice-oriented research can benefit both schools and universities. This paper reports on a multiple-case study of five participants in a school-university research network in a Dutch master's program. The research question…

  19. Geophysical Exploration Technologies for the Deep Lithosphere Research: An Education Materials for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Xu, C.; Luo, S.; Chen, H.; Qin, R.

    2012-12-01

    The science of Geophysics applies the principles of physics to study of the earth. Geophysical exploration technologies include the earthquake seismology, the seismic reflection and refraction methods, the gravity method, the magnetic method and the magnetotelluric method, which are used to measure the interior material distribution, their structure and the tectonics in the lithosphere of the earth. Part of the research project in SinoProbe-02-06 is to develop suitable education materials for carton movies targeting the high school students and public. The carton movies include five parts. The first part includes the structures of the earth's interior and variation in their physical properties that include density, p-wave, s-wave and so on, which are the fundamentals of the geophysical exploration technologies. The second part includes the seismology that uses the propagation of elastic waves through the earth to study the structure and the material distribution of the earth interior. It can be divided into earthquake seismology and artifice seismics commonly using reflection and refraction. The third part includes the magnetic method. Earth's magnetic field (also known as the geomagnetic field)extends from the Earth's inner core to where it meets the solar wind, a stream of energetic particles emanating from the Sun. The aim of magnetic survey is to investigate subsurface geology on the basis of anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field resulting from the magnetic properties of the underlying rocks. The magnetic method in the lithosphere attempts to use magnetic disturbance to analyse the regional geological structure and the magnetic boundaries of the crust. The fourth part includes the gravity method. A gravity anomaly results from the inhomogeneous distribution of density of the Earth. Usually gravity anomalies contain superposed anomalies from several sources. The long wave length anomalies due to deep density contrasts are called regional anomalies. They are

  20. Exploring factors related to the translation of collaborative research learning experiences into clinical practice: Opportunities and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Simon; Whiting, Cheryl; Boaz, Annette; Reeves, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Providing training opportunities to develop research skills for clinical staff has been prioritised in response to the need for improving the evidence base underpinning the delivery of care. By exploring the experiences of a number of former participants of a multidisciplinary postgraduate research course, this article explores the factors that have enabled and impeded staff to translate their learnt research skills into clinical practice. Adopting an exploratory case study approach, 16 interviews with 5 cohorts of Masters by Research in Clinical Practice (MResCP) graduates were undertaken. The interviews explored graduates' course experiences and their subsequent attempts to undertake clinical research. Analysis of the data indicated that although participants valued their interactions with colleagues from different professions and felt they gained useful research skills/knowledge, upon returning to clinical practice, they encountered a number of barriers which restricted their ability to apply their research expertise. Professional isolation, issues of hierarchy, and a lack of organisational support were key to limiting their ability to undertake clinical research. Further work is needed to explore in more depth how (i) these barriers can be overcome and (ii) how taught collaborative research skills can be more effectively translated into practice.

  1. A geoethical approach to the geological and astrobiological exploration and research of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Horneck, Gerda; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Rull, Fernando

    Lunar and Mars exploration and research require not only scientific and technological inter-disciplinary cooperation, but also the consideration of budding ethical and scientific integrity issues. COSPAR's planetary protection policy (in coordination with the United Nations Com-mittee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space as well as various other bilateral and multilateral organizations) serves as the consensus standard for biological contamination prevention under the 1967 Outer Space Treaty1 . Space agencies Planetary Protection Policies are mostly consis-tent with the COSPAR policy. Geoethics was formerly promoted in 1991 as a new discipline, involving scientific and societal aspects2 , and its institutionalization was officially established in 2004 with the backing of the Association of Geoscientists for International Development, AGID3 (IUGS/ICSU). Recently, it has been proposed that the integration of geoethical issues in studies on planetary geology and astrobiology would enrich their methodological and con-ceptual character4-6 . The incorporation through geoethics of new questions and approaches associated to the "abiotic world" would involve: 1) extrapolating to space the recently defined and approved IUCN/UNESCO guidelines and recommendations on geodiversity7 as "planetary geodiversity", and 2) widening the classical concept of Planetary Protection, giving an addi-tional "abiotic" dimension to the exploration and research of the Moon and Mars. Given the geological characteristics and planetary evolution of the Moon and Mars, it is obvious that they require tailored geoethical approaches. Some fundamental aspects include, among others: the interrelation with bioethics and organics vs. inorganic contamination in Planetary Protection, the appropriate regulations of some necessary natural disturbances (e.g. on the Moon) dur-ing robotic and manned planetary missions, wilderness/planetary parks8,9 , the correct use of mineralogical and geochemical analytical

  2. Safety, Efficacy, and Exposure-Response of Voriconazole in Pediatric Patients With Invasive Aspergillosis, Invasive Candidiasis or Esophageal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Judith M; Macias-Parra, Mercedes; Mudry, Peter; Conte, Umberto; Yan, Jean L; Liu, Ping; Capparella, M Rita; Aram, Jalal A

    2017-01-01

    Data on safety and efficacy of voriconazole for invasive aspergillosis (IA) and invasive candidiasis/esophageal candidiasis (IC/EC) in pediatric patients are limited. Patients aged 2-<18 years with IA and IC/EC were enrolled in 2 prospective open-label, non-comparative studies of voriconazole. Patients followed dosing regimens based on age, weight and indication, with adjustments permitted. Treatment duration was 6-12 weeks for IA patients, ≥14 days after last positive Candida culture for IC patients and ≥7 days after signs/symptoms resolution for EC patients. Primary analysis for both the studies was safety and tolerability of voriconazole. Secondary end points included global response success at week 6 and end of treatment (EOT), all-causality mortality and time to death. Voriconazole exposure-response relationship was explored. Of 53 voriconazole-treated pediatric patients (31 IA; 22 IC/EC), 14 had proven/probable IA, 7 had confirmed IC and 10 had confirmed EC. Treatment-related hepatic and visual adverse events, respectively, were reported in 22.6% and 16.1% of IA patients, and 22.7% and 27.3% of IC/EC patients. All-causality mortality in IA patients was 14.3% at week 6; no deaths were attributed to voriconazole. No deaths were reported for IC/EC patients. Global response success rate was 64.3% (week 6 and EOT) in IA patients and 76.5% (EOT) in IC/EC patients. There was no association between voriconazole exposure and efficacy; however, a slight positive association between voriconazole exposure and hepatic adverse events was established. Safety and efficacy outcomes in pediatric patients with IA and IC/EC were consistent with previous findings in adult patients.

  3. Balancing exploration and exploitation in transferring research into practice: a comparison of five knowledge translation entity archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Prince, Karl; Racko, Girts

    2013-09-05

    Translating knowledge from research into clinical practice has emerged as a practice of increasing importance. This has led to the creation of new organizational entities designed to bridge knowledge between research and practice. Within the UK, the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) have been introduced to ensure that emphasis is placed in ensuring research is more effectively translated and implemented in clinical practice. Knowledge translation (KT) can be accomplished in various ways and is affected by the structures, activities, and coordination practices of organizations. We draw on concepts in the innovation literature--namely exploration, exploitation, and ambidexterity--to examine these structures and activities as well as the ensuing tensions between research and implementation. Using a qualitative research approach, the study was based on 106 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with the directors, theme leads and managers, key professionals involved in research and implementation in nine CLAHRCs. Data was also collected from intensive focus group workshops. In this article we develop five archetypes for organizing KT. The results show how the various CLAHRC entities work through partnerships to create explorative research and deliver exploitative implementation. The different archetypes highlight a range of structures that can achieve ambidextrous balance as they organize activity and coordinate practice on a continuum of exploration and exploitation. This work suggests that KT entities aim to reach their goals through a balance between exploration and exploitation in the support of generating new research and ensuring knowledge implementation. We highlight different organizational archetypes that support various ways to maintain ambidexterity, where both exploration and exploitation are supported in an attempt to narrow the knowledge gaps. The KT entity archetypes offer insights on strategies in structuring

  4. Learning to Take an Inquiry Stance in Teacher Research: An Exploration of Unstructured Thought-Partner Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton-Sticklor, Nastasia; Bodamer, Scott F.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a research partnership between a university-based researcher and a middle school science teacher. Our partnership began with project-based inquiry and continued with unstructured thought-partner spaces: meetings with no agenda where we wrestled with problems of practice. Framed as incubation periods, these meetings allowed us…

  5. A miniature research vessel: A small-scale ocean-exploration demonstration of geophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S. M.; Boston, B.; Sleeper, J. D.; Cameron, M. E.; Togia, H.; Anderson, A.; Sigurdardottir, T. D.; Tree, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Graduate student members of the University of Hawaii Geophysical Society have designed a small-scale model research vessel (R/V) that uses sonar to create 3D maps of a model seafloor in real-time. A pilot project was presented to the public at the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology's (SOEST) Biennial Open House weekend in 2013 and, with financial support from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists and National Science Foundation, was developed into a full exhibit for the same event in 2015. Nearly 8,000 people attended the two-day event, including children and teachers from Hawaii's schools, home school students, community groups, families, and science enthusiasts. Our exhibit demonstrates real-time sonar mapping of a cardboard volcano using a toy size research vessel on a programmable 2-dimensional model ship track suspended above a model seafloor. Ship waypoints were wirelessly sent from a Windows Surface tablet to a large-touchscreen PC that controlled the exhibit. Sound wave travel times were recorded using an ultrasonic emitter/receiver attached to an Arduino microcontroller platform and streamed through a USB connection to the control PC running MatLab, where a 3D model was updated as the ship collected data. Our exhibit demonstrates the practical use of complicated concepts, like wave physics, survey design, and data processing in a way that the youngest elementary students are able to understand. It provides an accessible avenue to learn about sonar mapping, and could easily be adapted to talk about bat and marine mammal echolocation by replacing the model ship and volcano. The exhibit received an overwhelmingly positive response from attendees and incited discussions that covered a broad range of earth science topics.

  6. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  7. Exploring challenges of the reproductive health PhD curriculum: A qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Kohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enhancing the quality and dynamicity of higher education programs requires continuous evaluation of curriculums. Reproductive health PhD program was established in 2006 in Iran while recommending that its curriculum be evaluated by assessing graduates’ performance in workplace and surveying students, faculty members and managers. This study aimed to explore challenges of the curriculum of reproductive health PhD program. Methods: Employing a qualitative content analysis approach and using purposive and sometimes opportunistic sampling, experiences and viewpoints of 33 graduates and students of reproductive health PhD program, educational managers and reproductive health board members about the curriculum of reproductive health PhD program were collected through individual interviews and notes in 2014-15. Data were transcribed and important expressions were coded. Classification of similar codes led to preliminary categories. Five main categories were extracted by further classifications. Results: The five main categories included inadequacy of course topics and contents, challenges of student education, failure in realizing curriculum goals, long research period, and ambiguity in graduates’ professional status were appeared; each of these included various subcategories. Conclusion: Results showed that the curriculum of reproductive health PhD program required revisions to meet the program’s mission and designing courses such as sexual health and reinforcing the clinical nature of the program were necessary. Moreover, the results emphasized that the establishment of an independent educational department of reproductive health for managing higher education affairs and greater supervision of the reproductive health board on educational affairs was necessary. Furthermore, reproductive health specialists should be employed in different positions to meet society’s reproductive health needs.

  8. Exploring Publishing Patterns at a Large Research University: Implications for Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Amos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The research project sought to explore the value of data on publication patterns for decision-making regarding scholarly communications and collection development programs at a research-intensive post-secondary institution, the University of Utah in the United States.Methods – Publication data for prolific University of Utah authors were gathered from Scopus for the year 2009. The availability to University of Utah faculty, staff, and students of the journals in which University of Utah authors published was determined using the University of Utah Libraries’ catalogue; usage was estimated based on publisher-provided download statistics and requests through interlibrary loan; and costs were calculated from invoices, a periodicals directory, and publisher websites and communications. Indicators of value included the cost-per-use of journals to which the University of Utah Libraries subscribed, a comparison of interlibrary loan costs to subscription costs for journals to which the University of Utah Libraries did not subscribe, the relationship between publishing venue and usage, and the relationship between publishing venue and cost-per-use.Results – There were 22 University of Utah authors who published 10 or more articles in 2009. Collectively, these authors produced 275 articles in 162 journals. The University of Utah provided access through library subscriptions to 83% of the journals for which access, usage, and cost data were available, with widely varying usage and at widely varying costs. Cost-per-use and a comparison of interlibrary loan to subscription costs provided evidence of the effectiveness of collection development practices. However, at the individual journal title level, there was little overlap between the various indicators of journal value, with the highest ranked, or most valuable, journals differing depending on the indicator considered. Few of the articles studied appeared in open access journals

  9. Metal dust exposure and lung function deterioration among steel workers: an exposure-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Nurul Ainun; Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2016-07-01

    Metallic dust is a heterogeneous substance with respiratory sensitizing properties. Its long term exposure adversely affected lung function, thus may cause acute or chronic respiratory diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a steel factory in Terengganu, Malaysia to assess the metal dust exposure and its relationship to lung function values among 184 workers. Metal dust concentrations values (Co, Cr, and Ni) for each worker were collected using air personal sampling. Lung function values (FEV 1 , FVC, and %FEV 1 /FVC) were determined using spirometer. Exposure to cobalt and chromium were 1-3 times higher than permissible exposure limit (PEL) while nickel was not exceeding the PEL. Cumulative of chromium was the predictor to all lung function values (FEV 1 , FVC, and %FEV 1 /FVC). Frequency of using mask was positively associated with FVC (Adj b = 0.263, P = 0.011) while past respiratory illnesses were negatively associated with %FEV 1 /FVC (Adj b = -1.452, P = 0.026). Only few workers (36.4%) were found to wear their masks all times during the working hours. There was an exposure-response relationship of cumulative metal dust exposure with the deterioration of lung function values. Improvement of control measures as well as proper and efficient use or personal protection equipment while at work could help to protect the respiratory health of workers.

  10. Flexible meta-regression to assess the shape of the benzene-leukemia exposure-response curve.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaanderen, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Portengen, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269224742; Rothman, N.; Lan, Q.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous evaluations of the shape of the benzene-leukemia exposure-response curve (ERC) were based on a single set or on small sets of human occupational studies. Integrating evidence from all available studies that are of sufficient quality combined with flexible meta-regression models

  11. Exploring new ways of working using virtual research environments in library and information science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lassi, Monica; Olson, Nasrine

    2009-01-01

    research environment (VRE) to facilitate the sharing of data collection instruments among students, researchers and professionals; new ways professionals and researchers can collaborate; collaborative decision making in the context of purchasing a library management system; and collaboration among LIS...

  12. Modeling U-Shaped Exposure-Response Relationships for Agents that Demonstrate Toxicity Due to Both Excess and Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Brittany; Farrell, Patrick J; Birkett, Nicholas; Krewski, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Essential elements such as copper and manganese may demonstrate U-shaped exposure-response relationships due to toxic responses occurring as a result of both excess and deficiency. Previous work on a copper toxicity database employed CatReg, a software program for categorical regression developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to model copper excess and deficiency exposure-response relationships separately. This analysis involved the use of a severity scoring system to place diverse toxic responses on a common severity scale, thereby allowing their inclusion in the same CatReg model. In this article, we present methods for simultaneously fitting excess and deficiency data in the form of a single U-shaped exposure-response curve, the minimum of which occurs at the exposure level that minimizes the probability of an adverse outcome due to either excess or deficiency (or both). We also present a closed-form expression for the point at which the exposure-response curves for excess and deficiency cross, corresponding to the exposure level at which the risk of an adverse outcome due to excess is equal to that for deficiency. The application of these methods is illustrated using the same copper toxicity database noted above. The use of these methods permits the analysis of all available exposure-response data from multiple studies expressing multiple endpoints due to both excess and deficiency. The exposure level corresponding to the minimum of this U-shaped curve, and the confidence limits around this exposure level, may be useful in establishing an acceptable range of exposures that minimize the overall risk associated with the agent of interest. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Evaluating the potential economic effectiveness of scientific research in the area of geological exploration for oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaynbaum, S Ya

    1979-01-01

    The category of ''potential effect'' is inherent to scientific developments in oil geology. This effect is associated with a quantity of labor in the sphere of scientific research which is embodied in the extracted information and stored until its complete use in production. The potential effect can be predicted. It is an indicator of economic effectiveness of scientific research. Distribution of the coefficient of creativity (innovation) for scientific research for geological exploration is suggested. The system of calculating the economic effect contains real stimuli for increasing economic efficiency. The most important of them are: establishment of the most promising trends for geological exploration which guarantee maximum increase in hydrocarbon reserves; decrease in net cost which will guarantee the obtaining of great profit; conducting of research on a higher level, in a large quantity of stages of work. This results in an increase in the percentage of participation of science in the production process, and this means, an increase in its economic effectiveness.

  14. Mining the mind research network: a novel framework for exploring large scale, heterogeneous translational neuroscience research data sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jeremy Bockholt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A neuroinformatics (NI system is critical to brain imaging research in order to shorten the time between study conception and results. Such a NI system is required to scale well when large numbers of subjects are studied. Further, when multiple sites participate in research projects organizational issues become increasingly difficult. Optimized NI applications mitigate these problems. Additionally, NI software enables coordination across multiple studies, leveraging advantages potentially leading to exponential research discoveries. The web-based, Mind Research Network (MRN, database system has been designed and improved through our experience with 200 research studies and 250 researchers from 7 different institutions. The MRN tools permit the collection, management, reporting and efficient use of large scale, heterogeneous data sources, e.g., multiple institutions, multiple principal investigators, multiple research programs and studies, and multimodal acquisitions. We have collected and analyzed data sets on thousands of research participants and have set up a framework to automatically analyze the data, thereby making efficient, practical data mining of this vast resource possible. This paper presents a comprehensive framework for capturing and analyzing heterogeneous neuroscience research data sources that has been fully optimized for end-users to perform novel data mining.

  15. Mining the Mind Research Network: A Novel Framework for Exploring Large Scale, Heterogeneous Translational Neuroscience Research Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockholt, Henry J.; Scully, Mark; Courtney, William; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Scott, Adam; Caprihan, Arvind; Fries, Jill; Kalyanam, Ravi; Segall, Judith M.; de la Garza, Raul; Lane, Susan; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2009-01-01

    A neuroinformatics (NI) system is critical to brain imaging research in order to shorten the time between study conception and results. Such a NI system is required to scale well when large numbers of subjects are studied. Further, when multiple sites participate in research projects organizational issues become increasingly difficult. Optimized NI applications mitigate these problems. Additionally, NI software enables coordination across multiple studies, leveraging advantages potentially leading to exponential research discoveries. The web-based, Mind Research Network (MRN), database system has been designed and improved through our experience with 200 research studies and 250 researchers from seven different institutions. The MRN tools permit the collection, management, reporting and efficient use of large scale, heterogeneous data sources, e.g., multiple institutions, multiple principal investigators, multiple research programs and studies, and multimodal acquisitions. We have collected and analyzed data sets on thousands of research participants and have set up a framework to automatically analyze the data, thereby making efficient, practical data mining of this vast resource possible. This paper presents a comprehensive framework for capturing and analyzing heterogeneous neuroscience research data sources that has been fully optimized for end-users to perform novel data mining. PMID:20461147

  16. Higher Education Research in Hong Kong, Japan, China, and Malaysia: Exploring Research Community Cohesion and the Integration of Thematic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Horta, H.; Jung, J.

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes higher education research published in international higher education journals by researchers from China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Malaysia from 1980 to 2013. It does so based on publication counts, and co-authorship and cross-citation mapping, examining these countries' publication patterns in terms of thematic approach and…

  17. Use of Academic Social Research by Public Officials: Exploring Preferences and Constraints That Impact on Research Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Adrian; Head, Brian; Povey, Jenny; Ferguson, Michele; Boreham, Paul

    2015-01-01

    While academics can do more to communicate the key messages of their research, the organisational cultures and information infrastructure of policy-related work units also play a large part in influencing the extent of research uptake in government agencies. Data from a large Australian survey (N = 2,084) of policy-related officials in government…

  18. 75 FR 82377 - NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) Strategic Plan FY 2011-FY 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) NOAA's Office of... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment. SUMMARY: NOAA's...: Yvette Jefferson. Mail: NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), ATTN: OER Plan Comments...

  19. "I'm More Confident Now, I Was Really Quiet": Exploring the Potential Benefits of Child-Led Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Anne; Simmons, Catharine; Truscott, Julia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores whether child-led research (CLR) benefits the well-being of the children and young people involved. The article draws upon evaluation data from a pilot CLR programme facilitated by a non-government organisation that supports disadvantaged children, young people and families. Nine participants (aged 10-14 years old)…

  20. Of Responsible Research--Exploring the Science-Society Dialogue in Undergraduate Training within the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Strecht; Quintanilha, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    We explore the integration of societal issues in undergraduate training within the life sciences. Skills in thinking about science, scientific knowledge production and the place of science in society are crucial in the context of the idea of responsible research and innovation. This idea became institutionalized and it is currently well-present in…

  1. Memoir as a Form of Auto-Ethnographic Research for Exploring the Practice of Transnational Higher Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Joy Denise

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that memoir, as a form of auto-ethnographic research, is an appropriate method for exploring the complexities and singularities in the practice of western educational practitioners who are immersed in the social reality of offshore higher education institutions, such as those in Mainland China. I illustrate this proposition…

  2. Spring Research Festival Theme Explores Host­–Microbe Interactions | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Andrea Frydl, Contributing Writer The 18th annual Spring Research Festival (SRF) will take place May 5–8 at the NCI Campus at Frederick and Fort Detrick.  This is the second year that the event is sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR), an interagency committee made up of various research entities located within Fort Detrick.

  3. To Explore the Research and Development Competence and School-to-Work Transition for Hospitality Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Hwa; Chen, Chieh-Ying

    2017-01-01

    This research focuses on the research and development competence and school-to-work transition on occupation selection for hospitality students with the use of social cognitive career theory. The positive attitude construct is the most identifiable for the research and development competences. For the school-to-work constructs, the most…

  4. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of…

  5. Exploring the use of research evidence in health-enhancing physical activity policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Chereches, Razvan M; Syed, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gaps observed between the use of research evidence and policy have been reported to be based on the different methods of using research evidence in policymaking by researchers and actual policymakers. Some policies and policymaking processes may therefore be particularly well

  6. Letters to those who Dare Feel: Using Reflective Letter-Writing to Explore the Emotionality of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using reflective letter-writing as a method of generating data, a group of four researchers embarked on a collaborative autoethnographic inquiry into the emotional dimensions of researching social aspects of HIV & AIDS. In this article, we use the medium of a narrative dialogue to represent and re-examine our reflective letter-writing method. The dialogue draws attention to key features of reflective letter-writing as a collaborative autoethnographic research method and, in so doing, highlights and explores the nature, potential significance, and challenges of this method. Our discussion points to the value of a collaborative process of reflective letter-writing as a way for researchers to access and portray emotional aspects of their research experience, to deepen their engagement with these emotional dimensions, and to gain insight into their own and others' lived research experiences.

  7. Third Graders Explore Sound Concepts through Online Research Compared to Making Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsay, Kyrie D.; Foss, Page

    2016-01-01

    This study is an exploration of several lessons on sound taught to third grade students using one of the Next Generation Science Standards (3-5-ETS1) and arts integration. A counterbalanced, pretest- posttest- distal posttest design experiment was conducted to compare student knowledge and attitudes between the control and experimental conditions.…

  8. Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students' language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program. A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed. Data analysis…

  9. Exploring the Artistic Identity/Identities of Art Majors Engaged in Artistic Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    In western societies, the persona of the artist has largely been associated with prevailing myths of the creative individual including the artist as genius and outsider. In my inquiry I endeavored to understand what it means to be an artist from the perspective of budding "creatives." In this study I explored the process of becoming an…

  10. Exploring resident-empowered meetingplaces in Dutch neighbourhoods : by Jane Jacobs Walking Action-research methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, F.C.

    2016-01-01

    The ‘Jane Jacobs Walk’ organization as one of the Jane Jacobs (1916-2006) heritage initiative supported three Jane Jacobs Walks of certified Fred Sanders in the period 2011 - 2014 in Amsterdam neighbourhoods. These walks helped residents to explore resident-empowered meeting-places and activities in

  11. Exploring paradigms in postpartum depression research: the need for feminist pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is an important area of women's health research internationally and across disciplines. There is no guiding paradigm, however, to ensure that PPD research results translate to women on a global level. This commentary builds on the work of Doucet, Letourneau, and Stoppard ( 2010 ) to determine a "best fit" paradigm with which to guide PPD research. Postpositivism, critical theory, constructivism, and pragmatism are combined with a feminist ideology and critiqued as potential guiding paradigms for PPD research. After thorough examination, I conclude the need for further use of a feminist pragmatist paradigm in PPD research.

  12. [Exploring models for the assessment of the economic, social, political, and scientific impact of health research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Angel, Beatriz; Agudelo-Calderón, Carlos A

    2015-05-01

    Health research produces effects on the health of populations. This document approaches the frameworks and the models used by developed countries to assess the impact of health research through documentary analysis of research with the highest impact. With this, it was possible to identify two guiding axes of analysis: one having to do with focus, and the other having to do with emphasis. With these, the published models, their uses, their reach, and their origins are related. Our study brings awareness to the features they have and the areas in which Colombia could implement them. We found that the framework for evaluating health research known as the "payback model" is a model for monitoring research that tracks the process and research results with multidimensional categorization of the impacts of research.

  13. Extent, Awareness and Perception of Dissemination Bias in Qualitative Research: An Explorative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Ingrid; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Berg, Rigmor C; Noyes, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Marusic, Ana; Malicki, Mario; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research findings are increasingly used to inform decision-making. Research has indicated that not all quantitative research on the effects of interventions is disseminated or published. The extent to which qualitative researchers also systematically underreport or fail to publish certain types of research findings, and the impact this may have, has received little attention. A survey was delivered online to gather data regarding non-dissemination and dissemination bias in qualitative research. We invited relevant stakeholders through our professional networks, authors of qualitative research identified through a systematic literature search, and further via snowball sampling. 1032 people took part in the survey of whom 859 participants identified as researchers, 133 as editors and 682 as peer reviewers. 68.1% of the researchers said that they had conducted at least one qualitative study that they had not published in a peer-reviewed journal. The main reasons for non-dissemination were that a publication was still intended (35.7%), resource constraints (35.4%), and that the authors gave up after the paper was rejected by one or more journals (32.5%). A majority of the editors and peer reviewers "(strongly) agreed" that the main reasons for rejecting a manuscript of a qualitative study were inadequate study quality (59.5%; 68.5%) and inadequate reporting quality (59.1%; 57.5%). Of 800 respondents, 83.1% "(strongly) agreed" that non-dissemination and possible resulting dissemination bias might undermine the willingness of funders to support qualitative research. 72.6% and 71.2%, respectively, "(strongly) agreed" that non-dissemination might lead to inappropriate health policy and health care. The proportion of non-dissemination in qualitative research is substantial. Researchers, editors and peer reviewers play an important role in this. Non-dissemination and resulting dissemination bias may impact on health care research, practice and policy. More

  14. Exploring the Best Practices of Nursing Research Councils in Magnet® Organizations: Findings From a Qualitative Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jennifer; Lindauer, Cathleen; Parks, Joyce; Scala, Elizabeth

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this descriptive qualitative study was to identify best practices of nursing research councils (NRCs) at Magnet®-designated hospitals. Nursing research (NR) is essential, adding to the body of nursing knowledge. Applying NR to the bedside improves care, enhances patient safety, and is an imperative for nursing leaders. We interviewed NR designees at 26 Magnet-recognized hospitals about the structure and function of their NRCs and used structural coding to identify best practices. Most organizations link NR and evidence-based practice. Council membership includes leadership and clinical nurses. Councils conduct scientific reviews for nursing studies, supporting nurse principal investigators. Tracking and reporting of NR vary widely and are challenging. Councils provide education, sponsor research days, and collaborate interprofessionally, including with academic partners. Findings from this study demonstrate the need to create formal processes to track and report NR and to develop outcome-focused NR education.

  15. Exploring sex and gender differences in sleep health: a Society for Women's Health Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampalli, Monica P; Carter, Christine L

    2014-07-01

    Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions.

  16. Ethical principles of informed consent: exploring nurses' dual role of care provider and researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins-Cohn, Tanya M; Kielwasser-Withrow, Kiersten; Owen, Melissa; Ward, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice within the nurse researcher-participant relationship as these principles relate to the informed consent process for research. Within this process, the nurse is confronted with a dual role. This article describes how nurses, who are in the dual role of care provider and researcher, can apply these ethical principles to their practice in conjunction with the American Nurses Association's code of ethics for nurses. This article also describes, as an element of ethical practice, the importance of using participant-centered quality measures to aid informed decision making of participants in research. In addition, the article provides strategies for improving the informed consent process in nursing research. Finally, case scenarios are discussed, along with the application of ethical principles within the awareness of the dual role of the nurse as care provider and researcher. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Exploring community pharmacists' experiences of surveying patients for drug utilization research purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Pia; Bergman, Ulrika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    pharmacists. This study is part of a validation of that data acquisition method. Objectives (1) To explore the experiences of the pharmacists involved, (2) to explore a random or systematic exclusion of eligible patients by the pharmacists, and (3) to find areas of improvement to the applied method...... of surveying. Setting 72 Swedish community pharmacies, distributed all over the country. Method (a) A questionnaire was distributed to approximately 400 dispensing pharmacists at the pharmacies conducting the patient surveys; (b) semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with 19 pharmacists at 12...... of the pharmacies. Main outcome measure Proportions of pharmacists reporting positive and negative experiences of structured survey interviews, the nature of their experiences, proportion of pharmacists reporting to avoid survey interviews and reasons for doing so, and suggested areas of improvement. Results...

  18. Exploring the Gap between Ecosystem Service Research and Management in Development Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Sitas; Heidi E. Prozesky; Karen J. Esler; Belinda Reyers

    2014-01-01

    The gap between science and practice has been highlighted in a number of scientific disciplines, including the newly developing domain of ecosystem service science, posing a challenge for the sustainable management of ecosystem services for human wellbeing. While methods to explore science-practice gaps are developing, testing and revisions of these methods are still needed so as to identify opportunities for mainstreaming ecosystem service science into development policies and practice. We d...

  19. Protecting and expanding the richness and diversity of life, an ethic for astrobiology research and space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Richard O.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing search for life on other worlds and the prospects of eventual human exploration of the Moon and Mars indicate the need for new ethical guidelines to direct our actions as we search and how we respond if we discover microbial life on other worlds. Here we review how life on other worlds presents a novel question in environmental ethics. We propose a principle of protecting and expanding the richness and diversity of life as the basis of an ethic for astrobiology research and space exploration. There are immediate implications for the operational policies governing how we conduct the search for life on Mars and how we plan for human exploration throughout the Solar System.

  20. Protecting and Expanding the Richness and Diversity of Life, An Ethic for Astrobiology Research and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Richard O.; McKay, Chris P.

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing search for life on other worlds and the prospects of eventual human exploration of the Moon and Mars indicate the need for new ethical guidelines to direct our actions as we search and how we respond if we discover microbial life on other worlds. Here we review how life on other worlds presents a novel question in environmental ethics. We propose a principle of protecting and expanding the richness and diversity of life as the basis of an ethic for astrobiology research and space exploration. There are immediate implications for the operational policies governing how we conduct the search for life on Mars and how we plan for human exploration throughout the Solar System.

  1. The evolving professional identity of the clinical research nurse: A qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhunny, Swapna; Salmon, Debra

    2017-12-01

    To examine the perspectives of CRNs in the UK on their professional role identity, in order to inform the professional practice of Clinical Research Nursing. Clinical research nurses (CRN) make a significant contribution to healthcare research within the UK and internationally. However, lack of clarity about their role, and scope of practice renders their contribution within the profession and in the minds of the wider public invisible. This has implications in terms of promoting the role nurses play not only in terms of recruitment, retention, and care of research participants but also as research leaders of the future. Exploratory qualitative design using thematic analysis conducted within a realist paradigm. Participants viewed the positive aspects of their identity 'as agents of change' who were fundamental to the clinical research process. Resourcefulness and the ability to guide members of the research team were valued as key to job satisfaction. Successful navigation through the complexity of advice, support, management and leadership tasks related to their role in caring for research patients were role affirming and generated a sense of pride. However, lack of recognition, clarity of the role and career development opportunities within an identified structure undermined the CRN identity and optimism about progression in the future. Participants reported feeling invisible to colleagues within the clinical community, isolated and excluded from wider nursing groups. The study describes UK CRN practice, highlighting the positive benefits and challenges associated with the role, including the need to support professional and career development to maximise their research contribution. This study provides nurses, health care and research organisations and academic nursing educators with a broadened understanding of the professional role, identity and context of clinical research nursing practice in the United Kingdom, with recommendations to improve its

  2. Exploring Quality Programs for English Language Learners in Charter Schools: A Framework to Guide Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Peggie; Morales, P. Zitlali

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been a great deal of debate about the effectiveness of charter schools in the research literature, there has been surprisingly little attention paid to English language learners (ELLs) in charter schools. Moreover, the charter school research has predominantly focused on whether or not charter schools are effective rather than…

  3. Open Science Strategies in Research Policies: A Comparative Exploration of Canada, the US and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasthiotakis, Helen; Kretz, Andrew; Sá, Creso

    2015-01-01

    Several movements have emerged related to the general idea of promoting "openness" in science. Research councils are key institutions in bringing about changes proposed by these movements, as sponsors and facilitators of research. In this paper we identify the approaches used in Canada, the US and the UK to advance open science, as a…

  4. Exploring Electrochromics: A Series of Eye-Catching Experiments to Introduce Students to Multidisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leo J.; Wolf, Steven; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2014-01-01

    Introducing students to a multidisciplinary research laboratory presents challenges in terms of learning specific technical skills and concepts but also with respect to integrating different technical elements to form a coherent picture of the research. Here we present a multidisciplinary series of experiments we have developed in the Electronic,…

  5. Exploring the Research Mindset and Information-Seeking Behaviors of Undergraduate Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joe C.; Johnstone, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the mindset and process of undergraduate music majors conducting research in their discipline. While working with students in a writing-intensive music history class, the authors conducted several surveys, focus groups, and task-based assessments. Results indicated that most were overconfident in their research abilities,…

  6. Exploring Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Approaches to Business Communication Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope-Ruark, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    With our core focus on teaching and scholarship, business communication teacher-scholars are well placed to become leaders in the international Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) movement. In this article, SoTL is defined and contextualized, three SoTL research approaches are introduced, and disciplinary research projects are suggested. A…

  7. Keytag It: An Exploration of a Creative and Customizable Research Guide Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Martha; Peacemaker, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The research guide is a common tool librarians use to communicate with and instruct their audiences. Despite their prevalence and value to users, research guides remain underused. There are many examples of efforts encouraging guide use, but few studies have measured the effectiveness of that promotion. Academic Outreach librarians at Virginia…

  8. Using CBPR Methods in College Health Research: Exploring Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, Sandra M.; Barton, Barbara A.; Liefeld, Julie; Montauti, Sara; Santos, Stephanie; Richard, Melissa; Hnath, Laura; Pelletier, Kara; Lalanne, Jude

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative methodology that uniquely involves stakeholders in all stages of the research process. CBPR has been widely utilized in the field of public health, but not widely employed with college populations. This study utilized CBPR methods within a college community to gain insight into…

  9. Extent, Awareness and Perception of Dissemination Bias in Qualitative Research: An Explorative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Ingrid; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Berg, Rigmor C.; Noyes, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Marusic, Ana; Malicki, Mario; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M.; Meerpohl, Joerg J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Qualitative research findings are increasingly used to inform decision-making. Research has indicated that not all quantitative research on the effects of interventions is disseminated or published. The extent to which qualitative researchers also systematically underreport or fail to publish certain types of research findings, and the impact this may have, has received little attention. Methods A survey was delivered online to gather data regarding non-dissemination and dissemination bias in qualitative research. We invited relevant stakeholders through our professional networks, authors of qualitative research identified through a systematic literature search, and further via snowball sampling. Results 1032 people took part in the survey of whom 859 participants identified as researchers, 133 as editors and 682 as peer reviewers. 68.1% of the researchers said that they had conducted at least one qualitative study that they had not published in a peer-reviewed journal. The main reasons for non-dissemination were that a publication was still intended (35.7%), resource constraints (35.4%), and that the authors gave up after the paper was rejected by one or more journals (32.5%). A majority of the editors and peer reviewers “(strongly) agreed” that the main reasons for rejecting a manuscript of a qualitative study were inadequate study quality (59.5%; 68.5%) and inadequate reporting quality (59.1%; 57.5%). Of 800 respondents, 83.1% “(strongly) agreed” that non-dissemination and possible resulting dissemination bias might undermine the willingness of funders to support qualitative research. 72.6% and 71.2%, respectively, “(strongly) agreed” that non-dissemination might lead to inappropriate health policy and health care. Conclusions The proportion of non-dissemination in qualitative research is substantial. Researchers, editors and peer reviewers play an important role in this. Non-dissemination and resulting dissemination bias may impact on

  10. Extent, Awareness and Perception of Dissemination Bias in Qualitative Research: An Explorative Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Toews

    Full Text Available Qualitative research findings are increasingly used to inform decision-making. Research has indicated that not all quantitative research on the effects of interventions is disseminated or published. The extent to which qualitative researchers also systematically underreport or fail to publish certain types of research findings, and the impact this may have, has received little attention.A survey was delivered online to gather data regarding non-dissemination and dissemination bias in qualitative research. We invited relevant stakeholders through our professional networks, authors of qualitative research identified through a systematic literature search, and further via snowball sampling.1032 people took part in the survey of whom 859 participants identified as researchers, 133 as editors and 682 as peer reviewers. 68.1% of the researchers said that they had conducted at least one qualitative study that they had not published in a peer-reviewed journal. The main reasons for non-dissemination were that a publication was still intended (35.7%, resource constraints (35.4%, and that the authors gave up after the paper was rejected by one or more journals (32.5%. A majority of the editors and peer reviewers "(strongly agreed" that the main reasons for rejecting a manuscript of a qualitative study were inadequate study quality (59.5%; 68.5% and inadequate reporting quality (59.1%; 57.5%. Of 800 respondents, 83.1% "(strongly agreed" that non-dissemination and possible resulting dissemination bias might undermine the willingness of funders to support qualitative research. 72.6% and 71.2%, respectively, "(strongly agreed" that non-dissemination might lead to inappropriate health policy and health care.The proportion of non-dissemination in qualitative research is substantial. Researchers, editors and peer reviewers play an important role in this. Non-dissemination and resulting dissemination bias may impact on health care research, practice and policy

  11. Exposure-response model for sibutramine and placebo: suggestion for application to long-term weight-control drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunghoon; Jeon, Sangil; Hong, Taegon; Lee, Jongtae; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Wan-su; Park, Gab-jin; Youn, Sunil; Jang, Doo Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    No wholly successful weight-control drugs have been developed to date, despite the tremendous demand. We present an exposure-response model of sibutramine mesylate that can be applied during clinical development of other weight-control drugs. Additionally, we provide a model-based evaluation of sibutramine efficacy. Data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study were used (N=120). Subjects in the treatment arm were initially given 8.37 mg sibutramine base daily, and those who lost sibutramine, including the placebo effect, were modeled using NONMEM 7.2. An asymptotic model approaching the final body weight was chosen to describe the time course of weight loss. Extent of weight loss was described successfully using a sigmoidal exposure-response relationship of the drug with a constant placebo effect in each individual. The placebo effect was influenced by subjects' sex and baseline body mass index. Maximal weight loss was predicted to occur around 1 year after treatment initiation. The difference in mean weight loss between the sibutramine (daily 12.55 mg) and placebo groups was predicted to be 4.5% in a simulation of 1 year of treatment, with considerable overlap of prediction intervals. Our exposure-response model, which included the placebo effect, is the first example of a quantitative model that can be used to predict the efficacy of weight-control drugs. Similar approaches can help decision-making during clinical development of novel weight-loss drugs.

  12. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  13. Multiple triangulation and collaborative research using qualitative methods to explore decision making in pre-hospital emergency care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paramedics make important and increasingly complex decisions at scene about patient care. Patient safety implications of influences on decision making in the pre-hospital setting were previously under-researched. Cutting edge perspectives advocate exploring the whole system rather than individual influences on patient safety. Ethnography (the study of people and cultures has been acknowledged as a suitable method for identifying health care issues as they occur within the natural context. In this paper we compare multiple methods used in a multi-site, qualitative study that aimed to identify system influences on decision making. Methods The study was conducted in three NHS Ambulance Trusts in England and involved researchers from each Trust working alongside academic researchers. Exploratory interviews with key informants e.g. managers (n = 16 and document review provided contextual information. Between October 2012 and July 2013 researchers observed 34 paramedic shifts and ten paramedics provided additional accounts via audio-recorded ‘digital diaries’ (155 events. Three staff focus groups (total n = 21 and three service user focus groups (total n = 23 explored a range of experiences and perceptions. Data collection and analysis was carried out by academic and ambulance service researchers as well as service users. Workshops were held at each site to elicit feedback on the findings and facilitate prioritisation of issues identified. Results The use of a multi-method qualitative approach allowed cross-validation of important issues for ambulance service staff and service users. A key factor in successful implementation of the study was establishing good working relationships with academic and ambulance service teams. Enrolling at least one research lead at each site facilitated the recruitment process as well as study progress. Active involvement with the study allowed ambulance service researchers and service

  14. Multiple triangulation and collaborative research using qualitative methods to explore decision making in pre-hospital emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maxine; O'Hara, Rachel; Hirst, Enid; Weyman, Andrew; Turner, Janette; Mason, Suzanne; Quinn, Tom; Shewan, Jane; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2017-01-24

    Paramedics make important and increasingly complex decisions at scene about patient care. Patient safety implications of influences on decision making in the pre-hospital setting were previously under-researched. Cutting edge perspectives advocate exploring the whole system rather than individual influences on patient safety. Ethnography (the study of people and cultures) has been acknowledged as a suitable method for identifying health care issues as they occur within the natural context. In this paper we compare multiple methods used in a multi-site, qualitative study that aimed to identify system influences on decision making. The study was conducted in three NHS Ambulance Trusts in England and involved researchers from each Trust working alongside academic researchers. Exploratory interviews with key informants e.g. managers (n = 16) and document review provided contextual information. Between October 2012 and July 2013 researchers observed 34 paramedic shifts and ten paramedics provided additional accounts via audio-recorded 'digital diaries' (155 events). Three staff focus groups (total n = 21) and three service user focus groups (total n = 23) explored a range of experiences and perceptions. Data collection and analysis was carried out by academic and ambulance service researchers as well as service users. Workshops were held at each site to elicit feedback on the findings and facilitate prioritisation of issues identified. The use of a multi-method qualitative approach allowed cross-validation of important issues for ambulance service staff and service users. A key factor in successful implementation of the study was establishing good working relationships with academic and ambulance service teams. Enrolling at least one research lead at each site facilitated the recruitment process as well as study progress. Active involvement with the study allowed ambulance service researchers and service users to gain a better understanding of the research

  15. Expanding the Horizon: A Journey to Explore and Share Effective Geoscience Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Indian Natural Resource Science and Engineering Program (INRSEP) has worked diligently over the past 40 + years to ensure the success of Tribal, Indigenous and Underrepresented undergraduate and graduate students in geoscience and natural resources fields of study. Central to this success has been the development of cultural relevant research opportunities directed by Tribal people. The research experiences have been initiated to address culturally relevant challenges on Tribal and non-Tribal lands. It has become critically important to ensure students have multiple research experiences across North America as well as throughout the continent. The INRSEP community has found creating and maintaining relationships with organizations like the Geoscience Alliance, Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MSPHD's) and the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation (LSAMP) program has greatly improved the success of students matriculating to graduate STEM programs. These relationships also serve an immense capacity in tracking students, promoting best practices in research development and assessing outcomes. The presentation will highlight lessons learned on how to 1) Develop a diverse cohort or 'community' of student researchers; 2) Evolve intergenerational mentoring processes and outcomes; 3) Tether to related research and programs; and Foster the broader impact of geoscience research and outcomes.

  16. Research on structure-alteration zone related to uranium mineralization and its exploration significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianfang; Liu Dechang; Ye Fawang; Dong Xiuzhen; Yang Xu Zhang Hongguang

    2008-01-01

    The paper is focused on recommending geological characteristics of structure-alteration zone which is found from image interpretation in Bashibulake District, north of Tarim Basin, expounding remote sensing information enhancement and extraction technique, analyzing image feature, genetic mechanism and discussing the relationship between uranium mineralization and structure-alteration zone. A new discovery is raised through applying remote sensing information analysis and geologic analysis, that is, the uranium deposits in Bashibulake District are controlled by structure-alteration zone. The new understanding provides a new view point for reconsidering main controlling factors and uranium mineralization distribution in the area. It is helpful for further reconnaissance and exploration in the area. (authors)

  17. A personal history of the human exploration initiative with commentary on the pivotal role for life support research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell

    1990-01-01

    The author relates the history of the human exploration initiative from a personal perspective from the 1961 J. F. Kennedy initiative to land a man on the moon up to 1986 when a memo was circulated from NASA Headquarters to its employees which stated as a major goal the expansion of the human presence beyond Earth into the solar system. The pivotal role of life support research is woven into this personalized history.

  18. Exploring travelers' behavior in response to dynamic message signs (DMS) using a driving simulator : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) uses dynamic message signs : (DMS) for traffic and incident management and for providing travel time information. : Previous research in Maryland has shown that a DMS can be an accurate, effective, and ...

  19. Propulsion and Power Technologies for the NASA Exploration Vision: A Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2004-01-01

    Future propulsion and power technologies for deep space missions are profiled in this viewgraph presentation. The presentation includes diagrams illustrating possible future travel times to other planets in the solar system. The propulsion technologies researched at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) include: 1) Chemical Propulsion; 2) Nuclear Propulsion; 3) Electric and Plasma Propulsion; 4) Energetics. The presentation contains additional information about these technologies, as well as space reactors, reactor simulation, and the Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) at MSFC.

  20. Applying a global justice lens to health systems research ethics: an initial exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-03-01

    Recent scholarship has considered what, if anything, rich people owe to poor people to achieve justice in global health and the implications of this for international research. Yet this work has primarily focused on international clinical research. Health systems research is increasingly being performed in low and middle income countries and is essential to reducing global health disparities. This paper provides an initial description of the ethical issues related to priority setting, capacity-building, and the provision of post-study benefits that arise during the conduct of such research. It presents a selection of issues discussed in the health systems research literature and argues that they constitute ethical concerns based on their being inconsistent with a particular theory of global justice (the health capability paradigm). Issues identified include the fact that priority setting for health systems research at the global level is often not driven by national priorities and that capacity-building efforts frequently utilize one-size-fits-all approaches.

  1. Content analysis as a means of exploring research opportunities from a conference programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Ina

    2012-09-01

    Health librarians should keep up-to-date in a dynamic environment and accept the importance of continuing personal development (CPD) and growth in their critical reflection and creative thinking skills. They also need to acknowledge the potential value of research activity and the challenges of ongoing improvement and development. Conference programmes may prove a useful source of stimulation, especially if supplemented by creativity techniques, action research and the ideal of 'finding flow'. The article analyses the themes and papers presented at the 10th International Conference on International Medical Librarianship (ICML) to identify opportunities for further research, literature reviews, assessment of practices and services, etc. Content analysis approach to conference papers and suggestions for further action including supplementing with techniques of creativity and group input. A fairly extensive list of further actions (although not intended to be exhaustive) is suggested for the sixteen conference themes. Although subjective, the list might help to stimulate growth in research on health librarianship and demonstrate how one source of stimulation--conference programmes (regularly presented to medical library communities)--can be used. Content analysis has proven a constructive means of generating research questions from a conference programme. Content analysis and other methods aimed at stimulating creative and progressive thinking, including brainstorming, force field analysis, De Bono's 6 hats, creative swiping and creative visualisation, may prove equally useful and require further investigation. To ensure an ongoing cycle, these can be linked to action research. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  2. Knowledge management and informatics considerations for comparative effectiveness research: a case-driven exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embi, Peter J; Hebert, Courtney; Gordillo, Gayle; Kelleher, Kelly; Payne, Philip R O

    2013-08-01

    As clinical data are increasingly collected and stored electronically, their potential use for comparative effectiveness research (CER) grows. Despite this promise, challenges face those wishing to leverage such data. In this paper we aim to enumerate some of the knowledge management and informatics issues common to such data reuse. After reviewing the current state of knowledge regarding biomedical informatics challenges and best practices related to CER, we then present 2 research projects at our institution. We analyze these and highlight several common themes and challenges related to the conduct of CER studies. Finally, we represent these emergent themes. The informatics challenges commonly encountered by those conducting CER studies include issues related to data information and knowledge management (eg, data reuse, data preparation) as well as those related to people and organizational issues (eg, sociotechnical factors and organizational factors). Examples of these are described in further detail and a formal framework for describing these findings is presented. Significant challenges face researchers attempting to use often diverse and heterogeneous datasets for CER. These challenges must be understood in order to be dealt with successfully and can often be overcome with the appropriate use of informatics best practices. Many research and policy questions remain to be answered in order to realize the full potential of the increasingly electronic clinical data available for such research.

  3. A Summary of NASA Research Exploring the Acoustics of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Christian, Andrew; Cabell, Randolph

    2018-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. In order to understand the potential noise impact of sUAS, NASA initiated acoustics research as one component of the 3-year DELIVER project, with the goal of documenting the feasibility of using existing aircraft design tools and methods on this class of vehicles. This paper summarizes the acoustics research conducted within the DELIVER project. The research described here represents an initial study, and subsequent research building on the findings of this work has been proposed for other NASA projects. The paper summarizes acoustics research in four areas: measurements of noise generated by flyovers of small unmanned aerial vehicles, measurements in controlled test facilities to understand the noise generated by components of these vehicles, computational predictions of component and full vehicle noise, and psychoacoustic tests including auralizations conducted to assess human annoyance to the noise generated by these vehicles.

  4. Exploring the barriers to and facilitators of implementing research into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Bridget; Coole, Carol; Narayanasamy, Melanie; Feakes, Ruth; Whitworth, Gillian; Tyrell, Tracy; Hardy, Beth

    2016-08-02

    District and community nursing roles have changed rapidly in recent years. Community nurses are increasingly being tasked with carrying out multiple roles, which require them to put research into practice and use evidence-based tools and interventions. The implementation of interventions and tools needs to be developed from empirical research, requiring evidence, to be translated into practice. However, this process may be compromised or enhanced by a number of factors. This exploratory, descriptive qualitative study sought to identify barriers and facilitators to community nurses implementing research into practice. Four focus groups were conducted with registered community nurses and district nurses (n=22). Analysis identified four main themes: keeping up to date with evidence; using a clinical tool; education/training and implementation. Findings suggest that there are barriers at a personal, professional and organisational level. Strategies are suggested to overcome these obstacles.

  5. A preliminary exploration of the advanced molecular bio-sciences research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Takanori; Yamada, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kimio; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Sota, Masahiro; Takemura, Tatsuo; Koyama, Kenji; Sato, Fumiaki

    2001-01-01

    Low dose and low dose rate radiation effects on lifespan, pathological changes, hemopoiesis and cytokine production in mice have been investigated in our laboratory. In the intermediate period of the investigation, an expert committee on radiation biology was organized. The purposes of the committee were to assess previous studies and advise on a future research plan for the Advanced Molecular Bio-Sciences Research Center (AMBIC). The committee emphasized the necessity of molecular research in radiation biology, and proposed the following five subjects: 1) molecular carcinogenesis by low dose radiation; 2) radiation effects on the immune and hemopoietic systems; 3) molecular mechanisms of hereditary effect; 4) noncancer diseases of low dose radiation, and 5) cellular mechanisms by low dose radiation. (author)

  6. Exploring an experiential learning project through Kolb's Learning Theory using a qualitative research method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk Chan, Cecilia Ka

    2012-08-01

    Experiential learning pedagogy is taking a lead in the development of graduate attributes and educational aims as these are of prime importance for society. This paper shows a community service experiential project conducted in China. The project enabled students to serve the affected community in a post-earthquake area by applying their knowledge and skills. This paper documented the students' learning process from their project goals, pre-trip preparations, work progress, obstacles encountered to the final results and reflections. Using the data gathered from a focus group interview approach, the four components of Kolb's learning cycle, the concrete experience, reflection observation, abstract conceptualisation and active experimentation, have been shown to transform and internalise student's learning experience, achieving a variety of learning outcomes. The author will also explore how this community service type of experiential learning in the engineering discipline allowed students to experience deep learning and develop their graduate attributes.

  7. A fence barrier method of leading edge cell capture for explorative biochemical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Lucas J; Murray, Rachael Z; Thompson, Erik W; Leavesley, David I

    2017-09-03

    The scratch or wound-healing assay is used ubiquitously for investigating re-epithelialisation and has already revealed the importance of cells comprising the leading edge of healing epithelial wounds. However it is currently limited to studying the effect of known biochemical agents on the tissue of choice. Here we present an adaptation that extends the utility of this model to encompass the collection of cells from the leading edge of migrating epithelial sheets making available explorative biochemical analyses. The method is scalable and does not require expensive apparatus, making it suitable for large and small laboratories alike. We detail the application of our method and exemplify proof of principle data derived from primary human keratinocyte cultures.

  8. Exploring Graduate Students’ Attitudes towards Team Research and Their Scholarly Productivity: A Survey Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianlan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the attitudinal and motivational factors underlying graduate students’ attitudes towards team research. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we hypothesize that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control are three major determinants of graduate students’ intentions to conduct team research. An instrument was developed to measure the influences of these factors on students’ intentions and relevant scholarly productivity. A total of 281 graduate students from a large, comprehensive university in the southwest United States participated in the survey. Descriptive statistics reveal that around two-thirds of graduate students have no co-authored manuscripts submitted for publication since they started graduate school. Factor analyses validated the factor structure of the instrument, and the results of Structural Equation Modeling show that (a graduate students’ attitudes towards team research have a positive correlation with their attitudes towards individual research; (b attitude towards team research, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control, along with students’ discipline/major areas and classification, account for 58% of the variance in the intention to conduct team research; and (c subjective norm appears to be the most influential factor in the model, followed by attitude; while perceived behavioral control is not of much importance. These findings provide implications for academic departments and programs to promote graduate students’ team research. Specifically, creating a climate for collaborative research in academic programs/disciplines/universities may work jointly with enhancing students’ appraisals of such collaborations.

  9. Exploring Mindfulness and Meditation for the Elementary Classroom: Intersections across Current Multidisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routhier-Martin, Kayli; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Blanch, Norine

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness and meditation programs, and their associated benefits for education, can be examined within three related disciplines: psychology, elementary education, and exceptional education. A review of psychology research provides evidence that meditation and mindfulness work to balance the often negative effects of students' social-emotional…

  10. Exploring Performativity and Resistance in Qualitative Research Interviews: A Play in Four Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaunae, Cathrine; Wu, Chiu-Hui; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2011-01-01

    This play describes how the authors become aware of the complexities of resistance and performativity in the qualitative interview process. It also illustrates how this awareness and subsequent acquisition of knowledge changed and informed the way they viewed qualitative research interviewing. More specifically, performativity is put into work in…

  11. Data Mining and Domain Knowledge: An Exploration of Methods to Advance Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Kelley M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in the medical domain consider the double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the gold standard. The data for these clinical trials are collected for a specifically defined hypothesis and there is very little in the realm of secondary data analyses conducted. The underlying purpose of this work is to demonstrate the value and…

  12. Teaching Self-Disclosure through an Activity Exploring Disclosure Research and Online Dating Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nicole Marie; Hastings, Sally O.

    2013-01-01

    Most interpersonal communication course textbooks include a section or chapter on the topic of self-disclosure. Students are normally introduced to elements of self-disclosure, such as a definition, functions, or reasons for self-disclosure, risks of self-disclosure, and the role of self-disclosure in relationships. Historically, research on…

  13. Exploring the Adult Learning Research Field by Analysing Who Cites Whom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Erik; Österlund, Lovisa; Fejes, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In this article we report on findings from a large-scale bibliographic study conducted based on the citation practices within the field of research on adult learning. Our data consist of 151,261 citation links between more than 33,000 different authors whose papers were published in five leading international journals in the field of adult…

  14. Island Explorations: Discovering Effects of Environmental Research-Based Lab Activities on Analytical Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; LeCaptain, Dale; Murphy, Sarah; Martin, Mary; Knight, Rachel M.; Harke, Maureen A.; Burke, Ryan; Beck, Kara; Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David

    2014-01-01

    Motivating students in analytical chemistry can be challenging, in part because of the complexity and breadth of topics involved. Some methods that help encourage students and convey real-world relevancy of the material include incorporating environmental issues, research-based lab experiments, and service learning projects. In this paper, we…

  15. Exploring Market and Competitive Intelligence Research as a Source for Enhancing Innovation Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of Competitive and Market Intelligence (CI/MI) Research as a potential source for improving the innovation capability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME's) leading to successful new product/services/processes/capabilities development (Cooper & Edgett, 2002). This report highlights the…

  16. Exploring Culture from a Distance: The Utility of Telephone Interviews in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies that utilize telephone interviews, as a primary data collection mode, often are not discussed in the qualitative research literature. Data excerpts from a study that sought to understand the culture of for-profit universities are used to illustrate the types of data that can be garnered through telephone interviews. In…

  17. Expanding the Conversation: Further Explorations into Indigenous Environmental Science Education Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous environmental science education is a diverse, dynamic, and rapidly expanding field of research, theory, and practice. This article highlights, challenges, and expands upon key areas of discussion presented by Mack et al. (Cult Stud Sci Educ 7, "2012") as part of the forum on their article "Effective Practices for Creating…

  18. Exploring the Role of Executive Functioning Measures for Social Competence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichter, Janine P.; Christ, Shawn E.; Herzog, Melissa J.; O'Donnell, Rose M.; O'Connor, Karen V.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous research groups have consistently called for increased rigor within the evaluation of social programming to better understand pivotal factors to treatment outcomes. The underwhelming data on the essential features of social competence programs for students with behavior challenges may, in part, be attributed to the manner by which…

  19. Delphi-research for exploring essential components and preconditions for case management for people with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkade, P.J.; Meijel, B. van; Brink, C.; Os-Medendorp, H. van; Koekkoek, B.; Francke, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Case management programmes for home-dwelling people with dementia and their informal carers exist in multiple forms and shapes. The aim of this research was to identify the essential components of case management for people with dementia as well as the preconditions for an effective

  20. Learning in Activity: Exploring the Methodological Potential of Action Research in Activity Theorising of Social Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), founded on the seminal work of Vygotsky and evolving in the subsequent work of Leont'ev and Engestrom, continues to emerge as a robust and increasingly widely used conceptual framework for the research and analysis of the complex social mediation of human learning and development. Yet there remains…

  1. Exploring risk communication - results of a research project focussed on effectiveness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Mostert, Erik

    2016-04-01

    The need for effective science communication and outreach efforts is widely acknowledged in the academic community. In the field of Disaster Risk Reduction, the importance of communication is clearly stressed, e.g. in the newly adopted Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (under the 1st priority of action: understanding disaster risk). Consequently, we see increasing risk communication activities. However, the effectiveness of these activities is rarely evaluated. To address this gap, several research activities were conducted in the context of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "Changes", the results of which we will present and discuss. First, results of a literature review show, among others, that research on effectiveness is mainly focussed on the assessment of users' needs and their ability to understand the content, rather than on the final impact of the risk communication efforts. Moreover, lab-environment research is more often undertaken than assessment of real communication efforts. Second, a comparison between perceptions of risk managers and the general public of risk communication in a French Alps Valley highlighted a gap between the two groups in terms of amount of information needed (who wants more), the important topics to address (what) and the media to use (how). Third, interviews with developers of smartphone applications for disseminating avalanche risk information showed a variety of current practices and the absence of measurements of real their effectiveness. However, our analysis allowed identifying good practices that can be an inspiration for risk communication related to other hazards. Fourth, an exhibition has been set up following a collaborative approached based on stakeholder engagement. Using a pre/post-test design, the immediate impact of the exhibition, which aimed at increasing the risk awareness of the population (Ubaye Valley, France), was measured. The data obtained suggests that visiting the exhibition

  2. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K. M.; Warburton, J.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)--funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. PolarTREC has developed a successful internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact and share their diverse experiences and expertise by creating interdisciplinary educational tools including online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific topics. These highly relevant, adaptable, and accessible resources are available to educators across the globe and have connected thousands of students and citizens to the excitement of polar science. By fostering the integration of research and education and infusing education with the thrill of discovery, PolarTREC will produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations and increased student knowledge of and interest in the polar regions well beyond the IPY time period. Educator and student feedback from preliminary evaluations has shown that PolarTREC's comprehensive program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes in key areas including amount of time spent in school exploring research activities, importance of understanding science for future work, importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world, as well as increased self-reported knowledge and interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics content areas. PolarTREC provides a tested approach and a clear route for researcher participation in the education community

  3. Air Force Research Laboratory Test and Evaluation, Verification and Validation of Autonomous Systems Challenge Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    and produce the initial draft of the AFRL TEV&V storyboard and supporting research needs. This chapter highlights the key components of the storyboard ...Kris previewed  the  storyboard  that was created to tie the research portfolios to the AFRL Autonomy Strategy goal "Highly effective  Human‐Machine...AFRL may want to develop something like this for T&E, V&V. The  storyboard  can be found in Appendix A4, "Highly effective Human‐Machine Teaming

  4. Human Research Program: Long Duration, Exploration-Class Mission Training Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Dempsey, Donna L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a presentation to the International Training Control Board that oversees astronaut training for ISS. The presentation explains the structure of HRP, the training-related work happening under the different program elements, and discusses in detail the research plan for the Training Risk under SHFHSHFE. The group includes the crew training leads for all the space agencies involved in ISS: Japan, Europe, Russia, Canada, and the US.

  5. Using social simulation to explore the dynamics at stake in participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Barreteau, Olivier; Le Page, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    This position paper contributes to the debate on perspectives for simulating the social processes of science through the specific angle of participatory research. This new way of producing science is still in its infancy and needs some step back and analysis, to understand what is taking place on the boundaries between academic, policy and lay worlds. We argue that social simulation of this practice of cooperation can help in understanding further this new way of doing science, building on ex...

  6. Your Genes, Your Choices: Exploring the Issues Raised by Genetic Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.

    1999-05-31

    Your Genes, Your Choices provides accurate information about the ethical, legal, and social implications of the Human Genome Project and genetic research in an easy-to-read style and format. Each chapter in the book begins with a brief vignette, which introduces an issue within a human story, and raises a question for the reader to think about as the basic science and information are presented in the rest of the chapter.

  7. Contribution to research on the isotopic exploration of the lacrimal ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauthier, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    With the help of radioactive tracers the physiological exploration of tear flow is now possible without instrumental manipulation. The use of sodium pertechnetate (sup(99m)TcO 4 -Na + ) in physiological serum solution gives a good account of the natural role of tears in the drainage system and the dynamics of this latter. A solution of radioactive sodium pertechnetate in artificial tears (9/000 solution of sodium chloride) contains very little dissolved element compared with the amount of sodium chloride present. The specific activity of the pertechnetate in saline solution varies according to the examinations between 7 and 10mCi/cm 3 , which means that each calibrated 15 μl drop has an activity of 105 to 150 μCi. The radiation dose delivered to the crystalline lens of both eyes (4mrad) is less than 2% that of an anteroposterior skull X-ray. The aim of this study is actually threefold: - in vivo demonstration of the normal internal configuration of tear ducts; - determination of the physiological lacrimal function of exccretion by qualitative and quantitative lacrimal scintigraphy, and of drainage dynamics norms; - study of tear absorption by the mucous membranes of the drainage ducts. The results show that the scintigraphic examination, while giving a mere approach to the internal morphology of the tear ducts, provides important information on their drainage dynamics [fr

  8. CE: Original Research: Exploring Clinicians' Perceptions About Sustaining an Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Rebecca B; Cullen, Laura; Farrington, Michele; Matthews, Grace; Tucker, Sharon

    2018-05-01

    : Purpose: This study aimed to address the knowledge gap between implementing and sustaining evidence-based fall prevention practices for hospitalized patients by exploring perspectives of the interprofessional health care team. A qualitative design was used to capture insights from clinicians across disciplines in a large midwestern academic medical center. Four homogenous semistructured focus groups and three individual interviews involving a total of 20 clinicians were conducted between October 2013 and March 2014. Audio-recorded data were transcribed and analyzed using inductive qualitative analysis. Two primary themes emerged from participants regarding the sustainability of an evidence-based fall prevention program: communication patterns within the interprofessional health care team and influences of hospital organizational practices and elements. Several subthemes also emerged. Participants gave nursing staff primary responsibility for fall risk assessment and prevention. Individual professional perceptions and practices, as well as organizational characteristics, affect the sustainability of evidence-based fall prevention practices. While all team members recognized patient falls as a significant quality and safety issue, most believed that direct care nurses hold primary responsibility for leading fall prevention efforts. The data support the importance of effective interprofessional team communication and organizational practices in sustaining an evidence-based fall prevention program across inpatient units. Furthermore, the data call into question the wisdom in labeling quality indicators as "nursing sensitive"; the evidence indicates that a team approach is best.

  9. Conceptual Design of Korea Aerospace Research Institute Lunar Explorer Dynamic Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Young Rew

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In lunar explorer development program, computer simulator is necessary to provide virtual environments that vehicle confronts in lunar transfer, orbit, and landing missions, and to analyze dynamic behavior of the spacecraft under these environments. Objective of simulation differs depending on its application in spacecraft development cycle. Scope of use cases considered in this paper includes simulation of software based, processor and/or hardware in the loop, and support of ground-based flight test of developed vehicle. These use cases represent early phase in development cycle but reusability of modeling results in the next design phase is considered in defining requirements. A simulator architecture in which simulator platform is located in the middle and modules for modeling, analyzing, and three dimensional visualizing are connected to that platform is suggested. Baseline concepts and requirements for simulator development are described. Result of trade study for selecting simulation platform and approaches of defining other simulator components are summarized. Finally, characters of lunar elevation map data which is necessary for lunar terrain generation is described.

  10. Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Nitza; Dutson, Eric; Friedl, Karl; Hyman, William; Jemison, Mae; Klonoff, David

    2009-01-01

    The SRP believes strongly that regularly performed in-flight crew assessments are needed in order to identify a change in health status before a medical condition becomes clinically apparent. It is this early recognition in change that constitutes the foundation of the "occupational health model" expounded in the HRP Requirements Document as a key component of the HRP risk mitigation strategy that will enable its objective of "prevention and mitigation of human health and performance risks". A regular crew status examination of physiological and clinical performance is needed. This can be accomplished through instrumented monitoring of routine embedded tasks. The SRP recommends addition of a new gap to address this action under Category 3.0 Mitigate the Risk. This new gap is closely associated with Task 4.19 which addresses the lack of adequate biomedical monitoring capabilities for performing periodic clinical status evaluations and contingency medical monitoring. A corollary to these gaps is the critical emphasis on preventive medicine, not only during pre- and post-flight phases of a mission as is the current practice, but continued into the in-flight phases of exploration class missions.

  11. Research Data Explorer: Lessons Learned in Design and Development of Context-based Cohort Definition and Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Adam; Vawdrey, David; Weng, Chunhua; Velez, Mark; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Research Data eXplorer (RedX) was designed to support self-service research data queries and cohort identification from clinical research databases. The primary innovation of RedX was the electronic health record view of patient data, to provide better contextual understanding for non-technical users in building complex data queries. The design of RedX around this need identified multiple functions that would use individual patient views to better understand population-based data, and vice-versa. During development, the more necessary and valuable components of RedX were refined, leading to a functional self-service query and cohort identification tool. However, with the improved capabilities and extensibility of other applications for data querying and navigation, our long-term implementation and dissemination plans have moved towards consolidation and alignment of RedX functions as enhancements in these other initiatives.

  12. Analysis of the intellectual structure of human space exploration research using a bibliometric approach: Focus on human related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai Sik; Lee, Yoon-Sun; Lee, Jaeho; Chang, Byung Chul

    2018-02-01

    Human space exploration (HSE) is an interdisciplinary field composed of a range of subjects that have developed dramatically over the last few decades. This paper investigates the intellectual structure of HSE research with a focus on human related factors. A bibliometric approach with quantitative analytical techniques is applied to study the development and growth of the research. This study retrieves 1921 papers on HSE related to human factors from the year 1990 to the year 2016 from Web of Science and constructs a critical citation network composed of 336 papers. Edge-betweenness-based clustering is used to classify the citation network into twelve distinct research clusters based on four research themes: "biological risks from space radiation," "health and performance during long-duration spaceflight," "program and in-situ resources for HSE missions," and "habitat and life support systems in the space environment." These research themes are also similar to the classification results of a co-occurrence analysis on keywords for a total of 1921 papers. Papers with high centrality scores are identified as important papers in terms of knowledge flow. Moreover, the intermediary role of papers in exchanging knowledge between HSE sub-areas is identified using brokerage analysis. The key-route main path highlights the theoretical development trajectories. Due to the recent dramatic increase in investment by international governments and the private sector, the theoretical development trajectories of key research themes have been expanding from furthering scientific and technical knowledge to include various social and economic issues, thus encouraging massive public participation. This study contributes to an understanding of research trends and popular issues in the field of HSE by introducing a powerful way of determining major research themes and development trajectories. This study will help researchers seek the underlying knowledge diffusion flow from multifaceted

  13. A synthesis of qualitative research exploring the barriers to staying in work with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Seers, Kate; Allcock, Nick; Briggs, Michelle; Carr, Eloise; Barker, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research can help to advance our understanding, management and prevention of work disability. Our aim was to integrate qualitative research findings in order to increase our understanding of barriers to stay in work with chronic pain. We searched five electronic bibliographic databases until September 2012, supplemented by citation tracking and hand-searching. We used meta-ethnography to synthesis our findings. Central to meta-ethnography is identifying “concepts” and developing a conceptual model. Concepts were compared and organised into categories. The following categories can have an impact on the decision to remain in work: struggling to affirm myself as a good worker; balancing life and work in the face of unpredictable symptoms; my work colleagues don't believe me; the system does not facilitate return to work; the battle for legitimacy. Our innovation is to present an internationally relevant model based on a conceptual synthesis. This model highlights the adversarial work experience of people with chronic. The papers span 15 years of qualitative research. A significant finding is that these themes continue to pervade the current work environment for those in pain, and this has clear implications for education, social care and policy. People with chronic pain face an adversarial struggle to maintain their credibility at work. Strategies to maintain personal credibility can have an adverse effect on working lives. Changes at a systems level are needed to facilitate continuance and return to work. Cultural changes in the way that we view people with pain would help to keep people in work.

  14. Integrating movement ecology with biodiversity research - exploring new avenues to address spatiotemporal biodiversity dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltsch, Florian; Bonte, Dries; Pe'er, Guy; Reineking, Björn; Leimgruber, Peter; Balkenhol, Niko; Schröder, Boris; Buchmann, Carsten M; Mueller, Thomas; Blaum, Niels; Zurell, Damaris; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Wiegand, Thorsten; Eccard, Jana A; Hofer, Heribert; Reeg, Jette; Eggers, Ute; Bauer, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Movement of organisms is one of the key mechanisms shaping biodiversity, e.g. the distribution of genes, individuals and species in space and time. Recent technological and conceptual advances have improved our ability to assess the causes and consequences of individual movement, and led to the emergence of the new field of 'movement ecology'. Here, we outline how movement ecology can contribute to the broad field of biodiversity research, i.e. the study of processes and patterns of life among and across different scales, from genes to ecosystems, and we propose a conceptual framework linking these hitherto largely separated fields of research. Our framework builds on the concept of movement ecology for individuals, and demonstrates its importance for linking individual organismal movement with biodiversity. First, organismal movements can provide 'mobile links' between habitats or ecosystems, thereby connecting resources, genes, and processes among otherwise separate locations. Understanding these mobile links and their impact on biodiversity will be facilitated by movement ecology, because mobile links can be created by different modes of movement (i.e., foraging, dispersal, migration) that relate to different spatiotemporal scales and have differential effects on biodiversity. Second, organismal movements can also mediate coexistence in communities, through 'equalizing' and 'stabilizing' mechanisms. This novel integrated framework provides a conceptual starting point for a better understanding of biodiversity dynamics in light of individual movement and space-use behavior across spatiotemporal scales. By illustrating this framework with examples, we argue that the integration of movement ecology and biodiversity research will also enhance our ability to conserve diversity at the genetic, species, and ecosystem levels.

  15. PLM in the Food Industry: An Explorative Empirical Research in the Italian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna , Claudia; Taisch , Marco; Terzi , Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Part 5: PLM and Innovation; International audience; The Food and Beverage (F&B) industry has a unique role in all countries’ economies because it is essential to people lives. In this paper, the focus will be on the Italian food industry, one of the main food producer. This study will present the first results of a wider research that has as main aim to understand how PLM is adopted in the food industry, its limits and its challenges. Indeed, the first results show the level of knowledge of P...

  16. Exploring an Unknown Territory: "Sleeping Beauties" in the Nursing Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokol, Peter; Blažun Vošner, Helena; Vermeulen, Joeri

    Sleeping Beauties (SBs) are publications that are scarcely cited in the years immediately following publication but then suddenly become highly cited later. Such publications have unique citation patterns and can reveal important developments in the field in which they appear. No holistic analysis of nursing SBs has been done yet. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the SB phenomenon in the nursing research literature. The corpus for the nursing SB identification was harvested from the Web of Science Core Collection (Thomas Reuters) for the period 1934-2015. Citation histories of 212,239 publications were screened. From those, 3,209 publications with more than 100 citations were selected for analysis. We used our own software and applied the van Raan (2004) and Baumgartner (2010) criteria for SBs-a 5-year sleeping period with at most 10 citations during that time, an average of at least five citations per year after the first 10 years, with at least 100 citations in total. The knowledge context for SBs was determined using citing papers. All citing papers were analyzed with the help of VOSviewer software. Nine publications were identified as SBs (prevalence of 0.004%). The length of sleep duration ranged from 5 to 10 years (M = 6.8, SD = 2.0), depth of sleep ranged from 0.2 to 0.8 citations (M = 0.6, SD = 0.2), and awake intensity ranged from 6.4 to 15.0 citations (M = 11.0, SD = 3.8). The average number of citations to SBs was 229. Most nursing SBs were produced in the United States (n = 8) from top institutions in journals with high-impact factors. Nursing SBs covered topics including resilience, sampling in qualitative research, metasynthesis, postoperative pain in children, dementia rating scales, care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, nursing theory related to fatigue mechanisms in cancer patients, and family participation during resuscitation. Nursing SBs were cited by authors from a large number of institutions and countries; the number of

  17. Research and application of information system for sandstone-type uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shaoyang; Huang Shutao; Hou Huiqun

    2003-01-01

    The GIS (Geographical Information System) technique is applied to the exploration and evaluation of in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium deposits and the GIS application system of desktop is created for non-GIS professionals. ArcView3.2 is taken as compositive platform of the information system. The secondary design is developed through the AVENUE language provided by ArcView3.2 on the software functions. According to the needs of multi-source information management and integrated evaluation, a series of new functions are appended to the basic platform through AVENUE language on a basis of sufficiently inheriting ArcView3.2 software functions and a friendly graphic user interface is also created, so that the system implements the following functions better, including information query, data base management, editing graphics, geologic mapping, image processing, spatial analysis, model analysis and result output. In order to manage the plenty of borehole data better and quickly realize the borehole mapping, a system software of borehole data management and mapping on the base of GIS software platform is developed. The system software has been applied to uranium survey project in the west of Hailaer basin. Based on multi-source geoscience information database including geologic, geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing data, the system software has been used to perform the integrated analysis of spatial data for realizing the deep analysis and studies of the metallogenic geologic environments of sandstone-type uranium deposits. In the Kelulun basin, the weights of evidence analysis have been used to quantitatively predict the prospective areas of sandstone uranium deposits. Information system has also been applied to the integrated evaluation of uranium resource in the south of Yili basin, Songliao basin and other areas. (authors)

  18. An exploration of role model influence on adult nursing students' professional development: A phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate

    2016-02-01

    Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards human exploration of space: the THESEUS review series on muscle and bone research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas; Van Loon, Jack J W A; Bloomfield, Susan; Vico, Laurence; Chopard, Angele; Rittweger, Joern; Kyparos, Antonios; Blottner, Dieter; Vuori, Ilkka; Gerzer, Rupert; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2017-01-01

    Without effective countermeasures, the musculoskeletal system is altered by the microgravity environment of long-duration spaceflight, resulting in atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, as well as in deficits in the function of cartilage, tendons, and vertebral disks. While inflight countermeasures implemented on the International Space Station have evidenced reduction of bone and muscle loss on low-Earth orbit missions of several months in length, important knowledge gaps must be addressed in order to develop effective strategies for managing human musculoskeletal health on exploration class missions well beyond Earth orbit. Analog environments, such as bed rest and/or isolation environments, may be employed in conjunction with large sample sizes to understand sex differences in countermeasure effectiveness, as well as interaction of exercise with pharmacologic, nutritional, immune system, sleep and psychological countermeasures. Studies of musculoskeletal biomechanics, involving both human subject and computer simulation studies, are essential to developing strategies to avoid bone fractures or other injuries to connective tissue during exercise and extravehicular activities. Animal models may be employed to understand effects of the space environment that cannot be modeled using human analog studies. These include studies of radiation effects on bone and muscle, unraveling the effects of genetics on bone and muscle loss, and characterizing the process of fracture healing in the mechanically unloaded and immuno-compromised spaceflight environment. In addition to setting the stage for evidence-based management of musculoskeletal health in long-duration space missions, the body of knowledge acquired in the process of addressing this array of scientific problems will lend insight into the understanding of terrestrial health conditions such as age-related osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

  20. Researches on the Orbit Determination and Positioning of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    This dissertation studies the precise orbit determination (POD) and positioning of the Chinese lunar exploration spacecraft, emphasizing the variety of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) technologies applied for the deep-space exploration, and their contributions to the methods and accuracies of the precise orbit determination and positioning. In summary, the main contents are as following: In this work, using the real-time data measured by the CE-2 (Chang'E-2) detector, the accuracy of orbit determination is analyzed for the domestic lunar probe under the present condition, and the role played by the VLBI tracking data is particularly reassessed through the precision orbit determination experiments for CE-2. The experiments of the short-arc orbit determination for the lunar probe show that the combination of the ranging and VLBI data with the arc of 15 minutes is able to improve the accuracy by 1-1.5 order of magnitude, compared to the cases for only using the ranging data with the arc of 3 hours. The orbital accuracy is assessed through the orbital overlapping analysis, and the results show that the VLBI data is able to contribute to the CE-2's long-arc POD especially in the along-track and orbital normal directions. For the CE-2's 100 km× 100 km lunar orbit, the position errors are better than 30 meters, and for the CE-2's 15 km× 100 km orbit, the position errors are better than 45 meters. The observational data with the delta differential one-way ranging (Δ DOR) from the CE-2's X-band monitoring and control system experimental are analyzed. It is concluded that the accuracy of Δ DOR delay is dramatically improved with the noise level better than 0.1 ns, and the systematic errors are well calibrated. Although it is unable to support the development of an independent lunar gravity model, the tracking data of CE-2 provided the evaluations of different lunar gravity models through POD, and the accuracies are examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution

  1. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  2. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  3. A diaper bank and home visiting partnership: Initial exploration of research and policy questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lois S; Condon, Eileen M; Deng, Shirley Z; Ordway, Monica Roosa; Marchesseault, Crista; Miller, Andrea; Alfano, Janet Stolfi; Weir, Alison M

    2018-03-01

    The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need. In this descriptive qualitative pilot study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 home visitors from Minding the Baby ® (MTB), a home visiting intervention for young parents. MTB clinicians routinely distribute diapers in partnership with The Diaper Bank in Connecticut. We used directed content analysis to code and analyze interview transcripts. These preliminary findings indicate that partnerships between home visiting programs and diaper banks may benefit families by improving diaper access, reducing stigma, and fostering trusting relationships with home visitors. Home visiting program benefits including engagement or re-engagement with families may need to be balanced with potential effects on clinical and therapeutic relationships. Recommendations for next steps in research and related policy questions are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Exploring predictors of scientific performance with decision tree analysis: The case of research excellence in early career mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, J.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to introduce the exploratory method of decision tree analysis as a complementary alternative to current confirmatory methods used in scientometric prediction studies of research performance; and (2) as an illustrative case, to explore predictors of future research excellence at the individual level among 493 early career mathematicians in the sub-field of number theory between 1999 and 2010. A conceptual introduction to decision tree analysis is provided including an overview of the main steps of the tree-building algorithm and the statistical method of cross-validation used to evaluate the performance of decision tree models. A decision tree analysis of 493 mathematicians was conducted to find useful predictors and important relationships between variables in the context of predicting research excellence. The results suggest that the number of prestige journal publications and a topically diverse output are important predictors of future research excellence. Researchers with no prestige journal publications are very unlikely to produce excellent research. Limitations of decision three analysis are discussed. (Author)

  5. Contextual Exploration of a New Family Caregiver Support Concept for Geriatric Settings Using a Participatory Health Research Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorant, Elisabeth; Krieger, Theresia

    2017-11-28

    Family caregivers are the backbone of the long-term care support system within the home environment. Comprehensive caregiver support programs require collaboration and coordination within the system. A new public health concept, Vade Mecum, aims to harmonize and professionalize family caregiver support initiatives in geriatric care settings in the Euregion Maas-Rhine. Exploration of the new concept recently started in Germany to gain in-depth insight into current support and the needs of the geriatric care team and family caregivers. Within the context of an exploratory qualitative study, a participatory health research (PHR) strategy was applied to make optimal use of experience and knowledge from the system. Care professionals, engaged as co-researchers, were responsible for decisions about the research question, data collection methods and procedures of engaging family caregivers. A research team representing all professions within the geriatric department was formed. Research objectives were formulated and an appropriate mix of qualitative data collection methods consisting of interviews, focus groups and story-telling was chosen. Needs and expectations of the new concept, and practical solutions for involving family caregivers were discussed. A PHR strategy resulted in initiating a qualitative study in a geriatric care setting carried out by care professionals from the department. Knowledge was generated in a co-creative manner, and co-researchers were empowered. A comprehensive understanding of the system serves as a starting point for advancement of the new family caregiver concept.

  6. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling for Planetary Analogue Research (FELDSPAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Stockton, A. M.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z. A.; Jacobsen, M. B.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H. C.; Murukesan, G.; Rennie, V.; Rader, E.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Stevens, A. H.; Sutton, S. A.; Tan, G.; Yin, C.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.

    2017-12-01

    Extraterrestrial studies are typically conducted on mg samples from cm-scale features, while landing sites are selected based on m to km-scale features. It is therefore critical to understand spatial distribution of organic molecules over scales from cm to the km, particularly in geological features that appear homogenous at m to km scales. This is addressed by FELDSPAR, a NASA-funded project that conducts field operations analogous to Mars sample return in its science, operations, and technology [1]. Here, we present recent findings from a 2016 and a 2017 campaign to multiple Martian analogue sites in Iceland. Icelandic volcanic regions are Mars analogues due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, temperature extremes [2], and are relatively young and isolated from anthropogenic contamination [3]. Operationally, many Icelandic analogue sites are remote enough to require that field expeditions address several sampling constraints that are also faced by robotic exploration [1, 2]. Four field sites were evaluated in this study. The Fimmvörðuháls lava field was formed by a basaltic effusive eruption associated with the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Mælifellssandur is a recently deglaciated plain to the north of the Myrdalsjökull glacier. Holuhraun is a basaltic spatter and cinder cone formed by 2014 fissure eruptions just north of the Vatnajökull glacier. Dyngjusandur is a plain kept barren by repeated aeolian mechanical weathering. Samples were collected in nested triangular grids from 10 cm to the 1 km scale. We obtained overhead imagery at 1 m to 200 m elevation to create digital elevation models. In-field reflectance spectroscopy was obtained with an ASD spectrometer and chemical composition was measured by a Bruker handheld XRF. All sites chosen were homogeneous in apparent color, morphology, moisture, grain size, and reflectance spectra at all scales greater than 10 cm. Field lab ATP assays were conducted to monitor microbial habitation, and home

  7. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Breen, K.; Warburton, J.; Fischer, K.; Wiggins, H.; Owens, R.; Polly, B.; Wade, B.; Buxbaum, T.

    2007-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that advances polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. Currently in its second year, the program fosters the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science. Through PolarTREC, over 40 U.S. teachers will spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers in the field as an integral part of the science team. Research projects focus on a wide range of IPY science themed topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and teacher peer groups. To learn more about PolarTREC visit the website at: http://www.polartrec.com or contact info@polartrec.com or 907-474-1600. PolarTREC is funded by NSF and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS).

  8. US Geological Survey uranium and thorium resource assessment and exploration research program, fiscal year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offield, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) uranium-thorium program is continuing to emphasize multidisciplinary studies to define the settings and habitats of uranium deposits and to elucidate the processes by which the ore deposits formed. As with the uranium scene generally, some uncertainty characterizes the program's transition from FY 1980 to FY 1981. As of the beginning of the new fiscal year, a cut of 15% in base funding of the USGS uranium program has been effected by Congress. Such a cut parallels the major curtailment of the NURE program. The USGS in FY 1980 completed almost all of its commitment to the NURE program quadrangle-evaluation work, and only a relatively modest continuing involvement in the NURE world-class and intermediate-grade studies remains for FY 1981. Objectives and program scope, noteworthy results of FY 1980 research, and program activities for FY 1981 are presented in this report

  9. The Alsep Data Recovery Focus Group of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Kiefer, W. S.; Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 deployed instruments on the Moon for 14 geophysical experiments (passive & active seismic, heat flow, magnetics, etc.) from 1969 to 1972. These instruments were called Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs). ALSEPs kept transmitting data to the Earth until September 1977. When the observation program ended in 1977, a large portion of these data were not delivered to the National Space Science Data Center for permanent archive. In 2010, for the purpose of searching, recovering, preserving, and analyzing the data that were not previously archived, NASA's then Lunar Science Institute formed the ALSEP Data Recovery Focus Group. The group consists of current lunar researchers and those involved in the ALSEP design and data analysis in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the data not previously archived were the 5000+ 7-track open-reel tapes that recorded raw data from all the ALSEP instruments from April 1973 to February 1976 ('ARCSAV tapes'). These tapes went missing in the decades after Apollo. One of the major achievements of the group so far is that we have found 450 ARCSAV tapes from April to June 1975 and that we are extracting data from them. There are 3 other major achievements by the group. First, we have established a web portal at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, where ~700 ALSEP-related documents, totaling ~40,000 pages, have been digitally scanned and cataloged. Researchers can search and download these documents at www.lpi.usra.edu/ lunar/ALSEP/. Second, we have been retrieving notes and reports left behind by the now deceased/retired ALSEP investigators at their home institutions. Third, we have been re-analyzing the ALSEP data using the information from the recently recovered metadata (instrument calibration data, operation logs, etc.). Efforts are ongoing to get these data permanently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  10. Exploring the use of thermal infrared imaging in human stress research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Engert

    Full Text Available High resolution thermal infrared imaging is a pioneering method giving indices of sympathetic activity via the contact-free recording of facial tissues (thermal imprints. Compared to established stress markers, the great advantage of this method is its non-invasiveness. The goal of our study was to pilot the use of thermal infrared imaging in the classical setting of human stress research. Thermal imprints were compared to established stress markers (heart rate, heart rate variability, finger temperature, alpha-amylase and cortisol in 15 participants undergoing anticipation, stress and recovery phases of two laboratory stress tests, the Cold Pressor Test and the Trier Social Stress Test. The majority of the thermal imprints proved to be change-sensitive in both tests. While correlations between the thermal imprints and established stress markers were mostly non-significant, the thermal imprints (but not the established stress makers did correlate with stress-induced mood changes. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed that in contrast to the established stress markers the thermal imprints could not disambiguate anticipation, stress and recovery phases of both tests. Overall, these results suggest that thermal infrared imaging is a valuable method for the estimation of sympathetic activity in the stress laboratory setting. The use of this non-invasive method may be particularly beneficial for covert recordings, in the study of special populations showing difficulties in complying with the standard instruments of data collection and in the domain of psychophysiological covariance research. Meanwhile, the established stress markers seem to be superior when it comes to the characterization of complex physiological states during the different phases of the stress cycle.

  11. From outer space to Earth-The social significance of isolated and confined environment research in human space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Koji; Tachibana, Shoichi; Inoue, Natsuhiko

    2017-11-01

    Human space exploration requires massive budgets every fiscal year. Especially under severe financial constraint conditions, governments are forced to justify to society why spending so much tax revenue for human space exploration is worth the cost. The value of human space exploration might be estimated in many ways, but its social significance and cost-effectiveness are two key ways to gauge that worth. Since these measures should be applied country by country because sociopolitical conditions differ in each country and must be taken into consideration, the study on the social significance of human space exploration must take the coloration of a case-study. This paper, focusing on the case of Japan with surveying Japanese literary and national documents as well as taking its sociopolitical conditions into account, examines the social significance of human space exploration. First, we give an overview of the circumstances surrounding Japan's human space exploration program. Derived from the statements of such relevant parties as scholars, journalists, policy makers, and astronauts, this overview indicates that the main concerns about human space exploration in Japan are its social significance and cost-effectiveness (Section 1). Next, an overview of behavioral science-an essential field for human space exploration (referred to in this paper as space behavioral science) that provides support for astronauts-is presented from the perspective of stress research in isolated and confined environments (Section 2). We then give two examples of where such knowledge from space behavioral science research has been applied to terrestrial isolated and confined environments. One is JAXA's support in 2009 for people who were vulnerable to infection by a new strain of flu and accordingly placed in an isolated and confined facility under the Infectious Disease Law and the Quarantine Law. The other is NASA's support in 2010 for Chilean mine workers who were trapped 700 m

  12. Incorporation of omics analyses into artificial gravity research for space exploration countermeasure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael A; Goodwin, Thomas J; Pelligra, Ralph

    The next major steps in human spaceflight include flyby, orbital, and landing missions to the Moon, Mars, and near earth asteroids. The first crewed deep space mission is expected to launch in 2022, which affords less than 7 years to address the complex question of whether and how to apply artificial gravity to counter the effects of prolonged weightlessness. Various phenotypic changes are demonstrated during artificial gravity experiments. However, the molecular dynamics (genotype and molecular phenotypes) that underlie these morphological, physiological, and behavioral phenotypes are far more complex than previously understood. Thus, targeted molecular assessment of subjects under various G conditions can be expected to miss important patterns of molecular variance that inform the more general phenotypes typically being measured. Use of omics methods can help detect changes across broad molecular networks, as various G-loading paradigms are applied. This will be useful in detecting off-target, or unanticipated effects of the different gravity paradigms applied to humans or animals. Insights gained from these approaches may eventually be used to inform countermeasure development or refine the deployment of existing countermeasures. This convergence of the omics and artificial gravity research communities may be critical if we are to develop the proper artificial gravity solutions under the severely compressed timelines currently established. Thus, the omics community may offer a unique ability to accelerate discovery, provide new insights, and benefit deep space missions in ways that have not been previously considered.

  13. Summer Research Experiences for Science and Art Teachers to Explore Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, J.; Gaucher, E.; Snell, T.; Greenwood, J.; Angra, A.; Zimmerman, C.; Williams, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosomal Origins and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational program titled, "Life on the Edge: Astrobiology." The purpose of the program was to provide high school educators with the exposure, materials, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with undergraduate students interested in becoming a teacher through the NSF Pre-Teaching REU program. The GIFT and Pre-Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles, which became the focus of a week-long, "Life on the Edge: Astrobiology " summer program developed by three high school educators, two undergraduate students and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. Twenty high school students were introduced to hands-on activities, such as astrobiology inspired art and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact of the Astrobiology program on the GIFT researchers, Pre-Teaching REU students, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

  14. Rethinking poverty, power and privilege: A feminist post-structuralist research exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Hulme

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I described how the use of feminist methodology and post-structuralist analyses of the experiences of women in a poor ‘Coloured’ community in my research led to new understandings of the experiences of poverty and privilege. I discovered the relevance of Foucault’s historical analysis of the operation of ‘pastoral power’ through the narratives of women from the Scottsville community. Historical and current accounts of so-called ‘Coloured’ women’s subjugation and categorisation are reminders of how it came about that ‘being Coloured’ became associated in South Africa with shame and with ‘knowing one’s place’. Feminist post-structuralist analyses made visible the conditions that created practices of injustice in poor women’s lives whilst, at the same time, creating conditions of privilege for me. Justice-making in Scottsville therefore started with a radical rethinking of the terms by which people’s marginalisation took place and, consequently also of the terms of ‘just’ cross-cultural engagements.

  15. PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating: Innovative Science Education from the Poles to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Breen, K.; Wiggins, H. V.; Larson, A.; Behr, S.

    2006-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program celebrating the International Polar Year (IPY) that will advance polar science education by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic. PolarTREC builds on the strengths of the existing TREC program in the Arctic, an NSF supported program managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the US (ARCUS), to embrace a wide range of activities occurring at both poles during and after IPY. PolarTREC will foster the integration of research and education to produce a legacy of long-term teacher-researcher collaborations, improved teacher content knowledge through experiences in scientific inquiry, and broad public interest and engagement in polar science and IPY. PolarTREC will enable thirty-six teachers to spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers investigating a wide range of IPY science themed topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. While in the field, teachers and researchers will communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of tools including satellite phones, online journals, podcasts and interactive "Live from IPY" calls and web-based seminars. The online outreach elements of the project convey these experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers. In addition to field research experiences, PolarTREC will support teacher professional development and a sustained community of teachers, scientists, and the public through workshops, Internet seminars, an e-mail listserve, and teacher peer groups. For further information on PolarTREC, contact Wendy Warnick, ARCUS Executive Director at warnick@arcus.org or 907-474-1600 or visit www.arcus.org/trec/

  16. Exploring arts-based knowledge translation: sharing research findings through performing the patterns, rehearsing the results, staging the synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Kendra; Schultz, Annette S H

    2014-04-01

    Cultivation of knowledge translation (KT) strategies that actively engage health professionals in critical reflection of their practice and research-based evidence are imperative to address the research-practice gap. While research-based evidence is exponentially growing, our ability to facilitate uptake by nurses and other health professionals has not kept pace. Innovative approaches that extend epistemological bias beyond a singular standpoint of postpositivism, such as the utilization of arts-based methods, expand the possibility to address the complexities of context, engage audience members, promote dissemination within communities of practice, and foster new audiences interested in research findings. In this paper, we address the importance of adopting a social constructivist epistemological stance to facilitate knowledge translation to diverse audiences, explore various arts-based knowledge translation (ABKT) strategies, and open a dialogue concerning evaluative tenets of ABKT. ABKT utilizes various art forms to disseminate research knowledge to diverse audiences and promote evidence-informed practice. ABKT initiatives translate knowledge not based upon a linear model, which views knowledge as an objective entity, but rather operate from the premise that knowledge is socially situated, which demands acknowledging and engaging the learner within their context. Theatre, dance, photography, and poetry are art forms that are commonly used to communicate research findings to diverse audiences. Given the emerging interest and importance of utilizing this KT strategy situated within a social constructivist epistemology, potential challenges and plausible evaluative criteria specific to ABKT are presented. ABKT is an emerging KT strategy that is grounded in social constructivist epistemological tenets, and holds potential for meaningfully sharing new research knowledge with diverse audiences. ABKT is an innovative and synergistic approach to traditional

  17. The evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care: an exploration of the potential of case study research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Complex, incrementally changing, context dependent and variable palliative care services are difficult to evaluate. Case study research strategies may have potential to contribute to evaluating such complex interventions, and to develop this field of evaluation research. This paper explores definitions of case study (as a unit of study, a process, and a product) and examines the features of case study research strategies which are thought to confer benefits for the evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care settings. Ten features of case study that are thought to be beneficial in evaluating complex interventions in palliative care are discussed, drawing from exemplars of research in this field. Important features are related to a longitudinal approach, triangulation, purposive instance selection, comprehensive approach, multiple data sources, flexibility, concurrent data collection and analysis, search for proving-disproving evidence, pattern matching techniques and an engaging narrative. The limitations of case study approaches are discussed including the potential for subjectivity and their complex, time consuming and potentially expensive nature. Case study research strategies have great potential in evaluating complex interventions in palliative care settings. Three key features need to be exploited to develop this field: case selection, longitudinal designs, and the use of rival hypotheses. In particular, case study should be used in situations where there is interplay and interdependency between the intervention and its context, such that it is difficult to define or find relevant comparisons.

  18. Exploring Pre-Service Science Teacher Methods and Strategies for the Driving Questions in Research Inquiry: From Consulting an Instructor to Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Miraç

    2016-01-01

    An important stage in any research inquiry is the development of research questions that need to be answered. The strategies to develop research questions should be defined and described, but few studies have considered this process in greater detail. This study explores pre-service science teachers' research questions and the strategies they can…

  19. Exploring patient experiences with prescription medicines to identify unmet patient needs: implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukarslan, Suzan N; Lewis, Nancy J W; Shimp, Leslie A; Gaither, Caroline A; Lane, Daniel C; Baumer, Andrea L

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacy services are offered to patients, and often, they decline participation. Research is needed to better understand patients' unmet needs when taking prescribed medications. To identify and characterize patients' unmet needs related to using prescribed medication for chronic conditions. Focus groups of patients using prescription medication for chronic conditions discussed their experiences with medications, starting from initial diagnosis to ongoing management. Sessions involved 40 patients from 1 Midwestern U.S. state. Major themes were identified using content analysis. Three major themes emerged. First, patients seek information to understand their health condition and treatment rationale. Patients form an illness perception (its consequence, controllability, cause, and duration) that dictates their actions. Second, patients desire to be involved in treatment decisions, and they often feel that decisions are made for them without their understanding of the risk-to-benefit trade-off. Third, patients monitor the impact of treatment decisions to determine if anticipated outcomes are achieved. The results were consistent with Dowell's therapeutic alliance model (TAM) and Leventhal's common sense model (CSM). The TAM can be used to model the consultative services between pharmacists and patients. The impact of the new services (or interventions) can be evaluated using the CSM. Patients expressed a strong desire to be involved in their treatment decisions. The effectiveness of medication therapy management services may be enhanced if pharmacists build on patients' desire to be involved in their treatment decisions and assist them to understand the role of medications and their risks and expected outcomes within the context of the patients' perceptions of illness and desired coping strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Research and Technology Development to Advance Environmental Monitoring, Food Systems, and Habitat Design for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Perchonek, M. H.; Ott, C. M.; Kaiser, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration missions will carry crews far beyond the relatively safe environs of cis-lunar space. Such trips will have little or no opportunity for resupply or rapid aborts and will be of a duration that far exceeds our experience to date. The challenges this imposes on the requirements of systems that monitor the life support and provide food and shelter for the crew are the focus of much research within the Human Research Program. Making all of these technologies robust and reliable enough for multi-year missions with little or no ability to run for home calls for a thorough understanding of the risks and impacts of failure. The way we currently monitor for microbial contamination of water, air, and surfaces, by sampling and growing cultures on nutrient media, must be reconsidered for exploration missions which have limited capacity for consumables. Likewise, the shelf life of food must be increased so that the nutrients required to keep the crewmembers healthy do not degrade over the life of the mission. Improved formulations, preservation, packaging, and storage technologies are all being investigated for ways slow this process or replace stowed food with key food items grown fresh in situ. Ensuring that the mass and volume of a spacecraft are used to maximum efficiency calls for infusing human factors into the design from its inception to increase efficiency, improve performance, and retain robustness toward operational realities. Integrating the human system with the spacecraft systems is the focus of many lines of investigation.

  1. Research of narrow pulse width, high repetition rate, high output power fiber lasers for deep space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-feng; Li, Hong-zuo; Wang, Yan; Hao, Zi-qiang; Xiao, Dong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    As human beings expand the research in unknown areas constantly, the deep space exploration has become a hot research topic all over the world. According to the long distance and large amount of information transmission characteristics of deep space exploration, the space laser communication is the preferred mode because it has the advantages of concentrated energy, good security, and large information capacity and interference immunity. In a variety of laser source, fibre-optical pulse laser has become an important communication source in deep space laser communication system because of its small size, light weight and large power. For fiber lasers, to solve the contradiction between the high repetition rate and the peak value power is an important scientific problem. General Q technology is difficult to obtain a shorter pulse widths, This paper presents a DFB semiconductor laser integrated with Electro-absorption modulator to realize the narrow pulse width, high repetition rate of the seed source, and then using a two-cascaded high gain fiber amplifier as amplification mean, to realize the fibre-optical pulse laser with pulse width 3ns, pulse frequency 200kHz and peak power 1kW. According to the space laser atmospheric transmission window, the wavelength selects for 1.06um. It is adopted that full fibre technology to make seed source and amplification, pumping source and amplification of free-space coupled into fiber-coupled way. It can overcome that fibre lasers are vulnerable to changes in external conditions such as vibration, temperature drift and other factors affect, improving long-term stability. The fiber lasers can be modulated by PPM mode, to realize high rate modulation, because of its peak power, high transmission rate, narrow pulse width, high frequency stability, all technical indexes meet the requirements of the exploration of deep space communication technology.

  2. Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise with respect to nighttime equivalent noise level (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum noise level (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway noise was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to noise, and personal characteristics including noise sensitivity. Individual noise exposure levels were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of noise events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported noise-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. Noise sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting noise-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the noise exposure level. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using noise levels for the most-exposed facade underestimated noise-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.

  3. Indoor noise annoyance due to 3-5 megawatt wind turbines-An exposure-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongisto, Valtteri; Oliva, David; Keränen, Jukka

    2017-10-01

    The existing exposure-response relationships describing the association between wind turbine sound level and noise annoyance concern turbine sizes of 0.15-3.0 MW. The main purpose of this study was to determine a relationship concerning turbines with nominal power of 3-5 MW. A cross-sectional survey was conducted around three wind power areas in Finland. The survey involved all households within a 2 km distance from the nearest turbine. Altogether, 429 households out of 753 participated. The households were exposed to wind turbine noise having sound levels within 26.7-44.2 dB L Aeq . Standard prediction methods were applied to determine the sound level, L Aeq , in each participant's yard. The measured sound level agreed well with the predicted sound level. The exposure-response relationship was derived between L Aeq outdoors and the indoor noise annoyance. The relationship was in rather good agreement with two previous studies involving much smaller turbines (0.15-1.5 MW) under 40 dB L Aeq . The Community Tolerance Level (CTL), CTL 20  = 50 dB, was 3 dB lower than for two previous studies. Above 40 dB, a small number of participants prevented a reliable comparison to previous studies.

  4. The Role of Ocean Exploration and Research in the Creation and Management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette-Silver, N. J.; Pomponi, S.; Smith, J. R.; Potter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decades, the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), through its programs (Ocean Exploration Program and National Undersea Research Program), and in collaboration with its federal and academic partners, has contributed to the discovery of new ocean features, species, ecosystems, habitats and processes. These new discoveries have led to the development of new policies and management actions. Exploration, research and technology advancement have contributed to the characterization and the designation of marine sanctuaries, reserves, restricted fishing areas, and monuments in US waters. For example, the collaborative efforts of OER and partners from the Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) have resulted in the discovery of new species of deep sea corals on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the South Atlantic Bight. The species of coral found in these deep sea reefs are growing very slowly and provide habitat for many commercially valuable species of fish and other living resources. It is not yet completely clear how these habitats connect with the shallower reefs and habitats and if they could be playing a role of refugia for shallower species. Unfortunately, signs of fishing destruction on these unique and fragile habitats are obvious (e.g., abandoned nets, completely decimated habitats by trawling). OER funded research on mesophotic and deep-sea Lophelia coral reefs off the southeastern US was instrumental in the designation of the deep-water Coral Habitat Area of Particular Concern (CHAPC) that is now protecting these fragile reefs. Other examples of OER's contribution to discoveries leading to the designation of protected areas include the characterization and boundary determination of new designated Marine National Monuments and Marine Sanctuaries in the Pacific Ocean. After designation of a protected area, it is imperative to monitor the resource, improve understanding of its

  5. Health and medical research funding agencies' promotion of public engagement within research: a qualitative interview study exploring the United Kingdom context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Fergie, Gillian M; Hilton, Shona

    2016-03-24

    Public engagement (PE) has become a common feature of many liberal governmental agendas worldwide. Since the turn of this century there has been a succession of United Kingdom policy initiatives to encourage research funding agencies, universities and researchers to reconsider how they engage with citizens and communities. Although most funding agencies now explicitly promote PE within research, little empirical work has been carried out in this area. In this study, we explored why and how health and medical research funding agencies in the United Kingdom have interpreted and implemented their role to promote PE within research. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 30 key informants from 10 agencies that fund health or medical research. Data were also gathered from agencies' websites and documentation. The analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Across agencies, we found that PE was being interpreted and operationalised in various different ways. The terminology used within funding agencies to describe PE seems to be flexibly applied. Disciplinary differences were evident both in the terminology used to describe PE and the drivers for PE highlighted by participants - with applied health science funders more aligned with participatory models of PE. Within the grant funding process PE was rarely systematically treated as a key component of research. In particular, PE was not routinely incorporated into the planning of funding calls. PE was more likely to be considered in the application and assessment phases, where it was largely appraised as a tool for enhancing science. Concerns were expressed regarding how to monitor and evaluate PE within research. This study suggests funding agencies working within specific areas of health and medicine can promote particular definitions of PE and aligned practices which determine the boundaries in which researchers working in these areas understand and practice PE. Our study also highlights how the

  6. Health aspects of Arctic exploration – Alaska's medical history based on the research files of Dr. Robert Fortuine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Murray

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Robert Fortuine provided basic medical care to Alaska Native people, chronicled the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration and through a number of influential publications, was the first to thoroughly document and analyse Alaska's Medical History. This overview of his published work will provide the reader with a detailed overview, so that they can begin to explore Dr. Fortuine's many published works in more detail. Objective . This review will explore Alaska's Medical History and the Health Aspects of Arctic Exploration through the research files and the 10 most significant publications of Dr. Robert Fortuine. Design . Review of Dr. Fortuine's major works and the master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. The master bibliography is a merger of 55 separate bibliographies, which provides a wealth of bibliographic information. This paper will describe his 10 most significant publications, 2 of which began as a journal issue. Results . Dr. Fortuine was a prolific writer throughout his career, publishing 134 articles and books. He wrote papers and books on Alaska's medical history, tuberculosis and health care delivery from Russian–America through the Public Health Service efforts in the territory and then the State of Alaska. The master bibliography has over 3,000 references and 81 subjects. This list has a significant number of entries for tuberculosis with almost one-third of the entries including this heading. Others dwell on the history of “pre-contact” health, the history of Alaska Native health care, the history of the Alaska Department of Health, especially the tuberculosis programme, the role of the US Public Health Service and traditional medicine. He completely reviewed every Governors’ and the US Surgeon General's reports in regard to Alaska content. This paper describes his 10 most significant publications. Conclusions . Robert Fortuine's published works offer a wealth of information and insight

  7. Exploring teachers' beliefs and knowledge about scientific inquiry and the nature of science: A collaborative action research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Xavier Eric

    Science curriculum reform goals espouse the need to foster and support the development of scientific literacy in students. Two critical goals of scientific literacy are students' engagement in, and developing more realistic conceptions about scientific inquiry (SI) and the nature of science (NOS). In order to promote the learning of these curriculum emphases, teachers themselves must possess beliefs and knowledge supportive of them. Collaborative action research is a viable form of curriculum and teacher development that can be used to support teachers in developing the requisite beliefs and knowledge that can promote these scientific literacy goals. This research study used a collective case study methodology to describe and interpret the views and actions of four teachers participating in a collaborative action research project. I explored the teachers' SI and NOS views throughout the project as they investigated ideas and theories, critically examined their current curricular practice, and implemented and reflected on these modified curricular practices. By the end of the research study, all participants had uniquely augmented their understanding of SI and NOS. The participants were better able to provide explanatory depth to some SI and NOS ideas; however, specific belief revision with respect to SI and NOS ideas was nominal. Furthermore, their idealized action research plans were not implemented to the extent that they were planned. Explanations for these findings include: impact of significant past educational experiences, prior understanding of SI and NOS, depth of content and pedagogical content knowledge of the discipline, and institutional and instructional constraints. Nonetheless, through participation in the collaborative action research process, the teachers developed professionally, personally, and socially. They identified many positive outcomes from participating in a collaborative action research project; however, they espoused constraints to

  8. Social Media Technology and Public Health in Ontario: Findings from a Planning Meeting Exploring Current Practices and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard; McMurray, Josephine; Regan, Sandra; Kothari, Anita; Donelle, Lorie; McBride, Susan; Sobel, Annette; Hall, Jodi; Fraser, Robert; Foisey, Lyndsay

    2017-01-01

    In the province of Ontario, many of the public health units (PHUs) now possess and use social media as part of their daily health promotion and communication operations. To explore this topic, a planning meeting was held to generate deeper insights toward the use of these forms of technology for preventative services delivery. The planning meeting was held with 50 participants, comprising representatives from 20 of the 36 PHUs in Ontario, interested academics, students and government representatives. A nominal group technique (NGT) was used to build consensus related to future research needs, as related to public health and social media. Participants generated a range of insights around the use of social media, including the need for: leadership buy-in and resource allocation; social media policy and governance structure; performance measurement and evaluation; practices related to engagement with program recipients and addressing the lack of resources faced by many health units. Future research priorities were also generated, related to evaluating the cost-benefit of social media activities and understanding behaviour change implications. Further research is needed to evaluate the functionality, leadership and competency requirements and impact(s) of these new forms of health communication technology within public health service delivery. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  9. The Jupyter/IPython architecture: a unified view of computational research, from interactive exploration to communication and publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan-Kelley, M.; Perez, F.; Granger, B.; Kluyver, T.; Ivanov, P.; Frederic, J.; Bussonnier, M.

    2014-12-01

    IPython has provided terminal-based tools for interactive computing in Python since 2001. The notebook document format and multi-process architecture introduced in 2011 have expanded the applicable scope of IPython into teaching, presenting, and sharing computational work, in addition to interactive exploration. The new architecture also allows users to work in any language, with implementations in Python, R, Julia, Haskell, and several other languages. The language agnostic parts of IPython have been renamed to Jupyter, to better capture the notion that a cross-language design can encapsulate commonalities present in computational research regardless of the programming language being used. This architecture offers components like the web-based Notebook interface, that supports rich documents that combine code and computational results with text narratives, mathematics, images, video and any media that a modern browser can display. This interface can be used not only in research, but also for publication and education, as notebooks can be converted to a variety of output formats, including HTML and PDF. Recent developments in the Jupyter project include a multi-user environment for hosting notebooks for a class or research group, a live collaboration notebook via Google Docs, and better support for languages other than Python.

  10. Exposure-response functions for health effects of ambient air pollution applicable for China. A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aunan, Kristin; Pan, Xiao-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    Assessing the benefits of projects and policies to reduce air pollution requires quantitative knowledge about the relationship between exposure to air pollution and public health. This article proposes exposure-response functions for health effects of PM 10 and SO 2 pollution in China. The functions are based on Chinese epidemiological studies, and cover mortality, hospital admissions, and chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. We derive the following coefficients for acute effects: a 0.03% (S.E. 0.01) and a 0.04% (S.E. 0.01) increase in all-cause mortality per μg/m 3 PM 10 and SO 2 , respectively, a 0.04% (S.E. 0.01) increase in cardiovascular deaths per μg/m 3 for both PM 10 and SO 2 , and a 0.06% (S.E. 0.02) and a 0.10% (S.E. 0.02) increase in respiratory deaths per μg/m 3 PM 10 and SO 2 , respectively. For hospital admissions due to cardiovascular diseases the obtained coefficients are 0.07% (S.E. 0.02) and 0.19% (S.E. 0.03) for PM 10 and SO 2 , respectively, whereas the coefficients for hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases are 0.12% (S.E. 0.02) and 0.15% (S.E. 0.03) for PM 10 and SO 2 , respectively. Exposure-response functions for the impact of long-term PM 10 levels on the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases are derived from the results of cross-sectional questionnaire surveys, and indicate a 0.31% (S.E. 0.01) increase per μg/m 3 in adults and 0.44% (S.E. 0.02) per μg/m 3 in children. With some exceptions, Chinese studies report somewhat lower exposure-response coefficients as compared to studies in Europe and USA

  11. NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research'sOkeanos Explorer Program 2014 Discoveries - U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobecker, E.; McKenna, L.; Sowers, D.; Elliott, K.; Kennedy, B.

    2014-12-01

    NOAA ShipOkeanos Explorer, the only U.S. federal vessel dedicated to global ocean exploration, made several important discoveries in U.S. waters of the North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico during the 2014 field season. Based on input received from a broad group ofmarine scientists and resource managers, over 100,000 square kilometers of seafloor and associated water column were systematically explored using advanced mapping sonars. 39 ROV diveswere conducted, leading to new discoveries that will further ourunderstanding of biologic, geologic, and underwater-cultural heritage secrets hidden withinthe oceans. In the Atlantic, season highlights include completion of a multi-year submarine canyons mapping effort of the continental shelf break from North Carolina to the U.S.-Canada maritime border;new information on the ephemerality of recently discovered and geographically extensive cold water seeps; and continued exploration of the New England Seamount chain; and mapping of two potential historically significant World War II wreck sites. In the Gulf of Mexico, season highlights includecompletion of a multi-year mapping effort of the West Florida Escarpment providing new insight into submarine landslides and detachment zones;the discovery of at least two asphalt volcanoes, or 'tar lilies'; range extensions of deep-sea corals; discovery of two potential new species of crinoids; identification of at least 300 potential cold water seeps; and ROV exploration of three historically significant19th century shipwrecks. In both regions, high-resolution mapping led to new insight into the geological context in which deep sea corals develop,while ROV dives provided valuable observations of deep sea coral habitats and their associated organisms, and chemosynthetic habitats. All mapping and ROV data is freely available to the public in usable data formats and maintained in national geophysical and oceanographic data archives.

  12. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate Projects at Glenn Research Center for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Glenn Research Center Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR)/(STTR) technologies into NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) programs and projects. Other Government and commercial project managers can also find this useful. Introduction Incorporating Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)-developed technology into NASA projects is important, especially given the Agency's limited resources for technology development. The SBIR program's original intention was for technologies that had completed Phase II to be ready for integration into NASA programs, however, in many cases there is a gap between Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) 5 and 6 that needs to be closed. After SBIR Phase II projects are completed, the technology is evaluated against various parameters and a TRL rating is assigned. Most programs tend to adopt more mature technologies-at least TRL 6 to reduce the risk to the mission rather than adopt TRLs between 3 and 5 because those technologies are perceived as too risky. The gap between TRLs 5 and 6 is often called the "Valley of Death" (Figure 1), and historically it has been difficult to close because of a lack of funding support from programs. Several papers have already suggested remedies on how to close the gap (Refs. 1 to 4).

  13. From advance exploration to real time steering of TBMs: A review on pertinent research in the Collaborative Research Center “Interaction Modeling in Mechanized Tunneling”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meschke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on planning and construction related results from research performed at the Collaborative Research Center “Interaction Modeling in Mechanized Tunneling” at Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. Research covers a broad spectrum of topics relevant for mechanized tunneling in soft soil conditions. This includes inverse numerical methods for advance exploration and models for the characterization of the in situ ground conditions, the interaction of the face support and the tail gap grouting with the porous soil, multi-scale models for the design of fiber reinforced segmental linings with enhanced robustness, computational methods for the numerical simulation of the tunnel advancement, the soil excavation and the material transport in the pressure chamber, logistics processes and risk analysis in urban tunneling. Targeted towards the continuous support of the construction process, a concept for real-time steering support of tunnel boring machines in conjunction with model update procedures and methods of uncertainty quantification is addressed. Keywords: Mechanized tunneling, Computational simulation, Tunnel reconnaissance, Tunnel linings, Face support, Tail void grouting, Real-time analysis, Abrasion, Process simulation

  14. Exploring and Improving Student Engagement in an Accelerated Undergraduate Nursing Program through a Mentoring Partnership: An Action Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Marguerite; Maxwell, Hazel; Einboden, Rochelle; Farington, Sally; Say, Richard; Beh, Chin Liang; Stankiewicz, Grace; Munro, Graham; Marembo, Esther; Rickard, Greg

    2018-05-30

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project aimed to engage students from an accelerated 'fast track' nursing program in a mentoring collaboration, using an interdisciplinary partnership intervention with a group of academics. Student participants represented the disciplines of nursing and paramedicine with a high proportion of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students. Nine student mentors were recruited and paired with academics for a three-month 'mentorship partnership' intervention. Data from two pre-intervention workshops and a post-intervention workshop were coded in NVivo11 using thematic analysis. Drawing on social inclusion theory, a qualitative analysis explored an iteration of themes across each action cycle. Emergent themes were: 1) 'building relationships for active engagement', 2) 'voicing cultural and social hierarchies', and 3) 'enacting collegiate community'. The study offers insights into issues for contemporary accelerated course delivery with a diverse student population and highlights future strategies to foster effective student engagement.

  15. From transformative learning to social change? Using action research to explore and improve informal complaints management in an NHS trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anki Odelius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of complaints from patients and/or carers concerning aspects of care has increased over time. Yet, in spite of a growing body of national and international literature on healthcare complaints, there is a lack of knowledge around how nurses and midwives manage informal complaints at ward level, or staff needs in relation to this. Aim: Using an action research approach with mixed methods, four phases and four cycles, the aim was to explore informal complaints management by nurses and midwives at ward level. We discuss the action research process primarily in connection with learning and service change, drawing from the qualitative data in this paper. Findings: The analysis of the collected qualitative data resulted in three main themes, related to the complexities of complaints and complaints management, staff support needs and the existing ambiguous complaints systems, which are hard for staff and service users to negotiate. The action research approach facilitated learning and change in participants in relation to complaints management, in the collaborating trust. Conclusions: The extant body of research on complaints does not sufficiently recognise the complexity of complaints and informal complaints management, or the complaints systems that are in place. Needs-based staff training can help support staff to manage informal complaints more effectively. Implications for practice: • There needs to be recognition of the complexities involved in complaints management • Complaints systems need to be clearer for the benefit of service users and staff • Staff need training and support that is tailored to their needs to improve their response to complaints, leading to a better patient experience • Limited interventions, informed by staff needs, can lead to change and act as a catalyst for a wider change in informal complaints management

  16. Exploring the Utility of Model-based Meteorology Data for Heat-Related Health Research and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, A.; Yip, F.

    2017-12-01

    Context: Studies that have explored the impacts of environmental exposure on human health have mostly relied on data from weather stations, which can be limited in geographic scope. For this assessment, we: (1) evaluated the performance of the meteorological data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS) model with measurements from weather stations for public health and specifically for CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Program, and (2) conducted a health assessment to explore the relationship between heat exposure and mortality, and examined region-specific differences in heat-mortality (H-M) relationships when using model-based estimates in place of measurements from weather stations.Methods: Meteorological data from the NLDAS Phase 2 model was evaluated against measurements from weather stations. A time-series analysis was conducted, using both station- and model-based data, to generate H-M relationships for counties in the U.S. The county-specific risk information was pooled to characterize regional relationships for both station- and model-based data, which were then compared to identify degrees of overlap and discrepancies between results generated using the two data sources. Results: NLDAS-based heat metrics were in agreement with those generated using weather station data. In general, the H-M relationship tended to be non-linear and varied by region, particularly the heat index value at which the health risks become positively significant. However, there was a high degree of overlap between region-specific H-M relationships generated from weather stations and the NLDAS model.Interpretation: Heat metrics from NLDAS model are available for all counties in the coterminous U.S. from 1979-2015. These data can facilitate health research and surveillance activities exploring health impacts associated with long-term heat exposures at finer geographic scales.Conclusion: High spatiotemporal coverage of environmental health data

  17. Exploration of the impacts of distributed-site Research Experiences for Undergraduates using pre-/post- student interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, H.; Hubenthal, M.; Brudzinski, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The benefits for student participants of undergraduate research opportunities have been well documented. However, advancements in information and communications technologies (ICT) and cultural shifts around online education and virtual peer-to-peer interaction have lead to new models in which to structure such experiences. Currently, these ICT-enabled Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) programs connect geographically distributed interns in supportive e-learning communities while maintaining a traditional local mentoring arrangement. To document and explore the effects of distributed REU Sites in more depth, six interns from such a program, the Incorporated Research Institution for Seismology (IRIS) REU, were selected at random and asked to be interviewed about the REU experience. The primary targets of the interviews are to understand the mentor/mentee relationships, feeling of support and development and value of near-peer and far-peer relationships throughout their internship in a distributed REU program, and whether they receive the training necessary to gain confidence as a researcher. We also examine the various communication technologies as well as best practices and strategies that can increase intern connectedness. Pre-internship interviews were conducted in-person at the start of the centralized internship orientation week, while post-internship interviews were virtual (e.g. video chat with Skype or Google Hangout). These semi-structured interviews have full audio recordings and subsequent transcriptions. An additional, virtual follow-up interview will be conducted next spring after the interns have an opportunity to attend and present their research at a national conference (e.g., AGU). Interview material will be analyzed through a process of coding, sorting, local integration, and inclusive integration. Results will also be triangulated with pre- and post- survey data both from participants and other survey data from previous years of the IRIS

  18. Transitioning a Fundamental Research Program to Align with the NASA Exploration Initiative-Perspectives from Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    A new Vision for Space Exploration was announced earlier this year by U.S. President George W. Bush. NASA has evaluated on-going programs for strategic alignment with this vision. The evaluation proceeded at a rapid pace and is resulting in changes to the scope and focus of experimental research that will be conducted in support of the new vision. The existing network of researchers in the physical sciences - a highly capable, independent, and loosely knitted community - typically have shared conclusions derived from their work within appropriate discipline-specific peer reviewed journals and publications. The initial result of introducing this Vision for Space Exploration has been to shift research focus from a broad coverage of numerous, widely varying topics into a research program focused on a nearly-singular set of supporting research objectives to enable advances in space exploration. Two of these traditional physical science research disciplines, Combustion Science and Fluid Physics, are implementing a course adjustment from a portfolio dominated by "Fundamental Science Research" to one focused nearly exclusively on supporting the Exploration Vision. Underlying scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure of the Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics disciplines do provide essential research capabilities to support the contemporary thrusts of human life support, radiation countermeasures, human health, low gravity research for propulsion and materials and, ultimately, research conducted on the Moon and Mars. A perspective on how these two research disciplines responded to the course change will be presented. The relevance to the new NASA direction is provided, while demonstrating through two examples how the prior investment in fundamental research is being brought to bear on solving the issues confronting the successful implementation of the exploration goals.

  19. Paradigmatic Shifts in Exploration Process: The Role of Industry-Academia Collaborative Research and Development in Discovering the Next Generation of Uranium Ore Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlatt, J., E-mail: jmarlatt5@cogeco.ca [Raven Minerals Corp.,Toronto (Canada); Kyser, K. [Queen’s Facility for Isotope Research, Queen’s University, Kingston (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    innovation exploration’ where a paradigmatic shift in the exploration approach will take the industry toward new discoveries by leveraging research and technology development. Effective engagement within the ‘innovation exploration’ paradigm will require that exploration organizations adopt industry-academia research, development, and technology transfer as a priority long-term, systematic strategy. Leadership and management strengths need to be co-opted to bring the academic and industry team systems together for success, through the use of informational, relational and reflective learning strategies. (author)

  20. "So Often They Do Not Get Recruited": Exploring Service User and Staff Perspectives on Participation in Learning Disability Research and the Barriers That Inhibit It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Bradley; Tomlins, Rose; Bancroft, Ann; Ogi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The importance of making research participation accessible for people with learning disabilities is emphasised in government and NHS research strategies. This evaluation explored the realities of this goal from the perceptions of people with learning disabilities and clinicians within an NHS learning disability service. People with learning…

  1. Smartphones and Cognition: A Review of Research Exploring the Links between Mobile Technology Habits and Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Henry H.; Sherman, Lauren E.; Chein, Jason M.

    2017-01-01

    While smartphones and related mobile technologies are recognized as flexible and powerful tools that, when used prudently, can augment human cognition, there is also a growing perception that habitual involvement with these devices may have a negative and lasting impact on users’ ability to think, remember, pay attention, and regulate emotion. The present review considers an intensifying, though still limited, area of research exploring the potential cognitive impacts of smartphone-related habits, and seeks to determine in which domains of functioning there is accruing evidence of a significant relationship between smartphone technology and cognitive performance, and in which domains the scientific literature is not yet mature enough to endorse any firm conclusions. We focus our review primarily on three facets of cognition that are clearly implicated in public discourse regarding the impacts of mobile technology – attention, memory, and delay of gratification – and then consider evidence regarding the broader relationships between smartphone habits and everyday cognitive functioning. Along the way, we highlight compelling findings, discuss limitations with respect to empirical methodology and interpretation, and offer suggestions for how the field might progress toward a more coherent and robust area of scientific inquiry. PMID:28487665

  2. Of responsible research-Exploring the science-society dialogue in undergraduate training within the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Strecht; Quintanilha, Alexandre

    2017-01-02

    We explore the integration of societal issues in undergraduate training within the life sciences. Skills in thinking about science, scientific knowledge production and the place of science in society are crucial in the context of the idea of responsible research and innovation. This idea became institutionalized and it is currently well-present in the scientific agenda. Developing abilities in this regard seems particularly relevant to training in the life sciences, as new developments in this area somehow evoke the involvement of all of us citizens, our engagement to debate and take part in processes of change. The present analysis draws from the implementation of a curricular unit focused on science-society dialogue, an optional course included in the Biochemistry Degree study plan offered at the University of Porto. This curricular unit was designed to be mostly an exploratory activity for the students, enabling them to undertake in-depth study in areas/topics of their specific interest. Mapping topics from students' final papers provided a means of analysis and became a useful tool in the exploratory collaborative construction of the course. We discuss both the relevance and the opportunity of thinking and questioning the science-society dialogue. As part of undergraduate training, this pedagogical practice was deemed successful. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):46-52, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Smartphones and Cognition: A Review of Research Exploring the Links between Mobile Technology Habits and Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Chein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available While smartphones and related mobile technologies are recognized as flexible and powerful tools that, when used prudently, can augment human cognition, there is also a growing perception that habitual involvement with these devices may have a negative and lasting impact on users’ ability to think, remember, pay attention, and regulate emotion. The present review considers an intensifying, though still limited, area of research exploring the potential cognitive impacts of smartphone-related habits, and seeks to determine in which domains of functioning there is accruing evidence of a significant relationship between smartphone technology and cognitive performance, and in which domains the scientific literature is not yet mature enough to endorse any firm conclusions. We focus our review primarily on three facets of cognition that are clearly implicated in public discourse regarding the impacts of mobile technology – attention, memory, and delay of gratification – and then consider evidence regarding the broader relationships between smartphone habits and everyday cognitive functioning. Along the way, we highlight compelling findings, discuss limitations with respect to empirical methodology and interpretation, and offer suggestions for how the field might progress toward a more coherent and robust area of scientific inquiry.

  4. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate Projects for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies into NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) projects. Other Government and commercial projects managers can also find this useful. Space Transportation; Life Support and Habitation Systems; Extra-Vehicular Activity; High EfficiencySpace Power; Human Exploration and Operations Mission,

  5. Change of exposure response over time and long-term risk of silicosis among a cohort of Chinese pottery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Bochmann, Frank; Morfeld, Peter; Ulm, Kurt; Liu, Yuewei; Wang, Heijiao; Yang, Lei; Chen, Weihong

    2011-07-01

    An analysis was conducted on a cohort of Chinese pottery workers to estimate the exposure-response relationship between respirable crystalline silica dust exposure and the incidence of radiographically diagnosed silicosis, and to estimate the long-term risk of developing silicosis until the age of 65. The cohort comprised 3,250 employees with a median follow-up duration of around 37 years. Incident cases of silicosis were identified via silicosis registries (Chinese X-ray stage I, similar to International Labor Organisation classification scheme profusion category 1/1). Individual exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was estimated based on over 100,000 historical dust measurements. The association between dust exposure, incidence and long-time risk of silicosis was quantified by Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age and smoking. The risk of silicosis depended not only on the cumulative respirable crystalline silica dust exposures, but also on the time-dependent respirable crystalline silica dust exposure pattern (long-term average concentration, highest annual concentration ever experienced and time since first exposure). A long-term "excess" risk of silicosis of approximately 1.5/1,000 was estimated among workers with all annual respirable crystalline silica dust concentration estimates less than 0.1 mg/m(3), using the German measurement strategy. This study indicates the importance of proper consideration of exposure information in risk quantification in epidemiological studies.

  6. Change of Exposure Response over Time and Long-Term Risk of Silicosis among a Cohort of Chinese Pottery Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuewei Liu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis was conducted on a cohort of Chinese pottery workers to estimate the exposure-response relationship between respirable crystalline silica dust exposure and the incidence of radiographically diagnosed silicosis, and to estimate the long-term risk of developing silicosis until the age of 65. The cohort comprised 3,250 employees with a median follow-up duration of around 37 years. Incident cases of silicosis were identified via silicosis registries (Chinese X-ray stage I, similar to International Labor Organisation classification scheme profusion category 1/1. Individual exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was estimated based on over 100,000 historical dust measurements. The association between dust exposure, incidence and long-time risk of silicosis was quantified by Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age and smoking. The risk of silicosis depended not only on the cumulative respirable crystalline silica dust exposures, but also on the time-dependent respirable crystalline silica dust exposure pattern (long-term average concentration, highest annual concentration ever experienced and time since first exposure. A long-term “excess” risk of silicosis of approximately 1.5/1,000 was estimated among workers with all annual respirable crystalline silica dust concentration estimates less than 0.1 mg/m3, using the German measurement strategy. This study indicates the importance of proper consideration of exposure information in risk quantification in epidemiological studies.

  7. Original research: Giving sexual assault survivors time to decide: an exploration of the use and effects of the nonreport option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Laurie Cook; Busch-Armendariz, Noël Bridget; Vohra, Shetal S; Johnson, Regina Jones; Camp, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    Forensic nurses, sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs), and victim advocates have long recognized the trauma of sexual assault crimes and the significance of survivors' decisions around reporting these crimes to law enforcement agencies. Until recently, survivors who didn't report the crime were not entitled to a free medical forensic examination. In a significant policy shift, the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 provided an additional decision option with regard to the medical examination for survivors of sexual assault. This provision, referred to here as the nonreport option, was established to offer survivors a full range of reporting options and to ensure exemplary health care, with evidence collection as an important secondary goal. This study sought to examine the implementation of the nonreport option in Texas; explore its impact on SANEs, survivors, and the criminal justice system; and identify strengths and challenges of the nonreport process. A mixed-method approach was used that included qualitative interviews with 79 professionals who regularly respond to sexual assault crimes, a Web-based survey questionnaire of such professionals that yielded 131 completed surveys, and a review of existing data. The step-by-step process involved in a nonreport case was described, and findings in three descriptive areas emerged: confidentiality processes, storage and shipment of evidence, and the use of the nonreport option. Beneficial effects of the nonreport option were identified in five areas: the role of SANEs, the impact on survivors, collaborative relationships, collateral crimes, and anonymous reporting strategies. Seven areas of remaining dilemmas were also identified. Findings indicate that the nonreport option has had a considerable positive impact on SANEs, survivors of sexual assault, and the criminal justice system. But challenges remain if this option is to be fully utilized in the future; further research

  8. Capturing readiness to learn and collaboration as explored with an interprofessional simulation scenario: A mixed-methods research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossler, Kelly L; Kimble, Laura P

    2016-01-01

    Didactic lecture does not lend itself to teaching interprofessional collaboration. High-fidelity human patient simulation with a focus on clinical situations/scenarios is highly conducive to interprofessional education. Consequently, a need for research supporting the incorporation of interprofessional education with high-fidelity patient simulation based technology exists. The purpose of this study was to explore readiness for interprofessional learning and collaboration among pre-licensure health professions students participating in an interprofessional education human patient simulation experience. Using a mixed methods convergent parallel design, a sample of 53 pre-licensure health professions students enrolled in nursing, respiratory therapy, health administration, and physical therapy programs within a college of health professions participated in high-fidelity human patient simulation experiences. Perceptions of interprofessional learning and collaboration were measured with the revised Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) and the Health Professional Collaboration Scale (HPCS). Focus groups were conducted during the simulation post-briefing to obtain qualitative data. Statistical analysis included non-parametric, inferential statistics. Qualitative data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Pre- and post-RIPLS demonstrated pre-licensure health professions students reported significantly more positive attitudes about readiness for interprofessional learning post-simulation in the areas of team work and collaboration, negative professional identity, and positive professional identity. Post-simulation HPCS revealed pre-licensure nursing and health administration groups reported greater health collaboration during simulation than physical therapy students. Qualitative analysis yielded three themes: "exposure to experiential learning," "acquisition of interactional relationships," and "presence of chronology in role preparation

  9. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Explore Backyard Gardening Practices and Soil Lead Concentrations in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri; Cardona, Dalila; Davis, Jeremy; Gramling, Benjamin; Hamilton, Chelsea; Hoffmann, Ray; Ruis, Sabrina; Soldat, Doug; Ventura, Steve; Yan, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure is a serious health threat for children. Soil is an important exposure pathway, primarily through ingestion and inhalation. Urban agriculture is increasing. Potential environmental health risks associated with residential gardening may not be well known to community residents. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was implemented to explore the relationship between urban residential vegetable gardening and lead exposure in children. The primary objectives were to characterize local backyard vegetable gardening practices, measure residential and commercial soil lead concentrations and spatial distributions, and identify priorities for individual and collective action. Participants were recruited in two stages. In phase 1, adult gardeners participated in structured interviews. In phase 2, a multistage representative sampling approach was implemented to recruit adult gardeners for interviews and soil testing. Twenty adults participated in gardening practice interviews. Adults perceive many benefits from backyard gardening and initially expressed few concerns about lead exposure risk. Results indicate that children are actively involved in backyard gardening. Total soil lead concentrations from 17 residential properties ranged from 7 to 3,234 mg kg-1(median, 187; mean, 432). Commercial soils had lead concentrations that ranged from 6 to 13 mg kg(-1) (median, 6.5; mean, 7.6). Nonparametric Mann-Whitney comparisons indicated a significant difference in lead concentration between commercial soil and residential soil (p<0.0001). Advocacy for resources needed to eliminate dangerous levels of lead from the environment, especially in communities where divestment has occurred, is enhanced through CBPR. Increasing access to soil testing is an important action step.

  10. Mars Exploration Student Data Teams: Building Foundations and Influencing Students to Pursue STEM Careers through Experiences with Authentic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, D.; Grigsby, B.; Murchie, S. L.; Buczkowski, D.; Seelos, K. D.; Nair, H.; McGovern, A.; Morgan, F.; Viviano, C. E.; Goudge, T. A.; Thompson, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT) immerses diverse teams of high school and undergraduate students in an authentic research Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) based experience and allows students to be direct participants in the scientific process by working with scientists to analyze data sets from NASA's Mars program, specifically from the CRISM instrument. MESDT was created by Arizona State University's Mars Education Program, and is funded through NASA's Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars or CRISM, an instrument onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Students work with teacher mentors and CRISM team members to analyze data, develop hypotheses, conduct research, submit proposals, critique and revise work. All students begin the program with basic Mars curriculum lessons developed by the MESDT education team. This foundation enables the program to be inclusive of all students. Teachers have reported that populations of students with diverse academic needs and abilities have been successful in this program. The use of technology in the classroom allows the MESDT program to successfully reach a nationwide audience and funding provided by NASA's CRISM instrument allows students to participate free of charge. Recent changes to the program incorporate a partnership with United States Geological Survey (USGS) and a CRISM sponsored competitive scholarship for two teams of students to present their work at the annual USGS Planetary Mappers Meeting. Returning MESDT teachers have attributed an increase in student enrollment and interest to this scholarship opportunity. The 2013 USGS Planetary Mappers Meeting was held in Washington DC which provided an opportunity for the students to meet with their Senators at the US Capitol to explain the science work they had done throughout the year as well as the impact that the program had had on their goals for the future. This opportunity extended to the students by the

  11. Outcomes in Child Health: Exploring the Use of Social Media to Engage Parents in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Michele P; Shave, Kassi; Fernandes, Ricardo M; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-03-16

    With the rapid growth of technology and its improved accessibility globally, social media is gaining an increasingly important role in health care. Patients are frequently engaging with social media to access information, share content, and interact with others in online health communities. However, the use of social media as a stakeholder engagement strategy has been minimally explored, and effective methods for involving participants in research on the identification of patient-centered outcomes remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of using social media to engage parents in identifying patient-centered outcomes, using acute respiratory infections in children as an example to gauge feasibility. We conducted a process evaluation of a two-phase Web-based strategy to engage parents in research on patient-centered outcomes. In the first phase, we developed a website and study-specific Facebook and Twitter accounts to recruit parents to complete a Web-based survey identifying patient-centered outcomes. In the second phase, we used Facebook to host discussion with parents based on the survey results. The reach of social media as an engagement strategy and the characteristics of the population recruited were assessed. During the first phase, there were 5027 visits to the survey site, 110 participants completed the survey, 553 unique users visited the study website (675 visits), the Facebook page received 104 likes, and the Twitter account gained 52 followers over the 14-week study period. Most survey respondents identified Facebook (51.8%, 57/110) or a friend (45.5%, 50/110) as their source of referral. It was found that 70.0% (77/110) of respondents resided in Canada, in urban centers (92.7%, 102/110), and 88.2% (97/110) had a college or university degree or higher. The median year of birth was 1978 and 90.0% (99/110) were female. Most survey responses (88.2%, 97/110) were completed during the first month of the study. In the second phase, 4

  12. Mars Exploration Study Workshop II. Report of a workshop, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA), 24 - 25 May 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Budden, N. A.

    1993-11-01

    This report, which summarizes the Mars Exploration Study Workshop II, provides an overview of the status of the Mars Exploration Study, material presented at the workshop, and discussions of open items being addressed by the study team. The workshop assembled three teams of experts to discuss cost, dual-use technology, and international involvement, and to generate a working group white paper addressing these issues.

  13. The Effect of Uncertainty in Exposure Estimation on the Exposure-Response Relation between 1,3-Butadiene and Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maldonado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In a follow-up study of mortality among North American synthetic rubber industry workers, cumulative exposure to 1,3-butadiene was positively associated with leukemia. Problems with historical exposure estimation, however, may have distorted the association. To evaluate the impact of potential inaccuracies in exposure estimation, we conducted uncertainty analyses of the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia. We created the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates using job-exposure matrices consisting of exposure values that corresponded to randomly selected percentiles of the approximate probability distribution of plant-, work area/job group-, and year specific butadiene ppm. We then analyzed the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia for each of the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates. In the uncertainty analysis, the point estimate of the RR for the first non zero exposure category (>0–<37.5 ppm-years was most likely to be about 1.5. The rate ratio for the second exposure category (37.5–<184.7 ppm-years was most likely to range from 1.5 to 1.8. The RR for category 3 of exposure (184.7–<425.0 ppm-years was most likely between 2.1 and 3.0. The RR for the highest exposure category (425.0+ ppm-years was likely to be between 2.9 and 3.7. This range off RR point estimates can best be interpreted as a probability distribution that describes our uncertainty in RR point estimates due to uncertainty in exposure estimation. After considering the complete probability distributions of butadiene exposure estimates, the exposure-response association of butadiene and leukemia was maintained. This exercise was a unique example of how uncertainty analyses can be used to investigate and support an observed measure of effect when occupational exposure estimates are employed in the absence of direct exposure measurements.

  14. Exploring the use of feminist philosophy within nursing research to enhance post-positivist methodologies in the study of cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Faye S

    2007-10-01

    Nursing has historically relied heavily on scientific knowledge. It is not surprising that the cardiovascular health literature has been highly influenced by the post-positivist philosophy. The nursing discipline, as well as the cardiovascular nursing specialty, continues to benefit from research grounded within this philosophical tradition. At the same time, there are limitations associated with post-positivism. Therefore, it is beneficial for researchers and clinicians to examine the potential contributions various philosophical traditions can have for their research and practice. This paper is an exploration of the compatibilities of feminist and post-positivist philosophies in the study of cardiovascular nursing research. The ensuing discussion entails an examination of my clinical and research interests, the grounding of my research within the post-positivist perspective and the significant contribution feminist philosophy can make to my research.

  15. Exploring the Use of Emoji as a Visual Research Method for Eliciting Young Children's Voices in Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fane, Jennifer; MacDougall, Colin; Jovanovic, Jessie; Redmond, Gerry; Gibbs, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Recognition of the need to move from research "on" children to research "with" children has prompted significant theoretical and methodological debate as to how young children can be positioned as active participants in the research process. Visual research methods such as drawing, photography, and videography have received…

  16. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into NASA Programs Associated With the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies that have gone through Phase II of the SBIR program into NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) programs. Other Government and commercial project managers can also find this information useful.

  17. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in a Mixed Methods Research Design to Explore Music in the Lives of Mature Age Amateur Keyboard Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in a mixed methods research design with reference to five recent publications about music in the lives of mature age amateur keyboard players. It explores the links between IPA and the data-gathering methods of "Rivers of Musical Experience",…

  18. Seeking to understand: using generic qualitative research to explore access to medicines and pharmacy services among resettled refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese

    2016-06-01

    Introduction There are challenges associated with selecting a qualitative research approach. In a field abundant with terminology and theories, it may be difficult for a pharmacist to know where and how to begin a qualitative research journey. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into generic qualitative research and to describe the journey of data collection of a novice qualitative researcher in the quest to answer her research question: 'What are the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services for resettled refugees in Queensland, Australia?' Methodology Generic qualitative research draws on the strengths of one or more qualitative approaches. The aim is to draw out participants' ideas about things that are 'outside themselves'; rather than focussing on their inner feelings the research seeks to understand a phenomenon, a process, or the perspectives of participants. Sampling is designed to obtain a broad range of opinions about events and experiences and data collection includes interviews, questionnaires or surveys; thematic analysis is often used to analyse data. When to use Generic qualitative research provides an opportunity to develop research designs that fit researchers' epistemological stance and discipline, with research choices, including methodology and methods, being informed by the research question. Limitations Generic qualitative research is one of many methodologies that may be used to answer a research question and there is a paucity of literature about how to do it well. There is also debate about its validity as a qualitative methodology.

  19. Exploration on the reform of the science and engineering experiment teaching based on the combination with teaching and scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The existing problems of the experiment education in colleges and universities are analyzed. Take the science and engineering specialty as example, the idea of the combination with teaching and scientific research is discussed. The key problems are how the scientific research and scientific research achievements are used effectively in the experiment education, how to effectively use scientific research laboratories and scientific researchers. Then, a specialty experiment education system is established which is good for the teaching in accordance of all students' aptitude. The research in this paper can give the construction of the experiment teaching methods and the experiment system reform for the science and engineering specialties in colleges and universities.

  20. An Exploration of the Effect of Community Engagement in Research on Perceived Outcomes of Partnered Mental Health Services Projects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Stockdale, Susan; Jones, Felica; Ohito, Elizabeth; Jones, Andrea; Lizaola, Elizabeth; Mango, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Mental health research projects address sensitive issues for vulnerable populations and are implemented in complex environments. Community-Based Participatory Research approaches are recommended for health research on vulnerable populations, but little is known about how variation in participation affects outcomes of partnered research projects. We developed a conceptual model demonstrating the impact of community engagement in research on outcomes of partnered projects. We collected data on key constructs from community and academic leaders of 21 sampled partnered research projects in two cycles of an NIMH research center. We conducted empirical analyses to test the model. Our findings suggest that community engagement in research is positively associated with perceived professional development, as well as political and community impact. PMID:22582144

  1. Space Biology Model Organism Research on the Deep Space Gateway to Pioneer Discovery and Advance Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K. Y.; Tomko, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Quincy, C. D.; Rayl, N. A.; Sowa, M. B.; Taylor, E. M.; Sun, S. C.; Kundrot, C. E.

    2018-02-01

    Model organisms are foundational for conducting physiological and systems biology research to define how life responds to the deep space environment. The organisms, areas of research, and Deep Space Gateway capabilities needed will be presented.

  2. "It's an Amazing Learning Curve to Be Part of the Project": Exploring Academic Identity in Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Brenda; Ndebele, Clever; Winberg, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the role of academic identity within collaborative research in higher education in South Africa. The study was informed by the literature on academic identities, collaborative research and communities of practice. It was located within a multi-site study, with involvement of researcher collaborators…

  3. In Indigenous Words: Exploring Vignettes as a Narrative Strategy for Presenting the Research Voices of Aboriginal Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Amy T.; Schinke, Robert J.; Smith, Brett; Peltier, Duke; Pheasant, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Recently, awareness within academia has grown regarding the incompatibilities of mainstream research with indigenous cultures as well as the historical injustices that have accrued through colonizing practices. Accordingly, support for alternative (non-Westernized) research approaches has been increasing. Participatory action research (PAR) and…

  4. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and "The Visual" in Research: Exploring the Ontological Consequences of the Use of Visual Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mark; Varga-Atkins, Tunde; Umoquit, Muriah; Tso, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the under-theorization of visual techniques for social science research applications through the cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). The "problem" of "the visual" in research is given an ontological framing by highlighting the ways in which the use of visual techniques as research tools--designed…

  5. Exploring College Outcomes for Low-Income AP® Exam Takers with Fee Reductions. Research Report 2016-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Kelly E.; Wyatt, Jeffrey N.; Beard, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this study is to explore college outcomes for students who come from traditionally lower-income backgrounds, reporting a household income of $30,000 or less, and who were awarded a fee reduction to take one or more Advanced Placement® (AP®) Exams, compared to students with a similar background and ability who did not participate in an…

  6. Does Research Information Meet the Needs of Stakeholders? Exploring Evidence Selection in the Global Management of Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Wilcox, Andrew; Stewart, Gavin B.; Randall, Nicola P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored factors affecting information selection by international stakeholders working with invasive species. Despite differences in information requirements between groups, all stakeholders demonstrated a clear preference for free, easily accessible online information, and predominantly used internet search engines and specialist…

  7. Footprint of Sandia's August 15 2016 Informal Idea Exploration Session on "Towards an Engineering and Applied Science of Research".

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleming Lindsley, Elizabeth S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heffelfinger, Grant S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Narayanamurti, Venkatesh [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Schneider, Rick [glo USA, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Starkweather, Lynne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ting, Christina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yajima, Rieko [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Bauer, Travis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coltrin, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guy, Donald W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Wendell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mareda, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turnley, Jessica Glicken [Galisteo Consulting Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    On August 15, 2016, Sandia hosted a visit by Professor Venkatesh Narayanamurti. Prof Narayanamurti (Benjamin Peirce Research Professor of Technology and Public Policy at Harvard, Board Member of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, former Dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Science at Harvard, former Dean of Engineering at UC Santa Barbara, and former Vice President of Division 1000 at Sandia). During the visit, a small, informal, all-day idea exploration session on "Towards an Engineering and Applied Science of Research" was conducted. This document is a brief synopsis or "footprint" of the presentations and discussions at this Idea Exploration Session. The intent of this document is to stimulate further discussion about pathways Sandia can take to improve its Research practices.

  8. Finding the Words to Work Together: Developing a Research Design to Explore Risk and Adult Protection in Co-Produced Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Ian; Archibald, Sylvia; McInnes, Kerry; Cross, Beth; Daniel, Brigid; Johnson, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Although co-production of research with people who access support services is increasingly common, details about how people who access support services can take more of an assertive role in developing research proposals and method design remains sketchy. This article reflects on the development of a research project on adult protection practice in…

  9. From "our world" to the "real world": Exploring the views and behaviour of policy-influential Australian public health researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Abby S; Derrick, Gjemma E; Chapman, Simon; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D; Gillespie, James; Sturk, Heidi

    2011-04-01

    Research and researchers influence the genesis and development of public health policy in limited but essential ways. Surveys and interviews with 36 peer-nominated "highly influential" Australian public health researchers found they engaged in a breadth of strategies that included rigorous but targeted research design, multilateral collaboration, multiple methods of research dissemination and promotion (including tactical use of the media), and purposeful development of bridging relationships. Researchers' ability to understand the worlds of research, policy and the media and to speak their languages (or to work with others who fulfilled this role) was a key factor. Advocacy was seen as fundamental by some but was disparaged by others. Influential behaviours were guided by values and beliefs about the principles underlying traditional science and the contrasting ethos of contemporary research. This study may help researchers consider their own policy-related roles, strategies and relationships in the context of increasing calls for research that serves economic and/or social goals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring gender, age, time and space in research with older Pakistani Muslims in the United Kingdom: formalised research 'ethics' and performances of the public/private divide in 'the field'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Maria; Victor, Christina

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in researching ageing ethnic minority populations in the West. However, older people from such minority communities have received comparatively little attention in wide-ranging discussions on appropriate research methodologies. By a process of critically reflecting on our experiences of undertaking fieldwork for our Economic and Social Research Council New Dynamics of Ageing study of 'Families and Caring in South Asian Communities', this paper maps out the key methodological and ethical challenges we faced and, in the process, highlights the importance of developing socially appropriate research methodologies and ethical frameworks for research with such populations. With a reflexive approach, we specifically explore the significance of gender, age, time and space to the fieldwork processes and the 'field' relationships formed at various stages of the research process. In particular, we explore three key emergent issues which conflicted with our formal research protocols and presented particular challenges for us and our older Pakistani Muslim participants: (a) structuring of time in daily life; (b) gendered use of public and private spaces; and (c) orality of informal social contexts and relationships. Using illustrations from our fieldwork which reveal the particular significance of these issues to our fieldwork experiences and performativities of public/private identities, we highlight important tensions between formalised ethical and methodological dimensions of conducting funded research and the realities of being in 'the field'. We conclude the paper by emphasising the need to explore further not only the ways in which researchers can adopt more socially and culturally sensitive data collection processes and methodologies at the micro level of their interactions with research participants, but also contextualising the particular challenges experienced by researchers and their participants in terms of the

  11. Social representations of electricity network technologies: exploring processes of anchoring and objectification through the use of visual research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine-Wright, Hannah; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore everyday thinking about the UK electricity network, in light of government policy to increase the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources. Existing literature on public perceptions of electricity network technologies was broadened by adopting a more socially embedded conception of the construction of knowledge using the theory of social representations (SRT) to explore symbolic associations with network technologies. Drawing and association tasks were administered within nine discussion groups held in two places: a Scottish town where significant upgrades to the local transmission network were planned and an English city with no such plans. Our results illustrate the ways in which network technologies, such as high voltage (HV) pylons, are objectified in talk and drawings. These invoked positive as well as negative symbolic and affective associations, both at the level of specific pylons, and the 'National Grid' as a whole and are anchored in understanding of other networks such as mobile telecommunications. We conclude that visual methods are especially useful for exploring beliefs about technologies that are widespread, proximal to our everyday experience but nevertheless unfamiliar topics of everyday conversation.

  12. Exploring the Types of SMEs Which Could use Blogs as a Marketing Tool: a Proposed Future Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Phaik Harn Chua

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blogs appear to be gaining momentum as a marketing tool which can be used by organisations for such strategies and processes as branding, managing reputation, developing customer trust and loyalty, niche marketing, gathering marketing intelligence and promoting their online presence. There has been limited academic research in this area, and most significantly concerning the types of small and medium enterprises (SMEs for which blogs might have potential as a marketing tool. In an attempt to address the knowledge gap, this paper presents a future research agenda (in the form of research questions which can guide the eBusiness research community in conducting much needed studies in this area. This paper is particularly novel in that it aims to demonstrate how the heterogeneity of SMEs and their specific business uses of eBusiness technology such as blogs can form the central plank of a future research agenda. This is important because the existing eBusiness literature tends to treat eBusiness collectively rather than focusing on the specific business uses of different eBusiness technologies, and to treat SMEs as a homogeneous group. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this research agenda can form the basis of studies which use a range of different research methods, and how this "big picture" agenda approach might help the eBusiness research community build theory which better explains SME adoption and use of eBusiness.

  13. Health by Stealth--Exploring the Sociocultural Dimensions of Salutogenesis for Sport, Health and Physical Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, Louise; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    Sport, health and physical education (SHPE) researchers have increasingly embraced the salutogenic model of health devised by Aaron Antonvosky, to re-understand and problematise the relation between movement, physical activity or physical education on one hand, and health on the other. However, contemporary research employing Antonovsky's theories…

  14. Going Places: Exploring the Impact of Intra-Sectoral Mobility on Research Productivity and Communication Behaviors in Japanese Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Hugo; Yonezawa, Akiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of intra-sectoral mobility of academics on research productivity and R&D information exchange dynamics in Japan. The analysis shows intra-sectoral mobility impacting positively both research productivity and information exchange dynamics, but that this effect--except for information exchange with peers based…

  15. Illustrating the use of concepts from the discipline of policy studies in energy research : An explorative literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, T.; Coenen, Frans; van den Berg, Maya

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing challenges the energy sector faces, energy policy strategies and instruments are becoming ever more relevant. The discipline of policy studies might offer relevant concepts to enrich multidisciplinary energy research. The main research question of this article is: How can

  16. Illustrating the use of concepts from the discipline of policy studies in energy research: An explorative literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; van den Berg, Maya Marieke

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing challenges the energy sector faces, energy policy strategies and instruments are becoming ever more relevant. The discipline of policy studies might offer relevant concepts to enrich multidisciplinary energy research. The main research question of this article is: How can policy

  17. Social media analytics and research testbed (SMART: Exploring spatiotemporal patterns of human dynamics with geo-targeted social media messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiue-An Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The multilevel model of meme diffusion conceptualizes how mediated messages diffuse over time and space. As a pilot application of implementing the meme diffusion, we developed the social media analytics and research testbed to monitor Twitter messages and track the diffusion of information in and across different cities and geographic regions. Social media analytics and research testbed is an online geo-targeted search and analytics tool, including an automatic data processing procedure at the backend and an interactive frontend user interface. Social media analytics and research testbed is initially designed to facilitate (1 searching and geo-locating tweet topics and terms in different cities and geographic regions; (2 filtering noise from raw data (such as removing redundant retweets and using machine learning methods to improve precision; (3 analyzing social media data from a spatiotemporal perspective; and (4 visualizing social media data in diagnostic ways (such as weekly and monthly trends, trend maps, top media, top retweets, top mentions, or top hashtags. Social media analytics and research testbed provides researchers and domain experts with a tool that can efficiently facilitate the refinement, formalization, and testing of research hypotheses or questions. Three case studies (flu outbreaks, Ebola epidemic, and marijuana legalization are introduced to illustrate how the predictions of meme diffusion can be examined and to demonstrate the potentials and key functions of social media analytics and research testbed.

  18. Continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) and its applications in hydrocarbon research and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpana, G.; Patil, D.J.; Kumar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometers have been widely used to determine the isotopic ratios of light elements such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (CFIRMS) provides reliable data on nanomole amount of sample gas without the need for cryogenic trapping using cold fingers as in dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometer. High sample throughput is achieved as the system is configured with automated sample preparation devices and auto samplers. This paper presents a brief description of CFIRMS exploration

  19. Geoelectrical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Said Barseem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinai development is a goal of successive governments in Egypt. The present study is a geoelectrical exploration to find appropriate solutions of the problems affecting the land of a Research Station in Southeast Al Qantara. This research station is one of the Desert Research Center stations to facilitate the development of desert land for agriculture by introducing applied research. It suffers from some problems which can be summarized in the shortage of irrigation water and water logging. The appropriate solutions of these problems have been delineated by the results of 1D and 2D geoelectrical measurements. Electrical resistivity (ER revealed the subsurface sedimentary sequences and extension of subsurface layers in the horizontal and vertical directions, especially, the water bearing layer. Additionally it helped to choose the most suitable places to drill productive wells with a good condition.

  20. Reflections from a Creative Community-Based Participatory Research Project Exploring Health and Body Image with First Nations Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Shea PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, Aboriginal peoples often experience a multitude of inequalities when compared with the general population, particularly in relation to health (e.g., increased incidence of diabetes. These inequalities are rooted in a negative history of colonization. Decolonizing methodologies recognize these realities and aim to shift the focus from communities being researched to being collaborative partners in the research process. This article describes a qualitative community-based participatory research project focused on health and body image with First Nations girls in a Tribal Council region in Western Canada. We discuss our project design and the incorporation of creative methods (e.g., photovoice to foster integration and collaboration as related to decolonizing methodology principles. This article is both descriptive and reflective as it summarizes our project and discusses lessons learned from the process, integrating evaluations from the participating girls as well as our reflections as researchers.

  1. Lasswell's Garrison State Reconsidered: Exploring A Paradigm Shift in U.S. Civil-Military Relations Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dains, Ronald N

    2004-01-01

    ...), even in democracies. The study differs from previous civil-military research in that it attempts to quantify and graphically display the trends in value allocations that may indicate such an evolution...

  2. Exploring mentorship as a strategy to build capacity for knowledge translation research and practice: protocol for a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Anna R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research funders, educators, investigators and decision makers worldwide have identified the need to improve the quality of health care by building capacity for knowledge translation (KT research and practice. Peer-based mentorship represents a vehicle to foster KT capacity. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify mentoring models that could be used to build KT capacity, consult with putative mentee stakeholders to understand their KT mentorship needs and preferences, and generate recommendations for the content and format of KT mentorship strategies or programs, and how they could be tested through future research. Methods A conceptual framework was derived based on mentoring goals, processes and outcomes identified in the management and social sciences literature, and our research on barriers and facilitators of academic mentorship. These concepts will inform data collection and analysis. To identify useful models by which to design, implement and evaluate KT mentorship, we will review the social sciences, management, and nursing literature from 1990 to current, browse tables of contents of relevant journals, and scan the references of all eligible studies. Eligibility screening and data extraction will be performed independently by two investigators. Semi-structured interviews will be used to collect information about KT needs, views on mentorship as a knowledge sharing strategy, preferred KT mentoring program elements, and perceived barriers from clinician health services researchers representing different disciplines. Qualitative analysis of transcripts will be performed independently by two investigators, who will meet to compare findings and resolve differences through discussion. Data will be shared and discussed with the research team, and their feedback incorporated into final reports. Discussion These findings could be used by universities, research institutes, funding agencies, and professional

  3. Exploring mentorship as a strategy to build capacity for knowledge translation research and practice: protocol for a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Perrier, Laure; Webster, Fiona; Leslie, Karen; Bell, Mary; Levinson, Wendy; Rotstein, Ori; Tourangeau, Ann; Morrison, Laurie; Silver, Ivan L; Straus, Sharon E

    2009-08-19

    Research funders, educators, investigators and decision makers worldwide have identified the need to improve the quality of health care by building capacity for knowledge translation (KT) research and practice. Peer-based mentorship represents a vehicle to foster KT capacity. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify mentoring models that could be used to build KT capacity, consult with putative mentee stakeholders to understand their KT mentorship needs and preferences, and generate recommendations for the content and format of KT mentorship strategies or programs, and how they could be tested through future research. A conceptual framework was derived based on mentoring goals, processes and outcomes identified in the management and social sciences literature, and our research on barriers and facilitators of academic mentorship. These concepts will inform data collection and analysis. To identify useful models by which to design, implement and evaluate KT mentorship, we will review the social sciences, management, and nursing literature from 1990 to current, browse tables of contents of relevant journals, and scan the references of all eligible studies. Eligibility screening and data extraction will be performed independently by two investigators. Semi-structured interviews will be used to collect information about KT needs, views on mentorship as a knowledge sharing strategy, preferred KT mentoring program elements, and perceived barriers from clinician health services researchers representing different disciplines. Qualitative analysis of transcripts will be performed independently by two investigators, who will meet to compare findings and resolve differences through discussion. Data will be shared and discussed with the research team, and their feedback incorporated into final reports. These findings could be used by universities, research institutes, funding agencies, and professional organizations in Canada and elsewhere to develop, implement, and

  4. Community Advisory Boards Guiding Engaged Research Efforts within a Clinical Translational Sciences Award: Key Contextual Factors Explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Jacqueline R; Donahue, Katrina E; Sleath, Betsy; Reuland, Dan; Black, Adina; Mitchell, C Madeline; Breland, Carol E; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Mottus, Kathleen; Watson, Sable Noelle; Lewis, Virginia; Wynn, Mysha; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-01-01

    Engaging stakeholders in research carries the promise of enhancing the research relevance, transparency, and speed of getting findings into practice. By describing the context and functional aspects of stakeholder groups, like those working as community advisory boards (CABs), others can learn from these experiences and operationalize their own CABs. Our objective is to describe our experiences with diverse CABs affiliated with our community engagement group within our institution's Clinical Translational Sciences Award (CTSA). We identify key contextual elements that are important to administering CABs. A group of investigators, staff, and community members engaged in a 6-month collaboration to describe their experiences of working with six research CABs. We identified the key contextual domains that illustrate how CABS are developed and sustained. Two lead authors, with experience with CABs and identifying contextual domains in other work, led a team of 13 through the process. Additionally, we devised a list of key tips to consider when devising CABs. The final domains include (1) aligned missions among stakeholders (2) resources/support, (3) defined operational processes/shared power, (4) well-described member roles, and (5) understanding and mitigating challenges. The tips are a set of actions that support the domains. Identifying key contextual domains was relatively easy, despite differences in the respective CAB's condition of focus, overall mission, or patient demographics represented. By contextualizing these five domains, other research and community partners can take an informed approach to move forward with CAB planning and engaged research.

  5. WAS LUXURY LITTLE RESEARCHED? AN EXPLORATION OF STUDIES AND RESEARCH TRENDS IN THE AREA OF MARKETING OF LUXURY GOODS, BEFORE 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca CIORNEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first questions that all scientists address when approaching a new domain are related to how well studied is the field, who and what has studied. The answers help them establish their personal areas of interest and contribution. Thus in order to help the authors concerned with the luxury domain we decided to conduct a secondary marketing research and the main purpose was to identify the studies and the trends in research in the area of marketing of luxury goods and their degree of approach, before 2005. The present study is only a part of a complex research that approaches the entire evolution in luxury research field, but due to space limitation papers were separated in two: the evolution before 2005 and the evolution after 2005. Unique by its theme, this paper is intended to be ambitious by analysing all the luxury materials to which had access the authors The results confirmed the previous statement of some authors that luxury was little researched comparing to other domains.

  6. Exploring areas of consensus and conflict around values underpinning public involvement in health and social care research: a modified Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, D; Kirkham, J; Preston, J; Popay, J; Britten, N; Collins, M; Froggatt, K; Gibson, A; Lobban, F; Wyatt, K; Jacoby, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is growing interest in the potential benefits of public involvement (PI) in health and social care research. However, there has been little examination of values underpinning PI or how these values might differ for different groups with an interest in PI in the research process. We aimed to explore areas of consensus and conflict around normative, substantive and process-related values underpinning PI. Design Mixed method, three-phase, modified Delphi study, conducted as part of a larger multiphase project. Setting The UK health and social care research community. Participants Stakeholders in PI in research, defined as: clinical and non-clinical academics, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and funders; identified via research networks, online searches and a literature review. Results We identified high levels of consensus for many normative, substantive and process-related issues. However, there were also areas of conflict in relation to issues of bias and representativeness, and around whether the purpose of PI in health and social care research is to bring about service change or generate new knowledge. There were large differences by group in the percentages endorsing the ethical justification for PI and the argument that PI equalises power imbalances. With regard to practical implementation of PI, research support infrastructures were reported as lacking. Participants reported shortcomings in the uptake and practice of PI. Embedding PI practice and evaluation in research study designs was seen as fundamental to strengthening the evidence base. Conclusions Our findings highlight the extent to which PI is already embedded in research. However, they also highlight a need for ‘best practice’ standards to assist research teams to understand, implement and evaluate PI. These findings have been used in developing a Public Involvement Impact Assessment Framework (PiiAF), which offers guidance to researchers and members of the

  7. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  8. A Preliminary Exploration of Operating Models of Second Cycle/Research Led Open Education Involving Industry Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Scientists from five Swedish universities were interviewed about open second cycle education. Research groups and scientists collaborate closely with industry, and the selection of scientists for the study was made in relation to an interest in developing technology-enhanced open education, indicated by applications for funding from the Knowledge…

  9. Exploring How Research Experiences for Teachers Changes Their Understandings of the Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn R.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of science is a prevalent theme across United States national science education standards and frameworks as well as other documents that guide formal and informal science education reform. To support teachers in engaging their students in authentic scientific practices and reformed teaching strategies, research experiences for teachers…

  10. Childhood Obesity Declines Project: An Effort of the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research to Explore Progress in Four Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauh, Tina J; Dawkins-Lyn, Nicola; Dooyema, Carrie; Harris, Carole; Jernigan, Jan; Kettel Khan, Laura; Ottley, Phyllis; Young-Hyman, Deborah

    2018-03-01

    Recent findings show that national childhood obesity prevalence overall is improving among some age groups, but that disparities continue to persist, particularly among populations that have historically been at higher risk of obesity and overweight. Over the past several years, many jurisdictions at the city or county level across the nation have also reported declines. Little evaluation has focused on understanding the factors that influence the implementation of efforts to reduce childhood obesity rates. This article summarizes the rationale, aims, and overall design of the Childhood Obesity Declines Project (COBD), which was the first of its kind to systematically study and document the what, how, when, and where of community-based obesity strategies in four distinct communities across the nation. COBD was initiated by the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR), was led by a subset of NCCOR advisors and a research team at ICF, and was guided by external advisors made up of researchers, decision makers, and other key stakeholders. The research team used an adapted version of the Systematic Screening and Assessment method to review and collect retrospective implementation data in four communities. COBD found that sites implemented strategies across the many levels and environments that impact children's well being (akin to the social-ecological framework), building a Culture of Health in their communities. COBD demonstrates how collaboratives of major funders with the support of other experts and key stakeholders, can help to accelerate progress in identifying and disseminating strategies that promote healthy eating and physical activity.

  11. A call for research exploring social media influences on mothers' child feeding practices and childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann L

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest in leveraging social media to prevent childhood obesity, however, the evidence base for how social media currently influences related behaviors and how interventions could be developed for these platforms is lacking. This commentary calls for research on the extent to which mothers use social media to learn about child feeding practices and the mechanisms through which social media influences their child feeding practices. Such formative research could be applied to the development and dissemination of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention programs that utilize social media. Mothers are identified as a uniquely important target audience for social media-based interventions because of their proximal influence on children's eating behavior and their high engagement with social media platforms. Understanding mothers' current behaviors, interests, and needs as they relate to their social media use and child feeding practices is an integral first step in the development of interventions that aim to engage mothers for obesity prevention. This commentary highlights the importance of mothers for childhood obesity prevention; discusses theoretical and analytic frameworks that can inform research on social media and mothers' child feeding practices; provides evidence that social media is an emerging context for social influences on mothers' attitudes and behaviors in which food is a salient topic; and suggests directions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring Students' Articulation of Value in a Social Research Methods Class: Towards a Phenomenography of Value Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglietti, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study describes journalism students' value making of social research methods, such as sampling, data gathering strategies and quantitative and qualitative data analysis, by using a mixed-­method approach to analyze 260 written reflection assignments. In their reflections, 26 student participants assessed the value of their new knowledge of…

  13. Different Ways to Disagree: A Study of Organizational Dissent to Explore Connections between Mixed Methods Research and Engaged Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Johny T.

    2015-01-01

    Organizational communication processes are complex, but all too often, researchers oversimplify the study of these processes by relying on a single method. Particularly when scholars and practitioners partner together to solve organizational problems, meaningful results require methodological flexibility and diversity. As an exemplar of the fit…

  14. Evidence-based policy-making in the NHS: exploring the interface between research and the commissioning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, U; Elliott, H; Higgins, A

    1999-03-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) R&D strategy acknowledges the importance of developing an NHS where practice and policy is more evidence-based. This paper is based on a qualitative study which aimed to identify factors which facilitate or impede evidence-based policy-making at a local level in the NHS. The study involved a literature review and case studies of social research projects which were initiated by NHS health authority managers or general practitioner (GP) fundholders in one region of the NHS. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with lead policy-makers, GPs and researchers working on each of the case studies and analysis of project documentation. An over-arching theme from the analysis was that of the complexity of R&D in purchasing. The two worlds of research and health services management often sit uncomfortably together. For this reason it was not possible to describe a 'blueprint' for successful R&D, although several important issues emerged. These include sharing an appropriate model for research utilization, the importance of relationships in shaping R&D, the importance of influence and commitment in facilitating evidence-based change, and the resourcing of R&D in purchasing. These issues have important implications for the strategic development of R&D as well as for individual project application. Moving beyond the rhetoric of evidence-based policy-making is more likely if both policy-makers and researchers openly acknowledge this complexity and give due concern to the issues outlined.

  15. Exploring intentions of physician-scientist trainees: factors influencing MD and MD/PhD interest in research careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jennifer M; Daye, Dania; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Conlon, Claudia Morrissey; Kim, Hajwa; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Payne, Aimee S; Riddle, Megan; Madera, Sharline; Adami, Alexander J; Winter, Kate Quinn

    2017-07-11

    Prior studies have described the career paths of physician-scientist candidates after graduation, but the factors that influence career choices at the candidate stage remain unclear. Additionally, previous work has focused on MD/PhDs, despite many physician-scientists being MDs. This study sought to identify career sector intentions, important factors in career selection, and experienced and predicted obstacles to career success that influence the career choices of MD candidates, MD candidates with research-intense career intentions (MD-RI), and MD/PhD candidates. A 70-question survey was administered to students at 5 academic medical centers with Medical Scientist Training Programs (MSTPs) and Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) from the NIH. Data were analyzed using bivariate or multivariate analyses. More MD/PhD and MD-RI candidates anticipated or had experienced obstacles related to balancing academic and family responsibilities and to balancing clinical, research, and education responsibilities, whereas more MD candidates indicated experienced and predicted obstacles related to loan repayment. MD/PhD candidates expressed higher interest in basic and translational research compared to MD-RI candidates, who indicated more interest in clinical research. Overall, MD-RI candidates displayed a profile distinct from both MD/PhD and MD candidates. MD/PhD and MD-RI candidates experience obstacles that influence their intentions to pursue academic medical careers from the earliest training stage, obstacles which differ from those of their MD peers. The differences between the aspirations of and challenges facing MD, MD-RI and MD/PhD candidates present opportunities for training programs to target curricula and support services to ensure the career development of successful physician-scientists.

  16. Exploring risk factors of non-adherence to immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients : improving methodology & reorienting research goals

    OpenAIRE

    Denhaerynck, Kris

    2006-01-01

    8.1. Background and aim of the research program Non-adherence to the immunosuppressive therapy is an important issue in kidney transplant patients. About 20% of the kidney transplant patients are non-adherent to the immunosuppressive regimen. Non-adherence contributes to 20% of late acute rejection episodes and 16% of the graft losses, and results in a decreased number of quality adjusted life years. A strategy to increase long-term successful outcome after transplantation i...

  17. Exploring the Types of SMEs Which Could use Blogs as a Marketing Tool: a Proposed Future Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Adeline Phaik Harn Chua; Kenneth R. Deans; Craig M. Parker

    2009-01-01

    Blogs appear to be gaining momentum as a marketing tool which can be used by organisations for such strategies and processes as branding, managing reputation, developing customer trust and loyalty, niche marketing, gathering marketing intelligence and promoting their online presence. There has been limited academic research in this area, and most significantly concerning the types of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) for which blogs might have potential as a marketing tool. In an attempt to...

  18. Exploring the Potential of a German Living Lab Research Infrastructure for the Development of Low Resource Products and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus von Geibler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Living Labs for Sustainable Development aim to integrate users and actors for the successful generation of low-resource innovations in production-consumption systems. This paper investigates potentials of and measures towards the realization of a German Living Lab infrastructure to support actor-integrated sustainability research and innovations in Germany. Information was primarily derived from extensive dialog with experts from the fields of innovation, sustainable development and the Living Lab community (operators, users, etc., which was facilitated through interviews and workshops. A status quo analysis revealed that, generally, the sustainability and Living Lab communities are hardly intertwined. Twelve Living Labs that explicitly consider sustainability aspects were identified. The application fields “Living and Working”, “Town, Region and Mobility”, and “Retail and Gastronomy” were identified as particularly suitable for investigation in Living Labs and highly relevant in terms of resource efficiency. Based on the analyses of drivers and barriers and SWOT, keystones for the development of a research infrastructure for user integrated development of sustainable products and services were formulated. Suggested strategies and measures include targeted funding programs for actor-integrated, socio-technical research based on a Living Lab network, a communication campaign, and programs to foster networking and the inclusion of SMEs.

  19. Why and how to use virtual reality to study human social interaction: The challenges of exploring a new research landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xueni; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2018-03-05

    As virtual reality (VR) technology and systems become more commercially available and accessible, more and more psychologists are starting to integrate VR as part of their methods. This approach offers major advantages in experimental control, reproducibility, and ecological validity, but also has limitations and hidden pitfalls which may distract the novice user. This study aimed to guide the psychologist into the novel world of VR, reviewing available instrumentation and mapping the landscape of possible systems. We use examples of state-of-the-art research to describe challenges which research is now solving, including embodiment, uncanny valley, simulation sickness, presence, ethics, and experimental design. Finally, we propose that the biggest challenge for the field would be to build a fully interactive virtual human who can pass a VR Turing test - and that this could only be achieved if psychologists, VR technologists, and AI researchers work together. © 2018 The Authors British Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  20. Postsecondary study and mental ill-health: a meta-synthesis of qualitative research exploring students' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennals, Priscilla; Fossey, Ellie; Howie, Linsey

    2015-04-01

    The postsecondary educational experiences of students living with mental health issues are not well understood. Existing studies are generally qualitative, small and context-specific in nature, and individually have limited influence on policy and practice. To identify and synthesise the findings of qualitative studies exploring student views of studying while living with mental ill-health. A systematic search of six electronic databases including CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO and Medline up to March 2013 was conducted. Findings were extracted from included studies and combined using qualitative meta-synthesis to identify core processes. The search identified 16 studies from five countries, with a total of 231 participants. Meta-synthesis of the findings revealed three common core processes: (1) knowing oneself and managing one's mental illness, (2) negotiating the social space, and (3) doing the academic work required for successful postsecondary participation. Beyond the learning processes that underpin studying, these findings suggest knowing oneself and negotiating social spaces of educational settings are key processes for students living with mental ill-health seeking to survive and thrive in postsecondary education. With increased awareness of these processes, students and policy makers may conceive new ways to optimise student experiences of postsecondary study.

  1. Mortality from non-malignant respiratory diseases among people with silicosis in Hong Kong: exposure-response analyses for exposure to silica dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, L A; Yu, I T S; Leung, C C; Tam, W; Wong, T W

    2007-02-01

    To examine the exposure-response relationships between various indices of exposure to silica dust and the mortality from non-malignant respiratory diseases (NMRDs) or chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) among a cohort of workers with silicosis in Hong Kong. The concentrations of respirable silica dust were assigned to each industry and job task according to historical industrial hygiene measurements documented previously in Hong Kong. Exposure indices included cumulative dust exposure (CDE) and mean dust concentration (MDC). Penalised smoothing spline models were used as a preliminary step to detect outliers and guide further analyses. Multiple Cox's proportional hazard models were used to estimate the dust effects on the risk of mortality from NMRDs or COPDs after truncating the highest exposures. 371 of the 853 (43.49%) deaths occurring among 2789 workers with silicosis during 1981-99 were from NMRDs, and 101 (27.22%) NMRDs were COPDs. Multiple Cox's proportional hazard models showed that CDE (p = 0.009) and MDC (pcaisson workers and among those ever employed in other occupations with high exposure to silica dust. No exposure-response relationship was observed for surface construction workers with low exposures. A clear upward trend for both NMRDs and COPDs mortality was found with increasing severity of radiological silicosis. This study documented an exposure-response relationship between exposure to silica dust and the risk of death from NMRDs or COPDs among workers with silicosis, except for surface construction workers with low exposures. The risk of mortality from NMRDs increased significantly with the progression of International Labor Organization categories, independent of dust effects.

  2. Exploring the characteristics, global distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants: a literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Kamel, Mariam; Jin, Yanling; Xu, Michael Kuan; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Samaan, Zainab; Levine, Mitchell Ah; Thabane, Lehana

    2018-01-01

    Article retraction is a measure taken by journals or authors where there is evidence of research misconduct or error, redundancy, plagiarism or unethical research. Recently, the retraction of scientific publications has been on the rise. In this survey, we aimed to describe the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. We searched retracted articles on the PubMed database and Retraction Watch website from 1980 to February 2016. The primary outcomes were the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. The secondary outcomes included how article retractions were handled by journals and how to improve the journal practices toward article retractions. We included 1,339 retracted articles. Most retracted articles had six authors or fewer. Article retraction was most common in the USA (26%), Japan (11%) and Germany (10%). The main reasons for article retraction were misconduct (51%, n = 685) and error (14%, n = 193). There were 66% (n = 889) of retracted articles having male senior or corresponding authors. Of the articles retracted after August 2010, 63% (n = 567) retractions were reported on Retraction Watch. Large discrepancies were observed in the ways that different journals handled article retractions. For instance, articles were completely withdrawn from some journals, while in others, articles were still available with no indication of retraction. Likewise, some retraction notices included a detailed account of the events that led to article retraction, while others only consisted of a statement indicating the article retraction. The characteristics, geographic distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants were examined in this survey. More efforts are needed to improve the consistency and transparency of journal practices toward article retractions.

  3. The use of electronic communications in marketing activities - qualitative research -exploring the perceptions and attitudes of economic agents from Brasov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daj, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents, with the help of literature review and qualitative marketing research, the main aspects to be taken into account in order to ensure a more effective adaptation to the peculiarities of strategy formulation in the digital environment, and determines the main issues regarding the attitude of Romanian companies from Brasov toward the use of electronic communications in implementing digital marketing tools. The paper also identifies different behaviour patterns of decision-makers in terms of their strategic options in the implementation of digital marketing.

  4. Exploring the differences between pet and non-pet owners: Implications for human-animal interaction research and policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Saunders

    Full Text Available There is conflicting evidence about whether living with pets results in better mental and physical health outcomes, with the majority of the empirical research evidence being inconclusive due to methodological limitations. We briefly review the research evidence, including the hypothesized mechanisms through which pet ownership may influence health outcomes. This study examines how pet and non-pet owners differ across a variety of socio-demographic and health measures, which has implications for the proper interpretation of a large number of correlational studies that attempt to draw causal attributions. We use a large, population-based survey from California administered in 2003 (n = 42,044 and find that pet owners and non-pet owners differ across many traits, including gender, age, race/ethnicity, living arrangements, and income. We include a discussion about how the factors associated with the selection into the pet ownership group are related to a range of mental and physical health outcomes. Finally, we provide guidance on how to properly model the effects of pet ownership on health to accurately estimate this relationship in the general population.

  5. If you come from a well-known organisation, I will trust you: Exploring and understanding the community's attitudes towards healthcare research in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Sreymom; Fox-Lewis, Shivani; Neou, Leakhena; Parker, Michael; Kingori, Patricia; Turner, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    To explore Cambodian community members' understanding of and attitudes towards healthcare research. This qualitative study generated data from semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. This study was conducted at a non-governmental paediatric hospital and in nearby villages in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. A total of ten semi-structured interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted, involving 27 participants. Iterative data collection and analysis were performed concurrently. Data were analysed by thematic content analysis and the coding structure was developed using relevant literature. Participants did not have a clear understanding of what activities related to research compared with those for routine healthcare. Key attitudes towards research were responsibility and trust: personal (trust of the researcher directly) and institutional (trust of the institution as a whole). Villagers believe the village headman holds responsibility for community activities, while the village headman believes that this responsibility should be shared across all levels of the government system. It is essential for researchers to understand the structure and relationship within the community they wish to work with in order to develop trust among community participants. This aids effective communication and understanding among all parties, enabling high quality ethical research to be conducted.

  6. Recent advances in hopanoids analysis: Quantification protocols overview, main research targets and selected problems of complex data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Portka, Joanna K

    2015-09-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenoids, particularly hopanoids, are organism-specific compounds and are generally considered as useful biomarkers that allow fingerprinting and classification of biological, environmental and geological samples. Simultaneous quantification of various hopanoids together with battery of related non-polar and low-molecular mass compounds may provide principal information for geochemical and environmental research focusing on both modern and ancient investigations. Target compounds can be derived from microbial biomass, water columns, sediments, coals, crude fossils or rocks. This create number of analytical problems due to different composition of the analytical matrix and interfering compounds and therefore, proper optimization of quantification protocols for such biomarkers is still the challenge. In this work we summarizing typical analytical protocols that were recently applied for quantification of hopanoids like compounds from different samples. Main steps including components of interest extraction, pre-purification, fractionation, derivatization and quantification involving gas (1D and 2D) as well as liquid separation techniques (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, planar and low resolution column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography) are described and discussed from practical point of view, mainly based on the experimental papers that were published within last two years, where significant increase in hopanoids research was noticed. The second aim of this review is to describe the latest research trends concerning determination of hopanoids and related low-molecular mass lipids analyzed in various samples including sediments, rocks, coals, crude oils and plant fossils as well as stromatolites and microbial biomass cultivated under different conditions. It has been found that majority of the most recent papers are based on uni- or bivariate approach for complex data analysis. Data interpretation involves

  7. The VIPER project (Visualization Integration Platform for Exploration Research): a biologically inspired autonomous reconfigurable robotic platform for diverse unstructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Oliver J.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-09-01

    Over the last decade the world has seen numerous autonomous vehicle programs. Wheels and track designs are the basis for many of these vehicles. This is primarily due to four main reasons: a vast preexisting knowledge base for these designs, energy efficiency of power sources, scalability of actuators, and the lack of control systems technologies for handling alternate highly complex distributed systems. Though large efforts seek to improve the mobility of these vehicles, many limitations still exist for these systems within unstructured environments, e.g. limited mobility within industrial and nuclear accident sites where existing plant configurations have been extensively changed. These unstructured operational environments include missions for exploration, reconnaissance, and emergency recovery of objects within reconfigured or collapsed structures, e.g. bombed buildings. More importantly, these environments present a clear and present danger for direct human interactions during the initial phases of recovery operations. Clearly, the current classes of autonomous vehicles are incapable of performing in these environments. Thus the next generation of designs must include highly reconfigurable and flexible autonomous robotic platforms. This new breed of autonomous vehicles will be both highly flexible and environmentally adaptable. Presented in this paper is one of the most successful designs from nature, the snake-eel-worm (SEW). This design implements shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators which allow for scaling of the robotic SEW designs from sub-micron scale to heavy industrial implementations without major conceptual redesigns as required in traditional hydraulic, pneumatic, or motor driven systems. Autonomous vehicles based on the SEW design posses the ability to easily move between air based environments and fluid based environments with limited or no reconfiguration. Under a SEW designed vehicle, one not only achieves vastly improved maneuverability within a

  8. Etnografía virtual Virtual ethnography: exploring a methodological option for the research on virtual learning environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Cadavid Gloria María

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende esbozar algunas de las consideraciones metodológicas que hoy confluyen en el estudio de los ambientes virtuales, desde la opción etnográfica. De manera específica se quiere observar la forma en que, algunos investigadores han abordado el aspecto metodológico para estudiar los ambientes virtuales, líneas de evolución y posible contribución al conocimiento y mejoramiento de los procesos de e-learning. This article aims to outline some methodological considerations that merge together on the study of virtual learning environments, especially from the ethnographic perspective. Specifically, what we want to observe, is the way some researchers have approached the methodological aspect in order to study virtual learning environments, the evolution lines and the possible contribution they’ve made to knowledge and improvement of e-learning processes.

  9. Using three-phase theory-based formative research to explore healthy eating in Australian truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayro, Caitlin; Hamilton, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    In Australia, fruit and vegetable consumption is lower than recommended while discretionary foods (i.e., foods high in fat, sugar, and salt) are eaten in excess. Long-haul truck drivers are a group at risk of unhealthy eating but have received limited attention in the health literature. We aimed to examine long-haul truck drivers eating decisions in order to develop theory-based and empirically-driven health messages to improve their healthy food choices. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behavior, three-phased formative research was conducted using self-report surveys. Phase 1 (N = 30, Mage = 39.53, SDage = 10.72) identified modal salient beliefs about fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and limiting discretionary choices (DC). There were nine behavioral and seven normative beliefs elicited for both FV and DC; while nine and five control beliefs were elicited for FV and DC, respectively. Phase 2 (N = 148, Mage = 44.23, SDage = 12.08) adopted a prospective design with one week follow-up to examine the predictors of FV and DC intention and behavior. A variety of behavioral and control beliefs were predictive of FV and DC intention and behavior. Normative beliefs were predictive of FV intention and behavior and DC intention only. Phase 3 (N = 20, Mage = 46.9, SDage = 12.85) elicited the reasons why each belief is held/solutions to negative beliefs, that could be used as health messages. In total, 40 reasons/solutions were identified: 26 for FV and 14 for DC. In summary, we found that specific behavioral, normative and control beliefs influenced FV and DC eating decisions. These results have implications for truck driver's health and provide formative research to inform future interventions to improve the food choices of a unique group who are at risk of unhealthy eating behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  11. Exploring ethical conflicts in emergency trauma research: the COMBAT (Control of Major Bleeding after Trauma) study experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Theresa L; Moore, Ernest E; Coors, Marilyn E; Chandler, James G; Ghasabyan, Arsen; Harr, Jeffrey N; Stringham, John R; Ramos, Christopher R; Ammons, Sarah; Banerjee, Anirban; Sauaia, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Up to 25% of severely injured patients develop trauma-induced coagulopathy. To study interventions for this vulnerable population for whom consent cannot be obtained easily, the Food and Drug Administration issued regulations for emergency research with an exception from informed consent (ER-EIC). We describe the community consultation and public disclosure (CC/PD) process in preparation for an ER-EIC study, namely the Control Of Major Bleeding After Trauma (COMBAT) study. The CC/PD was guided by the four bioethical principles. We used a multimedia approach, including one-way communications (newspaper ads, brochures, television, radio, and web) and two-way communications (interactive in-person presentations at community meetings, printed and online feedback forms) to reach the trials catchment area (Denver County's population: 643,000 and the Denver larger metro area where commuters reside: 2.9 million). Particular attention was given to special-interests groups (eg, Jehovah Witnesses, homeless) and to Spanish-speaking communities (brochures and presentations in Spanish). Opt-out materials were available during on-site presentations or via the COMBAT study website. A total of 227 community organizations were contacted. Brochures were distributed to 11 medical clinics and 3 homeless shelters. The multimedia campaign had the potential to reach an estimated audience of 1.5 million individuals in large metro Denver area, the majority via one-way communication and 1900 in two-way communications. This resource intensive process cost more than $84,000. The CC/PD process is resource-intensive, costly, and complex. Although the multimedia CC/PD reached a large audience, the effectiveness of this process remains elusive. The templates can be helpful to similar ER-EIC studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Getting into the GROOVE: How Building Effective Education Partnerships and Promoting Authentic Student Research through the Girls' Remotely Operated Ocean Vehicle Exploration (GROOVE) Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Heesemann, M.; Hoeberechts, M.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation outlines the pilot year of Girls' Remotely Operated Ocean Vehicle Exploration or GROOVE, a hands-on learning program created collaboratively with education partners Ocean Networks Canada and St. Margaret's School (Victoria, BC, Canada). The program features student-led activities, authentic student experiences, clearly outlined learning outcomes, teacher and student self-assessment tools, and curriculum-aligned content. Presented through the lens of STEM, students build a modified Seaperch ROV and explore and research thematic scientific concepts such as buoyancy, electronic circuitry, and deep-sea exploration. Further, students learn engineering skills such as isotropic scaling, soldering, and assembly as they build their ROV. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. These include technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories and the ever-expanding network of community observatories in the Arctic and coastal British Columbia. These observatories, large and small, enable communities, users, scientists, teachers, and students to monitor real-time and historical data from the local marine environment from anywhere on the globe. GROOVE, Girls' Remotely Operated Ocean Vehicle Exploration, is ONC's newest educational program and is related to their foundational program K-12 Ocean Sense educational program. This presentation will share our experiences developing, refining, and assessing our efforts to implement GROOVE using a train-the-trainer model aimed at formal and informal K-12 educators. We will highlight lessons learned from multiple perspectives (students, participants, developers, and mentors) with the intent of informing future education and outreach initiatives.

  13. Development of new exploration tools for seabed mineral resources - Result of R/V YOKOSUKA research cruise YK09-09 -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, M.; Sayanagi, K.; Kasaya, T.; Sawa, T.; Goto, T.; Tada, N.; Ichihara, H.; Asada, M.; Nakajima, T.; Isezaki, N.

    2009-12-01

    Detailed information on subsurface structure under seafloor is necessary for the estimation of seabed resources such as the hydrothermal deposit and methane hydrate. Although advantages of geophysical exploration near seafloor are expected for the seabed resource survey, efficient method has not been well-established. The authors started a project to develop exploration tools for seabed resources under the financial support of MEXT-Japan. We carry out research and development mainly regarding measurement of the magnetic field with high-resolution and high-sampling rate electric exploration devices with accurately controlled active source signals. Developed tools will be mounted underwater platforms such as deep-tow system, ROV (remotely operated vehicle), and AUV (autonomous undersea vehicle). We carried out the research cruise (vessel: JAMSTEC R/V YOKOSUKA YK09-09, cruise period: 19-29 July 2009, area surveyed: Kumano-nada, off Kii Peninsula, Japan) to investigate the performance of developed equipments for magnetic exploration. We mounted an Overhauser and two flux-gate magnetometers on the deep-tow and the AUV URASHIMA. To inspect the efficiency of equipments, it is better to measure the magnetic anomaly which is caused by known magnetic source. Therefore, we made a magnetic target which is consisted of 50 neodymium magnets. Before the navigation, the magnetic target was put under water and its position was measured by the acoustic method. The depth of target is about 2,050 meters, and the measurement was performed in the circle of a radius of about 300 meters. The vehicles were navigated at heights of 25 meters for AUV, and about 15 meters for deep-tow. Each of underwater navigation was practiced for two times. Both performances were carried out successfully, which means that we detected the significant magnetic anomalies caused by the target. We will be able to estimate three-dimensional distribution of anomalous magnetic field, and the source property of

  14. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Samuel; Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6-60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  15. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Glass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N=92 entering care (age 6–60 months combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p=0.001 and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p=0.016 and disinhibited (p=0.004 attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1 overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2 maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  16. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute's education and public outreach program: Working toward a global 21st century space exploration society

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Thomson, William A.; Moreno, Nancy P.

    2011-05-01

    Space Exploration educators worldwide are confronting challenges and embracing opportunities to prepare students for the global 21st century workforce. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), established in 1997 through a NASA competition, is a 12-university consortium dedicated to space life science research and education. NSBRI's Education and Public Outreach Program (EPOP) is advancing the Institute's mission by responding to global educational challenges through activities that: provide teacher professional development; develop curricula that teach students to communicate with their peers across the globe; provide women and minority US populations with greater access to, and awareness of science careers; and promote international science education partnerships. A recent National Research Council (NRC) Space Studies Board Report, America's Future in Space: Aligning the Civil Program with National Needs, acknowledges that "a capable workforce for the 21st century is a key strategic objective for the US space program… (and that) US problems requiring best efforts to understand and resolve…are global in nature and must be addressed through mutual worldwide action". [1] This sentiment has gained new momentum through a recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) report, which recommends that the life of the International Space Station be extended beyond the planned 2016 termination. [2] The two principles of globalization and ISS utility have elevated NSBRI EPOP efforts to design and disseminate science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) educational materials that prepare students for full participation in a globalized, high technology society; promote and provide teacher professional development; create research opportunities for women and underserved populations; and build international educational partnerships. This paper describes select EPOP projects and makes the case for using innovative, emerging information

  17. Can digital stories go where palliative care research has never gone before? A descriptive qualitative study exploring the application of an emerging public health research method in an indigenous palliative care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa; Gott, Merryn; Moeke-Maxwell, Tess; Black, Stella; Kothari, Shuchi; Pearson, Sarina; Morgan, Tessa; Wharemate, Matua Rawiri; Hansen, Whaea Whio

    2017-09-04

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for global approaches to palliative care development. Yet it is questionable whether one-size-fits-all solutions can accommodate international disparities in palliative care need. More flexible research methods are called for in order to understand diverse priorities at local levels. This is especially imperative for Indigenous populations and other groups underrepresented in the palliative care evidence-base. Digital storytelling (DST) offers the potential to be one such method. Digital stories are short first-person videos that tell a story of great significance to the creator. The method has already found a place within public health research and has been described as a useful, emergent method for community-based participatory research. The aim of this study was to explore Māori participants' views on DST's usefulness, from an Indigenous perspective, as a research method within the discipline of palliative care. The digital storytelling method was adapted to include Māori cultural protocols. Data capturing participant experience of the study were collected using participant observation and anonymous questionnaires. Eight participants, seven women and one man, took part. Field notes and questionnaire data were analysed using critical thematic analysis. Two main themes were identified during analyses: 1) issues that facilitated digital storytelling's usefulness as a research method for Māori reporting on end of life caregiving; and 2) issues that hindered this process. All subthemes identified: recruitment, the pōwhiri process, (Māori formal welcome of visitors) and technology, related to both main themes and are presented in this way. Digital storytelling is an emerging method useful for exploring Indigenous palliative care issues. In line with a Health Promoting Palliative Care approach that centres research in communities, it helps meet the need for diverse approaches to involve underrepresented groups.

  18. HR Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1997-01-01

    At the European Laboratory for Particle Physics Research (CERN), Geneva Switzerland we are using OracleHR for managing our human resources since 1995. After the first year of production it became clear that there was a strong need for an easy-to-use Decision Support Tool exploring the data in OracleHR. This paper illustrates an approach which we have adopted to provide on-line management reporting, multi-dimensional analysis, drill-down and slicing & dicing of data, warehoused from OracleHR. The tool offers strong resource management and planning capabilities including career follow-up. The user management and security monitoring are implemented using the Oracle WebServer.

  19. Exploring perceived barriers, drivers, impacts and the need for evaluation of public involvement in health and social care research: a modified Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, D; Kirkham, J; Britten, N; Froggatt, K; Gradinger, F; Lobban, F; Popay, Jennie; Wyatt, K; Jacoby, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore areas of consensus and conflict in relation to perceived public involvement (PI) barriers and drivers, perceived impacts of PI and ways of evaluating PI approaches in health and social care research. Background Internationally and within the UK the recognition of potential benefits of PI in health and social care research is gathering momentum and PI is increasingly identified by organisations as a prerequisite for funding. However, there is relatively little examination of the impacts of PI and how those impacts might be measured. Design Mixed method, three-phase, modified Delphi technique, conducted as part of a larger MRC multiphase project. Sample Clinical and non-clinical academics, members of the public, research managers, commissioners and funders. Findings This study found high levels of consensus about the most important barriers and drivers to PI. There was acknowledgement that tokenism was common in relation to PI; and strong support for the view that demonstrating the impacts and value of PI was made more difficult by tokenistic practice. PI was seen as having intrinsic value; nonetheless, there was clear support for the importance of evaluating its impact. Research team cohesion and appropriate resources were considered essential to effective PI implementation. Panellists agreed that PI can be challenging, but can be facilitated by clear guidance, together with models of good practice and measurable standards. Conclusions This study is the first to present empirical evidence of the opinions voiced by key stakeholders on areas of consensus and conflict in relation to perceived PI barriers and drivers, perceived impacts of PI and the need to evaluate PI. As such it further contributes to debate around best practice in PI, the potential for tokenism and how best to evaluate the impacts of PI. These findings have been used in the development of the Public Involvement Impact Assessment Framework (PiiAF), an online resource which offers

  20. Development of a Comprehensive Plan for Scientific Research, Exploration, and Design: Creation of an Underground Radioactive Waste Isolation Facility at the Nizhnekansky Rock Massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L J

    2005-01-01

    ISTC Partner Project No.2377, ''Development of a General Research and Survey Plan to Create an Underground RW Isolation Facility in Nizhnekansky Massif'', funded a group of key Russian experts in geologic disposal, primarily at Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Design and Research Institute of Engineering Production (VNIPIPT) and Mining Chemical Combine Krasnoyarsk-26 (MCC K-26) (Reference 1). The activities under the ISTC Partner Project were targeted to the creation of an underground research laboratory which was to justify the acceptability of the geologic conditions for ultimate isolation of high-level waste in Russia. In parallel to this project work was also under way with Minatom's financial support to characterize alternative sections of the Nizhnekansky granitoid rock massif near the MCC K-26 site to justify the possibility of creating an underground facility for long-term or ultimate isolation of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). (Reference 2) The result was a synergistic, integrated set of activities several years that advanced the geologic repository site characterization and development of a proposed underground research laboratory better than could have been expected with only the limited funds from ISTC Partner Project No.2377 funded by the U.S. DOE-RW. There were four objectives of this ISTC Partner Project 2377 geologic disposal work: (1) Generalize and analyze all research work done previously at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif by various organizations; (2) Prepare and issue a declaration of intent (DOI) for proceeding with an underground research laboratory in a granite massif near the MCC K-26 site. (The DOI is similar to a Record of Decision in U.S. terminology). (3) Proceeding from the data obtained as a result of scientific research and exploration and design activities, prepare a justification of investment (JOI) for an underground research laboratory in as much detail as the available site characterization

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through collaborative learning and diverse fieldwork experiences, to ... brought together; creating a hospitable space that encourages trust; exploring questions that are ..... on mental health. Social Work Educ ... Patient Safety and Quality: An.

  2. Finding potentially new multimorbidity patterns of psychiatric and somatic diseases: exploring the use of literature-based discovery in primary care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Rein; Aarts, Sil; van Mulligen, Erik; Metsemakers, Job; van Boxtel, Martin P; Verhey, Frans; van den Akker, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of two or more chronic medical conditions within a single individual, is increasingly becoming part of daily care of general medical practice. Literature-based discovery may help to investigate the patterns of multimorbidity and to integrate medical knowledge for improving healthcare delivery for individuals with co-occurring chronic conditions. To explore the usefulness of literature-based discovery in primary care research through the key-case of finding associations between psychiatric and somatic diseases relevant to general practice in a large biomedical literature database (Medline). By using literature based discovery for matching disease profiles as vectors in a high-dimensional associative concept space, co-occurrences of a broad spectrum of chronic medical conditions were matched for their potential in biomedicine. An experimental setting was chosen in parallel with expert evaluations and expert meetings to assess performance and to generate targets for integrating literature-based discovery in multidisciplinary medical research of psychiatric and somatic disease associations. Through stepwise reductions a reference set of 21,945 disease combinations was generated, from which a set of 166 combinations between psychiatric and somatic diseases was selected and assessed by text mining and expert evaluation. Literature-based discovery tools generate specific patterns of associations between psychiatric and somatic diseases: one subset was appraised as promising for further research; the other subset surprised the experts, leading to intricate discussions and further eliciting of frameworks of biomedical knowledge. These frameworks enable us to specify targets for further developing and integrating literature-based discovery in multidisciplinary research of general practice, psychology and psychiatry, and epidemiology.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  4. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  5. Exploring the challenge of health research priority setting in partnership: reflections on the methodology used by the James Lind Alliance Pressure Ulcer Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Mary; Morley, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The James Lind Alliance (JLA) brings patients, carers and clinicians together in Priority Setting Partnerships (PSPs) to identify and prioritise shared uncertainties about the effects of treatment. The JLA emerged from the evidence-informed healthcare movement to address a concern that the research being carried out on treatment effectiveness is not that of most importance to patients and health professionals. In the JLA PSPs, 'hard' evidence-informed ideals meet 'soft' participatory practices. This article explores the challenges of putting co-production methods into practice by reflecting on the methods used by the JLA Pressure Ulcer PSP (JLAPUP). The JLA principles are transparency, inclusivity and avoiding waste in research. This means paying the same close critical attention to how PSPs are designed and run, as is desired in the health research which the JLA seeks to influence. JLAPUP showed that it was possible to work in partnership in a field where patients are often elderly, immobile, unrepresented and particularly unwell, many of whom are living with more than one long term condition. However, for those unfamiliar with it, 'uncertainty' was a difficult term to get to grips with. Also, it was harder for some people than others to take part and to have their voices heard and understood. In keeping with other PSPs, JLAPUP found that the nature and quality of research into pressure ulcer prevention and treatment did not reflect the priorities of those who took part. ᅟ. Studies identifying a mismatch between the priorities of academics and clinicians and those of people with direct experience of a health condition pose a challenge to the assumption that professional researchers can represent the interests of patients and the public in setting priorities for health research. The James Lind Alliance (JLA) brings patients, carers and clinicians together in Priority Setting Partnerships (PSPs) to identify and prioritise shared uncertainties about the effects of

  6. Exploration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  7. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  8. Exploring the Academic and Social Experiences of Latino Engineering Community College Transfer Students at a 4-Year Institution: A Qualitative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, LaTesha R.

    As the number of historically underrepresented populations transfer from community college to university to pursue baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), little research exists about the challenges and successes Latino students experience as they transition from 2-year colleges to 4-year universities. Thus, institutions of higher education have limited insight to inform their policies, practices, and strategic planning in developing effective sources of support, services, and programs for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. This qualitative research study explored the academic and social experiences of 14 Latino engineering community college transfer students at one university. Specifically, this study examined the lived experiences of minority community college transfer students' transition into and persistence at a 4-year institution. The conceptual framework applied to this study was Schlossberg's Transition Theory, which analyzed the participant's social and academic experiences that led to their successful transition from community college to university. Three themes emerged from the narrative data analysis: (a) Academic Experiences, (b) Social Experiences, and (c) Sources of Support. The findings indicate that engineering community college transfer students experience many challenges in their transition into and persistence at 4-year institutions. Some of the challenges include lack of academic preparedness, environmental challenges, lack of time management skills and faculty serving the role as institutional agents.

  9. Repository exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentz, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses exploration objectives and requirements for a nuclear repository in the U.S.A. The importance of designing the exploration program to meet the system performance objectives is emphasized and some examples of the extent of exploration required before the License Application for Construction Authorization is granted are also discussed

  10. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and its adverse health effects in central India: An exposure-response study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam D Sukhsohale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some of the highest exposures to air pollutants in developing countries occur inside homes where biofuels are used for daily cooking. Inhalation of these pollutants may cause deleterious effects on health. Objectives: To assess the respiratory and other morbidities associated with use of various types of cooking fuels in rural area of Nagpur and to study the relationship between the duration of exposure (exposure index [EI] and various morbidities. Materials and Methods: A total of 760 non-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 15 years and above (mean age 32.51 ΁ 14.90 years exposed to domestic smoke from cooking fuels from an early age, working in poorly ventilated kitchen were selected and on examination presented with various health problems. Exposure was calculated as the average hours spent daily for cooking multiplied by the number of years. Symptoms were enquired by means of a standard questionnaire adopted from that of the British Medical Research Council. Lung function was assessed by the measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. PEFR less than 80% of the predicted was considered as abnormal pulmonary function. Results and Conclusions: Symptoms like eye irritation, headache, and diminution of vision were found to be significantly higher in biomass users (P < 0.05. Abnormal pulmonary function, chronic bronchitis, and cataract in biomass users was significantly higher than other fuel users (P < 0.05. Moreover an increasing trend in prevalence of symptoms/morbid conditions was observed with increase in EI. The presence of respiratory symptoms/morbid conditions was associated with lower values of both observed and percent predicted PEFR (P < 0.05 to 0.001. Thus women exposed to biofuels smoke suffer more from health problems and respiratory illnesses when compared with other fuel users.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  13. Verification survey of geothermal exploration technology, etc. Report on the result of the developmental research on the development of the fracture type reservoir exploration method; Chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Danretsugata choryuso tansaho kaihatsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika sokatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of grasping fracture groups forming geothermal reservoirs with accuracy, the development of the fracture type reservoir exploration method has advanced the technical development of exploration methods of seismic wave use, electromagnetic induction use, and micro-earthquake use. This paper summarized main results of the development and problems to be solved in the future. In the development of the seismic wave use exploration method, the high accuracy reflection method using seismic wave, VSP and seismic tomography were adopted to the geothermal field, and technology effective for the exploration of fracture type reservoirs was developed. In the development of the electromagnetic induction use exploration method, the array CSMT method which can measure multiple stations along the traverse line at the same time was developed with the aim of grasping effectively and accurately fracture groups forming geothermal reservoirs as changes of resistivity in the shallow-deep underground. In the fracture group forming geothermal reservoirs, micro-earthquakes are generated by movement of thermal water and pressure variations. In the development of the micro-earthquake use exploration method, developed was the micro-earthquake data processing and analysis system (MEPAS). 179 refs., 117 figs., 28 tabs.

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were obtained from Seo et al.'s[12] study. The focal areas included questions exploring patients' awareness and perceptions of the role of Mekelle University Hospital as a medical training facility; their perceptions of the discussions during bedside teaching about their illness and the presence of students around them; their ...

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-20

    Jan 20, 2014 ... Traditional leaders (32.2%) and elders (46.7%) were the main people responsible ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). ... mother and child the 4th and 5th goals to stress the importance and ..... makers at all the 3 tiers of government should endeavor to explore.

  16. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  17. Exploring the economic and social effects of care dependence in later life: protocol for the 10/66 research group INDEP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayston, Rosie; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Ezeah, Peter; Gallardo, Sara; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Guerchet, Maëlenn; Liu, Zhaorui; Sanchez, Maria; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Prince, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    In low or middle income countries chronic diseases are rapidly becoming the main cause of disease burden. However, the main focus of health policymakers has been on preventing death from cancer and heart disease, with very little attention to the growing problem of long-term needs for care (dependence). Numbers of dependent older people are set to quadruple by 2050. The economic impact of providing long-term care is likely to be substantial. The study uses mixed methods and draws on and extends the population-based surveys conducted by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. We focus on two countries in Latin America (Peru and Mexico), China and Nigeria. The surveys comprised baseline surveys of health, socioeconomic circumstances and care arrangements, repeated three to four years later. We are going back to these households to make a detailed assessment of the overall economic status and the use of health services by all family members. We will compare households where: a) an older resident became dependent between baseline and follow-up (incident care), b) one or more older people were dependent at both time points (chronic care), b) c) no older residents had needs for care (control households) for household income, consumption, healthcare expenditure and economic strain. In each of the four countries we are carrying out six detailed household 'case studies' to explore in more depth the economic impacts of dependence, and the social relations between household members and others in their network. The INDEP study will provide a detailed examination of the economic and social effects of care dependence in low and middle income settings. As the proportion of older people with needs for care rises rapidly in these countries, this neglected policy area is likely to become increasingly salient for families, communities and policymakers alike. Our detailed multilevel plans for dissemination will ensure that the study helps to put this important issue on the agenda for the

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    18 avr. 2011 ... La mesure de la satisfaction des patients se fait généralement à l'aide d'un questionnaire qui explore ses multiples dimensions. A chaque enquête correspond un ..... n'ont pas concerné le séjour uniquement (planning des examens paracliniques, effets secondaires des médicaments pris…) mais aussi les.

  19. Exploring the experiences and implementing strategies for physiotherapy students who perceive they have been bullied or harassed on clinical placements: participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Di; Patterson, David; Chapman, Hannah; Murray, Louise; Toner, Maeve; Hassenkamp, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-01

    To explore and empower physiotherapy students who reported being bullied or harassed on clinical placements by co-developing, implementing and evaluating strategies that could be adopted by the university. A participatory action research design was employed. Two focus groups were carried out involving 5 final year physiotherapy students. In the first focus group negative experiences were discussed and coping strategies suggested for their penultimate placement. A second focus group was held following the students' final placement when these strategies were evaluated and further ones proposed. A thematic analysis of the data was carried out. Four themes and sub-themes emerged from the analysis. The four themes were negative experiences on placement, coping strategies, the role of the visiting tutor and the assessment. The students' highlighted various degrees of threat to their efficacy and in most cases could draw upon a suggested 'tool box' of coping strategies. They all agreed that serious cases of harassment require wider support from the University senior management team which should be clearly documented. The role of the visiting tutor was deemed to be critical in these situations and recommendations were made regarding this role and the assessment of placements. Students understand that they are going to be assessed before achieving their professional qualification and in essence they will always find themselves in a hierarchical position but equally fairness must prevail and it is important and that there are clear avenues for them to seek support. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vive la radiorésistance!: converging research in radiobiology and biogerontology to enhance human radioresistance for deep space exploration and colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Franco; Klokov, Dmitry; Osipov, Andreyan; Stefaniak, Jakub; Moskalev, Alexey; Schastnaya, Jane; Cantor, Charles; Aliper, Alexander; Mamoshina, Polina; Ushakov, Igor; Sapetsky, Alex; Vanhaelen, Quentin; Alchinova, Irina; Karganov, Mikhail; Kovalchuk, Olga; Wilkins, Ruth; Shtemberg, Andrey; Moreels, Marjan; Baatout, Sarah; Izumchenko, Evgeny; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Artemov, Artem V.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Beheshti, Afshin; Mao, Xiao Wen; Pecaut, Michael J.; Kaminskiy, Dmitry; Ozerov, Ivan V.; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2018-01-01

    While many efforts have been made to pave the way toward human space colonization, little consideration has been given to the methods of protecting spacefarers against harsh cosmic and local radioactive environments and the high costs associated with protection from the deleterious physiological effects of exposure to high-Linear energy transfer (high-LET) radiation. Herein, we lay the foundations of a roadmap toward enhancing human radioresistance for the purposes of deep space colonization and exploration. We outline future research directions toward the goal of enhancing human radioresistance, including upregulation of endogenous repair and radioprotective mechanisms, possible leeways into gene therapy in order to enhance radioresistance via the translation of exogenous and engineered DNA repair and radioprotective mechanisms, the substitution of organic molecules with fortified isoforms, and methods of slowing metabolic activity while preserving cognitive function. We conclude by presenting the known associations between radioresistance and longevity, and articulating the position that enhancing human radioresistance is likely to extend the healthspan of human spacefarers as well. PMID:29581875

  1. Research on uranium and thorium elements exploration through the study of petrography, petrology and geophysical method in the Saghand Area (Central Iran) Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranmanesh, J.; Fattahi, V.; Raziani, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study is a research on uranium and thorium exploration by use of the petrography, petrology and radiometric data in the Saghand area, Central Iran plateau. The lithologies of this area comprise of granite and metasomatized granite. As a result of metasomatic process, uranium and thorium bearing minerals such as davidite and alanite were formed. Sericitization and albitization are the main alterations detected in the study area and thorium mineralization is more common in albitization. By investigation of the chemical classification, non-radioactive specimens, rock types include: diorite and granodiorite, while radioactive specimens consist of gabbroic rocks (basalt). According to the magma source graphs, these rocks formed by calc-alkaline series magma. A scintillometer and spectrometer (MGS-150) were used for radiometric data acquisition. 1001 data points have been obtained from 11 profiles and total counts for, K, U, Th were measured. After primary data processing, data logarithms were calculated for normalizing, and the radiometric data show that uranium and thorium enrichment is more than potassium, while thorium and uranium enrichment are approximately equal. After data integration, two probable anomalies were determined in northwest and northeast parts of the study area. (author)

  2. Exploring Seafloor Volcanoes in Cyberspace: NOAA's "Ocean Explorer" Inspires Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Seafloor exploration being done by scientists is an ideal way to introduce students to technology as a tool for inquiry. The same technology that allows scientists to share data in near real time can also provide students the tools to become researchers. NOAA's Ocean Explorer Explorations website is a rich research data bank that can be used by…

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  6. Assessment of health and economic effects by PM2.5 pollution in Beijing: a combined exposure-response and computable general equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guizhi; Gu, SaiJu; Chen, Jibo; Wu, Xianhua; Yu, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of the health and economic impacts of PM2.5 pollution is of great importance for urban air pollution prevention and control. In this study, we evaluate the damage of PM2.5 pollution using Beijing as an example. First, we use exposure-response functions to estimate the adverse health effects due to PM2.5 pollution. Then, the corresponding labour loss and excess medical expenditure are computed as two conducting variables. Finally, different from the conventional valuation methods, this paper introduces the two conducting variables into the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts on sectors and the whole economic system caused by PM2.5 pollution. The results show that, substantial health effects of the residents in Beijing from PM2.5 pollution occurred in 2013, including 20,043 premature deaths and about one million other related medical cases. Correspondingly, using the 2010 social accounting data, Beijing gross domestic product loss due to the health impact of PM2.5 pollution is estimated as 1286.97 (95% CI: 488.58-1936.33) million RMB. This demonstrates that PM2.5 pollution not only has adverse health effects, but also brings huge economic loss.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  12. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  14. Exploring levers and barriers to accessing primary care for marginalised groups and identifying their priorities for primary care provision: a participatory learning and action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick; Tierney, Edel; O'Carroll, Austin; Nurse, Diane; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-12-03

    The involvement of patients and the public in healthcare has grown significantly in recent decades and is documented in health policy documents internationally. Many benefits of involving these groups in primary care planning have been reported. However, these benefits are rarely felt by those considered marginalised in society and they are often excluded from participating in the process of planning primary care. It has been recommended to employ suitable approaches, such as co-operative and participatory initiatives, to enable marginalised groups to highlight their priorities for care. This Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research study involved 21 members of various marginalised groups who contributed their views about access to primary care. Using a series of PLA techniques for data generation and co-analysis, we explored barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access from the perspective of migrants, Irish Travellers, homeless people, drug users, sex workers and people living in deprivation, and identified their priorities for action with regard to primary care provision. Four overarching themes were identified: the home environment, the effects of the 'two-tier' healthcare system on engagement, healthcare encounters, and the complex health needs of many in those groups. The study demonstrates that there are many complicated personal and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare for marginalised groups. There were shared and differential experiences across the groups. Participants also expressed shared priorities for action in the planning and running of primary care services. Members of marginalised groups have shared priorities for action to improve their access to primary care. If steps are taken to address these, there is scope to impact on more than one marginalised group and to address the existing health inequities.

  15. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: testing a novelty detection algorithm on two mobile exploration systems at Rivas Vaciamadrid in Spain and at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, P. C.; Gross, C.; Wendt, L.; Bonnici, A.; Souza-Egipsy, V.; Ormö, J.; Díaz-Martínez, E.; Foing, B. H.; Bose, R.; Walter, S.; Oesker, M.; Ontrup, J.; Haschke, R.; Ritter, H.

    2010-01-01

    In previous work, a platform was developed for testing computer-vision algorithms for robotic planetary exploration. This platform consisted of a digital video camera connected to a wearable computer for real-time processing of images at geological and astrobiological field sites. The real-time processing included image segmentation and the generation of interest points based upon uncommonness in the segmentation maps. Also in previous work, this platform for testing computer-vision algorithms has been ported to a more ergonomic alternative platform, consisting of a phone camera connected via the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) network to a remote-server computer. The wearable-computer platform has been tested at geological and astrobiological field sites in Spain (Rivas Vaciamadrid and Riba de Santiuste), and the phone camera has been tested at a geological field site in Malta. In this work, we (i) apply a Hopfield neural-network algorithm for novelty detection based upon colour, (ii) integrate a field-capable digital microscope on the wearable computer platform, (iii) test this novelty detection with the digital microscope at Rivas Vaciamadrid, (iv) develop a Bluetooth communication mode for the phone-camera platform, in order to allow access to a mobile processing computer at the field sites, and (v) test the novelty detection on the Bluetooth-enabled phone camera connected to a netbook computer at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. This systems engineering and field testing have together allowed us to develop a real-time computer-vision system that is capable, for example, of identifying lichens as novel within a series of images acquired in semi-arid desert environments. We acquired sequences of images of geologic outcrops in Utah and Spain consisting of various rock types and colours to test this algorithm. The algorithm robustly recognized previously observed units by their colour, while requiring only a single image or a few images to

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  10. A class of non-linear exposure-response models suitable for health impact assessment applicable to large cohort studies of ambient air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasari, Masoud M; Szyszkowicz, Mieczysław; Chen, Hong; Crouse, Daniel; Turner, Michelle C; Jerrett, Michael; Pope, C Arden; Hubbell, Bryan; Fann, Neal; Cohen, Aaron; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stieb, David; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Kim, Sun-Young; Olives, Casey; Krewski, Daniel; Burnett, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of regulatory actions designed to improve air quality is often assessed by predicting changes in public health resulting from their implementation. Risk of premature mortality from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is the single most important contributor to such assessments and is estimated from observational studies generally assuming a log-linear, no-threshold association between ambient concentrations and death. There has been only limited assessment of this assumption in part because of a lack of methods to estimate the shape of the exposure-response function in very large study populations. In this paper, we propose a new class of variable coefficient risk functions capable of capturing a variety of potentially non-linear associations which are suitable for health impact assessment. We construct the class by defining transformations of concentration as the product of either a linear or log-linear function of concentration multiplied by a logistic weighting function. These risk functions can be estimated using hazard regression survival models with currently available computer software and can accommodate large population-based cohorts which are increasingly being used for this purpose. We illustrate our modeling approach with two large cohort studies of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollution and mortality: the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS II) cohort and the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC). We then estimate the number of deaths attributable to changes in fine particulate matter concentrations over the 2000 to 2010 time period in both Canada and the USA using both linear and non-linear hazard function models.

  11. AtlanticCanyons2011: Exploration and Research of Mid-Atlantic Deepwater hard Bottom Habitats and Shipwrecks with Emphasis on Canyons and Coral Communities between 20110604 and 20110617

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an interagency study that focuses on the exploration and investigation of deepwater hard bottom biological communities located in the northwest Atlantic...

  12. Exposure-Response Relationship for Ombitasvir and Paritaprevir/Ritonavir in Hepatitis C Virus Subgenotype 1b-Infected Japanese Patients in the Phase 3 Randomized GIFT-I Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sathej; Khatri, Amit; Mensing, Sven; Redman, Rebecca; Menon, Rajeev; Zha, Jiuhong

    2016-04-01

    The all-oral 2 direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir 25/150/100 mg once a day has been evaluated in hepatitis C virus subgenotype 1b-infected Japanese adults in the GIFT-I study. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate potential relationships between DAA exposures and laboratory abnormalities/adverse events of peripheral edema in patients in GIFT-I. The GIFT-I study consisted of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled substudy in patients without cirrhosis and an open-label substudy in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Patients received ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir for 12 weeks. Exposure-response relationships between individual components of the ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir regimen and clinical parameters of interest were explored using pharmacokinetic and clinical data from patients in the study. Graphical analyses were performed. For events that occurred in at least 10 patients (total bilirubin elevation ≥grade 2 and peripheral edema ≥grade 1), multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify significant relationships between predictor variables (drug exposures) and response variables (probability of adverse events or laboratory abnormalities), with consideration for the effect of potential covariates and baseline status of response variables. Data from 321 noncirrhotic and 42 compensated cirrhotic patients were analyzed. There were 14 events of peripheral edema (10 at grade 1 and 4 at grade 2) in patients who received concomitant administration of calcium channel blockers and ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir. There was no apparent relationship between the incidences of peripheral edema and exposures of paritaprevir, ombitasvir, or ritonavir. There was a shallow relationship between total bilirubin elevation and exposures of paritaprevir which is an inhibitor of bilirubin transporter organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B. Based on graphical analyses, exposures of paritaprevir

  13. Farside explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mimoun, David; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Alkalai, Leon

    2012-01-01

    the primary differentiation and evolution of the Moon, it can be continuously monitored from the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point, and there is a complete lack of reflected solar illumination from the Earth. Farside Explorer will exploit these properties and make the first radio-astronomy measurements from...... the most radio-quiet region of near-Earth space, determine the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, from crust to core, and quantify impact hazards in near-Earth space by the measurement of flashes generated by impact events. The Farside Explorer flight system includes two identical solar......Farside Explorer is a proposed Cosmic Vision medium-size mission to the farside of the Moon consisting of two landers and an instrumented relay satellite. The farside of the Moon is a unique scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference, it recorded...

  14. Wet and Wild: A Multidisciplinary Marine Education Teacher Guide, Grades K-6. Unit III. Research: Innerspace Explorers = Humedo y Salvaje. Tercera Unidad. La Investigacion Cientifica: Exploradores del Espacio Interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard C.

    Topics and activities related to oceanographic research (innerspace exploration) are the focus of this multidisciplinary, marine education teaching guide for students in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into six sections (labeled A through F). The first five sections consist of various kinds of activities, with the appropriate…

  15. Uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Voto, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the methodology and technology that are currently being used in varying degrees in uranium exploration activities worldwide. Since uranium is ubiquitous and occurs in trace amounts (0.2 to 5 ppm) in virtually all rocks of the crust of the earth, exploration for uranium is essentially the search of geologic environments in which geologic processes have produced unusual concentrations of uranium. Since the level of concentration of uranium of economic interest is dependent on the present and future price of uranium, it is appropriate here to review briefly the economic realities of uranium-fueled power generation. (author)

  16. MBN Explorer Users' Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Sushko, Gennady; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    The MBN Explorer Users' Guide describes how to install and to run MBN Explorer, the software package for advanced multiscale simulations of complex molecular structure and dynamics. This guide includes the description of the main features and the algorithms of the program, the manual how to use...... simulations of structure and dynamics of a broad range of systems with the sizes from the atomic up to the mesoscopic scales. MBN Explorer is being developed and distributed by MBN Research Center, www.mbnresearch.com, which organises hands-on tutorials for the software, user's workshops and conferences....

  17. College Explorer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, David H.

    1985-01-01

    The "College Explorer" is a software package (for the 64K Apple II, IBM PC, TRS-80 model III and 4 microcomputers) which aids in choosing a college. The major features of this package (manufactured by The College Board) are described and evaluated. Sample input/output is included. (JN)

  18. Exploring Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  19. Exploring the experiences of substitute decision-makers with an exception to consent in a paediatric resuscitation randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a qualitative research study

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Melissa J; de Laat, Sonya; Schwartz, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prospective informed consent is required for most research involving human participants; however, this is impracticable under some circumstances. The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) outlines the requirements for research involving human participants in Canada. The need for an exception to consent (deferred consent) is recognised and endorsed in the TCPS for research in individual medical emergencies; however, little is known abou...

  20. Exploring academics' views on designs, methods, characteristics and outcomes of inclusive health research with people with intellectual disabilities: a modified Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, T K; Naaldenberg, J; Cardol, M; Meijering, J V; Leusink, G; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H M J

    2016-01-01

    Background The British Medical Journal's (BMJ's) patient revolution strives for collaboration with patients in healthcare and health research. This paper studies collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in health research, also known as inclusive health research. Currently, transparency and agreement among academics is lacking regarding its main aspects, preventing upscaling of the patient revolution. Objective This study aims to gain agreement among academics on 3 aspects of inclusive health research for people with ID: (1) designs and methods, (2) most important characteristics and (3) outcomes. Design A Delphi study was conducted with academics with experience in inclusive (health) research and on people with ID. The study consisted of 2 sequential questionnaire rounds (n=24; n=17), followed by in-depth interviews (n=10). Results Academics agreed on (1) a collaborative approach to be most suitable to inclusive health research, (2) characteristics regarding the accessibility and facilitation of inclusive health research, and (3) several outcomes of inclusive health research for people with ID and healthcare. Other characteristics agreed on included: atmosphere, relationship, engagement, partnership and power. It was stressed that these characteristics ensure meaningful inclusion. Interviewed academics voiced the need for a tool supporting the facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. There was ambiguity as to what this tool should comprise and the extent to which it was possible to capture the complex process of inclusive health research. Discussion and conclusions This study underlines the need for transparency, facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. The need for in-depth interviews after 2 Delphi rounds underlines its complexity and context dependence. To increase process transparency, future research should focus on gaining insight into inclusive health research in its context. A tool could be developed

  1. Estimation of the statistical distribution of faulting in selected areas and the design of an exploration model to detect these faults. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.P.

    1977-11-01

    Selected sites in the United States have been analyzed geomathematically as a part of the technical support program to develop site suitability criteria for High Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) repositories. Using published geological maps and other information, statistical evaluations of the fault patterns and other significant geological features have been completed for 16 selected localities. The observed frequency patterns were compared to theoretical patterns in order to obtain a predictive model for faults at each location. In general, the patterns approximate an exponential distribution function with the exception of Edinburgh, Scotland--the control area. The fault pattern of rocks at Edinburgh closely approximate a negative binominal frequency distribution. The range of fault occurrences encountered during the investigation varied from a low of 0.15 to a high of 10 faults per square mile. Faulting is only one factor in the overall geological evaluation of HLW sites. A general exploration program plan to aid in investigating HLW respository sites has been completed using standard mineral exploration techniques. For the preliminary examination of the suitability of potential sites, present economic conditions indicate the scanning and reconnaissance exploration stages will cost approximately $1,000,000. These would proceed in a logical sequence so that the site selected optimizes the geological factors. The reconnaissance stage of mineral exploration normally utilizes ''saturation geophysics'' to obtain complete geological information. This approach is recommended in the preliminary HLW site investigation process as the most economical and rewarding. Exploration games have been designed for potential sites in the eastern and the western U.S. The game matrix approach is recommended as a suitable technique for the allocation of resources in a search problem during this preliminary phase

  2. Exploring quadrangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Barton, Michael; Jiang, Caigui; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Here we presented a framework to explore quad mesh topologies. The core of our work is a systematic enumeration algorithm that can generate all possible quadrangular meshes inside a defined boundary with an upper limit of v3-v5 pairs. The algorithm is orders of magnitude more efficient than previous work. The combination of topological enumeration and shape-space exploration demonstrates that mesh topology has a powerful influence on geometry. The Fig. 18. A gallery of different quadrilateral meshes for a Shuriken. The quadrilaterals of the model were colored in a postprocess. Topological variations have distinctive, interesting patterns of mesh lines. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  3. Exploring quadrangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-02-04

    Here we presented a framework to explore quad mesh topologies. The core of our work is a systematic enumeration algorithm that can generate all possible quadrangular meshes inside a defined boundary with an upper limit of v3-v5 pairs. The algorithm is orders of magnitude more efficient than previous work. The combination of topological enumeration and shape-space exploration demonstrates that mesh topology has a powerful influence on geometry. The Fig. 18. A gallery of different quadrilateral meshes for a Shuriken. The quadrilaterals of the model were colored in a postprocess. Topological variations have distinctive, interesting patterns of mesh lines. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  4. Explorative Faktorenanalyse

    OpenAIRE

    Klopp, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Die explorative Faktorenanalyse (EFA) ist ein Verfahren aus der multivariaten Statistik. Mithilfe der Faktorenanalyse kann aus den Beobachtungen vieler manifester Variablen (z .B Items eines Fragebogens) auf wenige zugrunde liegende latente Variablen, die Faktoren genannt werden, geschlossen werden. Eine EFA führt zu einer Reduktion der Variablen auf wenige, den manifesten Variablen zugrunde liegende Faktoren. Der folgende Text gibt einen Überblick über die Grundlagen der EFA sowie der wichti...

  5. Research vessels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    The role of the research vessels as a tool for marine research and exploration is very important. Technical requirements of a suitable vessel and the laboratories needed on board are discussed. The history and the research work carried out...

  6. Actor-Network Theory as a sociotechnical lens to explore the relationship of nurses and technology in practice: methodological considerations for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard G; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Donelle, Lorie; Compeau, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Actor-Network Theory is a research lens that has gained popularity in the nursing and health sciences domains. The perspective allows a researcher to describe the interaction of actors (both human and non-human) within networked sociomaterial contexts, including complex practice environments where nurses and health technology operate. This study will describe Actor-Network Theory and provide methodological considerations for researchers who are interested in using this sociotechnical lens within nursing and informatics-related research. Considerations related to technology conceptualization, levels of analysis, and sampling procedures in Actor-Network Theory based research are addressed. Finally, implications for future nursing research within complex environments are highlighted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Review of current research, problems and future trends with regard to geochemical techniques for uranium exploration and recent developments in radon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The review deals with the need for knowledge of uranium geology and exploration techniques. The review mainly focuses on radon techniques and closely related aspects. The use of radon as a prospecting tool is primarily based on the fact that it is an inert gas, and threfore, has the ability to migrate through cracks and porous media. The methods used in radon prospecting are based on the detection of α or γ-radon produced during the radioactive decay of Rn and/or Rn decay daughter isotopes. The methods can be described as either active or passive. The active methods involve pumping of soil gas from a narrow hole drilled in the ground and suitably covered, into or through a detector instrument, whereas the passive methods register Rn concentrations in the ground under natural conditions. In uranium exploration the aim is to distinguish areas with enhanced radon concentrations in relation to background levels

  8. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling for Planetary Analogue Research (FELDSPAR): Variability and Correlation in Biomarker and Mineralogy Measurements from Icelandic Mars Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z.; Jacobsen, M.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    In situ exploration of planetary environments allows biochemical analysis of sub-centimeter-scale samples; however, landing sites are selected a priori based on measurable meter- to kilometer-scale geological features. Optimizing life detection mission science return requires both understanding the expected biomarker distributions across sample sites at different scales and efficiently using first-stage in situ geochemical instruments to justify later-stage biological or chemical analysis. Icelandic volcanic regions have an extensive history as Mars analogue sites due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, and temperature extremes, in addition to the advantages of geological youth and isolation from anthropogenic contamination. Many Icelandic analogue sites are also rugged and remote enough to create the same type of instrumentation and sampling constraints typically faced by robotic exploration.

  9. Exploring academics' views on designs, methods, characteristics and outcomes of inclusive health research with people with intellectual disabilities: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, T K; Naaldenberg, J; Cardol, M; Meijering, J V; Leusink, G; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H M J

    2016-08-18

    The British Medical Journal's (BMJ's) patient revolution strives for collaboration with patients in healthcare and health research. This paper studies collaboration with people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in health research, also known as inclusive health research. Currently, transparency and agreement among academics is lacking regarding its main aspects, preventing upscaling of the patient revolution. This study aims to gain agreement among academics on 3 aspects of inclusive health research for people with ID: (1) designs and methods, (2) most important characteristics and (3) outcomes. A Delphi study was conducted with academics with experience in inclusive (health) research and on people with ID. The study consisted of 2 sequential questionnaire rounds (n=24; n=17), followed by in-depth interviews (n=10). Academics agreed on (1) a collaborative approach to be most suitable to inclusive health research, (2) characteristics regarding the accessibility and facilitation of inclusive health research, and (3) several outcomes of inclusive health research for people with ID and healthcare. Other characteristics agreed on included: atmosphere, relationship, engagement, partnership and power. It was stressed that these characteristics ensure meaningful inclusion. Interviewed academics voiced the need for a tool supporting the facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. There was ambiguity as to what this tool should comprise and the extent to which it was possible to capture the complex process of inclusive health research. This study underlines the need for transparency, facilitation and evaluation of inclusive health research. The need for in-depth interviews after 2 Delphi rounds underlines its complexity and context dependence. To increase process transparency, future research should focus on gaining insight into inclusive health research in its context. A tool could be developed to facilitate and evaluate inclusive health research. This tool

  10. Holidays for Children and Families in Need: An Exploration of the Research and Policy Context for Social Tourism in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Although provision of holidays for families in need has been mainstreamed within the social care policies of many countries in the rest of Europe, "social tourism" has yet to be adopted in the United Kingdom. This article reports on a scoping study of research and policy in this area. While there is limited robust research on the impact…

  11. Exploring social inclusion strategies for public health research and practice: The use of participatory visual methods to counter stigmas surrounding street-based substance abuse in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterbusch, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the participatory visual research design and findings from a qualitative assessment of the social impact of bazuco and inhalant/glue consumption among street youth in Bogotá, Colombia. The paper presents the visual methodologies our participatory action research (PAR) team employed in order to identify and overcome the stigmas and discrimination that street youth experience in society and within state-sponsored drug rehabilitation programmes. I call for critical reflection regarding the broad application of the terms 'participation' and 'participatory' in visual research and urge scholars and public health practitioners to consider the transformative potential of PAR for both the research and practice of global public health in general and rehabilitation programmes for street-based substance abuse in Colombia in particular. The paper concludes with recommendations as to how participatory visual methods can be used to promote social inclusion practices and to work against stigma and discrimination in health-related research and within health institutions.

  12. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  13. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  14. Exploring heroin consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Franz; Frijns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore some aspects of heroin consumption, using the data we collected through the face-to-face interviews and comparing our findings with data from other research and monitoring sources. We focus on Italy, the Netherlands and England, the three sample Member States where we have

  15. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  16. New Explorations in the Field of Leadership Research: A Walk on the Dark Side of Personality & Implications for Leadership (In)Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benson, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    ... positives. The increasing number of corporate scandals, ethical breaches, and failed organizations suggests that we have neglected a very important and fruitful side of leadership research -- the dark side...

  17. Exploring the Benefits of a Collaborative Inquiry Team in Education (CITE Initiative to Develop a Research Community and Enhance Student Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Cantalini-Williams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined a collaborative inquiry process, facilitated by university faculty in an elementary school, intended to develop a research community, foster knowledge mobilization, and enhance student engagement. The Collaborative Inquiry Team in Education (CITE initiative consisted of five school-based sessions that included videos, discussions, and the completion of a research action plan. Data collection and analysis involved sessions’ transcripts, feedback from participants, documents such as brainstorming charts, and student artifacts. Findings indicate that the collaborative inquiry process with enablers of time, flexibility, and support from university faculty increased educators’ research acumen and student engagement in classrooms. The CITE initiative is an effective example of applied education research and knowledge mobilization with the inclusion of faculty and technological support, innovative resources, and the co-construction of new understandings.

  18. Exploration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcgill, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with determining the economic viability of the play or prospect. At the outset, one point is important. Preexploration economists are important because they enable geologists to see if their assumptions will prove profitable. Their assumptions must consider the full range of possible outcomes, even if only some portion of that range may contain prospects or plays that are estimated to be profitable. Play economics are preferable to prospect economics because, being the sum of several prospects, they give a broader view of the investment opportunity. Finally, remember that play and prospect economics are always slightly optimistic. They seldom include all of the exploration and overhead changes that must ultimately be borne by the successful prospects

  19. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  20. Exploring ESASky

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; ESASky Team

    2017-06-01

    ESASky is a science-driven discovery portal for all ESA space astronomy missions. It also includes missions from international partners such as Suzaku and Chandra. The first public release of ESASky features interfaces for sky exploration and for single and multiple target searches. Using the application requires no prior-knowledge of any of the missions involved and gives users world-wide simplified access to high-level science-ready data products from space-based Astronomy missions, plus a number of ESA-produced source catalogues, including the Gaia Data Release 1 catalogue. We highlight here the latest features to be developed, including one that allows the user to project onto the sky the footprints of the JWST instruments, at any chosen position and orientation. This tool has been developed to aid JWST astronomers when they are defining observing proposals. We aim to include other missions and instruments in the near future.

  1. Exploring the experiences of substitute decision-makers with an exception to consent in a paediatric resuscitation randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a qualitative research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Sonya; Schwartz, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prospective informed consent is required for most research involving human participants; however, this is impracticable under some circumstances. The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) outlines the requirements for research involving human participants in Canada. The need for an exception to consent (deferred consent) is recognised and endorsed in the TCPS for research in individual medical emergencies; however, little is known about substitute decision-maker (SDM) experiences. A paediatric resuscitation trial (SQUEEZE) (NCT01973907) using an exception to consent process began enrolling at McMaster Children's Hospital in January 2014. This qualitative research study aims to generate new knowledge on SDM experiences with the exception to consent process as implemented in a randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis The SDMs of children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial will be the sampling frame from which ethics study participants will be derived. Design: Qualitative research study involving individual interviews and grounded theory methodology. Participants: SDMs for children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial. Sample size: Up to 25 SDMs. Qualitative methodology: SDMs will be invited to participate in the qualitative ethics study. Interviews with consenting SDMs will be conducted in person or by telephone, taped and professionally transcribed. Participants will be encouraged to elaborate on their experience of being asked to consent after the fact and how this process occurred. Analysis: Data gathering and analysis will be undertaken simultaneously. The investigators will collaborate in developing the coding scheme, and data will be coded using NVivo. Emerging themes will be identified. Ethics and dissemination This research represents a rare opportunity to interview parents/guardians of critically ill children enrolled into a resuscitation trial without their knowledge or prior consent

  2. Exploring the experiences of substitute decision-makers with an exception to consent in a paediatric resuscitation randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa J; de Laat, Sonya; Schwartz, Lisa

    2016-09-13

    Prospective informed consent is required for most research involving human participants; however, this is impracticable under some circumstances. The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) outlines the requirements for research involving human participants in Canada. The need for an exception to consent (deferred consent) is recognised and endorsed in the TCPS for research in individual medical emergencies; however, little is known about substitute decision-maker (SDM) experiences. A paediatric resuscitation trial (SQUEEZE) (NCT01973907) using an exception to consent process began enrolling at McMaster Children's Hospital in January 2014. This qualitative research study aims to generate new knowledge on SDM experiences with the exception to consent process as implemented in a randomised controlled trial. The SDMs of children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial will be the sampling frame from which ethics study participants will be derived. Qualitative research study involving individual interviews and grounded theory methodology. SDMs for children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial. Up to 25 SDMs. Qualitative methodology: SDMs will be invited to participate in the qualitative ethics study. Interviews with consenting SDMs will be conducted in person or by telephone, taped and professionally transcribed. Participants will be encouraged to elaborate on their experience of being asked to consent after the fact and how this process occurred. Data gathering and analysis will be undertaken simultaneously. The investigators will collaborate in developing the coding scheme, and data will be coded using NVivo. Emerging themes will be identified. This research represents a rare opportunity to interview parents/guardians of critically ill children enrolled into a resuscitation trial without their knowledge or prior consent. Findings will inform implementation of the exception to consent process in the planned definitive SQUEEZE

  3. Exploring the Usefulness of e-Resources for Engineering College Teachers and Scholars for their Academic and Research Activities - A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puttaswamy, R.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE, an apex body of controlling technical education in India, has made mandatory subscription of e-Resources to all its Engineering College Libraries. This policy has directly helped the teaching community, research scholars, and student's paternity, which has benefits for their teaching, research activities, and curriculum, respectively. This study emphasizes the usefulness of e-Resources among the teachers and scholars of engineering colleges in the Bangalore region under Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU, Belgaum, Karnataka. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. 866 teaching faculties in VTU were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of users who access the e-Resources for their academic and research activities in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using the SPSS 20 software package. The findings reveal that e-resources are useful for engineering college teachers and scholars for their academic and research activities.

  4. Exploration Laboratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, M.; Ronzano, K.; Shaw, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk to minimize or reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance due to in-flight medical capabilities on human exploration missions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability for manned exploration missions. Since a single, compact space-ready laboratory analysis capability to perform all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available, the ELA project objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of emerging operational and analytical capability as a biomedical diagnostics precursor to long duration manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations in fiscal year (FY) 2015 was the down selection of platform technologies for demonstrations in the space environment. The technologies selected included two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) performers: DNA Medicine Institutes rHEALTH X and Intelligent Optical Systems later flow assays combined with Holomics smartphone analyzer. The selection of these technologies were based on their compact size, breadth of analytical capability and favorable ability to process fluids in a space environment, among several factors. These two technologies will be advanced to meet ground and flight demonstration success criteria and requirements that will be finalized in FY16. Also, the down selected performers will continue the technology development phase towards meeting prototype deliverables in either late 2016 or 2017.

  5. Research on isotope geology. Assessment of heat production potential of granitic rocks and development of geothermal exploration techniques using radioactive/stable isotopes and fission track 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Radioelements and heat production rates of granitic rocks and stable isotopes of groundwaters were analyzed to investigate the geothermal potential of Wolchulsan granite complex in the southern Yeongam area. Wolchulsan granite complex is composed mainly by Cretaceous pink alkali-feldspar granite and partly Jurassic biotite granite. The main target for the geothermal exploration is the alkali-feldspar granite that is known in general to be favorable geothermal reservoir(e.g., Shap granite in UK). To develop exploration techniques for geothermal anomalies, all geochemical data were compared to those from the Jeonju granite complex. Heat production rates(HPR) of the alkali-feldspar granite is 1.8 - 10.6 {mu}Wm{sup -3}. High radio-thermal anomalies were revealed from the central western and northern parts of the granite body. These are relatively higher than the Caledonian hot dry granites in the UK. The integrated assessment of Wolchulsan granite complex suggests potential of the Cretaceous alkali-feldspar granite as a geothermal targets. Groundwater geochemistry of the Yeongam area reflects simple evaporation process and higher oxidation environment. Stable isotope data of groundwaters are plotted on or close to the Meteoric Water Line(MWL). These isotopic data indicate a significant meteoric water dominance and do not show oxygen isotope fractionation between groundwater and wall rocks. In despite of high HPR values of the Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite, groundwater samples do not show the same geochemical properties as a thermal water in the Jeonju area. This reason can be well explained by the comparison with geological settings of the Jeonju area. The Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite does not possess any adjacent heat source rocks despite its high radio-thermal HPR. While the Jeonju granite batholith has later heat source intrusive and suitable deep fracture system for water circulation with sedimentary cap rocks. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. Preparing for College Success: Exploring Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of the Benefits of a College Reading and Study Skills Course through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christy M.; Moret, Lanette; Faulconer, Johna; Cannon, Tanya; Tomlin, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate students' perceptions of the benefits of a college reading and study skills course. Researchers have found that even with increased emphasis on college readiness, many students continue to enter college unprepared for the rigorous academic expectations they may face. With this in mind, this…

  7. Exploring Individual, Social and Organisational Effects on Web 2.0-Based Workplace Learning: A Research Agenda for a Systematic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Kemp, Linzi

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0-based workplace learning is defined in this article as informal learning that takes place in the workplace through connections and collaborations mediated by Web 2.0 technology. Web 2.0-based workplace learning has the potential to enhance organisational learning and development. However, little systematic research has been published that…

  8. An Exploration of the Legal and Regulatory Environment of Privacy and Security through Active Research, Guided Study, Blog Creation, and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslak, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important topics for today's information technology professional is the study of legal and regulatory issues as they relate to privacy and security of personal and business data and identification. This manuscript describes the topics and approach taken by the instructors that focuses on independent research of source documents and…

  9. Exploring the Benefits of a Collaborative Inquiry Team in Education (CITE) Initiative to Develop a Research Community and Enhance Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalini-Williams, Maria; Curtis, Debra; Eden-DeGasperis, Kimberley; Esposto, Lauren; Guibert, Jenny; Papp, Heather; Roque, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study examined a collaborative inquiry process, facilitated by university faculty in an elementary school, intended to develop a research community, foster knowledge mobilization, and enhance student engagement. The Collaborative Inquiry Team in Education (CITE) initiative consisted of five school-based sessions that included videos,…

  10. Factors related to fatigue; priority of interventions to reduce or eliminate fatigue and the exploration of a multidisciplinary research model for further study of fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiesinga, LJ; Dassen, TWN; Halfens, RJG; van den Heuvel, WJA

    A growing interest in the health problem presented by fatigue, both in clinical practice and research, coupled with a decreasing number of reported studies on fatigue in the last decade, make an updated and systematic review of factors related to fatigue necessary. A search of the literature,

  11. Proceedings of a National Symposium on the Racquet Sports. An Exploration of Research Implications and Teaching Strategies (Urbana, Illinois, June 13-16, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppel, Jack L., Ed.

    Conference proceedings from this national symposium on hard scientific research and developments in teaching tennis, squash, racquetball, and badminton are divided into several sections. The first deals with sports medicine and the biomechanics of the racquet sports. The second part discusses the pyschological and sociological aspects of…

  12. Exploring Asian Indian and Pakistani views about cancer and participation in cancer genetics research: toward the development of a community genetics intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Amy E; Mohanty, Salini; Selvan, Preethi; Lum, Ray; Giri, Veda N

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality among the three million Asian Indian/Pakistanis (AIPs) in the USA. AIPs have traditionally been underrepresented in cancer-related research, although reasons remain largely unexplored. We sought to understand AIP's awareness and perceptions of cancer to improve their participation in risk assessment and cancer genetics research. Four focus groups, stratified by gender and birthplace (US-born vs. foreign-born), were held at an AIP cultural center. Discussions focused on knowledge and awareness of cancer risk; how AIP culture influences cancer perceptions; access to health care services for cancer screening, diagnosis, or treatment; and willingness to or experiences with participating in cancer genetics research. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content analyzed using NVivo ® 11 for dominant themes. Thirty-two AIP adults participated in a focus group. Information on family cancer history is challenging to obtain due to the desire for privacy, cancer stigma, and loss of medical records. Interest in genetic testing for cancer risk was mixed: some were in favor of knowing their personal risk, yet many noted that future generations in their family would benefit more by knowing their risk. Participants felt that the AIP community has largely been overlooked in recruitment efforts for research studies. Recommendations for improving recruitment efforts included partnering with community events and festivities, posting culturally and linguistically relevant recruitment materials, and focusing on population-wide health improvement. Understanding the culture and perceptions of AIPs, separate from Asian Americans at large, will allow for more tailored approaches for including this population in cancer genetics research.

  13. Leading research report for fiscal 1998 on the super-survey (Next-generation underground exploration technology); 1998 nendo super survey (jisedai chika tansa gijutsu) no chosa kenkyu sendo chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Researches are conducted on innovative mineral resources exploration technologies which use seismic waves or scattered electromagnetic waves to grasp the 3-dimensional structure in the ground. In fiscal 1998, a concrete research and development program is formulated, under which the seismic method and electromagnetic method will deal with an approximately 1km{sup 2}-large area of metalliferous deposit seated approximately 500m deep. In addition, researches are conducted overseas on the trend of related technologies. At an NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) workshop held at the Society of Exploration Geophysicist, U.S., application of the NMR method to water is suggested. At a European Geophysical Society of environmental research and civil engineering event, useful knowledge is acquired about a 4-dimensional sounding (monitoring) technique in which a time axis is added to the 3-dimensional sounding technique and a high-resolution high-efficiency sounding system for probing shallow layers. During visits at Australian institutes concerned with the electromagnetic sounding technology, the trend of probing technologies especially those using the superconducting quantum interface device (SQUID) is gasped. (NEDO)

  14. Exploring ‘generative mechanisms’ of the antiretroviral adherence club intervention using the realist approach: a scoping review of research-based antiretroviral treatment adherence theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand C. Mukumbang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor retention in care and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART continue to undermine the success of HIV treatment and care programmes across the world. There is a growing recognition that multifaceted interventions – application of two or more adherence-enhancing strategies – may be useful to improve ART adherence and retention in care among people living with HIV/AIDS. Empirical evidence shows that multifaceted interventions produce better results than interventions based on a singular perspective. Nevertheless, the bundle of mechanisms by which multifaceted interventions promote ART adherence are poorly understood. In this paper, we reviewed theories on ART adherence to identify candidate/potential mechanisms by which the adherence club intervention works. Methods We searched five electronic databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PsycARTICLES and Google Scholar using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms. A manual search of citations from the reference list of the studies identified from the electronic databases was also done. Twenty-six articles that adopted a theory-guided inquiry of antiretroviral adherence behaviour were included for the review. Eleven cognitive and behavioural theories underpinning these studies were explored. We examined each theory for possible ‘generative causality’ using the realist evaluation heuristic (Context-Mechanism-Outcome configuration, then, we selected candidate mechanisms thematically. Results We identified three major sets of theories: Information-Motivation-Behaviour, Social Action Theory and Health Behaviour Model, which explain ART adherence. Although they show potential in explaining adherence bebahiours, they fall short in explaining exactly why and how the various elements they outline combine to explain positive or negative outcomes. Candidate mechanisms indentified were motivation, self-efficacy, perceived social support, empowerment, perceived threat, perceived

  15. Exploring 'generative mechanisms' of the antiretroviral adherence club intervention using the realist approach: a scoping review of research-based antiretroviral treatment adherence theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2017-05-04

    Poor retention in care and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) continue to undermine the success of HIV treatment and care programmes across the world. There is a growing recognition that multifaceted interventions - application of two or more adherence-enhancing strategies - may be useful to improve ART adherence and retention in care among people living with HIV/AIDS. Empirical evidence shows that multifaceted interventions produce better results than interventions based on a singular perspective. Nevertheless, the bundle of mechanisms by which multifaceted interventions promote ART adherence are poorly understood. In this paper, we reviewed theories on ART adherence to identify candidate/potential mechanisms by which the adherence club intervention works. We searched five electronic databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PsycARTICLES and Google Scholar) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. A manual search of citations from the reference list of the studies identified from the electronic databases was also done. Twenty-six articles that adopted a theory-guided inquiry of antiretroviral adherence behaviour were included for the review. Eleven cognitive and behavioural theories underpinning these studies were explored. We examined each theory for possible 'generative causality' using the realist evaluation heuristic (Context-Mechanism-Outcome) configuration, then, we selected candidate mechanisms thematically. We identified three major sets of theories: Information-Motivation-Behaviour, Social Action Theory and Health Behaviour Model, which explain ART adherence. Although they show potential in explaining adherence bebahiours, they fall short in explaining exactly why and how the various elements they outline combine to explain positive or negative outcomes. Candidate mechanisms indentified were motivation, self-efficacy, perceived social support, empowerment, perceived threat, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Although these candidate

  16. An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research.

  17. Using the Research Domain Criteria Framework to Explore Associations Between MMPI-2-RF Constructs and Physiological Variables Assessed by Eye-Tracker Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, David M; Achee, Margaret C; Cannon, Elissa M; Harrop, Tiffany M; Poynter, William D

    2017-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health has proposed a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychopathology, abandoning the traditional categorical model in favor of one based on hierarchically organized dimensional constructs (Insel et al., 2010 ). One explicit goal of this initiative, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, is to facilitate the incorporation of newly available neurobiologic variables into research on psychopathology. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011 ) represents a similar paradigm shift, also adopting a hierarchical arrangement of dimensional constructs. This study examined associations between MMPI-2-RF measures of psychopathology and eye-movement metrics. Participants were college students (n = 270) who completed the MMPI-2-RF and then viewed a sequence of 30-s video clips. Results show a pattern of positive correlations between pupil size and emotional/internalizing dysfunction scales when viewing video eliciting negative emotional reactions, reflecting greater arousability in individuals with higher scores on these measures. In contrast, when viewing stimuli depicting angry, threatening material, a clear pattern of negative correlations was found between pupil size and behavioral/externalizing trait measures. These data add to the construct validity of the MMPI-2-RF and support the use of the RDoC matrix as a framework for research on psychopathology.

  18. Exploring Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  19. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1999. Technology to use gas hydrate as a resource (Research and development for exploration, research and development on drilling technologies, investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and investigative research on a utilization system); 1999 nendo gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansa nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The contents of the research and development performed in the current fiscal year are as follows: (1) research and development for exploration, (2) research and development on drilling technologies, (3) investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and (4) investigative research on a utilization system. In Item (1), element analysis data are used to study a method to estimate production environment of hydrate ore beds by using an inorganic ion analyzer and a trace amount element analyzer, the crust thermal flow measuring method is used to discuss a method to analyze the hydrate stability zones together with the data of sea area exploration records, and conceptual design is made on a resource potential evaluation system. In Item (2), experiments and analytical discussions are performed on decomposition control of the gas hydrate solid-liquid interface according to such conditions for the drilling fluid as temperatures and flow rates. Elucidation is given on the initial process of bubble generation for behavior of decomposed gas bubbles. Observation and elucidation are made on two-phase flow behavior of non-Newtonian fluid. In Item (3), conceptual design is carried out on a system to detect elements of shape change in each bed due to fluid movement in a gas hydrate bed and an upper bed. In Item (4), discussions are given on the optimizing conditions for generation and dissociation of gas hydrates. Investigation is made also on a possibility of the transportation and storage system. (NEDO)

  20. Knowing who to trust: exploring the role of 'ethical metadata' in mediating risk of harm in collaborative genomics research in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jantina; Williams, Thomas N; Bojang, Kalifa; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Parker, Michael

    2014-08-13

    The practice of making datasets publicly available for use by the wider scientific community has become firmly integrated in genomic science. One significant gap in literature around data sharing concerns how it impacts on scientists' ability to preserve values and ethical standards that form an essential component of scientific collaborations. We conducted a qualitative sociological study examining the potential for harm to ethnic groups, and implications of such ethical concerns for data sharing. We focused our empirical work on the MalariaGEN Consortium, one of the first international collaborative genomics research projects in Africa. We conducted a study in three MalariaGEN project sites in Kenya, the Gambia, and the United Kingdom. The study entailed analysis of project documents and 49 semi-structured interviews with fieldworkers, researchers and ethics committee members. Concerns about how best to address the potential for harm to ethnic groups in MalariaGEN crystallised in discussions about the development of a data sharing policy. Particularly concerning for researchers was how best to manage the sharing of genomic data outside of the original collaboration. Within MalariaGEN, genomic data is accompanied by information about the locations of sample collection, the limitations of consent and ethics approval, and the values and relations that accompanied sample collection. For interviewees, this information and context were of important ethical value in safeguarding against harmful uses of data, but is not customarily shared with secondary data users. This challenged the ability of primary researchers to protect against harmful uses of 'their' data. We identified three protective mechanisms--trust, the existence of a shared morality, and detailed contextual understanding--which together might play an important role in preventing the use of genomic data in ways that could harm the ethnic groups included in the study. We suggest that the current practice of