WorldWideScience

Sample records for research collaboration-01 methods

  1. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  2. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  3. Research Methods in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  4. Research on teaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, M H

    1990-01-01

    Research on teaching methods in nursing education was categorized into studies on media, CAI, and other nontraditional instructional strategies. While the research differed, some generalizations may be made from the findings. Multimedia, whether it is used for individual or group instruction, is at least as effective as traditional instruction (lecture and lecture-discussion) in promoting cognitive learning, retention of knowledge, and performance. Further study is needed to identify variables that may influence learning and retention. While learner attitudes toward mediated instruction tended to be positive, investigators failed to control for the effect of novelty. Control over intervening variables was lacking in the majority of studies as well. Research indicated that CAI is as effective as other teaching methods in terms of knowledge gain and retention. Attitudes toward CAI tended to be favorable, with similar problems in measurement as those evidenced in studies of media. Chang (1986) also recommends that future research examine the impact of computer-video interactive instruction on students, faculty, and settings. Research is needed on experimental teaching methods, strategies for teaching problem solving and clinical judgment, and ways of improving the traditional lecture and discussion. Limited research in these areas makes generalizations impossible. There is a particular need for research on how to teach students the diagnostic reasoning process and encourage critical thinking, both in terms of appropriate teaching methods and the way in which those strategies should be used. It is interesting that few researchers studied lecture and lecture-discussion except as comparable teaching methods for research on other strategies. Additional research questions may be generated on lecture and discussion in relation to promoting concept learning, an understanding of nursing and other theories, transfer of knowledge, and development of cognitive skills. Few

  5. Research methods in information

    CERN Document Server

    Pickard, Alison Jane

    2013-01-01

    The long-awaited 2nd edition of this best-selling research methods handbook is fully updated and includes brand new coverage of online research methods and techniques, mixed methodology and qualitative analysis. There is an entire chapter contributed by Professor Julie McLeod, Sue Childs and Elizabeth Lomas focusing on research data management, applying evidence from the recent JISC funded 'DATUM' project. The first to focus entirely on the needs of the information and communications community, it guides the would-be researcher through the variety of possibilities open to them under the heading "research" and provides students with the confidence to embark on their dissertations. The focus here is on the 'doing' and although the philosophy and theory of research is explored to provide context, this is essentially a practical exploration of the whole research process with each chapter fully supported by examples and exercises tried and tested over a whole teaching career. The book will take readers through eac...

  6. Ergonomics research methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  7. Research Methods Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and qualitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  8. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  9. Mixed methods research for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James; Farr, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Defining and discussing the relevance of theoretical and practical issues involved in mixed methods research. Covering the basics of research methodology, this textbook shows you how to choose and combine quantitative and qualitative research methods to b

  10. Mixed methods for telehealth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Liam J; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Wade, Victoria

    2017-10-01

    Mixed methods research is important to health services research because the integrated qualitative and quantitative investigation can give a more comprehensive understanding of complex interventions such as telehealth than can a single-method study. Further, mixed methods research is applicable to translational research and program evaluation. Study designs relevant to telehealth research are described and supported by examples. Quality assessment tools, frameworks to assist in the reporting and review of mixed methods research, and related methodologies are also discussed.

  11. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  12. Methods in mummy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as minima......Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well...... as minimally-destructive chemical, physical and biological methods for, e.g., stable isotopes, trace metals and DNA....

  13. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  14. Regression methods for medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Tai, Bee Choo

    2013-01-01

    Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the

  15. Tourism research and audio methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    • Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....

  16. Participatory Methods in Arctic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Louise

    2018-01-01

    collection, analysis and conclusions and / or knowledge dissemination. The book aims to collect and share experiences from researchers active in engaging research in the Arctic. The articles reflect on the inclusive methods used in the Arctic research, on the cause and purpose thereof, while the methods......This book is a collection of articles written by researchers at Aalborg University, affiliated with AAU Arctic. The articles are about how the researchers in their respective projects work with stakeholders and citizens in different ways, for example in connection with problem formulation, data...... are exemplified to serve as inspiration for other researchers....

  17. Experimental Methods in Media Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Handke (Christian); C. Herzog (Christian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCausal effects are a prime concern in media policy research, and experimental research designs are widely regarded as the most effective way to identify and gauge causality. Nevertheless, explicit applications of experimental methods are rare in media policy research. This chapter

  18. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  19. Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that the research literature has expanded greatly, particularly in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science. Interestingly, this scientific work has made use of a wide variety of different methods without much consensus on how one might in fact measure subjective consciousness. This situation makes...

  20. Methods and Methods' Debates within Consumption Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2017-01-01

    This chapter takes an open look at how researchers are using new topographies, technologies, and technocultural rituals and routines in order to reconceptualize what market actors are and do, and most especially, how they should be studied. We are interested in the latest developments in consumer...... ethnography, as we have experienced and visualized them being practices in our native fields of anthropology, marketing and consumer research, and as it has touched upon industry market researchers and their workings. We do not rehash classic treatments easily available to interested scholars (e.g. Arnould...

  1. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J. R. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    The topics considered in the seven sessions were nuclear methods in atmospheric research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in tracer applications; energy exploration, production, and utilization; nuclear methods in environmental monitoring; nuclear methods in water research; and nuclear methods in biological research. Individual abstracts were prepared for each paper. (JSR)

  2. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  3. ADDRESSING RESEARCH DESIGN PROBLEM IN MIXED METHODS RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed ALAVI; Patrycja HĄBEK

    2016-01-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be...

  4. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research

  5. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J R [ed.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  6. Using mixed methods in health research.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, S.; Woodman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed method...

  7. Teaching Qualitative Research Methods Using "Undercover Boss"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, LaKresha; Schuwerk, Tara J.

    2017-01-01

    Course(s): Research Methods, Qualitative Research Methods, Organizational Communication, Business Communication. Objectives: After completing this class exercise, students should be able to identify the major components of a qualitative research study, along with the ethical dilemmas that come with doing qualitative research.

  8. Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

  9. Addressing Research Design Problem in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamed; Hąbek, Patrycja

    2016-03-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be theoretically related to it. Second is that concurrent approach of mixed research method to inductive and deductive research logic provides researchers with opportunity to generate theory and test hypothesis in one study simultaneously. In addition, it provides a better justification for chosen method of investigation and higher validity for obtained answers to research questions. Despite increasing popularity of mixed research methods among management scholars, there is still need for a comprehensive approach to research design typology and process in mixed research method from the perspective of management science. The authors in this paper try to explain fundamental principles of mixed research method, its typology and different steps in its design process.

  10. Nuclear methods in coal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear methods, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA) provide useful information about elemental constituents in coal and fly ash, but often other techniques are required to supplement NAA data. Spark source mass spectrometry and atomic absorption have been studied as methods for determination of certain elements in coal that are not easily measured by NAA. In work concerned with the chemical speciation of elements in fly ash, a number of analytical techniques have been used; these include NAA, chemical etching and separation, optical and electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction

  11. Thermophysical methods in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, M.

    2003-01-01

    Thermophysical properties, namely the thermal conductivity, diffusivity and the heat capacity determine the behavior of every material under heat load. Therefore these properties are important not only for design purposes but also for the development of advanced materials. Within this contribution an overview will be given about measurement techniques for thermophysical properties. Some aspects of materials characterization and process development will be highlighted using selected research results. (orig.)

  12. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping...... studies (a method framework). The aims of this debate article are: (1) to present a method framework to inform the design and evaluation of subgrouping research in low back pain, (2) to describe method options when investigating prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and (3) to discuss...... the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies....

  13. Qualitative Methods in Drug Utilization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Bastholm Rahmner, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research methods derive from the social sciences. Their use in drug utilization research is increasingly widespread, especially in understanding patient and prescriber perspectives. The main focus in qualitative research is exploration of a given phenomenon in order to get a wider...... understanding of why and how it appears. Qualitative research methods build on various theoretical underpinnings/schools of thought. The same validity and quality criteria cannot be used for both qualitative and quantitative methods....

  14. Methods in Lexicography and Dictionary Research | Schierholz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods are used in every stage of dictionary-making and in every scientific analysis which is carried out in the field of dictionary research. This article presents some general considerations on methods in philosophy of science, gives an overview of many methods used in linguistics, in lexicography, dictionary research as ...

  15. The Delphi Method for Graduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmoski, Gregory J.; Hartman, Francis T.; Krahn, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process…

  16. Using Q Method in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pnina Shinebourne PhD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author outlines the features of Q method and assesses its suitability as a qualitative research method. She discusses the process of using the method and its particular approach to researching the range and diversity of subjective understandings, beliefs, and experiences. Q method is particularly suitable for identifying commonality and diversity and has a powerful capacity for thematic identification and analysis. In the author's view, Q method makes a contribution to expanding the repertoire of qualitative research methods.

  17. Integrating Research Skills Training into Non--Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Research skills are a valued commodity by industry and university administrators. Despite the importance placed on these skills students typically dislike taking research method courses where these skills are learned. However, training in research skills does not necessarily have to be confined to these courses. In this study participants at a…

  18. [Internet research methods: advantages and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Tien, Yueh-Hsuan

    2009-12-01

    Compared to traditional research methods, using the Internet to conduct research offers a number of advantages to the researcher, which include increased access to sensitive issues and vulnerable / hidden populations; decreased data entry time requirements; and enhanced data accuracy. However, Internet research also presents certain challenges to the researcher. In this article, the advantages and challenges of Internet research methods are discussed in four principle issue areas: (a) recruitment, (b) data quality, (c) practicality, and (d) ethics. Nursing researchers can overcome problems related to sampling bias and data truthfulness using creative methods; resolve technical problems through collaboration with other disciplines; and protect participant's privacy, confidentiality and data security by maintaining a high level of vigilance. Once such issues have been satisfactorily addressed, the Internet should open a new window for Taiwan nursing research.

  19. Miscellaneous standard methods for Apis mellifera research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Human, Hannelie; Brodschneider, Robert; Dietemann, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    A variety of methods are used in honey bee research and differ depending on the level at which the research is conducted. On an individual level, the handling of individual honey bees, including the queen, larvae and pupae are required. There are different methods for the immobilising, killing an...

  20. e-Learning Business Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a generic Business Research Methods course from a simple name in a box to a full e-Learning web based module. It highlights particular issues surrounding the nature of the discipline and the integration of a large number of cross faculty subject specific research methods courses into a single generic module.…

  1. Optimizing How We Teach Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvancara, Kristen E.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Research Methods (undergraduate or graduate level). Objective: The aim of this exercise is to optimize the ability for students to integrate an understanding of various methodologies across research paradigms within a 15-week semester, including a review of procedural steps and experiential learning activities to practice each method, a…

  2. Exploring methods in information literacy research

    CERN Document Server

    Lipu, Suzanne; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an overview of approaches to assist researchers and practitioners to explore ways of undertaking research in the information literacy field. The first chapter provides an introductory overview of research by Dr Kirsty Williamson (author of Research Methods for Students, Academics and Professionals: Information Management and Systems) and this sets the scene for the rest of the chapters where each author explores the key aspects of a specific method and explains how it may be applied in practice. The methods covered include those representing qualitative, quantitative and mix

  3. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  4. Survey Research: Methods, Issues and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine; Wang, Victor C. X.

    2015-01-01

    Survey research is prevalent among many professional fields. Both cost effective and time efficient, this method of research is commonly used for the purposes of gaining insight into the attitudes, thoughts, and opinions of populations. Additionally, because there are several types of survey research designs and data collection instruments, the…

  5. Future methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-01-01

    research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...... of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. © 2016, Springer International Publishing.......This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...

  6. Using observational methods in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jenny

    2015-07-08

    Observation is a research data-collection method used generally to capture the activities of participants as well as when and where things are happening in a given setting. It checks description of the phenomena against what the researcher perceives to be fact in a rich experiential context. The method's main strength is that it provides direct access to the social phenomena under consideration. It can be used quantitatively or qualitatively, depending on the research question. Challenges in using observation relate to adopting the role of participant or non-participant researcher as observer. This article discusses some of the complexities involved when nurse researchers seek to collect observational data on social processes in naturalistic settings using unstructured or structured observational methods in qualitative research methodology. A glossary of research terms is provided.

  7. Research methods for English language teachers

    CERN Document Server

    McDonough, Jo

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a lively introduction to the research methods and techniques available to English language teachers who wish to investigate aspects of their own practice. It covers qualitative and quantitative methodology and includes sections on observation, introspection, diary studies, experiments, interviews, questionnaires, numerical techniques and case study research. Each method is illustrated with examples in language teaching contexts, and techniques of data collection and analysis are introduced. The authors focus particularly on research in the classroom, on tests, materials, the

  8. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  9. Qualitative and quantitative methods in health research

    OpenAIRE

    V?zquez Navarrete, M. Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Research in the area of health has been traditionally dominated by quantitative research. However, the complexity of ill-health, which is socially constructed by individuals, health personnel and health authorities have motivated the search for other forms to approach knowledge. Aim To discuss the complementarities of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the generation of knowledge. Contents The purpose of quantitative research is to measure the magnitude of an event,...

  10. Using mixed methods when researching communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Bertha M N; Meetoo, Danny

    2015-09-01

    To argue for the use of mixed methods when researching communities. Although research involving minority communities is now advanced, not enough effort has been made to formulate methodological linkages between qualitative and quantitative methods in most studies. For instance, the quantitative approaches used by epidemiologists and others in examining the wellbeing of communities are usually empirical. While the rationale for this is sound, quantitative findings can be expanded with data from in-depth qualitative approaches, such as interviews or observations, which are likely to provide insights into the experiences of people in those communities and their relationships with their wellbeing. Academic databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, INTERNURSE, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge and PubMed. An iterative process of identifying eligible literature was carried out by comprehensively searching electronic databases. Using mixed-methods approaches is likely to address any potential drawbacks of individual methods by exploiting the strengths of each at the various stages of research. Combining methods can provide additional ways of looking at a complex problem and improve the understanding of a community's experiences. However, it is important for researchers to use the different methods interactively during their research. The use of qualitative and quantitative methods is likely to enrich our understanding of the interrelationship between wellbeing and the experiences of communities. This should help researchers to explore socio-cultural factors and experiences of health and healthcare practice more effectively.

  11. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian; Löfgren, Karl

    Research on the European Union over the past few years has been strongly implicated in the crises that currently grip Europe with a failure to ask the pertinent questions as well as a perceived weakness in the methods and evidence used by researchers providing the basis for these allegations....... This volume moves the study of EU research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new agenda for research on Europe through a rich diversity of problem-solving based research. This new agenda acknowledges the weaknesses of the past and moves beyond them towards greater openness and awareness...

  12. Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Phenomenon of Being-in-Community as Experienced by Two Individuals Who Have Participated in a Community Building Workshop.

  13. Food studies: an introduction to research methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Jeff; Deutsch, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    .... Designed for the classroom as well as for the independent scholar, the book details the predominant research methods in the field, provides a series of interactive questions and templates to help...

  14. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  15. The Delphi Method in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Ramos, Robinson; Leahy, Michael; Estrada Hernandez, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers have found in the application of the Delphi method a more sophisticated way of obtaining consensus from experts in the field on certain matters. The application of this research methodology has affected and certainly advanced the body of knowledge of the rehabilitation counseling practice. However, the rehabilitation…

  16. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  18. Students' perspectives of undergraduate research methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: in this study we used a model of adult learning to explore undergraduate students' views on how to improve the teaching of research methods and biostatistics. Methods: this was a secondary analysis of survey data of 600 undergraduate students from three medical schools in Uganda. The analysis looked at ...

  19. Using Replication Projects in Teaching Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G.; Grenier, Manuel; Lane, Erica A.; Roberts, Meigan S.; Sykes, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that replication projects may be valuable in teaching research methods, and also address the current need in psychology for more independent verification of published studies. Their use in an undergraduate methods course is described, involving student teams who performed direct replications of four well-known experiments, yielding…

  20. Social Experiments and Participatory Research as Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways to d...... practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. ...... to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope......Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways...

  1. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....

  2. Using ethnographic methods in software engineering research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Helen, C.; Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the role of ethnography in Software Engineering research. It describes the use of ethnographic methods as a means to provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding everyday software development practice. The knowledge gained......-depth discussion of methods for data collection and analysis used in ethnographic studies. It then describes how these methods can be and have been used by software engineering researchers to understand developers' work practices, to inform the development of processes, methods and tools and to evaluate...... can be used to improve processes, methods and tools as well as develop observed industrial practices. The tutorial begins with a brief historical account of ethnography in the fields of Software Engineering, CSCW, Information Systems and other related areas. This sets the stage for a more in...

  3. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology: Survey and Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nasia; Abbo, Lilian M; Knobloch, Mary Jo; Seo, Susan K

    2016-11-01

    Surveys are one of the most frequently employed study designs in healthcare epidemiology research. Generally easier to undertake and less costly than many other study designs, surveys can be invaluable to gain insights into opinions and practices in large samples and may be descriptive and/or be used to test associations. In this context, qualitative research methods may complement this study design either at the survey development phase and/or at the interpretation/extension of results stage. This methods article focuses on key considerations for designing and deploying surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antibiotic stewardship, including identification of whether or not de novo survey development is necessary, ways to optimally lay out and display a survey, denominator measurement, discussion of biases to keep in mind particularly in research using surveys, and the role of qualitative research methods to complement surveys. We review examples of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship and review the pros and cons of methods used. A checklist is provided to help aid design and deployment of surveys in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  4. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  5. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  6. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-01-01

    Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and q...

  7. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Articles were reviewed, analyzed, and coded through a qualitative content analysis approach. Overall trends are presented with respect to the entire collection of articles followed by an analysis of mixed methods research approaches identified in the subset of 55 studies. The most commonly used research approaches involved collecting data from people through interview, focus group, and survey methodologies. Content analysis was the second most commonly used approach whereby researchers use Facebook posts, Tweets (Twitter posts, YouTube videos, or other social media content as a data source. Many of the studies involving combinations of quantitative and qualitative data followed a design resembling Creswell and Plano Clark’s basic mixed methods typology (e.g., convergent parallel, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential.

  8. Mixed Methods Designs for Sports Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Melissa C; Kucera, Kristen L

    2018-07-01

    Mixed methods research is a relatively new approach in the field of sports medicine, where the benefits of qualitative and quantitative research are combined while offsetting the other's flaws. Despite its known and successful use in other populations, it has been used minimally in sports medicine, including studies of the clinician perspective, concussion, and patient outcomes. Therefore, there is a need for this approach to be applied in other topic areas not easily addressed by one type of research approach in isolation, such as the retirement from sport, effects of and return from injury, and catastrophic injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenomenography: A Missed Method in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assarroudi Abdolghader

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research is an approach with which human beings can attempt to answer questions and discover the unknowns. Research methodology is something that is determined by the researcher’s attitude toward the universe as well as by the question he is trying to answer. Some essential questions regarding the research process are: “What is the nature of reality?”, “What is the nature of the relationship between the scholar and the subject of interest?”, and “How can one understand the subject, and what are the methods?”. Research approaches can be categorized as quantitative and qualitative. In the former, measurement, prediction, and control are the bases, while in the latter, exploring, describing, and explaining the phenomena are fundamental. Among qualitative research methods, phenomenography is one of the newest methods. However, in spite of proving to be useful in various disciplines, it has yet to become popular, and many scholars mistake it for phenomenology. The focus of phenomenography is on what is known as the second-order perspective and the different ways that people can experience the same phenomenon, while phenomenology primarily emphasizes the first-order perspective and the similar essences that are derived from various experiences. This article aims to provide a better understanding of phenomenography through explaining it and comparing it with phenomenology in order to facilitate its proper and timely application in medical studies.

  10. Reliability and risk analysis methods research plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This document presents a plan for reliability and risk analysis methods research to be performed mainly by the Reactor Risk Branch (RRB), Division of Risk Analysis and Operations (DRAO), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. It includes those activities of other DRAO branches which are very closely related to those of the RRB. Related or interfacing programs of other divisions, offices and organizations are merely indicated. The primary use of this document is envisioned as an NRC working document, covering about a 3-year period, to foster better coordination in reliability and risk analysis methods development between the offices of Nuclear Regulatory Research and Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It will also serve as an information source for contractors and others to more clearly understand the objectives, needs, programmatic activities and interfaces together with the overall logical structure of the program

  11. Mixed methods research: a design for emergency care research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon; Porter, Jo; Endacott, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    This paper follows previous publications on generic qualitative approaches, qualitative designs and action research in emergency care by this group of authors. Contemporary views on mixed methods approaches are considered, with a particular focus on the design choice and the amalgamation of qualitative and quantitative data emphasising the timing of data collection for each approach, their relative 'weight' and how they will be mixed. Mixed methods studies in emergency care are reviewed before the variety of methodological approaches and best practice considerations are presented. The use of mixed methods in clinical studies is increasing, aiming to answer questions such as 'how many' and 'why' in the same study, and as such are an important and useful approach to many key questions in emergency care.

  12. Creative Research Methods - a reflective online discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Leary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In November 2013, the Institute of Advanced Studies (University of Warwick hosted a meeting of interdisciplinary colleagues interested in Creative Research Methods. The aspirations were to kick-start the debate at Warwick and create a platform from which researchers can develop projects that embrace new forms of intellectual enquiry and knowledge production. Following the meeting, several of the attendees agreed to develop some of the discussion points and briefly responded to a number of questions in an online document over a period of a few weeks. This paper is the result of that real space and online collaboration.

  13. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    together with the patients. Participatory design is a research design and methodology that encourages the participation of users in the design process of technological solutions. Therefore, it has a potential for designing technologies that actually reflect the needs of the users, why it is relevant within...... telemedicine. The aim of this presentation is to explain the process and theoretical framework of a PD project; give an example of a project including the applied methods, and to determine its application to telemedicine with focus on the rationale for genuine participation. Theory: Participation implies....... Methods: Key activities of a Participatory Design project comprise methods such as fieldwork; literature reviewing; development and testing, and user activities as workshops. Methods that support telling, making, enacting. For instance telling activities as drivers for participation, where practitioners...

  14. Statistical methods in personality assessment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinka, J A; LaLone, L; Broeckel, J A

    1997-06-01

    Emerging models of personality structure and advances in the measurement of personality and psychopathology suggest that research in personality and personality assessment has entered a stage of advanced development, in this article we examine whether researchers in these areas have taken advantage of new and evolving statistical procedures. We conducted a review of articles published in the Journal of Personality, Assessment during the past 5 years. Of the 449 articles that included some form of data analysis, 12.7% used only descriptive statistics, most employed only univariate statistics, and fewer than 10% used multivariate methods of data analysis. We discuss the cost of using limited statistical methods, the possible reasons for the apparent reluctance to employ advanced statistical procedures, and potential solutions to this technical shortcoming.

  15. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  16. Proteomics in pulmonary research: selected methodical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Petrek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent years witness rapid expansion of applications of proteomics to clinical research including non-malignant lung disorders. These developments bring along the need for standardisation of proteomic experiments. This paper briefly reviews basic methodical aspects of appliedproteomic studies using SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform as example but also emphasizes general aspects of quality assurance in proteomics. Key-words: lung proteome, quality assurance, SELDI-TOF MS

  17. Research into real-option evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Tsuyoshi; Wakamatsu, Hitoshi

    2002-03-01

    As an evaluational method for valuation of a corporation, an investment project, a research and development, or the evaluation technique of an enterprise strategy, a real option analysis attracts attention instead of conventional Discount Cash Flow method. The reason is that it can divert the technique for the option valuation in financial engineering to the decision-making process performed according to change in investment environment. Related references, the analysis tools, the application examples, etc. were investigated about the decision-making technique using real option analysis, and this investigation considered the application method to decision-making of the research and development at Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. Consequently, since the feature is in real option analysis being the evaluation technique on condition of that business conditions and business itself also change, the real option analysis fits for evaluation of a research and development that business conditions were opaque and it turns out that the businesses are highly flexible. Moreover, it turns out that it fits also for evaluation of a capital concentration type investment issue like power plants. (author)

  18. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Radiation methods in research of ancient monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kubelik, M.; Musilek, L.; Pavlik, Milan

    2000-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Monument Research' is being built at the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be investigated. In the first phase, two radiation methods are being established, but it is set up in such a way, that various other methods can readily be added in its future development. The radiation methods chosen for the initial development of the laboratory are: thermoluminescence dating and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The design of the automated TL-reader, built in our laboratories, is adjusted for the purpose of dating of historic brick architecture (which, of course, does not exclude applications for ceramics and other materials). The investigation of renaissance architecture in southern Bohemia and Moravia is under preparation as the first large campaign of this kind in the Czech Republic. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis has been chosen as the basic analytical method in the laboratory. The possibility of analyses of paintings and fired building materials (bricks, roof tiles) have been investigated. The first results in both the areas are very promising

  20. Educational research methods for researching innovations in teaching, learning and assessment: The nursing lecturer as researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Maran, Diane

    2015-11-01

    The author, who has had previous experience as a nurse researcher, has been engaged in helping nurse lecturers to undertake evaluation research studies into innovations in their teaching, learning and assessment methods. In order to undertake this work successfully, it was important to move from thinking like a nurse researcher to thinking like an educational researcher and developing the role of the nursing lecturer as researcher of their teaching. This article explores the difference between evaluation and evaluation research and argues for the need to use educational research methods when undertaking evaluation research into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment. A new model for educational evaluation research is presented together with two case examples of the model in use. The model has been tested on over 30 research studies into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment over the past 8 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  2. The Documentary Method in Intercultural Research Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Evers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The documentary method appears to be especially suitable for preventing possible ethnocentrisms in the interpretation of data in reconstructive research, as well as for precluding concessions with a statistic and normative cultural concept. As an illustration of this thesis, this article presents a study—undertaken at the Bremen University of Applied Sciences—in which the effects of an intercultural contact programme between international students and German families are analysed. Special emphasis is placed on the question of the students' emotional and cognitive changes, called educational processes ("Bildung" in the educational science. The theoretical and methodological background of the study and exemplary results are presented. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901478

  3. A narrative method for consciousness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José-Luis

    2013-01-01

    Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools

  4. A narrative method for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis eDíaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Some types of first person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological parliaments and texts, such as internal monologue statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monologue in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1 The relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2 Some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3 A preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monologue excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno is presented using some

  5. A narrative method for consciousness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José-Luis

    2013-01-01

    Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce's Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools.

  6. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gail D. Caruth

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research. A review of the literature revealed that it has been gaining acceptance among researchers, researchers have begun using mixed methods research, it ...

  7. ASPECTS REGARDING NEUROMARKETING SPECIFIC RESEARCH METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA-CRISTINA VOICU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must posses. Some informations are hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer. Neuromarketing helps us find what is inside of the black box without troubling the consumer with questions that he doesn’t want to answer or that he can’t answer. Today because of an extensive research in mapping cortical and subcortical activity in association with behaviors and thoughts, the confidence in neurological data is growing. Thanks to discoveries in perceptual sciences we can identify the parts of the brain that are responsible for the phenomena that we experience daily. For all those interested in information obtained through neuromarketing techniques it becomes evident that there are corresponding neural substrates of consumer decision making process and these substrates can be observed, measured, and possibly manipulated. The following paper reveals some important aspects of the use of neuromarketing in studying consumer behavior by presenting the concepts, methods and techniques used under this sophisticated name, the limitations and advantages of using neuromarketing techniques and the importance of this type of information in decision making process at a company level.

  8. Exploring Reticence in Research Methods: The Experience of Studying Psychological Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Barbara E.; Robertson, Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental element of any psychology degree, the teaching and learning of research methods is repeatedly brought into sharp focus, and it is often regarded as a real challenge by undergraduate students. The reasons for this are complex, but frequently attributed to an aversion of maths. To gain a more detailed understanding of students'…

  9. Qualitative methods: a research approach worth considering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative research forms part of the classical cycle of research. ... putting aside any preconceived ideas and “intuiting”- focusing on the ... that is, no new information is obtained. ... and communication with the scientific community are adhered.

  10. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  11. Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Harry T.; Judd, Charles M.

    2000-03-01

    This volume provides an overview of research methods in contemporary social psychology. Coverage includes conceptual issues in research design, methods of research, and statistical approaches. Because the range of research methods available for social psychology have expanded extensively in the past decade, both traditional and innovative methods are presented. The goal is to introduce new and established researchers alike to new methodological developments in the field.

  12. Toward a Conceptualization of Mixed Methods Phenomenological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Mayoh, Joanne; Onwuegbuzie, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are recognizing the benefits of expanding research designs that are rooted in one tradition (i.e., monomethod design) into a design that incorporates or interfaces with the other tradition. The flexibility of phenomenologically driven methods provides one such example. Indeed, phenomenological research methods work extremely well as a component of mixed methods research approaches. However, to date, a mixed methods version of phenomenological research has not been fo...

  13. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  14. Debriefing Research Games : Context, Substance and Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoogen, J.; Lo, J.C.; Meijer, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Debriefing is an intrinsic part of games for learning and proper
    debriefing can also be beneficial to research games. However, the literature
    on how to debrief research games is sparse and only provides the professional
    with an abstract topic guide.
    Aim. The purpose of

  15. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  16. Methodical Problems in Organic Farming Research

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    Workshop presentation with particular focus on values, transferability and praxis relevance of organic farming research. Examples from agricultural engineering lead to the conclusion, that prototype farming, goal oriented project management, participative decision making and funding, coaching of co-operation, and coaching of conflict management may enhance long term, holistic and interdisciplinary research.

  17. Basic Research Methods for Librarians, Fifth Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-nine percent of the respondents to a 2000 survey reported that their master's programs had not adequately prepared them to conduct research, something that has not changed much in the ensuing decade. Yet, many library and information services (LIS) practitioners are routinely called upon to conducted job-related research. Where can they turn for the guidance they need?

  18. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    The combined use of case study and systems theory is rarely discussed in the ... Scott, 2002), the main benefit of doing qualitative research is the patience ..... Teaching ICT to teacher candidates ... English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.

  19. Empirical Bayes methods in road safety research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelesang, R.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Road safety research is a wonderful combination of counting fatal accidents and using a toolkit containing prior, posterior, overdispersed Poisson, negative binomial and Gamma distributions, together with positive and negative regression effects, shrinkage estimators and fiercy debates concerning

  20. Nuclear physics methods in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The brochure contains the abstracts of the papers presented at the 7th EPS meeting 1980 in Darmstadt. The main subjects were: a) Neutron scattering and Moessbauer effect in materials research, b) ion implantation in micrometallurgy, c) applications of nuclear reactions and radioisotopes in research on solids, d) recent developments in activation analysis and e) pions, positrons, and heavy ions applied in solid state physics. (RW) [de

  1. Quality; Research of method; Consumer of satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamir da Silva Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The customers' evaluation is an indicator used by the concerned organizations with the quality services. Starting from a research of evaluation of the quality services of a company of public cleaning, accomplished the denizen close to, we decided to elaborate this paper to present the found results and a critical analysis of the methodology used by the company. The research outcomes indicate a positive evaluation of the services. However, some changes are suggested on the adopted procedures.

  2. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for ... show the effectiveness of the research method. ... qualitative data before quantitative datasets ..... whereby both types of data are collected simultaneously.

  3. Using mixed methods research in medical education: basic guidelines for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Karen E; Reed, Virginia A

    2009-07-01

    Mixed methods research involves the collection, analysis and integration of both qualitative and quantitative data in a single study. The benefits of a mixed methods approach are particularly evident when studying new questions or complex initiatives and interactions, which is often the case in medical education research. Basic guidelines for when to use mixed methods research and how to design a mixed methods study in medical education research are not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to remedy that situation by providing an overview of mixed methods research, research design models relevant for medical education research, examples of each research design model in medical education research, and basic guidelines for medical education researchers interested in mixed methods research. Mixed methods may prove superior in increasing the integrity and applicability of findings when studying new or complex initiatives and interactions in medical education research. They deserve an increased presence and recognition in medical education research.

  4. Research method of nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Dan; Gao An'na; Sun Chenglin; Wang Lei; You Xinfeng

    2010-01-01

    When faced with a huge amount of nuclear patent information, the key to effective research include: (1) Choose convenient way to search, quick access to nuclear technology related patents; (2) To overcome the language barrier, analysis the technical content of patent information; (3) Organize the publication date of retrieved patent documents, analysis the status and trends of nuclear technology development; (4) Research the patented technology of main applicants; (5) Always pay attention to the legal status of patent information, free use the invalid patents, at the same time avoid the patent infringement. Summary, patent information is important to obtain the latest technical information source, and the research work of patent information is a comprehensive understanding and mastery way for advanced nuclear technology. (authors)

  5. The use of mixed methods research in interdisciplinary educational journals

    OpenAIRE

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Molina Azorín, José Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming increasingly important in several scientific areas. The analysis of prevalence rates is a new line of research that has emerged in mixed methods research, and this methodological approach has only been applied carefully in a handful of journals. The purpose of this article was to analyse the prevalence of mixed methods research in interdisciplinary educational journals. Moreover, the main characteristics of the mixed methods articles identified were examined...

  6. Nuclear physics methods in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Baumann, H.; Jex, H.; Rauch, F.

    1980-01-01

    Proceedings of the seventh divisional conference of the Nuclear Physics Division held at Darmstadt, Germany, from 23rd through 26th of September, 1980. The scope of this conference was defined as follows: i) to inform solid state physicists and materials scientists about the application of nuclear physics methods; ii) to show to nuclear physicists open questions and problems in solid state physics and materials science to which their methods can be applied. According to the intentions of the conference, the various nuclear physics methods utilized in solid state physics and materials science and especially new developments were reviewed by invited speakers. Detailed aspects of the methods and typical examples extending over a wide range of applications were presented as contributions in poster sessions. The Proceedings contain all the invited papers and about 90% of the contributed papers. (orig./RW)

  7. [Research on the preparative method of Arctigenin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ying; Yang, Yi-Shun; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Yue; Cai, Zhen-Zhen; Tao, Jian-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    To research on the preparation of Arctigenin in vitro. Took enzyme concentration, time course and substrate concentration as investigation factors, used Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis path of Arctigenin. The best operational path for Arctigenin was as follows: the temperature was 50 degrees C, pH was 4.8, enzyme concentration was 0.44 U/mL, time course was 46.81 min, substrate concentration was 0.29 mg/mL, the conversion rate was 90.94%. This research can be regarded as a referencein preparing Arctigenin in vitro.

  8. Diversified Research Methods Education in LIS: Thinking outside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lili

    2017-01-01

    A small number of LIS degree programs have adopted a diversified approach to research methods education, including offering an array of specialized research methods courses in addition to a general introductory course. The current study conducted an in-depth investigation of the diversified research methods curriculum of the LIS program at San…

  9. Development of a Research Methods and Statistics Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C.; Chapman, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are core courses in the undergraduate psychology major. To assess learning outcomes, it would be useful to have a measure that assesses research methods and statistical literacy beyond course grades. In two studies, we developed and provided initial validation results for a research methods and statistical knowledge…

  10. Critical Debates in Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores some of the critical debates in social science research methods education and is set out in three parts. The first section introduces the importance and relevance of research methods to the social sciences. It then outlines the problems and challenges experienced in the teaching and learning of research methods, which are…

  11. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  12. A Synthesis of the Literature on Research Methods Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research synthesis is to examine the current research on teaching and learning research methods. The aims are to understand the themes present in the current literature and identify gaps in our understanding of how we teach, and how students learn, research methods. A synthesis of 89 studies generated three themes: (1)…

  13. Market Research Methods for Improving College Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Paul G.

    1979-01-01

    Essential elements of a good marketing plan for higher education institutions are described. What market research is and how the modern concept of marketing differs from the traditional sales approach are discussed as well as market analysis and definition. Also included is a discussion of marketing for proposed new programs. (Author/SF)

  14. Innovations in Second Language Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on two approaches to research in second language acquisition: (1) various types of acceptability judgments or probes aimed at assessing acquisition of syntactic structure; and (2) various types of stimulated recall designed to gather learners' accounts of their own thought processes. (Author/VWL)

  15. Methodologies and Methods for User Behavioral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peiling

    1999-01-01

    Discusses methodological issues in empirical studies of information-related behavior in six specific research areas: information needs and uses; information seeking; relevance judgment; online searching (including online public access catalog, online database, and the Web); human-system interactions; and reference transactions. (Contains 191…

  16. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  17. The laddering method in service innovation research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe

    2017-01-01

    The laddering method is a qualitative interview technique applied in a situation with one interviewer and one informant with the aim of creating an understanding of the value that business-to-consumer (B2C) customers extract from product attributes. Thus, this methodology aims to depict a mental ...

  18. Pollination Research Methods with Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes field and lab procedures for doing experiments on honey bee pollination. Most of the methods apply to any insect for whom pollen vectoring capacity is the question. What makes honey bee pollination distinctive is its historic emphasis on agricultural applications; hence one fi...

  19. Research Investigation of Information Access Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, John H.; Sharkey, Thomas W.; Lim, Jeen-Su

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the satisfaction of library users at Wayne State University who utilize alternative information access methods. The LibQUAL+[TM] desired and perceived that satisfaction ratings are used to determine the user's "superiority gap." By focusing limited library resources to address "superiority gap" issues identified by each…

  20. Mixed Methods and Action Research: similar or different?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiśniewska, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to analyse and compare ELT studies grounded solely in mixed methods and ELT action research studies based on a mixed methods approach in order to identify to what degree action research studies combining different methods in a single study comply with the principles of rigorous mixed methods study.

  1. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  2. Innovative Methods: Resources for Research, Publishing, and Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Mary; Chrisler, Joan C.; LoCicero, Alice

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of innovative methods congenial to research in feminist psychology and describes undergraduate and graduate courses that emphasize these methods in their curricula. Contains a bibliography of over 300 entries organized by type of innovative method. (SLD)

  3. Using Blogs in Qualitative Educational Research: An Exploration of Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harricharan, Michelle; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2014-01-01

    When compared with wider social research, qualitative educational research has been relatively slow to take up online research methods (ORMs). There is some very notable research in the area but, in general, ORMs have not achieved wide applicability in qualitative educational contexts apart from research that is inherently linked to the Internet,…

  4. Mixed-methods research in nursing - a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Valentina; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Timmins, Fiona; Barisone, Michela; Bianchi, Monica; Pellegrini, Ramona; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-10-01

    To review the use of mixed-methods research in nursing with a particular focus on the extent to which current practice informs nurse researchers. It also aimed to highlight gaps in current knowledge, understanding and reporting of this type of research. Mixed-methods research is becoming increasingly popular among nurses and healthcare professionals. Emergent findings from this type of research are very useful for nurses in practice. The combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a scientific base for practice but also richness from the qualitative enquiry. However, at the same time mixed-methods research is underdeveloped. This study identified mixed-methods research papers and critically evaluated their usefulness for research practice. To support the analysis, we performed a two-stage search using CINAHL to find papers with titles that included the key term 'mixed method'. An analysis of studies that used mixed-methods research revealed some inconsistencies in application and reporting. Attempts to use two distinct research methods in these studies often meant that one or both aspects had limitations. Overall methods were applied in a less rigorous way. This has implications for providing somewhat limited direction for novice researchers. There is also potential for application of evidence in healthcare practice that limited validity. This study highlights current gaps in knowledge, understanding and reporting of mixed-methods research. While these methods are useful to gain insight into clinical problems nurses lack guidance with this type of research. This study revealed that the guidance provided by current mixed-methods research is inconsistent and incomplete and this compounds the lack of available direction. There is an urgent need to develop robust guidelines for using mixed-methods research so that findings may be critically implemented in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Research on new methods in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovicj, D.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron transport theory is the basis for development of reactor theory and reactor calculational methods. It has to be acknowledged that recent applications of these disciplines have influenced considerably the development of power reactor concepts and technology. However, these achievements were implemented in a rather heuristic way, since the satisfaction of design demands were of utmost importance. Often this kind of approach turns out to be very restrictive and not even adequate for rather typical reactor applications. Many aspects and techniques of reactor theory and calculations ought to be reevaluated and/or reformulated on the more sound physical and mathematical foundations. At the same time, new reactor concepts and operational demands give rise to more sophisticated and complex design requirements. These new requirements can be met only by the development of new design techniques, which in the case of reactor neutronic calculation lead directly to the advanced transport theory methods. In addition, the rapid development of computer technology opens new opportunities for applications of advanced transport theory in practical calculations

  6. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  7. Qualitative Methods in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Barg, Frances K; Esmail, Laura; Edmundson, Lauren; Girard, Samantha; Perfetti, A Ross

    2017-02-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), created to fund research guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader health care community, offers a new research venue. Many (41 of 50) first funded projects involved qualitative research methods. This study was completed to examine the current state of the science of qualitative methodologies used in PCORI-funded research. Principal investigators participated in phenomenological interviews to learn (a) how do researchers using qualitative methods experience seeking funding for, implementing and disseminating their work; and (b) how may qualitative methods advance the quality and relevance of evidence for patients? Results showed the experience of doing qualitative research in the current research climate as "Being a bona fide qualitative researcher: Staying true to research aims while negotiating challenges," with overlapping patterns: (a) researching the elemental, (b) expecting surprise, and (c) pushing boundaries. The nature of qualitative work today was explicitly described and is rendered in this article.

  8. Innovative Methods and Applications in Mucoadhesion Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Alan; Goycoolea, Francisco M.; Menchicchi, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    The present review is aimed at elucidating relatively new aspects of mucoadhesion/mucus interaction and related phenomena that emerged from a Mucoadhesion workshop held in Munster on 2–3 September 2015 as a satellite event of the ICCC 13th—EUCHIS 12th. After a brief outline of the new issues......, the focus is on mucus description, purification, and mucus/mucin characterization, all steps that are pivotal to the understanding of mucus related phenomena and the choice of the correct mucosal model for in vitro and ex vivo experiments, alternative bio/mucomimetic materials are also presented....... Then a selection of preparative techniques and testing methods are described (at molecular as well as micro and macroscale) that may support the pharmaceutical development of mucus interactive systems and assist formulators in the scale-up and industrialization steps. Recent applications of mucoadhesive systems...

  9. Empowering and Engaging Students in Learning Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Breit, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to conduct research is essential for university graduates to survive and thrive in their future career. However, research methods courses have often been considered by students as "abstract", "uninteresting", and "hard". Thus, motivating students to engage in the process of learning research methods has become a crucial challenge for…

  10. Strategy to Promote Active Learning of an Advanced Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Hilary J.; Dovey, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    Research methods courses aim to equip students with the knowledge and skills required for research yet seldom include practical aspects of assessment. This reflective practitioner report describes and evaluates an innovative approach to teaching and assessing advanced qualitative research methods to final-year psychology undergraduate students. An…

  11. Research and Design of Rootkit Detection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Leian; Yin, Zuanxing; Shen, Yuli; Lin, Haitao; Wang, Hongjiang

    Rootkit is one of the most important issues of network communication systems, which is related to the security and privacy of Internet users. Because of the existence of the back door of the operating system, a hacker can use rootkit to attack and invade other people's computers and thus he can capture passwords and message traffic to and from these computers easily. With the development of the rootkit technology, its applications are more and more extensive and it becomes increasingly difficult to detect it. In addition, for various reasons such as trade secrets, being difficult to be developed, and so on, the rootkit detection technology information and effective tools are still relatively scarce. In this paper, based on the in-depth analysis of the rootkit detection technology, a new kind of the rootkit detection structure is designed and a new method (software), X-Anti, is proposed. Test results show that software designed based on structure proposed is much more efficient than any other rootkit detection software.

  12. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  13. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  14. Design Patterns for Mixed-Method Research in HCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert Holwerda; Arthur Bennis; Lambert Zaad; René Bakker; Sabine Craenmehr; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Dick Lenior; Marjolein Jacobs; Koen van Turnhout; Ralph Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss mixed-method research in HCI. We report on an empirical literature study of the NordiCHI 2012 proceedings which aimed to uncover and describe common mixed-method approaches, and to identify good practices for mixed-methods research in HCI. We present our results as

  15. [Application of Delphi method in traditional Chinese medicine clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.

  16. Using mixed methods in music therapy health care research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    »Mixed methods« (or »multiple methods») is a fairly new concept in music therapy research. It is inspired by recent methodological developments in social science, covering the interaction of quantitative and qualitative methods in one and the same research study. Mixed methods are not the same...... as the diversity or pluralism of methods advocated by many scholars who are critical towards the principles of evidence-based medicine. This article presents a concrete example of mixed methods in music therapy research: a psycho-social study of music therapy with female cancer survivors. Problems related...

  17. The imagework method in health and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, I R

    1999-03-01

    Existing alongside the traditional forms of qualitative social science research, there is a set of potential research methods that derive from experiential groupwork and the humanistic human potential movement and are only slightly used by researchers. Social science research has barely begun to use these powerful strategies that were developed originally for personal and group change but that are potentially applicable to the research domain. This article will locate these methods within the qualitative research domain and propose a novel view of their value. The study of the actual and potential use of one of these methods, imagework, will be the particular focus of this article. References to the use of artwork, sculpting, psychodrama, gestalt, and dreamwork will also be made. The hypothesis underpinning the author's approach is that experiential research methods such as imagework can elicit implicit knowledge and self-identifies of respondents in a way that other methods cannot.

  18. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...... as applied research and on evaluation of devel-oped products in the field or in the lab. Also, we find that much research is conducted in natural setting environments with strong focus on field studies....

  19. Travelling Methods: Tracing the Globalization of Qualitative Communication Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan C. Taylor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing discussion of the relationships between globalization, communication research, and qualitative methods emphasizes two images: the challenges posed by globalization to existing communication theory and research methods, and the impact of post-colonial politics and ethics on qualitative research. We draw in this paper on a third image – qualitative research methods as artifacts of globalization – to explore the globalization of qualitative communication research methods. Following a review of literature which tentatively models this process, we discuss two case studies of qualitative research in the disciplinary subfields of intercultural communication and media audience studies. These cases elaborate the forces which influence the articulation of national, disciplinary, and methodological identities which mediate the globalization of qualitative communication research methods.

  20. Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed Methods Research (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed Methods Research designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed Methods Research to study complex human phenomena.

  1. Children's Literature in the Undergraduate Course on Communication Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Students will develop positive attitudes toward communication research by linking new values and principles with the familiar values and principles contained in children's literature. Course: Communication Research Methods.

  2. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  3. Colloquy: The Methods and Merits of Pornography Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Daniel; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Daniel Linz and Edward Donnerstein criticize the research methods and conclusions of pornography researchers Dolf Zillmann and Jennings Bryant (who allege that consumption of pornography results in antisocial effects). Zillman and Bryant respond. (ARH)

  4. The Design Social: Framing social research methods for design postgraduates.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses approaches for framing social research methods within postgraduate design curricula, details the responses of postgraduate design students to the possibilities presented by social research methods, and concludes with a case study of the adoption experiences of PhD students in design when engaging with social research methods. Analysis of semi-structured interviews is employed to draw out perceptions and experiences of design postgraduates when engaging with social researc...

  5. Why, and how, mixed methods research is undertaken in health services research in England: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Murphy, Elizabeth; Nicholl, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been a surge of international interest in combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study – often called mixed methods research. It is timely to consider why and how mixed methods research is used in health services research (HSR). Methods Documentary analysis of proposals and reports of 75 mixed methods studies funded by a research commissioner of HSR in England between 1994 and 2004. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers sampled from these studies. Results 18% (119/647) of HSR studies were classified as mixed methods research. In the documentation, comprehensiveness was the main driver for using mixed methods research, with researchers wanting to address a wider range of questions than quantitative methods alone would allow. Interviewees elaborated on this, identifying the need for qualitative research to engage with the complexity of health, health care interventions, and the environment in which studies took place. Motivations for adopting a mixed methods approach were not always based on the intrinsic value of mixed methods research for addressing the research question; they could be strategic, for example, to obtain funding. Mixed methods research was used in the context of evaluation, including randomised and non-randomised designs; survey and fieldwork exploratory studies; and instrument development. Studies drew on a limited number of methods – particularly surveys and individual interviews – but used methods in a wide range of roles. Conclusion Mixed methods research is common in HSR in the UK. Its use is driven by pragmatism rather than principle, motivated by the perceived deficit of quantitative methods alone to address the complexity of research in health care, as well as other more strategic gains. Methods are combined in a range of contexts, yet the emerging methodological contributions from HSR to the field of mixed methods research are currently limited to the single

  6. Theoretical-methodical Fundamentals of industrial marketing research

    OpenAIRE

    Butenko, N.

    2009-01-01

    The article proves the necessity to research theoretical and methodical fundamentals of industrial marketing and defines main key aspects of relationship management with the customers on industrial market.

  7. A typology of health marketing research methods--combining public relations methods with organizational concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Wan, Thomas T H; Liberman, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Research plays a critical role throughout virtually every conduit of the health services industry. The key terms of research, public relations, and organizational interests are discussed. Combining public relations as a strategic methodology with the organizational concern as a factor, a typology of four different research methods emerges. These four health marketing research methods are: investigative, strategic, informative, and verification. The implications of these distinct and contrasting research methods are examined.

  8. Adapting Western research methods to indigenous ways of knowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Christopher, Suzanne

    2013-12-01

    Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid.

  9. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  10. Invisible nursing research: thoughts about mixed methods research and nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    In this this essay, the author addresses the close connection between mixed methods research and nursing practice. If the assertion that research and practice are parallel processes is accepted, then nursing practice may be considered "invisible mixed methods research," in that almost every encounter between a nurse and a patient involves collection and integration of qualitative (word) and quantitative (number) information that actually is single-case mixed methods research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Graduate Students' Expectations of an Introductory Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    While there is a scattered literature base on teaching research methods courses, there is very little literature that speaks to what and how students learn in research methods courses. Students are often described as coming to the course not seeing its relevance, bringing negative attitudes and low motivation with them. The purpose of this…

  12. Take It or Leave It: Students' Attitudes about Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisecup, Allison K.

    2017-01-01

    This study employs a cross-sectional design to explore sociology majors' attitudes toward research methods. Survey data from a convenience sample of students enrolled in 16 departments are used to compare the attitudes of students who have and have not completed a research methods course. Despite consistent anecdotal claims that students harbor…

  13. Mixed-methods approaches in health research in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Simkhada, Padam; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Sathian, B.

    2014-01-01

    Combining and integrating a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods in one single study is widely used in health and social care research in high-income countries. This editorial adds a few words of advice to the novice mixed-methods researcher in Nepal.

  14. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  15. Triangulation, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…

  16. Mixed Methods in Intervention Research: Theory to Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of mixed methods research designs to multiyear programmatic research and development projects whose goals include integration of cultural specificity when generating or translating evidence-based practices. The authors propose a set of five mixed methods designs related to different…

  17. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carla A; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings.

  18. Teaching Psychological Research Methods through a Pragmatic and Programmatic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Patrick; Fielden, Amy; Tzemou, Effy

    2014-01-01

    Research methods teaching in psychology is pivotal in preparing students for the transition from student as learner to independent practitioner. We took an action research approach to re-design, implement and evaluate a module guiding students through a programmatic and pragmatic research cycle. These revisions allow students to experience how…

  19. Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

    1989-01-01

    Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)

  20. Rhetorical Structure of Education Research Article Methods Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoya; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rhetorical move structure of the education research article genre within the framework of Swales' (1981, 1990, 2004) move analysis. A corpus of 120 systematically sampled empirical education research articles served as data input for the analysis. The results indicate that the education research article methods section…

  1. Research and development of radioactive waste treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Nang

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) uses the reactor for research, training, isotope production and activation analyses. NRI generates about 150 m 3 of liquid and 5 m 3 of solid wastes every year. The researched methods applied to treatment of radwastes are coagulation-precipitation and two steps ion-exchange for liquid waste and compaction for solid waste are described. (author)

  2. Mixed Methods Research: What Are the Key Issues to Consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajashi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research (MMR) is increasingly becoming a popular methodological approach in several fields due to the promise it holds for comprehensive understanding of complex problems being researched. However, researchers interested in MMR often lack reference to a guide that can explain the key issues pertaining to the paradigm wars…

  3. Towards Multi-Method Research Approach in Empirical Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Vladimir; Markkula, Jouni; Oivo, Markku

    This paper presents results of a literature analysis on Empirical Research Approaches in Software Engineering (SE). The analysis explores reasons why traditional methods, such as statistical hypothesis testing and experiment replication are weakly utilized in the field of SE. It appears that basic assumptions and preconditions of the traditional methods are contradicting the actual situation in the SE. Furthermore, we have identified main issues that should be considered by the researcher when selecting the research approach. In virtue of reasons for weak utilization of traditional methods we propose stronger use of Multi-Method approach with Pragmatism as the philosophical standpoint.

  4. Inventory of research methods for librarianship and informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan D

    2004-01-01

    This article defines and describes the rich variety of research designs found in librarianship and informatics practice. Familiarity with the range of methods and the ability to make distinctions between those specific methods can enable authors to label their research reports correctly. The author has compiled an inventory of methods from a variety of disciplines, but with attention to the relevant applications of a methodology to the field of librarianship. Each entry in the inventory includes a definition and description for the particular research method. Some entries include references to resource material and examples.

  5. Storytelling as a way for humanizing research methods

    OpenAIRE

    Grenness, Tor

    2016-01-01

    This is an Open Access journal. The article is aslo available from www.idrcentre.org This article examines how the use of storytelling can serve as a pedagogical strategy in the teaching of research methods. Research methods and statistics anxiety is fairly widespread among students in higher education. Introducing storytelling has been found to decrease this anxiety. The term “humanizing research methods” implies a focus on students’ needs that goes beyond transferring knowledge of the co...

  6. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R. Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent desig...

  7. SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS IN FEMINIST'S PERSPECTIVE: A NEW WAY IN DOING SOCIOLINGUISTIC QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuntjara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional research methods have been dominated by positivism which assumes the importance of objectivity, contextual independency, linear causality and value free research. Feminist researchers found that such methods do not suit their inquisitive needs especially in the study of women. Naturalistic research methods, however, do not only suit them but they are also able to voice women's problems. Two methods, i.e. interviewing and ethnography are discussed as to how they are commonly used by feminist researchers on many social studies on women, including the linguistic studies of gender.

  8. Using the Delphi expert consensus method in mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F

    2015-10-01

    The article gives an introductory overview of the use of the Delphi expert consensus method in mental health research. It explains the rationale for using the method, examines the range of uses to which it has been put in mental health research, and describes the stages of carrying out a Delphi study using examples from the literature. To ascertain the range of uses, a systematic search was carried out in PubMed. The article also examines the implications of 'wisdom of crowds' research for how to conduct Delphi studies. The Delphi method is a systematic way of determining expert consensus that is useful for answering questions that are not amenable to experimental and epidemiological methods. The validity of the approach is supported by 'wisdom of crowds' research showing that groups can make good judgements under certain conditions. In mental health research, the Delphi method has been used for making estimations where there is incomplete evidence (e.g. What is the global prevalence of dementia?), making predictions (e.g. What types of interactions with a person who is suicidal will reduce their chance of suicide?), determining collective values (e.g. What areas of research should be given greatest priority?) and defining foundational concepts (e.g. How should we define 'relapse'?). A range of experts have been used in Delphi research, including clinicians, researchers, consumers and caregivers. The Delphi method has a wide range of potential uses in mental health research. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Participatory methods in pediatric participatory research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijes, Hanneke A; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W

    2016-05-01

    Meaningful child participation in medical research is seen as important. In order to facilitate further development of participatory research, we performed a systematic literature study to describe and assess the available knowledge on participatory methods in pediatric research. A search was executed in five databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Cochrane. After careful screening of relevant papers, finally 24 documents were included in our analysis. Literature on participatory methods in pediatric research appears generally to be descriptive, whereby high-quality evidence is lacking. Overall, five groups of participatory methods for children could be distinguished: observational, verbal, written, visual, and active methods. The choice for one of these methods should be based on the child's age, on social and demographic characteristics, and on the research objectives. To date, these methods are still solely used for obtaining data, yet they are suitable for conducting meaningful participation. This may result in a successful partnership between children and researchers. Researchers conducting participatory research with children can use this systematic review in order to weigh the current knowledge about the participatory methods presented.

  10. 10 best resources on ... mixed methods research in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-05-01

    Mixed methods research has become increasingly popular in health systems. Qualitative approaches are often used to explain quantitative results and help to develop interventions or survey instruments. Mixed methods research is especially important in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, where understanding social, economic and cultural contexts are essential to assess health systems performance. To provide researchers and programme managers with a guide to mixed methods research in health systems, we review the best resources with a focus on LMICs. We selected 10 best resources (eight peer-reviewed articles and two textbooks) based on their importance and frequency of use (number of citations), comprehensiveness of content, usefulness to readers and relevance to health systems research in resource-limited contexts. We start with an overview on mixed methods research and discuss resources that are useful for a better understanding of the design and conduct of mixed methods research. To illustrate its practical applications, we provide examples from various countries (China, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and India) across different health topics (tuberculosis, malaria, HIV testing and healthcare costs). We conclude with some toolkits which suggest what to do when mixed methods findings conflict and provide guidelines for evaluating the quality of mixed methods research.

  11. Autoethnography as a research method: Advantages, limitations and criticisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G. Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to review the literature  on autoethnography as a research method. It will first describe what is meant by autoethnography, or evocative narratives, and consider the particular features of this type of method. The paper will go on to explore the advantages, limitations and criticisms this research method has endured since its emergence during the 1980s. Finally, the different approaches to the evaluation of autoethnography will be reviewed.

  12. [Application and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Intervention Studies in Rehabilitation Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, M A; Strohmer, J

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop and evaluate interventions in rehabilitation research a wide range of empirical research methods may be adopted. Qualitative research methods emphasize the relevance of an open research focus and a natural proximity to research objects. Accordingly, using qualitative methods special benefits may arise if researchers strive to identify and organize unknown information aspects (inductive purpose). Particularly, quantitative research methods require a high degree of standardization and transparency of the research process. Furthermore, a clear definition of efficacy and effectiveness exists (deductive purpose). These paradigmatic approaches are characterized by almost opposite key characteristics, application standards, purposes and quality criteria. Hence, specific aspects have to be regarded if researchers aim to select or combine those approaches in order to ensure an optimal gain in knowledge. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. [Mixed methods research in public health: issues and illustration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Pommier, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    For many years, researchers in a range of fields have combined quantitative and qualitative methods. However, the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods has only recently been conceptualized and defined as mixed methods research. Some authors have described the emerging field as a third methodological tradition (in addition to the qualitative and quantitative traditions). Mixed methods research combines different perspectives and facilitates the study of complex interventions or programs, particularly in public health, an area where interdisciplinarity is critical. However, the existing literature is primarily in English. By contrast, the literature in French remains limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the emergence of mixed methods research for francophone public health specialists. A literature review was conducted to identify the main characteristics of mixed methods research. The results provide an overall picture of the mixed methods approach through its history, definitions, and applications, and highlight the tools developed to clarify the approach (typologies) and to implement it (integration of results and quality standards). The tools highlighted in the literature review are illustrated by a study conducted in France. Mixed methods research opens new possibilities for examining complex research questions and provides relevant and promising opportunities for addressing current public health issues in France.

  14. Focus Group Interview in Family Practice Research: Implementing a qualitative research method

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Marjorie L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus group interviews, described as a qualitative research method with good potential in family medicine, are traced from their origins in market research to their growing role in sociology and medicine. Features of this method are described, including design, conduct, and analysis. Both proven and potential areas for primary care research using focus groups are outlined.

  15. Contextual and Analytic Qualities of Research Methods Exemplified in Research on Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lennart; Doumas, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss contextual and analytic qualities of research methods. The arguments are specified in relation to research on teaching. A specific investigation is used as an example to illustrate the general methodological approach. It is argued that research methods should be carefully grounded in an understanding of…

  16. Writing a Mixed Methods Report in Social Work Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Laura R.; Kovacs, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the development of mixed methods research and its use in social work. We then move onto a discussion of terms and designs, reasons for (and for not) using mixed methods. Drawing upon exemplars, we address how to write up a mixed methods study when (1) the sample is single; single for one part, with a subset for the…

  17. Neutron spectrometric methods for core inventory verification in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellinger, A.; Filges, U.; Hansen, W.; Knorr, J.; Schneider, R.

    2002-01-01

    In consequence of the Non-Proliferation Treaty safeguards, inspections are periodically made in nuclear facilities by the IAEA and the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate. The inspection methods are permanently improved. Therefore, the Core Inventory Verification method is being developed as an indirect method for the verification of the core inventory and to check the declared operation of research reactors

  18. Research on psychological evaluation method for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2007-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative psychology evaluation methods to the nuclear power plant operators were analyzed and discussed in the paper. The comparison analysis to the scope and result of application was carried out between method of outline figure fitted and method of fuzzy synthetic evaluation. The research results can be referenced to the evaluation of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  19. Qualitative methods in radiography research: a proposed framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.; Smith, T.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: While radiography is currently developing a research base, which is important in terms of professional development and informing practice and policy issues in the field, the amount of research published by radiographers remains limited. However, a range of qualitative methods offer further opportunities for radiography research. Purpose: This paper briefly introduces a number of key qualitative methods (qualitative interviews, focus groups, observational methods, diary methods and document/text analysis) and sketches one possible framework for future qualitative work in radiography research. The framework focuses upon three areas for study: intra-professional issues; inter-professional issues; and clinical practice, patient and health delivery issues. While the paper outlines broad areas for future focus rather than providing a detailed protocol for how individual pieces of research should be conducted, a few research questions have been chosen and examples of possible qualitative methods required to answer such questions are outlined for each area. Conclusion: Given the challenges and opportunities currently facing the development of a research base within radiography, the outline of key qualitative methods and broad areas suitable for their application is offered as a useful tool for those within the profession looking to embark upon or enhance their research career

  20. Mixed methods research - the best of both worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Hubert; Moore, Ann P; Hall, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    There has been a bias towards quantitative research approaches within manual therapy, which may have resulted in a narrow understanding of manual therapy practice. The aim of this Masterclass is to make a contribution to the expansion of methodologies used in manual therapy enquiry by discussing mixed methods research (MMR), a methodology which utilises both qualitative and quantitative methods within a single study in order to provide more comprehensive insights. To review rationales for MMR, as well as some of the common design options and potential difficulties. The paper also discusses theoretical frameworks that have been used to underpin qualitative and quantitative research, and ongoing debates about the possibility of combining them. Complexities associated with health and manual therapy cannot always be investigated satisfactorily by using a single research method. Some issues require a more comprehensive understanding, which may be provided by combining the strengths of quantitative and qualitative methods in a mixed methods study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving the Development of Student's Research Questions and Hypotheses in an Introductory Business Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, Lauria; Knowles, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In an introductory research methods course, students often develop research questions and hypotheses that are vague or confusing, do not contain measurable concepts, and are too narrow in scope or vision. Because of this, the final research projects often fail to provide useful information or address the overall research problem. A Lesson Study…

  2. Doing Mixed Methods Research Pragmatically: Implications for the Rediscovery of Pragmatism as a Research Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilzer, Martina Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the practical relevance of pragmatism as a research paradigm through the example of a piece of pragmatic research that not only used both quantitative and qualitative research methods but also exploited the inherent duality of the data analyzed. Thus, the article aims to make the case that pragmatism as a research paradigm…

  3. Creating and supporting a mixed methods health services research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Barbara; Cohen, Lauren W; Elliot, Amy E; Grabowski, David C; Fishman, Nancy W; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Horn, Susan D; Kemper, Peter

    2013-12-01

    To use the experience from a health services research evaluation to provide guidance in team development for mixed methods research. The Research Initiative Valuing Eldercare (THRIVE) team was organized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to evaluate The Green House nursing home culture change program. This article describes the development of the research team and provides insights into how funders might engage with mixed methods research teams to maximize the value of the team. Like many mixed methods collaborations, the THRIVE team consisted of researchers from diverse disciplines, embracing diverse methodologies, and operating under a framework of nonhierarchical, shared leadership that required new collaborations, engagement, and commitment in the context of finite resources. Strategies to overcome these potential obstacles and achieve success included implementation of a Coordinating Center, dedicated time for planning and collaborating across researchers and methodologies, funded support for in-person meetings, and creative optimization of resources. Challenges are inevitably present in the formation and operation of effective mixed methods research teams. However, funders and research teams can implement strategies to promote success. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  4. A CTSA Agenda to Advance Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Mark; Tunis, Sean; Whitlock, Evelyn P.; Pauker, Stephen G.; Basu, Anirban; Chilingerian, Jon; Harrell Jr., Frank E.; Meltzer, David O.; Montori, Victor M.; Shepard, Donald S.; Kent, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clinical research needs to be more useful to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers. To meet this need, more research should focus on patient‐centered outcomes, compare viable alternatives, and be responsive to individual patients’ preferences, needs, pathobiology, settings, and values. These features, which make comparative effectiveness research (CER) fundamentally patient‐centered, challenge researchers to adopt or develop methods that improve the timeliness, relevance, and practical application of clinical studies. In this paper, we describe 10 priority areas that address 3 critical needs for research on patient‐centered outcomes (PCOR): (1) developing and testing trustworthy methods to identify and prioritize important questions for research; (2) improving the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical research studies; and (3) linking the process and outcomes of actual practice to priorities for research on patient‐centered outcomes. We argue that the National Institutes of Health, through its clinical and translational research program, should accelerate the development and refinement of methods for CER by linking a program of methods research to the broader portfolio of large, prospective clinical and health system studies it supports. Insights generated by this work should be of enormous value to PCORI and to the broad range of organizations that will be funding and implementing CER. Clin Trans Sci 2011; Volume 4: 188–198 PMID:21707950

  5. Assessment of change in knowledge about research methods among delegates attending research methodology workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Shrivastava

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: There was increase in knowledge of the delegates after attending research methodology workshops. Participatory research methodology workshops are good methods of imparting knowledge, also the long term effects needs to be evaluated.

  6. More than Method?: A Discussion of Paradigm Differences within Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that mixed methods research (MMR) constitutes a coherent research paradigm and explores how different research paradigms exist within MMR. Tracing paradigmatic differences at the level of methods, ontology, and epistemology, two MMR strategies are discussed: nested analysis, recently presented by the American…

  7. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  8. Methods That Matter: Integrating Mixed Methods for More Effective Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M. Cameron, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    To do research that really makes a difference--the authors of this book argue--social scientists need questions and methods that reflect the complexity of the world. Bringing together a consortium of voices across a variety of fields, "Methods that Matter" offers compelling and successful examples of mixed methods research that do just…

  9. Mixed Methods in Biomedical and Health Services Research

    OpenAIRE

    Curry, Leslie A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; O’Cathain, Alicia; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods studies, in which qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single program of inquiry, can be valuable in biomedical and health services research, where the complementary strengths of each approach can yield greater insight into complex phenomena than either approach alone. Although interest in mixed methods is growing among science funders and investigators, written guidance on how to conduct and assess rigorous mixed methods studies is not readily accessible to th...

  10. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  11. Pieced Together: Collage as an Artist's Method for Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Vaughan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As a visual artist undertaking doctoral studies in education, the author required a research method that integrated her studio practice into her research process, giving equal weight to the visual and the linguistic. Her process of finding such a method is outlined in this article, which touches on arts-based research and practice-led research, and her ultimate approach of choice, collage. Collage, a versatile art form that accommodates multiple texts and visuals in a single work, has been proposed as a model for a “borderlands epistemology”: one that values multiple distinctive understandings and that deliberately incorporates nondominant modes of knowing, such as visual arts. As such, collage is particularly suited to a feminist, postmodern, postcolonial inquiry. This article offers a preliminary theorizing of collage as a method and is illustrated with images from the author's research/visual practice.

  12. Challenges in Exploratory Methods for Tuberculosis Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Helen; Abney, Kate; Abrams, Amber; Truyts, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Haunted by a legacy of apartheid governance that left millions in material poverty, South Africa has among the highest tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality rates in the world. Our Social Markers of TB research project shared a vision of working with ethnographic research methods to understand TB-infected persons, their families, care providers, and social networks. We argue that felt and enacted TB stigma and the related HIV-TB stigma impaired our ability to collect the necessary data for a full portrait of TB-infected persons and their lived conditions. To circumvent this limitation, each researcher improvised and augmented conventional anthropological methods with more creative, directed, and at times destabilizing methods. We present three case studies as useful illustrations of the complexities and challenges we encountered in our attempts to conduct ethically sound TB research. We discuss the implications of our call for "improvisation" for the politics of research and ethical oversight. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Methods, measures and indicators for evaluating benefits of transportation research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, Louw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide updated information by identifying and discussing methods, measures and indicators for evaluating benefits appropriate for transportation-related research facilities/programmes. The information has been...

  14. Measuring methods, registration and signal processing for magnetic field research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiello, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Some measuring methods and signal processing systems based on analogue and digital technics, which have been applied in magnetic field research using magnetometers with ferromagnetic transducers, are presented. (author)

  15. [Baseflow separation methods in hydrological process research: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei-Lei; Liu, Jing-Lin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2011-11-01

    Baseflow separation research is regarded as one of the most important and difficult issues in hydrology and ecohydrology, but lacked of unified standards in the concepts and methods. This paper introduced the theories of baseflow separation based on the definitions of baseflow components, and analyzed the development course of different baseflow separation methods. Among the methods developed, graph separation method is simple and applicable but arbitrary, balance method accords with hydrological mechanism but is difficult in application, whereas time series separation method and isotopic method can overcome the subjective and arbitrary defects caused by graph separation method, and thus can obtain the baseflow procedure quickly and efficiently. In recent years, hydrological modeling, digital filtering, and isotopic method are the main methods used for baseflow separation.

  16. Qualitative research methods in renal medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Selman, Lucy; Murtagh, Fliss E M

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methodologies are becoming increasingly widely used in health research. However, within some specialties, including renal medicine, qualitative approaches remain under-represented in the high-impact factor journals. Qualitative research can be undertaken: (i) as a stand-alone research method, addressing specific research questions; (ii) as part of a mixed methods approach alongside quantitative approaches or (iii) embedded in clinical trials, or during the development of complex interventions. The aim of this paper is to introduce qualitative research, including the rationale for choosing qualitative approaches, and guidance for ensuring quality when undertaking and reporting qualitative research. In addition, we introduce types of qualitative data (observation, interviews and focus groups) as well as some of the most commonly encountered methodological approaches (case studies, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, thematic analysis, framework analysis and content analysis). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  17. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  18. Advances in Statistical Methods for Substance Abuse Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes advances in statistical methods for prevention research with a particular focus on substance abuse prevention. Standard analysis methods are extended to the typical research designs and characteristics of the data collected in prevention research. Prevention research often includes longitudinal measurement, clustering of data in units such as schools or clinics, missing data, and categorical as well as continuous outcome variables. Statistical methods to handle these features of prevention data are outlined. Developments in mediation, moderation, and implementation analysis allow for the extraction of more detailed information from a prevention study. Advancements in the interpretation of prevention research results include more widespread calculation of effect size and statistical power, the use of confidence intervals as well as hypothesis testing, detailed causal analysis of research findings, and meta-analysis. The increased availability of statistical software has contributed greatly to the use of new methods in prevention research. It is likely that the Internet will continue to stimulate the development and application of new methods. PMID:12940467

  19. Bead Collage: An Arts-Based Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, "bead collage," an arts-based research method that invites participants to reflect, communicate and construct their experience through the manipulation of beads and found objects is explained. Emphasizing the significance of one's personal biography and experiences as a researcher, I discuss how my background as an…

  20. Book Review: Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Mcginn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (2nd edition By Mark Bray, Bob Adamson and Mark Mason (Eds. (2014, 453p ISBN: 978-988-17852-8-2, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre and Springer

  1. The research methods and model of protein turnover in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xilin; Yang Feng

    2002-01-01

    The author discussed the concept and research methods of protein turnover in animal body. The existing problems and the research results of animal protein turnover in recent years were presented. Meanwhile, the measures to improve the models of animal protein turnover were analyzed

  2. Credible Phenomenological Research: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Stephen V.; Korcuska, James S.

    2018-01-01

    The authors conducted a 3-phase investigation into the credible standards for phenomenological research practices identified in the literature and endorsed by a sample of counselor education qualitative research experts. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, the findings offer evidence that professional counseling has a distinctive format in which…

  3. The Documentary Research Method – Using Documentary Sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociologists in particular and social scientists in general tend to quickly turn to social surveys to collect data for their research projects. This stems from mainstream social science research tradition that is dominated by positivist and empiricist tradition that emphasizes quantification. There is however another method of data ...

  4. Ethnographic Decision Tree Modeling: A Research Method for Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kirk A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes ethnographic decision tree modeling (EDTM; C. H. Gladwin, 1989) as a mixed method design appropriate for counseling psychology research. EDTM is introduced and located within a postpositivist research paradigm. Decision theory that informs EDTM is reviewed, and the 2 phases of EDTM are highlighted. The 1st phase, model…

  5. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for investigating complex problems, but it has not been extensively used in construction management research. In South Africa, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital responsibility since the government called upon the ...

  6. Multidisciplinary Methods in Educational Technology Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Justus J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, there has been much dialogue, and debate, about the conduct of educational technology research and development. In this brief volume, the author helps clarify that dialogue by theoretically and empirically charting the research methods used in the field and provides much practical information on how to conduct…

  7. Moving Beyond a Deficit Perspective with Qualitative Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzul, Margaret; Evans, Judith F.; King, Rita; Tellier-Robinson, Dora

    2001-01-01

    Four researchers argue the merits of qualitative methodology and its particular relevance to those in special education who seek to move beyond a deficit perspective. Unconstrained by defined variables and decontextualized settings, qualitative methods allowed the researchers to extend the scope of their studies beyond originally stated research…

  8. Complexity, Methodology and Method: Crafting a Critical Process of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines a theoretical framework aiming to support the actions and reflections of researchers looking for a "method" in order to critically conceive the complexity of a scientific process of research. First, it starts with a brief overview of the core assumptions framing Morin's "paradigm of complexity" and Le…

  9. Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, J.R.; Bailey, L.; Ball, B.V.; Blanchard, P.; Budge, G.E.; Chejanovsky, N.; Chen, Y.P.; Gauthier, L.; Genersch, E.; Graaf, de D.C.; Ribiere, M.; Ryabov, E.; Smet, de L.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee virus research is an enormously broad area, ranging from subcellular molecular biology through physiology and behaviour, to individual and colony-level symptoms, transmission and epidemiology. The research methods used in virology are therefore equally diverse. This article covers those

  10. Prevalence of Mixed Methods Research in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amanda A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In wake of federal legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 that have called for "scientifically based research in education," this study examined the possible trends in mixed methods research articles published in 2 peer-reviewed mathematics education journals (n = 87) from 2002 to 2006. The study also illustrates how…

  11. Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Amy B.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methods research by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitative research, as well as…

  12. Deterministic operations research models and methods in linear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rader, David J

    2013-01-01

    Uniquely blends mathematical theory and algorithm design for understanding and modeling real-world problems Optimization modeling and algorithms are key components to problem-solving across various fields of research, from operations research and mathematics to computer science and engineering. Addressing the importance of the algorithm design process. Deterministic Operations Research focuses on the design of solution methods for both continuous and discrete linear optimization problems. The result is a clear-cut resource for understanding three cornerstones of deterministic operations resear

  13. Successful adaptation of a research methods course in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Leonardo; Vasquez, Diego; Loor, Cecilia; Palacio, Ana

    2017-01-01

    South America has low research productivity. The lack of a structured research curriculum is one of the barriers to conducting research. To report our experience adapting an active learning-based research methods curriculum to improve research productivity at a university in Ecuador. We used a mixed-method approach to test the adaptation of the research curriculum at Universidad Catolica Santiago de Guayaquil. The curriculum uses a flipped classroom and active learning approach to teach research methods. When adapted, it was longitudinal and had 16-hour programme of in-person teaching and a six-month follow-up online component. Learners were organized in theme groups according to interest, and each group had a faculty leader. Our primary outcome was research productivity, which was measured by the succesful presentation of the research project at a national meeting, or publication in a peer-review journal. Our secondary outcomes were knowledge and perceived competence before and after course completion. We conducted qualitative interviews of faculty members and students to evaluate themes related to participation in research. Fifty university students and 10 faculty members attended the course. We had a total of 15 groups. Both knowledge and perceived competence increased by 17 and 18 percentage points, respectively. The presentation or publication rate for the entire group was 50%. The qualitative analysis showed that a lack of research culture and curriculum were common barriers to research. A US-based curriculum can be successfully adapted in low-middle income countries. A research curriculum aids in achieving pre-determined milestones. UCSG: Universidad Catolica Santiago de Guayaquil; UM: University of Miami.

  14. Comparative Research: An Approach to Teaching Research Methods in Political Science and Public Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Trent A

    2016-01-01

    The teaching of research methods has been at the core of public administration education for almost 30 years. But since 1990, this journal has published only two articles on the teaching of research methods. Given the increasing emphasis on data driven decision-making, greater insight is needed into the best practices for teaching public…

  15. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  16. Symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective for multiple method research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, K M; Allen, M N

    2001-02-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research rely on different epistemological assumptions about the nature of knowledge. However, the majority of nurse researchers who use multiple method designs do not address the problem of differing theoretical perspectives. Traditionally, symbolic interactionism has been viewed as one perspective underpinning qualitative research, but it is also the basis for quantitative studies. Rooted in social psychology, symbolic interactionism has a rich intellectual heritage that spans more than a century. Underlying symbolic interactionism is the major assumption that individuals act on the basis of the meaning that things have for them. The purpose of this paper is to present symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective for multiple method designs with the aim of expanding the dialogue about new methodologies. Symbolic interactionism can serve as a theoretical perspective for conceptually clear and soundly implemented multiple method research that will expand the understanding of human health behaviour.

  17. Data Mining and Machine Learning Methods for Dementia Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Patient data in clinical research often includes large amounts of structured information, such as neuroimaging data, neuropsychological test results, and demographic variables. Given the various sources of information, we can develop computerized methods that can be a great help to clinicians to discover hidden patterns in the data. The computerized methods often employ data mining and machine learning algorithms, lending themselves as the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool that assists clinicians in making diagnostic decisions. In this chapter, we review state-of-the-art methods used in dementia research, and briefly introduce some recently proposed algorithms subsequently.

  18. The research on business rules classification and specification methods

    OpenAIRE

    Baltrušaitis, Egidijus

    2005-01-01

    The work is based on the research of business rules classification and specification methods. The basics of business rules approach are discussed. The most common business rules classification and modeling methods are analyzed. Business rules modeling techniques and tools for supporting them in the information systems are presented. Basing on the analysis results business rules classification method is proposed. Templates for every business rule type are presented. Business rules structuring ...

  19. The challenge of conceptual stretching in multi-method research

    OpenAIRE

    Ahram, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Multi-method research (MMR) has gained enthusiastic support among political scientists in recent years. Much of the impetus for MMR has been based on the seemingly intuitive logic of convergent triangulation: two tests are better than one, since a hypothesis that had survived a series of tests with different methods would be regarded as more valid than a hypothesis tested only a single method. In their seminal Design-ing Social Inquiry, King, Keohane, and Verba (1994) argue that combining qu...

  20. Perceptions of physiotherapists towards research: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J; Hale, L; Mirfin-Veitch, B; Harland, T

    2016-06-01

    To explore the perceptions of physiotherapists towards the use of and participation in research. Concurrent mixed methods research, combining in-depth interviews with three questionnaires (demographics, Edmonton Research Orientation Survey, visual analogue scales for confidence and motivation to participate in research). One physiotherapy department in a rehabilitation hospital, consisting of seven specialised areas. Twenty-five subjects {four men and 21 women, mean age 38 [standard deviation (SD) 11] years} who had been registered as a physiotherapist for a mean period of 15 (SD 10) years participated in this study. They were registered with the New Zealand Board of Physiotherapy, held a current practising certificate, and were working as a physiotherapist or physiotherapy/allied health manager at the hospital. The primary outcome measure was in-depth interviews and the secondary outcome measures were the three questionnaires. Physiotherapists were generally positive towards research, but struggled with the concept of research, the available literature and the time to commit to research. Individual confidence and orientation towards research seemed to influence how these barriers were perceived. This study showed that physiotherapists struggle to implement research in their daily practice and become involved in research. Changing physiotherapists' conceptions of research, making it more accessible and providing dedicated research time could facilitate increased involvement in the physiotherapy profession. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. From research methods to methodical researcher: Making use of the student voice towards a more comprehensive module evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hast, Michael

    2015-01-01

    It is not uncommon for undergraduate students to feel aversion towards research methods teaching. This does not change the fact that research methods play a key role in their education. Targeting module design is imperative to ensure success. However, end-of-module student evaluations may provide a false sense of security regarding satisfaction and learnt knowledge. In order to approach module design more effectively it may instead be necessary to view module evaluations from a delayed perspe...

  2. Research Circles - a method for developing guidance practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This video reports on our work with using research circles to improve our understanding of how to provide guidance and counseling to help young people in danger of dropping out of school. The video is based on the paper: Research Circles -- a method for developing guidance practices, and was pres......This video reports on our work with using research circles to improve our understanding of how to provide guidance and counseling to help young people in danger of dropping out of school. The video is based on the paper: Research Circles -- a method for developing guidance practices......, and was presented at the Conference for Social Justice, Prosperity and Sustainable Employment 2012 by assistant professor Helle Merete Nordentoft from DPU (http://edu.au.dk/). The film communicating the research paper was created by Mie Nørgaard...

  3. Mixed-Methods Research in Nutrition and Dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Harris, Jeffrey E

    2017-05-01

    This work focuses on mixed-methods research (MMR) and is the 11th in a series exploring the importance of research design, statistical analysis, and epidemiologic methods as applied to nutrition and dietetics research. MMR research is an investigative technique that applies both quantitative and qualitative data. The purpose of this article is to define MMR; describe its history and nature; provide reasons for its use; describe and explain the six different MMR designs; describe sample selection; and provide guidance in data collection, analysis, and inference. MMR concepts are applied and integrated with nutrition-related scenarios in real-world research contexts and summary recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Methods in Entrepreneurship Education Research: A Review and Integrative Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per; Trolle Elmholdt, Stine; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    2014-01-01

    is fragmented both conceptually and methodologically. Findings suggest that the methods applied in entrepreneurship education research cluster in two groups: 1. quantitative studies of the extent and effect of entrepreneurship education, and 2. qualitative single case studies of different courses and programmes....... It integrates qualitative and quantitative techniques, the use of research teams consisting of insiders (teachers studying their own teaching) and outsiders (research collaborators studying the education) as well as multiple types of data. To gain both in-depth and analytically generalizable studies...... a variety of helpful methods, explore the potential relation between insiders and outsiders in the research process, and discuss how different types of data can be combined. The integrated framework urges researchers to extend investments in methodological efforts and to enhance the in-depth understanding...

  5. Instrumental variable methods in comparative safety and effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M Alan; Rassen, Jeremy A; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental variable (IV) methods have been proposed as a potential approach to the common problem of uncontrolled confounding in comparative studies of medical interventions, but IV methods are unfamiliar to many researchers. The goal of this article is to provide a non-technical, practical introduction to IV methods for comparative safety and effectiveness research. We outline the principles and basic assumptions necessary for valid IV estimation, discuss how to interpret the results of an IV study, provide a review of instruments that have been used in comparative effectiveness research, and suggest some minimal reporting standards for an IV analysis. Finally, we offer our perspective of the role of IV estimation vis-à-vis more traditional approaches based on statistical modeling of the exposure or outcome. We anticipate that IV methods will be often underpowered for drug safety studies of very rare outcomes, but may be potentially useful in studies of intended effects where uncontrolled confounding may be substantial.

  6. Mixed methods in psychotherapy research: A review of method(ology) integration in psychotherapy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Theodore T; Lockard, Allison J

    2018-06-13

    Mixed methods can foster depth and breadth in psychological research. However, its use remains in development in psychotherapy research. Our purpose was to review the use of mixed methods in psychotherapy research. Thirty-one studies were identified via the PRISMA systematic review method. Using Creswell & Plano Clark's typologies to identify design characteristics, we assessed each study for rigor and how each used mixed methods. Key features of mixed methods designs and these common patterns were identified: (a) integration of clients' perceptions via mixing; (b) understanding group psychotherapy; (c) integrating methods with cases and small samples; (d) analyzing clinical data as qualitative data; and (e) exploring cultural identities in psychotherapy through mixed methods. The review is discussed with respect to the value of integrating multiple data in single studies to enhance psychotherapy research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Social network analysis: Presenting an underused method for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, James Michael; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2018-06-01

    This paper introduces social network analysis as a versatile method with many applications in nursing research. Social networks have been studied for years in many social science fields. The methods continue to advance but remain unknown to most nursing scholars. Discussion paper. English language and interpreted literature was searched from Ovid Healthstar, CINAHL, PubMed Central, Scopus and hard copy texts from 1965 - 2017. Social network analysis first emerged in nursing literature in 1995 and appears minimally through present day. To convey the versatility and applicability of social network analysis in nursing, hypothetical scenarios are presented. The scenarios are illustrative of three approaches to social network analysis and include key elements of social network research design. The methods of social network analysis are underused in nursing research, primarily because they are unknown to most scholars. However, there is methodological flexibility and epistemological versatility capable of supporting quantitative and qualitative research. The analytic techniques of social network analysis can add new insight into many areas of nursing inquiry, especially those influenced by cultural norms. Furthermore, visualization techniques associated with social network analysis can be used to generate new hypotheses. Social network analysis can potentially uncover findings not accessible through methods commonly used in nursing research. Social networks can be analysed based on individual-level attributes, whole networks and subgroups within networks. Computations derived from social network analysis may stand alone to answer a research question or incorporated as variables into robust statistical models. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mixed Methods in Biomedical and Health Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; O’Cathain, Alicia; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods studies, in which qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single program of inquiry, can be valuable in biomedical and health services research, where the complementary strengths of each approach can yield greater insight into complex phenomena than either approach alone. Although interest in mixed methods is growing among science funders and investigators, written guidance on how to conduct and assess rigorous mixed methods studies is not readily accessible to the general readership of peer-reviewed biomedical and health services journals. Furthermore, existing guidelines for publishing mixed methods studies are not well known or applied by researchers and journal editors. Accordingly, this paper is intended to serve as a concise, practical resource for readers interested in core principles and practices of mixed methods research. We briefly describe mixed methods approaches and present illustrations from published biomedical and health services literature, including in cardiovascular care, summarize standards for the design and reporting of these studies, and highlight four central considerations for investigators interested in using these methods. PMID:23322807

  9. Sampling Methods in Cardiovascular Nursing Research: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandola, Damanpreet; Banner, Davina; O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; Jassal, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular nursing research covers a wide array of topics from health services to psychosocial patient experiences. The selection of specific participant samples is an important part of the research design and process. The sampling strategy employed is of utmost importance to ensure that a representative sample of participants is chosen. There are two main categories of sampling methods: probability and non-probability. Probability sampling is the random selection of elements from the population, where each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. There are five main types of probability sampling including simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and multi-stage sampling. Non-probability sampling methods are those in which elements are chosen through non-random methods for inclusion into the research study and include convenience sampling, purposive sampling, and snowball sampling. Each approach offers distinct advantages and disadvantages and must be considered critically. In this research column, we provide an introduction to these key sampling techniques and draw on examples from the cardiovascular research. Understanding the differences in sampling techniques may aid nurses in effective appraisal of research literature and provide a reference pointfor nurses who engage in cardiovascular research.

  10. Trafficking and Health: A Systematic Review of Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Abby C; Arcara, Jennet; Graham, Laurie M; Macy, Rebecca J

    2018-04-01

    Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a human rights violation with serious public health consequences. Unfortunately, assessing TIP and its health sequelae rigorously and reliably is challenging due to TIP's clandestine nature, variation in definitions of TIP, and the need to use research methods that ensure studies are ethical and feasible. To help guide practice, policy, and research to assess TIP and health, we undertook a systematic literature review of 70 peer-reviewed, published articles to (a) identify TIP and health research methods being used, (b) determine what we can learn about TIP and health from these varied methodologies, and (c) determine the gaps that exist in health-focused TIP research. Results revealed that there are various quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods being used to investigate TIP and health. Furthermore, findings show that the limitations of current methodologies affect what is known about TIP and health. In particular, varying definitions, participant recruitment strategies, ethical standards, and outcome measures all affect what is known about TIP and health. Moreover, findings demonstrate an urgent need for representative and nonpurposive recruitment strategies in future investigations of TIP and health as well as research on risk and protective factors related to TIP and health, intervention effectiveness, long-term health outcomes, and research on trafficked people beyond women trafficked for sex. We offer recommendations for research, policy, and practice based on review results.

  11. Kontexte qualitativer Sozialforschung: Arts-Based Research, Mixed Methods und Emergent Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Margrit

    2017-01-01

    In dem vorliegenden Beitrag werden drei Kontexte qualitativer Sozialforschung genauer dargestellt, die in den vergangenen Jahren zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen haben: Arts-Based Research, Mixed Methods und Emergent Methods. Es werden verschiedene Ansätze und Varianten von Arts-Informed und Arts-Based Research genauer beschrieben, und es wird argumentiert, dass Arts-Based Research eine eigenständige Forschungstradition darstellt, die der qualitativen Sozialforschung wichtige Impulse geben kan...

  12. Mixed Methods Research: The "Thing-ness" Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary mixed methods research (MMR) veers away from a "loosely bounded" to a "bounded" concept that has important negative implications for how qualitatively driven mixed methods approaches are positioned in the field of mixed methods and overall innovation in the praxis of MMR. I deploy the concept of reification defined as taking an object/abstraction and treating it as if it were real such that it takes on the quality of "thing-ness," having a concrete independent existence. I argue that the contemporary reification of mixed methods as a "thing" is fueled by three interrelated factors: (a) the growing formalization of mixed methods as design, (b) the unexamined belief in the "synergy" of mixed methods and, (c) the deployment of a "practical pragmatism" as the "philosophical partner" for mixed methods inquiry. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. BREEAM [Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method] BRE [Building Research Establishment] assessment method for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1994-01-01

    Buildings account for a large share of environmental impacts in their construction, use, and demolition. In western Europe, buildings account for ca 50% of primary energy use (hence CO 2 output), far outweighing the contribution of the transport and industrial sectors. Other impacts from building energy use include the use of chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons for cooling. In the United Kingdom, the Building Research Establishment (BRE) has developed a certificate system for environmental labelling of buildings so that the performance of the building against a set of defined environmental criteria can be made visible to clients. This system thus rewards positive actions to improve the environmental performance of buildings and assists in marketing to an environmentally aware clientele. Issues included in assessments for awarding the certificate are addressed under three main headings: global issues and use of resources, local issues, and indoor issues. Global issues include ozone depletion and CO 2 emissions; local issues include public health and water conservation; and indoor issues include air quality and lighting. 8 refs., 1 tab

  14. Participatory action as a research method with public health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Cheryl; Cohen, Benita; Mignone, Javier; Chartier, Mariette J; Lutfiyya, Zana

    2018-02-28

    This article explores and describes participatory action research (PAR) as a preferred method in addressing nursing practice issues. This is the first study that used PAR with public health nurses (PHNs) in Canada to develop a professional practice model. Participatory action research is a sub-category of action research that incorporates feminist and critical theory with foundations in the field of social psychology. For nurses, critical analysis of long-established beliefs and practices through PAR contributes to emancipatory knowledge regarding the impact of traditional hierarchies on their practice. This study used participatory action, a non-traditional but systematic research method, which assisted participants to develop a solution to a long-standing organizational issue. The stages of generating concerns, participatory action, acting on concerns, reflection and evaluation were implemented from 2012 - 2013 in an urban Canadian city, to develop a professional practice model for PHNs. Four sub-themes specific to PAR are discussed. These are "participatory action research engaged PHNs in development of a professional practice model;" "the participatory action research cycles of "Look, Think, Act" expanded participants' views;" "participatory action research increased awareness of organizational barriers;" and "participatory action research promoted individual empowerment and system transformation." This study resulted in individual and system change that may not have been possible without the use of PAR. The focus was engagement of participants and recognition of their lived experience, which facilitated PHNs' empowerment, leadership and consciousness-raising. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Principles, Methods of Participatory Research: Proposal for Draft Animal Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The meeting of researchers, who question themselves on the efficiency of their actions when they accompany stakeholders during change processes, provides the opportunity to ponder on the research methods to develop when working together with the stakeholders: participative research, research-action, research-intervention… The author proposes to present the research-action approach as new. If the three phases of research-action are important, the negotiation phase is essential, because it enables contract formalization among partners (ethical aspect, development of a common language, and formalization of structuring efforts between researchers with various specialties and stakeholders. In the research-action approach, the managing set-ups (scientific committees… play a major role: they guarantee at the same time a solution to problems, production, and the legitimacy of the scientific knowledge produced. In conclusion, the author suggests ways to develop research-action in the field of animal traction in order to conceive new socio-technical and organizational innovations that will make the use of this technique easier.

  16. Introduction to quantitative research methods an investigative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balnaves, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods is a student-friendly introduction to quantitative research methods and basic statistics. It uses a detective theme throughout the text and in multimedia courseware to show how quantitative methods have been used to solve real-life problems. The book focuses on principles and techniques that are appropriate to introductory level courses in media, psychology and sociology. Examples and illustrations are drawn from historical and contemporary research in the social sciences. The multimedia courseware provides tutorial work on sampling, basic statistics, and techniques for seeking information from databases and other sources. The statistics modules can be used as either part of a detective games or directly in teaching and learning. Brief video lessons in SPSS, using real datasets, are also a feature of the CD-ROM.

  17. An overview of methods for comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Weinberger, Morris; Chen, Ronald C; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a broad category of outcomes research encompassing many different methods employed by researchers and clinicians from numerous disciplines. The goal of cancer-focused CER is to generate new knowledge to assist cancer stakeholders in making informed decisions that will improve health care and outcomes of both individuals and populations. There are numerous CER methods that may be used to examine specific questions, including randomized controlled trials, observational studies, systematic literature reviews, and decision sciences modeling. Each has its strengths and weaknesses. To both inform and serve as a reference for readers of this issue of Seminars in Radiation Oncology as well as the broader oncology community, we describe CER and several of the more commonly used approaches and analytical methods. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. THE USE OF RANKING SAMPLING METHOD WITHIN MARKETING RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing and statistical literature available to practitioners provides a wide range of sampling methods that can be implemented in the context of marketing research. Ranking sampling method is based on taking apart the general population into several strata, namely into several subdivisions which are relatively homogenous regarding a certain characteristic. In fact, the sample will be composed by selecting, from each stratum, a certain number of components (which can be proportional or non-proportional to the size of the stratum until the pre-established volume of the sample is reached. Using ranking sampling within marketing research requires the determination of some relevant statistical indicators - average, dispersion, sampling error etc. To that end, the paper contains a case study which illustrates the actual approach used in order to apply the ranking sample method within a marketing research made by a company which provides Internet connection services, on a particular category of customers – small and medium enterprises.

  19. Guidance for using mixed methods design in nursing practice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Newman, David; Dyess, Susan; Piyakong, Duangporn; Liehr, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The mixed methods approach purposefully combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques, enabling a multi-faceted understanding of nursing phenomena. The purpose of this article is to introduce three mixed methods designs (parallel; sequential; conversion) and highlight interpretive processes that occur with the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings. Real world examples of research studies conducted by the authors will demonstrate the processes leading to the merger of data. The examples include: research questions; data collection procedures and analysis with a focus on synthesizing findings. Based on experience with mixed methods studied, the authors introduce two synthesis patterns (complementary; contrasting), considering application for practice and implications for research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brief guidelines for methods and statistics in medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Ab Rahman, Jamalludin

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as a practical guide to methods and statistics in medical research. It includes step-by-step instructions on using SPSS software for statistical analysis, as well as relevant examples to help those readers who are new to research in health and medical fields. Simple texts and diagrams are provided to help explain the concepts covered, and print screens for the statistical steps and the SPSS outputs are provided, together with interpretations and examples of how to report on findings. Brief Guidelines for Methods and Statistics in Medical Research offers a valuable quick reference guide for healthcare students and practitioners conducting research in health related fields, written in an accessible style.

  1. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent design, and design complexity. There also are multiple secondary dimensions that need to be considered during the design process. We explain ten secondary dimensions of design to be considered for each research study. We also provide two case studies showing how the mixed designs were constructed.

  2. Consensus of recommendations guiding comparative effectiveness research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jacob B; McConeghy, Robert; Heinrich, Kirstin; Gatto, Nicolle M; Caffrey, Aisling R

    2016-12-01

    Because of an increasing demand for quality comparative effectiveness research (CER), methods guidance documents have been published, such as those from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Our objective was to identify CER methods guidance documents and compare them to produce a summary of important recommendations which could serve as a consensus of CER method recommendations. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify CER methods guidance documents published through 2014. Identified documents were analyzed for methods guidance recommendations. Individual recommendations were categorized to determine the degree of overlap. We identified nine methods guidance documents, which contained a total of 312 recommendations, 97% of which were present in two or more documents. All nine documents recommended transparency and adaptation for relevant stakeholders in the interpretation and dissemination of results. Other frequently shared CER methods recommendations included: study design and operational definitions should be developed a priori and allow for replication (n = 8 documents); focus on areas with gaps in current clinical knowledge that are relevant to decision-makers (n = 7); validity of measures, instruments, and data should be assessed and discussed (n = 7); outcomes, including benefits and harms, should be clinically meaningful, and objectively measured (n = 7). Assessment for and strategies to minimize bias (n = 6 documents), confounding (n = 6), and heterogeneity (n = 4) were also commonly shared recommendations between documents. We offer a field-consensus guide based on nine CER methods guidance documents that will aid researchers in designing CER studies and applying CER methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Creative Approaches to Teaching Graduate Research Methods Workshops

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Reilly

    2017-01-01

    Engagement and deeper learning were enhanced by developing several innovative teaching strategies delivered in Research Methods workshops to Graduate Business Students.  Focusing primarily on students adopting a creative approach to formulating a valid research question for undertaking a dissertation successfully. These techniques are applicable to most subject domains to ensure student engagement.  Addressing the various multiple intelligences and learning styles existing within groups while...

  4. Spirituality in Nursing: An Overview of Research Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Martins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality has been widely considered important for patients’ health and for healthcare practice and is related to connectedness, meaning in life, and transcendence. Research concerning spirituality is growing rapidly, and the implementation of spiritual care should be based on evidence. This literature review aims to describe the methods that have been used in nursing research focusing on spirituality. The electronic search on databases through EBSCOhost identified 2091 citations, and a total of 231 studies were included. The methods used in research on spirituality in nursing are mostly quantitative (52.4%, but some are qualitative (42.8% and mixed (4.8%. Regarding the quantitative research, most studies are observational (90.9%, and these are mainly descriptive (82.7% and correlational (17.3%. Most studies used a cross-sectional design (98.7%, and few used longitudinal design (1.3%. The qualitative research is descriptive (39.4%, phenomenological (26.3%, and grounded theory (14.1%. Research on spirituality in nursing is based on both main paradigms (quantitative and qualitative, but also on mixed methods. Studies have mainly been conducted using cross-sectional designs when compared to longitudinal designs. The latter seem to constitute a gap in nursing knowledge and evidence regarding the changes of spirituality over time, which is particularly important for nurses’ delivery of spiritual care.

  5. Distributed Research Project Scheduling Based on Multi-Agent Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Nicoleta Bodea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Different project planning and scheduling approaches have been developed. The Operational Research (OR provides two major planning techniques: CPM (Critical Path Method and PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique. Due to projects complexity and difficulty to use classical methods, new approaches were developed. Artificial Intelligence (AI initially promoted the automatic planner concept, but model-based planning and scheduling methods emerged later on. The paper adresses the project scheduling optimization problem, when projects are seen as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS. Taken into consideration two different approaches for project scheduling optimization: TCPSP (Time- Constrained Project Scheduling and RCPSP (Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling, the paper focuses on a multiagent implementation in MATLAB for TCSP. Using the research project as a case study, the paper includes a comparison between two multi-agent methods: Genetic Algorithm (GA and Ant Colony Algorithm (ACO.

  6. Review: Gregory C. Stanczak (Ed. (2007. Visual Research Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Traue

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this edited volume, research methods employing the camera as a means of documentation in the context of ethnographic research are presented and discussed. To a lesser extent, the volume deals with research strategies for dealing with images produced by social actors, such as propaganda photography and video diaries. Special attention is given to the way the camera facilitates the process of communication in ethnographic research. This collection may be very helpful for readers looking for a discussion of methodological problems and practical advice for the use of cameras, especially in the context of ethnographic research. Theoretical issues of visuality and visual performance in contemporary societies are mentioned, but not treated in depth. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090265

  7. METHOD OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. Rubinchik

    2015-01-01

    The article suggests a methodology of historical research of preschool education. The analysis of theoretical and methodical provisions for the education of preschool children. Discusses the importance of the achievements of the Soviet system of preschool upbringing and education. Shows the principles, directions, methods and conditions for their implementation when working with children of preschool age. Discusses the state of childhood in modern Russia, problems of development of preschool ...

  8. The Role of Qualitative Research Methods in Discrete Choice Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Caroline; Rigby, Dan; Payne, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Background. The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. Methods. DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive). Authors (n = 91) of papers reporting the use of QR were invited to complete an online survey eliciting their views about using the methods. Results. A total of 254 healthcare DCEs were included in the review; of these, 111 (44%) did not report using any qualitative methods; 114 (45%) reported “basic” information; and 29 (11%) reported or cited “extensive” use of qualitative methods. Studies reporting the use of qualitative methods used them to select attributes and/or levels (n = 95; 66%) and/or pilot the DCE survey (n = 26; 18%). Popular qualitative methods included focus groups (n = 63; 44%) and interviews (n = 109; 76%). Forty-four studies (31%) reported the analytical approach, with content (n = 10; 7%) and framework analysis (n = 5; 4%) most commonly reported. The survey identified that all responding authors (n = 50; 100%) found that qualitative methods added value to their DCE study, but many (n = 22; 44%) reported that journals were uninterested in the reporting of QR results. Conclusions. Despite recommendations that QR methods be used alongside DCEs, the use of QR methods is not consistently reported. The lack of reporting risks the inference that QR methods are of little use in DCE research, contradicting practitioners’ assessments. Explicit guidelines would enable more clarity and consistency in reporting, and journals should facilitate such reporting via online supplementary materials. PMID:28061040

  9. Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L

    2008-12-01

    Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts.

  10. The role of mixed methods in improved cookstove research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Debbi; Hyseni, Lirije; Bashin, Michelle; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Pope, Daniel; Sage, Michael; Bruce, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of promoting access to clean and efficient household energy for cooking and heating is a critical issue facing low- and middle-income countries today. Along with clean fuels, improved cookstoves (ICSs) continue to play an important part in efforts to reduce the 4 million annual premature deaths attributed to household air pollution. Although a range of ICSs are available, there is little empirical evidence on appropriate behavior change approaches to inform adoption and sustained used at scale. Specifically, evaluations using either quantitative or qualitative methods provide an incomplete picture of the challenges in facilitating ICS adoption. This article examines how studies that use the strengths of both these approaches can offer important insights into behavior change in relation to ICS uptake and scale-up. Epistemological approaches, study design frameworks, methods of data collection, analytical approaches, and issues of validity and reliability in the context of mixed methods ICS research are examined, and the article presents an example study design from an evaluation study in Kenya incorporating a nested approach and a convergent case oriented design. The authors discuss the benefits and methodological challenges of mixed-methods approaches in the context of researching behavior change and ICS use recognizing that such methods represent relatively uncharted territory. The authors propose that more published examples are needed to provide frameworks for other researchers seeking to apply mixed methods in this context and suggest a comprehensive research agenda is required that incorporates integrated mixed-methods approaches, to provide best evidence for future scale-up.

  11. Mixed-Methods Research in the Discipline of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Harrison, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of 294 mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing. Creswell and Plano Clark's typology was most frequently used along with concurrent timing. Bivariate statistics was most often the highest level of statistics reported in the results. As for qualitative data analysis, content analysis was most frequently used. The majority of nurse researchers did not specifically address the purpose, paradigm, typology, priority, timing, interaction, or integration of their mixed-methods studies. Strategies are suggested for improving the design, conduct, and reporting of mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing.

  12. Creative and Arts-Based Research Methods in Academic Research. Lessons from a Participatory Research Project in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenda van der Vaart

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the discussion on the value of creative and arts-based research methods to researchers interested in community resilience. Based on a participatory research project that used a mix of these methods conducted in a Dutch village, we provide more nuanced, concrete insights into their value. We elaborate on the three project stages: walking interviews, group discussions, and a creative workshop that resulted in an exhibition, and on the challenges encountered during our project. We discuss how each project stage contributed to producing multifaceted knowledge. Researchers can benefit from the discussions about the process and implications of creative and arts-based methods such as ours as, to date, there has been relatively little methodological reflection on these methods. Based on our study, we conclude that despite some challenges, creative and arts-based research methods have much to offer researchers interested in community resilience. We found they can: 1. generate deep insight by going beyond rational-cognitive ways of knowing and providing new ways of understanding people's real lived experiences and views; and 2. offer ways to "give back" and contribute to a community, potentially igniting a spark among community members to engage in further action and contribute to their community's resilience. This aligns with the, currently often articulated, aims of researchers to directly benefit those involved and to share their research findings with a broader non-academic audience.

  13. Emerging research methods and their application to road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarko, Andrew; Boyle, Linda Ng; Montella, Alfonso

    2013-12-01

    The study of road safety has seen great strides over the past few decades with advances in analytical methods and research tools that allow researchers to provide insights into the complex interactions of the driver, vehicle, and roadway. Data collection methods range from traditional traffic and roadway sensors to instrumented vehicles and driving simulators, capable of providing detailed data on both the normal driving conditions and the circumstances surrounding a safety critical event. In September 2011, the Third International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation was held in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, which was hosted by the Purdue University Center for Road Safety and sponsored by the Transportation Research Board and its three committees: ANB20 Safety Data, Analysis and Evaluation, AND30 Simulation and Measurement of Vehicle and Operator Performance, and ABJ95 Visualization in Transportation. The conference brought together two hundred researchers from all over the world demonstrating some of the latest research methods to quantify crash causality and associations, and model road safety. This special issue is a collection of 14 papers that were presented at the conference and then peer-reviewed through this journal. These papers showcase the types of analytical tools needed to examine various crash types, the use of naturalistic and on-road data to validate the use of surrogate measures of safety, and the value of driving simulators to examine high-risk situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Qualitative Research Methods in Discrete Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Caroline; Rigby, Dan; Payne, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive). Authors ( n = 91) of papers reporting the use of QR were invited to complete an online survey eliciting their views about using the methods. A total of 254 healthcare DCEs were included in the review; of these, 111 (44%) did not report using any qualitative methods; 114 (45%) reported "basic" information; and 29 (11%) reported or cited "extensive" use of qualitative methods. Studies reporting the use of qualitative methods used them to select attributes and/or levels ( n = 95; 66%) and/or pilot the DCE survey ( n = 26; 18%). Popular qualitative methods included focus groups ( n = 63; 44%) and interviews ( n = 109; 76%). Forty-four studies (31%) reported the analytical approach, with content ( n = 10; 7%) and framework analysis ( n = 5; 4%) most commonly reported. The survey identified that all responding authors ( n = 50; 100%) found that qualitative methods added value to their DCE study, but many ( n = 22; 44%) reported that journals were uninterested in the reporting of QR results. Despite recommendations that QR methods be used alongside DCEs, the use of QR methods is not consistently reported. The lack of reporting risks the inference that QR methods are of little use in DCE research, contradicting practitioners' assessments. Explicit guidelines would enable more clarity and consistency in reporting, and journals should facilitate such reporting via online supplementary materials.

  15. Institutional Researchers' Use of Qualitative Research Methods for Institutional Accountability at Two Year Colleges in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Bishar M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined institutional researchers' use of qualitative methods to document institutional accountability and effectiveness at two-year colleges in Texas. Participants were Institutional Research and Effectiveness personnel. Data were collected through a survey consisting of closed and open ended questions which was administered…

  16. Learning as Researchers and Teachers: The Development of a Pedagogical Culture for Social Science Research Methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Daniel; Nind, Melanie; Wiles, Rose

    2014-01-01

    In light of calls to improve the capacity for social science research within UK higher education, this article explores the possibilities for an emerging pedagogy for research methods. A lack of pedagogical culture in this field has been identified by previous studies. In response, we examine pedagogical literature surrounding approaches for…

  17. Experiential Approach to Teaching Statistics and Research Methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistics and research methods are among the more demanding topics for students of education to master at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It is our conviction that teaching these topics should be combined with real practical experiences. We discuss an experiential teaching/ learning approach that ...

  18. Humanities Research Methods in a Liberal Arts and Science Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andeweg, A.; Slob, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    The humanities research methods course at University College Utrecht is one of the graduation requirements for students who major in a humanities discipline, in law, or in politics. There are several challenges to the design of such a course in a Liberal Arts and Sciences (LA&S) context. In our

  19. Brief encounters with qualitative methods in health research: conversation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a brief introductory outline of the conversation analytic method, and some of its applications in health research. Drawing on extant literature and an illustrative original case study of suicide risk-assessment in primary care, the core tenets and techniques of the approach are described.

  20. [The interview as a research data collection method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The interview is a widely-used method for collecting research data, notably in qualitative and mixed protocols. However, it is an umbrella term which groups together numerous types of interviews adapted to the methodological diversity which characterises nursing science. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. The Value of Qualitative Methods in Social Validity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leko, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    One quality indicator of intervention research is the extent to which the intervention has a high degree of social validity, or practicality. In this study, I drew on Wolf's framework for social validity and used qualitative methods to ascertain five middle schoolteachers' perceptions of the social validity of System 44®--a phonics-based reading…

  2. Shared Journaling as Peer Support in Teaching Qualitative Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Aine M.; Sharp, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Teaching qualitative research methods (QRM), particularly early on in one's academic career, can be challenging. This paper describes shared peer journaling as one way in which to cope with challenges such as complex debates in the field and student resistance to interpretive paradigms. Literature on teaching QRM and the pedagogical value of…

  3. Optimization Methods in Operations Research and Systems Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. Optimization Methods in Operations Research and Systems Analysis. V G Tikekar. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 91-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Peer-Assisted Learning in Research Methods and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anna; Meade, Claire; Watling, Rosamond

    2012-01-01

    Feedback from students on a Level 1 Research Methods and Statistics module, studied as a core part of a BSc Psychology programme, highlighted demand for additional tutorials to help them to understand basic concepts. Students in their final year of study commonly request work experience to enhance their employability. All students on the Level 1…

  5. Attitude Research in Science Education: Contemporary Models and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Frank E.; Kobala, Thomas R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a summary of models and methods of attitude research which are embedded in the theoretical tenets of social psychology and in the broader framework of constructivism. Focuses on the construction of social reality rather than the construction of physical reality. Models include theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and…

  6. Structured methods for customer-oriented innovation research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    customers might have told them if they had only properly been asked beforehand. In the following, a short introduction will be given to structured research methods that are relatively easy to use and can help product developers prioritise their efforts and assess the market potential of innovative concepts....

  7. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  8. Scaffolding Assignments and Activities for Undergraduate Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sarah; Justwan, Florian

    2018-01-01

    This article details assignments and lessons created for and tested in research methods courses at two different universities, a large state school and a small liberal arts college. Each assignment or activity utilized scaffolding. Students were asked to push beyond their comfort zone while utilizing concrete and/or creative examples,…

  9. An Integrated Approach to Research Methods and Capstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postic, Robert; McCandless, Ray; Stewart, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, the AACU issued a report on improving undergraduate education suggesting, in part, that a curriculum should be both comprehensive and cohesive. Since 2008, we have systematically integrated our research methods course with our capstone course in an attempt to accomplish the twin goals of comprehensiveness and cohesion. By taking this…

  10. Mapping research questions about translation to methods, measures, and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berninger, V.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Fayol, M.L.; Fayol, M.; Alamargot, D.; Berninger, V.W.

    2012-01-01

    About the book: Translation of cognitive representations into written language is one of the most important processes in writing. This volume provides a long-awaited updated overview of the field. The contributors discuss each of the commonly used research methods for studying translation; theorize

  11. Reliability and Validity of the Research Methods Skills Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tamarah; Smith, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    The Research Methods Skills Assessment (RMSA) was created to measure psychology majors' statistics knowledge and skills. The American Psychological Association's Guidelines for the Undergraduate Major in Psychology (APA, 2007, 2013) served as a framework for development. Results from a Rasch analysis with data from n = 330 undergraduates showed…

  12. Collage Portraits as a Method of Analysis in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gerstenblatt PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of collage portraits in qualitative research and analysis. Collage portraiture, an area of arts-based research (ABR, is gaining stature as a method of analysis and documentation in many disciplines. This article presents a method of creating collage portraits to support a narrative thematic analysis that explored the impact of participation in an art installation construction. Collage portraits provide the opportunity to include marginalized voices and encourage a range of linguistic and non-linguistic representations to articulate authentic lived experiences. Other potential benefits to qualitative research are cross-disciplinary study and collaboration, innovative ways to engage and facilitate dialogue, and the building and dissemination of knowledge.

  13. Research on deep electromagnetic induction methods (Fy 1985)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Hiroshi; Uchida, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Shin' ichi

    1987-06-01

    Geological Survey of Japan started from FY 1984 a research of deep electomagnetic induction methods as a part of the research on deep geothermal resources prospecting technology, the Sunshine Project. This article is the report of its second fiscal year. These methods are a generic term of the methods to survey specific resistance structure in the deep part of the earth by utilizing the technique of the electromagnetic induction method and the time domain CSMT method aiming to survey about estimated depth of 5Km as well as the CA method to estimate the general structure of the earth of the depth of 5Km or more are now being developed. This article reports the respective methods separately. Concerning the former, the reception of useful signals were successfully made during the FY 1984 field experiment and based on this, field experiments in a geothermal area were conducted in FY 1985 verifying its effectivenss. With regard to the latter, following FY 1984, CA observations were conducted in the northern part of Tohoku Region and the deep specific resistance structure in a wide area was surveyed. (43 figs, 1 tab, 11 refs)

  14. Qualitative research in CKD: an overview of methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Craig, Jonathan C

    2014-09-01

    There recently has been a paradigm shift in health care policies and research toward greater patient centeredness. A core tenet of patient-centered care is that patients' needs, values, and preferences are respected in clinical decision making. Qualitative research methods are designed to generate insights about patients' priorities, values, and beliefs. However, in the past 5 years (2008-2013), only 23 (0.4%) of the 6,043 original articles published in the top 5 nephrology journals (assessed by impact factor) were qualitative studies. Given this observation, it seems important to promote awareness and better understanding within the nephrology community about qualitative research and how the findings can contribute to improving the quality and outcomes of care for patients with chronic kidney disease. This article outlines examples of how qualitative research can generate insight into the values and preferences of patients with chronic kidney disease, provides an overview of qualitative health research methods, and discusses practical applications for research, practice, and policy. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. COMPOSITE METHOD OF RELIABILITY RESEARCH FOR HIERARCHICAL MULTILAYER ROUTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Tregubov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the idea of a research method for hierarchical multilayer routing systems. The method represents a composition of methods of graph theories, reliability, probabilities, etc. These methods are applied to the solution of different private analysis and optimization tasks and are systemically connected and coordinated with each other through uniform set-theoretic representation of the object of research. The hierarchical multilayer routing systems are considered as infrastructure facilities (gas and oil pipelines, automobile and railway networks, systems of power supply and communication with distribution of material resources, energy or information with the use of hierarchically nested functions of routing. For descriptive reasons theoretical constructions are considered on the example of task solution of probability determination for up state of specific infocommunication system. The author showed the possibility of constructive combination of graph representation of structure of the object of research and a logic probable analysis method of its reliability indices through uniform set-theoretic representation of its elements and processes proceeding in them.

  16. A research on threat (hazard) categorization method for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Rongyao; Xu Xiaoxiao; Zhang Jiangang; Zhao Bin; Wang Xuexin

    2011-01-01

    The threat categorization method suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and hazard categorization standard by the Department of Energy of United States (USDOE) for nuclear facilities are compared and discussed in this paper. The research shows the two types of categorization method for nuclear facilities are similar, though each has its own specialty. The categorization method suggested by IAEA for the purpose of emergency planning is quite completed and updated. The categorization method of DOE is advanced in its operability, and fits for safety surveillance. But the dispersible radioactive material thresholds used for categorization need to be updated. The threshold of category 3 is somewhat disputable for many reasons. The recommended categorization method for China is also given in this paper. (author)

  17. Research on an Agricultural Knowledge Fusion Method for Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengfu Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of our research is to develop an ontology-based agricultural knowledge fusion method that can be used as a comprehensive basis on which to solve agricultural information inconsistencies, analyze data, and discover new knowledge. A recent survey has provided a detailed comparison of various fusion methods used with Deep Web data (Li, 2013. In this paper, we propose an effective agricultural ontology-based knowledge fusion method by leveraging recent advances in data fusion, such as the semantic web and big data technologies, that will enhance the identification and fusion of new and existing data sets to make big data analytics more possible. We provide a detailed fusion method that includes agricultural ontology building, fusion rule construction, an evaluation module, etc. Empirical results show that this knowledge fusion method is useful for knowledge discovery.

  18. Lessons learned: advantages and disadvantages of mixed method research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malina, Mary A.; Nørreklit, Hanne; Selto, Frank H.

    2011-01-01

    on the use and usefulness of a specialized balanced scorecard; and third, to encourage researchers to actually use multiple methods and sources of data to address the very many accounting phenomena that are not fully understood. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is an opinion piece based...... on the authors' experience conducting a series of longitudinal mixed method studies. Findings – The authors suggest that in many studies, using a mixed method approach provides the best opportunity for addressing research questions. Originality/value – This paper provides encouragement to those who may wish......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is first, to discuss the theoretical assumptions, qualities, problems and myopia of the dominating quantitative and qualitative approaches; second, to describe the methodological lessons that the authors learned while conducting a series of longitudinal studies...

  19. Mixed Methods Research Prevalence Studies: Field-Specific Studies on the State of the Art of Mixed Methods Research

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Azorín, José F.; Fetters, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR) has always welcomed two main kinds of manuscripts: original empirical articles and methodological/theoretical articles (Creswell & Tashakkori, 2007; Fetters & Freshwater, 2015a; Mertens, 2011). Both types of articles must clearly state methodological aims, review mixed methods literature relative to the methodological aim, and advance the field of mixed methods—empirical articles must address integration (Fetters & Freshwater, 2015b). In this edito...

  20. Mixed-Method Nursing Research: "A Public and Its Problems?" A Commentary on French Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Cécile Marie; Debout, Christophe; Rothan-Tondeur, Monique

    2014-02-01

    Nursing in France is undergoing a transition. In 2009, the preregistration nursing education program was reformed in line with the European Bologna Process, bringing nursing education to the universities. In 2010, the French Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Infirmière, the first national French nursing research funding program, was launched by the French Health Ministry. Of the 149 French research proposals submitted by registered nurses in 2010 and 2011, 13 were mixed-method proposals. The registered nurse principal investigator argued for a complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods. These trends highlight major issues regarding mixed-method and nursing research. We can reasonably assume that mixed-method research has a broad appeal for nurse scholars, particularly for the exploration of complex phenomena related to nursing. Moreover, the recent movement in the domain of nursing education and research experienced in France highlights the need for dedicated research education in the development of nursing research capacity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Informatics methods to enable sharing of quantitative imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mia A; Freymann, John B; Kirby, Justin S; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M; Eschrich, Steven A; Berglund, Anders E; Fenstermacher, David A; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L; Brown, Bartley J; Braun, Terry A; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    The National Cancer Institute Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. There are a variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory. The effe......Introduction: Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory...... of the literature revealed lack of or poor consideration of effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. We present a method that has been developed over the course of several years parallel to intervention studies in healthcare. Material and methods: The EMA method is a type of group interview including 3...... sources. Conclusion: The EMA method seems to offer a feasible procedure to obtain significant knowledge on potential effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. However, further development and validation is suggested....

  3. Directions in implementation research methods for behavioral and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Molly; Supplee, Lauren H

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing interest, by researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, in evidence-based policy and practice. As a result, more dollars are being invested in program evaluation in order to establish "what works," and in some cases, funding is specifically tied to those programs found to be effective. However, reproducing positive effects found in research requires more than simply adopting an evidence-based program. Implementation research can provide guidance on which components of an intervention matter most for program impacts and how implementation components can best be implemented. However, while the body of rigorous research on effective practices continues to grow, research on implementation lags behind. To address these issues, the Administration for Children and Families and federal partners convened a roundtable meeting entitled, Improving Implementation Research Methods for Behavioral and Social Science, in the fall of 2010. This special section of the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research includes papers from the roundtable and highlights the role implementation science can play in shedding light on the difficult task of taking evidence-based practices to scale.

  4. A Doctoral Seminar in Qualitative Research Methods: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Franco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available New qualitative research methods continue to emerge in response to factors such as renewed interest in mixed methods, better understanding of the importance of a researcher’s philosophical stance, as well as the increased use of technology in data collection and analysis, to name a few. As a result, those facilitating research methods courses must revisit content and instructional strategies in order to prepare well-informed researchers. Approaches range from paradigm to pragmatic emphasis. This descriptive case study of a doctoral seminar for novice qualitative researchers describes the intricacies of the syllabus of a pragmatic approach in a constructivist/social constructionist learning environment. The purpose was to document the delivery and faculty/student interactions and reactions. Noteworthy were the contradictions and frustrations in the delivery as well as in student experiences. In the end, student input led to seminal learning experiences. The confirmation of the effectiveness of a constructivist/social constructivist learning environment is applicable to higher education pedagogy in general.

  5. Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.

  6. The progress on researching method and metabolism of positron radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Hongmei; Qiao Jinping; Kong Aiying; Zhu Lin

    2010-01-01

    Positron radiopharmaceuticals are mainly used for PET studies, which are used in the field of nuclear medicine as tracers in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. They have important position and function in the clinical diagnosis and treatment. Metabolism or biotransformation will happen when PET radio-pharmaceuticals enter into the body. Understanding the metabolic fate of radiopharmaceutical probes is essential for an accurate analysis and interpretation of positron emission tomography imaging. The recent research progress on PET radiopharmaceuticals metabolism was reviewed in this paper, including the metabolism characteristics, research methods, analytical techniques and so on. (authors)

  7. Research on Monte Carlo simulation method of industry CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junli; Zeng Zhi; Qui Rui; Wu Zhen; Li Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    There are a series of radiation physical problems in the design and production of industry CT system (ICTS), including limit quality index analysis; the effect of scattering, efficiency of detectors and crosstalk to the system. Usually the Monte Carlo (MC) Method is applied to resolve these problems. Most of them are of little probability, so direct simulation is very difficult, and existing MC methods and programs can't meet the needs. To resolve these difficulties, particle flux point auto-important sampling (PFPAIS) is given on the basis of auto-important sampling. Then, on the basis of PFPAIS, a particular ICTS simulation method: MCCT is realized. Compared with existing MC methods, MCCT is proved to be able to simulate the ICTS more exactly and effectively. Furthermore, the effects of all kinds of disturbances of ICTS are simulated and analyzed by MCCT. To some extent, MCCT can guide the research of the radiation physical problems in ICTS. (author)

  8. Factors Influencing Achievement in Undergraduate Social Science Research Methods Courses: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate social science research methods courses tend to have higher than average rates of failure and withdrawal. Lack of success in these courses impedes students' progression through their degree programs and negatively impacts institutional retention and graduation rates. Grounded in adult learning theory, this mixed methods study…

  9. [Analysis of qualitative data collection methods used in adolescent research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndengeyingoma, Assumpta; De Montigny, Francine; Miron, Jean-Marie

    2013-03-01

    There has been remarkable growth in research on adolescents in the last decade, particularly in nursing science. The goal of this article is to produce a synthesis of findings justifying the use of qualitative methods in collecting data from adolescents. A literature review identified relevant articles (N : 27) from digital databases. While the studies done on adolescents were on different topics, the data collection methods were often similar. Most of the studies used more than one technique to reconcile scientific rigour and the way the adolescents expressed themselves. In order to understand a phenomenon, its context and the meaning given to the experience proved essential. In qualitative research on adolescents, it is important to use data collection methods that make it possible to clearly target the experience explored and to orient and guide the individual in deepening that experience in order to favour the emergence of his or her point of view. Data collection methods based on written communication have to be complemented with other methods more focused on oral communication so as to draw out interpretations reflecting adolescents' points of view as accurately as possible.

  10. Methods of 15N tracer research in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, K.; Faust, H.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the stable isotope 15 N is of increasing importance in different scientific disciplines, especially in medicine, agriculture, and the biosciences. The close correlation between the growing interest and improvements of analytical procedures resulted in remarkable advances in the 15 N tracer technique. On the basis of the latest results of 15 N tracer research in life sciences and agriculture methods of 15 N tracer research in biological systems are compiled. The 15 N methodology is considered under three headings: Chemical analysis with a description of methods of sample preparation (including different separation and isolation methods for N-containing substances of biological and agricultural origin) and special procedures converting ammonia to molecular nitrogen. Isotopic analysis with a review on the most important methods of isotopic analysis of nitrogen: mass spectrometry (including the GC-MS technique), emission spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, and other analytical procedures. 15 N-tracer techniques with a consideration of the role of the isotope dilution analysis as well as different labelling techniques and the mathematical interpretation of tracer data (modelling, N turnover experiments). In these chapters also sources of errors in chemical and isotopic analysis, the accuracy of the different methods and its importance on tracer experiments are discussed. Procedures for micro scale 15 N analysis and aspects of 15 N analysis on the level of natural abundance are considered. Furthermore some remarks on isotope effects in 15 N tracer experiments are made. (author)

  11. Research of flaw assessment methods for beryllium reflector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Akira; Ito, Masayasu; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Tanimoto, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kodama, Mitsuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Reflector elements made from metal beryllium is widely used as neutron reflectors to increase neutron flux in test reactors. When beryllium reflector elements are irradiated by neutron, bending of reflector elements caused by swelling occurs, and beryllium reflector elements must be replaced in several years. In this report, literature search and investigation for non-destructive inspection of Beryllium and experiments for Preliminary inspection to establish post irradiation examination method for research of characteristics of metal beryllium under neutron irradiation were reported. (author)

  12. Research on demand-oriented Business English learning method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Business English is integrated with visual-audio-oral English, which focuses on the application for English listening and speaking skills in common business occasions, and acquire business knowledge and improve skills through English. This paper analyzes the Business English Visual-audio-oral Course, and learning situation of higher vocational students’ learning objectives, interests, vocabulary, listening and speaking, and focuses on the research of effective methods to guide the higher voca...

  13. Research into Thermal Sprayed Coatings with Ultrasonic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Gargasas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on thermal sprayed coatings with ultrasonic methods is the main object of this thesis. Metal surface coating was applied to modify its mechanical and physical-chemical properties and resistance to external impact and improve aesthetics. Spraying was carried out by scanning the rotating sample of 30 cm/s speed. Surface microstructure, ultrasonic thickness, porosity, micro hardness and surface modulus tests performed. Conclusions were formulated.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, J.; Chateau, L.; Gin, St.

    2001-01-01

    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  15. Applying Qualitative Research Methods to Narrative Knowledge Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Brian; Riedl, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We propose a methodology for knowledge engineering for narrative intelligence systems, based on techniques used to elicit themes in qualitative methods research. Our methodology uses coding techniques to identify actions in natural language corpora, and uses these actions to create planning operators and procedural knowledge, such as scripts. In an iterative process, coders create a taxonomy of codes relevant to the corpus, and apply those codes to each element of that corpus. These codes can...

  16. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE METHODS OF SUICIDE RESEARCH IN OLD AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ojagbemi, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the merits of the qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in the elderly using two studies identified through a free search of the Pubmed database for articles that might have direct bearing on suicidality in the elderly. The studies have been purposively selected for critical appraisal because they meaningfully reflect the quantitative and qualitative divide as well as the social, economic, and cultural boundaries between the elderly living in sub-Saharan...

  17. Storytelling as an Instructional Method: Descriptions and Research Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    computational brain . Cambridge, MA: Bradford/ MIT Press. Cianciolo, A. T., Prevou, M., Cianciolo, D., & Morris, R. (2007). Using digital storytelling to...volume 3, no. 2 (Fall 2009) 6–23 Storytelling as an Instructional Method: Descriptions and Research Questions Dee H. Andrews, Thomas D. Hull, and...Jennifer A. Donahue Abstract This paper discusses the theoretical and empirical foundations of the use of storytelling in instruction. The defi nition

  18. Research Method and Phenomenological Pedagogy. Reflections from Piero Bertolini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ghirotto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by Husserlian phenomenology, Piero Bertolini defined the phenomenological pedagogy and education as a scientific discipline (Bertolini, 2005. This project remains an undetermined one as there is still room for defining its research methods. This article intends to propose a contribution to the discussion of research methodology, in line with the assumptions of Piero Bertolini (1988 phenomenological pedagogy. In particular, starting from the definition of phenomenological pedagogy and education, it aims to answer the question: what are the research strategies through which to build a viable and rigorous educational knowledge, able to grasp the personal transformation and development in a context of inter-subjectivity? Accordingly, I shall discuss data collection and analysis strategies.

  19. Innovative Research Methods for Rethinking Gender in CSPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Gender and women’s empowerment has become a big issue within CSPs in recent years. (See pages 58-61). Yet designing research projects that have proven impact on improving the lives of women in supply chains can be challenging, especially in CSPs where under - standings of ‘gender’ and ‘equality’ ......’ can differ culturally. This article therefore explores innovative research methods suitable to get a clearer view on gender issues.......Gender and women’s empowerment has become a big issue within CSPs in recent years. (See pages 58-61). Yet designing research projects that have proven impact on improving the lives of women in supply chains can be challenging, especially in CSPs where under - standings of ‘gender’ and ‘equality...

  20. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  1. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  2. An online forum as a qualitative research method: practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2006-01-01

    Despite the positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known on the practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. The aim of this study was to describe the practical issues encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranging from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of the discussions were reviewed and analyzed using content analysis. Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: (a) a high response and retention rate and (b) automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants' forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.

  3. Research Progress on Diagnosis Methods for Fungal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hua

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, owing to abuse of antibiotics, extensive use of antitumor drugs and immunosuppressive agents and other reasons, an increasing number of people suffered from fungal infection. In this situation, researchers proposed new diagnosis methods, such as G test, galactomannan (GM test, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. G test is simple, quick, and highly sensitive and can detect multiple fungi; however, it cannot distinguish fungal types and may result in false positive and false negative results. GM test is less time consuming and feature highly positive detection rates but can simply be used in inspection of invasive aspergillosis. However, optimal positive critical values of GM test remain controversial. PCR is currently one of the fastest methods but is not formally used in clinical practice because of its lack of standardized operation and evaluation criteria. This study reviews the above three methods with the aim of discovering and summarizing their advantages and disadvantages to facilitate research and development of new diagnosis methods.

  4. Application of the selected physical methods in biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Tlačbaba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of acoustic emission (AE, which is a part of the non-destructive methods, currently having an extensive application. This method is used for measuring the internal defects of materials. AE has a high potential in further research and development to extend the application of this method even in the field of process engineering. For that matter, it is the most elaborate acoustic emission monitoring in laboratory conditions with regard to external stimuli. The aim of the project is to apply the acoustic emission recording the activity of bees in different seasons. The mission is to apply a new perspective on the behavior of colonies by means of acoustic emission, which collects a sound propagation in the material. Vibration is one of the integral part of communication in the community. Sensing colonies with the support of this method is used for understanding of colonies biological behavior to stimuli clutches, colony development etc. Simulating conditions supported by acoustic emission monitoring system the illustrate colonies activity. Collected information will be used to represent a comprehensive view of the life cycle and behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera. Use of information about the activities of bees gives a comprehensive perspective on using of acoustic emission in the field of biological research.

  5. Research on image complexity evaluation method based on color information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Duan, Jin; Han, Xue-hui; Xiao, Bo

    2017-11-01

    In order to evaluate the complexity of a color image more effectively and find the connection between image complexity and image information, this paper presents a method to compute the complexity of image based on color information.Under the complexity ,the theoretical analysis first divides the complexity from the subjective level, divides into three levels: low complexity, medium complexity and high complexity, and then carries on the image feature extraction, finally establishes the function between the complexity value and the color characteristic model. The experimental results show that this kind of evaluation method can objectively reconstruct the complexity of the image from the image feature research. The experimental results obtained by the method of this paper are in good agreement with the results of human visual perception complexity,Color image complexity has a certain reference value.

  6. Method of research and study of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoble, A.

    1955-01-01

    In a first part, the author gives a fast retrospective of the evaluations of the uranium deposits in the French Union. The author established a method of prospecting and studying, modifiable at all times following the experiences and the results, permitting to make the general inventory of uranium resources on the territory. The method is based on: 1 - the determination of geological guides in order to mark the most promising deposits, 2 - the definition of a methodology adapted to every steps of the research, 3 - the choice of the material adapted for each of the steps. This method, originally established for the prospecting in crystalline massifs, is adaptable to the prospecting of the sedimentary formations. (M.B.) [fr

  7. Thought Suppression Research Methods: Paradigms, Theories, Methodological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niczyporuk Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hard to provide an unequivocal answer to the question of whether or not thought suppression is effective. Two thought suppression paradigms - the “white bear” paradigm and the think/no-think paradigm - give mixed results. Generally, “white bear” experiments indicate that thought suppression is counterproductive, while experiments in the think/no-think paradigm suggest that it is possible to effectively suppress a thought. There are also alternative methods used to study thought suppression, for instance the directed forgetting paradigm or the Stroop task. In the article, I describe the research methods used to explore thought suppression efficacy. I focus on the “white bear” and the think/no-think paradigms and discuss theories proposed to explain the results obtained. I also consider the internal and external validity of the methods used.

  8. Analysis of vignette method data in sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the vignette method as a projective technique that can be an alternative for the traditional methods in mass surveys. The authors present an example of the study of the social representations of an intelligent man with the vignette method: identify the meaning of the concept ‘social representations’ suggested by S. Moscovici, a scientist who introduced its conceptualization and empirical interpretation; and describe the structure of social representations which consists of a ‘core’ and a ‘periphery’ according to the theory of J.-C. Abric. The article shows the process of creating vignettes, choosing their number and conditions for the tool application. The main emphasis is made on the analysis of data obtained through the vignette method by calculating indices, discriminant analysis and logistic regression, and the explanation for the application of these three techniques is given. The authors describe the research procedure, the creation of the tool and the sample; compare the results of each method of analysis. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression data confirm each other, which is an important verification of the results of different methods of analysis.

  9. Advances in research methods for information systems research data mining, data envelopment analysis, value focused thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Osei-Bryson, Kweku-Muata

    2013-01-01

    Advances in social science research methodologies and data analytic methods are changing the way research in information systems is conducted. New developments in statistical software technologies for data mining (DM) such as regression splines or decision tree induction can be used to assist researchers in systematic post-positivist theory testing and development. Established management science techniques like data envelopment analysis (DEA), and value focused thinking (VFT) can be used in combination with traditional statistical analysis and data mining techniques to more effectively explore

  10. Assessment of change in knowledge about research methods among delegates attending research methodology workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Manisha; Shah, Nehal; Navaid, Seema

    2018-01-01

    In an era of evidence based medicine research is an essential part of medical profession whether clinical or academic. A research methodology workshop intends to help participants, those who are newer to research field or those who are already doing empirical research. The present study was conducted to assess the changes in knowledge of the participants of a research methodology workshop through a structured questionnaire. With administrative and ethical approval, a four day research methodology workshop was planned. The participants were subjected to a structured questionnaire (pre-test) containing 20 multiple choice questions (Q1-Q 20) related to the topics to be covered in research methodology workshop before the commencement of the workshop and then subjected to similar posttest questionnaire after the completion of workshop. The mean values of pre and post-test scores were calculated and the results were analyzed and compared. Out of the total 153 delegates, 45(29 %) were males and 108 were (71 %) females. 92 (60%) participants consented to fill the pre-test questionnaire and 68 (44%) filled the post-test questionnaire. The mean Pre-test and post-test scores at 95% Confidence Interval were 07.62 (SD ±3.220) and 09.66 (SD ±2.477) respectively. The differences were found to be significant using Paired Sample T test ( P research methodology workshops. Participatory research methodology workshops are good methods of imparting knowledge, also the long term effects needs to be evaluated.

  11. Methods and metrics challenges of delivery-system research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jeffrey A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many delivery-system interventions are fundamentally about change in social systems (both planned and unplanned. This systems perspective raises a number of methodological challenges for studying the effects of delivery-system change--particularly for answering questions related to whether the change will work under different conditions and how the change is integrated (or not into the operating context of the delivery system. Methods The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodological and measurement challenges posed by five key issues in delivery-system research: (1 modeling intervention context; (2 measuring readiness for change; (3 assessing intervention fidelity and sustainability; (4 assessing complex, multicomponent interventions; and (5 incorporating time in delivery-system models to discuss recommendations for addressing these issues. For each issue, we provide recommendations for how research may be designed and implemented to overcome these challenges. Results and conclusions We suggest that a more refined understanding of the mechanisms underlying delivery-system interventions (treatment theory and the ways in which outcomes for different classes of individuals change over time are fundamental starting points for capturing the heterogeneity in samples of individuals exposed to delivery-system interventions. To support the research recommendations outlined in this paper and to advance understanding of the "why" and "how" questions of delivery-system change and their effects, funding agencies should consider supporting studies with larger organizational sample sizes; longer duration; and nontraditional, mixed-methods designs. A version of this paper was prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ, US Department of Health and Human Services for presentation and discussion at a meeting on "The Challenge and Promise of Delivery System Research," held in Sterling, VA, on

  12. Benchmarking burnup reconstruction methods for dynamically operated research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternat, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Charlton, William S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). National Strategic Research Institute; Nichols, Theodore F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The burnup of an HEU fueled dynamically operated research reactor, the Oak Ridge Research Reactor, was experimentally reconstructed using two different analytic methodologies and a suite of signature isotopes to evaluate techniques for estimating burnup for research reactor fuel. The methods studied include using individual signature isotopes and the complete mass spectrometry spectrum to recover the sample’s burnup. The individual, or sets of, isotopes include 148Nd, 137Cs+137Ba, 139La, and 145Nd+146Nd. The storage documentation from the analyzed fuel material provided two different measures of burnup: burnup percentage and the total power generated from the assembly in MWd. When normalized to conventional units, these two references differed by 7.8% (395.42GWd/MTHM and 426.27GWd/MTHM) in the resulting burnup for the spent fuel element used in the benchmark. Among all methods being evaluated, the results were within 11.3% of either reference burnup. The results were mixed in closeness to both reference burnups; however, consistent results were achieved from all three experimental samples.

  13. Mixing Methods in Organizational Ethics and Organizational Innovativeness Research : Three Approaches to Mixed Methods Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Riivari, Elina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses three categories of mixed methods analysis techniques: variableoriented, case-oriented, and process/experience-oriented. All three categories combine qualitative and quantitative approaches to research methodology. The major differences among the categories are the focus of the study, available analysis techniques and timely aspect of the study. In variable-oriented analysis, the study focus is relationships between the research phenomena. In case-oriente...

  14. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  15. ANALYSIS METHOD OF RESEARCH PAPERS PUBLISHED FOR AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREAVU-ȘERBAN VALERICĂ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Representing a strong instrument of control and feedback used by top management executives, regulators institutions or independent bodies, the audit, its methods and techniques incite the interest of specialists, professionals, professors and researchers from all socio-economic activities. The way domain experts write about audit itself is often reflected in the manner in which they choose the keywords for the title and for the article. This study is a detailed analysis of assignment to the specific thematic areas of articles published in "Financial Audit" journal, for all public appearances in electronic format from the period 2003-2015. The study is different from other similar researches by the methodology and the type of information extracted addressed. The main purpose is to identify the most used keywords in the title and content of articles published over time and insight traceability to future research directions. The conclusions of the analysis from this article give a comprehensive picture of audit multidisciplinary, thus providing researchers, on several economic fields, an image about the content of the publication, quality information for readers, authors and future authors.

  16. Quantitative magnetic resonance micro-imaging methods for pharmaceutical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, M D

    2011-09-30

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool in pharmaceutical research is now well established and the current literature covers a multitude of different pharmaceutically relevant research areas. This review focuses on the use of quantitative magnetic resonance micro-imaging techniques and how they have been exploited to extract information that is of direct relevance to the pharmaceutical industry. The article is divided into two main areas. The first half outlines the theoretical aspects of magnetic resonance and deals with basic magnetic resonance theory, the effects of nuclear spin-lattice (T(1)), spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation and molecular diffusion upon image quantitation, and discusses the applications of rapid magnetic resonance imaging techniques. In addition to the theory, the review aims to provide some practical guidelines for the pharmaceutical researcher with an interest in MRI as to which MRI pulse sequences/protocols should be used and when. The second half of the article reviews the recent advances and developments that have appeared in the literature concerning the use of quantitative micro-imaging methods to pharmaceutically relevant research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating Return on Investment in Translational Research: Methods and Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochim, William; Dilts, David M.; Kirk, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSA). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This paper provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities. PMID:23925706

  18. Falsification Testing of Instrumental Variables Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate how falsification tests can be used to evaluate instrumental variables methods applicable to a wide variety of comparative effectiveness research questions. Brief conceptual review of instrumental variables and falsification testing principles and techniques accompanied by an empirical application. Sample STATA code related to the empirical application is provided in the Appendix. Comparative long-term risks of sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones for management of type 2 diabetes. Outcomes include mortality and hospitalization for an ambulatory care-sensitive condition. Prescribing pattern variations are used as instrumental variables. Falsification testing is an easily computed and powerful way to evaluate the validity of the key assumption underlying instrumental variables analysis. If falsification tests are used, instrumental variables techniques can help answer a multitude of important clinical questions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Estimating return on investment in translational research: methods and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Trochim, William M; Dilts, David M; Kirk, Rosalind

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSAs). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program, and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This article provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities.

  20. Creative Approaches to Teaching Graduate Research Methods Workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Reilly

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Engagement and deeper learning were enhanced by developing several innovative teaching strategies delivered in Research Methods workshops to Graduate Business Students.  Focusing primarily on students adopting a creative approach to formulating a valid research question for undertaking a dissertation successfully. These techniques are applicable to most subject domains to ensure student engagement.  Addressing the various multiple intelligences and learning styles existing within groups while ensuring these sessions are student centred and conducive to a collaborative learning environment.  Blogs, interactive tutorials, online videos, games and posters, are used to develop student’s cognitive and metacognitive abilities.  Using novelty images appeals to a groups’ intellectual curiosity, acting as an interpretive device to explain  the value of adopting a holistic rather than analytic approach towards a topic.

  1. Research on nondestructive examination methods for CANDU fuel channel inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soare, M.; Petriu, F.; Toma, V.; Revenco, V.; Calinescu, A.; Ciocan, R.; Iordache, C.; Popescu, L.; Mihalache, M.; Murgescu, C.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of the 1994 edition of CAN/CSA-N285.4 Periodic Inspection Standard, which address all known and postulated degradation mechanisms and introduce material surveillance demands, involve a growing need for improved nondestructive examination (NDE) methods and technologies. In order to have a proper technical support in its decisions concerning fuel channel inspections at Cernavoda NPP, the Romanian Power Authority (RENEL) initiated a Research Program regarding the nondestructive characterization of the fuel channels structural integrity. The paper presents the most significant results obtained on this Research Program: the ENDUS experimental system for Laboratory simulation of the fuel channel inspection, ultrasonic Rayleigh-Lamb waves technique for pressure tubes examination, phase analysis technique for near-surface flaws, influence of the metallurgical state of the pressure tube material on the eddy current defectoscopic signals, characterization of plastic deformation and fracture of zirconium alloys by acoustic emission. (author)

  2. The effect of research method type on stereotypes' content: A brief research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Bizo, Aurelian; Cimpean, Alina Ioana; Oltean, Horea; Cardos, Roxana; Soflau, Radu; Negut, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype Content Model (SCM) emphasizes the content rather than the underlying processes of the stereotypes and the content might be influenced by several cultural dimensions (e.g., individualism vs. collectivism). The main dimensions of SCM-namely warmth and competence-underlying various contents are assumed to be universal. However, from a cognitive science paradigm, we argue that different research methods (i.e., data collections and data analysis) might also yield different stereotype contents that might impact the universality versus specificity problem in the SCM. Indeed, using a sample from a collectivistic country (i.e., Romania), we found that using different methods in data collection (i.e., unstructured vs. semi-structured vs. structured interview) and different methods of data analysis (i.e., availability vs. accessibility scores) might be an important research strategy to counter artefacts and confusions in the universality versus specificity problem related to the SCM. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Research on demand-oriented Business English learning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Business English is integrated with visual-audio-oral English, which focuses on the application for English listening and speaking skills in common business occasions, and acquire business knowledge and improve skills through English. This paper analyzes the Business English Visual-audio-oral Course, and learning situation of higher vocational students’ learning objectives, interests, vocabulary, listening and speaking, and focuses on the research of effective methods to guide the higher vocational students to learn Business English Visual-audio-oral Course, master Business English knowledge, and improve communicative competence of Business English.

  4. VALUE - Validating and Integrating Downscaling Methods for Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Benestad, Rasmus; Kotlarski, Sven; Huth, Radan; Hertig, Elke; Wibig, Joanna; Gutierrez, Jose

    2013-04-01

    Our understanding of global climate change is mainly based on General Circulation Models (GCMs) with a relatively coarse resolution. Since climate change impacts are mainly experienced on regional scales, high-resolution climate change scenarios need to be derived from GCM simulations by downscaling. Several projects have been carried out over the last years to validate the performance of statistical and dynamical downscaling, yet several aspects have not been systematically addressed: variability on sub-daily, decadal and longer time-scales, extreme events, spatial variability and inter-variable relationships. Different downscaling approaches such as dynamical downscaling, statistical downscaling and bias correction approaches have not been systematically compared. Furthermore, collaboration between different communities, in particular regional climate modellers, statistical downscalers and statisticians has been limited. To address these gaps, the EU Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) action VALUE (www.value-cost.eu) has been brought into life. VALUE is a research network with participants from currently 23 European countries running from 2012 to 2015. Its main aim is to systematically validate and develop downscaling methods for climate change research in order to improve regional climate change scenarios for use in climate impact studies. Inspired by the co-design idea of the international research initiative "future earth", stakeholders of climate change information have been involved in the definition of research questions to be addressed and are actively participating in the network. The key idea of VALUE is to identify the relevant weather and climate characteristics required as input for a wide range of impact models and to define an open framework to systematically validate these characteristics. Based on a range of benchmark data sets, in principle every downscaling method can be validated and compared with competing methods. The results of

  5. Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Oehlenschläger, J.

    1997-01-01

    Current work in a European concerted action project 'Evaluation of Fish Freshness' (AIR3 CT94-2283) focuses on harmonizing research activities in the area of fish freshness evaluation in leading fish laboratories in Europe (see Box 1). The overall aim of the concerted action project is to validat...... measurements with respect to fish freshness evaluation. In this article, the different subgroups have summarized changes that occur in fish and methods to evaluate fish freshness as a first step towards the definition of criteria for fish freshness...

  6. [Research methods of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Xia; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Xiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    To increase soil organic carbon content is critical for maintaining soil fertility and agricultural sustainable development and for mitigating increased greenhouse gases and the effects of global climate change. Soil aggregates are the main components of soil, and have significant effects on soil physical and chemical properties. The physical protection of soil organic carbon by soil aggregates is the important mechanism of soil carbon sequestration. This paper reviewed the organic carbon sequestration by soil aggregates, and introduced the classic and current methods in studying the mechanisms of carbon sequestration by soil aggregates. The main problems and further research trends in this study field were also discussed.

  7. Research on neutron source multiplication method in nuclear critical safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qingfu; Shi Yongqian; Hu Dingsheng

    2005-01-01

    The paper concerns in the neutron source multiplication method research in nuclear critical safety. Based on the neutron diffusion equation with external neutron source the effective sub-critical multiplication factor k s is deduced, and k s is different to the effective neutron multiplication factor k eff in the case of sub-critical system with external neutron source. The verification experiment on the sub-critical system indicates that the parameter measured with neutron source multiplication method is k s , and k s is related to the external neutron source position in sub-critical system and external neutron source spectrum. The relation between k s and k eff and the effect of them on nuclear critical safety is discussed. (author)

  8. Statistic method of research reactors maximum permissible power calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosheva, N.A.; Kirsanov, G.A.; Konoplev, K.A.; Chmshkyan, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    The technique for calculating maximum permissible power of a research reactor at which the probability of the thermal-process accident does not exceed the specified value, is presented. The statistical method is used for the calculations. It is regarded that the determining function related to the reactor safety is the known function of the reactor power and many statistically independent values which list includes the reactor process parameters, geometrical characteristics of the reactor core and fuel elements, as well as random factors connected with the reactor specific features. Heat flux density or temperature is taken as a limiting factor. The program realization of the method discussed is briefly described. The results of calculating the PIK reactor margin coefficients for different probabilities of the thermal-process accident are considered as an example. It is shown that the probability of an accident with fuel element melting in hot zone is lower than 10 -8 1 per year for the reactor rated power [ru

  9. Strategies for research engagement of clinicians in allied health (STRETCH): a mixed methods research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickan, Sharon; Wenke, Rachel; Weir, Kelly; Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Noble, Christy

    2017-09-11

    Allied health professionals (AHPs) report positive attitudes to using research evidence in clinical practice, yet often lack time, confidence and skills to use, participate in and conduct research. A range of multifaceted strategies including education, mentoring and guidance have been implemented to increase AHPs' use of and participation in research. Emerging evidence suggests that knowledge brokering activities have the potential to support research engagement, but it is not clear which knowledge brokering strategies are most effective and in what contexts they work best to support and maintain clinicians' research engagement. This protocol describes an exploratory concurrent mixed methods study that is designed to understand how allied health research fellows use knowledge brokering strategies within tailored evidence-based interventions, to facilitate research engagement by allied health clinicians. Simultaneously, a realist approach will guide a systematic process evaluation of the research fellows' pattern of use of knowledge brokering strategies within each case study to build a programme theory explaining which knowledge brokering strategies work best, in what contexts and why. Learning and behavioural theories will inform this critical explanation. An explanation of how locally tailored evidence-based interventions improve AHPs use of, participation in and leadership of research projects will be summarised and shared with all participating clinicians and within each case study. It is expected that local recommendations will be developed and shared with medical and nursing professionals in and beyond the health service, to facilitate building research capacity in a systematic and effective way. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. [Research methods in dentistry. 6. In vivo and in vitro methods for studying caries lesion progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.; Thomas, R.Z.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some of the most used methods for caries lesion progression measurement in in vivo and in vitro research. Clinical measurements are usually limited to visual inspection. Currently available scoring systems and statistical analyses, making use of changes in lesion stage, have the

  11. Interpretation and method: Empirical research methods and the interpretive turn, 2nd ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanow, D.; Schwartz-Shea, P.

    2014-01-01

    This book demonstrates the relevance, rigor, and creativity of interpretive research methodologies for the social and human sciences. The book situates methods questions within the context of broader methodological questions--specifically, the character of social realities and their "know-ability."

  12. Application of Computational Methods in Planaria Research: A Current Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Shyamasree

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Planaria is a member of the Phylum Platyhelminthes including flatworms. Planarians possess the unique ability of regeneration from adult stem cells or neoblasts and finds importance as a model organism for regeneration and developmental studies. Although research is being actively carried out globally through conventional methods to understand the process of regeneration from neoblasts, biology of development, neurobiology and immunology of Planaria, there are many thought provoking questions related to stem cell plasticity, and uniqueness of regenerative potential in Planarians amongst other members of Phylum Platyhelminthes. The complexity of receptors and signalling mechanisms, immune system network, biology of repair, responses to injury are yet to be understood in Planaria. Genomic and transcriptomic studies have generated a vast repository of data, but their availability and analysis is a challenging task. Data mining, computational approaches of gene curation, bioinformatics tools for analysis of transcriptomic data, designing of databases, application of algorithms in deciphering changes of morphology by RNA interference (RNAi approaches, understanding regeneration experiments is a new venture in Planaria research that is helping researchers across the globe in understanding the biology. We highlight the applications of Hidden Markov models (HMMs in designing of computational tools and their applications in Planaria decoding their complex biology.

  13. Male Contraception: Research, New Methods, and Implications for Marginalized Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Olivia

    2017-07-01

    The majority of research on contraception has focused on manipulating the female reproductive system. Recent studies have identified novel contraceptives for males, including hormonal- and nonhormonal-based therapeutics. Although these new contraceptives are still undergoing clinical trials, their development and potential future use in society necessitate serious consideration of their implications for reproductive health. Through my analysis of the research conducted on male contraception over time and the current therapeutics available, it is clear that male contraception has the potential to shift societal gender dynamics and provide males with greater control over their own reproduction. This article also identifies the implications of these novel contraceptives for marginalized populations, especially men of color and men of lower socioeconomic positions. To overcome barriers to contraception among these populations, public policy efforts are needed in order to motivate the development of programs that facilitate coverage of these new male contraceptives by health plans and to increase their availability to underserved communities. Health care providers will be responsible for educating patients about these novel male contraception options and the need to continue using existing methods (e.g., condoms) in order to prevent sexually transmitted infections. This article analyzes the research conducted on male contraception and identifies the implications of these novel therapeutics for marginalized groups of men in the United States to identify the interventions that will be necessary to help ensure that all men have access to these promising scientific innovations.

  14. Development of a method for research in sports policy in Brazil: an approach to method of mixed research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marinho Mezzadri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method of mixed research for the study of Sport public policy in Brazil. To reach the result, the text was divided into two phases. In the first, it presents a conceptual model for the qualitative analysis of Brazilian public policies directed to the sport. This phase will still be divided into two stages. The first is the construction of a theoretical framework for the interpretation of the study on public policies and the other one demonstrates a conceptual methodological contribution based on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. In the second phase it is developed an analysis of the quantitative part which aims to interpret the data that were collected in the empirical part of the research. Later, it will be possible to produce a model of assessment, monitoring, and, especially, the improvement of public policies for Brazilian sport.

  15. [Basic theory and research method of urban forest ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Jin, Yingshan; Zhu, Wenquan; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei

    2002-12-01

    With the development of world economy and the increment of urban population, the urban environment problem hinders the urban sustainable development. Now, more and more people realized the importance of urban forests in improving the quality of urban ecology. Therefore, a new subject, urban forest ecology, and correlative new concept frame in the field formed. The theoretic foundation of urban forest ecology derived from the mutual combination of theory relating to forest ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture ecology and anthrop-ecology. People survey the development of city from the view of ecosystem, and regard the environment, a colony of human, animals and plants, as main factors of the system. The paper introduces systematically the urban forest ecology as follows: 1) the basic concept of urban forest ecology; 2) the meaning of urban forest ecology; 3) the basic principle and theoretic base of urban forest ecology; 4) the research method of urban forest ecology; 5) the developmental expectation of urban forest ecology.

  16. Methods of Scientific Research: Teaching Scientific Creativity at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Dennis; Ford, K. E. Saavik

    2016-01-01

    We present a scaling-up plan for AstroComNYC's Methods of Scientific Research (MSR), a course designed to improve undergraduate students' understanding of science practices. The course format and goals, notably the open-ended, hands-on, investigative nature of the curriculum are reviewed. We discuss how the course's interactive pedagogical techniques empower students to learn creativity within the context of experimental design and control of variables thinking. To date the course has been offered to a limited numbers of students in specific programs. The goals of broadly implementing MSR is to reach more students and early in their education—with the specific purpose of supporting and improving retention of students pursuing STEM careers. However, we also discuss challenges in preserving the effectiveness of the teaching and learning experience at scale.

  17. Standardized methods for Grand Canyon fisheries research 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, William R.; Ward, David L.; Avery, Luke A.

    2013-01-01

    This document presents protocols and guidelines to persons sampling fishes in the Grand Canyon, to help ensure consistency in fish handling, fish tagging, and data collection among different projects and organizations. Most such research and monitoring projects are conducted under the general umbrella of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program and include studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), National Park Service (NPS), the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD), various universities, and private contractors. This document is intended to provide guidance to fieldworkers regarding protocols that may vary from year to year depending on specific projects and objectives. We also provide herein documentation of standard methods used in the Grand Canyon that can be cited in scientific publications, as well as a summary of changes in protocols since the document was first created in 2002.

  18. Machine Learning and Data Mining Methods in Diabetes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakiotis, Ioannis; Tsave, Olga; Salifoglou, Athanasios; Maglaveras, Nicos; Vlahavas, Ioannis; Chouvarda, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    The remarkable advances in biotechnology and health sciences have led to a significant production of data, such as high throughput genetic data and clinical information, generated from large Electronic Health Records (EHRs). To this end, application of machine learning and data mining methods in biosciences is presently, more than ever before, vital and indispensable in efforts to transform intelligently all available information into valuable knowledge. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is defined as a group of metabolic disorders exerting significant pressure on human health worldwide. Extensive research in all aspects of diabetes (diagnosis, etiopathophysiology, therapy, etc.) has led to the generation of huge amounts of data. The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review of the applications of machine learning, data mining techniques and tools in the field of diabetes research with respect to a) Prediction and Diagnosis, b) Diabetic Complications, c) Genetic Background and Environment, and e) Health Care and Management with the first category appearing to be the most popular. A wide range of machine learning algorithms were employed. In general, 85% of those used were characterized by supervised learning approaches and 15% by unsupervised ones, and more specifically, association rules. Support vector machines (SVM) arise as the most successful and widely used algorithm. Concerning the type of data, clinical datasets were mainly used. The title applications in the selected articles project the usefulness of extracting valuable knowledge leading to new hypotheses targeting deeper understanding and further investigation in DM.

  19. Main research areas and methods in social entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadad Shahrazad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main specific objective of this paper is to explore the content of research as well as methodological issues on social entrepreneurship in the context of corporate social economics and entrepreneurship. Therefore, in order to obtain an overview of the research done on this theme, we conducted a literature review using the exploratory analysis as methodology. We focused on the studies and articles which were published in the most important academic periodicals that cover subjects as management, economics and business. The articles were identified based on the presence of selected keywords in their title, abstract and body of the article: ‘social entrepreneur’, ‘social enterprise’, ‘social entrepreneurship’, ‘corporate social entrepreneurship’ and ‘social economy’. Using this method, there were selected articles and studies published starting from the last decade of the 1990s up to 2015. We were also interested in international publications on the topic and also in books that approached social entrepreneurship.

  20. Utilisation and prevalence of mixed methods research in library and information research in South Africa 2002-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ngulube

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of mixed methods research (MMR in library and information science (LIS research in South Africa from 2000 to 2008. The authors contrast the mixed methods research debate in the general methodological literature to how this method was practiced within the LIS scientific community. They reviewed 613 research articles published in six peer-reviewed LIS journals in South Africa, finding the research methods in these journals to be surveys drawing on positivistic assumptions and cross-sectional designs, and historical research based on constructivist knowledge claims. Mixed methods approaches that the authors identified in the methodological literature have had little impact on LIS research in South Africa. Given these limitations, the authors argue for greater methodological pluralism in conducting research in LIS and recommend the use of mixed methods research.

  1. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods used in burns research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Al-Ajam, Yazan; Way, Benjamin; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2010-05-01

    Burns research articles utilise a variety of descriptive and inferential methods to present and analyse data. The aim of this study was to determine the descriptive methods (e.g. mean, median, SD, range, etc.) and survey the use of inferential methods (statistical tests) used in articles in the journal Burns. This study defined its population as all original articles published in the journal Burns in 2007. Letters to the editor, brief reports, reviews, and case reports were excluded. Study characteristics, use of descriptive statistics and the number and types of statistical methods employed were evaluated. Of the 51 articles analysed, 11(22%) were randomised controlled trials, 18(35%) were cohort studies, 11(22%) were case control studies and 11(22%) were case series. The study design and objectives were defined in all articles. All articles made use of continuous and descriptive data. Inferential statistics were used in 49(96%) articles. Data dispersion was calculated by standard deviation in 30(59%). Standard error of the mean was quoted in 19(37%). The statistical software product was named in 33(65%). Of the 49 articles that used inferential statistics, the tests were named in 47(96%). The 6 most common tests used (Student's t-test (53%), analysis of variance/co-variance (33%), chi(2) test (27%), Wilcoxon & Mann-Whitney tests (22%), Fisher's exact test (12%)) accounted for the majority (72%) of statistical methods employed. A specified significance level was named in 43(88%) and the exact significance levels were reported in 28(57%). Descriptive analysis and basic statistical techniques account for most of the statistical tests reported. This information should prove useful in deciding which tests should be emphasised in educating burn care professionals. These results highlight the need for burn care professionals to have a sound understanding of basic statistics, which is crucial in interpreting and reporting data. Advice should be sought from professionals

  2. Experimental research on intraocular aqueous flow by PIV method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Song, Hongfang; Mei, Xi; Li, Lin; Fu, Xineng; Zhang, Mindi; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-10-21

    Aqueous humor flows regularly from posterior chamber to anterior chamber, and this flow much involves intraocular pressure, the eye tissue nutrition and metabolism. To visualize and measure the intraocular flow regular pattern of aqueous humor. Intraocular flow in the vitro eyeball is driven to simulate the physiological aqueous humor flow, and the flow field is measured by Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV). Fluorescent particle solution of a certain concentration was infused into the root of Posterior Chamber(PC) of vitro rabbit eye to simulate the generation of aqueous and was drained out at a certain hydrostatic pressure from the angle of Anterior Chamber(AC) to represent the drainage of aqueous. PIV method was used to record and calculate the flow on the midsagittal plane of the eyeball. Velocity vector distribution in AC has been obtained, and the distribution shows symmetry feature to some extent. Fluorescent particle solution first fills the PC as it is continuously infused, then surges into AC through the pupil, flows upwards toward the central cornea, reflecting and scattering, and eventually converges along the inner cornea surface towards the outflow points at the periphery of the eyeball. Velocity values around the pupillary margin are within the range of 0.008-0.012 m/s, which are close to theoretical values of 0.0133 m/s, under the driving rate of 100 μl/min. Flow field of aqueous humor can be measured by PIV method, which makes it possible to study the aqueous humor dynamics by experimental method. Our study provides a basis for experimental research on aqueous humor flow; further, it possibly helps to diagnose and treat eye diseases as shear force damage of ocular tissues and destructions on corneal endothelial cells from the point of intraocular flow field.

  3. Application of Qualitative Methods in Health Research: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dongre, AR; Deshmukh, PR; Kalaiselvan, G; Upadhyaya, S

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research is type of formative research that includes specialized techniques for obtaining in-depth responses about what people think and how they feel. It is seen as the research that seeks answer to the questions in the real world. Qualitative researchers gather what they see, hear, read from people and places, from events and activities, with the purpose to learn about the community and to generate new understanding that can be used by the social world. Qualitative research have...

  4. Guidelines for Conducting Mixed-methods Research: An Extension and Illustration.

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the guidelines of Venkatesh et al. (2013) for mixed-methods research by identifying and integrating variations in mixed-methods research. By considering 14 properties of mixed-methods research (e.g., purposes, research questions, epistemological assumptions), our guidelines demonstrate how researchers can flexibly identify the existing variations in mixed-methods research and proceed accordingly with a study design that suits their needs. To make the guide...

  5. RESEARCH ON RISK CLASSIFICATION METHOD OF ASSEMBLY OCCUPANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the densely population and mobility characteristics of the crowd, generally accidents happened in assembly occupancies will trigger a chain reaction, and then bring heavy casualties and property loss, and result disastrous consequences. In the context of safety regulation resources limited, building risk classification system of assembly occupancies is important for "scientific predicting, and hierarchical controlling” In this paper, a software with a graphical user interface is designed using MATLAB GUI to analyze and calculate risks of stampede accident caused by gathered crowds in the video. A velocity extraction method based on cross-correlation algorithm is adopted, and the risk characteristic parameters such as velocity variance is also applied. In this way, real-time analysis and early-warning for risks of stampede accident in time and space can be achieved. Also, the algorithm is applied to the surveillance video of the stampede in Shanghai and its feasibility is proved. Empirical research shows that, the assembly occupancies risk rating model built in this paper has good effectiveness, simplicity and practicability, applies to the government safety regulation and organization safety management, and can improve the safety situation of assembly occupancies effectively.

  6. Primer on consumer marketing research : procedures, methods, and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Volpe Center developed a marketing research primer which provides a guide to the approach, procedures, and research tools used by private industry in predicting consumer response. The final two chapters of the primer focus on the challenges of do...

  7. New geophysical electromagnetic method of archeological object research in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, O. A.; Khachay, O. Yu.; Attia, Magdi.

    2009-04-01

    The demand to the enhanced geophysical technique and device, in addition to the precise interpretation of the geophysical data, is the resolution of the geophysical complex research, especially by the absence of priory information about the researched place. Therefore, an approach to use the planshet method of electromagnetic induction in the frequency geometry was developed by Hachay. et al., 1997a, 1997b, 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2005. The method was adapted to map and monitor the high complicated geological mediums, to determine the structural factors and criteria of the rock massif in the mine subsurface. The field observation and the way of interpretation make the new technology differ from other known earlier methods of field raying or tomography (Hachay et al., 1997c, 1999, and 2000).The 3D geoelectrical medium research is based on the concept of three staged interpreting of the alternating electromagnetic field in a frame of the block-layered isotropic medium with inclusion (Hachay 1997a, and 2002); in the first stage, the geoelectrical parameters of the horizontal block-layered medium, which includes the heterogeneities, are defined. In the second stage a geometrical model of the different local heterogeneities or groups inside the block-layered medium is constructed based on the local geoelectrical heterogeneities produced from the first stage after filtering the anomalous fields plunged in the medium. While in the third stage, the surfaces of the searched heterogeneities could be calculated in account of the physical parameters of the anomalous objects.For practical realization of that conception the system of observation for alternating electromagnetic field with use of vertical magnetic dipole was elaborated. Such local source of excitation and regular net of observations allows realizing overlapping by different angles of observation directions. As incoming data for interpretation, three components of modules of three components of magnetic field are

  8. Research note: Grazing-index method procedures of vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, veld condition in the Karoo was assessed using the ecological index methods. This recently changed to the graxing-index method on account of the of the differently estimated grazing-index values being used. The principles governing the method of survey remain the same. The method employs ...

  9. Structuring research methods and data with the research object model: genomics workflows as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettne, Kristina M; Dharuri, Harish; Zhao, Jun; Wolstencroft, Katherine; Belhajjame, Khalid; Soiland-Reyes, Stian; Mina, Eleni; Thompson, Mark; Cruickshank, Don; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Garrido, Julian; de Roure, David; Corcho, Oscar; Klyne, Graham; van Schouwen, Reinout; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Bechhofer, Sean; Goble, Carole; Roos, Marco

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges for biomedical research lies in the computer-assisted integrative study of large and increasingly complex combinations of data in order to understand molecular mechanisms. The preservation of the materials and methods of such computational experiments with clear annotations is essential for understanding an experiment, and this is increasingly recognized in the bioinformatics community. Our assumption is that offering means of digital, structured aggregation and annotation of the objects of an experiment will provide necessary meta-data for a scientist to understand and recreate the results of an experiment. To support this we explored a model for the semantic description of a workflow-centric Research Object (RO), where an RO is defined as a resource that aggregates other resources, e.g., datasets, software, spreadsheets, text, etc. We applied this model to a case study where we analysed human metabolite variation by workflows. We present the application of the workflow-centric RO model for our bioinformatics case study. Three workflows were produced following recently defined Best Practices for workflow design. By modelling the experiment as an RO, we were able to automatically query the experiment and answer questions such as "which particular data was input to a particular workflow to test a particular hypothesis?", and "which particular conclusions were drawn from a particular workflow?". Applying a workflow-centric RO model to aggregate and annotate the resources used in a bioinformatics experiment, allowed us to retrieve the conclusions of the experiment in the context of the driving hypothesis, the executed workflows and their input data. The RO model is an extendable reference model that can be used by other systems as well. The Research Object is available at http://www.myexperiment.org/packs/428 The Wf4Ever Research Object Model is available at http://wf4ever.github.io/ro.

  10. Review of Research on Template Methods in Preparation of Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Yadian Xie; Duygu Kocaefe; Chunying Chen; Yasar Kocaefe

    2016-01-01

    The nanomaterials have been widely used in various fields, such as photonics, catalysis, and adsorption, because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, their production methods are of utmost importance. Compared with traditional synthetic methods, the template method can effectively control the morphology, particle size, and structure during the preparation of nanomaterials, which is an effective method for their synthesis. The key for the template method is to choose di...

  11. The New Paradigm of Ethnic Minority Educational Research: Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Dong-ge; Huang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research and quantitative research have their own advantages, so mixed use both to improve scientific research. Too many Chinese Ethnic Minority Educational Research in qualitative research, and few use quantitative research, leading the results with many subjective factors. The reason is that selecting ethnic minority educational…

  12. A Mixed-Methods Research Framework for Healthcare Process Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Nathaniel D; Munoz, David; Ventura, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The healthcare system in the United States is spiraling out of control due to ever-increasing costs without significant improvements in quality, access to care, satisfaction, and efficiency. Efficient workflow is paramount to improving healthcare value while maintaining the utmost standards of patient care and provider satisfaction in high stress environments. This article provides healthcare managers and quality engineers with a practical healthcare process improvement framework to assess, measure and improve clinical workflow processes. The proposed mixed-methods research framework integrates qualitative and quantitative tools to foster the improvement of processes and workflow in a systematic way. The framework consists of three distinct phases: 1) stakeholder analysis, 2a) survey design, 2b) time-motion study, and 3) process improvement. The proposed framework is applied to the pediatric intensive care unit of the Penn State Hershey Children's Hospital. The implementation of this methodology led to identification and categorization of different workflow tasks and activities into both value-added and non-value added in an effort to provide more valuable and higher quality patient care. Based upon the lessons learned from the case study, the three-phase methodology provides a better, broader, leaner, and holistic assessment of clinical workflow. The proposed framework can be implemented in various healthcare settings to support continuous improvement efforts in which complexity is a daily element that impacts workflow. We proffer a general methodology for process improvement in a healthcare setting, providing decision makers and stakeholders with a useful framework to help their organizations improve efficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Using the QUAIT Model to Effectively Teach Research Methods Curriculum to Master's-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nancy J.; Gitchel, Dent

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To apply Slavin's model of effective instruction to teaching research methods to master's-level students. Methods: Barriers to the scientist-practitioner model (student research experience, confidence, and utility value pertaining to research methods as well as faculty research and pedagogical incompetencies) are discussed. Results: The…

  14. Validity in Mixed Methods Research in Education: The Application of Habermas' Critical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods approach has developed into the third methodological movement in educational research. Validity in mixed methods research as an important issue, however, has not been examined as extensively as that of quantitative and qualitative research. Additionally, the previous discussions of validity in mixed methods research focus on research…

  15. Hard to Teach: Inclusive Pedagogy in Social Science Research Methods Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nind, Melanie; Lewthwaite, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Amidst major new initiatives in research that are beginning to address the pedagogic dimension of building capacity in social science research methods, this paper makes the first move to apply the lens of inclusive pedagogy to research methods pedagogy. The paper explores the ways in which learning social science research methods is hard and may…

  16. Social and online media research – data, metrics and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta Drula

    2012-01-01

    Studies and current researches in online digital media and communication science are related to Web 2.0 at least from two perspectives: either to better understand this medium as research object, or to collect data on different topics. Social media can be a tremendous data source and topics for researchers. At the same time, these data are found in multimedia formats on different platforms, are updated continuously, and could be posted by professionals or users. This situation requires differ...

  17. Sampling in Qualitative Research: Rationale, Issues, and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    LUBORSKY, MARK R.; RUBINSTEIN, ROBERT L.

    1995-01-01

    In gerontology the most recognized and elaborate discourse about sampling is generally thought to be in quantitative research associated with survey research and medical research. But sampling has long been a central concern in the social and humanistic inquiry, albeit in a different guise suited to the different goals. There is a need for more explicit discussion of qualitative sampling issues. This article will outline the guiding principles and rationales, features, and practices of sampli...

  18. Muon radiography method for fundamental and applied research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A. B.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Galkin, V. I.; Goncharova, L. A.; Grachev, V. M.; Vasina, S. G.; Konovalova, N. S.; Malovichko, A. A.; Managadze, A. K.; Okat'eva, N. M.; Polukhina, N. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Shchedrina, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on the basic principles of the muon radiography method, reviews the major muon radiography experiments, and presents the first results in Russia obtained by the authors using this method based on emulsion track detectors.

  19. Research based on matlab method of digital trapezoidal shaping filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qinghua; Zhang Ruanyu; Li Taihua

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop digital shaping system fast and conveniently, the paper presents the method of optimizing the trapezoidal shaping filter's parameters by using MATLAB, and discusses the affections of the parameters to the shaping result by this method. (authors)

  20. On multiplying methods in the field of research evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrick, G.; Molas-Gallart, J.; De Rijcke, S.; Meijer, I.; Van der Weijden, I.; Wouters, P.

    2016-07-01

    This special session forms part of a larger program aimed at the multiplication and integration of methodological approaches in the research evaluation and innovation policy field. The session builds on previous initiatives by Gemma Derrick and colleagues at CWTS, INGENIO, the Rathenau Instituut and SPRU, exploring the advantages of qualitative methodological tools at the STI/ENID conference in Lugano, and an international workshop in London in October 2015. The program is highly topical: the research evaluation field is currently reconsidering its methodological foundations in light of new research questions arising from policy initiatives regarding a) the move toward open science; b) a reconceptualization of research excellence to include societal relevance; c) diversification of academic careers, and d) the search for indicators showcasing responsible research behavior and innovation. This new special session at STI2016 will advance and broaden the scope of previous initiatives by building bridges between cutting edge research involving quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodological research designs. Bringing together leading experts and promising researchers with distinctive methodological skill-sets, the session will demonstrate the advantages of cross-fertilization between ‘core’ and ‘peripheral’ methodological approaches for the research evaluation and science indicators field. (Author)

  1. Reaching the parts other methods cannot reach: an introduction to qualitative methods in health and health services research.

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, C.; Mays, N.

    1995-01-01

    Qualitative research methods have a long history in the social sciences and deserve to be an essential component in health and health services research. Qualitative and quantitative approaches to research tend to be portrayed as antithetical; the aim of this series of papers is to show the value of a range of qualitative techniques and how they can complement quantitative research.

  2. Repurposing digital methods: The research affordances of platforms and engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weltevrede, E.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Digital research is often understood as data-driven. Yet the ways in which data are already informed by specific analytical assumptions and inscriptions of the media in which they originate, circulate, or are being used is often neglected. The thesis intervenes in such focus on digital research in

  3. Research in Special Education: Designs, Methods, and Applications. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Cook, Bryan G.; Wiley, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this second edition is to provide a comprehensive overview of the philosophical, ethical, methodological, and analytical fundamentals of social science and educational research, as well as specify aspects of special education research that distinguish it from scientific inquiry in other fields of education and human services. Foremost…

  4. The Open Method of Coordination in Research Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    A report from the Expert Group for the follow-up of the research aspects of the revised Lisbon strategy.......A report from the Expert Group for the follow-up of the research aspects of the revised Lisbon strategy....

  5. Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

  6. Attitude Research in Science Education: Contemporary Models and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Frank E.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    Social interaction and influence have been the subject of considerable research. Examining in great detail the factors involved in social influence has enabled social psychologists to understand better the effects of persuasion, propaganda, coercion, indoctrination, and brainwashing. Out of this research has come a widespread acceptance of the…

  7. Research paradigms and methods for investigating holistic nursing concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary Enzman; Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2007-06-01

    Holistic nursing is a discipline focused on healing the whole person and dedicated to understanding and supporting the premise of holistic health of the patient and promoting healing in practitioners, patients, families, social groups, and communities. An explication of knowledge related to caring and healing in the human health experience and in holistic nursing is informed by the individual nurse's paradigmatic stance. Holistic nursing research is complex and focuses on healing, particularly healing of self, others, systems, and communities at large. This article discusses the competing paradigmatic perspectives, theoretic perspectives supporting holistic research, fundamental patterns of knowing and knowledge generation, a framework for holistic research, and the challenges of conducting holistic research. Recommendations for future research agenda are presented.

  8. Measuring recent research performance for Chinese universities using bibliometric methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2014-07-29

    This paper focuses on measuring the academic research performance of Chinese universities by using Scopus database from 2007 to 2010. We have provided meaningful indicators to measure the research performance of Chinese universities as compared to world class universities of the US and the European region. Using these indicators, we first measure the quantity and quality of the research outcomes of the universities and then examine the internationalization of research by using international collaborations, international citations and international impact metrics. Using all of this data, we finally present an overall score called research performance point to measure the comprehensive research strength of the universities for the selected subject categories. The comparison identifies the gap between Chinese universities and top-tier universities from selected regions across various subject areas. We find that Chinese universities are doing well in terms of publication volume but receive less citations from their published work. We also find that the Chinese universities have relative low percentage of publications at high impact venues, which may be the reason that they are not receiving more citations. Therefore, a careful selection of publication venues may help the Chinese universities to compete with world class universities and increase their research internationalization. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  9. Conference Report: Readings of Qualitative ResearchMethods Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Pfahl

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available At the workshop, the relationship of poststructuralist and postmodernist social theory to the theoretical and methodological positions of interpretive sociology were discussed. A number of presentations contributed methodological reflections from biographical research and (Foucauldian discourse analysis; others discussed results of the application of discourse analysis and deconstruction in empirical research. All in all, it seems that (German biographical researchers have partly recognized and incorporated deconstructionist critique into their enquiries. The workshop has shown there is still a need for reflection on how poststructuralist strategies can inform empirical projects on a practical level. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402158

  10. The Use of Propensity Score Methods in Psychotherapy Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bartak (Anna); M.D. Spreeuwenberg (Marieke); H. Andrea (Helene); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); M.A. Croon (Marcel); R. Verheul (Roel); P.M.G. Emmelkamp (Paul); Th. Stijnen (Theo)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials are considered the best scientific proof of effectiveness. There is increasing concern, though, about their feasibility in psychotherapy research. We discuss a quasi-experimental study design for situations in which a randomized

  11. A Primer On Consumer Marketing Research, Procedures, Methods, And Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS ONE OF A SERIES OF PAPERS DEVELOPED OR PRODUCED BY THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS DIVISION OF THE JOHN A. VOLPE NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS CENTER AS PART OF ITS RESEARCH PROJECT LOOKING INTO ISSUES SURROUNDING : USER RESPONSE AND MARKET ...

  12. Narrative in the social health research: perspective and Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Kay Nations

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The narrative is a research technique that has been used in Medical Anthropology research as an access form to illness experience and its reconstruction. The illness experience, in fact, has been recognized by medical anthropology authors as indispensable to the establishment of a more empatic and ethic dialogue among health professional and patient and his/her social network. Thus, in the health research issues, valorization of illness experience means it’s necessary to eliciate narratives, both in the care and in the research. In this article, we linked the illness experience concept and structure to the narrative concept and structure, describing its contributions to research, the research types in what it can be used, the types of narratives in that the human experiences are translated, the procedures for its eliciation, as well as the techniques of analysis of data obtained in the fieldwork. In respect to these techniques, we describe here three: (1 the analysis of narratives proposed by Shütze; (2 the Thematic Content Analysis; and (3 the technique of the Collective Subject’s Speech.

  13. RESEARCH NOTE A Universal, rapid, and inexpensive method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    success of the extracted gDNA to be submitted into post-PCR analysis. ... The application of the universal method for DNA extraction not restricted into routine ... On the other hand, the universal method has proven its feasibility to be utilized.

  14. Review of Research on Template Methods in Preparation of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadian Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanomaterials have been widely used in various fields, such as photonics, catalysis, and adsorption, because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, their production methods are of utmost importance. Compared with traditional synthetic methods, the template method can effectively control the morphology, particle size, and structure during the preparation of nanomaterials, which is an effective method for their synthesis. The key for the template method is to choose different templates, which are divided into hard template and soft template according to their different structures. In this paper, the effects of different types of templates on the morphology of nanomaterials during their preparation are investigated from two aspects: hard template and soft template, combined with the mechanism of action.

  15. RO1 Funding for Mixed Methods Research: Lessons learned from the Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression Project

    OpenAIRE

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Fetters, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research has made significant in-roads in the effort to examine complex health related phenomenon. However, little has been published on the funding of mixed methods research projects. This paper addresses that gap by presenting an example of an NIMH funded project using a mixed methods QUAL-QUAN triangulation design entitled “The Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression.” We present the Cultural Determinants of Health Seeking model that framed the study, the specific aims, ...

  16. Research methods of the parameters of residential buildings construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigor’ev Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    Full Text Available The analysis of construction theory and practice shows that rational organizational and technological parameters of the construction of residential buildings should be based on the manifestation in time and space of the most important stages construction with their harmonization. Basing on the experience of normalizing the construction duration, it is advisable to express the complex of residential buildings’ construction processes by their basic stages - preparatory period, underground part, aboveground part, external engineering networks and land improvement. The main indicators of the development and implementation of optimization solutions are: the total duration of the construction, the duration of the preparation period, the duration of the construction of the underground part, the duration of the construction of the aboveground part, the duration of external engineering networks laying, the duration of land improvement. The indicators of the total duration of the construction of residential buildings, the construction the underground and aboveground parts are determined on the basis of the operation of one assembly crane on an object of up to four sections. In case of more sections two (three cranes are considered and the total construction duration is set depending on these conditions. The duration of the construction of multisectional buildings is determined basing on the simultaneous construction of the stages or their combination with a certain time shift. However, this approach requires a significant amount of optimization solutions due to its multivariance. Therefore, in order to reduce the volume of calculations in some cases, for example, when planning the development of districts and neighborhoods, statistical methods can be used for determining the duration of the construction basing on the compilation of optimization solutions. The total duration of the construction and the duration of the main stages are multiple

  17. Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches Creswell John W Sage 320 £29 0761924426 0761924426 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The second edition of Creswell's book has been significantly revised and updated. The author clearly sets out three approaches to research: quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. As someone who has used mixed methods in my research, it is refreshing to read a textbook that addresses this. The differences between the approaches are clearly identified and a rationale for using each methodological stance provided.

  18. Research on interpolation methods in medical image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mei-Sen; Yang, Xiao-Li; Tang, Jing-Tian

    2012-04-01

    Image interpolation is widely used for the field of medical image processing. In this paper, interpolation methods are divided into three groups: filter interpolation, ordinary interpolation and general partial volume interpolation. Some commonly-used filter methods for image interpolation are pioneered, but the interpolation effects need to be further improved. When analyzing and discussing ordinary interpolation, many asymmetrical kernel interpolation methods are proposed. Compared with symmetrical kernel ones, the former are have some advantages. After analyzing the partial volume and generalized partial volume estimation interpolations, the new concept and constraint conditions of the general partial volume interpolation are defined, and several new partial volume interpolation functions are derived. By performing the experiments of image scaling, rotation and self-registration, the interpolation methods mentioned in this paper are compared in the entropy, peak signal-to-noise ratio, cross entropy, normalized cross-correlation coefficient and running time. Among the filter interpolation methods, the median and B-spline filter interpolations have a relatively better interpolating performance. Among the ordinary interpolation methods, on the whole, the symmetrical cubic kernel interpolations demonstrate a strong advantage, especially the symmetrical cubic B-spline interpolation. However, we have to mention that they are very time-consuming and have lower time efficiency. As for the general partial volume interpolation methods, from the total error of image self-registration, the symmetrical interpolations provide certain superiority; but considering the processing efficiency, the asymmetrical interpolations are better.

  19. Bibliography of clinical research in malaysia: methods and brief results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, C L; Zuhanariah, M N; Ng, C S; Goh, C C

    2014-08-01

    This article describes the methodology of this bibliography. A search was conducted on the following: (1) bibliographic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and other databases) using search terms that maximize the retrieval of Malaysian publications; (2) Individual journal search of Malaysian healthrelated journals; (3) A targeted search of Google and Google Scholar; (4) Searching of Malaysian institutional repositories; (5) Searching of Ministry of Health and Clinical Research Centre website. The publication years were limited to 2000- 2013. The citations were imported or manually entered into bibliographic software Refworks. After removing duplicates, and correcting data entry errors, PubMed's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) were added. Clinical research is coded using the definition "patient-oriented-research or research conducted with human subjects (or on material of human origin) for which the investigator directly interacts with the human subjects at some point during the study." A bibliography of citations [n=2056] that fit the criteria of clinical research in Malaysia in selected topics within five domains was generated: Cancers [589], Cardiovascular diseases [432], Infections [795], Injuries [142], and Mental Health [582]. This is done by retrieving citations with the appropriate MESH terms, as follow: For cancers (Breast Neoplasms; Colorectal Neoplasms; Uterine Cervical Neoplasms), for cardiovascular diseases (Coronary Disease; Hypertension; Stroke), for infections (Dengue; Enterovirus Infections, HIV Infections; Malaria; Nipah Virus; Tuberculosis), for injuries (Accidents, Occupational; Accidents, Traffic; Child Abuse; Occupational Injuries), for mental health (Depression; Depressive Disorder; Depressive Disorder, Major; Drug Users; Psychotic Disorders; Suicide; Suicide, Attempted; Suicidal Ideation; Substance- Related Disorders).

  20. A Mixed Methods Approach to Equity and Justice Research: Insights from Research on Children's Reasoning About Economic Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Chow, Kirby A; Griffin, Katherine M; Nenadal, Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research approaches are gaining traction across various social science disciplines, including among developmental scientists. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of a mixed methods research approach in examining issues related to equity and justice. We incorporate a brief overview of quantitative and qualitative monomethod research approaches in our larger discussion of the advantages, procedures, and considerations of employing a mixed methods design to advance developmental science from an equity and justice perspective. To better illustrate the theoretical and practical significance of a mixed methods research approach, we include examples of research conducted on children and adolescents' conceptions of economic inequality as one example of developmental science research with an equity and justice frame. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Introducing Evidence Through Research "Push": Using Theory and Qualitative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, Andrew; Ong, Bie Nio; Brooks, Lauren; Jinks, Clare; Porcheret, Mark; Edwards, John J; Dziedzic, Krysia S

    2015-11-01

    A multitude of factors can influence the uptake and implementation of complex interventions in health care. A plethora of theories and frameworks recognize the need to establish relationships, understand organizational dynamics, address context and contingency, and engage key decision makers. Less attention is paid to how theories that emphasize relational contexts can actually be deployed to guide the implementation of an intervention. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the potential role of qualitative research aligned with theory to inform complex interventions. We detail a study underpinned by theory and qualitative research that (a) ensured key actors made sense of the complex intervention at the earliest stage of adoption and (b) aided initial engagement with the intervention. We conclude that using theoretical approaches aligned with qualitative research can provide insights into the context and dynamics of health care settings that in turn can be used to aid intervention implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Open Online Research: Developing Software and Method for Collaborative Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bröer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the potentials of web-based collaboration, in 2014, a group of social scientists, students and information specialists started tinkering with software and methodology for open online collaborative research. The results of their research led to a gathering of academics at the #ethnography Conference Amsterdam 2014, where new material was collected, shared and collaboratively interpreted. Following the conference, they continued to develop software and methodology. In this contribution, we report on the aims, methodology, inspiring examples, caveats and results from testing several prototypes of open online research software. We conclude that open online collaborative interpretation is both feasible and desirable. Dialogue and reflexivity, we hold, are able to transcend separated perspectives and stimulate agreement on a set of distinct interpretations; they simultaneously respect the multiplicity of understandings of social phenomena whilst bringing order into this diversity. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160327

  3. Twelve tips for getting started using mixed methods in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Ellen; Vuk, Jasna; Barber, Carolyn

    2013-04-01

    Mixed methods research, which is gaining popularity in medical education, provides a new and comprehensive approach for addressing teaching, learning, and evaluation issues in the field. The aim of this article is to provide medical education researchers with 12 tips, based on consideration of current literature in the health professions and in educational research, for conducting and disseminating mixed methods research. Engaging in mixed methods research requires consideration of several major components: the mixed methods paradigm, types of problems, mixed method designs, collaboration, and developing or extending theory. Mixed methods is an ideal tool for addressing a full range of problems in medical education to include development of theory and improving practice.

  4. Research of ART method in CT image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhipeng; Cong Peng; Wu Haifeng

    2005-01-01

    This paper studied Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) in CT image reconstruction. Discussed the ray number influence on image quality. And the adopting of smooth method got high quality CT image. (authors)

  5. An Overview of Longitudinal Data Analysis Methods for Neurological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Locascio, Joseph J.; Atri, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a concise, broad and readily accessible overview of longitudinal data analysis methods, aimed to be a practical guide for clinical investigators in neurology. In general, we advise that older, traditional methods, including (1) simple regression of the dependent variable on a time measure, (2) analyzing a single summary subject level number that indexes changes for each subject and (3) a general linear model approach with a fixed-subject effect, shoul...

  6. Scientific methods of research in archaeology, prehistory, and ancient history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentner, W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-12-01

    This contribution deals with some fields of archaeometry, i.e. the application of physical methods in archaeology: Age determination in glasses and potsherds with the aid of fission tracks and thermoluminescence, determination of the origin of coins and pottery by chemical analyses with the aid of neutron activation ('fingerprinting'), obtaining information on metal winning in ancient history with the aid of the C-14-method.

  7. Doing Interdisciplinary Mixed Methods Health Care Research: Working the Boundaries, Tensions, and Synergistic Potential of Team-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2016-04-01

    Current trends in health care research point to a shift from disciplinary models to interdisciplinary team-based mixed methods inquiry designs. This keynote address discusses the problems and prospects of creating vibrant mixed methods health care interdisciplinary research teams that can harness their potential synergy that holds the promise of addressing complex health care issues. We examine the range of factors and issues these types of research teams need to consider to facilitate efficient interdisciplinary mixed methods team-based research. It is argued that concepts such as disciplinary comfort zones, a lack of attention to team dynamics, and low levels of reflexivity among interdisciplinary team members can inhibit the effectiveness of a research team. This keynote suggests a set of effective strategies to address the issues that emanate from the new field of research inquiry known as team science as well as lessons learned from tapping into research on organizational dynamics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Research on Quality Detection Methods for Automotive Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng FU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the problems in intelligent diagnosis methods for automotive transmission, it is difficult to obtain the fault signal features and a large enough sample size to study. To solve these problems, a method integrating order tracking, cepstrum, support vector machine (SVM and extremal curve is proposed in this paper. Order tracking and cepstrum are combined for processing the non- stationary vibration signal emitted by automotive transmission. As conventional intelligent methods cannot produce true results for insufficient samples, a method that combines SVM and extremal curve is presented. Input the vector acquired from the feature signals into the SVM model for the first detection, and then do the second detection by means of extremal curve which in turn can enrich the training samples in SVM model thus making the SVM model be more perfect. Analytical description and experimental studies are presented for the methods of signal processing and quality detection. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method.

  9. Debating Curricular Strategies for Teaching Statistics and Research Methods: What Does the Current Evidence Suggest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Kenneth E.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coursework in statistics and research methods is a core requirement in most undergraduate psychology programs. However, is there an optimal way to structure and sequence methodology courses to facilitate student learning? For example, should statistics be required before research methods, should research methods be required before statistics, or…

  10. Undergraduate Student Teachers' Views and Experiences of a Compulsory Course in Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, B. J. J.

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to attention given to research methods for education students at postgraduate level, the offering of research methods for education students at undergraduate level is less often considered. Yet, it is agreed that research methods for undergraduate level students is important for shaping student attitudes, learning and achievement in…

  11. Research Methods Teaching in Vocational Environments: Developing Critical Engagement with Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C.; Turner, R.; Sutton, C.; Petersen, C.; Stevens, S.; Swain, J.; Esmond, B.; Schofield, C.; Thackeray, D.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of research methods is regarded as crucial for the UK economy and workforce. However, research methods teaching is viewed as a challenging area for lecturers and students. The pedagogy of research methods teaching within universities has been noted as underdeveloped, with undergraduate students regularly expressing negative dispositions…

  12. The Structure of Mixed Method Studies in Educational Research: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren H.

    2011-01-01

    Educational researchers are beginning to use mixed methods designs to answer complex research questions. This content analysis investigates the structure and use of mixed methods in educational research in order to work toward a more standardized presentation. I used a concurrent mixed methods approach to analyze 30 studies from three prominent…

  13. Learning Practice-Based Research Methods: Capturing the Experiences of MSW Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, Sidsel; Weissinger, Erika; Graaf, Genevieve; Carnochan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The literature on teaching research methods to social work students identifies many challenges, such as dealing with the tensions related to producing research relevant to practice, access to data to teach practice-based research, and limited student interest in learning research methods. This is an exploratory study of the learning experiences of…

  14. A Review of Mixed Methods Research on Bullying and Peer Victimization in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the negative outcomes associated with experiences in bullying at school, educational researchers, school officials, and policy-makers have called for more rigorous research on bullying in school. Research on bullying behavior in school has primarily been examined using quantitative methods. Mixed methods research in the field of…

  15. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both…

  16. Research on inverse methods and optimization in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Francesco

    1991-01-01

    The research activities in Italy on inverse design and optimization are reviewed. The review is focused on aerodynamic aspects in turbomachinery and wing section design. Inverse design of blade rows and ducts of turbomachinery in subsonic and transonic regime are illustrated by the Politecnico di Torino and turbomachinery industry (FIAT AVIO).

  17. Kinesin and Dynein Mechanics: Measurement Methods and Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Zachary; Hawley, Emma; Hayosh, Daniel; Webster-Wood, Victoria A; Akkus, Ozan

    2018-02-01

    Motor proteins play critical roles in the normal function of cells and proper development of organisms. Among motor proteins, failings in the normal function of two types of proteins, kinesin and dynein, have been shown to lead many pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. As such, it is critical to researchers to understand the underlying mechanics and behaviors of these proteins, not only to shed light on how failures may lead to disease, but also to guide research toward novel treatment and nano-engineering solutions. To this end, many experimental techniques have been developed to measure the force and motility capabilities of these proteins. This review will (a) discuss such techniques, specifically microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical trapping, and magnetic tweezers, and (b) the resulting nanomechanical properties of motor protein functions such as stalling force, velocity, and dependence on adenosine triphosophate (ATP) concentrations will be comparatively discussed. Additionally, this review will highlight the clinical importance of these proteins. Furthermore, as the understanding of the structure and function of motor proteins improves, novel applications are emerging in the field. Specifically, researchers have begun to modify the structure of existing proteins, thereby engineering novel elements to alter and improve native motor protein function, or even allow the motor proteins to perform entirely new tasks as parts of nanomachines. Kinesin and dynein are vital elements for the proper function of cells. While many exciting experiments have shed light on their function, mechanics, and applications, additional research is needed to completely understand their behavior.

  18. The Implications of Feyerabend's Epistemological Approach for Educational Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadikolaei, Elham Shirvani; Sajjadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Epistemology is defined as theory of knowledge and the ways of achieving it. Epistemology is research questions of the possibility of knowledge and the riddle of knowledge. Epistemology and methodology despite being interconnected are inseparable and are not reducible from each other. In addition, their relationship is direct, meaning that…

  19. Visual Narrative Research Methods as Performance in Industrial Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurel H.; McDonagh, Deana

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses teaching empathic research methodology as performance. The authors describe their collaboration in an activity to help undergraduate industrial design students learn empathy for others when designing products for use by diverse or underrepresented people. The authors propose that an industrial design curriculum would benefit…

  20. Guidelines for Reporting Quantitative Methods and Results in Primary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.; Plonsky, Luke; Ross, Steven J.; Schoonen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Adequate reporting of quantitative research about language learning involves careful consideration of the logic, rationale, and actions underlying both study designs and the ways in which data are analyzed. These guidelines, commissioned and vetted by the board of directors of "Language Learning," outline the basic expectations for…

  1. qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in old age

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concludes that an integration of both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches may provide a better platform for unraveling the complex phenomenon of suicide in the elderly. Keywords: Psychological autopsy, Suicidal behaviours, Thematic analysis, Phenomenology the population, or a systematically generated ...

  2. Methods for researching intercultural communication in globalized complex societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The field of intercultural communication research is challenged theoretically as well as methodologically by global changes such as migration, global mobility, mass media, tourism, etc. According to these changes cultures can no longer be seen as national entities, and cultural identity can...

  3. The Healing Land : Research Methods in Kalahari Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Healing Land (Isaacson, 2001a) is a vivid, experiential account of Rupert Isaacson's journey towards personal and community healing among the Khomani Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert in South Africa. This paper provides a detailed analysis of The Healing Land in relation to Isaacson's research methodology and ...

  4. Reporting research methods of empirical studies | Korb | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  5. Content and Method in the Teaching of Marketing Research Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Holt; Neeley, Concha; Niedzwiecki, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a survey of marketing research faculty. The study finds SPSS is the most used statistical software, that cross tabulation, single, independent, and dependent t-tests, and ANOVA are among the most important statistical tools according to respondents. Bivariate and multiple regression are also considered…

  6. Using Astrology to Teach Research Methods to Introductory Psychology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Roger A.; Grasha, Anthony F.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a classroom demonstration designed to test an astrological hypothesis and help teach introductory psychology students about research design and data interpretation. Illustrates differences between science and nonscience, the role of theory in developing and testing hypotheses, making comparisons among groups, probability and statistical…

  7. Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project: Cross-site evaluation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project links public health and primary care interventions in three projects described in detail in accompanying articles in this issue of Childhood Obesity. This article describes a comprehensive evaluation plan to determine the extent to which th...

  8. Enhancing Field Research Methods with Mobile Survey Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the experience of undergraduate students using mobile devices and a commercial application, iSurvey, to conduct a neighborhood survey. Mobile devices offer benefits for enhancing student learning and engagement. This field exercise created the opportunity for classroom discussions on the practicalities of urban research, the…

  9. Researchers Develop Method to Identify Sparticles in Big Bang Conditions

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Three Northeastern University researchers have proposed a new approach for the highly anticipated discovery of supersymmetric particles, often called sparticles. The methodology, which was published in the December 21 issue of the Physical Review Letters, is based on identifying the hierarchical mass patterns of sparticles, which are assumed to exist in a new class of particle physics theories beyond the Standard Model.

  10. Surgical insertion of transmitters and telemetry methods in fisheries research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rub, A. Michelle Wargo; Jepsen, Niels; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    ) will be described. Effects of surgical insertion of transmitters (ie, tagging) and aspects of the surgical implantation process where collaboration and professional exchanges among nonveterinarian researchers and veterinarians may be most fruitful will be discussed. Although this report focuses on surgical...

  11. Improving Instruction in the Mathematics Methods Classroom through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofo, Jameel; Zambo, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuing emphasis in the United States on improving students' mathematical abilities, and one approach is to better prepare teachers. To investigate the potential usefulness of Lesson Study to better prepare teachers, one author set out to conduct action research on his classroom practice. Specifically, he sought to determine whether…

  12. Collaborative Writing in a Statistics and Research Methods Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a collaborative writing project in which students must identify key variables, search and read relevant literature, and reason through a research idea by working closely with a partner. The end result is a polished laboratory report in the APA style. The class includes a peer review workshop prior to final editing. (MJP)

  13. An Applied Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods in Academic Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Robert L.; McLaughlin, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Academic advising research aids faculty members and advisors in detecting, explaining, and addressing macro-level trends beyond their local campus. It also helps legitimize the professional nature of academic advising, moving it beyond mere prescriptive models that focus on rules and course selection. Due to the erroneous belief that skills in…

  14. Environmental change, climate, and health: issues and research methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMichael, A. J. (Anthony J.); Martens, Willem Jozef Meine

    2002-01-01

    ... relationships. The agenda of research and policy advice must be extended to include the larger-framed and longer-term environmental change issues. This book identifies the nature and scope of the problem, and explores the conceptual and methodological approaches to studying these relationships, modelling their future realization, providing estimates of health i...

  15. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  16. Advancing multilevel thinking and methods in HRM research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Maarten; Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the growing belief that multilevel research is necessary to advance HRM understanding, there remains a lack of multilevel thinking – the application of principles for multilevel theory building. The purpose of this paper is to propose a systematic approach for multilevel HRM

  17. Research On The Measure Method Of Oblique Pinhole Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yu-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many special advantages in measuring the diameter of blind and deep holes with a capacitive probe, there are still some challenges for the measurement of a oblique pinhole parameters because the measuring device is inconvenient to stretch into the oblique pinhole exactly. A five-dimensional measurement system was adopted in the paper which included a capacitive sensor probe and a three-coordinate measuring machine to accomplish the measurement for oblique pinholes. With the help of the three-dimensional coordinates measured from the pinhole axis, we put forward a comprehensive method of combining the projection method and the least squares method together for fitting spatial straight line to obtain the optimal equation of the spacial axis. Finally, a reliable and entire measurement system was set up.

  18. Synthesis of research on Biogrout soil improvement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt KALTENBACHER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the great rhythm of city developments, there is a great need for a new cost effective method for ground improvement. In this paper, a few chemical improvement technologies and a new biological ground improvement method called Biogrout are discussed. The method, used in the paper for a Sarmatian sand in Transylvania (Feleac locality implies using microorganisms as catalysts in order to induce a microbial carbonate precipitation (MICP to increase the strength and stiffness of cohesionless soils. For this calcium based procedure, the bacteria Sporosarcina Pasteurii (DSMZ 33 is used, while for the treatment solution urea (CO(NH22 and calcium chloride (CaCl2 are used. The study presents the triaxial testing of sand probes treated with Biogrout and the comparison of results obtained with untreated sand probes.

  19. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Advance in research on aerosol deposition simulation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Keyang; Li Jingsong

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the health effects of inhaled toxic aerosols requires exact data on airway deposition. A knowledge of the effect of inhaled drugs is essential to the optimization of aerosol drug delivery. Sophisticated analytical deposition models can be used for the computation of total, regional and generation specific deposition efficiencies. The continuously enhancing computer seem to allow us to study the particle transport and deposition in more and more realistic airway geometries with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation method. In this article, the trends in aerosol deposition models and lung models, and the methods for achievement of deposition simulations are also reviewed. (authors)

  1. The Researches on Cycle-Changeable Generation Settlement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Jun; LONG, Suyan; LV, Jianhu

    2018-03-01

    Through the analysis of the business characteristics and problems of price adjustment, a cycle-changeable generation settlement method is proposed to support any time cycle settlement, and put forward a complete set of solutions, including the creation of settlement tasks, time power dismantle, generating fixed cycle of electricity, net energy split. At the same time, the overall design flow of cycle-changeable settlement is given. This method supports multiple price adjustments during the month, and also is an effective solution to the cost reduction of month-after price adjustment.

  2. Identifying research priorities for public health research to address health inequalities: use of Delphi-like survey methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S; Ollerhead, E; Cook, A

    2017-10-09

    In the funding of health research and public health research it is vital that research questions posed are important and that funded research meets a research need or a gap in evidence. Many methods are used in the identification of research priorities, however, these can be resource intensive, costly and logistically challenging. Identifying such research priorities can be particularly challenging for complex public health problems as there is a need to consult a number of experts across disciplines and with a range of expertise. This study investigated the use of Delphi-like survey methods in identifying important research priorities relating to health inequalities and framing tractable research questions for topic areas identified. The study was conducted in two phases, both using Delphi-like survey methods. Firstly, public health professionals with an interest in health inequalities were asked to identify research priorities. Secondly academic researchers were asked to frame tractable research questions relating to the priorities identified. These research priorities identified using Delphi-like survey methods were subsequently compared to those identified using different methods. A total of 52 public health professionals and 21 academics across the United Kingdom agreed to take part. The response rates were high, from public health professionals across three survey rounds (69%, 50% and 40%) and from academics across one round (52%), indicating that participants were receptive to the method and motivated to respond. The themes identified as encompassing the most important research priorities were mental health, healthy environment and health behaviours. Within these themes, the topic areas that emerged most strongly included community interventions for prevention of mental health problems and the food and alcohol environment. Some responses received from academic researchers were (as requested) in the form of tractable research questions, whereas others

  3. A mixed method pilot study: the researchers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secomb, Jacinta M; Smith, Colleen

    2011-08-01

    This paper reports on the outcomes of a small well designed pilot study. Pilot studies often disseminate limited or statistically meaningless results without adding to the body knowledge on the comparative research benefits. The design a pre-test post-test group parallel randomised control trial and inductive content analysis of focus group transcripts was tested specifically to increase outcomes in a proposed larger study. Strategies are now in place to overcome operational barriers and recruitment difficulties. Links between the qualitative and quantitative arms of the proposed larger study have been made; it is anticipated that this will add depth to the final report. More extensive reporting on the outcomes of pilot studies would assist researchers and increase the body of knowledge in this area.

  4. New Research Methods Developed for Studying Diabetic Foot Ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Brian Davis, one of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation's researchers, has been investigating the risk factors related to diabetic foot ulceration, a problem that accounts for 20 percent of all hospital admissions for diabetic patients. He had developed a sensor pad to measure the friction and pressure forces under a person's foot when walking. As part of NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Act Agreement with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Dr. Davis requested Lewis' assistance in visualizing the data from the sensor pad. As a result, Lewis' Interactive Data Display System (IDDS) was installed at the Cleveland Clinic. This computer graphics program is normally used to visualize the flow of air through aircraft turbine engines, producing color two- and three-dimensional images.

  5. A blended learning approach to teaching sociolinguistic research methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier, Jako

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the use of Wiktionary, an open source online dictionary, as well as generic wiki pages within a university’s e-learning environment as teaching and learning resources in an Afrikaans sociolinguistics module. In a communal constructivist manner students learnt, but also constructed learning content. From the qualitative research conducted with students it is clear that wikis provide for effective facilitation of a blended learning approach to sociolinguistic research. The use of this medium was positively received, however, some students did prefer handing in assignments in hard copy. The issues of computer literacy and access to the internet were also raised by the respondents. The use of wikis and Wiktionary prompted useful unplanned discussions around reliability and quality of public wikis. The use of a public wiki such as Wiktionary served as encouragement for students as they were able to contribute to the promotion of Afrikaans in this way.

  6. Method of advancing research and development of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In the long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization, fast breeder reactors are to be developed as the main of the future nuclear power generation in Japan, and when their development is advanced, it has been decided to positively aim at building up the plutonium utilization system using FBRs superior to the uranium utilization system using LWRs. Also it has been decided that the development of FBRs requires to exert incessant efforts for a considerable long period under the proper cooperation system of government and people, and as for its concrete development, hereafter the deliberation is to be carried out in succession by the expert subcommittee on FBR development projects of the Atomic Energy Commission. The subcommittee was founded in May, 1986, to deliberate on the long term promotion measures for FBR development, the measures for promoting the research and development, the examination of the basic specification of a demonstration FBR, the measures for promoting international cooperation, and other important matters. As the results of investigation, the situation around the development of FBRs, the fundamentals at the time of promoting the research and development, the subjects of the research and development and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Research on methods of radioisotope production in CEFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong

    2003-01-01

    The methods of isotope production in CEFR (China Experimental Fast Reactor) and the preliminary design of isotope assembly were introduced briefly in the paper. Isotope 32 P, 33 P, 35 S and 89 Sr can be produced in core area and 14 C, 51 Cr and 60 Co can be produced in radial shield area in CEFR with special isotope assembly. (author)

  8. It Worked There. Will It Work Here? Researching Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    "It worked there. Will it work here?" We have to be able to identify the "it" in that aphoristic question. Classifications of teaching methods belong in the social realm, where human intentions play a fundamental role in how phenomena are categorized. The social realm is characterized with the help of John Searle. Social…

  9. Research Note A novel method for estimating tree dimensions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two objects must be adjacent to one another in the photograph. For rapid analysis, multiple photographs of different objects can be taken over a short period of time using the measuring staff. The method is not limited to plants and can be used to determine, for example, browser height, height at which browsers feed, ...

  10. Numbers, Pictures, and Politics: Teaching Research Methods through Data Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Mark Carl

    2015-01-01

    Data visualization is the term used to describe the methods and technologies used to allow the exploration and communication of quantitative information graphically. Data visualization is a rapidly growing and evolving discipline, and visualizations are widely used to cover politics. Yet, while popular and scholarly publications widely use…

  11. Application of laplace transform method in heavy ion reaction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinchuan; Xi Hongfei; Guo Zhongyan; Zhan Wenlong; Zhu Yongtai; Zhou Jianqun; Liu Guanhua

    1993-01-01

    Laplace transform method (LTM) is applied to investigate the effects of different spectroscopy amplifiers parameters on identification of the light charged particles (LCP) emitted from 12 C(46,7 MeV/u) + 58 Ni reaction. The significance of application of LTM in heavy ion experimental nuclear physics is also discussed

  12. Forest Service National Visitor Use Monitoring Process: Research Method Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; Susan M. Kocis; Stanley J. Zarnoch; J. Ross Arnold

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved information on recreational use of National Forest System lands, the authors have developed a nationwide, systematic monitoring process. This report documents the methods they used in estimating recreational use on an annual basis. The basic unit of measure is exiting volume of visitors from a recreation site on a given day. Sites...

  13. Four Methods for Completing the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory Building Research in HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe four methods for completing the conceptual development phase of theory building research for single or multiparadigm research. The four methods selected for this review are (1) Weick's method of "theorizing as disciplined imagination" (1989); (2) Whetten's method of "modeling as theorizing" (2002); (3)…

  14. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More than Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with…

  15. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  17. Research on a Method of Geographical Information Service Load Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heyuan; Li, Yongxing; Xue, Zhiyong; Feng, Tao

    2018-05-01

    With the development of geographical information service technologies, how to achieve the intelligent scheduling and high concurrent access of geographical information service resources based on load balancing is a focal point of current study. This paper presents an algorithm of dynamic load balancing. In the algorithm, types of geographical information service are matched with the corresponding server group, then the RED algorithm is combined with the method of double threshold effectively to judge the load state of serve node, finally the service is scheduled based on weighted probabilistic in a certain period. At the last, an experiment system is built based on cluster server, which proves the effectiveness of the method presented in this paper.

  18. Research on Visual Analysis Methods of Terrorism Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenyue; Liu, Haiyan; Yu, Anzhu; Li, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Under the situation that terrorism events occur more and more frequency throughout the world, improving the response capability of social security incidents has become an important aspect to test governments govern ability. Visual analysis has become an important method of event analysing for its advantage of intuitive and effective. To analyse events' spatio-temporal distribution characteristics, correlations among event items and the development trend, terrorism event's spatio-temporal characteristics are discussed. Suitable event data table structure based on "5W" theory is designed. Then, six types of visual analysis are purposed, and how to use thematic map and statistical charts to realize visual analysis on terrorism events is studied. Finally, experiments have been carried out by using the data provided by Global Terrorism Database, and the results of experiments proves the availability of the methods.

  19. Research on LQR optimal control method of active engine mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Xie; Yu, Duan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the LQR control method is applied to the active mount of the engine, and a six-cylinder engine excitation model is established. Through the joint simulation of AMESim and MATLAB, the vibration isolation performance of the active mount system and the passive mount system is analyzed. Excited by the multi-engine operation, the simulation results of the vertical displacement, acceleration and dynamic deflection of the vehicle body show that the vibration isolation capability of the active mount system is superior to that of the passive mount system. It shows that compared with the passive mount, LQR active mount can greatly improve the vibration isolation performance, which proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the LQR control method.

  20. Thermodynamic data development using the solubility method (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Yui, Mikazu

    2013-05-01

    The solubility method is one of the most powerful tools to obtain reliable thermodynamic data for 1) solubility products of discrete solids and double salts, 2) complexation constants for various ligands, 3) development of data in a wide range of pH values, 4) evaluation of data for metals that form very insoluble solids (e.g. tetravalent actinides), 5) determining solubility-controlling solids in different types of wastes and 6) elevated temperatures for redox sensitive systems. This document is focused on describing various aspects of obtaining thermodynamic data using the solubility method. This manuscript deals with various aspects of conducting solubility studies, including selecting the study topic, modeling to define important variables, selecting the range of variables and experimental parameters, anticipating results, general equipment requirements, conducting experiments, and interpreting experimental data. (author)

  1. An overview of longitudinal data analysis methods for neurological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, Joseph J; Atri, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a concise, broad and readily accessible overview of longitudinal data analysis methods, aimed to be a practical guide for clinical investigators in neurology. In general, we advise that older, traditional methods, including (1) simple regression of the dependent variable on a time measure, (2) analyzing a single summary subject level number that indexes changes for each subject and (3) a general linear model approach with a fixed-subject effect, should be reserved for quick, simple or preliminary analyses. We advocate the general use of mixed-random and fixed-effect regression models for analyses of most longitudinal clinical studies. Under restrictive situations or to provide validation, we recommend: (1) repeated-measure analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), (2) ANCOVA for two time points, (3) generalized estimating equations and (4) latent growth curve/structural equation models.

  2. An Overview of Longitudinal Data Analysis Methods for Neurological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Locascio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a concise, broad and readily accessible overview of longitudinal data analysis methods, aimed to be a practical guide for clinical investigators in neurology. In general, we advise that older, traditional methods, including (1 simple regression of the dependent variable on a time measure, (2 analyzing a single summary subject level number that indexes changes for each subject and (3 a general linear model approach with a fixed-subject effect, should be reserved for quick, simple or preliminary analyses. We advocate the general use of mixed-random and fixed-effect regression models for analyses of most longitudinal clinical studies. Under restrictive situations or to provide validation, we recommend: (1 repeated-measure analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, (2 ANCOVA for two time points, (3 generalized estimating equations and (4 latent growth curve/structural equation models.

  3. Research on Operation Assessment Method for Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  4. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: recommendations for quality reporting. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    This is the second of two papers that explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. This paper discusses the rationale, applications, limitations and challenges of conducting mixed-methods research. As with other research methods, the choice of mixed-methods should always be justified because not all research questions require a mixed-methods approach. Mixed-methods research is particularly suitable when one dataset may be inadequate in answering the research question, an explanation of initial results is required, generalizability of qualitative findings is desired or broader and deeper understanding of a research problem is necessary. Mixed-methods research has its own challenges and limitations, which should be considered carefully while designing the study. There is a need to improve the quality of reporting of mixed-methods research. A framework for reporting mixed-methods research is proposed, for researchers and reviewers, with the intention of improving its quality. Pharmacy practice research can benefit from research that uses both 'numbers' (quantitative) and 'words' (qualitative) to develop a strong evidence base to support pharmacy-led services. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. The "movement" of mixed methods research and the role of educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Creswell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of research is continually evolving, enabling researchers to study increasingly complex phenomena. Educational researchers have propelled much of this forward progress and have developed novel methodologies to provide increasingly sound and complete evidence. Mixed methods research has emerged alongside quantitative and qualitative approaches as an important tool for researchers. In this article our overall aim is to better acquaint educational scholars with the mixed methods field by articulating the development of the mixed methods field and by citing current trends and issues. The role of educational researchers in the evolution of mixed methods research is high-lighted. The early and ongoing dialogue of mixed methods research is multi-disciplinary in nature with current writings across fields. The current debate over key aspects of mixed methods research is now in progress and is ripe for future contributions. Even the very nature of what constitutes mixed methods research is being discussed among scholars. Understanding and advancing the mixed methods field is an important goal for methodologists and researchers. With the increased interest and enthusiasm for mixed methods research, it is likely that the dialogue surrounding mixed methods approaches will thrive, continuing the movement of the field.

  6. RNA Nanostructures – Methods and Protocols | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    RNA nanotechnology is a young field with many potential applications. The goal is to utilize designed RNA strands, such that the obtained constructs have specific properties in terms of shape and functionality. RNA has potential functionalities that are comparable to that of proteins, but possesses (compared to proteins) simpler design principles akin to DNA. The promise is that designed RNA complexes may make possible novel types of molecular assemblies with applications in medicine (as therapeutics or diagnostics), material science, imaging, structural biology, and basic research.

  7. Research methods in complementary and alternative medicine: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Andrade, Fabiana; Schlechta Portella, Caio Fabio

    2018-01-01

    The scientific literature presents a modest amount of evidence in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). On the other hand, in practice, relevant results are common. The debates among CAM practitioners about the quality and execution of scientific research are important. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather, synthesize and describe the differentiated methodological models that encompass the complexity of therapeutic interventions. The process of bringing evidence-based medicine into clinical practice in CAM is essential for the growth and strengthening of complementary medicines worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this and previous efforts ECON has provided economic assessment of a fusion research program. This phase of study focused on two tasks, the first concerned with the economics of fusion in an economy that relies heavily upon synthetic fuels, and the second concerned with the overall economic effects of pursuing soft energy technologies instead of hard technologies. This report is organized in two parts, the first entitled An Economic Analysis of Coproduction of Fusion-Electric Energy and Other Products, and the second entitled Arguments Associated with the Choice of Potential Energy Futures

  9. Methods of research and marketing in tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojnović Boško

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Within that context, marketing and research are becoming more important for the development of tourist pursuits, all for the purpose of increased demands for the own destinations. The basic question is oriented to the course and factors that are to be explored and analyzed towards needs of the development of tourism. Results achieved through the experiences of many high-developed economies show that those subjects who have applied an appropriate marketing and exploring in due course, achieve better and faster development. .

  10. Semiotic Engineering Methods for Scientific Research in HCI

    CERN Document Server

    Sieckenius de Souza, Clarisse

    2009-01-01

    Semiotic engineering was originally proposed as a semiotic approach to designing user interface languages. Over the years, with research done at the Department of Informatics of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, it evolved into a semiotic theory of human-computer interaction (HCI). It views HCI as computer-mediated communication between designers and users at interaction time. The system speaks for its designers in various types of conversations specified at design time. These conversations communicate the designers' understanding of who the users are, what they know the us

  11. Research on Automotive Dynamic Weighing Method Based on Piezoelectric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively measure the dynamic axle load of vehicles in motion, the dynamic weighing method of vehicles based on piezoelectric sensor was studied. Firstly, the influencing factors of the measurement accuracy in the dynamic weighing process were analyzed systematically, and the impacts of road irregularities and dynamic weighing system vibration on measurement error were discussed. On the basis of the analysis, the arithmetic mean filter method was used in the software algorithm to filter out the periodic interference added in the sensor signal, the most suitable n value was selected to get the better filtering result by simulation comparison. Then, the dynamic axle load calculation model of high speed vehicles was studied deeply, based on the theoretical response curve of the sensor, the dynamic axle load calculation method based on frequency reconstruction was established according to actual measurement signals of sensors and the analysis from time domain and frequency domain, also the least square method was used to realize the identification of temperature correction coefficient. A large amount of data that covered the usual vehicle weighing range was collected by experiment. The results show that the dynamic weighing signal system identification error all controlled within 10% at the same temperature and 60% of the vehicle data error can be controlled within 7%. The temperature correction coefficient and the correction formula at different temperatures ranges are well adapted to ensure that the vehicle temperature error at different temperatures can also be controlled within 10% and 70% of the vehicle data error within 7%. Furthermore, the weighing results remain stable regardless of the speed of the vehicle which meets the requirements for high-speed dynamic weighing.

  12. Capacity for work researching method in animal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pul'nov, V.N.; Mashneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    The existing methods of examining the work capacity of animals are discussed with reference to extrapolation of animal data to man. A modified procedure for measuring maximal physical strength is proposed, whereby static endurance of animals at a given exercise rate can be measured. For an integrated evaluation of work capacity, a formula of absolute work capacity is suggested. The proposed procedure may be used to study the working capacity of animals exposed to unfavorable factors of radiation or nonradiation nature

  13. Research of x-ray automatic image mosaic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Chen, Shunan; Guo, Lianpeng; Xu, Wanpeng

    2013-10-01

    Image mosaic has widely applications value in the fields of medical image analysis, and it is a technology that carries on the spatial matching to a series of image which are overlapped with each other, and finally builds a seamless and high quality image which has high resolution and big eyeshot. In this paper, the method of grayscale cutting pseudo-color enhancement was firstly used to complete the mapping transformation from gray to the pseudo-color, and to extract SIFT features from the images. And then by making use of a similar measure of NCC (normalized cross correlation - Normalized cross-correlation), the method of RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus) was used to exclude the pseudofeature points right in order to complete the exact match of feature points. Finally, seamless mosaic and color fusion were completed by using wavelet multi-decomposition. The experiment shows that the method we used can effectively improve the precision and automation of the medical image mosaic, and provide an effective technical approach for automatic medical image mosaic.

  14. OLP embedment design method research for AP1000 nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Cheng; Li Shaoping; Liu Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the most advanced nuclear power technology, the first AP1000 reactor is under construction in China. Modularization is one of the main characteristics for AP1000 nuclear plant building. Module wall with steel face plate is used instead of reinforced concrete structure wall. A number of OLP embedments need to be installed into the module wall to connect other structures such as pipes, equipment, operation platforms and any other component attached to the module wall. Therefore, the design of embedment is very important in AP1000 structural design. Purpose: A finite element analysis method and tool for embedment design is needed for convenience. Methods: This paper applies the self-developed GTStrudl command template and VBA macro program for embedment capacity calculation and evaluation based on Microsoft Excel to the embedment design. Results: A Microsoft Excel template for embedment design is developed. Conclusions: The analysis method and template brings reasonable results and may provide some help and use for reference for the engineering practice. (authors)

  15. Participant Outcomes from Methods of Recruitment for Videogame Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Courtney; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Baranowski, Tom

    2018-02-01

    The most productive methods of recruitment for a videogame for health (G4H) trial are not known. Success or failure of recruitment methods has been reported for a variety of clinical trials, but few specifically for G4H trials. This study's goal was to recruit 444 overweight or obese (body mass index percentile between the 84.5th-99.4th percentiles) children between the ages of 10-12 years. The article reports the results of different methods of participant recruitment. Participants had to agree to three fasting blood samples (baseline, immediately after, and 2 months later); be willing to wear an accelerometer for 7 days at each assessment; read and speak English fluently (because the games were in English); have no history of any condition that would affect what he/she could eat or how much physical activity he/she could get; and have an eligible home computer purchased in the last 5 years with high-speed internet. Hardware criteria reflected the types of computers upon which Diab-Nano could be effectively played. Recruitment was conducted over a 35-month period and included electronic media, print advertising, community recruitment, and an internal volunteer list. Respondents were guided to a web-based screening questionnaire that asked for source of hearing about the study. Although diverse recruitment methods were used, slow recruitment resulted in obtaining only 45% of the recruitment goal (n = 199). Electronic media (e.g., radio, television, and internet), which reached millions of targeted parents, resulted in only 76 respondents, of whom 13 became participants; print media (e.g., magazine, newsletter/newspaper, and mail), which also reached large numbers of parents, resulted in 192 respondents, of whom 19 became participants; community recruitment (e.g., school, friend or family, doctors office, flyer, work, community program) resulted in 162 respondents, of whom 38 became participants; and the internal volunteer list resulted in 413 respondents, of

  16. Research Misconduct in National Science Foundation Funded Research: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of 2007-2011 Research Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research is an important aspect of academic institutions as it brings funding, reputation, and other benefits to the associated establishment. Research misconduct in the form of plagiarism, fabrication, and falsification can occur in association with research, along with subsequent penalties. The problem of the poorly established prevalence of the…

  17. Making research relevant? Ecological methods and the ecosystem services framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Jaksic, Fabián. M.

    2017-07-01

    We examine some unexpected epistemological conflicts that arise at the interfaces between ecological science, the ecosystem services framework, policy, and industry. We use an example from our own research to motivate and illustrate our main arguments, while also reviewing standard approaches to ecological science using the ecosystem services framework. While we agree that the ecosystem services framework has benefits in its industrial applications because it may force economic decision makers to consider a broader range of costs and benefits than they would do otherwise, we find that many alignments of ecology with the ecosystem services framework are asking questions that are irrelevant to real-world applications, and generating data that does not serve real-world applications. We attempt to clarify why these problems arise and how to avoid them. We urge fellow ecologists to reflect on the kind of research that can lead to both scientific advances and applied relevance to society. In our view, traditional empirical approaches at landscape scales or with place-based emphases are necessary to provide applied knowledge for problem solving, which is needed once decision makers identify risks to ecosystem services. We conclude that the ecosystem services framework is a good policy tool when applied to decision-making contexts, but not a good theory either of social valuation or ecological interactions, and should not be treated as one.

  18. Optimizing methods and dodging pitfalls in microbiome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dorothy; Hofstaedter, Casey E; Zhao, Chunyu; Mattei, Lisa; Tanes, Ceylan; Clarke, Erik; Lauder, Abigail; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Chehoud, Christel; Kelsen, Judith; Conrad, Máire; Collman, Ronald G; Baldassano, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D; Bittinger, Kyle

    2017-05-05

    Research on the human microbiome has yielded numerous insights into health and disease, but also has resulted in a wealth of experimental artifacts. Here, we present suggestions for optimizing experimental design and avoiding known pitfalls, organized in the typical order in which studies are carried out. We first review best practices in experimental design and introduce common confounders such as age, diet, antibiotic use, pet ownership, longitudinal instability, and microbial sharing during cohousing in animal studies. Typically, samples will need to be stored, so we provide data on best practices for several sample types. We then discuss design and analysis of positive and negative controls, which should always be run with experimental samples. We introduce a convenient set of non-biological DNA sequences that can be useful as positive controls for high-volume analysis. Careful analysis of negative and positive controls is particularly important in studies of samples with low microbial biomass, where contamination can comprise most or all of a sample. Lastly, we summarize approaches to enhancing experimental robustness by careful control of multiple comparisons and to comparing discovery and validation cohorts. We hope the experimental tactics summarized here will help researchers in this exciting field advance their studies efficiently while avoiding errors.

  19. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    Purpose: Intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects on risk factor, health and/or performance. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled laboratory environment. Effects may thus...

  20. Use of qualitative methods in published health services and management research: a 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Bryan J; Amick, Halle R; Lund, Jennifer L; Lee, Shoou-Yih Daniel; Hoff, Timothy J

    2011-02-01

    Over the past 10 years, the field of health services and management research has seen renewed interest in the use of qualitative research methods. This article examines the volume and characteristics of qualitative research articles published in nine major health services and management journals between 1998 and 2008. Qualitative research articles comprise 9% of research articles published in these journals. Although the publication rate of qualitative research articles has not kept pace with that of quantitative research articles, citation analysis suggests that qualitative research articles contribute comparably to the field's knowledge base. A wide range of policy and management topics has been examined using qualitative methods. Case study designs, interviews, and documentary sources were the most frequently used methods. Half of qualitative research articles provided little or no detail about key aspects the study's methods. Implications are discussed and recommendations are offered for promoting the publication of qualitative research.

  1. Using a Forensic Research Method for Establishing an Alternative Method for Audience Measurement in Print Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus; Krause, Niels; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2012-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the survey approach are discussed. It is hypothesized that observational methods sometimes constitute reasonable and powerful substitute to traditional survey methods. Under certain circumstances, unobtrusive methods may even outperform traditional techniques. Non...... amount of pages, the method appears applicable for flyers with multiple pages....

  2. [Pharmacogenetics II. Research molecular methods, bioinformatics and ethical concerns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudén, E

    2007-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics refers to the study of the individual pharmacological response based on the genotype. Its objective is to optimize treatment in an individual basis, thereby creating a more efficient and safe personalized therapy. In the second part of this review, the molecular methods of study in pharmacogenetics, including microarray technology or DNA chips, are discussed. Among them we highlight the microarrays used to determine the gene expression that detect specific RNA sequences, and the microarrays employed to determine the genotype that detect specific DNA sequences, including polymorphisms, particularly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The relationship between pharmacogenetics, bioinformatics and ethical concerns is reviewed.

  3. Research on coding and decoding method for digital levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu Lifen; Zhong Sidong

    2011-01-20

    A new coding and decoding method for digital levels is proposed. It is based on an area-array CCD sensor and adopts mixed coding technology. By taking advantage of redundant information in a digital image signal, the contradiction that the field of view and image resolution restrict each other in a digital level measurement is overcome, and the geodetic leveling becomes easier. The experimental results demonstrate that the uncertainty of measurement is 1mm when the measuring range is between 2m and 100m, which can meet practical needs.

  4. Research on coding and decoding method for digital levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-fen; Zhong, Si-dong

    2011-01-20

    A new coding and decoding method for digital levels is proposed. It is based on an area-array CCD sensor and adopts mixed coding technology. By taking advantage of redundant information in a digital image signal, the contradiction that the field of view and image resolution restrict each other in a digital level measurement is overcome, and the geodetic leveling becomes easier. The experimental results demonstrate that the uncertainty of measurement is 1 mm when the measuring range is between 2 m and 100 m, which can meet practical needs.

  5. Combinatorial methods for advanced materials research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, R.; Dondorf, S.; Hauck, M.; Horbach, D.; Kaiser, M.; Krysta, S.; Kyrylov, O.; Muenstermann, E.; Philipps, M.; Reichert, K.; Strauch, G. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde

    2001-10-01

    The applicability of combinatorial methods in developing advanced materials is illustrated presenting four examples for the deposition and characterization of one- and two-dimensionally laterally graded coatings, which were deposited by means of (reactive) magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. To emphasize the advantages of combinatorial approaches, metastable hard coatings like (Ti,Al)N and (Ti,Al,Hf)N respectively, as well as Ge-Sb-Te based films for rewritable optical data storage were investigated with respect to the relations between structure, composition, and the desired materials properties. (orig.)

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  7. Research methods of simulate digital compensators and autonomous control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kudryashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of the present stage of development of the production is the need to control and regulate a large number of process parameters, the mutual influence on each other that when using single-circuit systems significantly reduces the quality of the transition process, resulting in significant costs of raw materials and energy, reduce the quality of the products. Using a stand-alone digital control system eliminates the correlation of technological parameters, to give the system the desired dynamic and static properties, improve the quality of regulation. However, the complexity of the configuration and implementation of procedures (modeling compensators autonomous systems of this type, associated with the need to perform a significant amount of complex analytic transformation significantly limit the scope of their application. In this regard, the approach based on the decompo sition proposed methods of calculation and simulation (realization, consisting in submitting elements autonomous control part digital control system in a series parallel connection. The above theoretical study carried out in a general way for any dimension systems. The results of computational experiments, obtained during the simulation of the four autonomous control systems, comparative analysis and conclusions on the effectiveness of the use of each of the methods. The results obtained can be used in the development of multi-dimensional process control systems.

  8. Research on Radiation Characteristic of Plasma Antenna through FDTD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation characteristic of plasma antenna is investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD approach in this paper. Through using FDTD method, we study the propagation of electromagnetic wave in free space in stretched coordinate. And the iterative equations of Maxwell equation are derived. In order to validate the correctness of this method, we simulate the process of electromagnetic wave propagating in free space. Results show that electromagnetic wave spreads out around the signal source and can be absorbed by the perfectly matched layer (PML. Otherwise, we study the propagation of electromagnetic wave in plasma by using the Boltzmann-Maxwell theory. In order to verify this theory, the whole process of electromagnetic wave propagating in plasma under one-dimension case is simulated. Results show that Boltzmann-Maxwell theory can be used to explain the phenomenon of electromagnetic wave propagating in plasma. Finally, the two-dimensional simulation model of plasma antenna is established under the cylindrical coordinate. And the near-field and far-field radiation pattern of plasma antenna are obtained. The experiments show that the variation of electron density can introduce the change of radiation characteristic.

  9. Research on radiation characteristic of plasma antenna through FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianming; Fang, Jingjing; Lu, Qiuyuan; Liu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The radiation characteristic of plasma antenna is investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach in this paper. Through using FDTD method, we study the propagation of electromagnetic wave in free space in stretched coordinate. And the iterative equations of Maxwell equation are derived. In order to validate the correctness of this method, we simulate the process of electromagnetic wave propagating in free space. Results show that electromagnetic wave spreads out around the signal source and can be absorbed by the perfectly matched layer (PML). Otherwise, we study the propagation of electromagnetic wave in plasma by using the Boltzmann-Maxwell theory. In order to verify this theory, the whole process of electromagnetic wave propagating in plasma under one-dimension case is simulated. Results show that Boltzmann-Maxwell theory can be used to explain the phenomenon of electromagnetic wave propagating in plasma. Finally, the two-dimensional simulation model of plasma antenna is established under the cylindrical coordinate. And the near-field and far-field radiation pattern of plasma antenna are obtained. The experiments show that the variation of electron density can introduce the change of radiation characteristic.

  10. Engaging Students in Survey Research Projects across Research Methods and Statistics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovekamp, William E.; Soboroff, Shane D.; Gillespie, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    One innovative way to help students make sense of survey research has been to create a multifaceted, collaborative assignment that promotes critical thinking, comparative analysis, self-reflection, and statistical literacy. We use a short questionnaire adapted from the Higher Education Research Institute's Cooperative Institutional Research…

  11. Applications of interpretive and constructionist research methods in adolescent research: philosophy, principles and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Shek, Daniel T L; Bu, Fei-Fei

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to give a brief introduction to interpretivism, constructionism and constructivism. Similarities and differences between interpretivism and constructionism in terms of their histories and branches, ontological and epistemological stances, as well as research applications are highlighted. This review shows that whereas interpretivism can be viewed as a relatively mature orientation that contains various traditions, constructionism is a looser trend in adolescent research, and in the narrow sense denotes the "pure" relativist position, which refers to a discursive approach of theory and research. Both positions call for the importance of clearly identifying what type of knowledge and knowledge process the researcher is going to create, and correctly choosing methodology matching with the epistemological stance. Examples of adolescent research adopting interpretivist and constructionist orientations are presented.

  12. Data warehousing methods and processing infrastructure for brain recovery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, T; Kenny, S; Price, C J; Seghier, M L; Small, S L; Leff, A P; Pacurar, A; Strother, S C

    2010-09-01

    In order to accelerate translational neuroscience with the goal of improving clinical care it has become important to support rapid accumulation and analysis of large, heterogeneous neuroimaging samples and their metadata from both normal control and patient groups. We propose a multi-centre, multinational approach to accelerate the data mining of large samples and facilitate data-led clinical translation of neuroimaging results in stroke. Such data-driven approaches are likely to have an early impact on clinically relevant brain recovery while we simultaneously pursue the much more challenging model-based approaches that depend on a deep understanding of the complex neural circuitry and physiological processes that support brain function and recovery. We present a brief overview of three (potentially converging) approaches to neuroimaging data warehousing and processing that aim to support these diverse methods for facilitating prediction of cognitive and behavioral recovery after stroke, or other types of brain injury or disease.

  13. Atomic and nuclear methods in fossil energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filby, R.H.; Carpenter, B.S.; Ragaini, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: analysis of oil shale products and effluents using a multitechnique approach; nuclear methods for trace elements in petroleum and petroleum products; uranium content of petroleum by fission; fast neutron activation analysis of fossil fuels and liquefaction products; determination of trace element forms in solvent refined coal products; an automated multidetector system for instrumental neutron activation analysis of geological and environmental materials; on-line nuclear analysis of coal and its uses; investigation of coal hydrogenation using deuterium as an isotopic tracer; the natural permeability reduction in porous media due to the presence of kaolinite; the application of photon induced x-ray fluorescence for the simultaneous determinations of cobalt, nickel and molybdenum in hydrodesulfurization catalysts; and applications of nuclear magnetic resonance of oil shale evaluation and processing

  14. Research on Splicing Method of Digital Relic Fragment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Hu, Y.; Hou, M.

    2018-04-01

    In the course of archaeological excavation, a large number of pieces of cultural relics were unearthed, and the restoration of these fragments was done manually by traditional arts and crafts experts. In this process, cultural relics experts often try to splice the existing cultural relics, and then use adhesive to stick together the fragments of correct location, which will cause irreversible secondary damage to cultural relics. In order to minimize such damage, the surveyors combine 3D laser scanning with computer technology, and use the method of establishing digital cultural relics fragments model to make virtual splicing of cultural relics. The 3D software on the common market can basically achieve the model translation and rotation, using this two functions can be achieved manually splicing between models, mosaic records after the completion of the specific location of each piece of fragments, so as to effectively reduce the damage to the relics had tried splicing process.

  15. Physical methods in air pollution research: The second decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    The ''Second Decade'' in the application of physical techniques to air pollution has been a profound change in the understanding and capabilities. A great deal remains to be done with the new tools. But what about the next phase? The author feels that it will probably involve greater chemical and biological emphasis, as opposed to merely elemental analysis. But this will not be easy, and one will again need an influx of new people and ideas into the field, most likely from the biological, organic chemical, and medical communities. The author predicts that because of the inherent complexity of the problem, it will not happen in just 10 years. In the meantime, one will somehow manage to keep busy rediscovering atmospheric aerosols yet again, but with the new eyes the improved physical methods have gained

  16. Research on Palmprint Identification Method Based on Quantum Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum image recognition is a technology by using quantum algorithm to process the image information. It can obtain better effect than classical algorithm. In this paper, four different quantum algorithms are used in the three stages of palmprint recognition. First, quantum adaptive median filtering algorithm is presented in palmprint filtering processing. Quantum filtering algorithm can get a better filtering result than classical algorithm through the comparison. Next, quantum Fourier transform (QFT is used to extract pattern features by only one operation due to quantum parallelism. The proposed algorithm exhibits an exponential speed-up compared with discrete Fourier transform in the feature extraction. Finally, quantum set operations and Grover algorithm are used in palmprint matching. According to the experimental results, quantum algorithm only needs to apply square of N operations to find out the target palmprint, but the traditional method needs N times of calculation. At the same time, the matching accuracy of quantum algorithm is almost 100%.

  17. A collection of research reporting, theoretical analysis, and practical applications in science education: Examining qualitative research methods, action research, educator-researcher partnerships, and constructivist learning theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, R. Todd

    2007-12-01

    Educator-researcher partnerships are increasingly being used to improve the teaching of science. Chapter 1 provides a summary of the literature concerning partnerships, and examines the justification of qualitative methods in studying these relationships. It also justifies the use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). Empirically-based studies of educator-researcher partnership relationships are rare despite investments in their implementation by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and others. Chapter 2 describes a qualitative research project in which participants in an NSF GK-12 fellowship program were studied using informal observations, focus groups, personal interviews, and journals to identify and characterize the cultural factors that influenced the relationships between the educators and researchers. These factors were organized into ten critical axes encompassing a range of attitudes, behaviors, or values defined by two stereotypical extremes. These axes were: (1) Task Dictates Context vs. Context Dictates Task; (2) Introspection vs. Extroversion; (3) Internal vs. External Source of Success; (4) Prior Planning vs. Implementation Flexibility; (5) Flexible vs. Rigid Time Sense; (6) Focused Time vs. Multi-tasking; (7) Specific Details vs. General Ideas; (8) Critical Feedback vs. Encouragement; (9) Short Procedural vs. Long Content Repetition; and (10) Methods vs. Outcomes are Well Defined. Another ten important stereotypical characteristics, which did not fit the structure of an axis, were identified and characterized. The educator stereotypes were: (1) Rapport/Empathy; (2) Like Kids; (3) People Management; (4) Communication Skills; and (5) Entertaining. The researcher stereotypes were: (1) Community Collaboration; (2) Focus Intensity; (3) Persistent; (4) Pattern Seekers; and (5) Curiosity/Skeptical. Chapter 3 summarizes the research presented in chapter 2 into a practical guide for participants and administrators of educator-researcher partnerships

  18. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. PMID:27856556

  19. Practical methods for generating alternating magnetic fields for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Michael G.; Howe, Christina M.; Bono, David C.; Perreault, David J.; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-08-01

    Alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) cause magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to dissipate heat while leaving surrounding tissue unharmed, a mechanism that serves as the basis for a variety of emerging biomedical technologies. Unfortunately, the challenges and costs of developing experimental setups commonly used to produce AMFs with suitable field amplitudes and frequencies present a barrier to researchers. This paper first presents a simple, cost-effective, and robust alternative for small AMF working volumes that uses soft ferromagnetic cores to focus the flux into a gap. As the experimental length scale increases to accommodate animal models (working volumes of 100s of cm3 or greater), poor thermal conductivity and volumetrically scaled core losses render that strategy ineffective. Comparatively feasible strategies for these larger volumes instead use low loss resonant tank circuits to generate circulating currents of 1 kA or greater in order to produce the comparable field amplitudes. These principles can be extended to the problem of identifying practical routes for scaling AMF setups to humans, an infrequently acknowledged challenge that influences the extent to which many applications of MNPs may ever become clinically relevant.

  20. Assessment of contemporary mathematical methods for magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treve, Y.M.

    1978-03-01

    The mathematical techniques reviewed have been selected on the basis of their relevance to at least four outstanding theoretical problems of magnetic fusion research, namely: (a) ion heating; (b) particle-wave interactions; (c) stability of magnetic surfaces in real tokamaks; and (d) strong plasma turbulence. These problems have a common feature: they all involve chaotic motions in spite of the perfectly deterministic nature of the mathematical models used for their description. In the first section devoted to Hamiltonian systems we briefly review the essentials of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and discuss the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem and its implications. In section 2 we review the difficulties of the problem of turbulence and present the Ruelle-Takens picture. An example of a dynamical system with a strange attractor is constructed and the Hopf bifurcation theory is discussed. Finally we review the properties of the Lorenz model for the convective instability of an atmospheric layer which is known to have a strange attractor for sufficiently high Rayleigh numbers

  1. Nursing Research Using Historical Methods: Qualitative Designs and Methods in Nursing Mary de Chesnay Nursing Research Using Historical Methods: Qualitative Designs and Methods in Nursing 236pp £65.95 Springer 9780826126177 0826126170 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-18

    Just as the present can be understood by examining the past, the use of historical research methods can help nurses to understand the present to influence the future. This text emphasises how this approach to nursing research can provide a contextual framework from which nurses can consider their own practice.

  2. The Expanding Digital Media Landscape of Qualitative and Decolonizing Research: Examining Collaborative Podcasting as a Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Day

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of the twenty-first century has transformed our ability to create, modify, store, and share digital media and, in so doing, has presented new possibilities for how social science research can be conducted and mobilized. This paper introduces the use of collaborative podcasting as a research method of critical inquiry and knowledge mobilization. Using a case study, we describe the methodological process that our transdisciplinary team engaged in to create the Water Dialogues podcast, a collaborative initiative stemming from a larger research project examining approaches to implementing Indigenous and Western knowledge in water research and management. We situate collaborative podcasting within an expanding field of collaborative and participatory media practice in social research, and consider how the method may align with and support research within a decolonizing agenda.

  3. Mixing Research Methods in Health Professional Degrees: Thoughts for Undergraduate Students and Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaf, Sophie; Sheppard, Lorraine A.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary considers some of the challenges of applying mixed methods research in undergraduate research degrees, especially in professions with a clinical health focus. Our experience in physiotherapy academia is used as an example. Mixed methods research is increasingly appreciated in its own right as a "third paradigm," however the success…

  4. Advances in the Use of Neuroscience Methods in Research on Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience offers a series of tools and methodologies that allow researchers in the field of learning and instruction to complement and extend the knowledge they have accumulated through decades of behavioral research. The appropriateness of these methods depends on the research question at hand. Cognitive neuroscience methods allow…

  5. 75 FR 45627 - Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Research and Development on March 30, 2010. The analytical procedure of this method has been tested in... Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. Designation of this new equivalent method is... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9184-5] Office of Research and Development; Ambient Air...

  6. Relationship between Students' Scores on Research Methods and Statistics, and Undergraduate Project Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossai, Peter Agbadobi Uloku

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' scores on Research Methods and statistics, and undergraduate project at the final year. The purpose was to find out whether students matched knowledge of research with project-writing skill. The study adopted an expost facto correlational design. Scores on Research Methods and Statistics for…

  7. Students' Reflective Essays as Insights into Student Centred-Pedagogies within the Undergraduate Research Methods Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Anesa; Rao, Namrata

    2017-01-01

    In higher education, despite the emphasis on student-centred pedagogical approaches, undergraduate research methods pedagogy remains surprisingly teacher-directed. Consequently, it may lead to research methods students assuming that becoming a researcher involves gathering information rather than it being a continuous developmental process. To…

  8. The Impact of a Multifaceted Approach to Teaching Research Methods on Students' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.; Van Volkom, Michele

    2013-01-01

    A multifaceted approach to teaching five experimental designs in a research methodology course was tested. Participants included 70 students enrolled in an experimental research methods course in the semester both before and after the implementation of instructional change. When using a multifaceted approach to teaching research methods that…

  9. Changing Perspectives: Validation Framework Review of Examples of Mixed Methods Research into Culturally Relevant Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Patrick Dean

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research becomes more utilized in education research every year. As this pluralist paradigm begins to take hold, it becomes more and more necessary to take a critical eye to studies making use of different mixed methods approaches. An area of education research that has yet struggled to find a foothold with mixed methodology is…

  10. Application of electrochemical methods in corrosion and battery research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoli

    Various electrochemical methods have been applied in the development of corrosion protection methods for ammonia/water absorption heat pumps and the evaluation of the stability of metallic materials in Li-ion battery electrolyte. Rare earth metal salts (REMSs) and organic inhibitors have been evaluated for corrosion protection of mild steel in the baseline solution of 5 wt% NH 3 + 0.2 wt% NaOH to replace the conventionally used toxic chromate salt inhibitors. Cerium nitrate provided at least comparable corrosion inhibition efficiency as dichromate in the baseline solution at 100°C. The cerium (IV) oxide formed on mild steel through the cerating process exhibited increasing corrosion protection for mild steel with prolonged exposure time in the hot baseline solution. The optimum cerating process was found to be first cerating in a solution of 2.3 g/L CeCl3 + 4.4 wt% H2O2 + appropriate additives for 20 minutes at pH 2.2 at room temperature with 30 minutes solution aging prior to use, then sealing in 10% sodium (meta) silicate or sodium molybdate at 50°C for 30 minutes. Yttrium salts provided less corrosion protection for mild steel in the baseline solution than cerium salts. Glycerophosphate was found to be a promising chromate-free organic inhibitor for mild steel; however, its thermostability in hot ammonia/water solutions has not been confirmed yet. The stability of six metallic materials used in Li-ion batteries has been evaluated in 1M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in a 1:1 volume mixture of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate at 37°C in a dry-box. Aluminum is the most stable material, while Copper is active under anodic potentials and susceptible to localized corrosion and galvanic corrosion. The higher the concentration of the alloying elements Al and/or V in a titanium alloy, the higher was the stability of the titanium alloy in the battery electrolyte. 90Pt-10Ir can cause decomposition of the electrolyte resulting in a low stable

  11. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  12. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research. PMID:20003210

  13. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  14. I Can Make a Scientific Research: A Course about Scientific Research Methods, in Which Learning Management System (LMS) Is Used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the perception of teacher candidates towards scientific research process and their self-efficacy in this process, during Scientific Research Methods course that has been conducted using "Learning Management System" based on out-of-class learning activities. Being designed as a…

  15. Application of phase-trafficking methods to natural products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan J; Montenegro, Gloria; Mitscher, Lester A; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2010-09-24

    A novel simultaneous phase-trafficking approach using spatially separated solid-supported reagents for rapid separation of neutral, basic, and acidic compounds from organic plant extracts with minimum labor is reported. Acidic and basic ion-exchange resins were physically separated into individual sacks ("tea bags") for trapping basic and acidic compounds, respectively, leaving behind in solution neutral components of the natural mixtures. Trapped compounds were then recovered from solid phase by appropriate suspension in acidic or basic solutions. The feasibility of the proposed separation protocol was demonstrated and optimized with an "artificial mixture" of model compounds. In addition, the utility of this methodology was illustrated with the successful separation of the alkaloid skytanthine from Skytanthus acutus Meyen and the main catechins and caffeine from Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze). This novel approach offers multiple advantages over traditional extraction methods, as it is not labor intensive, makes use of only small quantities of solvents, produces fractions in adequate quantities for biological assays, and can be easily adapted to field conditions for bioprospecting activities.

  16. Modern Methods for Modeling Change in Obesity Research in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereika, Susan M; Zheng, Yaguang; Hu, Lu; Burke, Lora E

    2017-08-01

    Persons receiving treatment for weight loss often demonstrate heterogeneity in lifestyle behaviors and health outcomes over time. Traditional repeated measures approaches focus on the estimation and testing of an average temporal pattern, ignoring the interindividual variability about the trajectory. An alternate person-centered approach, group-based trajectory modeling, can be used to identify distinct latent classes of individuals following similar trajectories of behavior or outcome change as a function of age or time and can be expanded to include time-invariant and time-dependent covariates and outcomes. Another latent class method, growth mixture modeling, builds on group-based trajectory modeling to investigate heterogeneity within the distinct trajectory classes. In this applied methodologic study, group-based trajectory modeling for analyzing changes in behaviors or outcomes is described and contrasted with growth mixture modeling. An illustration of group-based trajectory modeling is provided using calorie intake data from a single-group, single-center prospective study for weight loss in adults who are either overweight or obese.

  17. Experimental method research on neutron equal dose-equivalent detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1995-10-01

    The design principles of neutron dose-equivalent meter for neutron biological equi-effect detection are studied. Two traditional principles 'absorption net principle' and 'multi-detector principle' are discussed, and on the basis of which a new theoretical principle for neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' has been put forward to place high hope on both increasing neutron sensitivity of this type of meters and overcoming the shortages of the two traditional methods. In accordance with this new principle a brand-new model of neutron dose-equivalent meter BH3105 has been developed. Its neutron sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), 18∼40 times higher than that of all the same kinds of meters 0.23∼0.56 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), available today at home and abroad and the specifications of the newly developed meter reach or surpass the levels of the same kind of meters. Therefore the new theoretical principle of neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' is proved to be scientific, advanced and useful by experiments. (3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  18. Aero-methods and engineering research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, R K

    1979-01-01

    There is presently a sharp, ongoing increase in the volume of work being conducted throughout the country associated with the development of natural gas fields as well as the resulting accelerated development of major gas trunklines. Aero-methods have presently found wide application in the engineering and planning of equipment for such projects. Success has been obtained by the increased quantity and quality of the available engineering information: The ''Giprospetsgaz'' Institute is using aerial photography as the basis for selecting pipeline routes and to more accurately determine the equipment requirements along proposed trunklines such as for compressors, gas transfer stations, electrical power substations, worker settlements, water and transport infrastructure and communications. These requirements are the most important factors in reducing capital operating expenditures. The greatest savings, in economic terms, can be achieved by avoiding sparsely settled or uninhabited areas as much as possible. Similiarly, aerial photography coupled with computer application aids in the solution of engineering problems. Third-generation computers are recommended for this process.

  19. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords "cough" or "anti-cough". Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children.

  20. Research of carbon composite material for nonlinear finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Garg, Mohit; Kim, Ji Hoon

    2012-04-01

    Works on the absorption of collision energy in the structural members are carried out widely with various material and cross-sections. And, with ever increasing safety concerns, they are presently applied in various fields including railroad trains, air crafts and automobiles. In addition to this, problem of lighting structural members became important subject by control of exhaust gas emission, fuel economy and energy efficiency. CFRP(Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) usually is applying the two primary structural members because of different result each design parameter as like stacking thickness, stacking angle, moisture absorption ect. We have to secure the data for applying primary structural members. But it always happens to test design parameters each for securing the data. So, it has much more money and time. We can reduce the money and the time, if can ensure the CFRP material properties each design parameters. In this study, we experiment the coupon test each tension, compression and shear using CFRP prepreg sheet and simulate non-linear analyze at the sources - test result, Caron longitudinal modulus and matrix poisson's ratio using GENOAMQC is specialized at Composite analysis. And then we predict the result that specimen manufacture changing stacking angle and experiment in such a way of test method using GENOA-MCQ.